A TH2 screwed immune response is known to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of allergy, so, preventing the differentiation of TH cells. The TH2 cells are appeared as a logical therapeutic approach to atopic asthma. The purpose of TH1 study was to determine the possible role of BCG vaccine on asthma and whether a TH1 type immune response elicited by BCG immunization could suppress the allergic sensitization in childhood asthma. Seventy asthmatic patients (50 atopic and 20 non-atopic) and fifty healthy individuals were subjected to TH1 study. Tuberculin test was performed for all groups then subjects with positive tuberculin test were excluded. The BCG vaccine was given for all groups with assessment of TH1 and TH2 cytokine response by measuring total IgE, IL-4 (for TH2 response) and INF-γ (for TH1 response). Significant reduction in IgE and IL-4, and elevation in INF-γ were determined in group I (atopic asthma) following BCG vaccination. There was non-significant change observed in IgE and IL-4 levels of group II while significant reduction in IL-4 and significant increase in INF-γ was observed after BCG vaccine
Full Text Available Introduction: There is still no consensus on the efficacy of BCG vaccine in the prevention of tuberculosis. This study therefore addressed the question of the magnitude of immunity afforded by BCG, by studying the effector mechanisms of protection in children. The main objectives were to assess the degree of immunity conferred by BCG vaccine in children and to identify the most immunogenic antigen(s of BCG by conducting in-vitro studies. Materials and methods: Children in the age-group of 1 to 10 years, were categorized: (A normal, and vaccinated with BCG during the first year, n=45, (B normal, without scar and with no evident history of vaccination, n=31: and (C children admitted in the hospital with a confirmed diagnosis of tuberculosis, n=31. Fractions of BCG were obtained by lysis, sonication, separation by gel chromatography, HPLC and confirmed by SDS-PAGE. In lymphoproliferative assays PBMC were cultured and stimulated with either Concanavalin-A or Tuberculin or the fractions of BCG. Stimulation indices (SI in lymphoproliferation, CD4/CD8 cells, levels of Interferon-γ (IFN- γ in the culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. Results: The vaccinated children displayed significantly high (P< 0.05 mean values of SI in LTT, CD4/CD8 cell ratio against the unfractionated, 67kDa fraction and BCG-CF Ags. While 100% of the vaccinated children had positive lymphoproliferation indices to BCG-CF, only 8.3% of the unvaccinated children were positive. Conclusion: Some of the components of BCG induced a strong Thl cell response in children. These immunogenic antigens were present in the whole cell lysate. The use of BCG vaccine for tuberculosis is worthwhile till a new vaccine is developed.
Stensballe, Lone Graff; Ravn, Henrik; Birk, Nina Marie
Background: The bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine against tuberculosis might reduce the non-tuberculosis-related child mortality rate in low-income settings. We tested the hypothesis that BCG vaccination at birth would reduce early childhood hospitalization for infection in Denmark, a high...... analysis, we observed 588 hospitalizations for infection (mean, 0.28 hospitalization per child) among the 2129 children allocated to receive the BCG vaccine and 595 hospitalizations for infection (mean, 0.28 hospitalization per child) among the 2133 children allocated to the control group (hazard ratio [HR...... months in Danish children. In future studies, the role of maternal BCG-vaccination, premature birth, and cesarean delivery needs further exploration....
In July 2007 Irish national policy changed such that children aged 3 months to 6 years no longer routinely require tuberculin (Mantoux) skin testing prior to BCG vaccination. Previous to that a tuberculin test was required in all children in this age group pre vaccination. While the previous policy was in place this study was conducted to assess the value of this test. The observation that children are frightened by the test (an injection into the skin) prompted the study. The author conducted a retrospective study of the results of 1,854 tuberculin tests performed as a prerequisite to BCG vaccination and found that only 0.7% of children had a positive test result (induration > 5mm). None of 107 children < 6 years of age tested positive. Those > 12 years were more likely to test positive than younger children (1.09% vs 0.4% respectively, p < 0.05). This study suggests that testing young children before BCG vaccination has a low yield of positive results and adds little to the detection of latent or active TB.
From 1985 to 1992, 193 children with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) with a median age of 26 months were admitted to the Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Hospital. Of these children 143 (74%) were documented to have received BCG, either by reference to 'Road to Health' cards or by contact with ...
From 1985 to 1992, 193 children with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) with a median age of 26 months were admitted to the Department of Paediatrics and Child. Health, Tygerberg Hospital. Of these children 143 (74%) were documented to have received BCG, either by reference to 'Road to Health' cards or by contact with.
Full Text Available Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG developed by Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin in France between 1908 and 1921 contained a live attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis and was administered worldwide to prevent tuberculosis. BCG vaccination is also administered at birth to all the newborns in Iran. Disseminated BCG infection after BCG vaccination is rare. Here in, we report 2 new cases of disseminated BCGinfection and review 15 additional cases identified from our previous retrospective study during a 5-year period from 2005-2010. All of these reported patients were vaccinated. Impaired immunity was detected in 10 cases (59% including severe combined immunodeficiency, chronic granulomatous disease, Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease, combined variable immunodeficiency, and HIV infection. Response to therapy was poor among those patients with immune deficiencies, but the overall mortality rate was 32.3%. Disseminated BCG infection is a rare but devastating complication of vaccination. Immune-compromised children are at high risk of developing BCG related complications including regional BCG-itis or disseminated disease; BCG-osis.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although BCG vaccination is recommended in most countries of the world, little is known of the persistence of BCG-induced immune responses. As novel TB vaccines may be given to boost the immunity induced by neonatal BCG vaccination, evidence concerning the persistence of the BCG vaccine-induced response would help inform decisions about when such boosting would be most effective. Methods A randomised control study of UK adolescents was carried out to investigate persistence of BCG immune responses. Adolescents were tested for interferon-gamma (IFN-γ response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (M.tb PPD in a whole blood assay before, 3 months, 12 months (n = 148 and 3 years (n = 19 after receiving teenage BCG vaccination or 14 years after receiving infant BCG vaccination (n = 16. Results A gradual reduction in magnitude of response was evident from 3 months to 1 year and from 1 year to 3 years following teenage vaccination, but responses 3 years after vaccination were still on average 6 times higher than before vaccination among vaccinees. Some individuals (11/86; 13% failed to make a detectable antigen-specific response three months after vaccination, or lost the response after 1 (11/86; 13% or 3 (3/19; 16% years. IFN-γ response to Ag85 was measured in a subgroup of adolescents and appeared to be better maintained with no decline from 3 to 12 months. A smaller group of adolescents were tested 14 years after receiving infant BCG vaccination and 13/16 (81% made a detectable IFN-γ response to M.tb PPD 14 years after infant vaccination as compared to 6/16 (38% matched unvaccinated controls (p = 0.012; teenagers vaccinated in infancy were 19 times more likely to make an IFN-γ response of > 500 pg/ml than unvaccinated teenagers. Conclusion BCG vaccination in infancy and adolescence induces immunological memory to mycobacterial antigens that is still present and measurable for at least 14 years in the
Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam; Ravn, Henrik; Napirna, Bitiguida Mutna; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida Maria; Stensballe, Lone; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Lausch, Karen Rokkedal; Lund, Najaaraq; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Whittle, Hilton; Benn, Christine Stabell
Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG. In the period 2004-2008 we recruited 2320 LBW children in Bissau. The children were visited at home at 2, 6, and 12 months of age. With a pretrial infant mortality of 250 per 1000, we hypothesized a 25% reduction in infant mortality for LBW children. Infant mortality was only 101 per 1000 during the trial. In the primary analysis, infant mortality was reduced insignificantly by 17% (mortality rate ratio [MRR] = .83 [.63-1.08]). In secondary analyses, early BCG vaccine was safe with an MRR of .49 (.21-1.15) after 3 days and .55 (.34-.89) after 4 weeks. The reduction in neonatal mortality was mainly due to fewer cases of neonatal sepsis, respiratory infection, and fever. The impact of early BCG on infant mortality was marked for children weighing <1.5 kg (MRR = .43 [.21-.85]) who had lower coverage for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccinations. Though early BCG did not reduce infant mortality significantly, it may have a beneficial effect in the neonatal period. This could be important for public health because BCG is often delayed in low-income countries.
Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Birk, Nina Marie; Smits, Gaby
) vaccination at birth, The Danish Calmette Study, we investigated the effect of BCG at birth on the antibody response to the three routine vaccines against DiTeKiPol/Act-Hib and Prevenar 13 in a subgroup of participants. METHODS: Within 7days after birth, children were randomised 1:1 to BCG vaccination...... children (178 BCG; 122 controls), almost all children (>96%) had antibody responses above the protective levels. Overall BCG vaccination at birth did not affect the antibody level. When stratifying by 'age at randomisation' we found a possible inducing effect of BCG on antibodies against B. pertussis......-protective levels in almost all children. No overall effect of neonatal BCG vaccination was observed....
Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik
Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG.......Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....
Favorov, Michael; Ali, Mohammad; Tursunbayeva, Aigul; Aitmagambetova, Indira; Kilgore, Paul; Ismailov, Shakhimurat; Chorba, Terence
Background Except during a 1-year period when BCG vaccine was not routinely administered, annual coverage of infants with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in Kazakhstan since 2002 has exceeded 95%. BCG preparations from different sources (Japan, Serbia, and Russia) or none were used exclusively in comparable 7-month time-frames, September through March, in 4 successive years beginning in 2002. Our objective was to assess relative effectiveness of BCG immunization. Methods/Findings We compared outcomes of birth cohorts from the 4 time-frames retrospectively. Three cohorts received vaccine from one of three manufacturers exclusively, and one cohort was not vaccinated. Cohorts were followed for 3 years for notifications of clinical TB and of culture-confirmed TB, and for 21 months for TB meningitis notifications. Prevention effectiveness based on relative risk of TB incidence was calculated for each vaccinated cohort compared to the non-vaccinated cohort. Although there were differences in prevention effectiveness observed among the three BCG vaccines, all were protective. The Japanese vaccine (currently used in Kazakhstan), the Serbian vaccine, and the Russian vaccine respectively were 69%, 43%, and 22% effective with respect to clinical TB notifications, and 92%, 82%, and 51% effective with respect to culture confirmed TB. All three vaccines were >70% effective with respect to TB meningitis. Limitations Potential limitations included considerations that 1) the methodology used was retrospective, 2) multiple risk factors could have varied between cohorts and affected prevention effectiveness measures, 3) most cases were clinically diagnosed, and TB culture-positive case numbers and TB meningitis case numbers were sparse, and 4) small variations in reported population TB burden could have affected relative risk of exposure for cohorts. Conclusions/Significance All three BCG vaccines evaluated were protective against TB, and prevention effectiveness varied by
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Except during a 1-year period when BCG vaccine was not routinely administered, annual coverage of infants with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG in Kazakhstan since 2002 has exceeded 95%. BCG preparations from different sources (Japan, Serbia, and Russia or none were used exclusively in comparable 7-month time-frames, September through March, in 4 successive years beginning in 2002. Our objective was to assess relative effectiveness of BCG immunization. METHODS/FINDINGS: We compared outcomes of birth cohorts from the 4 time-frames retrospectively. Three cohorts received vaccine from one of three manufacturers exclusively, and one cohort was not vaccinated. Cohorts were followed for 3 years for notifications of clinical TB and of culture-confirmed TB, and for 21 months for TB meningitis notifications. Prevention effectiveness based on relative risk of TB incidence was calculated for each vaccinated cohort compared to the non-vaccinated cohort. Although there were differences in prevention effectiveness observed among the three BCG vaccines, all were protective. The Japanese vaccine (currently used in Kazakhstan, the Serbian vaccine, and the Russian vaccine respectively were 69%, 43%, and 22% effective with respect to clinical TB notifications, and 92%, 82%, and 51% effective with respect to culture confirmed TB. All three vaccines were >70% effective with respect to TB meningitis. LIMITATIONS: Potential limitations included considerations that 1 the methodology used was retrospective, 2 multiple risk factors could have varied between cohorts and affected prevention effectiveness measures, 3 most cases were clinically diagnosed, and TB culture-positive case numbers and TB meningitis case numbers were sparse, and 4 small variations in reported population TB burden could have affected relative risk of exposure for cohorts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: All three BCG vaccines evaluated were protective against TB, and prevention effectiveness
Favorov, Michael; Ali, Mohammad; Tursunbayeva, Aigul; Aitmagambetova, Indira; Kilgore, Paul; Ismailov, Shakhimurat; Chorba, Terence
Except during a 1-year period when BCG vaccine was not routinely administered, annual coverage of infants with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in Kazakhstan since 2002 has exceeded 95%. BCG preparations from different sources (Japan, Serbia, and Russia) or none were used exclusively in comparable 7-month time-frames, September through March, in 4 successive years beginning in 2002. Our objective was to assess relative effectiveness of BCG immunization. We compared outcomes of birth cohorts from the 4 time-frames retrospectively. Three cohorts received vaccine from one of three manufacturers exclusively, and one cohort was not vaccinated. Cohorts were followed for 3 years for notifications of clinical TB and of culture-confirmed TB, and for 21 months for TB meningitis notifications. Prevention effectiveness based on relative risk of TB incidence was calculated for each vaccinated cohort compared to the non-vaccinated cohort. Although there were differences in prevention effectiveness observed among the three BCG vaccines, all were protective. The Japanese vaccine (currently used in Kazakhstan), the Serbian vaccine, and the Russian vaccine respectively were 69%, 43%, and 22% effective with respect to clinical TB notifications, and 92%, 82%, and 51% effective with respect to culture confirmed TB. All three vaccines were >70% effective with respect to TB meningitis. Potential limitations included considerations that 1) the methodology used was retrospective, 2) multiple risk factors could have varied between cohorts and affected prevention effectiveness measures, 3) most cases were clinically diagnosed, and TB culture-positive case numbers and TB meningitis case numbers were sparse, and 4) small variations in reported population TB burden could have affected relative risk of exposure for cohorts. All three BCG vaccines evaluated were protective against TB, and prevention effectiveness varied by manufacturer. When setting national immunization policy, consideration
Dhanasekaran, S; Jenum, S; Stavrum, R
Pediatric tuberculosis (TB) often goes undiagnosed because of the lack of reliable diagnostic methods. With the aim of assessing biomarker(s) that can aid in the diagnosis of TB infection and disease, we investigated 746 Indian children with suspected TB. Whole-blood mRNA from 210 children...... or equal to0.05) was downregulated in TB disease compared with uninfected controls, while transcription of RAB33A was downregulated in TB disease compared with both latent TB (Pcontrols (P....05) was upregulated in latent TB compared with that in controls. Using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (lasso) model, RAB33A alone discriminated between TB disease and latent TB (area under the curve (AUC) 77.5%), whereas a combination of RAB33A, CXCL10, SEC14L1, FOXP3 and TNFRSF1A was effective...
Mustafa Abu S
Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an infectious disease of international importance and ranks among the top 10 causes of death in the World. About one-third of the world′s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Every year, approximately eight million people develop active disease and two million die of TB. The currently used BCG vaccines have shown variable protective efficacies against TB in different parts of the world. Moreover, being a live vaccine, BCG can be pathogenic in immunocompromised recipients. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new vaccines against TB. The comparative genome analysis has revealed the existence of several M. tuberculosis-specific regions that are deleted in BCG. The work carried out to determine the immunological reactivity of proteins encoded by genes located in these regions revealed several major antigens of M. tuberculosis, including the 6 kDa early secreted antigen target (ESAT6. Immunization with ESAT6 and its peptide (aa51-70 protects mice challenged with M. tuberculosis. The protective efficacy of immunization further improves when ESAT6 is recombinantly fused with M. tuberculosis antigen 85B. In addition, ESAT6 delivered as a DNA vaccine is also protective in mice. Whether these vaccines would be safe or not cannot be speculated. The answer regarding the safety and efficacy of these vaccines has to await human trials in different parts of the world.
Sartono, Erliyani; Lisse, Ida M; Terveer, Elisabeth M; van de Sande, Paula J M; Whittle, Hilton; Fisker, Ane B; Roth, Adam; Aaby, Peter; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Benn, Christine S
Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did not receive OPV at birth, but only BCG. We investigated the effect of OPV given simultaneously with BCG at birth on the immune response to BCG vaccine. We compared the in vitro and the in vivo response to PPD in the infants who received OPV and BCG with that of infants who received BCG only. At age 6 weeks, the in vitro cytokine response to purified protein derivate (PPD) of M. Tuberculosis was reduced in LBW and NBW infants who had received OPV with BCG. In a pooled analysis receiving OPV with BCG at birth was associated with significantly lower IL-13 (p = 0.041) and IFN-gamma (p = 0.004) and a tendency for lower IL-10 (p = 0.054) in response to PPD. Furthermore, OPV was associated with reduced in vivo response to PPD at age 2 months, the prevalence ratio (PR) of having a PPD reaction being 0.75 (0.58-0.98), p = 0.033, and with a tendency for reduced likelihood of having a BCG scar (0.95 (0.91-1.00), p = 0.057)). Among children with a scar, OPV was associated with reduced scar size, the regression coefficient being -0.24 (-0.43-0.05), p = 0.012. This study is the first to address the consequences for the immune response to BCG of simultaneous administration with OPV. Worryingly, the results indicate that the common practice in low-income countries of administering OPV together with BCG at birth may down-regulate the response to BCG vaccine.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oral polio vaccine (OPV is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW and normal-birth-weight (NBW infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did not receive OPV at birth, but only BCG. We investigated the effect of OPV given simultaneously with BCG at birth on the immune response to BCG vaccine. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared the in vitro and the in vivo response to PPD in the infants who received OPV and BCG with that of infants who received BCG only. At age 6 weeks, the in vitro cytokine response to purified protein derivate (PPD of M. Tuberculosis was reduced in LBW and NBW infants who had received OPV with BCG. In a pooled analysis receiving OPV with BCG at birth was associated with significantly lower IL-13 (p = 0.041 and IFN-gamma (p = 0.004 and a tendency for lower IL-10 (p = 0.054 in response to PPD. Furthermore, OPV was associated with reduced in vivo response to PPD at age 2 months, the prevalence ratio (PR of having a PPD reaction being 0.75 (0.58-0.98, p = 0.033, and with a tendency for reduced likelihood of having a BCG scar (0.95 (0.91-1.00, p = 0.057. Among children with a scar, OPV was associated with reduced scar size, the regression coefficient being -0.24 (-0.43-0.05, p = 0.012. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to address the consequences for the immune response to BCG of simultaneous administration with OPV. Worryingly, the results indicate that the common practice in low-income countries of administering OPV together with BCG at birth may down-regulate the response to BCG vaccine.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine against tuberculosis (TB has been available for more than 75 years, one third of the world's population is still infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and approximately 2 million people die of TB every year. To reduce this immense TB burden, a clearer understanding of the functional genes underlying the action of BCG and the development of new vaccines are urgently needed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Comparative genomic analysis of 19 M. tuberculosis complex strains showed that BCG strains underwent repeated human manipulation, had higher region of deletion rates than those of natural M. tuberculosis strains, and lost several essential components such as T-cell epitopes. A total of 188 BCG strain T-cell epitopes were lost to various degrees. The non-virulent BCG Tokyo strain, which has the largest number of T-cell epitopes (359, lost 124. Here we propose that BCG strain protection variability results from different epitopes. This study is the first to present BCG as a model organism for genetics research. BCG strains have a very well-documented history and now detailed genome information. Genome comparison revealed the selection process of BCG strains under human manipulation (1908-1966. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed the cause of BCG vaccine strain protection variability at the genome level and supported the hypothesis that the restoration of lost BCG Tokyo epitopes is a useful future vaccine development strategy. Furthermore, these detailed BCG vaccine genome investigation results will be useful in microbial genetics, microbial engineering and other research fields.
Altes, Hester Korthals; Dijkstra, Frederika; Lugnèr, Anna; Cobelens, Frank; Wallinga, Jacco
Background: BCG vaccine protects against the severe forms of tuberculosis (TB) in children. Several low-prevalence countries are reviewing their policy, usually shifting from universal vaccination to vaccination of infants in high-risk groups only. We combined an epidemiologic analysis with a
BCG is the only licensed human vaccine currently available against TB. Derived from a virulent strain of M. bovis, the vaccine was thought to have struck a balance between reduced virulence and preserved immunogenicity. Nowadays, BCG vaccine strains used in different countries and vaccination programs show clear variations in their genomes and immune protective properties. The aim of this study was to characterize the proteomic profile on Mycobacterium bovis and five BCG strains Pasteur, Tokyo, Danish, Phipps and Birkhaug by Tandem Mass Tag® (TMT®)-labeling quantitative proteomic approach. In total, 420 proteins were identified and 377 of them were quantitated for their relative abundance. We reported the number and relationship of differential expressed proteins in BCG strains compared to M. bovis and investigated their functions by bioinformatics analysis. Several interesting up-regulated and down-regulated protein targets were found. The identified proteins and their quantitative expression profiles provide a basis for further understanding of the cellular biology of M. bovis and BCG vaccine strains, and hopefully would assist in the design of better anti-TB vaccine and drugs.
Stensballe, Lone Graff; Sørup, Signe; Aaby, Peter
vaccination at birth would reduce early childhood hospitalisation in Denmark, a high-income setting. METHODS: Pregnant women planning to give birth at three Danish hospitals were invited to participate. After parental consent, newborn children were allocated to BCG or no intervention within 7 days of age......BACKGROUND: The BCG vaccine is administered to protect against tuberculosis, but studies suggest there may also be non-specific beneficial effects upon the infant immune system, reducing early non-targeted infections and atopic diseases. The present randomised trial tested the hypothesis that BCG......-protocol analyses. RESULTS: 4184 pregnant women were randomised and their 4262 children allocated to BCG or no intervention. There was no difference in risk of hospitalisation up to 15 months of age; 2129 children randomised to BCG experienced 1047 hospitalisations with a mean of 0.49 hospitalisation per child...
Trnka, L; Danková, D
With the steadily declining risk of tuberculosis infection in CSR the question arose whether vaccination of infants remains worthwhile considering not only resources spent but also complications to vaccination vis-a-vis benefits derived. A prospective study has been designed in which BCG vaccination of newborns is discontinued in an area with 30,000 newborns yearly. In the period from April 1, 1986 to January 31, 1988 there were not vaccinated 43,428 children (84.8% of the newborns). The collaboration of mothers was good. The one year old non-vaccinated children were tested with 2 TU PPD RT 23 with Tween 80. The distribution of positive tuberculin reactions appears unimodal, relatively large reactions being absent. 8 children had reactions with 6 or more mm induration. That corresponds to a risk of infection of 0.04%. The project continues in the research area and might be extended to another area.
Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Pihl, Gitte Thybo
Studies have suggested that Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination may reduce the risk of allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis. The Danish Calmette Study was conducted 2012-2015. Within 7 days of birth new-borns were randomised 1:1 to BCG or no BCG. Exclusion criteria were gestational...... in the control group (RR=0.90 (95% confidence intervals 0.80 to 1.00)). The effect of neonatal BCG vaccination differed significantly between children with atopic predisposition (RR 0.84 (0.74 to 0.95)) and children without atopic predisposition (RR 1.09 (0.88 to 1.37)) (test of no interaction, p=0.04). Among...... children with atopic predisposition, the number-needed-to-treat with BCG to prevent one case of atopic dermatitis was 21 (12 to 76). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....
Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Pihl, Gitte Thybo
Studies have suggested that Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination may reduce the risk of allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis. The Danish Calmette Study was conducted 2012-2015. Within 7 days of birth new-borns were randomised 1:1 to BCG or no BCG. Exclusion criteria were gestational...... in the control group (RR=0.90 (95% confidence intervals 0.80 to 1.00)). The effect of neonatal BCG vaccination differed significantly between children with atopic predisposition (RR 0.84 (0.74 to 0.95)) and children without atopic predisposition (RR 1.09 (0.88 to 1.37)) (test of no interaction, p=0.04). Among...... children with atopic predisposition, the number-needed-to-treat with BCG to prevent one case of atopic dermatitis was 21 (12 to 76). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....
Kjærgaard, Jesper; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Birk, Nina Marie
MEASURES: Psychomotor development measured using Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) completed by the parents at 12 months. Additionally, parents of premature children (gestational age Developmental assessment was available for 3453/4262 (81%). RESULTS......OBJECTIVES: To assess the non-specific effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on psychomotor development. DESIGN: This is a pre-specified secondary outcome from a randomised, clinical trial. SETTING: Maternity units and paediatric wards at three university hospitals...... was -7.8 points (-20.6 to 5.0, p = 0.23), d = -0.23 (-0.62 to 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: A negative non-specific effect of BCG vaccination at birth on psychomotor development was excluded in term children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01694108....
Bierrenbach Ana L.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of BCG vaccination or revaccination on tuberculin skin test reactivity, in order to guide the correct interpretation of this test in a setting of high neonatal BCG vaccination coverage and an increasing BCG revaccination coverage at school age. METHODS: We conducted tuberculin skin testing and BCG scar reading in 1148 children aged 7-14 years old in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. We measured the positive effect of the presence of one or two BCG scars on the proportion of tuberculin skin test results above different cut-off levels (induration sizes of > 5 mm, > 10 mm, and > 15 mm and also using several ranges of induration size (0, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14, and > 15 mm. We also measured the effects that age, gender, and the school where the child was enrolled had on these proportions. RESULTS: The proportion of tuberculin results > 10 mm was 14.2% (95% confidence interval (CI = 8.0%-20.3% for children with no BCG scar, 21.3% (95% CI = 18.5%-24.1% for children with one BCG scar, and 45.0% (95% CI = 32.0%-58.0% for children with two BCG scars. There was evidence for an increasing positive effect of the presence of one and two BCG scars on the proportion of results > 5 mm and > 10 mm. Similarly, there was evidence for an increasing positive effect of the presence of one and two scars on the proportion of tuberculin skin test results in the ranges of 5-9 mm and of 10-14 mm. The BCG scar effect on the proportion of results > 5 mm and > 10 mm did not vary with age. There was no evidence for BCG effect on the results > 15 mm. CONCLUSIONS: In Brazilian schoolchildren, BCG-induced tuberculin reactivity is indistinguishable, for results under 15 mm, from reactivity induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. BCG revaccination at school age increases the degree of BCG-induced tuberculin reactivity found among schoolchildren. This information should be taken into account in tuberculin skin test surveys intended to
Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Baerent; Napirna, Bitiguida Mutna
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates. DESIGN: Randomised, placebo controlled, two by two factorial trial. SETTING: Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. PARTICIPANTS: 1717 low birthweight neonates born at the national hospital...... months of age for infants who received vitamin A supplementation compared with those who received placebo. RESULTS: No interaction was observed between vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccine allocation (P=0.73). Vitamin A supplementation at birth was not significantly associated with mortality......: the MRR of vitamin A supplementation compared with placebo, controlled for randomisation to "early BCG" versus "no early BCG" was 1.08 (95% CI 0.79 to 1.47). Stratification by sex revealed a significant interaction between vitamin A supplementation and sex (P=0.046), the MRR of vitamin A supplementation...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis (TB still increases in the number of new cases, which is estimated to approach 10 million in 2010. The number of aged people has been growing all over the world. Ageing is one of risk factors in tuberculosis because of decreased immune responses in aged people. Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG is a sole vaccine currently used for TB, however, the efficacy of BCG in adults is still a matter of debate. Emerging the multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB make us to see the importance of vaccination against TB in new light. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of BCG vaccination in aged mice. Results The Th1 responses, interferon-γ production and interleukin 2, in BCG inoculated aged mice (24-month-old were comparable to those of young mice (4- to 6-week-old. The protection activity of BCG in aged mice against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was also the same as young mice. Conclusion These findings suggest that vaccination in aged generation is still effective for protection against tuberculosis.
Thysen, Sanne Marie; Byberg, Stine; Pedersen, Marie
, not disclosing the delay in vaccination. Several studies show that BCG at birth lowers neonatal mortality. We assessed BCG coverage at different ages and explored reasons for delay in BCG vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) runs a health and demographic surveillance system...... covering women and their children in 182 randomly selected village clusters in rural Guinea-Bissau. BCG coverage was assessed for children born in 2010, when the restricted vial-opening policy was universally implemented, and in 2012-2013, where BHP provided BCG to all children at monthly visits...
Benn, Christine Stabell; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Roth, Adam; Nante, Ernesto; Fisker, Ane Baerent; Lisse, Ida Maria; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Whittle, Hilton; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter
To investigate the effect of high dose vitamin A supplementation given with BCG vaccine at birth in an African setting with high infant mortality. Randomised placebo controlled trial. Setting Bandim Health Project's demographic surveillance system in Guinea-Bissau, covering approximately 90,000 inhabitants. Participants 4345 infants due to receive BCG. Infants were randomised to 50,000 IU vitamin A or placebo and followed until age 12 months. Mortality rate ratios. 174 children died during follow-up (mortality=47/1000 person-years). Vitamin A supplementation was not significantly associated with mortality; the mortality rate ratio was 1.07 (95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.44). The effect was 1.00 (0.65 to 1.56) during the first four months and 1.13 (0.75 to 1.68) from 4 to 12 months of age. The mortality rate ratio in boys was 0.84 (0.55 to 1.27) compared with 1.39 (0.90 to 2.14) in girls (P for interaction=0.10). An explorative analysis revealed a strong interaction between vitamin A and season of administration. Vitamin A supplementation given with BCG vaccine at birth had no significant benefit in this African setting. Although little doubt exists that vitamin A supplementation reduces mortality in older children, a global recommendation of supplementation for all newborn infants may not contribute to better survival. Clinical trials NCT00168597.
Costa, Natalia Moriya Xavierda; Albuquerque, Maly de; Lins, Janaína Bacelar Acioli; Alvares-Junior, João Teixeira; Stefani, Mariane Martins de Araújo
Among HIV-1-infected patients, CD4+ T cell counts are well-established markers of cell-mediated immunity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin tests can be used to evaluate in vivo cell-mediated immunity to common antigens. DTH responses to tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD), sporotrichin, trichophytin, candidin and streptokinase/streptodornase antigens were assessed. Thirty-six HIV-1-infected children/adolescents and 56 age- and sex-matched HIV-1/HIV-2-seronegative participants were tested. All participants had a BCG scar. Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate significant differences between groups (pPPD positivity prevailed among healthy participants (40/56, 71.4%). PPD reactivity in the HIV-1-positive group was 8.3% (pPPD induration was 2.5mm (range: 2-5mm) in the HIV-1 group and 6.0 mm among healthy participants (range: 3-15 mm). There was no correlation between PPD positivity and age. No correlation between CD4+ T cell counts and DTH reactivity was observed among HIV-1-infected patients. DTH skin test responses, including PPD reactivity, were significantly lower among HIV-1-infected participants compared to healthy controls, which likely reflects advanced disease and T cell depletion.
Elias, D; Wolday, D; Akuffo, H
The protective efficacy of BCG vaccination against pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is highly variable in different populations. The reason remains to be elucidated. This study aims to investigate the possible effect of intestinal helminths on the immune response to PPD in naturally immunized or BCG......-vaccinated humans. The study population was assessed for helminthic infection and those found to be positive were randomly assigned to either an albendazole treatment group or a control group who received a placebo. The immune response to PPD was compared between the two groups. In addition, subjects who were...... tuberculin skin test-negative in both groups were BCG vaccinated and later on tested for PPD-specific responses. Albendazole induced elimination/or reduction in intestinal worms resulting in a significant improvement in T cell proliferation and in interferon-gamma production by peripheral blood mononuclear...
Diness, B.R.; Roth, A.; Nante, E.
Objective To investigate the effect of high dose vitamin A supplementation given with BCG vaccine at birth in an African setting with high infant mortality. Design Randomised placebo controlled trial. Setting Bandim Health Project's demographic surveillance system in Guinea-Bissau, covering.......84 (0.55 to 1.27) compared with 1.39 (0.90 to 2.14) in girls (P for interaction=0.10). An explorative analysis revealed a strong interaction between vitamin A and season of administration. Conclusions Vitamin A supplementation given with BCG vaccine at birth had no significant benefit in this African...
Wagner, Zachary; Szilagyi, Peter G; Sood, Neeraj
The private sector is an important source of health care in the developing world. However, there is limited evidence on how private providers compare to public providers, particularly for preventive services such as immunizations. We used data from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to assess public-private differences in Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine delivery. We used demographic and health surveys from 102,629 children aged 0-59 months from 29 countries across SSA to measure differences in BCG status for children born at private versus public health facilities (BCG is recommended at birth). We used a probit model to estimate public-private differences in BCG delivery, while controlling for key confounders. Next, we estimated how differences in BCG status evolved over time for children born at private versus public facilities. Finally, we estimated heterogeneity in public-private differences based on wealth and rural-urban residency. We found that children born at a private facility were 7.1 percentage points less likely to receive BCG vaccine in the same month as birth than children born at a public facility (95% CI 6.3-8.0; pprivate providers (as opposed to NGOs) where the BCG provision rate was 10.0 percentage points less than public providers (95% CI 9.0-11.2; pprivate for-profit facilities remained less likely to be vaccinated up to 59 months after birth. Finally, public-private differences were more pronounced for poorer children and children in rural areas. The for-profit private sector performed substantially worse than the public sector in providing BCG vaccine to newborns, resulting in a longer duration of vulnerability to tuberculosis. This disparity was greater for poorer children and children in rural areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Universal neonatal BCG vaccination was discontinued in Cork in 1972. Following an outbreak of TB in 2 creches in the HSE South, a universal BCG vaccination program was re-introduced in October 2008. The aim of this study was to determine the vaccination process (in-hospital and community) and the in-hospital uptake of the vaccine. Following informed parental consent, babies of birth weight > 2.5 Kg were eligible for in-hospital vaccination if they were not: febrile, jaundiced on phototherapy, on antibiotics and if not born to HIV- positive mothers. Parents of babies not vaccinated in-hospital were asked to book an appointment in either of the 2 Cork community clinics. The immunisation nurse collected data on BCG vaccination, prospectively. This study examined vaccination uptakes in-hospital and community over a 6 month period (October 2008 to March 2009). There were 4018 deliveries during the study period. In-hospital consent was declined in only 16 babies (<1%) while the in-hospital vaccination uptake was 80% of total liv births. Although 635 newborns were admitted to the NICU, only 46 (8%) were vaccinated while in the NICU. At least 48% of planned community vaccination has been achieved to date. In conclusion, in-hospital consent was almost universal and vaccination uptake was satisfactory. NICU exclusion criteria accounted for a significant proportion of non-vaccination in-hospital. These criteria need to be readdressed considering that all premature babies are given other routine newborn vaccines at 2 months of age, regardless of weight.
Universal neonatal BCG vaccination was discontinued in Cork in 1972. Following an outbreak of TB in 2 creches in the HSE South, a universal BCG vaccination program was re-introduced in October 2008. The aim of this study was to determine the vaccination process (in-hospital and community) and the in-hospital uptake of the vaccine. Following informed parental consent, babies of birth weight > 2.5 Kg were eligible for in-hospital vaccination if they were not: febrile, jaundiced on phototherapy, on antibiotics and if not born to HIV- positive mothers. Parents of babies not vaccinated in-hospital were asked to book an appointment in either of the 2 Cork community clinics. The immunisation nurse collected data on BCG vaccination, prospectively. This study examined vaccination uptakes in-hospital and community over a 6 month period (October 2008 to March 2009). There were 4018 deliveries during the study period. In-hospital consent was declined in only 16 babies (<1%) while the in-hospital vaccination uptake was 80% of total liv births. Although 635 newborns were admitted to the NICU, only 46 (8%) were vaccinated while in the NICU. At least 48% of planned community vaccination has been achieved to date. In conclusion, in-hospital consent was almost universal and vaccination uptake was satisfactory. NICU exclusion criteria accounted for a significant proportion of non-vaccination in-hospital. These criteria need to be readdressed considering that all premature babies are given other routine newborn vaccines at 2 months of age, regardless of weight.
Benn, Christine Stabell; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Roth, Adam
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of high dose vitamin A supplementation given with BCG vaccine at birth in an African setting with high infant mortality. DESIGN: Randomised placebo controlled trial. Setting Bandim Health Project's demographic surveillance system in Guinea-Bissau, covering...... approximately 90,000 inhabitants. Participants 4345 infants due to receive BCG. INTERVENTION: Infants were randomised to 50,000 IU vitamin A or placebo and followed until age 12 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Mortality rate ratios. RESULTS: 174 children died during follow-up (mortality=47/1000 person......-years). Vitamin A supplementation was not significantly associated with mortality; the mortality rate ratio was 1.07 (95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.44). The effect was 1.00 (0.65 to 1.56) during the first four months and 1.13 (0.75 to 1.68) from 4 to 12 months of age. The mortality rate ratio in boys was 0...
Steigler, Pia; Daniels, Naomi J; McCulloch, Tim R; Ryder, Brin M; Sandford, Sarah K; Kirman, Joanna R
The tuberculosis (TB) vaccine bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) prevents disseminated childhood TB; however, it fails to protect against the more prevalent pulmonary TB. Limited understanding of the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of TB, has hindered development of improved vaccines. Although memory CD4 T cells are considered the main mediators of protection against TB, recent studies suggest there are other key subsets that contribute to antimycobacterial immunity. To that end, innate cells may be involved in the protective response. In this study, we investigated the primary response of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) to BCG exposure. Using a murine model, we showed that ILCs increased in number in the lungs and lymph nodes in response to BCG vaccination. Additionally, there was significant production of the antimycobacterial cytokine IFN-γ by ILCs. As ILCs are located at mucosal sites, it was investigated whether mucosal vaccination (intranasal) stimulated an enhanced response compared to the traditional vaccination approach (intradermal or subcutaneous). Indeed, in response to intranasal vaccination, the number of ILCs, and IFN-γ production in NK cells and ILC1s in the lungs and lymph nodes, were higher than that provoked through intradermal or subcutaneous vaccination. This work provides the first evidence that BCG vaccination activates ILCs, paving the way for future research to elucidate the protective potential of ILCs against mycobacterial infection. Additionally, the finding that lung ILCs respond rigorously to mucosal vaccination may have implications for the delivery of novel TB vaccines. © 2018 Australasian Society for Immunology Inc.
Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Pihl, Gitte Thybo
Background: Recurrent wheeze (RW) is frequent in childhood. Studies have suggested that BCG vaccination can have nonspecific effects, reducing general nontuberculosis morbidity, including respiratory tract infections and atopic diseases. The mechanisms behind these nonspecific effects of BCG...
Marciano, Beatriz E; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Joshi, Gyan; Rezaei, Nima; Carvalho, Beatriz Costa; Allwood, Zoe; Ikinciogullari, Aydan; Reda, Shereen M; Gennery, Andrew; Thon, Vojtech; Espinosa-Rosales, Francisco; Al-Herz, Waleed; Porras, Oscar; Shcherbina, Anna; Szaflarska, Anna; Kiliç, Şebnem; Franco, Jose L; Gómez Raccio, Andrea C; Roxo, Persio; Esteves, Isabel; Galal, Nermeen; Grumach, Anete Sevciovic; Al-Tamemi, Salem; Yildiran, Alisan; Orellana, Julio C; Yamada, Masafumi; Morio, Tomohiro; Liberatore, Diana; Ohtsuka, Yoshitoshi; Lau, Yu-Lung; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Torres-Lozano, Carlos; Mazzucchelli, Juliana T L; Vilela, Maria M S; Tavares, Fabiola S; Cunha, Luciana; Pinto, Jorge A; Espinosa-Padilla, Sara E; Hernandez-Nieto, Leticia; Elfeky, Reem A; Ariga, Tadashi; Toshio, Heike; Dogu, Figen; Cipe, Funda; Formankova, Renata; Nuñez-Nuñez, M Enriqueta; Bezrodnik, Liliana; Marques, Jose Gonçalo; Pereira, María I; Listello, Viviana; Slatter, Mary A; Nademi, Zohreh; Kowalczyk, Danuta; Fleisher, Thomas A; Davies, Graham; Neven, Bénédicte; Rosenzweig, Sergio D
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a syndrome characterized by profound T-cell deficiency. BCG vaccine is contraindicated in patients with SCID. Because most countries encourage BCG vaccination at birth, a high percentage of patients with SCID are vaccinated before their immune defect is detected. We sought to describe the complications and risks associated with BCG vaccination in patients with SCID. An extensive standardized questionnaire evaluating complications, therapeutics, and outcomes regarding BCG vaccination in patients given a diagnosis of SCID was widely distributed. Summary statistics and association analysis was performed. Data on 349 BCG-vaccinated patients with SCID from 28 centers in 17 countries were analyzed. Fifty-one percent of the patients had BCG-associated complications, 34% disseminated and 17% localized (a 33,000- and 400-fold increase, respectively, over the general population). Patients receiving early vaccination (≤1 month) showed an increased prevalence of complications (P = .006) and death caused by BCG-associated complications (P vaccine has a very high rate of complications in patients with SCID, which increase morbidity and mortality rates. Until safer and more efficient antituberculosis vaccines become available, delay in BCG vaccination should be considered to protect highly vulnerable populations from preventable complications. Published by Mosby, Inc.
Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Aamand, Susanne Havn
INTRODUCTION: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has beneficial non-specific effects on overall survival. After BCG vaccination, positive PPD response and scar formation are associated with increased survival. During a trial randomising low-birth-weight neonates to BCG at birth or the usual...... randomised to BCG at birth and examined for scar at 12 months; a subgroup was tested for PPD response at 2 and 6 months. The BCG batches from the Slow growth period were compared with the precedent and subsequent Normal growth batches with regard to prevalence and size of BCG scar and PPD response. We also...... batches were associated with larger scar size (5.0mm) than precedent (4.4mm, pPPD responses, and among PPD positive children, a larger PPD...
The effect of neonatal BCG vaccination on atopy and asthma at age 7 to 14 years: an historical cohort study in a community with a very low prevalence of tuberculosis infection and a high prevalence of atopic disease.
Marks, Guy B; Ng, Kitty; Zhou, Jie; Toelle, Brett G; Xuan, Wei; Belousova, Elena G; Britton, Warwick J
There are conflicting reports on the effect of BCG vaccination on the subsequent development of atopy and asthma. There are no data on the effects of neonatal BCG vaccination on cytokine responses of lymphocytes that are exposed in vitro to allergens. We sought to test the hypothesis that neonatal BCG vaccination or, alternatively, evidence of an immunologic memory of this vaccination is associated with a reduced prevalence of allergic sensitization, asthma, eczema, and hay fever during childhood. An historical cohort study was conducted among 7- to 14-year-old children who were born in 2 districts in Sydney, Australia, and whose mothers were born in southeast Asia. One district had routinely administered BCG vaccination to infants born to overseas-born mothers and the other had not. Eligible subjects were identified from birth registers. Consenting subjects completed questionnaires, performed spirometric and airway hyperresponsiveness testing, and had allergen skin prick testing and tuberculin skin testing. Blood was collected to measure total serum IgE levels and for in vitro lymphocyte culture in the presence of an extract of house dust mite, the dominant allergen in this region, and purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (tuberculin). IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IFN-gamma were measured in the culture supernatant. The cohort included 309 BCG-vaccinated subjects and 442 non-BCG-vaccinated subjects. BCG-vaccinated subjects did not have a lower rate of allergic sensitization than nonvaccinated subjects. However, among the subgroup of subjects with a family history of rhinitis or eczema, BCG vaccination was associated with a lower prevalence of current asthma (defined as recent wheezing plus airway hyperresponsiveness; relative risk, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.22-0.95). BCG vaccination was also associated with lower levels of allergen-stimulated IL-10 production in vitro. Among the BCG-vaccinated subjects, the 44 (14.3%) who had tuberculin skin test reaction
Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-GuĂŠrin (BCG is a live vaccine that has been used in routine vaccination against tuberculosis for nearly 80 years. However, its efficacy is controversial. The failure of BCG vaccination may be at least partially explained by the induction of poor or inappropriate host responses. Dendritic cells (DCs are likely to play a key role in the induction of immune response to mycobacteria by polarizing the reactivity of T lymphocytes toward a Th1 profile, contributing to the generation of protective cellular immunity against mycobacteria. In this study we aimed to investigate the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines by naive CD4+ T cells to mycobacterial antigen-pulsed DCs in the group of young, healthy BCG vaccinated volunteers. The response of naive helper T cells was compared with the response of total blood lymphocytes. Our present results clearly showed that circulating naive CD45RA+CD4+ lymphocytes from BCG-vaccinated subjects can become effector helper cells producing IFN-gamma and IL-5 under the stimulation by autologous dendritic cells presenting mycobacterial protein antigen-PPD or infected with live M. bovis BCG bacilli.
Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Magdalena; Kaźmierczak, Dominik; Donevski, Stefan; Biet, Franck; Pestel, Joël; Rudnicka, Wiesława
Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a live vaccine that has been used in routine vaccination against tuberculosis for nearly 80 years. However, its efficacy is controversial. The failure of BCG vaccination may be at least partially explained by the induction of poor or inappropriate host responses. Dendritic cells (DCs) are likely to play a key role in the induction of immune response to mycobacteria by polarizing the reactivity of T lymphocytes toward a Th1 profile, contributing to the generation of protective cellular immunity against mycobacteria. In this study we aimed to investigate the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines by naive CD4+ T cells to mycobacterial antigen-pulsed DCs in the group of young, healthy BCG vaccinated volunteers. The response of naive helper T cells was compared with the response of total blood lymphocytes. Our present results clearly showed that circulating naive CD45RA+CD4+ lymphocytes from BCG-vaccinated subjects can become effector helper cells producing IFN-gamma and IL-5 under the stimulation by autologous dendritic cells presenting mycobacterial protein antigen-PPD or infected with live M. bovis BCG bacilli.
Thybo Pihl, Gitte; Ammentorp, Jette; Schmidt Jensen, Jane
Introduction: In a large prospective randomised clinical trial in Denmark we are testing the hypothesis that compared to non-BCG-vaccinated infants, infants who are BCG vaccinated at birth experience less hospitalisations, use less antibiotics, and develop less atopic disease in early childhood. My...... of illness and atopic diseases in their personal network and family to evaluate risk for their child to develop atopic diseases or get hospitalised. This lay epidemiologi forms the basis for their decision. Davison C, Frankel S, Davey Smith G. Inheriting heart trouble: the relevance of common-sense ideas...
Kjærgaard, Jesper; Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas N
BACKGROUND: Childhood infections are common and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth may prevent these via nonspecific effects. METHODS: A randomized, clinical multicenter trial. All women planning to give birth (n = 16,521) at the three study sites were invited during the recruitm......BACKGROUND: Childhood infections are common and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth may prevent these via nonspecific effects. METHODS: A randomized, clinical multicenter trial. All women planning to give birth (n = 16,521) at the three study sites were invited during...... during the first 3 mo....
Sartono, E.; Lisse, I.M.; Terveer, E.M.
not receive OPV at birth, but only BCG. We investigated the effect of OPV given simultaneously with BCG at birth on the immune response to BCG vaccine. Methods and Findings: We compared the in vitro and the in vivo response to PPD in the infants who received OPV and BCG with that of infants who received BCG...... only. At age 6 weeks, the in vitro cytokine response to purified protein derivate (PPD) of M. Tuberculosis was reduced in LBW and NBW infants who had received OPV with BCG. In a pooled analysis receiving OPV with BCG at birth was associated with significantly lower IL-13 (p = 0.041) and IFN-gamma (p...... = 0.004) and a tendency for lower IL-10 (p = 0.054) in response to PPD. Furthermore, OPV was associated with reduced in vivo response to PPD at age 2 months, the prevalence ratio (PR) of having a PPD reaction being 0.75 (0.58-0.98), p = 0.033, and with a tendency for reduced likelihood of having a BCG...
Sartono, Erliyani; Lisse, Ida M; Terveer, Elisabeth M
not receive OPV at birth, but only BCG. We investigated the effect of OPV given simultaneously with BCG at birth on the immune response to BCG vaccine. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared the in vitro and the in vivo response to PPD in the infants who received OPV and BCG with that of infants who received BCG...... only. At age 6 weeks, the in vitro cytokine response to purified protein derivate (PPD) of M. Tuberculosis was reduced in LBW and NBW infants who had received OPV with BCG. In a pooled analysis receiving OPV with BCG at birth was associated with significantly lower IL-13 (p = 0.041) and IFN-gamma (p...... = 0.004) and a tendency for lower IL-10 (p = 0.054) in response to PPD. Furthermore, OPV was associated with reduced in vivo response to PPD at age 2 months, the prevalence ratio (PR) of having a PPD reaction being 0.75 (0.58-0.98), p = 0.033, and with a tendency for reduced likelihood of having a BCG...
Full Text Available BCG vaccine is usually considered to be safe though rarely serious complications have also been reported, often incriminating contamination of the seed strain with pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In such circumstances, it becomes prudent to rule out the contamination of the vaccine seed. M. bovis BCG can be confirmed by the absence of nitrate reductase, negative niacin test, and resistance to pyrazinamide and cycloserine. Recently in India, some stocks were found to be niacin positive which led to a national controversy and closer of a vaccine production plant. This prompted us to write this review and the comparative biochemical and genotypic studies were carried out on the these contentious vaccine stocks at the Indian vaccine plant and other seeds and it was found that some BCG vaccine strains and even some strains of M. bovis with eugenic-growth characteristics mainly old laboratory strains may give a positive niacin reaction. Most probably, the repeated subcultures lead to undefined changes at the genetic level in these seed strains. These changing biological characteristics envisage reevaluation of biochemical characters of existing BCG vaccine seeds and framing of newer guidelines for manufacturing, production, safety, and effectiveness of BCG vaccine.
Kučerová, Petra; Vlasáková, Jitka; Červinková, Monika
Roč. 28, č. 3 (2017), s. 124-128 ISSN 0954-139X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1609 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : BCG vaccine * Coley´s toxin * cytokines Subject RIV: EC - Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology
Daniel H. Libraty
Full Text Available Neonatal Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG vaccination has been reported to have beneficial effects beyond preventing infantile tuberculous meningitis and miliary disease. We hypothesized that BCG vaccine given at birth would enhance T-helper 1 (Th1 immune responses to the first vaccines given later in infancy. We conducted a nested case-control study of neonatal BCG vaccination and its heterologous Th1 immune effects in 2–3 months old infants. BCG vaccination at birth was associated with an increased frequency of interferon-γ (IFN-γ producing spot-forming cells (SFC to tetanus toxoid 2–3 months later. The frequency of IFN-γ producing SFC to polioviruses 1–3 also trended higher among infants who received BCG vaccination at birth. The frequency of IFN-γ+/tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α+CD45RO+CD4+ T-cells upon stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA/Ionomycin was higher in 2–3 months old infants who received BCG vaccination at birth compared to those who did not. The circulating frequency of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3+ CD45RO+ regulatory CD4+ T-cells also trended lower in these infants. Neonatal BCG vaccination is associated with heterologous Th1 immune effects 2–3 months later.
Libraty, Daniel H; Zhang, Lei; Woda, Marcia; Acosta, Luz P; Obcena, Anamae; Brion, Job D; Capeding, Rosario Z
Neonatal Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccination has been reported to have beneficial effects beyond preventing infantile tuberculous meningitis and miliary disease. We hypothesized that BCG vaccine given at birth would enhance T-helper 1 (Th1) immune responses to the first vaccines given later in infancy. We conducted a nested case-control study of neonatal BCG vaccination and its heterologous Th1 immune effects in 2-3 months old infants. BCG vaccination at birth was associated with an increased frequency of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) producing spot-forming cells (SFC) to tetanus toxoid 2-3 months later. The frequency of IFN-γ producing SFC to polioviruses 1-3 also trended higher among infants who received BCG vaccination at birth. The frequency of IFN-γ+/tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)+CD45RO+CD4+ T-cells upon stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)/Ionomycin was higher in 2-3 months old infants who received BCG vaccination at birth compared to those who did not. The circulating frequency of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)+ CD45RO+ regulatory CD4+ T-cells also trended lower in these infants. Neonatal BCG vaccination is associated with heterologous Th1 immune effects 2-3 months later.
Najeeha Talat Iqbal
Full Text Available BCG is a widely used vaccine worldwide for neonates including Pakistan. BCG has more than 90% coverage through the EPI program which was introduced in 1965 in Pakistan. BCG has limited efficacy against the transmissible form of pulmonary tuberculosis in high TB endemic countries. However, BCG vaccination continues in these countries because BCG confers protection against the disseminated form of TB in children. BCG has also shown some protection against leprosy and certain forms of cancers. One reason for such nonspecific protection may be that BCG activates APCs via PAMPS that interacts with TLRs (2, 4 & 8, which initiate the inflammatory cascade thereby recruiting inflammatory cells to the site of infection and providing maturation signals for neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells. Such activation may be crucial for restricting the infection at the initial site. Furthermore, activation of the pro-inflammatory cascade also results in expression of adhesion molecules, co-stimulatory molecules as well as MHC class II molecule. MHC class II molecules engage CD4+ cells via the TCR receptor while the adhesion and costimulatory molecules bind to their respective receptors on CD4+ T cells for additional high affinity binding for T cell activation. Although activation of the innate arm may not provide subsequent memory, activation of T cells may introduce a certain level of memory response and therefore, may form a rational basis for BCG immunotherapy. This review, therefore, focuses on the immune activation related to both the innate and adaptive arm of the immune response that has been reported and further explores the utility of BCG immunotherapy related to non TB conditions.
Chyczewska, E; Chyczewski, L; Bańkowski, E; Sułkowski, S; Nikliński, J
It was found that the BCG vaccine injected subcutaneously to the rats enhances the process of lung fibrosis induced by bleomycin. Pretreatment of rats with this vaccine results in accumulation of activated macrophages in lung interstitium and in the bronchoalveolar spaces. It may be suggested that the activated macrophages release various cytokines which may stimulate the proliferation of fibroblasts and biosynthesis of extracellular matrix components.
Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Pihl, Gitte Thybo
Background: Recurrent wheeze (RW) is frequent in childhood. Studies have suggested that BCG vaccination can have nonspecific effects, reducing general nontuberculosis morbidity, including respiratory tract infections and atopic diseases. The mechanisms behind these nonspecific effects of BCG...... (relative risk, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.89-1.28). Supplementary analyses were made, including an analysis of baseline risk factors for development of RW. Conclusion: Neonatal BCG had no effect on the development of RW before 13 months of age....
Kjærgaard, Jesper; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Foss, Kim Thestrup; Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Pihl, Gitte Thybo; Andersen, Andreas; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Pryds, Ole; Greisen, Gorm
To assess the non-specific effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on psychomotor development. This is a pre-specified secondary outcome from a randomised, clinical trial. Maternity units and paediatric wards at three university hospitals in Denmark. Children born at gestational age (GA) 32 weeks and above. All women planning to give birth at the three sites were invited during the recruitment period. Out of 4262 randomised children, 144 were premature (GA Psychomotor development measured using Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) completed by the parents at 12 months. Additionally, parents of premature children (gestational age psychomotor development was excluded in term children. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01694108.
Full Text Available Helminth infection may affect vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. Adolescents, a target population for tuberculosis booster vaccines, often have a high helminth burden. We investigated effects of Schistosoma mansoni (Sm on the immunogenicity and safety of MVA85A, a model candidate tuberculosis vaccine, in BCG-vaccinated Ugandan adolescents.In this phase II open label trial we enrolled 36 healthy, previously BCG-vaccinated adolescents, 18 with no helminth infection detected, 18 with Sm only. The primary outcome was immunogenicity measured by Ag85A-specific interferon gamma ELISpot assay. Tuberculosis and schistosome-specific responses were also assessed by whole-blood stimulation and multiplex cytokine assay, and by antibody ELISAs.Ag85A-specific cellular responses increased significantly following immunisation but with no differences between the two groups. Sm infection was associated with higher pre-immunisation Ag85A-specific IgG4 but with no change in antibody levels following immunisation. There were no serious adverse events. Most reactogenicity events were of mild or moderate severity and resolved quickly.The significant Ag85A-specific T cell responses and lack of difference between Sm-infected and uninfected participants is encouraging for tuberculosis vaccine development. The implications of pre-existing Ag85A-specific IgG4 antibodies for protective immunity against tuberculosis among those infected with Sm are not known. MVA85A was safe in this population.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02178748.
Claesson, Mogens Helweg
females and males may have their lives saved each year by the nonspecific immunological benefits of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination. From an immunological point of view, we hypothesise that the adverse effects of DTwP vaccine may occur because of the Th2-polarising effect of the aluminium...... phosphate adjuvant in the vaccine and because intramuscular administration of the vaccine may cause chronic inflammation at the site of injection. However, the Th1-polarising effect of BCG is likely to be beneficial. Sexual dimorphism affecting immune functions and vitamin A supplementation may influence...
Tuberculous meningitis in children: a review of clinical, laboratory, epidemiological, and therapeutic aspects and of the usefulness of BCG vaccination Meningitis tuberculosa en niños: una revisión de aspectos clínicos, de laboratorio, epidemiológicos y terapéuticos y de la utilidad de la vacunación con BCG
José William Cornejo Ochoa
Full Text Available
Tuberculous meningitis is the most frequent extrapulmonary form of tuberculosis in underdeveloped countries, among them Colombia. It is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In this article a review is presented of the following aspects of the disease: clinical, epidemiological, therapeutic, prophylactic by means of BCG vaccination, laboratory diagnosis, and tomographic findings.
La tuberculosis meníngea (MTB es la enfermedad tuberculosa extrapulmonar más frecuente en los países del tercer mundo, incluida Colombia, y tiene tasas altas de morbilidad y mortalidad. En este artículo se presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre los siguientes aspectos de la enfermedad: clínicos, epidemiológicos, de laboratorio, tomográficos, terapéuticos y de prevención con la vacuna BCG.
Narain, Raj; Bagga, A. S.; Naganna, K.; Mayurnath, S.
Previous studies on the influence of isoniazid on the size of the tuberculin reaction have given conflicting results. A controlled study in an area with high prevalence of low-grade allergy has been carried out by the administration of isoniazid or placebo tablets. For those not vaccinated with BCG, isoniazid in a single daily dose of 5 mg/kg body-weight tended to reduce somewhat the size of the tuberculin reaction among those with reactions of 12 mm or more at the initial tuberculin test. In people who were vaccinated with BCG, isoniazid given simultaneously resulted in significantly less increase in the size of post-vaccination tuberculin reactions as compared with controls; the difference was still significant, in tests conducted 4½ months after the discontinuation of isoniazid. However, in spite of isoniazid, the post-vaccination allergy induced by BCG was quite considerable. This considerable increase in post-vaccination allergy suggests that the vaccination was successful in spite of the administration of isoniazid and makes it clear that primary chemoprophylaxis could be combined with BCG vaccination. Administration of isoniazid for 2 months is estimated to have killed about 90% of the bacilli in the BCG vaccine injected intracutaneously. PMID:5312322
Cernuschi, Tania; Malvolti, Stefano; Nickels, Emily; Friede, Martin
Over the past decade, several countries across all regions, income groups and procurement methods have been unable to secure sufficient BCG vaccine supply. While the frequency of stock-outs has remained rather stable, duration increased in 2014-2015 due to manufacturing issues and attracted the attention of national, regional and global immunization stakeholders. This prompted an in-depth analysis of supply and demand dynamics aiming to characterize supply risks. This analysis is unique as it provides a global picture, where previous analyses have focused on a portion of the market procuring through UN entities. Through literature review, supplier interviews, appraisal of shortages, stock-outs and historical procurement data, and through demand forecasting, this analysis shows an important increase in global capacity in 2017: supply is sufficient to meet forecasted BCG vaccine demand and possibly buffer market shocks. Nevertheless, risks remain mainly due to supply concentration and limited investment in production process improvements, as well as inflexibility in demand. Identification of these market risks will allow implementation of risk-mitigating interventions in three areas: (1) enhancing information sharing between major global health actors, countries and suppliers, (2) identifying interests and incentives to expand product registration and investment in the BCG manufacturing process, and (3) working with countries for tighter vaccine management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Arts, Rob J W; Moorlag, Simone J C F M; Novakovic, Boris; Li, Yang; Wang, Shuang-Yin; Oosting, Marije; Kumar, Vinod; Xavier, Ramnik J; Wijmenga, Cisca; Joosten, Leo A B; Reusken, Chantal B E M; Benn, Christine S; Aaby, Peter; Koopmans, Marion P; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; van Crevel, Reinout; Netea, Mihai G
The tuberculosis vaccine bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has heterologous beneficial effects against non-related infections. The basis of these effects has been poorly explored in humans. In a randomized placebo-controlled human challenge study, we found that BCG vaccination induced genome-wide
Arts, Rob J W; Moorlag, Simone J C F M; Novakovic, Boris
The tuberculosis vaccine bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has heterologous beneficial effects against non-related infections. The basis of these effects has been poorly explored in humans. In a randomized placebo-controlled human challenge study, we found that BCG vaccination induced genome-wide ep...
Thybo Pihl, Gitte
BCG-vaccination of newborns – a descriptive study about shared decision making and decisional conflicts Objective: To evaluate the use of shared decision making to support the parent in a low-evidence decision about a vaccine when using telephone consultations. The present study was conducted........ The principles included promoting trust through transparency and creating “shared minds” regarding uncertainties about the evidence. O’Connor’s Decisional Conflict Scale was used to identify decisional conflicts after the process of shared decision making. Findings: A decisional conflict score was obtained...... on the phone based on their need and wishes, this uncertainty about the best choice might reflect the principle of letting parents make an autonomous decision in combination with low evidence for the benefits of BCG. The process of sharing responsibility and the impact of the health care providers’ attitude...
Mogens Helweg Claesson
Full Text Available A number of mainly observational studies suggest that many African females below the age of one year die each year from the nonspecific effects of vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus toxoids and killed (whole-cell Bordetella pertussis (DTwP. In contrast, similar studies suggest that many African females and males may have their lives saved each year by the nonspecific immunological benefits of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG vaccination. From an immunological point of view, we hypothesise that the adverse effects of DTwP vaccine may occur because of the Th2-polarising effect of the aluminium phosphate adjuvant in the vaccine and because intramuscular administration of the vaccine may cause chronic inflammation at the site of injection. However, the Th1-polarising effect of BCG is likely to be beneficial. Sexual dimorphism affecting immune functions and vitamin A supplementation may influence both the deleterious and beneficial nonspecific effects of immunisation.
Vidal, Enric; Arrieta-Villegas, Claudia; Grasa, Miriam; Mercader, Irene; Domingo, Mariano; Pérez de Val, Bernat
Control of animal tuberculosis (TB) through vaccination has emerged as a long-term strategy to complement test and slaughter control strategy. A pilot trial under field conditions was conducted in a goat herd with high TB prevalence to assess the efficacy of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine. Twenty-three goat kids vaccinated with BCG and other 22 unvaccinated control kids were euthanized at 18 months post-vaccination. Gross pathological and histopathological examination of target tissues was performed for detection of tuberculous lesions and assessment of vaccine efficacy. Mycobacterial culture and DNA detection were used to confirm Mycobacterium caprae infection. Vaccination significantly reduced the number of animals with TB lesions compared to unvaccinated controls (35% and 77%, respectively; P goats can significantly reduce the TB lesion rates in high disease exposure conditions, indicating that vaccination could contribute to the control of TB in domestic goats.
Full Text Available Abstract Background An accurate test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is urgently needed in immunosuppressed populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic power of enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT-based IFN-γ release assay in detecting active and latent tuberculosis in HIV-infected population in bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG-vaccinated area. A total of 100 HIV-infected individuals including 32 active tuberculosis patients were recruited. An ELISPOT-based IFN-γ release assay, T-SPOT.TB, was used to evaluate the M. tuberculosis ESAT-6 and CFP-10 specific IFN-γ response. Tuberculin skin test (TST was performed for all recruited subjects. Results The subjects were divided into group HIV+ATB (HIV-infected individuals with active tuberculosis, n = 32, group HIV+LTB (HIV-infected individuals with positive results of T-SPOT.TB assay, n = 46 and group HIV only (HIV-infected individuals with negative results of T-SPOT.TB assay and without evidence of tuberculosis infection, n = 22. In group HIV+ATB and HIV+LTB, T-SPOT.TB positive rate in subjects with TST P 85% in patients with TB treatment for less than 1 month and CD4+ T cells ≥200/μl, while for patients treated for more than 3 months and CD4+ T cells Conclusion ELISPOT-based IFN-γ release assay is more sensitive and rapid for the diagnosis of TB infection in Chinese HIV-infected individuals with history of BCG vaccination, and could be an effective tool for guiding preventive treatment with isoniazid in latently infected people and for TB control in China.
IRIS) occurs in up to 21% of children initiating antiretroviral therapy. Mycobacterial diseases are the most common, with BCG-vaccine adenitis predominating in infants and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) in older children. The difficulty of ...
Pérez de Val, Bernat; Vidal, Enric; López-Soria, Sergio; Marco, Alberto; Cervera, Zoraida; Martín, Maite; Mercader, Irene; Singh, Mahavir; Raeber, Alex; Domingo, Mariano
Vaccination of domestic animals has emerged as an alternative long-term strategy for the control of tuberculosis (TB). A trial under field conditions was conducted in a TB-free goat herd to assess the safety of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine. Eleven kids and 10 milking goats were vaccinated with BCG. Bacterial shedding and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) responses were monitored throughout the study. Comprehensive pathological examination and mycobacterial culture of target tissues were performed. BCG vaccine strain was only isolated from the draining lymph node of the injection site of a kid euthanized at week 8 post-vaccination. The remaining animals were euthanized at week 24. Six out of 20 showed small granulomas at the injection site. BCG shedding was not detected in either faeces or in milk throughout the study. All vaccinated kids showed BCG-induced IFN-γ responses at week 8 post-vaccination. BCG vaccination of goats showed no lack of biological safety for the animals, environment and public health, and local adverse reactions were negligible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kurti, Zsuzsanna; Lovasz, Barbara Dorottya; Gecse, Krisztina Barbara; Balint, Anita; Farkas, Klaudia; Morocza-Szabo, Agnes; Gyurcsanyi, Andras; Kristof, Katalin; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Gonczi, Lorant; Kiss, Lajos Sandor; Golovics, Petra Anna; Lakatos, Laszlo; Molnar, Tamas; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo
There are few data available on the effect of immunomodulator/biological therapy on the accuracy of the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) in BCG-vaccinated immunosuppressed patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our aim was to define the accuracy, predictors and agreement of TST and IGRA in a BCG-vaccinated immunosuppressed referral IBD cohort. 166 consecutive moderate-to-severe IBD patients (122 Crohn's disease, CD and 44 ulcerative colitis, UC) were enrolled in a prospective study from three centers. Patients were treated with immunosuppressives and/or biologicals. IGRA and TST were performed on the same day. Both in- and outpatient records were collected and comprehensively reviewed. TST positivity rate was 23.5%, 21.1%,14.5% and 13.9% when cut-off values of 5, 10, 15 and 20mm were used. IGRA positivity rate was 8.4% with indeterminate result in 0.6%. Chest X-ray was suggestive of latent tuberculosis in 2 patients. Correlation between TST and IGRA was moderate (kappa: 0.39-0.41, p15mm) should be considered to identify patients at risk for latent TB. Accuracy is satisfactory in BCG-vaccinated, immunosuppressed IBD patients. Smoking is a risk factor for TST positivity.
Marín, Diana; Marín, Nancy; Del Corral, Helena; López, Lucelly; Ramirez-Agudelo, María Elena; Rojas, Carlos A; Arbeláez, María P; García, Luis F; Rojas, Mauricio
The mechanisms of mononuclear phagocyte death have been associated with the permissiveness and resistance to mycobacterial replication, but it remains unknown whether or not they help predict the risk of developing TB. To describe the factors associated with the induction of monocyte mitochondrial and membrane damage in response to PPD as well as determine if this type of damage might predict the susceptibility of developing active tuberculosis in a cohort of household contacts (HHCs) from Medellin, Colombia from 2005 to 2008. The prospective cohort study contains 2060 HHCs patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who were meticulously followed for two years. A survey of the socio-demographic, clinical, epidemiological factors and blood samples were collected. Mononuclear cell cultures were stimulated with or without PPD and the type of monocyte death was determined by the flow of cytometry, an indicator was also used for its analysis. Logistic regression was adjusted by the Generalized Estimations Equations and the survival was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression. Confidence intervals were used for estimating the association. 1,859 out of 2,060 blood samples of the HHCs patients analyzed showed monocyte death. In response to PPD, 83.4% underwent mitochondrial damage while 50.9% had membrane damage. The membrane damage in response to PPD was higher in children under 4 years (OR: 1.57; (95% CI: 1.1 to 2.4) and the HHCs who slept regularly in the same household has an index case of (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.3). After adjustment by age, comorbidities, nutritional status, proximity to index case and overcrowding, the risk of developing active TB among BCG vaccinated HHCs individuals with induction of mitochondrial damage was HR = 0.19 (95% CI: 0.1 to 0.5). The induction of monocytes mitochondrial damage by PPD stimulation correlates with protection of TB disease development in BCG-vaccinated HHCs. This represents a potential tool to predict susceptibility
Chen, Fan; Yan, Qinying; Yu, Yang; Wu, Mei X
Live attenuated Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) bacillus is the only licensed vaccine for tuberculosis prevention worldwide to date. It must be delivered intradermally to be effective, which causes severe skin inflammation and sometimes, permanent scars. To minimize the side effects, we developed a novel microneedle array (MNA) that could deliver live attenuated freeze-dried BCG powder into the epidermis in a painless, lesion-free, and self-applicable fashion. The MNA was fabricated with biocompatible and dissolvable hyaluronic acid with a deep cave formed in the basal portion of each microneedle, into which BCG powder could be packaged directly. Viability of BCG vaccine packaged in the caves and the mechanical strength of the powder-laden MNA did not alter significantly before and after more than two months of storage at room temperature. Following insertion of the MNA into the skin, individual microneedle shafts melted away by interstitial fluid from the epidermis and upper dermis, exposing the powder to epidermal tissues. The powder sucked interstitial fluid, dissolved slowly, and diffused into the epidermis in a day against the interstitial fluid influx. Vaccination with BCG-MNA caused no overt skin irritation, in marked contrast to intradermal vaccination that provoked severe inflammation and bruise. While causing little skin irritation, vaccination efficacy of BCG-MNAs was comparable to that of intradermal immunization whether it was evaluated by humoral or cellular immunity. This powder-laden and dissolvable MNA represents a novel technology to sufficiently deliver live attenuated vaccine powders into the skin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sara S Dhanawade
Full Text Available Background: There is considerable variation in BCG scar failure rate on available data and correlation between BCG scar and tuberculin conversion remains controversial. Through this study we aimed to determine the scar failure rate and tuberculin conversion in term infants vaccinated with BCG within the first month. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted among 85 consecutive infants weighing >2 kg attending the immunization clinic of a medical college hospital. Fifteen subjects who could not complete the follow up were excluded. Total of 70 cases were analyzed. All babies were administered 0.1 ml of BCG and examined at 3 months (+1 week for scar. Tuberculin test was done with 5TU PPD. An induration of >5 mm was considered positive. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel and SPSS-22. Results: Out of the 70 infants, 41 (58.6% were males. Although majority (72.9% of infants were vaccinated within 7 days, only 18 (25.7% received BCG within 48 hours of birth. Sixty-four (91.4% had a visible scar at 12 weeks post vaccination representing a scar failure rate of 8.6%. Tuberculin test was positive in 50 (71.4%. The mean ± s.d. for scar and tuberculin skin test (TST reaction size was 4.93 ± 2.01 mm and 6.01 ± 3.22 mm, respectively. The association between scar formation and tuberculin positivity was highly significant (P < 0.001. There was significant correlation between scar size and TST size (r = 0.401, P = 0.001 Conclusions: Less than 10% of infants fail to develop a scar following BCG vaccination. There is good correlation between scar positivity and tuberculin conversion.
Nugent, Graham; Yockney, Ivor J; Whitford, Jackie; Aldwell, Frank E; Buddle, Bryce M
Vaccination of cattle against bovine tuberculosis could be a valuable control strategy, particularly in countries faced with intractable ongoing infection from a disease reservoir in wildlife. A field vaccination trial was undertaken in New Zealand. The trial included 1286 effectively free-ranging cattle stocked at low densities in a remote 7600ha area, with 55% of them vaccinated using Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Danish strain 1311). Vaccine was administered orally in all but 34 cases (where it was injected). After inclusion, cattle were exposed to natural sources of M. bovis infection in cattle and wildlife, most notably the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Cattle were slaughtered at 3-5 years of age and were inspected for tuberculous lesions, with mycobacteriological culture of key tissues from almost all animals. The prevalence of M. bovis infection was 4.8% among oral BCG vaccinates, significantly lower than the 11.9% in non-vaccinates. Vaccination appeared to both reduce the incidence of detectable infection, and to slow disease progression. Based on apparent annual incidence, the protective efficacy of oral BCG vaccine was 67.4% for preventing infection, and was higher in cattle slaughtered soon after vaccination. Skin-test reactivity to tuberculin was high in vaccinates re-tested 70days after vaccination but not in non-vaccinates, although reactor animals had minimal response in gamma-interferon blood tests. In re- tests conducted more than 12 months after vaccination, skin-test reactivity among vaccinates was much lower. These results indicate that oral BCG vaccination could be an effective tool for greatly reducing detectable infection in cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nádia C Düppre
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Contacts of leprosy patients are at increased risk of developing leprosy and need to be targeted for early diagnosis. Seropositivity to the phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I antigen of Mycobacterium leprae has been used to identify contacts who have an increased risk of developing leprosy. In the present study, we studied the effect of seropositivity in patient contacts, on the risk of developing leprosy, stratified by Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG vaccination after index case diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Leprosy contacts were examined as part of the surveillance programme of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute Leprosy Outpatient Clinic in Rio de Janeiro. Demographic, social, epidemiological and clinical data were collected. The presence of IgM antibodies to PGL-I in sera and BCG vaccination status at the time of index case diagnosis were evaluated in 2,135 contacts. During follow-up, 60 (2.8%; 60/2,135 leprosy cases were diagnosed: 41 among the 1,793 PGL-I-negative contacts and 19 among the 342 PGL-I-positive contacts. Among PGL-I-positive contacts, BCG vaccination after index case diagnosis increased the adjusted rate of developing clinical manifestations of leprosy (Adjusted Rate Ratio (aRR = 4.1; 95% CI: 1.8-8.2 compared with the PGL-I-positive unvaccinated contacts (aRR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.2-8.1. The incidence density was highest during the first year of follow-up for the PGL-I-positive vaccinated contacts. However, all of those contacts developed PB leprosy, whereas most MB cases (4/6 occurred in PGL-I-positive unvaccinated contacts. CONCLUSION: Contact examination combined with PGL-I testing and BCG vaccination remain important strategies for leprosy control. The finding that rates of leprosy cases were highest among seropositive contacts justifies targeting this specific group for close monitoring. Furthermore, it is recommended that PGL-I-positive contacts and contacts with a high familial bacteriological index
Düppre, Nádia C.; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B.; Sales, Anna M.; Illarramendi, Ximena; Nery, José Augusto C.; Sampaio, Elizabeth P.; Sarno, Euzenir N.; Bührer-Sékula, Samira
Background Contacts of leprosy patients are at increased risk of developing leprosy and need to be targeted for early diagnosis. Seropositivity to the phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I) antigen of Mycobacterium leprae has been used to identify contacts who have an increased risk of developing leprosy. In the present study, we studied the effect of seropositivity in patient contacts, on the risk of developing leprosy, stratified by Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination after index case diagnosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Leprosy contacts were examined as part of the surveillance programme of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute Leprosy Outpatient Clinic in Rio de Janeiro. Demographic, social, epidemiological and clinical data were collected. The presence of IgM antibodies to PGL-I in sera and BCG vaccination status at the time of index case diagnosis were evaluated in 2,135 contacts. During follow-up, 60 (2.8%; 60/2,135) leprosy cases were diagnosed: 41 among the 1,793 PGL-I-negative contacts and 19 among the 342 PGL-I-positive contacts. Among PGL-I-positive contacts, BCG vaccination after index case diagnosis increased the adjusted rate of developing clinical manifestations of leprosy (Adjusted Rate Ratio (aRR) = 4.1; 95% CI: 1.8–8.2) compared with the PGL-I-positive unvaccinated contacts (aRR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.2–8.1). The incidence density was highest during the first year of follow-up for the PGL-I-positive vaccinated contacts. However, all of those contacts developed PB leprosy, whereas most MB cases (4/6) occurred in PGL-I-positive unvaccinated contacts. Conclusion Contact examination combined with PGL-I testing and BCG vaccination remain important strategies for leprosy control. The finding that rates of leprosy cases were highest among seropositive contacts justifies targeting this specific group for close monitoring. Furthermore, it is recommended that PGL-I-positive contacts and contacts with a high familial bacteriological index, regardless of
Douglas S. Kernodle
Full Text Available Early attempts to improve BCG have focused on increasing the expression of prominent antigens and adding recombinant toxins or cytokines to influence antigen presentation. One such modified BCG vaccine candidate has been withdrawn from human clinical trials due to adverse effects. BCG was derived from virulent Mycobacterium bovis and retains much of its capacity for suppressing host immune responses. Accordingly, we have used a different strategy for improving BCG based on reducing its immune suppressive capacity. We made four modifications to BCG Tice to produce 4dBCG and compared it to the parent vaccine in C57Bl/6 mice. The modifications included elimination of the oxidative stress sigma factor SigH, elimination of the SecA2 secretion channel, and reductions in the activity of iron co-factored superoxide dismutase and glutamine synthetase. After IV inoculation of 4dBCG, 95% of vaccine bacilli were eradicated from the spleens of mice within 60 days whereas the titer of BCG Tice was not significantly reduced. Subcutaneous vaccination with 4dBCG produced greater protection than vaccination with BCG against dissemination of an aerosolized challenge of M. tuberculosis to the spleen at 8 weeks post-challenge. At this time, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice also exhibited altered lung histopathology compared to BCG-vaccinated mice and control mice with less well-developed lymphohistiocytic nodules in the lung parenchyma. At 26 weeks post-challenge, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice but not BCG-vaccinated mice had significantly fewer challenge bacilli in the lungs than control mice. In conclusion, despite reduced persistence in mice a modified BCG vaccine with diminished antioxidants and glutamine synthetase is superior to the parent vaccine in conferring protection against M. tuberculosis. The targeting of multiple immune suppressive factors produced by BCG is a promising strategy for simultaneously improving vaccine safety and effectiveness.
Benn, Christine Stabell; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria
Unexpectedly, we found no overall beneficial effect on mortality in a randomised trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) or placebo administered with BCG vaccine at birth in Guinea-Bissau. We conducted an explorative analysis to examine whether subsequent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vacci...
Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Carreño, Leandro J.; Weinrick, Brian; Batista-Gonzalez, Ana; Glatman-Freedman, Aarona; Xu, Jiayong; Chan, John; Jacobs, William R.; Porcelli, Steven A.; Casadevall, Arturo
Background. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is widely used for the prevention of tuberculosis, despite limited efficacy. Most immunological studies of BCG or Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains grow bacteria in the presence of detergent, which also strips the mycobacterial capsule. The impact of the capsule on vaccine efficacy has not been explored.
Thom, R E; Elmore, M J; Williams, A; Andrews, S C; Drobniewski, F; Marsh, P D; Tree, J A
Iron is an essential cofactor for both mycobacterial growth during infection and for a successful protective immune response by the host. The immune response partly depends on the regulation of iron by the host, including the tight control of expression of the iron-storage protein, ferritin. BCG vaccination can protect against disease following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, but the mechanisms of protection remain unclear. To further explore these mechanisms, splenocytes from BCG-vaccinated guinea pigs were stimulated ex vivo with purified protein derivative from M. tuberculosis and a significant down-regulation of ferritin light- and heavy-chain was measured by reverse-transcription quantitative-PCR (P≤0.05 and ≤0.01, respectively). The mechanisms of this down-regulation were shown to involve TNFα and nitric oxide. A more in depth analysis of the mRNA expression profiles, including genes involved in iron metabolism, was performed using a guinea pig specific immunological microarray following ex vivo infection with M. tuberculosis of splenocytes from BCG-vaccinated and naïve guinea pigs. M. tuberculosis infection induced a pro-inflammatory response in splenocytes from both groups, resulting in down-regulation of ferritin (P≤0.05). In addition, lactoferrin (P≤0.002), transferrin receptor (P≤0.05) and solute carrier family 11A1 (P≤0.05), were only significantly down-regulated after infection of the splenocytes from BCG-vaccinated animals. The results show that expression of iron-metabolism genes is tightly regulated as part of the host response to M. tuberculosis infection and that BCG-vaccination enhances the ability of the host to mount an iron-restriction response which may in turn help to combat invasion by mycobacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kleinnijenhuis, Johanneke; Quintin, Jessica; Preijers, Frank
'. In the present study we assessed whether BCG was able to induce long-lasting effects on both trained immunity and heterologous T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 immune responses 1 year after vaccination. The production of TNFα and IL-1β to mycobacteria or unrelated pathogens was higher after 2 weeks and 3 months...... in proinflammatory cytokine production after stimulation with the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. The heterologous production of Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17 and IL-22) immune responses to nonmycobacterial stimulation remained strongly elevated even 1 year after BCG vaccination. In conclusion, BCG induces sustained...... changes in the immune system associated with a nonspecific response to infections both at the level of innate trained immunity and at the level of heterologous Th1/Th17 responses. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel....
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the T-SPOT.TB interferon-γ releasing assay and the tuberculin skin test (TST, for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection(LTBI and the development of subsequent active tuberculosis, in BCG-vaccinated HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: HIV-infected individuals without clinical suspicion of active TB or a past history of TB were enrolled from 1 January 2008 to 30 November 2010. Both T-SPOT.TB test and TST were offered to the participants whom were followed up prospectively until April 30, 2012 for development of TB. RESULTS: Among the 909 participants, 25% had positive TST reactions with cut-off point of 5 mm and 15% had positive T-SPOT.TB results. After a median follow-up of 2.97 years, there were 5 cases developed culture-confirmed active TB (all had dual positive TST and T-SPOT.TB results, and the incidence was 0.17 per 100 person-years. The relative risks (RRs for subsequent active TB in HIV-infected individuals with positive TST results, positive T-SPOT.TB results and dual positive results compared with the risk for individuals with negative results were 40.6 (95% CI 2.1-767.9, 73.9 (95% CI 3.9-1397.7 and 226.5 (95% CI 12.0-4284, respectively. The number needed to treat to prevent one subsequent TB case among patients with a positive TST, a positive T-SPOT.TB and dual positive results was 35, 22 and 8 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Adopting positive results of the TST and T-SPOT.TB to screen LTBI among BCG-vaccinated HIV-infected individuals might be feasible. Number needed to treat for isoniazid preventive therapy could be reduced significantly by using dual positive strategy.
Pereira, V B; da Cunha, V P; Preisser, T M; Souza, B M; Turk, M Z; De Castro, C P; Azevedo, M S P; Miyoshi, A
A regimen utilizing Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and another vaccine system as a booster may represent a promising strategy for the development of an efficient tuberculosis vaccine for adults. In a previous work, we confirmed the ability of Lactococcus lactis fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA+) (pValac:ESAT-6), a live mucosal DNA vaccine, to produce a specific immune response in mice after oral immunization. In this study, we examined the immunogenicity of this strain as a booster for the BCG vaccine in mice. After immunization, cytokine and immunoglobulin profiles were measured. The BCG prime L. lactis FnBPA+ (pValac:ESAT-6) boost group was the most responsive group, with a significant increase in splenic pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17, IFN-γ, IL-6 and TNF-α compared with the negative control. Based on the results obtained here, we demonstrated that L. lactis FnBPA+ (pValac:ESAT-6) was able to increase the BCG vaccine general immune response. This work is of great scientific and social importance because it represents the first step towards the development of a booster to the BCG vaccine using L. lactis as a DNA delivery system. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Pihl, Gitte Thybo; Johannessen, Helle; Ammentorp, Jette; Jensen, Jane Schmidt; Kofoed, Poul-Erik
Vaccination is used worldwide to prevent infectious diseases. However, vaccination programmes in western countries face challenges in sustaining high coverage rates. The aim of this study was to explore how parents in Denmark make a decision about whether to allow their child to receive a Bacille Calmette Guerin vaccine at birth for the purpose of achieving non-specific effects on the immune system. A total of five focus groups were conducted with expectant mothers and fathers. Written information about the vaccine and information about the hypothesis of non-specific effects of the vaccine were delivered in order to discuss considerations and determinants of parents' decisions. Heritable factors and the possibility of stimulating the immune system of the child to achieve less atopic diseases and fewer infections were identified as arguments in favour of receiving the BCG vaccine. Arguments against receiving BCG mainly focused on concerns about its described and non-described side effects. Both arguments for and arguments against the vaccine were seen as parents attempt to make an individual risk evaluation for their child. Attitudes and beliefs in the local network were identified as important for parents' decisions. It is discussed how "lay epidemiology" characterizes parents' risk evaluation as an individual addition to the population-based risk declaration. It is furthermore discussed how health professionals should engage with both the empirical element and the value element of "Lay epidemiology". "Lay epidemiology" forms the basis for the parental decision of whether to allow their child to receive a BCG vaccination. Attitudes and beliefs about the causes and distribution of illnesses in the family or local network influence parents' risk evaluations. It would be ideal for parents if health professionals focused their communication about the BCG vaccine on individual risk evaluations.
de Carvalho, Fernanda Marques; Rodrigues, Luciana Silva; Duppre, Nádia Cristina; Alvim, Iris Maria Peixoto; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Pereira, Geraldo Moura Batista
Household contacts of multibacillary leprosy patients (HCMB) constitute the group of individuals at the highest risk of developing leprosy. Early diagnosis and treatment of their index cases combined with Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunization remain important strategies adopted in Brazil to prevent HCMB from evolving into active disease. In the present study, we assessed the impact of these measures on the immune response to Mycobacterium leprae in HCMB. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HCMB (n = 16) were obtained at the beginning of leprosy index case treatment (T0). At this time point, contacts were vaccinated (n = 13) or not (n = 3) in accordance with their infancy history of BCG vaccination and PBMCs were recollected at least 6 months later (T1). As expected, a significant increase in memory CD4 and CD8 T cell frequencies responsive to M. leprae whole-cell sonicate was observed in most contacts. Of note, higher frequencies of CD4+ T cells that recognize M. leprae specific epitopes were also detected. Moreover, increased production of the inflammatory mediators IL1-β, IL-6, IL-17, TNF, IFN-γ, MIP1-β, and MCP-1 was found at T1. Interestingly, the increment in these parameters was observed even in those contacts that were not BCG vaccinated at T0. This result reinforces the hypothesis that the continuous exposure of HCMB to live M. leprae down regulates the specific cellular immune response against the pathogen. Moreover, our data suggest that BCG vaccination of HCMB induces activation of T cell clones, likely through "trained immunity", that recognize M. leprae specific antigens not shared with BCG as an additional protective mechanism besides the expected boost in cell-mediated immunity by BCG homologues of M. leprae antigens.
Full Text Available We previously reported that the -2518 MCP-1 genotype GG increases the likelihood of developing tuberculosis (TB in non-BCG-vaccinated Mexicans and Koreans. Here, we tested the hypothesis that this genotype, alone or together with the -1607 MMP-1 functional polymorphism, increases the likelihood of developing TB in BCG-vaccinated individuals. We conducted population-based case-control studies of BCG-vaccinated individuals in Mexico and Peru that included 193 TB cases and 243 healthy tuberculin-positive controls from Mexico and 701 TB cases and 796 controls from Peru. We also performed immunohistochemistry (IHC analysis of lymph nodes from carriers of relevant two-locus genotypes and in vitro studies to determine how these variants may operate to increase the risk of developing active disease. We report that a joint effect between the -2518 MCP-1 genotype GG and the -1607 MMP-1 genotype 2G/2G consistently increases the odds of developing TB 3.59-fold in Mexicans and 3.9-fold in Peruvians. IHC analysis of lymph nodes indicated that carriers of the two-locus genotype MCP-1 GG MMP-1 2G/2G express the highest levels of both MCP-1 and MMP-1. Carriers of these susceptibility genotypes might be at increased risk of developing TB because they produce high levels of MCP-1, which enhances the induction of MMP-1 production by M. tuberculosis-sonicate antigens to higher levels than in carriers of the other two-locus MCP-1 MMP-1 genotypes studied. This notion was supported by in vitro experiments and luciferase based promoter activity assay. MMP-1 may destabilize granuloma formation and promote tissue damage and disease progression early in the infection. Our findings may foster the development of new and personalized therapeutic approaches targeting MCP-1 and/or MMP-1.
Ganachari, Malathesha; Ruiz-Morales, Jorge A; Gomez de la Torre Pretell, Juan C; Dinh, Jeffrey; Granados, Julio; Flores-Villanueva, Pedro O
We previously reported that the -2518 MCP-1 genotype GG increases the likelihood of developing tuberculosis (TB) in non-BCG-vaccinated Mexicans and Koreans. Here, we tested the hypothesis that this genotype, alone or together with the -1607 MMP-1 functional polymorphism, increases the likelihood of developing TB in BCG-vaccinated individuals. We conducted population-based case-control studies of BCG-vaccinated individuals in Mexico and Peru that included 193 TB cases and 243 healthy tuberculin-positive controls from Mexico and 701 TB cases and 796 controls from Peru. We also performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of lymph nodes from carriers of relevant two-locus genotypes and in vitro studies to determine how these variants may operate to increase the risk of developing active disease. We report that a joint effect between the -2518 MCP-1 genotype GG and the -1607 MMP-1 genotype 2G/2G consistently increases the odds of developing TB 3.59-fold in Mexicans and 3.9-fold in Peruvians. IHC analysis of lymph nodes indicated that carriers of the two-locus genotype MCP-1 GG MMP-1 2G/2G express the highest levels of both MCP-1 and MMP-1. Carriers of these susceptibility genotypes might be at increased risk of developing TB because they produce high levels of MCP-1, which enhances the induction of MMP-1 production by M. tuberculosis-sonicate antigens to higher levels than in carriers of the other two-locus MCP-1 MMP-1 genotypes studied. This notion was supported by in vitro experiments and luciferase based promoter activity assay. MMP-1 may destabilize granuloma formation and promote tissue damage and disease progression early in the infection. Our findings may foster the development of new and personalized therapeutic approaches targeting MCP-1 and/or MMP-1.
Mutua, Martin Kavao; Ochako, Rhoune; Ettarh, Remare; Ravn, Henrik; Echoka, Elizabeth; Mwaniki, Peter
The World Health Organization recommends Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination against tuberculosis be given at birth. However, in many developing countries, pre-term and low birth weight infants get vaccinated only after they gain the desired weight. In Kenya, the ministry of health recommends pre-term and low birth weight infants to be immunized at the time of discharge from hospital irrespective of their weight. This paper seeks to understand the effects of birth weight on timing of BCG vaccine. The study was conducted in two Nairobi urban informal settlements, Korogocho and Viwandani which hosts the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance system. All infants born in the study area since September 2006 were included in the study. Data on immunization history and birth weight of the infant were recorded from child's clinic card. Follow up visits were done every four months to update immunization status of the child. A total of 3,602 infants were included in this analysis. Log normal accelerated failure time parametric model was used to assess the association between low birth weight infants and time to BCG immunization. In total, 229 (6.4%) infants were low birth weight. About 16.6% of the low birth weight infants weighed less than 2000 grams and 83.4% weighed between 2000 and 2490 grams. Results showed that, 60% of the low birth weight infants received BCG vaccine after more than five weeks of life. Private health facilities were less likely to administer a BCG vaccine on time compared to public health facilities. The effects of low birth weight on females was 0.60 and 0.97-times that of males for infants weighing 2000-2499 grams and for infants weighing <2000 grams respectively. The effect of low birth weight among infants born in public health facilities was 1.52 and 3.94-times that of infants delivered in private health facilities for infants weighing 2000-2499 grams and those weighing < 2000 grams respectively. Low birth weight infants
As a result, we concluded that if BCG is vaccine is applied at least twice and , the first dose is gives in the newborn period may exert a protective effect for the development of type I DM in children . [J Contemp Med 2012; 2(1.000: 1-8
Arioldo Carvalho Vasconcelos-Junior
Full Text Available BCG (Bacille Calmette Guérin, an attenuated vaccine derived from Mycobacterium bovis, is the current vaccine against tuberculosis. Notwithstanding its protection of children, BCG has failed to protect adults against active pulmonary tuberculosis, especially in countries where the disease is endemic. Any new tuberculosis vaccine should protect several categories of people, including children, adults, the elderly and immunodeppressed patients. An important feature is immunization safety for all of these classes. The aim of this review is to describe new vaccination strategies, such as subunit vaccines, DNA vaccines, vaccines with live microorganisms and vectors, and to discuss the application of these new strategies for the control and eradication of tuberculosis.
Fukui, Masayuki; Shinjo, Kikuko; Umemura, Masayuki; Shigeno, Satoko; Harakuni, Tetsuya; Arakawa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Goro
Although the BCG vaccine can prevent tuberculosis (TB) in infants, its ability to prevent adult pulmonary TB is reportedly limited. Therefore, development of a novel effective vaccine against pulmonary TB has become an international research priority. We have previously reported that intranasal vaccination of mice with a mycobacterial heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA) plus mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT) enhances production of IFN-γ and anti-HBHA antibody and suppresses extrapulmonary bacterial dissemination after intranasal infection with BCG. In the present study, the effects of intranasal HBHA + CT vaccine on murine pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection were examined. Intranasal HBHA + CT vaccination alone failed to reduce the bacterial burden in the infected lung. However, a combination vaccine consisting of s.c. BCG priming and an intranasal HBHA + CT booster significantly enhanced protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection on day 14 compared with BCG vaccine alone. Further, it was found that intranasal HBHA + CT vaccine enhanced not only IFN-γ but also IL-17A production by HBHA-specific T cells in the lung after pulmonary Mtb infection. Therefore, this combination vaccine may be a good candidate for a new vaccine strategy against pulmonary TB. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
The radioprotective effects of BCG vaccines have been examined. The 3 H-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of different tissues of the guinea-pig after solitary whole-body irradiation by the doses of 160, 400, and 700 R have been used as a parameter for radiation injuries and radioprotection. The specific activity of DNA has been detected by means of liquid scintillation counting and by indirect photomeric determination of the amount at 7 h p.r. It has been revealed that independent of the chosen irradiation dose, there was no significant difference in the rate of DNA synthesis in the duodenal, testicular, bone marrow, liver, and lymphatic ganglion tissues of animals vaccinated 30 days before irradiation insultus and the rate of DNA synthesis in normal animals. Based on medical evidence, effect principles which can be observed on other antigenous radioprotective substances can be excluded this time. The dose effect curve has qualitatively the same features as the curves of cell cultures and synchronized cell systems in mammals. Furthermore, the process of DNA synthesis was observed for 56 days. During this observation period there was no significant difference to be seen in the rate of duodenal, testicular, bone marrow, and liver tissues in vaccinated and in normal animals. Only in lymphatic tissues the synthesis rate of vaccinated animals has shown a significantly more decreasing tendency than that of normal animals. A relation concerning radioprotective substances containing SH-groups and 'short-term' protectors (endotoxines) could be excluded because of medical evidence. It is suggested to carry out further tests with parameters affecting the RES in order to comprehend radioprotection after BCG vaccination. (orig./MG) [de
Full Text Available Abstract Background The vaccine efficacy reported following Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG administration to UK adolescents is 77% and defining the cellular immune response in this group can inform us as to the nature of effective immunity against tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to identify which cytokines and lymphocyte populations characterise the peripheral blood cellular immune response following BCG vaccination. Results Diluted blood from before and after vaccination was stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative for 6 days, after which soluble biomarkers in supernatants were assayed by multiplex bead array. Ten out of twenty biomarkers measured were significantly increased (p Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative stimulation of PBMC samples from the 12 month group revealed that IFNγ expression was detectable in CD4 and CD8 T-cells and natural killer cells. Polyfunctional flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that cells expressing IFNγ alone formed the majority in each subpopulation of cells. Only in CD4 T-cells and NK cells were there a notable proportion of responding cells of a different phenotype and these were single positive, TNFα producers. No significant expression of the cytokines IL-2, IL-17 or IL-10 was seen in any population of cells. Conclusions The broad array of biomarker responses detected by multiplex bead array suggests that BCG vaccination is capable, in this setting, of inducing a complex immune phenotype. Although polyfunctional T-cells have been proposed to play a role in protective immunity, they were not present in vaccinated adolescents who, based on earlier epidemiological studies, should have developed protection against pulmonary tuberculosis. This may be due to the later sampling time point available for testing or on the kinetics of the assays used.
Ting-Yu Angela Liao
Full Text Available Current strategies to improve the current BCG vaccine attempt to over-express genes encoding specific M. tuberculosis (Mtb antigens and/or regulators of antigen presentation function, which indeed have the potential to reshape BCG in many ways. However, these approaches often face serious difficulties, in particular the efficiency and stability of gene expression via nucleic acid complementation and safety concerns associated with the introduction of exogenous DNA. As an alternative, we developed a novel non-genetic approach for rapid and efficient display of exogenous proteins on bacterial cell surface. The technology involves expression of proteins of interest in fusion with a mutant version of monomeric avidin that has the feature of reversible binding to biotin. Fusion proteins are then used to decorate the surface of biotinylated BCG. Surface coating of BCG with recombinant proteins was highly reproducible and stable. It also resisted to the freeze-drying shock routinely used in manufacturing conventional BCG. Modifications of BCG surface did not affect its growth in culture media neither its survival within the host cell. Macrophages phagocytized coated BCG bacteria, which efficiently delivered their surface cargo of avidin fusion proteins to MHC class I and class II antigen presentation compartments. Thereafter, chimeric proteins corresponding to a surrogate antigen derived from ovalbumin and the Mtb specific ESAT6 antigen were generated and tested for immunogenicity in vaccinated mice. We found that BCG displaying ovalbumin antigen induces an immune response with a magnitude similar to that induced by BCG genetically expressing the same surrogate antigen. We also found that BCG decorated with Mtb specific antigen ESAT6 successfully induces the expansion of specific T cell responses. This novel technology, therefore, represents a practical and effective alternative to DNA-based gene expression for upgrading the current BCG vaccine.
Liao, Ting-Yu Angela; Lau, Alice; Joseph, Sunil; Hytönen, Vesa; Hmama, Zakaria
Current strategies to improve the current BCG vaccine attempt to over-express genes encoding specific M. tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens and/or regulators of antigen presentation function, which indeed have the potential to reshape BCG in many ways. However, these approaches often face serious difficulties, in particular the efficiency and stability of gene expression via nucleic acid complementation and safety concerns associated with the introduction of exogenous DNA. As an alternative, we developed a novel non-genetic approach for rapid and efficient display of exogenous proteins on bacterial cell surface. The technology involves expression of proteins of interest in fusion with a mutant version of monomeric avidin that has the feature of reversible binding to biotin. Fusion proteins are then used to decorate the surface of biotinylated BCG. Surface coating of BCG with recombinant proteins was highly reproducible and stable. It also resisted to the freeze-drying shock routinely used in manufacturing conventional BCG. Modifications of BCG surface did not affect its growth in culture media neither its survival within the host cell. Macrophages phagocytized coated BCG bacteria, which efficiently delivered their surface cargo of avidin fusion proteins to MHC class I and class II antigen presentation compartments. Thereafter, chimeric proteins corresponding to a surrogate antigen derived from ovalbumin and the Mtb specific ESAT6 antigen were generated and tested for immunogenicity in vaccinated mice. We found that BCG displaying ovalbumin antigen induces an immune response with a magnitude similar to that induced by BCG genetically expressing the same surrogate antigen. We also found that BCG decorated with Mtb specific antigen ESAT6 successfully induces the expansion of specific T cell responses. This novel technology, therefore, represents a practical and effective alternative to DNA-based gene expression for upgrading the current BCG vaccine.
Hocaoğlu, Arzu Babayiğit; Erge, Duygu Olmez; Anal, Ozden; Makay, Balahan; Uzuner, Nevin; Karaman, Ozkan
The aim of the study was to define the characteristics of children with latent tuberculosis diagnosed with positive tuberculin skin test (TST) and evaluate potential risk factors in children with positive TST. Children followed with the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection were included in the study retrospectively. Demographic characteristics of patients including history of atopy, respiratory infections, family history of tuberculosis and atopy, number of BCG vaccinations, findings of physical examination and laboratory data were extracted from patient's file. Eighty-one children (51 male, 30 female) who had positive TST were retrospectively evaluated in the study. Mean age of the patients was 8.00 ± 4.00 years. Only 13 (16%) of the children had contact with a case who had active tuberculosis. It was shown that the age of the patients, number of BCG scars and BCG vaccination significantly affected TST reaction size. TST size was not affected with time passed after last dose of BCG vaccination, family history of tuberculosis, presence of TST positive case in the family, exposure to cigarette smoke, number of household family members and presence of respiratory allergic disease. The patient's age, numbers of BCG vaccination and BCG scars significantly affect TST results in childhood. This may cause difficulty in diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection and in decision of initiating prophylactic treatment. The results of this study may show that recently developed, more accurate and convenient in vitro tests that they have higher costs and require sophisticated laboratory, can be used to diagnose latent tuberculosis.
Golby, P; Villarreal-Ramos, B; Dean, G; Jones, G J; Vordermeier, M
There is an urgent need to identify additional diagnostic biomarkers for bovine TB to complement existing read-out systems such as interferon-gamma and for predictive markers of vaccine efficacy to accelerate vaccine development. To evaluate the potential of miRNAs as such biomarkers, we have analysed their expression in bovine PPD stimulated PBMC isolated from unvaccinated and BCG vaccinated cattle before and following Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection. Using a bovine microRNA microarray, miR-155 was found to show a significant up-regulation in expression in early (week 2) and late (week 11) M. bovis post-infection samples from unvaccinated cattle, while in BCG vaccinated cattle up-regulation was observed only in late post-infection samples. No differential expression of miR-155 was observed in pre-infection samples from unvaccinated and vaccinated cattle. These observations suggest that miR-155 could be exploited as a marker distinguishing vaccinated from infected animals (DIVA). Analysis by TaqMan RT-PCR, verified the up-regulation of miR-155 in unvaccinated cattle post-infection. Significant correlation was found between the degree of pathology and miR-155 induction in the experimentally infected cattle, suggesting miR-155 is a biomarker of disease development and/or severity. Induction of miR155 expression in cattle sourced from farms with confirmed bTB that tested positive in the tuberculin skin or interferon-gamma blood test was found to be significantly higher in cattle presenting with more advanced pathology (defined by the presence of visible TB lesions) compared to infected cattle without visible pathology and thus likely to be of lower infectivity than those with more advanced disease. In conclusion, our data indicate that miR-155 has potential both as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker that could be used to identify animals with advanced pathology and as a DIVA test read-out. Its role in the immune biology of bovine TB will also be discussed
Although Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines against tuberculosis have been available for more than 90 years, their effectiveness has been hindered by variable protective efficacy and a lack of lasting memory responses. One factor contributing to this variability may be the diversity of the BCG strains that are used around the world, in part from genomic changes accumulated during vaccine production and their resulting differences in gene expression. We have compared the genomes and transcriptomes of a global collection of fourteen of the most widely used BCG strains at single base-pair resolution. We have also used quantitative proteomics to identify key differences in expression of proteins across five representative BCG strains of the four tandem duplication (DU) groups. We provide a comprehensive map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), copy number variation and insertions and deletions (indels) across fourteen BCG strains. Genome-wide SNP characterization allowed the construction of a new and robust phylogenic genealogy of BCG strains. Transcriptional and proteomic profiling revealed a metabolic remodeling in BCG strains that may be reflected by altered immunogenicity and possibly vaccine efficacy. Together, these integrated-omic data represent the most comprehensive catalogue of genetic variation across a global collection of BCG strains.
Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Carreño, Leandro J; Weinrick, Brian; Batista-Gonzalez, Ana; Glatman-Freedman, Aarona; Xu, Jiayong; Chan, John; Jacobs, William R; Porcelli, Steven A; Casadevall, Arturo
Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is widely used for the prevention of tuberculosis, despite limited efficacy. Most immunological studies of BCG or Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains grow bacteria in the presence of detergent, which also strips the mycobacterial capsule. The impact of the capsule on vaccine efficacy has not been explored. We tested the influence of detergent in cultures of BCG and M. tuberculosis strains on the outcome of vaccination experiments on mice and transcriptional responses on M. tuberculosis Vaccination of mice with encapsulated BCG promoted a more potent immune response relative to vaccination with unencapsulated BCG, including higher polysaccharide-specific capsule antibody titers, higher interferon γ and interleukin 17 splenic responses, and more multifunctional CD4(+) T cells. These differences correlated with variability in the bacterial burden in lung and spleen of mice infected with encapsulated or unencapsulated M. tuberculosis The combination of vaccination and challenge with encapsulated strains resulted in the greatest protection efficacy. The transcriptome of encapsulated M. tuberculosis was similar to that of starvation, hypoxia, stationary phase, or nonreplicating persistence. The presence of detergent in growth media and a capsule on BCG were associated with differences in the outcome of vaccination, implying that these are important variables in immunological studies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail email@example.com.
Abdallah, Abdallah; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Otto, Thomas D.; Coll, Francesc; Guerra-Assunç ã o, José Afonso; Gao, Ge; Naeem, Raeece; Ansari, Hifzur Rahman; Malas, Tareq Majed Yasin; Adroub, Sabir; Verboom, Theo; Ummels, Roy; Zhang, Huoming; Panigrahi, Aswini Kumar; McNerney, Ruth; Brosch, Roland; Clark, Taane G.; Behr, Marcel A.; Bitter, Wilbert; Pain, Arnab
Although Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines against tuberculosis have been available for more than 90 years, their effectiveness has been hindered by variable protective efficacy and a lack of lasting memory responses. One factor contributing to this variability may be the diversity of the BCG strains that are used around the world, in part from genomic changes accumulated during vaccine production and their resulting differences in gene expression. We have compared the genomes and transcriptomes of a global collection of fourteen of the most widely used BCG strains at single base-pair resolution. We have also used quantitative proteomics to identify key differences in expression of proteins across five representative BCG strains of the four tandem duplication (DU) groups. We provide a comprehensive map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), copy number variation and insertions and deletions (indels) across fourteen BCG strains. Genome-wide SNP characterization allowed the construction of a new and robust phylogenic genealogy of BCG strains. Transcriptional and proteomic profiling revealed a metabolic remodeling in BCG strains that may be reflected by altered immunogenicity and possibly vaccine efficacy. Together, these integrated-omic data represent the most comprehensive catalogue of genetic variation across a global collection of BCG strains.
Pathan, Ansar A; Minassian, Angela M; Sander, Clare R; Rowland, Rosalind; Porter, David W; Poulton, Ian D; Hill, Adrian V S; Fletcher, Helen A; McShane, Helen
A non-randomised, open-label, Phase I safety and immunogenicity dose-finding study to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the candidate TB vaccine Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara expressing Antigen 85A (MVA85A) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in healthy adult volunteers previously vaccinated with BCG. Healthy BCG-vaccinated volunteers were vaccinated with either 1×10(7) or 1×10(8)PFU of MVA85A. All adverse events were documented and antigen specific T cell responses were measured using an ex vivo IFN-γ ELISPOT assay. Safety and immunogenicity were compared between the 2 dose groups and with a previous trial in which a dose of 5×10(7)PFU MVA85A had been administered. There were no serious adverse events recorded following administration of either 1×10(7) or 1×10(8)PFU of MVA85A. Systemic adverse events were more frequently reported following administration of 1×10(8)PFU of MVA85A when compared to either 5×10(7) or 1×10(7)PFU of MVA85A but were mild or moderate in severity and resolved completely within 7 days of immunisation. Antigen specific T cell responses as measured by the IFN-γ ELISPOT were significantly higher following immunisation in adults receiving 1×10(8)PFU compared to the 5×10(7) and 1×10(7) doses. Additionally, a broader range of Ag85A epitopes are detected following 1×10(8)PFU of MVA85A. A higher dose of 1×10(8)PFU of MVA85A is well-tolerated, increases the frequency of IFN-γ secreting T cells detected following immunisation and broadens the range of Ag85A epitopes detected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
After application of 35 S-labelled BCG to the camera oculi anterior of the rabbit, the escape pathways of germs and their quantitative and qualitative distribution in eyes and blood has been studied in BCG-vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals while varying the amount of germs applied. As criteria, 35 S concentration and the amount of 35 S in ocular sections and in the blood which can be identified by means of distributing germs under the chosen conditions, have been detected. After only 10 minutes, elimination of germs is to be seen, continuing for a period longer than the 2 hours of post-injection period observed. Relatively high 35 S concentrations indicate a long-term storage in the iris and in the ciliary body. The flow continues regularly but restrained via choroid and sclera into the blood. Flow velocity depends only within specific limits on the amount of germs injected into the anterior chamber. Under study conditions the flow mode via N.opticus and via lymphs is rather unimportant. The rest of the germs are distributed in the organism via blood vessels. A comparison of 35 S concentration in sections of both eyes shows germ enrichment in tissues with sufficient blood supply, particularly in the choroid. Differences in germ distribution in vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals are not to be seen in the 35 S distribution pattern. Neither higher nor lower germ doses indicate a stronger retention in the ocular sections of vaccinated animals. The necessity to complete this study by applying germ doses smaller than 1 mg (humidity weight) is stated pointing out technical difficulties involved while applying a test model. (orig.) [de
Increased TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma/IL-2 and decreased TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma production by central memory T cells are associated with protective responses against bovine tuberculosis following BCG vaccination
Mayara Fernanda Maggioli
Full Text Available Central memory T cells (Tcm and polyfunctional CD4 T cell responses contribute to vaccine-elicited protection with both human and bovine tuberculosis (TB; however, their combined role in protective immunity to TB is unclear. To address this question, we evaluated polyfunctional cytokine responses by CD4 T cell effector / memory populations from bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG vaccinated and non-vaccinated calves prior to and after aerosol challenge with virulent Mycobacterium bovis. Polyfunctional cytokine expression patterns in the response by Tcm, effector memory, and effector T cell subsets were similar between BCG-vaccinated and M. bovis-infected calves; only differing in magnitude (i.e., infected > vaccinated. BCG vaccination, however, did alter the kinetics of the ensuing response to virulent M. bovis infection. Early after challenge (three weeks post-infection, non-vaccinates had greater antigen-specific IFN-γ/TNF-α and lesser IFN-γ/TNF-α/IL-2 responses by Tcm cells than did vaccinated animals. Importantly, these differences were also associated with mycobacterial burden upon necropsy. Polyfunctional responses to ESAT-6:CFP10 (antigens not synthesized by BCG strains were detected in memory subsets, as well as in effector cells, as early as three weeks after challenge. These findings suggest that cell fate divergence may occur early after antigen priming in the response to bovine TB and that memory and effector T cells may expand concurrently during the initial phase of the immune response. In summary, robust IFN-γ/TNF-α response by Tcm cells is associated with greater mycobacterial burden while IFN-γ/TNF-α/IL-2 response by Tcm cells are indicative of a protective response to bovine TB.
Strategies to eradicate minimal residual disease in small cell lung cancer: high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, and BEC2 plus BCG vaccination.
Krug, L M; Grant, S C; Miller, V A; Ng, K K; Kris, M G
In the last 25 years, treatment for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has improved with advances in chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Standard chemotherapy regimens can yield 80% to 90% response rates and some cures when combined with thoracic irradiation in limited-stage patients. Nonetheless, small cell lung cancer has a high relapse rate due to drug resistance; this has resulted in poor survival for most patients. Attacking this problem requires a unique approach to eliminate resistant disease remaining after induction therapy. This review will focus on three potential strategies: high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, and BEC2 plus BCG vaccination.
Metcalfe, Hannah J; Biffar, Lucia; Steinbach, Sabine; Guzman, Efrain; Connelley, Tim; Morrison, Ivan; Vordermeier, H Martin; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo
There is a need to improve the efficacy of the BCG vaccine against human and bovine tuberculosis. Previous data showed that boosting bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-vaccinated cattle with a recombinant attenuated human type 5 adenovirally vectored subunit vaccine (Ad5-85A) increased BCG protection and was associated with increased frequency of Ag85A-specific CD4 + T cells post-boosting. Here, the capacity of Ag85A-specific CD4 + T cell lines - derived before and after viral boosting - to interact with BCG-infected macrophages was evaluated. No difference before and after boosting was found in the capacity of these Ag85A-specific CD4 + T cell lines to restrict mycobacterial growth, but the secretion of IL-10 in vitro post-boost increased significantly. Furthermore, cell lines derived post-boost had no statistically significant difference in the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-12, IFNγ or TNFα) compared to pre-boost lines. In conclusion, the protection associated with the increased number of Ag85A-specific CD4 + T cells restricting mycobacterial growth may be associated with anti-inflammatory properties to limit immune-pathology. Copyright © 2018 Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Sati, Iman Nasr Eldin
This work was examined whether intradermal immunization of healthy adult Sudanese volunteers with killed leishmania major (KLM) promastigotes plus BCG would induce antigen-specific T cell responses. Only healthy Sudanese volunteers with negative reactivity to leishmania skin test and with ≤20 mm induration of reactivity to purified protein derivative (PPD) were included in the trial. Group (A) (n=3): received a single dose (0.1ml) at a concentration of 10 mg protein of a whole cell component of KLM promastigotes/ml BCG, group (B) (n=12): received as a single dose of viable attenuated BCG alone (0.1 ml) at a concentration of 1 mg protein/ml diluent, group (C) (n=11): received the vaccine diluent only (Placebo) (o.1 ml). Study subjects were tested for their immunological and clinical responses before intervention, . Following vaccination 65% of group (A) subjects converted in their reactivity to leishmanin skin testing,non of the BCG vaccinated subjects converted in leishmanin skin test and only one subject of group (C) became leishmanin positive. Levels of Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-5 (IL-5) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured by a double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A vaccine was considered as a positive responder in terms of cytokine production when the level of the produced cytokine was equal to the 80th percentile of the levels produced by the volunteers in the placebo group. 92% of the group vaccinated with KLM=BCG had circulating T cells. No significant of IL-5 or Il-10 was reported in any of the volunteers in the three group. Levels of anti l eishmania specific IgG were measured by ELISA in optical densities. Volunteers with mean antibody titre above the cut-off point (mean=3X standard deviation) were considered to have positive scores. Accordingly after vaccination 7.69% one volunteers in group (A) had a positive antibody response corresponding to 0% in the other two groups. No serious side effects were reported
Szpakowski, Piotr; Biet, Franck; Locht, Camille; Paszkiewicz, Małgorzata; Rudnicka, Wiesława; Druszczyńska, Magdalena; Allain, Fabrice; Fol, Marek; Pestel, Joël; Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Magdalena
Tuberculosis remains an enormous global burden, despite wide vaccination coverage with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only vaccine available against this disease, indicating that BCG-driven immunity is insufficient to protect the human population against tuberculosis. In this study we constructed recombinant BCG producing human IL-18 (rBCGhIL-18) and investigated whether human IL-18 produced by rBCGhIL-18 modulates DC functions and enhances Th1 responses to mycobacterial antigens in humans. We found that the costimulatory CD86 and CD80 molecules were significantly upregulated on rBCGhIL-18-infected DCs, whereas the stimulation of DCs with nonrecombinant BCG was less effective. In contrast, both BCG strains decreased the DC-SIGN expression on human DCs. The rBCGhIL-18 increased IL-23, IL-10, and IP-10 production by DCs to a greater extent than nonrecombinant BCG. In a coculture system of CD4(+) T cells and loaded DCs, rBCGhIL-18 favoured strong IFN-γ but also IL-10 production by naive T cells but not by memory T cells. This was much less the case for nonrecombinant BCG. Thus the expression of IL-18 by recombinant BCG increases IL-23, IP-10, and IL-10 expression by human DCs and enhances their ability to induce IFN-γ and IL-10 expression by naive T cells, without affecting the maturation phenotype of the DCs.
Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains an enormous global burden, despite wide vaccination coverage with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, the only vaccine available against this disease, indicating that BCG-driven immunity is insufficient to protect the human population against tuberculosis. In this study we constructed recombinant BCG producing human IL-18 (rBCGhIL-18 and investigated whether human IL-18 produced by rBCGhIL-18 modulates DC functions and enhances Th1 responses to mycobacterial antigens in humans. We found that the costimulatory CD86 and CD80 molecules were significantly upregulated on rBCGhIL-18-infected DCs, whereas the stimulation of DCs with nonrecombinant BCG was less effective. In contrast, both BCG strains decreased the DC-SIGN expression on human DCs. The rBCGhIL-18 increased IL-23, IL-10, and IP-10 production by DCs to a greater extent than nonrecombinant BCG. In a coculture system of CD4+ T cells and loaded DCs, rBCGhIL-18 favoured strong IFN-γ but also IL-10 production by naive T cells but not by memory T cells. This was much less the case for nonrecombinant BCG. Thus the expression of IL-18 by recombinant BCG increases IL-23, IP-10, and IL-10 expression by human DCs and enhances their ability to induce IFN-γ and IL-10 expression by naive T cells, without affecting the maturation phenotype of the DCs.
Full Text Available Through an examination of mass BCG vaccination against tuberculosis in India between 1948 and 1960 this article draws attention to the diversity of the history of vaccination. The features of vaccination campaigns often differed from those of the celebrated campaign to eradicate smallpox. Due to differences between smallpox and tuberculosis as well as between the vaccines developed against them, an analysis of BCG mass vaccination against tuberculosis seems particularly well suited for this purpose. Three points of difference are identified. First, in non-Western contexts BCG vaccination procedures were modified to a greater extent than vaccination against smallpox. Second, tuberculosis lacked the drama and urgency of smallpox and BCG vaccination campaigns suffered more from recruitment problems than did the more "heroic" smallpox eradication campaign. Third, the BCG vaccine was contested in medical circles and was much better suited than the vaccine against smallpox as a vehicle for the articulation of concerns about post-colonial modernization.Através da observação da vacinação em massa de BCG contra a tuberculose na Índia durante os anos de 1948 a 1960, este artigo chama a atenção para a diversidade da história da vacinação. As características das campanhas de vacinação geralmente diferem daquelas celebradas nas campanhas para erradicação da varíola. Devido às diferenças entre a varíola e a turberculose, assim como entre as vacinas desenvolvidas para combater essas doenças, uma análise da vacinação em massa de BCG contra a turberculose parece especialmente bem situada para essa proposta. Três pontos de diferença foram identificados. O primeiro é que em contextos não ocidentais os procedimentos da vacinação de BCG foram modificados em uma extensão maior do que a vacinação contra a varíola. Em segundo lugar, a tuberculose não tinha o drama e a urgência da varíola, e as campanhas de vacinação de BCG
Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter
with higher (9%; 95% CI: 2, 17%) RBP concentrations in children of noneducated mothers but not in children of educated mothers. Overall, RBP concentrations increased between 6 wk and 4 mo of age. The increase correlated inversely with the number of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines received...
Clark, Simon; Cross, Martin L; Smith, Alan; Court, Pinar; Vipond, Julia; Nadian, Allan; Hewinson, R Glyn; Batchelor, Hannah K; Perrie, Yvonne; Williams, Ann; Aldwell, Frank E; Chambers, Mark A
vehicles for an oral BCG vaccine in badgers.
Cervantes-Villagrana, Alberto R; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Biragyn, Arya; Castañeda-Delgado, Julio; Bodogai, Monica; Martínez-Fierro, Margarita; Sada, Eduardo; Trujillo, Valentin; Enciso-Moreno, Antonio; Rivas-Santiago, Bruno
The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that there are about 8 million new cases annually of active Tuberculosis (TB). Despite its irregular effectiveness (0-89%), the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) BCG is the only vaccine available worldwide for prevention of TB; thus, the design is important of novel and more efficient vaccination strategies. Considering that β-defensin-2 is an antimicrobial peptide that induces dendritic cell maturation through the TLR-4 receptor and that both ESAT-6 and Ag85B are immunodominant mycobacterial antigens and efficient activators of the protective immune response, we constructed two DNA vaccines by the fusion of the gene encoding β-defensin-2 and antigens ESAT6 (pDE) and 85B (pDA). After confirming efficient local antigen expression that induced high and stable Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production in intramuscular (i.m.) vaccinated Balb/c mice, groups of mice were vaccinated with DNA vaccines in a prime-boost regimen with BCG and with BCG alone, and 2 months later were challenged with the mild virulence reference strain H37Rv and the highly virulent clinical isolate LAM 5186. The level of protection was evaluated by survival, lung bacilli burdens, and extension of tissue damage (pneumonia). Vaccination with both DNA vaccines showed similar protection to that of BCG. After the challenge with the highly virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain, animals that were prime-boosted with BCG and then boosted with both DNA vaccines showed significant higher survival and less tissue damage than mice vaccinated only with BCG. These results suggest that improvement of BCG vaccination, such as the prime-boost DNA vaccine, represents a more efficient vaccination scheme against TB. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adenovirus type 35-vectored tuberculosis vaccine has an acceptable safety and tolerability profile in healthy, BCG-vaccinated, QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold (+) Kenyan adults without evidence of tuberculosis.
Walsh, Douglas S; Owira, Victorine; Polhemus, Mark; Otieno, Lucas; Andagalu, Ben; Ogutu, Bernhards; Waitumbi, John; Hawkridge, Anthony; Shepherd, Barbara; Pau, Maria Grazia; Sadoff, Jerald; Douoguih, Macaya; McClain, J Bruce
In a Phase 1 trial, we evaluated the safety of AERAS-402, an adenovirus 35-vectored TB vaccine candidate expressing 3 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) immunodominant antigens, in subjects with and without latent Mtb infection. HIV-negative, BCG-vaccinated Kenyan adults without evidence of tuberculosis, 10 QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-G)(-) and 10 QFT-G(+), were randomized 4:1 to receive AERAS-402 or placebo as two doses, on Days 0 and 56, with follow up to Day 182. There were no deaths, serious adverse events or withdrawals. For 1 AERAS-402 QFT-G(-) and 1 AERAS-402 QFT-G(+) subject, there were 3 self-limiting severe AEs of injection site pain: 1 after the first vaccination and 1 after each vaccination, respectively. Two additional severe AEs considered vaccine-related were reported after the first vaccination in AERAS-402 QFT-G(+) subjects: elevated blood creatine phosphokinase and neutropenia, the latter slowly improving but remaining abnormal until study end. AERAS-402 was not detected in urine or throat cultures for any subject. In intracellular cytokine staining studies, curtailed by technical issues, we saw modest CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to Mtb Ag85A/b peptide pools among both QFT-G(-) and (+) subjects, with trends in the CD4+ T cells suggestive of boosting after the second vaccine dose, slightly more so in QFT-G(+) subjects. CD4+ and CD8+ responses to Mtb antigen TB10.4 were minimal. Increases in Adenovirus 35 neutralizing antibodies from screening to end of study, seen in 50% of AERAS-402 recipients, were mostly minimal. This small study confirms acceptable safety and tolerability profiles for AERAS-402, in line with other Phase 1 studies of AERAS-402, now to include QFT-G(+) subjects. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter
concentrations indicated vitamin A deficiency in 32% of the children at age 6 wk and in 16% at age 4 mo. VAS was not associated with higher RBP concentrations overall or in either sex. However, the effect of VAS varied with maternal education (P for interaction = 0.004): At age 6 wk, VAS was associated...... with higher (9%; 95% CI: 2, 17%) RBP concentrations in children of noneducated mothers but not in children of educated mothers. Overall, RBP concentrations increased between 6 wk and 4 mo of age. The increase correlated inversely with the number of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines received...... placebo-controlled trial of VAS, we obtained blood from 614 children at 6 wk of age and from 369 mother-infant pairs at 4 mo of age. We assessed vitamin A status on the basis of serum retinol-binding protein (RBP) and measured serum C-reactive protein to monitor for concurrent infections. RESULTS: RBP...
Fisker, Ane Bærent; Benn, Christine Stabell; Diness, Birgitte Rode
Vitamin A supplements may interact with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine causing increased female mortality. In a randomised trial of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (VAS), we examined growth during the first year of life in 808 children, pursuing the hypothesis that a negative...
Chimirri, Niklas Alexander
The dissertation’s aim is to explore the everyday relevance media artifacts have for young children. It discusses and further develops analytical concepts that are committed to taking the children’s perspectives on possibilities and limitations of such artifacts seriously. These conceptual...... developments are rooted in the author’s participation in a daycare practice in Berlin, Germany. The daycare’s situational approach precisely attempted to draw on the children’s everyday life experiences so as to engage in problem-oriented learning projects, on media artifacts and beyond....
Tuberculin skin reactivity after neonatal BCG vaccination in preterm infants in Minas Gerais, Brazil, 2001-2002 Reactividad cutánea a la tuberculina tras la vacunación con BCG de neonatos prematuros en Minas Gerais, Brasil, 2001-2002
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The efficacy of BCG vaccination in preterm babies is unknown, and available data on conversion rates to tuberculin in this age group are scarce and controversial. This study assessed the tuberculin response in preterm infants after BCG vaccination. METHODS: This randomized cohort study was carried out at the Neonatal Department, University Hospital, Federal University of Minas Gerais in Brazil during 2001 and 2002. The BCG vaccine was administered at birth to 65 full-term (control and 40 preterm newborns. All of them were tested with 5 tuberculin units of purified protein derivative-S approximately 3 months after vaccination. RESULTS: A typical BCG scar was verified in 96.9% of the control group and in 90.0% of the preterm infants (P = 0.19. Indurations > 5 mm in diameter were recorded in 87.7% of the full-term and 67.5% of the preterm infants (P = 0.02. Indurations > 10 mm were recorded in 70.8% of the full-term and 42.5% of the preterm infants (P = 0.007. For indurations > 5 mm the upper and the lower limits of the 95% confidence interval for the difference between proportions were 8.5% to 31.8%, and for indurations > 10 mm these limits were 18.0% to 38.4%. No adverse reactions were observed in the study population. CONCLUSION: BCG vaccination could be recommended for preterm infants upon discharge from the neonatal unit to reduce morbidity and mortality in infants at risk for tuberculous infection, and to increase BCG vaccination coverage rates, especially in countries with high prevalence rates of tuberculosis.OBJETIVOS: Se desconoce la eficacia de la vacunación con Bacilo de Calmette-Guérin (BCG en neonatos prematuros, y los datos que existen acerca de la proporción de casos de conversión tuberculínica en este grupo de edad son pocos y cuestionables. En este estudio se evaluó la respuesta a la prueba de tuberculina de neonatos prematuros tras la vacunación con BCG. MÉTODOS: Este estudio de cohorte aleatorizado se llev
Andersen, Andreas; Jensen, Kristoffer J; Erikstrup, Christian
with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or purified protein derivative (PPD). The outcome was mortality between bleeding and 1 year of age. Non-linear associations between cytokine responses and mortality were examined. RESULTS: Cytokine measurements were available from 390 children. The mortality rate...... (MR) was high (6.8/100 person-years-observation (PYO)). Both low and high cytokine responses to LPS and PHA were associated with high mortality (MR up to 25/100 PYO in the lowest 10% and 9.2/100 PYO in the highest 10%). In BCG-vaccinated children, higher IFN-γ responses to PPD were associated...
Rodríguez, Gerzaín; González, Rosalba; Gonzalez, Deysy; Granados, Carolina; Pinto, Rafael; Herrera, Hilda; Gutiérrez, Luisa F; Hernández, Elkin; López, Fernando; Gómez, Yenny
Actively searching for leprosy, other skin diseases and BCG vaccination scars amongst school children from Agua de Dios, the municipality having the highest prevalence of leprosy in Colombia. A clinical examination of the children was carried out by nurses, interns, general practitioners and experts on leprosy. Skin smear tests and skin biopsies were performed when the clinical findings suggested leprosy. Anti-phenolic glycolipid antibodies in blood were determined in special cases. 86 % of the 2 844 school children were examined; 833 had skin diseases and 16 % of these required evaluation by specialists. Four new cases of paucibacillary leprosy, two indeterminate and two primary polyneuritic cases were found. Pediculosis capitis, pityriasis alba, tinea versicolor, hypopigmented nevus, insect bites and miliaria were frequently detected. BCG vaccination scars were absent in 387 children; following several logistical problems, they were vaccinated. Four children had signs of childhood abuse. An 11-year-old girl presented hypopigmented mycosis fungoides. All diseases and conditions found were treated. The community received information regarding the results, emphasising the importance of an early diagnosis of leprosy. The incidence of leprosy found (16/10,000) was 123 times higher than the rest of the country's incidence. It is advisable to continue clinical examinations in Agua de Dios and research into risk factors for acquiring leprosy.
Ali, N.; Mohammed, F. S.; Bushra, M. M.; Babiker, A. H.; Hisham, M.
Malnutrition showed a high incidence among Sudanese children under five years of age. It affects directly the endocrine system of such children. In this the thyroid gland selected as a very important endocrine organ to be studied in 49 malnourished children under five years. Other 20 well- nourished children were selected to act as a control subjects . Both study and control groups were match for age and sex. The patients were seen and assessed for the disease in different hospital in Khartoum by consultant pediatrician. Thyroid function (thyroxineT4 and Triiodothyronine) was tested with a sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. Some other biochemical parameters (hemoglobin Hb % total protein) were also investigated for the two groups (Patients and control) to confirm malnutrition. The means of the investigated parameters of the patients were compared with those of control group. The results showed 20 % of the malnourished children was complained of sever hypothyroidism (T4<25μmol/I) and (T3<0.3μmol/I) considering the normal range (55-142μmol/I) and (0.8-3μmol/I) respectively. The difference was highly significant together. The patients group showed low level in the two parameters, which indicate malnutrition. The the thyroid function in the malnourished children was severely affected by malnutrition, and such a test is strongly recommended to be a routine investigation for malnourished children. ( Author)
Sayyahfar, Shirin; Karimi, Abdollah; Fahimzad, Alireza; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza
The aim of this study is to compare Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) result and interferon gamma response to human PPD (purified protein derivative), in scar positive and scar negative BCG-vaccinated children. Between August 2007 and May 2008 a total of 236 children aged 1-168 months (mean 21 months) admitted to Mofid Children's Hospital, Tehran, Iran, were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Each patient was examined for BCG vaccine scar and tested with TST and human PPD-based Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA). Two hundred and twenty one cases out of 236 (44% female, 1-168 months, mean age 21 months) were scar positive of whom 95% TST result was negative. Human PPD-based IGRA was positive in 110 (49.8%), negative in 85 (38.4 %) and indeterminate in 26 (11.8%) of scar positive patients. Fifteen children (40% female, 1-156 months; mean age 42 months) were scar negative. All the scar negative cases were TST negative. Human PPD-based IGRA was positive in 10 (66.7%), negative in 4 (26.7%) and indeterminate in 1 (6.7%) of scar negative patients. Immune responsiveness to human PPD antigens in scar positive and negative children may not correspond with results of the Tuberculin Skin Test. Copyright © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Sodemann, Morten; Jensen, Henrik
and scarring in Guinea-Bissau. In a cohort of children born in suburban Bissau from March 2000 to July 2002, we assessed a Mantoux test with Purified protein derivative (PPD) (SSI, 2 T.U.) at 2 (2689 children), 6 (N=2148) and 12 months (N=1638) of age, and BCG scar was assessed at 2 (N=2698) and 6 months (N......=2225) of age. In a subgroup of the children the vaccination technique was monitored by direct observation of post-vaccination wheal and route of administration. Three different types of BCG vaccine supplied by the local Extended Programme on Immunization were used. At 6 months of age the rate of PPD...... reactors (>1mm) after BCG vaccination was 25% and the rate of scarring was 89%. One BCG strain was associated with fewer PPD reactors (OR=0.54 (0.31-0.91)) and BCG scars (OR=0.13 (0.05-0.37)) and larger post-vaccination wheals produced more PPD reactions (OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.02-1.43)) and BCG scars (OR 1...
Valanides, Nicos; Papageorgiou, Maria; Angeli, Charoula
The study provides evidence concerning elementary school children's ability to conduct a scientific investigation. Two hundred and fifty sixth-grade students and 248 fourth-grade students were administered a test, and based on their performance, they were classified into high-ability and low-ability students. The sample of this study was randomly selected and included 80 students, 40 fourth-grade and 40 sixth-grade students of low and high abilities. Students were specifically instructed to investigate the functioning of a device, to think aloud prior and after any experiment with the device, and to keep a record of their experimental results. The results showed that students were inclined to mainly collect evidence from the experimental space and failed to control variables during their investigation. The majority of the students had difficulties with effectively organizing collected data and failed to coordinate hypotheses with evidence. The significant interaction effect that was found between grade level and ability in terms of students' investigation ability indicates that the existing gap between high- and low-ability students becomes bigger as students become older. Undoubtedly, ongoing research efforts for identifying patterns of children's cognitive development will be most valuable as they can have important implications for the design of teaching scenarios and inquiry-based science activities conducive to accelerating students' cognitive growth and scientific investigation abilities.
variables registered in cases of TB meningitis in children less than 5 years old in Argentina, from 1999 to 2001 and to determine the real number of TB meningitis cases in our country. Fifteen cases of TB meningitis out of 32 (46.8% were studied through epidemic records. The average age was 14 months. Six children presented BCG scars but in only one child it was proved that he had been vaccinated at birth; 11/13 (92.3% were at the second stage of illness, the bacteriological investigation was positive in 8/11 (72.7% and in (46.8% chest radiography revealed abnormal findings. The tuberculin reaction was negative in all tested cases. This study showed that the diagnosis was made at an advanced stage of disease. None of these patients was cured without sequels and a high death rate (46% was observed. In order to control this epidemic situation, it is necessary to increase case finding and directly observed treatment of smear positive pulmonary TB cases, as well as BCG vaccination given at birth.
Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Birk, Nina Marie; Kjærgaard, Jesper
or no intervention. Follow-up until 13 months of age. SETTING: Pediatric and maternity wards at three Danish university hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: All women planning to give birth at the three study sites (n=16,521) during the recruitment period were invited to participate in the study. Four thousand one hundred...... lymphadenitis were hospitalized and thus classified as serious adverse reactions related to BCG. The most severe adverse reactions were 10 cases of suppurative lymphadenitis. This was nearly a fivefold increase compared to what was expected based on the summary of product characteristics of the vaccine. All...... cases were treated conservatively and recovered. Six of 10 (60%) families of children experiencing suppurative lymphadenitis compared to 117/2071 (6%) of those with no lymphadenitis indicated that the vaccine had more adverse effects than expected (p-value
Funch, Katarina M; Thysen, Sanne M; Rodrigues, Amabelia
: Bandim Health Project (BHP) runs a Health and Demographic Surveillance System site in rural Guinea-Bissau. BHP provides BCG at monthly visits. We studied determinants for not developing a BCG scar using binomial regression models to obtain relative risks (RR). RESULTS: From May 2012 until October 2014......, BHP nurses vaccinated 2415 infants with BCG. We assessed BCG scar between 6 and 12 months of age for 2156 (89%) of these children and 2115 (98%) had developed a scar. In comparison, among 785 children BCG vaccinated elsewhere, 622 (79%) had a scar, the RR of not having a scar being 10.91 (7.......52-15.85) compared with children vaccinated by BHP....
Yurtal, Filiz; Artut, Kazim
This study investigates Turkish children's perception of violence in school as represented through drawings and narratives. In all, 66 students (12 to 13 years old) from the middle socioeconomic class participated. To elicit children's perception of violence, they were asked to draw a picture of a violent incident they had heard, experienced, or witnessed. Children mostly drew pictures of violent events among children (33 pictures). Also, there were pictures of violent incidents perpetrated by teachers and directors against children. It was observed that violence influenced children. Violence was mostly depicted in school gardens (38 pictures), but there were violent incidents everywhere, such as in classrooms, corridors, and school stores as well. Moreover, it was found that brute force was the most referred way of violence in the children's depictions (38 pictures). In conclusion, children clearly indicated that there was violence in schools and they were affected by it.
Nyoman Kumara Rai
Full Text Available Vaksinasi cacar dan BCG mulai diberikan secara simultan di Jawa dan Bali pada bulan April 1972 vaksinasi cacar diberikan pada lengan kiri dan BCG pada lengan kanan. Secara berangsur-angsur prograi ini kemudian diperluas kedaerah luar Jawa-Bali, sehingga pada akhir tahun 1973 sudah mencakup seluruh Indonesia. Tenaga yang digunakan adalah para juru cacar yang sudah ada dalam rangka proyek pembasmian penyakit cacar yang dimulai tahun 1968, dan terdapat hampir disemua kecamatan diseluru Indonesia. Ide untuk menggabungkan kedua jenis vaksinasi ini yang kebetulan mempunyai target sam (anak2 0 - 14 thn timbul setelah penderita cacar tidak dilaporkan lagi dibulan September 1971 (ternyata kemudian letusan cacar terakhir adalah dibulan Desember 1971. Sampai saat itu vaksina BCG dilakukan oleh petugas Puskesmas dan tenaga part timer. Ternyata target tidak pernah tercapa hal ini mungkin disebabkan oleh terbatasnya waktu yang tersedia untuk melakukan vaksinasi BCC sehingga para tenaga part timer tsb. hanya mampu mencakup daerah disekitar Puskesmas dan sekolah dasar. Sebelumnya telah diadakan dua trial; yang pertama diadakan di Bandung untuk melihat at tidaknya saling pengaruh mempengaruhi antara kedua jenis vaksin cacar dan BCG bila diberikan pat saat yang bersamaan, sedangkain trial kedua dilakukan untuk menilai kemampuan juru cacar dala melaksanakan vaksinasi BCG serta kesukaran! yang dijumpai dilapangan (masing2 didua kabupaten (Jawa Tengah, Timur dan Yogyakarta. Disamping keuntungan yang diperoleh dari penggabungan kedua jenis vaksinasi ini yakni penghematan tenaga, biaya dan waktu, dijumpai juga beberapa kesukaran antara lain pengumpulan anak2, supply vaksin BCG yang tidak teratur dll. Walaupun demikian, di Jawa dan Bali hasil vaksinasi BCG antara April 1972 sampai dengan April 1973 menunjukkan kenaikan out-put leb dari 4 kali lipat bila dibandingkan dengan out-put sebelum penggabungan, meskipun out-put prin vaksinasi cacar mempunyai tendensi menurun. Disini hanya akan dibahas pelaksanaan vaksinasi cacar dan BCG secara simultan di Jawa dan Bali, mengingat pelaksanaannya yang sudah memasuki tahun kedua.
, Danish, Phipps and Birkhaug by Tandem Mass Tag® (TMT®)-labeling quantitative proteomic approach. In total, 420 proteins were identified and 377 of them were quantitated for their relative abundance. We reported the number and relationship of differential
The age of the patient and mode of presentation, imaging findings, and results of tuberculin skin testing (Mantoux test) ... Primary surgical treatment (incisional drainage or biopsy) is therefore not considered an ideal form of management in BCG lymphadenitis because of the high fistulisation and poor wound healing, ...
Hilppö, Jaakko; Lipponen, Lasse; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Rainio, Anna
This socioculturally informed study investigated children's sense of agency in relation to their everyday life in preschool. The empirical data comprised focus groups reflection situations wherein Finnish preschool children (n. 19, aged 6-7) reflected on their everyday life with the help of photographs and drawings they made. Building on a…
Zuhal Gizir Ergen
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate creativity among children attending preschools in terms of several variables. The study was conducted with 72 female and 63 male 5-year-old (60-72 months children selected from independent preschools related to the Turkish Ministry of National Education in Ankara. The “General Information Form” was administered to children in order to collect basic information about children and their parents. To determine creativity among children, the “Torrence Creative Thinking Test” developed by Torrence in 1966 and translated into Turkish by Aslan (1999 was used. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis H tests were used to analyze data. As a result of the study, gender and father’s educational level do not affect creativity scores of the children, yet duration of preschool attendance and mother’s educational level statistically have a significant effect on their creativity scores (p<.05.
Çakirer Çalbayram, Nazan; Altundağ, Sebahat; Aydin, Bahise
Hospitalized children can have various fantasies about hospital, health staff, and related tools and equipment. They need to develop new coping strategies for compliance with hospitalization.This study aimed to investigate the perception of nurses by children with acute and chronic illness through their drawings. The study was carried out using a descriptive research model. "Nurses through the eyes of sick children data collection form" was used in data collection procedure. The instruction "draw a picture of a nurse, please" was used to get the children to draw a picture. The majority of the children portrayed nurses as a smiling face. The children with chronic diseases featured nurses more in their drawings and they mentioned more nurse duties. The most important sign of the progression of nursing is that the mentioning of the modern roles of nursing by the children in their drawings and expressions. As children are influenced by their emotions, thoughts, observations, and experiences while drawing pictures, nurses can determine their thoughts about the disease, hospitals, physicians, and nurses by having sick children draw pictures.
Full Text Available Background: As infected children represent a large proportion of the pool from which tuberculosis (TB cases will arise and its associated risk factors that influence TB infection are basic cause for burden of TB. Aim: This study was to determine the prevalence of latent TB and associated risk factors in children less than 5 year of age in Karachi, Pakistan. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study and it was conducted in tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Materials and Methods: In this study, children who were living in contact with individuals who had proven smear-positive pulmonary TB cases were investigated. A tuberculin skin test (TST was performed on each child. TST sizes ≥5 and 10 mm, respectively, were considered positive. Statistical Analysis: A random effects logistic regression model, which takes into account the clustering of contacts within households, was used to assess the relationship between the tuberculin response of the contact and risk factors. Results are reported as unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. The likelihood ratio test was used to assess the overall significance of risk factors, tests for trend, and tests for interaction. Results: The distribution of TST responses followed a bimodal pattern, with 135 (35% children presenting a palpable induration. The risk of positive TST response in the child increased with the geographic proximity of the child to the individual with TB within the household and with the degree of activities shared with the individual with TB. Nutritional status and presence of a bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG scar were not independent risk factors for TST positivity in this population. On multivariate analysis, the effect of geographic proximity to the individual with TB, household size, and duration of cough in the index case persisted for TST responses ≥5 mm. Conclusions: Positive TST in a child reflects most probably TB infection rather than previous BCG
Conclusions. When using BCG vaccine of Russian production, there is far less significant overload of blood flow by products of intoxication and inflammation, more pronounced body’s ability to respond to antigenic stimulus generalization and no risk of infection, especially in infants, compared with Danish BCG vaccine. For vaccination of infants against tuberculosis, it is advisable to use more refined, with high immunogenicity and less reactogenic BCG vaccine of Russian production. Despite the presence of complications when using BCG vaccine, protection of the body from the development of generalized forms of tuberculosis in young children is possible by vaccination in the neonatal period.
Lee, Joohi; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah
This study was designed to investigate children's abilities to count and make quantitative comparisons. In addition, this study utilized reasoning questions (i.e., how did you know?). Thirty-four preschoolers, mean age 4.5 years old, participated in the study. According to the results, 89% of the children (n = 30) were able to do rote counting and…
Lisa Farrell; Michael A. Shields
We investigate expenditure behaviour of school-aged children using child diary information contained in the British Family Expenditure Survey. The estimates from an Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) for child expenditure suggest that drinks, sweets, books, and toys are `normal' goods for children, but clothes, travel, leisure and vice products are `luxury' items with income elasticities greater than one. Being a lone-parent child and having a working mother are important factors in determinin...
van Riet-Nales, Diana A; Römkens, Erwin G A W; Saint-Raymond, Agnes; Kozarewicz, Piotr; Schobben, Alfred F A M; Egberts, Toine C G; Rademaker, Carin M A
INTRODUCTION: Pharmaceutical industry is no longer allowed to develop new medicines for use in adults only, as the 2007 Paediatric Regulation requires children to be considered also. The plans for such paediatric development called Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs) are subject to agreement by
Carty, H.; Rangr, P.
This article outlines the role and methods used in the investigation of urinary tract infections in children. Each modality, whether it has been used in the past or begin used currently or in the future, has been discussed, together with its advantages and pitfalls. There are no hard and fast rules in the investigation of urinary tract infections. It really depends on the clinical scenario and the child. This article will hopefully provide a basis of understanding the reasons behind each investigation and their appropriate use in the child depending on their age and clinical history. (author)
Birgitte Maessen-Visch, M; Smeets, L; van Vleuten, C
Ultra sound colored duplex sonography is the preferred method in diagnosing chronic venous disease. Data in children on incidence, indications, and results are lacking. From the total of 9180 duplex investigations performed in our hospital from 2009 to 2012, data on indication and results of the investigation as well as patient characteristics were evaluated retrospectively for the proportion of pediatric patients. Duplex investigations were performed 49 times in 38 children (6-18 years), with an average of 1.3 times (1-6 times) per child. Forty percent showed abnormalities: 17 times deep venous thrombosis was suspected; deep venous thrombosis was objectified in 18%. In the 21 investigations performed for varicosis-related complaints, varicose veins or venous malformations were objectified in 57%. Edema was never a symptom of chronic venous disease. Duplex investigation is not often performed in children. In children with established deep venous thrombosis, a family history with deep venous thrombosis is common. In general, edema was not seen in children with varicose veins and, therefore, does not seem a reliable clinical sign at young age. © The Author(s) 2014.
Xu, Zi-Liang; Wu, Yun-Tang; Sun, Zhong; Zhu, Xiao-Fan; Li, Rui; Li, Hong-Qiang; Qi, Yu-Mei; Song, Ji-Chang; Han, Zhong-Chao
To investigate the diet and nutritional status of hospitalized children with blood disease in order to provide nutritional guidelines. The patients' daily dietary intakes, including breakfast, lunch, dinner and additional meals, were recorded in detail for seven consecutive days. The intake amount of various nutrients was calculated using the dietary database. The majority of children with blood disease showed inadequate intakes of calories [mean 1825.81 kCal/d, 73.62% of the recommended intake (RNI)] and protein (mean 67.68 g/d, 81.34% of RNI). Intakes of vitamin E and riboflavin were adequate, but intakes of vitamin A, thiamine and vitamin C (66.67%, 77.78% and 69.89% of RNI, respectively) were inadequate. Iron and selenium intakes were adequate, but calcium and zinc intakes (41.11% and 56.21% of RNI, respectively) were grossly inadequate. Hospitalized children with blood disease had decreased dietary intakes of calories, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, calcium and zinc. The dietary pattern and nutritional intake need to be improved.
Hasan, Ahmad N.; Al-Attar, Mustafa S.
The present work studies the molecular investigation of 40 thalassemic carriers using polymerase chain reaction. Forty thalassemic carriers who were registered and treated at Erbil thalassemic center and twenty apparently healthy children have been included in the present study. Ages of both groups ranged between 1-18 years. Four primers used to detect four different beta thalassemia mutations they were codon 8/9, codon 8, codon 41/42 and IVS-1-5. The two most common mutations detected among thalassemia group were Cd8/9 with 8 cases (20%) and Cd-8 with 6 cases (15%) followed by codon 41/42 with 4 cases (10%) which investigated and detected for the first time in Erbil governorate through the present study and finally IVS-1-5 with 3 cases (7.5%), while no any cases detected among control group.
Nabil Ahmed Al-Rabeei
Full Text Available Introduction: At least 2 million people die every year from diseases preventable by vaccines recommended by the World Health Organization. Objective: To assess the routine immunization coverage among children aged 12-23 month and to determine the reasons for unvaccinated. Methods: We conducted a community-based survey in Al-Taizyah district, Taiz governorate, Yemen. Information about vaccination status and related barriers was collected for 420 children from 1st March to 31st March 2012. Results: 49.8% of the children had vaccination cards. About 69.5% of the children were fully vaccinated by cards and by history, 15.5% were partially vaccinated and 15% not vaccinated. As a regards to crude vaccination coverage, 82.9% of children were received BCG vaccine. OPV1 vaccine was 82.6%. Pentavalent1 was 82.6%. Measles 1 represented for 71.7% and vitamin A1 was 46.4%. 91% was valid doses for OPV1 and 93% for pentavalent1. Only 76% of measles1 dose was valid. The high scores14% of drop-out rate was recorded between BCG and Measles. The main reasons for partially vaccinated and unvaccinated of children were the lack of information 61.7%. Conclusion: There is low vaccination coverage among children aged 12-23 months. There is a need to raise the awareness of community about vaccination and EPI services in Al-Taizyah district.
Schellberg, Ruth; Schwanitz, Gesa; Grävinghoff, Lutz; Kallenberg, Rolf; Trost, Detlef; Raff, Ruth; Wiebe, Walter
We investigated a group of 376 children, seen over a period of 7 years with different types of congenital cardiovascular defects, to assess the presence of chromosomal aberrations. The diagnostic approach, achieved in 3 consecutive steps, revealed conventional chromosomal aberrations in 30 of the patients (8%) excluding trisomies 13, 18, 21. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation for microdeletions showed 51 microdeletions (15%), with 43 patients having deletions of 22q11.2, 7 patients with deletion of 7q11.23, and 1 patient with deletion of 4p16.3. In 23 patients with additional clinical abnormalities, we carried out a subtelomeric screening. This revealed, in two cases (9%), different subtelomeric aberrations, namely deletions of 1p and of 1q. Thus, subtelomeric screening proved to be a very valuable as a new diagnostic approach. Our approach to genetic investigation in three phases makes it possible to detect a high rate of pathologic karyotypes in patients with congenital cardiovascular malformations, thus guaranteeing more effective genetic counselling of the families, and a more precise prognosis for the patient.
Diana A van Riet-Nales
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pharmaceutical industry is no longer allowed to develop new medicines for use in adults only, as the 2007 Paediatric Regulation requires children to be considered also. The plans for such paediatric development called Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs are subject to agreement by the European Medicines Agency (EMA and its Paediatric Committee (PDCO. The aim of this study was to evaluate the key characteristics of oral paediatric medicines in the PIPs and the changes implemented as a result of the EMA/PDCO review. METHODS: All PIPs agreed by 31 December 2011 were identified through a proprietary EMA-database. PIPs were included if they contained an agreed proposal to develop an oral medicine for children 0 to 11 years. Information on the therapeutic area (EMA classification system; target age range (as defined by industry and pharmaceutical characteristics (active substance, dosage form(s as listed in the PIP, strength of each dosage form, excipients in each strength of each dosage form was extracted from the EMA website or the EMA/PDCO assessment reports. RESULTS: A hundred and fifty PIPs were included corresponding to 16 therapeutic areas and 220 oral dosage forms in 431 strengths/compositions. Eighty-two PIPs (37% included tablets, 44 (20% liquids and 35 (16% dosage forms with a specific composition/strength that were stored as a solid but swallowed as a liquid e.g. dispersible tablets. The EMA/PDCO review resulted in an increase of 13 (207 to 220 oral paediatric dosage forms and 44 (387 to 431 dosage forms with a specific composition/strength. For many PIPs, the target age range was widened and the excipient composition and usability aspects modified. CONCLUSION: The EMA/PDCO review realized an increase in the number of requirements for the development of oral dosage forms and a larger increase in the number of dosage forms with a specific composition/strength, both targeting younger children. Changes to their pharmaceutical
Mustufa, Muhammad Ayaz; Jamali, Abdul Karim; Sameen, Ifra; Burfat, Fateh Muhammad; Baloch, Mir Yousaf; Baloch, Abdul Hameed; Baloch, Ghulam Rasool; Lashari, Shazia Kulsoom; Ayaz, Sobiya Mohiuddin; Baloch, Muhammad Younus
This survey was focusing on health and oral hygiene status of primary school children at Lasbela district considering the comparatively less developed and socio demographically deprived part of the Country. A cross sectional survey was conducted to determine the health status of primary school children in seven tehseels of district Lasbela, Balochistan after applying proportionate sampling technique from March 2015 to July 2015. Field teams visited assigned schools to screen children and collect health related data on predesigned and pre coded proforma. Out of 200 schools, 196 schools found opened, while 2% of schools (04) remained closed. A total of 6363 students were clinically screened. About 45% of the school children had normal body mass index (BMI) and rest were falling in different categories of malnutrition. More than 19% had ear, nose and throat (ENT) problems and around 19% presented with clinical anemia. Less than 50% of children had scar of BCG vaccination and 4% informed about use of gutka/supari chewing (smokeless tobacco use). In conclusion, we estimated high prevalence of malnutrition, poor oral health including smokeless tobacco use, and low BCG coverage among primary school children at Lasbela. Current scenario suggests immediate and contextually focused interventions to confine existing public health risks and avoid future burden of disease.
Noversa, Silvana; Abreu, Cátia; Varela, Paulo; Costa, Manuel F. M.
This communication results from a pedagogical intervention project, carried out at a primary school in the district of Braga - Portugal. The intervention took place in a class of the 3rd year, composed of 16 students, and it incorporated the practice of inquiry-based science teaching addressing the theme "Light Experiments", which is part of the "Environmental Studies" curricular area. Various class activities were planned and implemented concerning some of the factors that influence the shadow of an object, in order to find answers to the following three questions: a) will 3rd year students, aged 7/8 years, be able to construct and execute an investigation strategy that involves manipulating and controlling variables? b) what are the main difficulties experienced by students in the designing and execution of such a strategy? c) how will students, in interaction with the teacher and with their peers, gradually design and execute their investigation strategy in order to respond to the problem formulated? The project adopted an action research methodology. A careful record was kept of the events most relevant to the questions under study in each class. This data was used to prepare the class diaries - descriptive and reflective narratives prepared based on recorded audio and field notes made during participant observation in the context of the classroom. A content analysis of the diaries has identified a few elements that provide answers to the research questions raised. In order to plan and implement a research project with children in the 7/8 years old range require a high level of scaffolding to allow students to gradually build a coherent strategy to tackle the research problem. Teacher's role is crucial. The teacher, by questioning and inducing reasoning and discussion, promotes encourages and regulates the cognitive activity of students. Some level of autonomy should be given to the students in large group collaborative work.
Xu, Tingting; Nerren, Jannah S.
Attitudes and biases toward body size perceived as fat and body size perceived as thin are present in young children (Cramer and Steinwert in "J Appl Dev Psychol" 19(3):429-451, 1998; Worobey and Worobey in "Body Image" 11:171-174, 2014). However, the information children have regarding body size and ways to modify body size…
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was comparing visuo-spatial attention between children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-Inattentive (ADHD-I type and normal children. Methods: In this cross-sectional study fifteen (7-10 years of age children were classified with ADHD-I type and 15 normal children were matched for age, sex, and IQ. They were selected trough simple random sampling. Measurement tools were Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children 4th edition (WISC-IV, the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory and the Star Cancellation Test. Results: The results suggest that there is no significant difference between ADHD-I and normal children from the visuo-spatial standpoint (P>0.05. But three ADHD-I children exhibited signs of unilateral neglect. Discussion: Although, in this study the visuo-spatial attention was not different between ADHD-I group and normal group, considering this form of attention as an item in assessment and therapeutic interventions should not be neglected.
Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Youssef, George J.; Clark, Gillian M.
Purpose: In this study pupillometry was used to investigate the allocation of attentional resources associated with sentence comprehension in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Eighteen children with SLI (age: M = 6.4 years) and 18 typically developing (TD) children (age: M = 6.3 years) participated in the study.…
藤崎, 春代; Haruyo, FUJISAKI; 昭和女子大学大学院生活機構研究科
Influence of children's kindergarten on their homes was investigated through assessing parents'attitudes, from the perspective that for children and parents, the kindergarten is the first transition from home to society. I conducted a longitudinal questionnaires survey with parents of three to five-year-old children that consisted of six waves. Results indicated the following:(1)Older children spoke more about friends than about their caretakers with their parents,(2)Parents felt uneasy about...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual behavior is known to be atypical in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. Monitor-based eye-tracking studies have measured several of these atypicalities in individuals with Autism. While atypical behaviors are known to be accentuated during natural interactions, few studies have been made on gaze behavior in natural interactions. In this study we focused on i whether the findings done in laboratory settings are also visible in a naturalistic interaction; ii whether new atypical elements appear when studying visual behavior across the whole field of view. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten children with ASD and ten typically developing children participated in a dyadic interaction with an experimenter administering items from the Early Social Communication Scale (ESCS. The children wore a novel head-mounted eye-tracker, measuring gaze direction and presence of faces across the child's field of view. The analysis of gaze episodes to faces revealed that children with ASD looked significantly less and for shorter lapses of time at the experimenter. The analysis of gaze patterns across the child's field of view revealed that children with ASD looked downwards and made more extensive use of their lateral field of view when exploring the environment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data gathered in naturalistic settings confirm findings previously obtained only in monitor-based studies. Moreover, the study allowed to observe a generalized strategy of lateral gaze in children with ASD when they were looking at the objects in their environment.
Boekee, Kristy; Brown, Ted
Often certain types of toys are considered more appropriate either for boys or for girls to play with. Therapists often use toys to engage children in intervention activities to promote skill development. This study investigated the gender stereotype perspectives of children's toys held by adults who were and were not parents. Fifty-two…
Batur Musaoglu, Ebru; Haktanir, Gelengul
In Turkey, the preschoolers are being schooled under the guidelines of MONE (Ministry of National Education) Preschool Program for 36-72 Months Old Children (2006). The aim of this research is to investigate how children's rights are involved in this program. In this qualitative research based on document analysis, program book and Teacher Guide…
Fatores de risco para morte por pneumonia em menores de um ano em uma região metropolitana do sudeste do Brasil: um estudo tipo caso-controle Risk factors for death by pneumonia among children under one year of age in a metropolitan area of Southeastern Brazil: a case-control study
Flávia Maria Leal Niobey
Full Text Available Através de um estudo tipo caso-controle, foi comparada uma amostra de óbitos pós-neonatais por pneumonia ocorridos na Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (1986-1987 e controles sadios, moradores na vizinhança. Os fatores de risco investigados foram variáveis relacionadas à história gestacional da mãe e ao nascimento da criança, às condições sociais da família e à utilização de serviços de saúde. Na primeira etapa de análise, através de um modelo de regressão logística univariada, foram estimados os coeficientes de cada variável independente, o risco relativo e seus limites de confiança. O peso ao nascer e a idade do desmame mostraram-se das mais fortemente associadas com a variável dependente. Na segunda etapa, foi feito o ajuste pelo modelo de regressão logística múltipla e somente 4 variáveis permaneceram estatisticamente associadas com a mortalidade: idade do desmame, peso ao nascer, número de moradores da casa e aplicação da vacina BCG. Conclui-se que a mortalidade por pneumonia em menores de um ano está fortemente associada às condições sociais da família, em particular da mãe.In a case-control study, a sample of post-neonatal deaths from pneumonia occurring in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1986-1987 were compared with healthy controls who lived in the same neighborhood. Risk factors investigated were variables related to the mother's pregnancy history and the child's birth, to the family's social condition and to the use of health services. Using the univariate logistic regression model, the coefficients of each independent variable, the relative risk and its confidence limits were first estimated. Birth weight and age of weaning were strongly associated with the dependent variable. After adjustment by means of the multiple logistic regression model, only 4 variables remained statistically associated with mortality: age of weaning, birth weight, over crowding, and BCG
Nian Guan; Hao-Ming Chen; Zhi-Guang Hu
AIM: To investigate the refractive status of the preschool children in Xiantao, Hubei Province in order to find out the abnormal refraction error beyond the physiological range. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we investigated preschool children in kindergartens and the scattered ones were 12 716(25 432 eyes)ranging from 6mo～6 years old. 1 581 children(3 162 eyes)were diagnosed ametropia by Suresight refractive screening instrument, which were confirmed again after mydriasis optometry....
王俊; 李曦; 邓长国
Objective To Summarize the clinical characteristics and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculous meningitis in children. Methods The clinical data of 120 children with tubercular meningitis were selected for the retrospective analysis. Results The occurrence of tubercular meningitis in children without BCG Vaccination or scar accounted for 82. 5%,and the positive rate in head CT/MRI examination was 71. 56%. The cured or inproved cases accounted for 72. 5%,while those who gave up diagnosis and died are 27. 5%. The occurrence of tubercular meningitis in nurseling under a year old accounted for 55. 55%. The occurrence of tubercular meningitis in nurseling 1 to 3 years old accounted for 38. 24%. Conclusion The tubercu-lar meningitis in children is severe,97% of whom with tubercular meningitis have fever symptom and the positive rate in head MRI examination is high. The therapeutic effect in infants with tubercular meningitis and in those with drug resistance are poor. The BCG Vaccination is of preventive effect to tubercular meningitis in children.%目的：总结儿童结核性脑膜炎的临床特点,并探讨诊治方法。方法选取120例儿童结核性脑膜炎的临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果未接种卡介苗及无卡痕儿童结脑占82．5%,头颅CT/MRI检查阳性率71．56%。治愈或好转72．5%,放弃治疗及死亡27．5%。1岁以下婴儿结脑中重症结脑占55．55%,1~3岁幼儿结脑中重症结脑占38．24%。讨论儿童结核性脑膜炎病情重,结脑患儿97%有发热症状,头颅MRI检查阳性率高,婴幼儿结核性脑膜炎、耐药结核性脑膜炎治疗效果差,卡介苗接种对儿童结核性脑膜炎有预防作用。
Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Powell, Martine; Timms, Lydia; Snow, Pamela
Purpose: In this review article, meta-analysis was used to summarize research investigating language skills in maltreated children. Method: A systematic search of published studies was undertaken. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they investigated language skills in groups comprising maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Studies were…
1.Lord C, Risi S, Pickles A. Trajectory of language development in autistic spectrum disorders . In: Rice M, Warren S, eds. Developmental Language...Nonverbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kristina McFadden CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER An MEG Investigation of Neural Biomarkers and Language in Nonverbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders 5b
Iqbal Hossain, M; Yasmin, R; Kabir, I
A total of 479 children aged 6-60 months (male/female, 240/239) were studies during 1991 to 1992. Weight for age, height for age (mean +/- SD) were 72 +/- 11%, 90 +/- 7 and 87 +/- 10% of NCHS median respectively. According to Gomez classification, 96% of children had varying degrees of protein energy malnutrition (PEM) (28.4% mild, 58.2% moderate and 9.2% severe). According to Waterlow classification 84% were stunted(36% mild, 33% moderate and 15% severe) and 67% were wasted (47% mild, 18% moderate and 2% severe). Of all children 368 (77%) received BCG and 439 (82%) received partial or full dose of DPT and Polio vaccines. Among children aged 13-60 months 75% received Measles vaccine. Weaning food was started at (mean +/- SD) 8 +/- 4 months. Low household income, parental illiteracy, small family size (< or = 6), early or late weaning and absence of BCG vaccination were significantly associated with severe PEM. Timely weaning, education and promotion of essential vaccination may reduce childhood malnutrition especially severe PEM.
Kara, Nuri; Aydin, Cansu Cigdem; Cagiltay, Kursat
This paper introduces StoryTech, a smart storytelling toy that features a virtual space, which includes computer-based graphics and characters, and a real space, which includes plush toys, background cards, and a communication interface. When children put real objects on the receiver panel, the computer program shows related backgrounds and…
Qualter, Pamela; Rotenberg, Ken; Barrett, Louise; Henzi, Peter; Barlow, Alexandra; Stylianou, Maria; Harris, Rebecca A.
The hypothesis that lonely children show hypervigilance for social threat was examined in a series of three studies that employed different methods including advanced eye-tracking technology. Hypervigilance for social threat was operationalized as hostility to ambiguously motivated social exclusion in a variation of the hostile attribution…
Ulutas, Aysegül; Köksalan, Bahadir
The study was conducted to determine problem-solving skills of preschool age children on environment as well as factors affecting this skill. For this purpose, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together in the study and the research was designed in the screening model. This study is a descriptive type research since it…
Honey, Kyla L.; Rees, Paul; Griffey, Simon
The perceptions of Looked After Children (LAC; n = 51), their Designated Teachers (DTs), and a sample of non-LAC (n = 99) were elicited. LAC held more positive self-perceptions than the non-LAC, and similarly positive ratings were given for the LAC by their DTs; but LAC held lower career aspirations than the non-LAC. LAC differed in their levels…
McInnis, Melissa A.; Pierucci, Jillian M.; Gilpin, Ansley Tullos
Little research has explored valence and autonomy in children's imaginary relationships. In the present study, a new interview (modeled after an existing measure for real relationships) was designed to elicit descriptions of both positive and negative interactions with imaginary companions and to provide a measure of relationship valence and…
Compared to peers, children who had ADHD or depression were most adversely affected experiencing poorer educational outcomes in all five of the educational domains investigated. Children with epilepsy experienced poorer outcomes across four domains. Children with diabetes and asthma experienced more absence and increased SEN and asthmatic children experienced poorer attainment. Children who have these chronic illnesses at school appear to be at an educational disadvantage therefore further understanding of the intricate relationships between health and education is an on-going important area of public health.
Gilberto Ribeiro Arantes
Full Text Available A partir da prevalência de infecção tuberculosa em escolares com 7 anos de idade, calculou-se a taxa de redução do risco anual de infecção na cidade de São Paulo (Brasil, entre 1974 e 1982. Nesse período o declínio médio foi de 5% ao ano. Nas 59 escolas municipais pesquisadas não houve correlação entre a cobertura de vacinação BCG e a prevalência de infecção natural em não-vacinados, à idade estudada. A alergia tuberculínica no grupo de crianças vacinadas, que recebeu a vacina em alguma idade anterior entre o 1° e o 6° ano de vida, revelou-se 2,5 vezes mais intensa do que a alergia no grupo de mesma idade (7 anos, não vacinado previamente. Foram feitos comentários quanto à impropriedade do material utilizado com vistas ao cálculo do verdadeiro valor do risco de infecção tuberculosa na área em questão.The estimation of the risk of tuberculous infection from prevalence data obtained at school-age, in 1974 and in 1982, permitted the determination of the relevant trend in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil, between those years. The risk of infection decreased, on average, by 5% annually during the period. There was no evidence of any association between the proportions of vaccinated children and that of infected children among those unvaccinated, in the 59 schools studied. Tuberculin sensitivity in 7 years old school-children, vaccinated with BCG at any age between the 1st and the 6th year of life was 2.5 times more intense than that in unvaccinaetd children of the same age. With regard to the calculation of the true value of the risk of tuberculous infection, commentaries about the unrealiability of the available data were made.
Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder
Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.
Bartoszeck, Amauri Betini; Bartoszeck, Flavio Kulevicz
This paper reports data, part of a cross-sectional study about the use of pupil's drawings as a means of probing the development of 195 Brazilian pre-school children (4 to 6 year-olds) and 681 primary school pupils 1st Grade through 4th Grade (7 to 10 years of age) conceptions of the human brain. The aims of the present study is to analyze how the…
Easter, Abigail; Naumann, Ulrike; Northstone, Kate; Schmidt, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia
To investigate dietary patterns and nutritional intake in children of mothers with eating disorders. Mothers (N = 9423) from a longitudinal general population birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, completed Food Frequency Questionnaires on their children at 3, 4, 7, and 9 years of age. Macronutrient intake was estimated, and dietary patterns were obtained using principal components analysis. Linear regression and mixed-effects models were used to assess dietary patterns and nutritional intake among children of women with lifetime anorexia nervosa (AN, n = 140), bulimia nervosa (BN, n = 170), or AN+BN (n = 71), compared with children of women without eating disorders (unexposed women, n = 9037). Children in the maternal AN and BN groups had higher scores on the "health conscious/vegetarian" dietary pattern compared with unexposed children. Less adherence to the "traditional" dietary pattern was observed in children of exposed mothers, with more pronounced differences in early childhood. Children of women with AN and BN had higher intake of energy and children of women with BN had higher intake of carbohydrates and starch and lower intake of fat, compared with children in the unexposed group. Maternal eating disorders are associated with altered offspring dietary patterns and macronutrient intake. Longitudinal changes in patterns of diet in children of women with eating disorders may increase the risk of weight gain or disordered eating later in life. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sik Lányi, Cecília
We describe an investigation of memory colours. For this investigation Flash test software was developed. 75 observers used this test software in 4 groups: average elementary school children (aged: 8-9 years), intellectually disabled children (age: 9-15), virtual game addict university students (average age: 20) and university students who play with VR games rarely or never (average age: 20). In this pilot test we investigated the difference of memory colours of these 4 groups.
Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the refractive status of the preschool children in Xiantao, Hubei Province in order to find out the abnormal refraction error beyond the physiological range. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we investigated preschool children in kindergartens and the scattered ones were 12 716(25 432 eyesranging from 6mo～6 years old. 1 581 children(3 162 eyeswere diagnosed ametropia by Suresight refractive screening instrument, which were confirmed again after mydriasis optometry. RESULTS: The incidence rate of ametropia in preschool children in Xiantao was 12.4%, and statistics showed no significant difference between boys and girls(P>0.05, but had differences of morbility rate among each age group(PCONCLUSION: The incidence rate of ametropia decreases with age increasing in the preschool children from 6mo～6 years old, which imply preschool children should have mydriasis optometry in order to find out amblyopia and other congenital eye disease.
Katz, Carmit; Barnetz, Zion; Hershkowitz, Irit
The primary aim of the study was to evaluate investigative interviews from the perspectives of the children, comparing children who drew with children who did not. One hundred twenty-five children, alleged victims of sexual abuse, were asked about their investigative experience. The uniqueness of the study is that all of the interviews were conducted according to the NICHD Protocol and that children were randomly assigned into one of the two research conditions (drawing vs. non-drawing). The results clearly demonstrate the advantage that drawing has on the children's experience of the investigation, with children in the drawing group more often reporting feelings of hope and success. This study provides practical guidelines for practitioners by emphasizing the beneficial effects that drawing can have. The study stresses the importance of integrating into forensic investigations interventions that enhance children's testimonies and ensure that the investigation is an empowering experience that generates feelings of trust, self-worth, and justice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Easter, Abigail; Naumann, Ulrike; Northstone, Kate; Schmidt, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia
OBJECTIVE: To investigate dietary patterns and nutritional intake in children of mothers with eating disorders. STUDY DESIGN: Mothers (N = 9423) from a longitudinal general population birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, completed Food Frequency Questionnaires on their children at 3, 4, 7, and 9 years of age. Macronutrient intake was estimated, and dietary patterns were obtained using principal components analysis. Linear regression and mixed-effects models...
Tu, Hong-Anh T; Vu, Hoa D; Rozenbaum, Mark H; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Postma, Maarten J
The BCG vaccine was introduced in 1921 and remains the only licensed vaccine for the prevention of TB worldwide. Despite its extensive use, the BCG vaccine lacks the ability to fully control the TB-endemic and -pandemic situations. The BCG vaccine is most effective in preventing pediatric TB, in particular, miliary TB and tuberculous meningitis. However, it has a limited effect in preventing pulmonary TB, which occurs more frequently in adults. BCG vaccination has now been implemented in more than 157 countries worldwide. For various countries, the benefits of vaccination are only limited and potentially not cost effective. The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases had set the criteria for discontinuation of BCG vaccination in 1994. This decision, however, was not based on economic considerations. Many developed countries have met the criteria set by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease and stopped universal BCG vaccination. For developing countries, the BCG vaccine is still an effective intervention in protecting young children from TB infection. A lot of effort has been spent on R&D of new TB vaccines, the first of which are expected to be available within 5-7 years from now. Novel TB vaccines are expected to be better and more effective than the current BCG vaccine and should provide a viable strategy in controlling TB morbidity and mortality. In this review, the aim is to explore economic evaluations that have been carried out for vaccination against TB worldwide. In addition to epidemiological evidence, economic evidence can play a crucial role in supporting the governments of countries in making proper public health decisions on BCG vaccination policies, in particular, to implement, continue, or discontinue.
Zhao, Jin-Hua; Zhou, Hui; Xu, Ming; Lu, Sheng-Li; Hong, Fei
To evaluate the psychological state of children with epilepsy and analyze its influencing factors. The Mental Health Scale for Child and Adolescent was used to survey 113 children with epilepsy and 114 normal children to evaluate and compare their psychological state. Questionnaires were used to investigate the general status of all subjects and the disease condition and treatment of children with epilepsy. The possible influencing factors for the psychological state of children with epilepsy were analyzed. The mental health status of children with epilepsy was poorer than that of normal children in cognition, thinking, emotion, will-behavior, and personality traits (Pchildren with epilepsy. There is a wider range of psychological health problems in children with epilepsy than in normal children. Poor family living environment, poor seizure control, and use of many antiepileptic drugs are the risk factors affecting the psychological state of children with epilepsy. Improving family living environment, controlling seizures, and monotherapy help to improve the psychological state of children with epilepsy.
Davies, E Bethan; Buchanan, Heather
Behaviour management techniques (BMTs) are utilised by dentists to aid children's dental anxiety (DA). Children's perceptions of these have been underexplored, and their feedback could help inform paediatric dentistry. To explore children's acceptability and perceptions of dental communication and BMTs and to compare these by age, gender, and DA. A total of sixty-two 9- to 11-year-old school children participated in the study. Children's acceptability of BMTs was quantified using a newly developed Likert scale, alongside exploration of children's experiences and perceptions through interviews. anova and t-tests explored BMT acceptability ratings by age, gender, and DA. Thematic analysis was used to analyse interviews. Statistical analyses showed no effect of age, gender, or DA upon BMT acceptability. Children generally perceived the BMTs as acceptable or neutral; stop signals were the most acceptable, and voice control the least acceptable BMT. Beneficial experiences of distraction and positive reinforcement were common. Children described the positive nature of their dentist's communication and BMT utilisation. Dental anxiety did not affect children's perceptions of BMTs. Children were generally positive about dentist's communication and established BMTs. Children's coping styles may impact perceptions and effectiveness of BMTs and should be explored in future investigations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, BSPD and IAPD.
Altun, Meryem; Hazar, Muhsin; Hazar, Zekihan
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of brain teasers on attention spans of preschool children of age six. The study was conducted using an experimental design with a control group and pre-test/post-test. The sample of the study is children of age six selected via random appointment among ones who were enrolled in the Merkez…
Memari, Amir Hossein; Kordi, Ramin; Ziaee, Vahid; Mirfazeli, Fatemeh Sadat; Setoodeh, Mohammad S.
The purpose of this study was to survey the weight status of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Iranian pupils and further to investigate the most likely associated factors such as demographics, autism severity and medications. The survey was designed to provide a random sample of 113 children and adolescents (boys =…
Kim, Minkang; Chang, Heesun
Prejudice against another nation or culture is often perceived as a major hindrance to world peace. This paper will report on the early emergence of such prejudices, identified in eight-year-old primary school children in Korea. The research, conducted in June 2012, investigated Korean children's reactions to the Japanese tsunami of 2011. A…
Montgomery, James W.; Polunenko, Anzhela; Marinellie, Sally A.
The role of phonological short-term memory (PSTM), attentional resource capacity/allocation, and processing speed on children's spoken narrative comprehension was investigated. Sixty-seven children (6-11 years) completed a digit span task (PSTM), concurrent verbal processing and storage (CPS) task (resource capacity/allocation), auditory-visual…
McDougall, Allyson; Kerr, Alison M.; Espie, Colin A.
Background: Sleep problems in children with intellectual disability can be precipitated and maintained by intrinsic and external factors. The present study comprised a qualitative investigation of the experiences of parents of children with Rett syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder where sleep disturbance is common. Method: Audio-taped…
to unrelated pathogens. Immune changes have been implicated in changes in both child growth and child development and for that reason we also studied these outcomes. We randomized 4262 children at birth to receive BCG vaccination at birth or to a no-intervention control group. We had pre-specified subgroup...... analyses of child sex, prematurity, and maternal BCG vaccination. The statistical analysis plan was finalized prior to unblinding of the data. Follow-up for the outcomes reported in this thesis consisted of telephone interviews and clinical examination at age 3 and 13 months, as well as online......, there was no effect of BCG on either incidence of infections, growth, body composition or psychomotor development. A subgroup analysis of children of mothers who were BCG vaccinated showed a reduced incidence of infections from 0 to 3 months among BCG vaccinated children (incidence rate ratio = 0.62, CI: 0.39 to 0...
Mohammod Jobayer Chisti
Full Text Available In developing countries, there is no published report on predicting factors of severe sepsis in severely acute malnourished (SAM children having pneumonia and impact of fluid resuscitation in such children. Thus, we aimed to identify predicting factors for severe sepsis and assess the outcome of fluid resuscitation of such children.In this retrospective case-control study SAM children aged 0-59 months, admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh from April 2011 through July 2012 with history of cough or difficult breathing and radiologic pneumonia, who were assessed for severe sepsis at admission constituted the study population. We compared the pneumonic SAM children with severe sepsis (cases = 50 with those without severe sepsis (controls = 354. Severe sepsis was defined with objective clinical criteria and managed with fluid resuscitation, in addition to antibiotic and other supportive therapy, following the standard hospital guideline, which is very similar to the WHO guideline.The case-fatality-rate was significantly higher among the cases than the controls (40% vs. 4%; p<0.001. In logistic regression analysis after adjusting for potential confounders, lack of BCG vaccination, drowsiness, abdominal distension, acute kidney injury, and metabolic acidosis at admission remained as independent predicting factors for severe sepsis in pneumonic SAM children (p<0.05 for all comparisons.We noted a much higher case fatality among under-five SAM children with pneumonia and severe sepsis who required fluid resuscitation in addition to standard antibiotic and other supportive therapy compared to those without severe sepsis. Independent risk factors and outcome of the management of severe sepsis in our study children highlight the importance for defining optimal fluid resuscitation therapy aiming at reducing the case fatality in such children.
Reading, Richard; Hughes, Gwenda; Hill, Julia; Debelle, Geoff
The implications for sexual abuse investigation of genital herpes in a child are uncertain because of a lack of good quality research evidence. The incidence, presenting features, history of exposure, indicators of child maltreatment and outcomes of child protection investigations in children with genital herpes are described. Ascertainment of all cases of genital herpes in children herpes simplex type 1, eight were tested for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and only one had a full STI screen. Three cases had other clinical features suggestive of sexual abuse. Six cases were referred for child protection investigation, but no sexual abuse was substantiated. Genital herpes in children under 11 years is rare. Almost a third of children diagnosed with genital herpes did not have appropriate virological investigation and few were screened for other STIs. Around a quarter of cases were referred to child protection agencies for further investigation, which limits any inferences in this study about mode of transmission in children. Sexual abuse guidance should emphasise the need for thorough assessment and investigation in cases of genital herpes in children.
Mavroveli, Stella; Petrides, K V; Shove, Chloe; Whitehead, Amanda
This paper discusses the construct of trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) with emphasis on measurement in children. The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form (TEIQue-CF) is introduced and its development and theoretical background are briefly explained. It is shown in two independent studies that the TEIQue-CF has satisfactory levels of internal consistency (alpha = 0.76 and alpha = 0.73, respectively) and temporal stability [r = 0.79 and r ((corrected)) = 1.00]. Trait EI scores were generally unrelated to proxies of cognitive ability, as hypothesized in trait EI theory (Petrides et al. in Matthews et al. (eds) Emotional intelligence: knowns and unknowns -- series in affective science. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 151-166). They also differentiated between pupils with unauthorized absences or exclusions from school and controls. Trait EI correlated positively with teacher-rated positive behavior and negatively with negative behavior (emotional symptoms, conduct problems, peer problems, and hyperactivity).
Full Text Available The mechanisms behind heterologous immunity and non-specific effects of vaccines on mortality are not well understood. We examined associations between cytokine responses and subsequent mortality in low-birth-weight infants in Guinea-Bissau.A low-birth-weight trial randomized children to Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG at birth or later according to local policy. Blood samples were obtained from a sub-group at age 6 weeks. Interleukin (IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, interferon (IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were measured in whole-blood cell cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, phytohaemagglutinin (PHA, or purified protein derivative (PPD. The outcome was mortality between bleeding and 1 year of age. Non-linear associations between cytokine responses and mortality were examined.Cytokine measurements were available from 390 children. The mortality rate (MR was high (6.8/100 person-years-observation (PYO. Both low and high cytokine responses to LPS and PHA were associated with high mortality (MR up to 25/100 PYO in the lowest 10% and 9.2/100 PYO in the highest 10%. In BCG-vaccinated children, higher IFN-γ responses to PPD were associated with better survival (MR ratio = 0.43 (0.24-0.77.Data presented a rare opportunity to explore associations between cytokine responses and mortality. Both low and high cytokine responses were associated with high mortality; a balanced response to invading pathogens seems preferable.
Andersen, Andreas; Jensen, Kristoffer J; Erikstrup, Christian; Ravn, Henrik; Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Sartono, Erliyani; Aaby, Peter; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Benn, Christine S
The mechanisms behind heterologous immunity and non-specific effects of vaccines on mortality are not well understood. We examined associations between cytokine responses and subsequent mortality in low-birth-weight infants in Guinea-Bissau. A low-birth-weight trial randomized children to Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) at birth or later according to local policy. Blood samples were obtained from a sub-group at age 6 weeks. Interleukin (IL)-5, IL-10, IL-13, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured in whole-blood cell cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or purified protein derivative (PPD). The outcome was mortality between bleeding and 1 year of age. Non-linear associations between cytokine responses and mortality were examined. Cytokine measurements were available from 390 children. The mortality rate (MR) was high (6.8/100 person-years-observation (PYO)). Both low and high cytokine responses to LPS and PHA were associated with high mortality (MR up to 25/100 PYO in the lowest 10% and 9.2/100 PYO in the highest 10%). In BCG-vaccinated children, higher IFN-γ responses to PPD were associated with better survival (MR ratio = 0.43 (0.24-0.77)). Data presented a rare opportunity to explore associations between cytokine responses and mortality. Both low and high cytokine responses were associated with high mortality; a balanced response to invading pathogens seems preferable.
Henrica M A de Bie
Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR can lead to infants being born small for gestational age (SGA. SGA is associated with differences in brain anatomy and impaired cognition. We investigated learning and memory in children born SGA using neuropsychological testing and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI.18 children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA and 34 SGA born children (18 with and 16 without postnatal catch-up growth participated in this study. All children were between 4 and 7 years old. Cognitive functioning was assessed by IQ and memory testing (Digit/Word Span and Location Learning. A newly developed fMRI picture encoding task was completed by all children in order to assess brain regions involved in memory processes.Neuropsychological testing demonstrated that SGA children had IQ's within the normal range but lower than in AGA and poorer performances across measures of memory. Using fMRI, we observed memory related activity in posterior parahippocampal gyrus as well as the hippocampus proper. Additionally, activation was seen bilaterally in the prefrontal gyrus. Children born SGA showed less activation in the left parahippocampal region compared to AGA.This is the first fMRI study demonstrating different brain activation patterns in 4-7 year old children born SGA, suggesting that intrauterine growth restriction continues to affect neural functioning in children later-on.
de Bie, Henrica M A; de Ruiter, Michiel B; Ouwendijk, Mieke; Oostrom, Kim J; Wilke, Marko; Boersma, Maria; Veltman, Dick J; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to infants being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA is associated with differences in brain anatomy and impaired cognition. We investigated learning and memory in children born SGA using neuropsychological testing and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). 18 children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and 34 SGA born children (18 with and 16 without postnatal catch-up growth) participated in this study. All children were between 4 and 7 years old. Cognitive functioning was assessed by IQ and memory testing (Digit/Word Span and Location Learning). A newly developed fMRI picture encoding task was completed by all children in order to assess brain regions involved in memory processes. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated that SGA children had IQ's within the normal range but lower than in AGA and poorer performances across measures of memory. Using fMRI, we observed memory related activity in posterior parahippocampal gyrus as well as the hippocampus proper. Additionally, activation was seen bilaterally in the prefrontal gyrus. Children born SGA showed less activation in the left parahippocampal region compared to AGA. This is the first fMRI study demonstrating different brain activation patterns in 4-7 year old children born SGA, suggesting that intrauterine growth restriction continues to affect neural functioning in children later-on.
Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming
Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence the learning of hygiene of pre-school ethnic minority children in rural Vietnam. Eight months of ethnographic field studies were conducted among four ethnic minority groups living in highland and lowland communities in northern Vietnam. Data included participant observation in four kindergartens and 20 homes of pre-school children, together with 67 semi-structured interviews with caregivers and five kindergarten staff. Thematic analysis was applied and concepts of social learning provided inputs to the analysis. This study showed that poor living conditions with lack of basic sanitation infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified as potentially important institutions for improving child hygiene education, essential and well-functioning hygiene infrastructures were lacking. Also, hygiene teaching relied on theoretical and non-practice-based learning styles, which did not facilitate hygiene behaviour change in small children. Minority children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt a strong practice-based teaching approach in daily work and in teacher's education. To support highland minority children in particular, teaching styles must take local living conditions and caregiver structures into account
After the survey in 1975 and 1979 of Down's syndrome in the children living in high background radiation area, we made a follow-up investigation in 1985 and 1986. All the obtained data are analysed. 25258 children in high background radiation area were examined and 22 children with Down's syndrome were identified, the morbidity rate being 0.87%. 21837 children in control area were examined and four children with Down's syndrome were identified, the morbidity being 0.18%. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups. It was noted that the occurrence of Down's syndrome was related to the maternal age but there was no evidence suggesting a close relationship between high background radiation and the development of Down's syndrome
Yang, F; Shaw, A; Garduno, E; Olson, K R
Copying other people's ideas is evaluated negatively by American children and adults. The current study investigated the influence of culture on children's evaluations of plagiarism by comparing children from three countries--the United States, Mexico, and China--that differ in terms of their emphasis on the protection of intellectual property and ideas. Children (3- to 6-year-olds) were presented with videos involving two characters drawing pictures and were asked to evaluate the character who drew unique work or the character who copied someone else's drawing. The study showed that 5- and 6-year-olds from all three cultures evaluated copiers negatively compared with unique drawers. These results suggest that children from cultures that place different values on the protection of ideas nevertheless develop similar concerns with plagiarism by 5-year-olds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Patterson, John C.
This booklet provides guidance to law enforcement officers investigating missing children cases, whether through parental kidnappings, abductions by strangers, runaway or "throwaway" cases, and those in which the circumstances are unknown. The guide describes, step-by-step, the investigative process required for each of the four types of missing…
In order to find out what caused the differences in incidences of Down's syndrome between the children in high background radiation area and those in control area, investigation and analysis were carried ou in 5 aspects based on the original data and the information from the previous survey. These are: the incidences of congenital malformations in normal areas, the age distribution of children examined, the maternal age, the dates of birth of afflicted children, and the radiation exposure of mothers. The results suggested that the higher incidence of Down's syndrome in high background area might be related to the materal age. Further studies are needed to arrive at a conclusion
Kvist, T; Annerbäck, E-M; Dahllöf, G
Child abuse and neglect (CAN) are likely to have negative consequences on health; however, for oral health, studies on associated outcomes are sparse. The purpose of this study was to assess oral health and oral health behaviors in relation to suspected CAN among children being investigated by the Swedish Social Services. The material comprised data from the Social Services and dental records; the sample, 86 children and 172 matched controls. The children in the study group had a higher prevalence of dental caries than the control group; in addition, levels of non-attendance and dental avoidance were high, as was parental failure to promote good oral health. We found four factors that, taken together, indicated a high probability of being investigated because of suspected CAN: prevalence of dental caries in primary teeth, fillings in permanent teeth, dental health service avoidance, and referral to specialist pediatric dentistry clinics. If all four factors were present, the cumulative probability of being investigated was 0.918. In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of dental caries, irregular attendance, and a need for referral a pediatric dental clinic among Swedish children under investigation due to suspected CAN. Social context is an important factor in assessing the risk of developing dental caries, the inclination to follow treatment plans, and the prerequisites for cooperation during treatment. Routinely requesting dental records during an investigation would provide important information for social workers on parental skills and abilities to fulfill the basic needs of children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Lund, Najaaraq
BCG alone at birth, and subsequently randomised to have a blood sample taken at 2, 4 or 6 weeks post-randomisation. Excreted levels of cytokines (IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ) were measured from whole blood in vitro stimulations with a panel of recall vaccine antigens (BCG, PPD, OPV), mitogen...... prevalence of IFN-γ responses to PPD (prevalence ratio (PR): 0.84 (0.72-0.98)) and reduced IL-5 to PPD (PR: 0.78 (0.64-0.96)). No effects were observed for CPR, RBP, white blood cell distribution, or BCG scar prevalence. CONCLUSION: The results corroborate that OPV attenuates the immune response to co...
Vieira, Ana Paula; Vasconcelos, Júlia; Fernandes, José Carlos; Antunes, Henedina; Basto, A. Sousa; Macedo, Cristiana; Zaman, Afsana; Santos, Eugénia; Melo, J. Castro; Roos, Dirk
We report a 15-month-old boy who developed an ulcer in the left axillary fold following bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination. Subsequent immunologic and genetic studies led to the diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease. His mother had "lupus-like" lesions, described in some carriers of this
Jeremiah, Kidola; PrayGod, George; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel
Failure to convert (persistent sputum and/or culture positivity) while on antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment at the end of the second month of anti-TB therapy has been reported to be a predictor of treatment failure. Factors that could be associated with persistent bacillary positivity at the e...
Stephen P Carter
Full Text Available Wildlife is a global source of endemic and emerging infectious diseases. The control of tuberculosis (TB in cattle in Britain and Ireland is hindered by persistent infection in wild badgers (Meles meles. Vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG has been shown to reduce the severity and progression of experimentally induced TB in captive badgers. Analysis of data from a four-year clinical field study, conducted at the social group level, suggested a similar, direct protective effect of BCG in a wild badger population. Here we present new evidence from the same study identifying both a direct beneficial effect of vaccination in individual badgers and an indirect protective effect in unvaccinated cubs. We show that intramuscular injection of BCG reduced by 76% (Odds ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.11-0.52 the risk of free-living vaccinated individuals testing positive to a diagnostic test combination to detect progressive infection. A more sensitive panel of tests for the detection of infection per se identified a reduction of 54% (Odds ratio = 0.46, 95% CI 0.26-0.88 in the risk of a positive result following vaccination. In addition, we show the risk of unvaccinated badger cubs, but not adults, testing positive to an even more sensitive panel of diagnostic tests decreased significantly as the proportion of vaccinated individuals in their social group increased (Odds ratio = 0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.76; P = 0.03. When more than a third of their social group had been vaccinated, the risk to unvaccinated cubs was reduced by 79% (Odds ratio = 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-0.81; P = 0.02.
Hua, L; Linke, R J; Boucaut, H A P; Khurana, S
Micturating cystourethrograms (MCUG) are the gold standard for evaluating vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). There is a growing consensus for increasing the threshold for performing MCUGs following urinary tract infections (UTI) in children. There are several varying guidelines. It is important to detect high-grade reflux in the setting of an UTI because of potential long-term complications. This audit aimed to retrospectively: (1) identify the conformance rate of local guidelines at the Women's and Children's Hospital (WCH); (2) assess predictors for an abnormal MCUG; and (3) compare local guidelines against the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne (RCH), National Institute for Healthcare and Excellence (NICE), and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines for selectively detecting high-grade reflux. The number of MCUGs performed from 2008 to 2012 at the WCH radiology department was collected. Patients undergoing MCUG during the 2012 calendar year were identified. Only children having an initial MCUG as part of an UTI investigation with prerequisite imaging as per guidelines were included. Each child's age, sex, referral source, reason, renal ultrasound (RUS) prior to the MCUG, MCUG result and VUR grade were recorded. The WCH guidelines were applied to determine conformance, to evaluate predictors for an abnormal MCUG, and compared against other retrospectively applied guidelines (RCH, NICE, AAP). There was complete data for 168 children who underwent MCUG as part of an UTI investigation (median age 0.79 years, range 0.12-8.74, male:female 67:101). There were 67/168 abnormal MCUGs (62 children with VUR, five bladder diverticulum), and 97 refluxing renal units (43 high-grade VUR units). No posterior urethral valves (PUV) were identified as part of the UTI investigation. A total of 143/168 patients had prior RUS (normal:abnormal 67:76). The WCH guidelines had 82% conformance. There was no statistically significant association between an abnormal MCUG and age, sex
Collier, J; Butler, R J; Redsell, S A; Evans, J H C
This study sought to evaluate the relationship between the self-esteem and the self-image of children with nocturnal enuresis and to examine these in relation to various aspects of clinical and demographic variables. Previous studies investigating the self-esteem of bedwetting children have had mixed findings. Some studies report that children with nocturnal enuresis have a lower self-esteem than their non-bedwetting peers, but other studies report that children with nocturnal enuresis perceive themselves similarly to non-bedwetting children. However, what have not been studied to date are the self-perceptions of bedwetting children treated in community clinics. A total of 114 bedwetting children treated in community clinics provided the sample. School nurses conducted a routine first-visit assessment, collected baseline demographic and social information and invited children to complete the Butler Self-Image Profile and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Age and extent of wetting were not significantly related to self-concept measures. Girls had significantly (p = 0.008) higher scores on positive self-image compared with boys. Children with secondary enuresis also scored higher on positive self-image compared with those with primary nocturnal enuresis (p = 0.02). The Butler self-image scores indicated a number of significant links between positive self-image and enuresis variables, whereas the Coopersmith self-esteem scores generally failed to distinguish between the enuresis variables and closely reflected those of the negative self-image scores. These findings suggest that amongst children with nocturnal enuresis, the most vulnerable in terms of self-image are male, those with primary enuresis and those with a greater number of wet nights a week.
Full Text Available Background Tuberculosis (TB and cigarette consumption are relatively high in Indonesia. Passive smoking may increase the risk of infection and disease in adults and children exposed to TB. An association between passive smoking and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children has not been well documented. Objective To assess for an association between passive smoking and M. tuberculosis infection in children who had household contact with a TB patient. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in February and March 2011. Children aged 5 to 18 years who had household contact with a TB patient underwent tuberculin testing for M. tuberculosis infection. Subjects were divided into two groups: those exposed to passive smoke and those not exposed to passive smoke. Chi-square test was used to assess for an association between passive smoking and M. tuberculosis infection. Results There were 140 children enrolled in this study, with 70 exposed to passive smoke and 70 not exposed to passive smoke. Prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection was significantly higher in the passive smoking group than in those not exposed to passive smoke [81.4% and 52.9%, respectively, (P= 0.0001]. In the passive smoking group there were significant associations between nutritional state, paternal and maternal education, and M. tuberculosis infection. But no associations were found between M. tuberculosis infection and familial income or BCG vaccination. Conclusion Among children who had household contact with a TB patient, they who exposed to passive smoke are more likely to have M. tuberculosis infection compared to they who not exposed to passive smoke.
Research on children of persons with a severe mental illness focuses predominantly on parents' and others' perceptions. Children of mentally ill parents form a vulnerable group that has not been adequately paid attention to in psychiatric care institutions. Comparatively little is known about the children's recognition of their parents and the everyday situation of these families. The aim of the study was to investigate experiences of their life situation in children 10-18 years of age in a family with a parent with a severe mental illness. Eight children were interviewed concerning their everyday life situation. The interviews were analysed inspired from using thematic analysis. From the analysis of the material emerged aspects concerning the following themes: need for conversation, love for their family, maturity, experience of fear and blame, feelings of loneliness, responsibility and associated stigma. This study highlights the situation experienced by children of severely mentally ill persons who also are parents. The study may be found to be a basis for inspiring structured interventions and treatments programmes including children of the adult patients seeking psychiatric treatment.
Full Text Available Objective: Mothers of children with spinabifida spend more time to care for their children. Doing this care, depending on the child's functional mobility level can probably cause damage to physical and mental health of mothers. This study aimed to determine the quality of life (QOL of mothers of children with spinabifida (SB, according to the Hoffer levels using the SF-36 questionnaire. Materials & Methods: This research was a descriptive- analitical, cross-sectional study. The sample of this study was consisted of mothers of children with SB (2/5– 14 years old, in Tehran. The sample were selected by convenience sampling in the Rehabilitation Outpatient Clinics of University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, that 203 mothers were assessed in one clinic. Primery measures were the Hoffer criteria for grouping and determine the levels of ambulation in children with SB and the outcome measure was SF-36 questionnaire. Data were analyzed using, t test, ANOVA and MANOVA in SPSS (version 18. Results: In this study, there were significant differences in mean scores on the physical component summary (PCS (P<0/01 and Mental component summary (MCS of SF36 (P<0/01 in mothers of children with SB in Hoffer levels. The significant difference in PCS and MCS of SF36, was related to the level I with the other levels of Hoffer criteria, there were no Significant difference in mean score for the PCS and MCS the QOL of mothers for sex and child's age levels (P<0/05. There were a significant differences in mean PCS and MCS a QOL of mothers in different types of SB (P<0/01. This significant difference was related to aculta with meningocele and myelomeningocele (P<0/01. Conclusion: The dimensions of PCS and MCS of SF36 of mother with SB were affected with types of SB and increasing the levels of Hoffer. In conclusion, Mothers of children with SB require paying attention to their QOL during treatment of the child. In addition, the services should be
Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunization is one of the most effective health interventions averting an estimated 2–3 million deaths every year. In Nepal, as in most low-income countries, infants are immunized with standard WHO recommended vaccines. However, 16.4 % of children did not receive complete immunization by 12 months of age in Nepal in 2011. Studies from different parts of the world showed that incomplete immunization is even higher in slums. The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of incompletion of immunization among children aged 12–23 months living in the slums of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Methods The unmatched case-control study was conducted in 22 randomly selected slums of Kathmandu Valley. The sampling frame was first identified by complete enumeration of entire households of the study area from which 59 incompletely immunized children as cases and 177 completely immunized children as controls were chosen randomly in 1:3 ratio. Data were collected from the primary caretakers of the children. Backward logistic regression with 95 % confidence interval and adjusted odds ratio (AOR were applied to assess the factors independently associated with incomplete immunization. Result Twenty-six percent of the children were incompletely vaccinated. The coverage of BCG vaccine was 95.0 % while it was 80.5 % for measles vaccine. The significant predictors of incomplete immunization were the home delivery of a child, the family residing on rent, a primary caretaker with poor knowledge about the schedule of vaccination and negative perception towards vaccinating a sick child, conflicting priorities, and development of abscess following immunization. Conclusion Reduction of abscess formation rate can be a potential way to improve immunization rates. Community health volunteers should increase their follow-up on children born at home and those living in rent. Health institutions and volunteers should be influential in creating
Imbert, P; Guérin, N; Sorge, F
Each year hundreds of thousands of children leave France to travel to developing countries where they are exposed to infectious agents that can be prevented by vaccination. During the child's pre-travel check-up, practitioners should check that all mandatory immunizations are up-to-date and provide advice on relevant vaccines in function of the epidemiological situation at the chosen destination. However various factors hinder full compliance with this approach and some vaccines are underused. Underused vaccines are referred to as neglected vaccines. In the French vaccination schedule three vaccinations can be considered as neglected. The first is the hepatitis B vaccine that has a low coverage level in France due to strong reluctance to its use despite the fact that the virus is widespread in tropical areas. The second is pneumococcal vaccine that should be administered to all infants less than 2 years of age, especially for travel to areas where pneumonia and meningitis are frequent. The third is BCG vaccine that is now at greater risk of being neglected in child travellers because its use has been downgraded from a general requirement to a recommendation only for children at risk. A serious limitation on the use of travel vaccinations is cost that can lead families to neglect some infectious risk such as hepatitis A that is a major risk for child travellers as well as for their relatives during or after the trip and typhoid fever that is essentially an imported disease. Rabies vaccine is also underused due to its cost and to poor understanding of the risk by many practitioners and families. The purpose of this article is to underline the need to improve information and access to vaccines that are all too often neglected in child travellers.
Investigates the relationships between the characteristics of a parenting model and children's school outcomes. Utilizes interviews to identify and define parenting styles. Discovers that parenting styles affect academic achievement and school attitudes but do little to influence the relationship between intellectual ability and school outcomes.…
Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.
Purpose: This preliminary investigation assessed the attentional processes of preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during Traditional cueing and Affect cueing tasks. Method: Participants consisted of 12 3- to 5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS (all boys). Both talker groups participated in two tasks of shifting and…
Edison, Shannon C.; Evans, Mary Ann; McHolm, Angela E.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Boyle, Michael; Schmidt, Louis A.
The authors examined parent-child interactions among three groups: selectively mute, anxious, and non-anxious children in different contexts. The relation between parental control (granting autonomy and high power remarks), child factors (i.e., age, anxiety, verbal participation), and parent anxiety was investigated. Parental control varied by…
de Bie, Henrica M. A.; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Ouwendijk, Mieke; Oostrom, Kim J.; Wilke, Marko; Boersma, Maria; Veltman, Dick J.; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A.
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to infants being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA is associated with differences in brain anatomy and impaired cognition. We investigated learning and memory in children born SGA using neuropsychological testing and functional Magnetic
This is a descriptive study investigating the perception of children about discipline through metaphors developed by them. A total of 445 students participated in the research and the data was collected with the "Discipline Metaphors Survey (DMS)" developed by the researchers. At the end of the study, 143 metaphors, 94 positive and 49…
Falkus, Gila; Tilley, Ciara; Thomas, Catherine; Hockey, Hannah; Kennedy, Anna; Arnold, Tina; Thorburn, Blair; Jones, Katie; Patel, Bhavika; Pimenta, Claire; Shah, Rena; Tweedie, Fiona; O'Brien, Felicity; Leahy, Ruth; Pring, Tim
Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) is widely used by speech and language therapists to improve the interactions between children with delayed language development and their parents/carers. Despite favourable reports of the therapy from clinicians, little evidence of its effectiveness is available. We investigated the effects of PCIT as…
Jeffrey A. Bennett
Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS, a rare genetic disorder caused by the lack of expression of paternal genes from chromosome 15q11-13, has been investigated for autism spectrum disorder (ASD symptomatology in various studies. However, previous findings have been variable, and no studies investigating ASD symptomatology in PWS have exclusively studied children. We aimed to characterize social communication functioning and other ASD-related symptoms in children with PWS, and assessed agreement across measures and rates of ASD diagnosis. Measures included the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2 (ADOS-2, the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ, Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2, Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS, and the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales-II (VABS-II. General adaptive and intellectual skills were also assessed. Clinical best estimate (CBE diagnosis was determined by an experienced developmental pediatrician, based on history and review of all available study measures, and taking into account overall developmental level. Participants included 10 children with PWS, aged 3 to 12 years. Three of the 10 children were male and genetic subtypes were two deletion (DEL and eight uniparental disomy (UPD (with a total of 6 female UPD cases. Although 8 of the 10 children exceeded cut-offs on at least one of the ASD assessments, agreement between parent questionnaires (SCQ, SRS-2, SSIS-RS and observational assessment (ADOS-2 was very poor. None of the children were assigned a CBE diagnosis of ASD, with the caveat that the risk may have been lower because of the predominance of girls in the sample. The lack of agreement between the assessments emphasizes the complexity of interpreting ASD symptom measures in children with PWS.
Bennett, Jeffrey A; Hodgetts, Sandra; Mackenzie, Michelle L; Haqq, Andrea M; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a rare genetic disorder caused by the lack of expression of paternal genes from chromosome 15q11-13, has been investigated for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology in various studies. However, previous findings have been variable, and no studies investigating ASD symptomatology in PWS have exclusively studied children. We aimed to characterize social communication functioning and other ASD-related symptoms in children with PWS, and assessed agreement across measures and rates of ASD diagnosis. Measures included the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2 (ADOS-2), the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2), Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS), and the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales-II (VABS-II). General adaptive and intellectual skills were also assessed. Clinical best estimate (CBE) diagnosis was determined by an experienced developmental pediatrician, based on history and review of all available study measures, and taking into account overall developmental level. Participants included 10 children with PWS, aged 3 to 12 years. Three of the 10 children were male and genetic subtypes were two deletion (DEL) and eight uniparental disomy (UPD) (with a total of 6 female UPD cases). Although 8 of the 10 children exceeded cut-offs on at least one of the ASD assessments, agreement between parent questionnaires (SCQ, SRS-2, SSIS-RS) and observational assessment (ADOS-2) was very poor. None of the children were assigned a CBE diagnosis of ASD, with the caveat that the risk may have been lower because of the predominance of girls in the sample. The lack of agreement between the assessments emphasizes the complexity of interpreting ASD symptom measures in children with PWS.
Hu, Zhouyi; Chan, Raymond C K; McAlonan, Grainne M
The assessment of social attribution skills in children can potentially identify and quantify developmental difficulties related to autism spectrum disorders and related conditions. However, relatively little is known about how these skills develop in typically developing children. Therefore the present study aimed to map the trajectory of social attribution skill acquisition in typically developing children from a young age. In the conventional social attribution task (SAT) participants ascribe feelings to moving shapes and describe their interaction in social terms. However, this format requires that participants understand both, that an inanimate shape is symbolic, and that its action is social in nature. This may be challenging for young children, and may be a potential confounder in studies of children with developmental disorders. Therefore we developed a modified SAT (mSAT) using animate figures (e.g. animals) to simplify the task. We used the SAT and mSAT to examine social attribution skill development in 154 healthy children (76 boys, 78 girls), ranging in age from 6 to 13 years and investigated the relationship between social attribution ability and executive function. The mSAT revealed a steady improvement in social attribution skills from the age of 6 years, and a significant advantage for girls compared to boys. In contrast, children under the age of 9 years performed at baseline on the conventional format and there were no gender differences apparent. Performance on neither task correlated with executive function after controlling for age and verbal IQ, suggesting that social attribution ability is independent of cognitive functioning. The present findings indicate that the mSAT is a sensitive measure of social attribution skills from a young age. This should be carefully considered when choosing assessments for young children and those with developmental disorders.
Chan Raymond CK
Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of social attribution skills in children can potentially identify and quantify developmental difficulties related to autism spectrum disorders and related conditions. However, relatively little is known about how these skills develop in typically developing children. Therefore the present study aimed to map the trajectory of social attribution skill acquisition in typically developing children from a young age. Methods In the conventional social attribution task (SAT participants ascribe feelings to moving shapes and describe their interaction in social terms. However, this format requires that participants understand both, that an inanimate shape is symbolic, and that its action is social in nature. This may be challenging for young children, and may be a potential confounder in studies of children with developmental disorders. Therefore we developed a modified SAT (mSAT using animate figures (e.g. animals to simplify the task. We used the SAT and mSAT to examine social attribution skill development in 154 healthy children (76 boys, 78 girls, ranging in age from 6 to 13 years and investigated the relationship between social attribution ability and executive function. Results The mSAT revealed a steady improvement in social attribution skills from the age of 6 years, and a significant advantage for girls compared to boys. In contrast, children under the age of 9 years performed at baseline on the conventional format and there were no gender differences apparent. Performance on neither task correlated with executive function after controlling for age and verbal IQ, suggesting that social attribution ability is independent of cognitive functioning. The present findings indicate that the mSAT is a sensitive measure of social attribution skills from a young age. This should be carefully considered when choosing assessments for young children and those with developmental disorders.
Sotgiu, Giovanni; Altet-Gómez, Neus; Tsolia, Maria; Ruga, Ezia; Velizarova, Svetlana; Kampmann, Beate
Rationale: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release assays are widely used to diagnose latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in adults, but their performance in children remains incompletely evaluated to date. Objectives: To investigate factors influencing results of IFN-γ release assays in children using a large European data set. Methods: The Pediatric Tuberculosis Network European Trials group pooled and analyzed data from five sites across Europe comprising 1,128 children who were all investigated for latent tuberculosis infection by tuberculin skin test and at least one IFN-γ release assay. Multivariate analyses examined age, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination status, and sex as predictor variables of results. Subgroup analyses included children who were household contacts. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 1,093 children had a QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay and 382 had a T-SPOT.TB IFN-γ release assay. Age was positively correlated with a positive blood result (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube: odds ratio [OR], 1.08 per year increasing age [P 5 yr). Conclusions: Our data show that BCG vaccination may be effective in protecting children against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. To restrict use of IFN-γ release assays to children with positive skin tests risks underestimating latent infection. PMID:22700862
This research compared two methods used to investigate the knowledge of internal body parts by children ages 4 to 9 years. Subjects were 50 Italian children: 18 preschoolers, 21 first graders, and 11 second or third graders. Children performed two tasks, a Drawing Task in which they drew on the outline of a human figure all the body parts they…
Barry, Christopher T; Frick, Paul J; Killian, Amber L
Investigated several possible models to explain the seemingly discrepant relations between self-esteem and conduct problems, as both low self-esteem and exaggerated levels of self-esteem, thought to be captured by narcissism, have been associated with aggressive and antisocial behavior. Our sample consisted of 98 nonreferred children (mean age = 11.9 years; SD = 1.68 years) recruited from public schools to oversample children at risk for severe aggressive and antisocial behavior. Results indicated that certain aspects of narcissism (i.e., those indicating a need to be evaluated well by, and obtain status over, others) were particularly predictive of maladaptive characteristics and outcomes such as low self-esteem, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and conduct problems. In addition, the relation between narcissism and conduct problems was moderated by self-esteem level, such that children with relatively high levels of narcissism and low self-esteem showed the highest rates of conduct-problem symptoms.
Triplett, Regina L.; Velanova, Katerina; Luna, Beatriz; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Gaillard, William D.; Asato, Miya R.
SUMMARY Objective Deficits in executive function are increasingly noted in children with epilepsy and have been associated with poor academic and psychosocial outcomes. Impaired inhibitory control contributes to executive dysfunction in children with epilepsy; however, its neuroanatomic basis has not yet been investigated. We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to probe the integrity of activation in brain regions underlying inhibitory control in children with epilepsy. Methods This cross-sectional study consisted of 34 children aged 8 to 17 years: 17 with well-controlled epilepsy and 17 age-and sex-matched controls. Participants performed the antisaccade (AS) task, representative of inhibitory control, during fMRI scanning. We compared AS performance during neutral and reward task conditions and evaluated task-related blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation. Results Children with epilepsy demonstrated impaired AS performance compared to controls during both neutral (non-reward) and reward trials, but exhibited significant task improvement during reward trials. Post-hoc analysis revealed that younger patients made more errors than older patients and all controls. fMRI results showed preserved activation in task-relevant regions in patients and controls, with the exception of increased activation in the left posterior cingulate gyrus in patients specifically with generalized epilepsy across neutral and reward trials. Significance Despite impaired inhibitory control, children with epilepsy accessed typical neural pathways as did their peers without epilepsy. Children with epilepsy showed improved behavioral performance in response to the reward condition, suggesting potential benefits of the use of incentives in cognitive remediation. PMID:25223606
Gregori, Dario; Gulati, Achal; Hochdorn, Alexander; Ballali, Simonetta; Paramesh, Haralappa; Kumar, Malathi; Baldi, Ileana
To investigate, in a large pan Indian sample of school children, whether gadgets (toys) added to food increase food consumption, and if contemporary exposure to TV and/or advertising is a further promoting factor. A total of 1,680 Indian children were first randomized to food exposure with or without toy and then to a five-level exposure to TV viewing and advertising according to a 2 × 5 full factorial ad libitum eating design study. The sample size was computed to detect a difference of 20 Kcal of caloric intake (assuming the same standard deviation of 20 Kcal in both groups) between "food with gadget" (Toy) and "food alone" (No Toy) groups in each level of the exposure to TV and advertising factor, given an alpha error equal to 0.05 and a power of 0.90. Mean caloric intake both in "Toy" and "No Toy" group was around 223 Kcal. When considering exposure to TV and advertising, mean values varied negligibly between 222 and 225 Kcal. According to linear models for the effect of gadget and exposure to TV and/or advertising on children's intake, no significant adjusted associations were found, neither as main effects nor as interactions. Food consumption by children is not influenced by the presence of added toys, even after adjustment for several potential confounding factors. The city where they live and age significantly influences Indian children's caloric intake.
Fatemeh Fakar Gharamaleki
Full Text Available Objective Stuttering is a developmental disorder of speech fluency with unknown causes. One of the proposed theories in this field is deficits in speech motor control that is associated with damaged control, timing, and coordination of the speech muscles. Fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency range, intensity, intensity range, and voice onset time are the most important acoustic components that are often used for indirect evaluation of physiological functions underlying the mechanisms of speech motor control. The purpose of this investigation was to compare some of the acoustic characteristics of speech motor control in children who stutter and children who do not stutter. Materials & Methods This research is a descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional comparative study. A total of 25 Azari-Persian bilingual boys who stutter (stutters group and 23 Azari-Persian bilinguals and 21 Persian monolingual boys who do not stutter (non-stutters group in the age range of 6 to 10 years participated in this study. Children participated in /a/ and /i/ vowels prolongation and carrier phrase repetition tasks for the analysis of some of their acoustic characteristics including fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency range, intensity, intensity range, and voice onset time. The PRAAT software was used for acoustic analysis. SPSS software (version 17, one-way ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for analyzing the data. Results The results indicated that there were no significant differences between the stutters and non-stutters groups (P>0.05 with respect to the acoustic features of speech motor control . Conclusion No significant group differences were observed in all of the dependent variables reported in this study. Thus, the results of this research do not support the notion of aberrant speech motor control in children who stutter.
Chilosi, A M; Scusa, M F; Comparini, A; Genovese, E; Forli, F; Berrettini, S; Cipriani, P
Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is complicated by additional disabilities in about 30% of cases, but the epidemiology of associated disorders, in terms of type, frequency and aetiology is still not clearly defined. Additional disabilities in a deaf child have important consequences in assessing and choosing a therapeutic treatment, in particular when considering cochlear implantation (CI) or hearing aids (HA). The aim of this paper was to evaluate frequency, type and severity of additional neurodevelopmental disabilities in children with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and to investigate the relationship between disability and the etiology of deafness. Eighty children with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (mean age 5.4 years) were investigated by means of a diagnostic protocol including clinical, neurodevelopmental, and audiological procedures together with genetic and neurometabolic tests and neuroradiological investigation by brain MRI. Fifty-five percent of the sample exhibited one or more disabilities in addition to deafness, with cognitive, behavioural-emotional and motor disorders being the most frequent. The risk of additional disabilities varied according to aetiology, with a higher incidence in hereditary syndromic deafness, in cases due to pre-perinatal pathology (in comparison to unknown and hereditary non syndromic forms) and in the presence of major brain abnormalities at MRI. Our results suggest that the aetiology of deafness may be a significant risk indicator for the presence of neuropsychiatric disorders. A multidimensional evaluation, including aetiological, neurodevelopmental and MRI investigation is needed for formulating prognosis and for planning therapeutic intervention, especially in those children candidated to cochlear implant.
Iannella, Giannicola; Di Nardo, Giovanni; Plateroti, Rocco; Rossi, Paolo; Plateroti, Andrea Maria; Mariani, Paola; Magliulo, Giuseppe
Numerous investigations postulated that laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is implicated in the pathogenesis of various upper airway inflammatory diseases as sinusitis or dacryostenosis. The presence of pepsin in tears might be confirmed the presuntive hypothesis of the arrival in the nasolacrimal ducts and precorneal tears film through the laryngopharyngeal reflux of either gastric acid or stomach secretions (pepsin) with inflammatory potentialities. The aim of this preliminary study was to identify the presence or absence of pepsin in the tears collected from children with a high suspicion of LPR who underwent 24-h pH (MII-pH) monitoring to confirm the disease. This study enrolled 20 patients suffering from symptoms of laryngopharyngeal reflux that underwent 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII)-pH monitoring to confirm the disease. The findings of the study group were compared with those of a control group of patients with negative pH monitoring. The quantitative analysis of human pepsin concentration in the tear samples was performed by ELISA method in both groups. Four children (20%) of the study group showed pepsin in the tears. All of the subjects belonging to the control group were negative for its presence. No difference differences in the total number of reflux episodes and the number of weakly basic reflux in the pepsin positive patients vs. pepsin negative children were present. 20% of the children with diagnosed LPR showed pepsin in the tears. Our specific investigation might provide information regarding sinusitis or dacryostenosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Donovan, Caroline L; Holmes, Monique C; Farrell, Lara J
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU), negative beliefs about worry (NBW), positive beliefs about worry (PBW), negative problem orientation (NPO) and cognitive avoidance (CA) have been found to be integral in the conceptualisation of Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in adults, yet they have rarely been investigated in children with GAD. This study sought to determine (a) whether IU, NBW, PBW, NPO and CA differ between children diagnosed with GAD and non-anxious children and (b) to examine whether IU, NBW, PBW, NPO and CA differ between parents of children diagnosed with GAD and parents of children without an anxiety disorder. Participants were 50 children (aged 7-12 years), plus one of their parents. The 25 GAD children and 25 non-anxious children were matched on age and gender. Parents and children completed clinical diagnostic interviews, as well as a battery of questionnaires measuring worry, IU, NBW, PBW, NPO and CA. Children with GAD endorsed significantly higher levels of worry, IU, NBW, NPO and CA, but not PBW compared to non-anxious children. Parents of children with GAD did not differ from parents of non-anxious children on any of the variables. The study was limited by it's use of modified adult measures for some variables and a lack of heterogeneity in the sample. The cognitive variables of IU, NBW, NPO and CA may also be important in the conceptualisation and treatment of GAD in children as they are in adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Further investigation of confirmed UTI in children aims to prevent renal scarring and future complications. Methods We conducted a systematic review to determine the most effective approach to the further investigation of confirmed urinary tract infection (UTI in children under five years of age. Results 73 studies were included. Many studies had methodological limitations or were poorly reported. Effectiveness of further investigations: One study found that routine imaging did not lead to a reduction in recurrent UTIs or renal scarring. Diagnostic accuracy: The studies do not support the use of less invasive tests such as ultrasound as an alternative to renal scintigraphy, either to rule out infection of the upper urinary tract (LR- = 0.57, 95%CI: 0.47, 0.68 and thus to exclude patients from further investigation or to detect renal scarring (LR+ = 3.5, 95% CI: 2.5, 4.8. None of the tests investigated can accurately predict the development of renal scarring. The available evidence supports the consideration of contrast-enhanced ultrasound techniques for detecting vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR, as an alternative to micturating cystourethrography (MCUG (LR+ = 14.1, 95% CI: 9.5, 20.8; LR- = 0.20, 95%CI: 0.13, 0.29; these techniques have the advantage of not requiring exposure to ionising radiation. Conclusion There is no evidence to support the clinical effectiveness of routine investigation of children with confirmed UTI. Primary research on the effectiveness, in terms of improved patient outcome, of testing at all stages in the investigation of confirmed urinary tract infection is urgently required.
Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; van den Hof, Susan; Mensah, Gloria Ivy; Hesse, Adukwei; Bonsu, Christian; Koram, Kwadwo Ansah; Afutu, Felix Kwami; Bonsu, Frank Adae
Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged 6-10 years in 8 out of 10 regions of Ghana between 2004 and 2006. Tuberculin survey was conducted in 179 primary schools from 21 districts in 8 regions. Schools were purposively selected so as to reflect the proportion of affluent private and free tuition public schools as well as the proportion of small and large schools. Of the 24,778 children registered for the survey, 23,600 (95.2%) were tested of which 21,861 (92.6%) were available for reading. The age distribution showed an increase in numbers of children towards older age: 11% of the children were 6 years and 25%, 10 years. Females were 52.5% and males 47.5%. The proportion of girls was higher in all age groups (range 51.4% to 54.0%, p < 0.001). BCG scar was visible in 89.3% of the children. The percentage of children with a BCG scar differed by district and by age. The percentage of children with a BCG scar decreased with increasing age in all districts, reflecting increasing BCG vaccination coverage in Ghana in the last ten years. The risk of tuberculosis infection was low in the northern savannah zones compared to the southern coastal zones. Using a cut-off of 15 mm, the prevalence of infection ranged from 0.0% to 5.4% and the Annual Risks of Tuberculosis Infection 0.0% to 0.6%. There was an increase in the proportion of infected children after the age of 7 years. Children attending low and middle-class schools had a higher risk of infection than children attending upper-class schools. Tuberculosis infection is still a public health problem in Ghana and to monitor the trend, the survey needs to be repeated at 5 years interval.
Conclusion As antituberculous therapy was found to be ineffective in the management of BCG lymphadenitis, we recommend a careful choice of BCG vaccines to avoid multidrug-resistant strains, early surgical excision of lymph nodes larger than 3 cm and lymphadenopathy complicated with abscess or sinus formation, and ...
Maria Rita Giuca
Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical defects and etiological factors potentially involved in the onset of MIH in a pediatric sample. Methods. 120 children, selected from the university dental clinic, were included: 60 children (25 boys and 35 girls; average age: 9.8 ± 1.8 years with MIH formed the test group and 60 children (27 boys and 33 girls; average age: 10.1 ± 2 years without MIH constituted the control group. Distribution and severity of MIH defects were evaluated, and a questionnaire was used to investigate the etiological variables; chi-square, univariate, and multivariate statistical tests were performed (significance level set at p<0.05. Results. A total of 186 molars and 98 incisors exhibited MIH defects: 55 molars and 75 incisors showed mild defects, 91 molars and 20 incisors had moderate lesions, and 40 molars and 3 incisors showed severe lesions. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis showed a significant association (p<0.05 between MIH and ear, nose, and throat (ENT disorders and the antibiotics used during pregnancy (0.019. Conclusions. Moderate defects were more frequent in the molars, while mild lesions were more frequent in the incisors. Antibiotics used during pregnancy and ENT may be directly involved in the etiology of MIH in children.
Giuca, Maria Rita; Cappè, Maria; Carli, Elisabetta; Lardani, Lisa
Aim The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical defects and etiological factors potentially involved in the onset of MIH in a pediatric sample. Methods 120 children, selected from the university dental clinic, were included: 60 children (25 boys and 35 girls; average age: 9.8 ± 1.8 years) with MIH formed the test group and 60 children (27 boys and 33 girls; average age: 10.1 ± 2 years) without MIH constituted the control group. Distribution and severity of MIH defects were evaluated, and a questionnaire was used to investigate the etiological variables; chi-square, univariate, and multivariate statistical tests were performed (significance level set at p MIH defects: 55 molars and 75 incisors showed mild defects, 91 molars and 20 incisors had moderate lesions, and 40 molars and 3 incisors showed severe lesions. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis showed a significant association (p MIH and ear, nose, and throat (ENT) disorders and the antibiotics used during pregnancy (0.019). Conclusions Moderate defects were more frequent in the molars, while mild lesions were more frequent in the incisors. Antibiotics used during pregnancy and ENT may be directly involved in the etiology of MIH in children. PMID:29861729
Castonguay, Jessica; Kunkel, Dale; Wright, Paul; Duff, Caroline
To determine the nutritional quality of foods advertised with familiar children's characters and health-related messages. Children's programming aired on the most popular broadcast and cable channels during 2011 was sampled to form a composite weekday and weekend day. All food advertisements (ads) included in this programming were content analyzed. Five hundred seventy-seven food ads. Familiar characters promoting products were either trade or licensed characters. A product's nutritional quality was determined using the United States Department of Health and Human Services' categorizations, based on the frequency foods should be consumed. Health cues were present when a food was claimed to be healthy, physical activity was depicted, or the product was associated with fruit. Frequencies and chi square analyses were conducted; P targeting children use a familiar character. The majority of these ads (72%) promote foods of low nutritional quality, yet 53% employ a health-related message. Familiar characters proliferate in food advertising to children, yet marketers do not adhere to recommendations that characters promote strictly healthy foods. Future research is needed to investigate effects and inform policy decisions in this realm. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu Shengjie; Xiong Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.
Purpose: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies have the potential to preserve cognitive outcomes in children with ependymoma; however, functional behavior remains uninvestigated. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intelligence quotient (IQ) and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years after irradiation in children diagnosed with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 123 children with intracranial ependymoma. Mean age at irradiation was 4.60 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.85-5.35). Serial neurocognitive evaluations, including an age-appropriate IQ measure and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), were completed before irradiation, 6 months after treatment, and annually for 5 years. A total of 579 neurocognitive evaluations were included in these analyses. Results: Baseline IQ and VABS were below normative means (P<.05), although within the average range. Linear mixed models revealed stable IQ and VABS across the follow-up period, except for the VABS Communication Index, which declined significantly (P=.015). Annual change in IQ (−.04 points) did not correlate with annual change in VABS (−.90 to +.44 points). Clinical factors associated with poorer baseline performance (P<.05) included preirradiation chemotherapy, cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, number and extent of surgical resections, and younger age at treatment. No clinical factors significantly affected the rate of change in scores. Conclusions: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies provided relative sparing of functional outcomes including IQ and adaptive behaviors, even in very young children. Communication skills remained vulnerable and should be the target of preventive and rehabilitative interventions.
Full Text Available Executive functions are the basis for goal-directed activity and include planning, monitoring, and inhibition, and language seems to play a role in the development of these functions. There is a tradition of studying executive function in both typical and atypical populations, and the present study investigates executive functions in children with severe speech and motor impairments who are communicating using communication aids with graphic symbols, letters and/or words. There are few neuropsychological studies of children in this group and little is known about their cognitive functioning, including executive functions. It was hypothesized that aided communication would tax executive functions more than speech. 29 children using communication aids and 27 naturally speaking children participated. Structured tasks resembling everyday activities, where the action goals had to be reached through communication with a partner, were used to get information about executive functions. The children a directed the partner to perform actions like building a Lego tower from a model the partner could not see and b gave information about an object without naming it to a person who had to guess what object it was. The executive functions of planning, monitoring and impulse control were coded from the children’s on-task behavior. Both groups solved most of the tasks correctly, indicating that aided communicators are able to use language to direct another person to do a complex set of actions. Planning and lack of impulsivity was positively related to task success in both groups. The aided group completed significantly fewer tasks, spent longer time and showed more variation in performance than the comparison group. The aided communicators scored lower on planning and showed more impulsivity than the comparison group, while both groups showed an equal degree of monitoring of the work progress. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that aided language
Da Rosa, P; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Edasseri, A; Henderson, M; Nicolau, B
Socioeconomic position (SEP) is inversely associated with most oral health outcomes, but the patterns of association may vary depending on the specific outcome. We estimated associations between SEP and two oral health outcomes, dental caries and traumatic dental injuries (TDI), in Quebec children. We used data from the baseline visit of the QUALITY (QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth) Cohort, an ongoing study in Montreal and Quebec, Canada. The analytical sample included 590 children aged 8-10 years. Data on parents' SEP (household income, education) and children's health behaviours and involvement in sports were obtained through questionnaires and interviews. Oral health outcomes (dental caries and TDI in permanent teeth) were assessed by clinical oral exam. Negative binomial regression was used to model dental caries (DMFS index) and number of teeth with TDI adjusting for selected covariates. The mean (SD) DMFS and number of TDI were 0.61 (1.43) and 0.12 (0.43), respectively. Compared to the upper quartile of income, children in the lower quartile had a DMFS approximately 3 times higher (PRR=2.68, 95% CI: 1.43, 5.04). Adjusting for oral health and nutritional behaviours had no effect. Conversely, children in the highest income quartile had a 3 times higher number of teeth with TDI compared to the lowest quartile (PRR=3.14, 95% CI: 1.22, 8.08). Physical activity did not explain this relationship. Parents' education was not associated with dental caries or TDI. SEP seems to play a different role in the cause of dental caries and TDI. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.
Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Thagaard, Ida Näslund
index (BFMI), and fat free mass index (FFMI) in obese children and the preceding in utero conditions expressed by birth weight, birth length, and birth weight for gestational age. The study cohort consisted of 776 obese Danish children (median age 11.6 years, range 3.6-17.9) with a mean Body Mass Index......UNLABELLED: Epidemiological and animal studies have suggested an effect of the intrauterine milieu upon the development of childhood obesity. This study investigates the relationship between body composition measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry expressed as body fat percent, body fat mass...... Standard Deviation Score (BMI SDS) of 2.86 (range 1.64-5.48) treated in our national referral centre. In a linear general regression model adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic status, and duration of breastfeeding, we found the body fat percent, FFMI, and BFMI at the time of enrolment in childhood...
Archambaud, F.; Olivier, P.; Guillet, J.; Wioland, M.; Bonnin, F.
We present the results of a national investigation about the daily practice of diuretic renal scan in children and we compare these results to available international recommendations. Several questions were related to patient preparation, radiopharmaceutical injected activity, image acquisition, diuretic procedure, data processing and renal function quantification, and lastly hard copy output procedure. Diuretic renography is widely performed in children and national daily practice is in agreement with international recommendations about many aspects. However, some aspects should be improved such as hydration, standardisation of furosemide doses and post mobilization and post micturition images acquisition taking on account the effects of gravity and full bladder. Furthermore, a controversy does exist about interpretation of an impaired drainage. (authors)
Stadskleiv, Kristine; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Batorowicz, Beata; van Balkom, Hans; Dahlgren-Sandberg, Annika; Renner, Gregor
Executive functions are the basis for goal-directed activity and include planning, monitoring, and inhibition, and language seems to play a role in the development of these functions. There is a tradition of studying executive function in both typical and atypical populations, and the present study investigates executive functions in children with severe speech and motor impairments who are communicating using communication aids with graphic symbols, letters, and/or words. There are few neuropsychological studies of children in this group and little is known about their cognitive functioning, including executive functions. It was hypothesized that aided communication would tax executive functions more than speech. Twenty-nine children using communication aids and 27 naturally speaking children participated. Structured tasks resembling everyday activities, where the action goals had to be reached through communication with a partner, were used to get information about executive functions. The children (a) directed the partner to perform actions like building a Lego tower from a model the partner could not see and (b) gave information about an object without naming it to a person who had to guess what object it was. The executive functions of planning, monitoring, and impulse control were coded from the children's on-task behavior. Both groups solved most of the tasks correctly, indicating that aided communicators are able to use language to direct another person to do a complex set of actions. Planning and lack of impulsivity was positively related to task success in both groups. The aided group completed significantly fewer tasks, spent longer time and showed more variation in performance than the comparison group. The aided communicators scored lower on planning and showed more impulsivity than the comparison group, while both groups showed an equal degree of monitoring of the work progress. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that aided language tax
Beatrice I. Amboko
Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to 90 % of the global burden of malaria morbidity and mortality occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and children under-five bear a disproportionately high malaria burden. Effective inpatient case management can reduce severe malaria mortality and morbidity, but there are few reports of how successfully international and national recommendations are adopted in management of inpatient childhood malaria. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study of inpatient malaria case management practices was conducted using data collected over 24 months in five hospitals from high malaria risk areas participating in the Clinical Information Network (CIN in Kenya. This study describes documented clinical features, laboratory investigations and treatment of malaria in children (2–59 months and adherence to national guidelines. Results A total of 13,014 children had a malaria diagnosis on admission to the five hospitals between March, 2014 and February, 2016. Their median age was 24 months (IQR 12–36 months. The proportion with a diagnostic test for malaria requested was 11,981 (92.1 %. Of 10,388 patients with malaria test results documented, 8050 (77.5 % were positive and anti-malarials were prescribed in 6745 (83.8 %. Malaria treatment was prescribed in 1613/2338 (69.0 % children with a negative malaria result out of which only 52 (3.2 % had a repeat malaria test done as recommended in national guidelines. Documentation of clinical features was good across all hospitals, but quinine remained the most prescribed malaria drug (47.2 % of positive cases although a transition to artesunate (46.1 % was observed. Although documented clinical features suggested approximately half of positive malaria patients were not severe cases artemether-lumefantrine was prescribed on admission in only 3.7 % cases. Conclusions Despite improvements in inpatient malaria care, high rates of presumptive treatment for test negative children and likely
Early diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination associated with higher female mortality and no difference in male mortality in a cohort of low birthweight children: an observational study within a randomised trial.
Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Roth, Adam; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida Maria; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Lausch, Karen Rokkedal; Lund, Najaaraq; Rasmussen, Julie; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Whittle, Hilton; Benn, Christine Stabell
Studies from low-income countries have suggested that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine provided after Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a negative effect on female survival. The authors examined the effect of DTP in a cohort of low birthweight (LBW) infants. 2320 LBW newborns were visited at 2, 6 and 12 months of age to assess nutritional and vaccination status. The authors examined survival until the 6-month visit for children who were DTP vaccinated and DTP unvaccinated at the 2-month visit. Two-thirds of the children had received DTP at 2 months and 50 deaths occurred between the 2-month and 6-month visits. DTP vaccinated children had a better anthropometric status for all indices than DTP unvaccinated children. Small mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) was the strongest predictor of mortality. The death rate ratio (DRR) for DTP vaccinated versus DTP unvaccinated children differed significantly for girls (DRR 2.45; 95% CI 0.93 to 6.45) and boys (DRR 0.53; 95% CI 0.23 to 1.20) (p=0.018, homogeneity test). Adjusting for MUAC, the overall effect for DTP vaccinated children was 2.62 (95% CI 1.34 to 5.09); DRR was 5.68 (95% CI 1.83 to 17.7) for girls and 1.29 (95% CI 0.56 to 2.97) for boys (p=0.023, homogeneity test). While anthropometric indices were a strong predictor of mortality among boys, there was little or no association for girls. Surprisingly, even though the children with the best nutritional status were vaccinated early, early DTP vaccination was associated with increased mortality for girls.
Yukay Yuksel, Muge
In this study, to what extent 7-9-year old primary school children's' social behaviors at school vary depending on their grade, gender and learning disability was investigated. In addition, the predictive value of the intelligence scores of children with normal development and with learning disability was explored for their negative and positive…
Dagal, A. B.
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between communication skills, social competence and emotion regulation skills of preschool children. Children attending public primary schools who were 53 to 80 months old from the middle socio-economic class were chosen randomly from Istanbul City center districts for this study. They were…
Burnham, Joy J.
This study was designed to investigate the fears of children and adolescents in Alabama in the aftermath of 9/11 and after the initial invasion of Iraq in 2003. The American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-AM; Burnham, 1995, 2005) was utilized to measure the fears of youth in Grades 2-12. (Contains 4 tables.)
Funk, Jeanne B.; Ruppert, Elizabeth S.
The relationship between language and behavior disorders was investigated. The teacher and parents of 12 children in a special public preschool for children with documented chronic otitis media and language disorders completed the Louisville Behavior Checklist. Most deviant behavior was reported on scales measuring cognitive and social-interactive…
A study investigated patterns and influences in Mexican-American children's Spanish language maintenance and shift toward English dominance or monolingualism. Subjects were 64 Mexican-descent children, ages 8-9, of varying immigration backgrounds (Mexican-born, U.S.-born of Mexican-born parents, U.S.-born of U.S.-born parents), and their families…
Culley, James D.
This paper summarizes the findings of a study investigating the beliefs and attitudes of six key respondent groups regarding issues surrounding television advertising and children. The six groups included in the study are spokesmen for Action for Children's Television (ACT); the presidents and top executive officers of advertising agencies…
Ozkan, Hurside Kubra; Aksoy, Ayse Belgin
Purpose: The present study aims to investigate maternal emotion socialization, children's self-perception, and social problem-solving skills. In addition, this study describes the association between the levels of children's self-perception and social problem-solving skills. Research Methods: This is a quantitative study adopting a relational…
Full Text Available Introduction: The lumbar puncture is one of the most important diagnostic and therapeutic procedures within children which child’s non-cooperativeness and procedural sedation are regarded necessary to conduct it. This study aimed to compare efficacy and safety of melatonin and gabapentin in reducing anxiety and pain of lumbar puncture in children. Methods: In a parallel single-blinded randomized clinical trial, sixty children aged 6 months -7 years, were evaluated in Pediatric Ward of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, in Yazd (Iran in 2012. The children were distributedrandomly into two groups (30 children in each group. In group one, they received 0.3 mg/kg/dose of melatonin and theother group received 15 mg/kg/dose of gabapentin. Primary endpoints were success rate in reducing anxiety (anxiety score of≥ four and reducing pain when the needle was inserted to skin for lumbarpuncture (pain score of less than four. The clinicalside effects were investigated as well. Results: Twenty two girls (36.7% and 38 boys (63.3% with mean age of 2.79 ± 1.92 years were evaluated. Anxiety reduction (achieving the anxiety score of ≥ four was obtained in 43.3% in melatonin and in 36.7% in gabapentin groups, respectively and both drugs were equally effective in anxiety reduction (p.value = 0.598.Pain reduction ( achieving the pain score of less than four was obtained in 23.3% in melatonin and in 50% in gabapentin groups, respectively and thus, gabapentin wasproved to be more effective in pain reduction (p.value = 0.032.Mild side effects were observed in 10% of melatonin group and in 16.7% of gabapentin group. No statistically significant differences were seen from viewpoint of safety between the two drugs (p.value=0.448. Conclusion: Melatonin and gabapentin were not effective drugs in anxiety reduction for lumbar puncture of children. However, gabapentin is a safe and effective drug in pain reduction in painful diagnostic therapeutic procedures.
Clark-Thomas, Beth Anne
Elementary school students' understanding of both science content and processes are enhanced by the higher level thinking associated with inquiry-based science investigations. Informal science setting personnel, elementary school teachers, and curriculum specialists charged with designing inquiry-based investigations would be well served by an understanding of the varying influence of certain present factors upon the students' willingness and ability to delve into such higher level inquiries. This study examined young children's use of inquiry-based materials and factors which may influence the level of inquiry they engaged in during informal science activities. An informal science setting was selected as the context for the examination of student inquiry behaviors because of the rich inquiry-based environment present at the site and the benefits previously noted in the research regarding the impact of informal science settings upon the construction of knowledge in science. The study revealed several patterns of behavior among children when they are engaged in inquiry-based activities at informal science exhibits. These repeated behaviors varied in the children's apparent purposeful use of the materials at the exhibits. These levels of inquiry behavior were taxonomically defined as high/medium/low within this study utilizing a researcher-developed tool. Furthermore, in this study adult interventions, questions, or prompting were found to impact the level of inquiry engaged in by the children. This study revealed that higher levels of inquiry were preceded by task directed and physical feature prompts. Moreover, the levels of inquiry behaviors were haltered, even lowered, when preceded by a prompt that focused on a science content or concept question. Results of this study have implications for the enhancement of inquiry-based science activities in elementary schools as well as in informal science settings. These findings have significance for all science educators
Hartley, Calum; Fisher, Sophie
Ownership has a unique and privileged influence on human psychology. Typically developing (TD) children judge their objects to be more desirable and valuable than similar objects belonging to others. This 'ownership effect' is due to processing one's property in relation to 'the self'. Here we explore whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) - a population with impaired self-understanding - prefer and over-value property due to ownership. In Experiment 1, we discovered that children with ASD did not favour a randomly endowed toy and frequently traded for a different object. By contrast, TD children showed a clear preference for their randomly endowed toy and traded infrequently. Both populations also demonstrated highly-accurate tracking of owner-object relationships. Experiment 2 showed that both TD children and children with ASD over-value their toys if they are self-selected and different from other-owned toys. Unlike TD children, children with ASD did not over-value their toys in comparison to non-owned identical copies. This finding was replicated in Experiment 3, which also established that mere ownership elicited over-valuation of randomly endowed property in TD children. However, children with ASD did not consistently regard their randomly endowed toys as the most valuable, and evaluated property irrespective of ownership. Our findings show that mere ownership increases preferences and valuations for self-owned property in TD children, but not children with ASD. We propose that deficits in self-understanding may diminish ownership effects in ASD, eliciting a more economically-rational strategy that prioritises material qualities (e.g. what a toy is) rather than whom it belongs to. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ji, Yan; Cao, Yanhua; Han, Min
Because of the taboo in Chinese culture, there is little research on Chinese children's perception of "death". The research on preschoolers' cognition of "death" could deepen our research on children's cognition process, guide children's life education, and improve the psychologic intervention on the children who experience…
Bharatharaj, Jaishankar; Huang, Loulin; Al-Jumaily, Ahmed; Elara, Mohan Rajesh; Krägeloh, Chris
Therapeutic pet robots designed to help humans with various medical conditions could play a vital role in physiological, psychological and social-interaction interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this paper, we report our findings from a robot-assisted therapeutic study conducted over seven weeks to investigate the changes in stress levels of children with ASD. For this study, we used the parrot-inspired therapeutic robot, KiliRo, we developed and investigated urinary and salivary samples of participating children to report changes in stress levels before and after interacting with the robot. This is a pioneering human-robot interaction study to investigate the effects of robot-assisted therapy using salivary samples. The results show that the bio-inspired robot-assisted therapy can significantly help reduce the stress levels of children with ASD.
Leonhardt, Anja; Könen, Tanja; Dirk, Judith; Schmiedek, Florian
Research on the structure of children's affect is limited. It is possible that children's perception of their own affect might be less differentiated than that of adults. Support for the 2-factor model of positive and negative affect and the pleasure-arousal model suggests that children in middle childhood can distinguish positive and negative affect as well as valence and arousal. Whether children are able to differentiate further aspects of affect, as proposed by the 3-dimensional model of affect (good-bad mood, alertness-tiredness, calmness-tension), is an unresolved issue. The aim of our study was the comparison of these 3 affect models to establish how differentiated children experience their affect and which model best describes affect in children. We examined affect structures on the between- and within-person level, acknowledging that affect varies across time and that no valid interpretation of either level is feasible if both are confounded. For this purpose, 214 children (age 8-11 years) answered affect items once a day for 5 consecutive days on smartphones. We tested all affect models by means of 2-level confirmatory factor analysis. Although all affect models had an acceptable fit, the 3-dimensional model best described affect in children on both the within- and between-person level. Thus, children in middle childhood can already describe affect in a differentiated way. Also, affect structures were similar on the within- and between-person level. We conclude that in order to acquire a thorough picture of children's affect, measures for children should include items of all 3 affect dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Kushki, Azadeh; Drumm, Ellen; Pla Mobarak, Michele; Tanel, Nadia; Dupuis, Annie; Chau, Tom; Anagnostou, Evdokia
Assessment of anxiety symptoms in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a challenging task due to the symptom overlap between the two conditions as well as the difficulties in communication and awareness of emotions in ASD. This motivates the development of a physiological marker of anxiety in ASD that is independent of language and does not require observation of overt behaviour. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using indicators of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity for this purpose. Specially, the objectives of the study were to 1) examine whether or not anxiety causes significant measurable changes in indicators of ANS in an ASD population, and 2) characterize the pattern of these changes in ASD. We measured three physiological indicators of the autonomic nervous system response (heart rate, electrodermal activity, and skin temperature) during a baseline (movie watching) and anxiety condition (Stroop task) in a sample of typically developing children (n = 17) and children with ASD (n = 12). The anxiety condition caused significant changes in heart rate and electrodermal activity in both groups, however, a differential pattern of response was found between the two groups. In particular, the ASD group showed elevated heart rate during both baseline and anxiety conditions. Elevated and blunted phasic electrodermal activity were found in the ASD group during baseline and anxiety conditions, respectively. Finally, the ASD group did not show the typical decrease in skin temperature in response to anxiety. These results suggest that 1) signals of the autonomic nervous system may be used as indicators of anxiety in children with ASD, and 2) ASD may be associated with an atypical autonomic response to anxiety that is most consistent with sympathetic over-arousal and parasympathetic under-arousal.
Morey, Candice C; Mareva, Silvana; Lelonkiewicz, Jaroslaw R; Chevalier, Nicolas
The emergence of strategic verbal rehearsal at around 7 years of age is widely considered a major milestone in descriptions of the development of short-term memory across childhood. Likewise, rehearsal is believed by many to be a crucial factor in explaining why memory improves with age. This apparent qualitative shift in mnemonic processes has also been characterized as a shift from passive visual to more active verbal mnemonic strategy use, but no investigation of the development of overt spatial rehearsal has informed this explanation. We measured serial spatial order reconstruction in adults and groups of children 5-7 years old and 8-11 years old, while recording their eye movements. Children, particularly the youngest children, overtly fixated late-list spatial positions longer than adults, suggesting that younger children are less likely to engage in covert rehearsal during stimulus presentation than older children and adults. However, during retention the youngest children overtly fixated more of the to-be-remembered sequences than any other group, which is inconsistent with the idea that children do nothing to try to remember. Altogether, these data are inconsistent with the notion that children under 7 do not engage in any attempts to remember. They are most consistent with proposals that children's style of remembering shifts around age 7 from reactive cue-driven methods to proactive, covert methods, which may include cumulative rehearsal. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tong, H J; Rudolf, M C J; Muyombwe, T; Duggal, M S; Balmer, R
To investigate whether children with obesity experienced more erosion and caries than children with normal weight. This study involved children aged 7-15 years. The study and control group comprised 32 children with BMI > 98th centile and 32 healthy children with normal BMI-for-age, respectively. O'Sullivan Erosion Index and WHO Caries Index were used in the examination of erosion and caries, respectively. Stimulated salivary flow rate, buffering capacity, Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli counts (CFU/ml) were evaluated. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was employed to collect information on participant's demographic background, oral health history and habits, and utilisation of dental care services. Children with obesity were more likely to have erosion than healthy children (p erosion in terms of severity (p erosion (OR 0.32, 95 % CI 0.012-0.082). Gender had no effect on erosion. There were no statistically significant differences in the DMFT, saliva profiles or questionnaire responses between the groups. Children with obesity may have high risk of dental erosion, but do not necessarily have higher risk of dental caries than children with normal weight.
Auray-Blais, Christiane; Blais, Catherine-Marie; Ramaswami, Uma; Boutin, Michel; Germain, Dominique P; Dyack, Sarah; Bodamer, Olaf; Pintos-Morell, Guillem; Clarke, Joe T R; Bichet, Daniel G; Warnock, David G; Echevarria, Lucia; West, Michael L; Lavoie, Pamela
Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder affecting both males and females with tremendous genotypic/phenotypic variability. Concentrations of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), globotriaosylsphingosine (lyso-Gb3)/related analogues were investigated in pediatric and adult Fabry cohorts. The aims of this study were to transfer and validate an HPLC-MS/MS methodology on a UPLC-MS/MS new generation platform, using an HPLC column, for urine analysis of treated and untreated pediatric and adult Fabry patients, to establish correlations between the excretion of Fabry biomarkers with gender, treatment, types of mutations, and to evaluate the biomarker reliability for early detection of pediatric Fabry patients. A UPLC-MS/MS was used for biomarker analysis. Reference values are presented for all biomarkers. Results show that gender strongly influences the excretion of each biomarker in the pediatric Fabry cohort, with females having lower urinary levels of all biomarkers. Urinary distribution of lyso-Gb3/related analogues in treated Fabry males was similar to the untreated and treated Fabry female groups in both children and adult cohorts. Children with the late-onset p.N215S mutation had normal urinary levels of Gb3, and lyso-Gb3 but abnormal levels of related analogues. In this study, Fabry males and most Fabry females would have been diagnosed using the urinary lyso-Gb3/related analogue profile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Borderline intelligence function (BIF and specific learning disorder (SLD are common diagnoses in children who are brought up for learning problems and school failure. Objective The aim of our study was to determine whether there were distinctive aspects of cognitive testing routinely used in evaluating SLD and BIF and investigate emotion regulation skills and minor neurologic symptoms. Method Sixty children (30 SLD and 30 BIF who are currently attending primary school are selected for study. Visual Aural Digit Span Test – Form B, Gessel Figure Drawing Test, Bender Gestalt Visual Motor Perception Test, WISC-R, Emotion Regulation Scale (ERS and Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES was administered. Results There was no statistically significant difference between groups in cognitive tests. The emotional regulation ability measured by the emotional regulation subscale was better in the SLD group than the BIF group (p = 0.014. In the NES, sensory integration (p = 0.008, motor coordination (p = 0.047 and other (p < 0.001 subscales showed higher scores in the BIF group. Discussion It has been shown that cognitive tests don’t have distinguishing features in the evaluation of SLD and BIF. Emotion regulation subscale score of ERS and sensory integration, motor coordination, and total scores of NES can be used in both discrimination of groups.
22 children suffering from mucoviscidosis - 15 boys and 7 girls-, aged between 1 and 12 years, were examined twice in a period of 8 months. In nearly all children older than 5 years, vital capacity, one-second values, resistance, intrathoracic gas volume, and strength of the hands could be determined. The thorax was X-rayed in ap and lateral radiation direction, and the pictures were analyzed by two experts (Schuster and Lorenz) according to the score set up by Chrispin and Norman. Using a 10Ci 137 Cs source, 8 measuring volumes of a few cm 3 each were investigated densitometrically (principle: measurement of Compton backscattering) during inhalation and exhalation, thus obtaining a picture of their role in ventilation. From unpublished data material, standard values of lung density were determined in dependence of age, sex, and measuring volume. Variations were high, especially in the youngest age group. The densitometric findings were correlated with other results (score of anamnetic findings, strength of the two hands, vital capacities, IGV, resistance of the respiratory tract, one-second value, Chrispin-Norman score). A correlation at 1% level was found between one-second value (sample: 6; coefficient of correlation: 0.8624) and densitometry as well as between the score of the anamnetic findings (sample: 22; coefficient of correlation: -0.5681) and densitometry. There were no significant correlations in the rest of the cases. Radiation exposure is low. (orig./AJ) 891 AJ/orig.- 892 MKO [de
Zsido, Andras N; Deak, Anita; Losonci, Adrienn; Stecina, Diana; Arato, Akos; Bernath, Laszlo
Numerous objects and animals could be threatening, and thus, children learn to avoid them early. Spiders and syringes are among the most common targets of fears and phobias of the modern word. However, they are of different origins: while the former is evolutionary relevant, the latter is not. We sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms that make the quick detection of such stimuli possible and enable the impulse to avoid them in the future. The respective categories of threatening and non-threatening targets were similar in shape, while low-level visual features were controlled. Our results showed that children found threatening cues faster, irrespective of the evolutionary age of the cues. However, they detected non-threatening evolutionary targets faster than non-evolutionary ones. We suggest that the underlying mechanism may be different: general feature detection can account for finding evolutionary threatening cues quickly, while specific features detection is more appropriate for modern threatening stimuli. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
J, Brind; E, Bowring; K, Larmour; H, Cronin; L, Barkley; A, Rybak; E, Saliakellis; Kj, Lindley; O, Borrelli; N, Thapar
Fabricated induced illness (FII) is recognised amongst children presenting with suspected Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction (CIPO) (Hyman 2012). We aimed to investigate the presence, nature and potential causes of social concerns in children being referred to our national centre with possible CIPO. All patients accepted into the CIPO diagnostic pathway over 3 years (April 2012-April 2015) were reviewed. Acceptance criteria included all of the following (1) referral from a paediatric gastroenterologist or surgeon suspecting a diagnosis of CIPO, (2) mechanical obstruction of the intestine excluded and 3) reliance on specialised enteral or parenteral feeding. The presence and nature of social concerns were recorded pre- & post-assessment along with associated characteristics pertaining to the referral, family situation as well as child protection. Comparison was made to referrals to the IBD service within the department. Of 78 accepted children (mean 5.2 years, 42F) 57 were diagnosed with CIPO, 53 (4.2yrs 31F) by abnormal antroduodenal manometry (ADM) and 4, unsuitable for ADM, by clinical picture. Of the remaining 21 patients (5.8yrs 12F) with normal ADM, 8 were found to have FII; 4 driven by a parent and 4 by the patient (teenage girls). The remaining 13 patients had non-CIPO diagnoses. Of those with normal ADM 17/21 had social concerns; 10 with formal child protection or FII and 7 with concerns over treatment compliance and ambiguity of symptoms. Of those with CIPO 18/57 had social concerns including 2 formally listed as child protection for neglect/parenting concerns and 1 with possible FII. The remaining CIPO cases had a variety of concerns mainly around ambiguity and reliability of reporting. Comparison with a newly diagnosed IBD cohort (161 patients) during the same period revealed only 7 with social concerns. Recurrent themes in those with social concerns, particularly CIPO, included consumerism, internet and media involvement (Facebook, fundraising and
Xie Yonggang; Zhang Yi; Liu Jian
The aim of the study was to investigate the inhalational allergen in 208 asthmatic infants and children with allergen steep puncturing skin. The positive cases were 169(81.25%). There were 18 inhalational allergens in allergen steep. The positive rate of the dust acarus was 78.85%, and the dust was 35.58%, the smoke was 32.69% among the allergens. There was not any positive reaction in other allergens. There were no sexual differences in the positive rate. There was nothing with hypersusceptibility of the individual and the family. The positive rate of the infant was less than the child. There was significant difference of the positive rate in the age group (P < 0.01). The result indicated that dust acarus, air pollution or passive smoke was the quite dangerous factor in the many factors of the asthma. It was very important to strengthen the study of the infant and child prevention and cure
Full Text Available The presented study investigated the effects of a four-week academic and activity – enriched summer program on vocabulary development and writing achievement of homeless children residing in traditional shelter facilities. When compared to controls the experimental students did not reveal gains in vocabulary and spelling as measured by two norm referenced tests. They did however demonstrate highly significant gains in writing ability based on the New York State standards criteria, reflecting five qualities of writing. On two project-developed instruments designed to measure improvement in book vocabulary and tennis skills, they showed significant increases based on analyses of their pre- and posttest scores. The program closed achievement gaps, fulfilled standards criteria, and may be the first of its kind in the homeless literature whereby students’ writing development was compared to matched controls as vocabulary development occurred based on literary readings.
Cicero, Frank R; Pfadt, Al
Independent toileting is an important developmental skill which individuals with developmental disabilities often find a challenge to master. Effective toilet training interventions have been designed which rely on a combination of basic operant principles of positive reinforcement and punishment. In the present study, the effectiveness of a reinforcement-based toilet training intervention was investigated with three children with a diagnosis of autism. Procedures included a combination of positive reinforcement, graduated guidance, scheduled practice trials and forward prompting. Results indicated that all procedures were implemented in response to urination accidents. A three participants reduced urination accidents to zero and learned to spontaneously request use of the bathroom within 7-11 days of training. Gains were maintained over 6-month and 1-year follow-ups. Findings suggest that the proposed procedure is an effective and rapid method of toilet training, which can be implemented within a structured school setting with generalization to the home environment.
Campos, Carla Marques Rondon; Zanardo, Evelin Aline; Dutra, Roberta Lelis; Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici; Kim, Chong Ae
Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most prevalent group of structural abnormalities at birth and one of the main causes of infant morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown a contribution of the copy number variation in the genesis of cardiac malformations. Investigate gene copy number variation (CNV) in children with conotruncal heart defect. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was performed in 39 patients with conotruncal heart defect. Clinical and laboratory assessments were conducted in all patients. The parents of the probands who presented abnormal findings were also investigated. Gene copy number variation was detected in 7/39 patients: 22q11.2 deletion, 22q11.2 duplication, 15q11.2 duplication, 20p12.2 duplication, 19p deletion, 15q and 8p23.2 duplication with 10p12.31 duplication. The clinical characteristics were consistent with those reported in the literature associated with the encountered microdeletion/microduplication. None of these changes was inherited from the parents. Our results demonstrate that the technique of MLPA is useful in the investigation of microdeletions and microduplications in conotruncal congenital heart defects. Early diagnosis of the copy number variation in patients with congenital heart defect assists in the prevention of morbidity and decreased mortality in these patients
Carla Marques Rondon Campos
Full Text Available Background: Congenital heart defects (CHD are the most prevalent group of structural abnormalities at birth and one of the main causes of infant morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown a contribution of the copy number variation in the genesis of cardiac malformations. Objectives: Investigate gene copy number variation (CNV in children with conotruncal heart defect. Methods: Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA was performed in 39 patients with conotruncal heart defect. Clinical and laboratory assessments were conducted in all patients. The parents of the probands who presented abnormal findings were also investigated. Results: Gene copy number variation was detected in 7/39 patients: 22q11.2 deletion, 22q11.2 duplication, 15q11.2 duplication, 20p12.2 duplication, 19p deletion, 15q and 8p23.2 duplication with 10p12.31 duplication. The clinical characteristics were consistent with those reported in the literature associated with the encountered microdeletion/microduplication. None of these changes was inherited from the parents. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that the technique of MLPA is useful in the investigation of microdeletions and microduplications in conotruncal congenital heart defects. Early diagnosis of the copy number variation in patients with congenital heart defect assists in the prevention of morbidity and decreased mortality in these patients.
Doğangün, Burak; Gönültaş, Burak M; Uzun-Oğuz, Esin; Oral, Gökhan; Öztürk, Meral
The present study aims at describing the psychological complaints reported, as a part of the criminal investigation process, by the victims of sexual abuse as a part of the criminal investigation process, without attempting at reaching a medical diagnosis; and it discusses the relation of these reports with variables such as victim's gender, age and relation to the offender, type and duration of abuse, and parental marital status of the victim. Data is obtained from the statements of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) victims under the age of 15, as taken by Istanbul Juvenile Justice Department between the years 2009 and 2012. The sample consists of 175 cases with a total of 202 victim statements. Through the use of content analysis, the main and sub-categories of themes of the statements were determined. By means of the evaluation of the psychological condition of victims, we evaluated them in two categories: psychological complaints including self-harm and risk taking behaviors and psychological complaints with no self-harm and risk taking behaviors. The statistical analyses yield significant relations between the psychological complaints and children's parental marital status. Analysis of initial statements of sexual abuse victims is important as it may greatly contribute to professionals diagnosing and treating psychological complaints of these victims. It is essential that victims of sexual abuse should receive immediate psychological support starting with the criminal investigation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Campos, Carla Marques Rondon, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, MT (Brazil); Zanardo, Evelin Aline; Dutra, Roberta Lelis [Departamento de Patologia - Laboratório de Citogenômica - LIM 03 - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Patologia - Laboratório de Citogenômica - LIM 03 - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kim, Chong Ae [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)
Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most prevalent group of structural abnormalities at birth and one of the main causes of infant morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown a contribution of the copy number variation in the genesis of cardiac malformations. Investigate gene copy number variation (CNV) in children with conotruncal heart defect. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was performed in 39 patients with conotruncal heart defect. Clinical and laboratory assessments were conducted in all patients. The parents of the probands who presented abnormal findings were also investigated. Gene copy number variation was detected in 7/39 patients: 22q11.2 deletion, 22q11.2 duplication, 15q11.2 duplication, 20p12.2 duplication, 19p deletion, 15q and 8p23.2 duplication with 10p12.31 duplication. The clinical characteristics were consistent with those reported in the literature associated with the encountered microdeletion/microduplication. None of these changes was inherited from the parents. Our results demonstrate that the technique of MLPA is useful in the investigation of microdeletions and microduplications in conotruncal congenital heart defects. Early diagnosis of the copy number variation in patients with congenital heart defect assists in the prevention of morbidity and decreased mortality in these patients.
Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin
Studies from low-income countries have suggested that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine provided after Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a negative effect on female survival. The authors examined the effect of DTP in a cohort of low birthweight (LBW) infants....
Colonnesi, Cristina; Nikolić, Milica; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M
Children's early onset of social anxiety may be associated with their social understanding, and their ability to express emotions adaptively. We examined whether social anxiety in 48-month-old children (N = 110; 54 boys) was related to: a) a lower level of theory of mind (ToM); b) a lower proclivity to express shyness in a positive way (adaptive); and c) a higher tendency to express shyness in a negative way (non-adaptive). In addition, we investigated to what extent children's level of social anxiety was predicted by the interaction between ToM and expressions of shyness. Children's positive and negative expressions of shyness were observed during a performance task. ToM was measured with a validated battery, and social anxiety was assessed using both parents' reports on questionnaires. Socially anxious children had a lower level of ToM, and displayed more negative and less positive shy expressions. However, children with a lower level of ToM who expressed more positive shyness were less socially anxious. Additional results show that children who displayed shyness only in a negative manner were more socially anxious than children who expressed shyness only in a positive way and children who did not display any shyness. Moreover, children who displayed both positive and negative expressions of shyness were more socially anxious than children who displayed shyness only in a positive way. These findings highlight the importance of ToM development and socio-emotional strategies, and their interaction, on the early development of social anxiety.
Norvilitis, J M; Scime, M; Lee, J S
Mothers of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder face an increased risk for depression, anxiety, and social isolation. In addition to stress due to children's behavior, mothers of children with ADHD may also feel stigmatized by their children's diagnosis. Fifty-one mothers participated in a study to assess attitudes toward ADHD. Although mothers of children with ADHD expected that parents of children without ADHD would hold harsh views of the disorder, this was not generally the case. This difference between perception and the actual self-reported views of mothers of children without ADHD supports the idea that mothers feel stigmatized but suggests that increased awareness might help mothers of children with ADHD feel less isolated.
Clarke, Adam R; Barry, Robert J; Baker, Iris E; McCarthy, Rory; Selikowitz, Mark
Stimulant medications are the most commonly prescribed treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD). These medications result in a normalization of the EEG. However, past research has found that complete normalization of the EEG is not always achieved. One reason for this may be that studies have used different medications interchangeably, or groups of subjects on different stimulants. This study investigated whether methylphenidate and dexamphetamine produce different levels of normalization of the EEG in children with AD/HD. Three groups of 20 boys participated in this study. There were 2 groups with a diagnosis of AD/HD; one group, good responders to methylphenidate, and the second, good responders to dexamphetamine. The third group was a normal control group. Baseline EEGs were recorded using an eyes-closed resting condition, and analyzed for total power and relative delta, theta, alpha, and beta. Subjects were placed on a 6-month trial of methylphenidate or dexamphetamine, after which a second EEG was recorded. At baseline, the children with AD/HD had elevated relative theta, less relative alpha and beta compared with controls. Baseline differences were found between the two medication groups, with the dexamphetamine group having greater EEG abnormalities than the methylphenidate group. The results indicate that good responders to methylphenidate and dexamphetamine have different EEG profiles when assessed before medication, and these differences may represent different underlying central nervous system deficits. The 2 medications were found to result in substantial normalization of the EEG, with no significant differences in EEG changes occurring between the 2 medications. This indicates that the degree of pretreatment EEG abnormality was the major factor contributing to the degree of normalization of the EEG. As good responders to the 2 medications appear to have different central nervous system abnormalities, it is recommended that
Clay, Zanna; Over, Harriet; Tennie, Claudio
Imitation underlies many traits thought to characterize our species, which includes the transmission and acquisition of language, material culture, norms, rituals, and conventions. From early childhood, humans show an intriguing willingness to imitate behaviors, even those that have no obvious function. This phenomenon, known as "over-imitation," is thought to explain some of the key differences between human cultures as compared with those of nonhuman animals. Here, we used a single integrative paradigm to simultaneously investigate several key factors proposed to shape children's over-imitation: age, context, transitivity, and action type. We compared typically developing children aged 4-6years in a task involving actions verbally framed as being instrumental, normative, or communicative in function. Within these contexts, we explored whether children were more likely to over-imitate transitive versus intransitive actions and manual versus body part actions. Results showed an interaction between age and context; as children got older, they were more likely to imitate within a normative context, whereas younger children were more likely to imitate in instrumental contexts. Younger children were more likely to imitate transitive actions (actions on objects) than intransitive actions compared with older children. Our results show that children are highly sensitive to even minimal cues to perceived context and flexibly adapt their imitation accordingly. As they get older, children's imitation appears to become less object bound, less focused on instrumental outcomes, and more sensitive to normative cues. This shift is consistent with the proposal that over-imitation becomes increasingly social in its function as children move through childhood and beyond. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Godrich, Stephanie L; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda
Issue addressed Little is known about the fruit and vegetable (F&V) habits of regional and remote Western Australian (WA) children beyond quantities consumed. This study aimed to ascertain the proportion of regional and remote WA children who met the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG) for F&V; the types and varieties of F&V consumed; and whether consumption behaviour was associated with remoteness. Methods Caregiver and child dyads (n=256 dyads) completed similar paper-based surveys, 196 of these children completed 24-h dietary records. Statistical analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS (version 23). Results Overall, children were less likely to adhere to vegetables (15.4%) than fruit (65.8%) guidelines. Adherence to the ADG did not significantly differ between regional and remote locations. However, a higher proportion of remote children consumed dried fruit compared with regional children, while significantly more regional children compared with remote children consumed from the 'pome, tropical and stone fruit' group and the 'starchy vegetables', 'red/orange vegetables' and 'dark green leafy vegetables' groups. Conclusions Many regional and remote WA children consumed F&V in suboptimal amounts. Further research should aim to ascertain factors that increase or decrease the likelihood of ADG adherence across regional and remote WA and determine why certain F&V variety groups and types differed in consumption across Remoteness Areas. So what This study provided closer scrutiny of WA children's F&V consumption habits, highlighting the differences in consumption behaviours due to remoteness and identifying specific areas that require further investigation.
Loughan, Ashlee R; Perna, Robert; Hertza, Jeremy
The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a measure of test-taking effort which has traditionally been utilized with adults, but which more recently has demonstrated utility with children. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Digit Span, commonly used in neuropsychological evaluations, can also be functional as an embedded measure by detecting effort in children with dual diagnoses; a population yet to be investigated. Participants (n = 51) who completed neuropsychological evaluations including the TOMM, WISC-IV, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Children's Memory Scale, and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System were divided into two groups: Optimal Effort and Suboptimal Effort, based on their TOMM Trial 2 scores. Digit Span findings suggest a useful scaled score of ≤4 resulted in optimal cutoff scores, yielding specificity of 91% and sensitivity of 43%. This study supports previous research that the WISC-IV Digit Span has good utility in determining optimal effort, even in children with dual diagnosis or comorbidities.
Clemax Couto Sant'Anna
Full Text Available Since 2002, the Brazilian Ministry of Health has recommended a score system for tuberculosis diagnosis of children and adolescents that does not need bacteriological positivity, because most cases in this age group have few bacteria. An observational, transversal study was carried out at the outpatient health care service of the reference medical service in Salvador, Bahia, including 164 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, with ages ranging between 1 and 15 years of age, who were treated from 1990 to 2001. The gold standard used to establish the diagnosis was clinical, radiological, epidemiological and based on follow-up data. The score system for diagnosis purposes was tested retrospectively. The median age and the average age of the 164 patients were 6 and 6.62 years (SD ± 4.33, respectively. About 65% of the sample reported a history of close contact with a tuberculous adult. The BCG vaccine coverage was 70.7% (116/164. It was found that 26% (43/164 of the patients had severe malnutrition. Out of this group, 26/43 (60.47% were < 5mm reactive to the tuberculin test. On the other hand, out of the 91 patients with tuberculin test < 5mm, 29% (26/ 91 had severe malnutrition. The use of the score gave the following distribution: a TB very likely in 81.7% (134/164 of the patients; b possible TB in 15.9% (26/164 and TB unlikely in 2.4% (4/164. Among patients who had been vaccinated more than 2 years before, there was a 9 times higher risk of finding a tuberculin test above 10 mm in individuals with probable TB in comparison with the patients with possible or unlikely TB.
Hicken, Marianne White
Eighty-six children fran the Utah State University Child Development Latoratories and Hillcrest Elerrentary School and their parents participated in the study. The study focused on the use of attractiveness stereotyping used by children across four age groups. The study also analyzed the social transmission of attractiveness stereotypes fran parents to their children. The study included two parts: 1) a play-preference measure, and 2) a social attribJtion measure. The stimlli were sketches of ...
The total number of children affected by divorce has more than tripled since 1960, even though the total number of children has declined from the 1970s to the 1980s. In 1988 female-headed households with children and no spouse present constituted 44.7 percent of all families at or below the poverty level. The purpose of this paper is to show that…
Full Text Available Music therapy is gaining popularity as an intervention strategy for children with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD. This study was a pilot investigation of a classroom-based music-based intervention, Voices Together®, for improving communication skills in children with ASD and children with intellectual disabilities. Four local public elementary school special education classrooms, serving 5 children with a classification of autistic disorder and 32 children with intellectual disability without autism, were randomly selected to receive one of two levels of exposure to Voices Together music therapy: “long-term” (15 weeks beginning in January 2015 (Time 1, n=14 or “short-term” (7 weeks beginning 7 weeks later in February (Time 2, n=17. Using observational ratings, investigators reliably scored participants live in terms of their level of verbal responsiveness to prompts during three songs featured each week of the program. Both groups demonstrated increases in verbal responses over time; however, only the long-term group demonstrated significant within-group increases. Preliminary findings suggest that music therapy delivered in a classroom in 45-minute weekly sessions for 15 weeks can promote improvements in verbal responsiveness among individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy of classroom-based music therapy programs.
Mendelson, Jenna; White, Yasmine; Hans, Laura; Adebari, Richard; Schmid, Lorrie; Riggsbee, Jan; Goldsmith, Ali; Ozler, Burcu; Buehne, Kristen; Jones, Sarah; Shapleton, Jennifer; Dawson, Geraldine
Music therapy is gaining popularity as an intervention strategy for children with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study was a pilot investigation of a classroom-based music-based intervention, Voices Together® , for improving communication skills in children with ASD and children with intellectual disabilities. Four local public elementary school special education classrooms, serving 5 children with a classification of autistic disorder and 32 children with intellectual disability without autism, were randomly selected to receive one of two levels of exposure to Voices Together music therapy: "long-term" (15 weeks beginning in January 2015 (Time 1), n = 14) or "short-term" (7 weeks beginning 7 weeks later in February (Time 2), n = 17). Using observational ratings, investigators reliably scored participants live in terms of their level of verbal responsiveness to prompts during three songs featured each week of the program. Both groups demonstrated increases in verbal responses over time; however, only the long-term group demonstrated significant within-group increases. Preliminary findings suggest that music therapy delivered in a classroom in 45-minute weekly sessions for 15 weeks can promote improvements in verbal responsiveness among individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy of classroom-based music therapy programs.
Reale, Laura; Guarnera, Manuela; Mazzone, Luigi
Sleep disorders in children are common. Sleep plays an important role in children's development and sleep disorders can have a substantial impact on their quality of life. Indeed, sleep is crucial for physical growth, behavior, and emotional development and it is also closely related to cognitive functioning, learning and attention, and therefore…
Klesges, Robert C.; And Others
Examined whether 132 preschool children who varied in levels of body fat differed on psychosocial functioning. Children did not differ in self-esteem and family functioning as function of body fat. Prospectively, physical self-esteem weakly but significantly correlated with body fat at one and two years; father's perception of family functioning…
Owen, Laura; Auty, Susan; Lewis, Charlie; Berridge, Damon
Conflicting results on children's understanding of advertising may stem from differences in research methods. Most studies are conducted using interviewing techniques, employing only verbal questioning. In the present study, 136 children of two age groups (7 and 10 years) were first asked what advertising was for and, after responding, shown…
Ginsburg, Herbert P.; Pappas, Sandra
The main goal of this study was to examine possible socioeconomic status (SES) differences in 4- and 5-year-old children's informal mathematical knowledge. One hundred and two children, 32 from lower, 39 from middle, and 31 from upper SES families participated in the study. Each participant was given a clinical interview involving several addition…
Schools run by Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) play a pivotal role in providing early childhood education to young children belonging to marginalized sections of Delhi. However, literature review reveals that low learning outcomes are common among children attending these schools. Low levels of learning are often associated with poor quality…
Aldosari, Mubarak S.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.
This study identified differences in sources of stress between parents of male children with intellectual disabilities in Saudi Arabia. Seventeen pairs of parents completed the Parent Stress Index (Abidin, 1995). Each pair of parents had a male child diagnosed with intellectual disability who either attended an institute for male children with…
Cicero, Frank R.; Pfadt, Al
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a reinforcement-based toilet training intervention with three children with autism. Procedures included positive reinforcement, graduated guidance, scheduled practice trials, and forward prompting. All three children reduced urination accidents to zero and learned to request bathroom use spontaneously…
Green, Monica; Duhn, Iris
School gardens are becoming increasingly recognised as important sites for learning and for bringing children into relationship with food. Despite the well-known educational and health benefits of gardening, children's interactions with the non-human entities and forces within garden surroundings are less understood and examined in the wider…
Preschool physical education has not been extensively researched. Furthermore, research in physical activity and physical education rarely seeks young children's perspectives. The current paper focuses on one aspect of a post-structural study concerned with investigating the place and meaning of "physical education" to practitioners and…
Oktapoti, Maria; Okalidou, Areti; Kyriafinis, George; Petinou, Kakia; Vital, Victor; Herman, Rosalind
Objective: There are very few measures of language development in spoken Greek that can be used with young deaf children. This study investigated the use of Cyprus Lexical List (CYLEX), a receptive and expressive vocabulary assessment based on parent report that has recently been adapted to Standard Greek, to measure the vocabulary development of…
Chandler, Felicity; Dissanayake, Cheryl
Previous research has investigated caregiver attachment relationships in children with autism during early childhood, with few differences found from matched control groups. However, little is known of this relationship during middle childhood (ages 8-12 years). In this study, the aim was to establish whether there are differences in the security…
Knudson-Martin, John C.
This study investigates how a group of Mexican immigrant children in the United States made sense of engaging in school and school mathematics. The research focused on a population of Latino/a middle school students who were a distinct minority, building a model that shows how a complex set of cognitive, sociocultural, and institutional factors…
Annansingh, Fenio; Veli, Thomas
Purpose: This paper aims to investigate children interaction in cyberspace and their use of Web 2.0 technologies. It sought their perception of internet risks as well as their knowledge and experience with electronic safety (e-safety) measures. It also considered parents', teachers' and other stakeholders' perception of internet risks, e-safety…
Mannion, Arlene; Leader, Geraldine; Healy, Olive
The current study investigated comorbidity in eighty-nine children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Ireland. Comorbidity is the presence of one or more disorders in addition to a primary disorder. The prevalence of comorbid psychological disorders, behaviours associated with comorbid psychopathology, epilepsy, gastrointestinal…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to understand the place of four stimuli in lives of children attending early childhood; television, computer, books and toys. In the present study, data obtained from children’s drawing and interviews was analyzed. Fifty-one children between the age of 5 and 6 participated in the study. They were attending three private kindergartens. First, the children were asked to draw themselves with a television, computer, books and toys. Then, they were interviewed to learn about their use of television, computer, books and toys. Following, the pictures and interview transcripts were analyzed and coding categories were determined via content analysis. The findings indicate that children mention watching cartoons most; and they draw themselves as playing with popular cartoon characters. Children have positive feelings towards all of the stimuli; however, they used more powerful and detailed explanations of their feelings towards books and toys
Zeglam, Adel M; Al-Ogab, Marwa F; Al-Shaftery, Thouraya
To evaluate the routine usage of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of brain and estimate the prevalence of brain abnormalities in children presenting to the Neurodevelopment Clinic of Al-Khadra Hospital (NDC-KH), Tripoli, Libya with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). The records of all children with ASD presented to NDC-KH over 4-year period (from January 2009 to December 2012) were reviewed. All MRIs were acquired with a 1.5-T Philips (3-D T1, T2, FLAIR coronal and axial sequences). MRIs were reported to be normal, abnormal or no significant abnormalities by a consultant neuroradiologist. One thousand and seventy-five children were included in the study. Seven hundred and eighty-two children (72.7 %) had an MRI brain of whom 555 (71 %) were boys. 26 children (24 males and 2 females) (3.3 %) demonstrated MRI abnormalities (8 leukodystrophic changes, 4 periventricular leukomalacia, 3 brain atrophy, 2 tuberous sclerosis, 2 vascular changes, 1 pineoblastoma, 1 cerebellar angioma, 1 cerebellar hypoplasia, 3 agenesis of corpus callosum, 1 neuro-epithelial cyst). An unexpectedly high rate of MRI abnormalities was found in the first large series of clinical MRI investigations in children with autism. These results could contribute to further research into the pathogenesis of autistic spectrum disorder.
Decety, Jean; Meidenbauer, Kimberly L; Cowell, Jason M
This developmental neuroscience study examined the electrophysiological responses (EEG and ERPs) associated with perspective taking and empathic concern in preschool children, as well as their relation to parental empathy dispositions and children's own prosocial behavior. Consistent with a body of previous studies using stimuli depicting somatic pain in both children and adults, larger early (~200 ms) ERPs were identified when perceiving painful versus neutral stimuli. In the slow wave window (~800 ms), a significant interaction of empathy condition and stimulus type was driven by a greater difference between painful and neutral images in the empathic concern condition. Across early development, children exhibited enhanced N2 to pain when engaging in empathic concern. Greater pain-elicited N2 responses in the cognitive empathy condition also related to parent dispositional empathy. Children's own prosocial behavior was predicted by several individual differences in neural function, including larger early LPP responses during cognitive empathy and greater differentiation in late LPP and slow wave responses to empathic concern versus affective perspective taking. Left frontal activation (greater alpha suppression) while engaging in affective perspective taking was also related to higher levels of parent cognitive empathy. Together, this multilevel analysis demonstrates the important distinction between facets of empathy in children; the value of examining neurobehavioral processes in development. It provides provoking links between children's neural functioning and parental dispositions in early development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Huri, Meral; Şahin, Sedef; Kayıhan, Hülya
The present study was designed to compare hand function in autistic children with history of upper extremity trauma with that of autistic children those who do not have history of trauma. The study group included total of 65 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and was divided into 2 groups: children with trauma history (Group I) and control group (Group II) (Group I: n=28; Group II: n=37). Hand function was evaluated with 9-Hole Peg Test and Jebsen Hand Function Test. Somatosensory function was evaluated using somatosensory subtests of Sensory Integration and Praxis Test. Results were analyzed with Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney U test using SPSS version 20 software. Hand function and somatosensory perception test scores were statistically significantly better in children without upper extremity trauma history (pManual Form Perception and Localization of Tactile Stimuli Test results (p<0.05). Autistic children with upper extremity trauma history had poor somatosensory perception and hand function. It is important to raise awareness among emergency service staff and inform them about strong relationship between somatosensory perception, hand function, and upper extremity trauma in children with ASD in order to develop appropriate rehabilitation process and prevent further trauma.
Malnutrition is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity among under-five children in Sub Saharan Africa. To understand the factors associated with malnutrition among under-five children, a study was conducted in Nakaseke and Nakasongola districts of Uganda. Cross sectional secondary data of 104 underfive children in Nakaseke and Nakasongola districts was used. Epi Info programme-Nutrition module and Stata statistical softwares were used in analyses. Descriptive statistics, cross tabulations and binary logistic regression results were generated. Stunting was found to be the most malnutrition condition with the highest prevalence (38.5%) in the two districts followed by wasting (16.5%) and underweight (13.5%) respectively. Results also showed that children aged 39-59 months were less likely to be underweight than those aged below twelve months. Children of peasant farmers were more likely to be stunted than their counterparts with mothers in pastoralist's family. No significant factors were found to be associated with wasting among the underfive children in the two districts although the prevalence was slightly higher than that of child underweight. The study is essential in pointing out the particular age-groups among underfive children as well as the maternal occupations that may be factors associated with malnutrition in the districts of Nakaseke and Nakasongola. The author recommends exclusive breast feeding and proper complementary feeding especially among children under three years. Furthermore, special arrangement could be put in place to have children of mothers engaged in cultivation brought to them regularly for breastfeeding.
Chan, Yi; Chan, Yim Yuk; Cheng, Sui Lam; Chow, Man Yin; Tsang, Yau Wai; Lee, Clara; Lin, Chung-Ying
Children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD) are likely to develop self-stigma and have a poor quality of life (QoL) because of their poor academic performance. Although both self-stigma and poor QoL issues are likely to be found in low academic achievers without SpLD, children with SpLD have worse situation because their diagnosis of SpLD suggests that their learning struggles are biological and permanent. Specifically, students' perception of own capabilities may be affected more by the diagnosis of SpLD than their own actual performance. We examined the self-stigma and QoL of children with SpLD in Hong Kong, a region with an academics-focused culture. Children with SpLD (n=49,M age ±SD=9.55±1.21; SpLD group) and typically developing children (n=32,M age ±SD=9.81±1.40; TD group) completed a Kid-KINDL to measure QoL and a Modified Self-Stigma Scale to measure self-stigma. All parents completed a parallel Kid-KINDL to measure QoL of their children. Compared with the TD group, the SpLD group had a higher level of self-stigma (p=0.027) and lower QoL (child-reported Kid-KINDL: p=0.001; parent-reported Kid-KINDL: plearning process of children with SpLD may be designed to overcome self-stigma and to improve QoL. In addition, the program may involve parents of the children with SpLD or other people (e.g., the peer of the children with SpLD) for improving their understanding and perceptions of SpLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article represents results of pharmacoepidemiological research of H.pylori eradication treatment of adults and children in Volgograd. The aim was to determine H. pylori pharmacotherapy stereotypes and compare with international experts' recommendations. Material and Methods. There were analyzed CRFs of 94 adults and 132 children with H.pylori associated diseases in Volgograd region. Results. There were identified mistakes of treatment regimes and eradication control principles. Conclusion. The treatment of H.pylori infected adults and children in Volgograd does not match to international experts' recommendations.
Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Larsen, Nanna; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie
or -7/8, or purified protein derivative (PPD). RESULTS: Among 467 infants, BCG significantly increased the in vitro cytokine responses to purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (PPD), as expected. BCG was also associated with increased responses to heterologous innate stimulation...
Cross, Martin L; Lambeth, Matthew R; Aldwell, Frank E
Cultures of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, comprising predominantly single-cell bacilli, were prepared in broth without animal-derived reagents. When formulated into a vegetable-derived lipid matrix, the vaccine was stable in vitro and was immunogenic in vivo upon feeding it to mice. This formulation could be useful for oral vaccination of wildlife against tuberculosis, where concern over transmissible prions may preclude the field use of vaccines containing animal products.
Polyfunctional T cells simultaneously produce IFN-gamma, IL-2 and TNF-alpha and play relevant roles in several chronic infections, including TB. Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle elicits ex vivo polyfunctional T cell responses. Vaccine-elicited IFN-gamma Tcm (CD4 plus CD45RO plus CCR7 plus) re...
Streitz, Mathias; Fuhrmann, Stephan; Powell, Fiona; Quassem, Ali; Nomura, Laurel; Maecker, Holden; Martus, Peter; Volk, Hans-Dieter
Functional characteristics of tuberculosis (TB)–specific CD4 T cells were studied in clinically active pulmonary TB (n = 21) and high TB exposure including LTBI (n = 17). Following tuberculin stimulation, activated CD4 T cells were identified by flow-cytometry (CD154 up-regulation, degranulation, interferon γ [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], and interleukin 2 [IL-2\\ production). Interestingly, CD154 up-regulation accounted for ∼80% of activated CD4 T cells in the active TB group but just 40% in the controls, whereas IFN-γ accounted for only ∼50% of activated cells in each group. The frequencies of CD4 T cells displaying at least 1 activation marker discriminated better between the groups than those displaying degranulation or IFN-γ production alone. PMID:21186260
Jeremiah, Kidola; Praygod, George Amani; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel
Failure to convert (persistent sputum and/or culture positivity) while on antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment at the end of the second month of anti-TB therapy has been reported to be a predictor of treatment failure. Factors that could be associated with persistent bacillary positivity at the e...
Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; Paris, Joel
Child abuse has been implicated as a risk factor for borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet few prospective longitudinal studies exist. The current study examined whether 500 individuals with documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect were at elevated risk of BPD in adulthood, compared to 396 demographically similar control children. Results indicated that significantly more abused and/or neglected children overall met criteria for BPD as adults, compared to controls, as did physically abused and neglected children. Having a parent with alcohol/drug problems and not being employed full-time, not being a high school graduate, and having a diagnosis of drug abuse, major depressive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder were predictors of BPD and mediated the relationship between childhood abuse/neglect and adult BPD. These results call attention to a heightened risk of BPD in physically abused and neglected children and the need to consider multiple pathways to BPD.
Conclusion: According to research results, several preventable and predictable factors are linked to pediatric brain tumors. Therefore, children prone to brain tumors are recommended to be examined and screened for these risk factors.
K. Y. Dmytriieva
Vinnitsa National Medical University M.I. Pirogov Summary: The study was include in 23 children (12,4±1,2 years operated on for tumors of the retroperitoneal space (14 children, 61%, renal tumors (6 children, 26%, ovarian cancer (3 children, 13% showed that a comprehensive study of the reactions of pain behavior and central hemodynamics by ultrasonography showed that the use of the scheme KSME bupivacaine 0.3-0.4 mg / kg and a continuous infusion of drugs (fentanyl in a dose of 10 mcg/kg/h for postoperative pain relief leads to effective analgesia after traumatic operations and comprehensive ultrasound including color and spectral Doppler studies, is the main tool by enabling timely and accurately assess the condition of the central hemodynamics at different methods of analgesia. Key words: central hemodynamics, ultrasound, anesthesia.
Nedvetskaya, V.V.; Lyalikov, S.A.
Using cardiointervalography the vegetative status of 177 children living in the supervised Belarus regions (more 15 Ci/km 2 of 137 Cs) and of 1291 children from the areas which are not contaminated with radionuclides is assessed. It is stated that the most characteristic peculiarity common for children living on supervised territories is an increase of the subcortical nervous centers activity, reinforcement of the central regulation stability, bettering of relations between the central and peripheral regulation profiles at rest and damage of these relations under physical load. Changes in the vegetative regulation developing in children from these districts are more pronounced in girls as compared to boys and are characterized by the nervous system sympathetic section tone decrease, by the liability to hyporeactivity accompanied by the parasympathetic section compensatory mechanisms tension. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs
... applied to, for example, antimicrobial studies for the treatment of acute bacterial otitis media in the... applies to research in children. In addition, we have made changes on our own initiative for the purposes... 12941
Michelle C. Starr; Kelly Fisher; Kirsten Thompson; Kathryn Thurber-Smith; Sangeeta Hingorani
Food insecurity (FI) is common - affecting one in six American households with children. FI is defined as limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods. Awareness of food insecurity and its impact on health has increased since the American Academy of Pediatrics 2015 policy statement, “Promoting Food Security for All Children.” Though FI is frequently addressed in general pediatric primary care, it is not routinely identified in patients with chronic medical proble...
Ze-shu NING; Li-ming YANG; Zhi JIANG; Bo CHEN; Jie ZHANG
Objective To study the characteristics of trait coping style and mental health status in parents of children with epilepsy, so as to provide a theoretical basis for psychological and behavioral interventions. Methods A total of 225 parents of children with epilepsy were assessed with Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) and their characteristics of trait coping style were analyzed. Results Compared between different genders, different working pressures and between previously diagnosed and ...
Willard, Victoria W; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Lu; Russell, Kathryn M; Brennan, Rachel; Wilson, Matthew W; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Phipps, Sean
Retinoblastoma is typically diagnosed in young children and may present unique parenting challenges. Qualitative research suggests that parents experience distress related to the initial diagnosis and treatment that subsequently resolves. The objectives were to systematically assess parenting stress over time in parents of young children with retinoblastoma and to examine associations between parenting stress and child outcomes. Parents of children with retinoblastoma completed the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) during serial psychological assessments scheduled based on the child's age (6 months to 5 years). Caregivers of 92 patients (85.9% mothers) completed the assessments. Child outcomes included developmental functioning and parent-reported adaptive functioning. At baseline and age 5, all subscales on the PSI were within normal limits, and most were significantly below normative means (i.e., demonstrating low levels of stress). All domains remained relatively stable over time. Associations between parenting stress and child outcomes were much stronger at age 5 than at baseline. Child-directed parenting stress was a small but significant contributor to declines in child functioning over time. Parents of children with retinoblastoma report normal levels of parenting stress while their children are young. However, baseline parenting stress appears to contribute to changes in child functioning over time. Future studies should assess illness-related aspects of adjustment to further understand the parenting experience of young children with cancer and/or having a visually impaired child. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was comparing ABR in normal and down children. Materials & Methods: This study was performed between 1388 to 1391 at Akhavan rehabilitation center of University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences Tehran and Babol Amir Kola hospital. Forty five 3-6 year-old boy with Down’s syndrome and forty five normal children were selected from available population. After case history, otoscopy and basic hearing tests, ABR test was performed. In ABR absolute latencies, interpeak latencies and amplitude ratio of V/I were analyzed. For analyzing data, parametric independent t test was selected. Results: Latencies and inter-peak latencies of I-III, I-V (P-value<0.001, III-V (P-value=0.01 and V/I amplitude ratio (P-value<0.001 were shorter than normal. Children with Down syndrome had significantly higher threshold than normal children (P-value<0.001. Conclusion: Peripheral auditory system development is delayed and brainstem function in children with Down’s syndrome is abnormal. Early diagnosis of hearing impairments and intervention in these children is very important because it affects communication skills.
Full Text Available Compared to typically developing children, children with autism (ASD show delayed production of wh-questions. It is currently controversial the degree to which such deficits derive from social-pragmatic requirements and/or because these are complex grammatical structures. The current study employed the intermodal preferential looking (IPL paradigm, which reduces social-pragmatic demands. The IPL paradigm can help distinguish these proposals, as successful comprehension promotes the “pragmatics-origins” argument whereas comprehension difficulties would implicate a “grammatical-origins” argument. Additionally, we tested both the linguistic and social explanations by assessing the contributions of children's early grammatical knowledge (i.e., SVO word order and their social-pragmatic scores on the Vineland to their later wh-question comprehension. Fourteen children with ASD and 17 TD children, matched on language level, were visited in their homes at 4-month intervals. Comprehension of wh-questions and SVO word order were tested via IPL: the wh-question video showed a costumed horse and bird serving as agents or patients of familiar transitive actions. During the test trials, they were displayed side by side with directing audios (e.g., “What did the horse tickle?”, “What hugged the bird?”, “Where is the horse/bird?”. Children's eye movements were coded offline; the DV was their percent looking to the named item during test. To show comprehension, children should look longer at the named item during a where-question than during a subject-wh or object-wh question. Results indicated that TD children comprehended both subject and object wh-questions at 32 months of age. Comprehension of object-wh questions emerged chronologically later in children with ASD compared to their TD peers, but at similar levels of language. Moreover, performance on word order and social-pragmatic scores independently predicted both groups' later
Misurelli, Sara M.
The ability to analyze an "auditory scene"---that is, to selectively attend to a target source while simultaneously segregating and ignoring distracting information---is one of the most important and complex skills utilized by normal hearing (NH) adults. The NH adult auditory system and brain work rather well to segregate auditory sources in adverse environments. However, for some children and individuals with hearing loss, selectively attending to one source in noisy environments can be extremely challenging. In a normal auditory system, information arriving at each ear is integrated, and thus these binaural cues aid in speech understanding in noise. A growing number of individuals who are deaf now receive cochlear implants (CIs), which supply hearing through electrical stimulation to the auditory nerve. In particular, bilateral cochlear implants (BICIs) are now becoming more prevalent, especially in children. However, because CI sound processing lacks both fine structure cues and coordination between stimulation at the two ears, binaural cues may either be absent or inconsistent. For children with NH and with BiCIs, this difficulty in segregating sources is of particular concern because their learning and development commonly occurs within the context of complex auditory environments. This dissertation intends to explore and understand the ability of children with NH and with BiCIs to function in everyday noisy environments. The goals of this work are to (1) Investigate source segregation abilities in children with NH and with BiCIs; (2) Examine the effect of target-interferer similarity and the benefits of source segregation for children with NH and with BiCIs; (3) Investigate measures of executive function that may predict performance in complex and realistic auditory tasks of source segregation for listeners with NH; and (4) Examine source segregation abilities in NH listeners, from school-age to adults.
Heine, Angela; Wissmann, Jacqueline; Tamm, Sascha; De Smedt, Bert; Schneider, Michael; Stern, Elsbeth; Verschaffel, Lieven; Jacobs, Arthur M
The aim of the present study was to probe electrophysiological effects of non-symbolic numerical processing in 20 children with mathematical learning disabilities (mean age = 99.2 months) compared to a group of 20 typically developing matched controls (mean age = 98.4 months). EEG data were obtained while children were tested with a standard non-symbolic numerical comparison paradigm that allowed us to investigate the effects of numerical distance manipulations for different set sizes, i.e., the classical subitizing, counting and estimation ranges. Effects of numerical distance manipulations on event-related potential (ERP) amplitudes as well as activation patterns of underlying current sources were analyzed. In typically developing children, the amplitudes of a late parietal positive-going ERP component showed systematic numerical distance effects that did not depend on set size. For the group of children with mathematical learning disabilities, ERP distance effects were found only for stimuli within the subitizing range. Current source density analysis of distance-related group effects suggested that areas in right inferior parietal regions are involved in the generation of the parietal ERP amplitude differences. Our results suggest that right inferior parietal regions are recruited differentially by controls compared to children with mathematical learning disabilities in response to non-symbolic numerical magnitude processing tasks, but only for stimuli with set sizes that exceed the subitizing range. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lyudmila N. Voloshina
Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the children's readiness (in the age of 5-7 years old to interact with peers and adults in the elementary sports and gaming activities. The study was carried out within the framework of the pilot program of the Russian Academy of Education, based on the pre-school educational institutions in the city of Belgorod. To study the relationship in the children's team we used observation, sociometric technique, and diagnostic game situation. The analysis of results obtained showed the presence of problems of readiness to interact with peers and the formation of a communicative component of social experience in children in the age of 5-7 years old. Namely: insufficient level of children's independence, limited ideas about the possibility of using the sports and gaming activities in their own experience, low level of social and normative behavior. The results of the study confirmed the data previously presented in the publications on the growth in the number of preschool children not capable to interpersonal interaction.
Sun Yinping; Chen Junbo; Xiao Guobing; Sun Quanfu; Niu Haowei; Fu Yinghua
Objective: To ascertain the frequency distribution of CT examinations in children. Method: A wide range of information was collected through the radiology information system (RIS), including ID, sex, birth date, examination time, the examined part of body and other relevant ones related to children who underwent CT examinations between Jan 1, 2012 and Dec 31, 2012. The SAS software was used for data processing and statistical analysis. Results: A total of 1 542 children underwent 1 670 examinations, of which 67% were male. Head CT examination was the most frequent,accounting for 71.9% of all CT examinations, and followed by the abdomen/pelvis examinations. The number of examinations of children undergoing the repetitive examination accounted for 6.4%; 51.7% of the examinations was for trauma. The positive rate of CT examination was 51%, dependent upon the age and examined body parts to some extent. The younger patients had lower positive rate, and the positive rate of head CT examination was lower than those in other parts. Conclusions: To reduce the possible cancer risk to be induced by the ionizing radiation from CT, justification of CT examination should be considered for children. (authors)
Gao, Zan; Chen, Senlin; Huang, Chaoqun; Stodden, David F.; Xiang, Ping
Purpose The purpose of the study was to quantify the contributions of physical education, exergaming (active video games that also are a type of exercise), recess, lunch break and after-school time segments to children's daily physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Methods Participants were 138 second and third graders (71 girls) who attended 20-minute recess and 75-minute lunch time daily, 25-minute regular physical education or exergaming-based classes being alternated daily. The after-school period was defined as 3:20-10:00pm. Physical activity was assessed via accelerometry and the dependent variables were children's time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Results Children's percentages of time spent in MVPA (p < .001; except for the difference between exergaming and lunch break: p = .63), light physical activity (p < .001), and sedentary behavior (p < .001) differed significantly across the time segments (i.e., physical education/exergaming, recess, lunch break, and after-school). Additionally, children accumulated significantly more MVPA (t = 10.22, p < .001) but less light physical activity (t = -3.17, p = .002) and sedentary behavior (t = -3.91, p < .001) in physical education than in exergaming. Conclusions Overall, physical education was more effective in generating MVPA than other segments over the school day. The after-school segment holds potential as an avenue for promoting children's MVPA, as this long period could be better utilized to organize structured physical activity. PMID:26950823
Patients and methods. The study comprised 95 children at the ages of 2 to 18 years. The diagnosis of IBD was established on the basis of Porto criteria. Tests of blood serum were performed in all children: IgA and IgG ASCA, p-ANCA, c-ANCA using ELISA method. Results. IgE-dependent FA was found in 32.5% children with UC and in 21% with CD. We did not observe any relation between the occurrence of FA and the frequency and ASCA titre. p-ANCA were significantly more frequent in the group of children with UC. The occurrence of ASCA antibodies was observed in 73.7% of children with CD, 17.5% with UC and almost 30% with allergic colitis. Conclusions. Patients with CD and the presence of ASCA revealed a significantly more frequent localization of lesions within the small bowel and a tendency towards older age. We observed a connection between the occurrence of antibodies and the examined mutations of gene NOD2/CARD15.
Rutherford, Adam D.; Munafò, Marcus R.
There is increasing public and scientific concern regarding the long-term behavioural effects of video game use in children, but currently little consensus as to the nature of any such relationships. We investigated the relationship between video game use in children, degree of violence in games, and measures of depression and a 6-level banded measure of conduct disorder. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used. A 3-level measure of game use at age 8/9 years was developed, taking into account degree of violence based on game genre. Associations with conduct disorder and depression, measured at age 15, were investigated using ordinal logistic regression, adjusted for a number of potential confounders. Shoot-em-up games were associated with conduct disorder bands, and with a binary measure of conduct disorder, although the strength of evidence for these associations was weak. A sensitivity analysis comparing those who play competitive games to those who play shoot-em-ups found weak evidence supporting the hypothesis that it is violence rather than competitiveness that is associated with conduct disorder. However this analysis was underpowered, and we cannot rule out the possibility that increasing levels of competition in games may be just as likely to account for the observed associations as violent content. Overall game exposure as indicated by number of games in a household was not related to conduct disorder, nor was any association found between shoot-em-up video game use and depression. PMID:26820149
Peter J Etchells
Full Text Available There is increasing public and scientific concern regarding the long-term behavioural effects of video game use in children, but currently little consensus as to the nature of any such relationships. We investigated the relationship between video game use in children, degree of violence in games, and measures of depression and a 6-level banded measure of conduct disorder. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used. A 3-level measure of game use at age 8/9 years was developed, taking into account degree of violence based on game genre. Associations with conduct disorder and depression, measured at age 15, were investigated using ordinal logistic regression, adjusted for a number of potential confounders. Shoot-em-up games were associated with conduct disorder bands, and with a binary measure of conduct disorder, although the strength of evidence for these associations was weak. A sensitivity analysis comparing those who play competitive games to those who play shoot-em-ups found weak evidence supporting the hypothesis that it is violence rather than competitiveness that is associated with conduct disorder. However this analysis was underpowered, and we cannot rule out the possibility that increasing levels of competition in games may be just as likely to account for the observed associations as violent content. Overall game exposure as indicated by number of games in a household was not related to conduct disorder, nor was any association found between shoot-em-up video game use and depression.
Etchells, Peter J; Gage, Suzanne H; Rutherford, Adam D; Munafò, Marcus R
There is increasing public and scientific concern regarding the long-term behavioural effects of video game use in children, but currently little consensus as to the nature of any such relationships. We investigated the relationship between video game use in children, degree of violence in games, and measures of depression and a 6-level banded measure of conduct disorder. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used. A 3-level measure of game use at age 8/9 years was developed, taking into account degree of violence based on game genre. Associations with conduct disorder and depression, measured at age 15, were investigated using ordinal logistic regression, adjusted for a number of potential confounders. Shoot-em-up games were associated with conduct disorder bands, and with a binary measure of conduct disorder, although the strength of evidence for these associations was weak. A sensitivity analysis comparing those who play competitive games to those who play shoot-em-ups found weak evidence supporting the hypothesis that it is violence rather than competitiveness that is associated with conduct disorder. However this analysis was underpowered, and we cannot rule out the possibility that increasing levels of competition in games may be just as likely to account for the observed associations as violent content. Overall game exposure as indicated by number of games in a household was not related to conduct disorder, nor was any association found between shoot-em-up video game use and depression.
Jiang, Cheng-Gong; Li, Shui-Ming
In order to understand pinworm infection of kindergarten children in Jurong City, Jiangsu Province, a total of 1 088 children were sampled for the survey from September 2011 to October 2012. The cellophane tape swab technique was used to examine pinworm eggs. The infection rate of pinworm was 1.1% (12/1 088). The rate in boys and girls was 1.3% (7/551) and 0.9% (5/537), respectively. Higher infection rate was in the senior class (1.4%, 5/370), and no significant difference was found with gender, as well as among different classes (P > 0.05). Evidently, pinworm prevalence is at a low level in the kindergarten children of Jurong.
van der Lely, Heather K. J.; Payne, Elisabeth; McClelland, Alastair
investigation is warranted in children with SLI and other developmental disorders. PMID:21829461
Carlotta De Filippo
Full Text Available Diet is one of the main factors that affects the composition of gut microbiota. When people move from a rural environment to urban areas, and experience improved socio-economic conditions, they are often exposed to a “globalized” Western type diet. Here, we present preliminary observations on the metagenomic scale of microbial changes in small groups of African children belonging to the same ethnicity and living in different environments, compared to children living on the urban area of Florence (Italy. We analyzed dietary habits and, by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, gut microbiota profiles from fecal samples of children living in a rural village of Burkina Faso (n = 11, of two groups of children living in different urban settings (Nanoro town, n = 8; Ouagadougou, the capital city, n = 5 and of a group of Italian children (n = 13. We observed that when foods of animal origin, those rich in fat and simple sugars are introduced into a traditional African diet, composed of cereals, legumes and vegetables, the gut microbiota profiles changes. Microbiota of rural children retain a geographically unique bacterial reservoir (Prevotella, Treponema, and Succinivibrio, assigned to ferment fiber and polysaccharides from vegetables. Independently of geography and ethnicity, in children living in urban areas these bacterial genera were progressively outcompeted by bacteria more suited to the metabolism of animal protein, fat and sugar rich foods, similarly to Italian children, as resulted by PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States, a predictive functional profiling of microbial communities using 16S rRNA marker gene. Consequently, we observed a progressive reduction of SCFAs measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, in urban populations, especially in Italian children, respect to rural ones. Our results even if in a limited number of individuals point out that dietary habit modifications
De Vos, Astrid; Vanvooren, Sophie; Vanderauwera, Jolijn; Ghesquière, Pol; Wouters, Jan
Recent evidence suggests that a fundamental deficit in the synchronization of neural oscillations to temporal information in speech may underlie phonological processing problems in dyslexia. Since previous studies were performed cross-sectionally in school-aged children or adults, developmental aspects of neural auditory processing in relation to reading acquisition and dyslexia remain to be investigated. The present longitudinal study followed 68 children during development from pre-reader (5 years old) to beginning reader (7 years old) and more advanced reader (9 years old). Thirty-six children had a family risk for dyslexia and 14 children eventually developed dyslexia. EEG recordings of auditory steady-state responses to 4 and 20 Hz modulations, corresponding to syllable and phoneme rates, were collected at each point in time. Our results demonstrate an increase in neural synchronization to phoneme-rate modulations around the onset of reading acquisition. This effect was negatively correlated with later reading and phonological skills, indicating that children who exhibit the largest increase in neural synchronization to phoneme rates, develop the poorest reading and phonological skills. Accordingly, neural synchronization to phoneme-rate modulations was found to be significantly higher in beginning and more advanced readers with dyslexia. We found no developmental effects regarding neural synchronization to syllable rates, nor any effects of a family risk for dyslexia. Altogether, our findings suggest that the onset of reading instruction coincides with an increase in neural responsiveness to phoneme-rate modulations, and that the extent of this increase is related to (the outcome of) reading development. Hereby, dyslexic children persistently demonstrate atypically high neural synchronization to phoneme rates from the beginning of reading acquisition onwards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Acculturation among those of Chinese descent may be related to changes in diet and physical activity. Research to understand the acculturative process early in life is important; however, there is no qualitative research directly with Chinese-American children. This study, currently in progress, a...
Ritter, Michaela; Colson, Karen A.; Park, Jungjun
This exploratory study examined the effects of Interactive Metronome (IM) when integrated with a traditional language and reading intervention on reading achievement. Forty-nine school-age children with language and reading impairments were assigned randomly to either an experimental group who received the IM treatment or to a control group who…
Jennie K. Grammer
Full Text Available Growth in executive functioning (EF skills play a role children's academic success, and the transition to elementary school is an important time for the development of these abilities. Despite this, evidence concerning the development of the ERP components linked to EF, including the error-related negativity (ERN and the error positivity (Pe, over this period is inconclusive. Data were recorded in a school setting from 3- to 7-year-old children (N = 96, mean age = 5 years 11 months as they performed a Go/No-Go task. Results revealed the presence of the ERN and Pe on error relative to correct trials at all age levels. Older children showed increased response inhibition as evidenced by faster, more accurate responses. Although developmental changes in the ERN were not identified, the Pe increased with age. In addition, girls made fewer mistakes and showed elevated Pe amplitudes relative to boys. Based on a representative school-based sample, findings indicate that the ERN is present in children as young as 3, and that development can be seen in the Pe between ages 3 and 7. Results varied as a function of gender, providing insight into the range of factors associated with developmental changes in the complex relations between behavioral and electrophysiological measures of error processing.
Bouma, Helen; Grietens, Hans; López López, Mónica; Knorth, Erik J.; Witte, Susanne
Objectives - In scientific research there is growing attention for the importance of children’s participation in decision-making in the child protection system (CPS). In the Dutch Youth Act (2015), the importance of participation of children is highlighted as well. However, research in different
Lexmond, A. J.; Kruizinga, T. J.; Hagedoorn, P.; Frijlink, H. W.; Rottier, B. L.; de Boer, A. H.
Children are an important target group for inhalation therapy, but little is known about their intellectual and inspiratory capacities to operate dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Most studies so far have focused either on a specific DPI, or on (single) inhala- tion parameters and how these are affected
Full Text Available Today’s research on emotion regulation reveals its importance on many mental and physical heath related issues. One of the problems to deregulation of emotions is anxiety disorders subject. The aim of this research is to identify the relationship between emotional management problems including emotional inhibition, emotional deregulation and emotional coping on children’s anxiety symptoms, where it includes separation anxiety, social anxiety, panic disorder, school phobia and generalized anxiety symptoms. The sample was consisted of 307 primary students including boy and girl aged between 9-13 years old in city of Isfahan selected by simple random sampling. The instruments were Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders (SCARED, child Sadness Management Scale (CSMS and child Anger Management Scale (CAMS. The results shows that problems of children in management of anger and sadness consist of anger and sadness inhibition; anger and sadness deregulation predicts anxiety symptoms in children (p<0.0001. However, emotional coping could not predict children's anxiety symptoms, significantly. In addition, deregulation and inhibition of sadness and anger predicts anxiety in children.
Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Misra, Maya; Miller, Carol; Poll, Gerard H.; Park, Ji Sook
Background: Children with poor language abilities tend to perform poorly on verbal working memory tasks. This result has been interpreted as evidence that limitations in working memory capacity may interfere with the development of a mature linguistic system. However, it is possible that language abilities, such as the efficiency of sentence…
Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Szatmari, Peter; Georgiades, Stelios; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Smith, Isabel M.; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Thompson, Ann; Bennett, Teresa
The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement properties of the Social Responsiveness Scale in an accelerated longitudinal sample of 4-year-old preschool children with the complementary approaches of categorical confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis. Measurement models based on the literature and other hypothesized measurement…
Gadermann, Anne M.; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Zumbo, Bruno D.
This study introduces the Satisfaction with Life Scale adapted for Children (SWLS-C) and presents psychometric findings regarding its validation. The SWLS-C was adapted from the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener et al. 1985), which is one of the most commonly used measures to assess satisfaction with life in adults. Three subject matter…
Silveira, Ethieli Rodrigues da; Goettems, Marília Leão; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Azevedo, Marina Sousa
This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of dental fear and associated factors in schoolchildren aged 8 to 12 years old, in Pelotas, southern Brazil. Schoolchildren enrolled in 20 public and private schools were selected using a multi-stage sample design. Sociodemographic characteristics, children's dental visit and oral hygiene habits were assessed by questionnaires. The Dental Anxiety Question was used to measure dental fear prevalence. Children's clinical examination evaluated presence of dental caries (DMFT/dmft index) and gingival bleeding. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression with robust variance (prevalence ratio; 95% confidence interval). One thousand two hundred and two children were included. Dental fear prevalence was 24.6%. After the adjustment, girls [PR=1.71 (CI 95%: 1.31-2.22)], children from poorer families [PR=1.96 (CI 95%: 1.36-2.83)], those who had decayed teeth (D/d index>0)[PR=1.32 (CI 95%: 1.01-1.72), and who had never been at the dentist [PR=1.85 (CI 95%: 1.42-2.41) remained significantly associated with dental fear. The prevalence of dental fear indicates that it is a common problem among schoolchildren. Early dental care and dental caries prevention are important factors to prevent dental fear.
A qualitative study was conducted in the winter of 2000 with children enrolled in a Clef Club, the fourth level of an early childhood music program sponsored by the Eastman School's Community Education Division (Rochester, NY). Eleven participants, ages 4.7 to 6.6, enrolled in 3 sections of the 10-week program taught by the researcher. Classroom…
Galletto, Chiara; Gliozzi, Antonio; Nucera, Daniele; Bertorello, Nicoletta; Biasin, Eleonora; Corrias, Andrea; Chiabotto, Patrizia; Fagioli, Franca; Guiot, Caterina
Children receiving Total Body Irradiation (TBI) in preparation for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) are at risk for Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD), which sometimes severely compromises their Final Height (FH). To better represent the impact of such therapies on growth we apply a mathematical model, which accounts both for the gompertzian-like growth trend and the hormone-related 'spurts', and evaluate how the parameter values estimated on the children undergoing TBI differ from those of the matched normal population. 25 patients long-term childhood lymphoblastic and myeloid acute leukaemia survivors followed at Pediatric Onco-Hematology, Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Division, Regina Margherita Children's Hospital (Turin, Italy) were retrospectively analysed for assessing the influence of TBI on their longitudinal growth and for validating a new method to estimate the GH therapy effects. Six were treated with GH therapy after a GHD diagnosis. We show that when TBI was performed before puberty overall growth and pubertal duration were significantly impaired, but such growth limitations were completely reverted in the small sample (6 over 25) of children who underwent GH replacement therapies. Since in principle the model could account for any additional growth 'spurt' induced by therapy, it may become a useful 'simulation' tool for paediatricians for comparing the predicted therapy effectiveness depending on its timing and dosage.
Bonini, M; Bodina, A; Bonali, D; Bascucci, B; Pellino, P; Castaldi, S
The swimmers health's protection must be achieved through the implementation of structures that respect safety standards, the best management of the structures and the users'compliance with rules that minimize the potential risks to health, now clearly identified by the World Health Organization in specific guidelines and by the national and regional legislation. An anonymous questionnaire has been used in order to detect the level of knowledge of hygienic risks and the behaviour of costumers (adults and children) of swimming pool. Comparing the answers, statistically significant differences in the behaviours of adults and children were found in order to protect their own and others' health. In particular children do shower and go through footbath before entering the swimming pool more than adults (respectively 89.2% versus 77.4% and 89.2% versus 79.4%). No differences in the behaviours of the two groups were found in the use of dedicated footwear and caps. Children are predisposed to follow the rules because they are more loyal to duty, while adults comply with the rules only when it is clear the advantage to protect their health. This paper underline the importance of health education programs that can help people to understand the importance of adopting certain behaviours in order to prevent risks and promote health for the benefit of all.
Widom, Cathy Spatz; DuMont, Kimberly; Czaja, Sally J
Few prospective longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between abuse or neglect in childhood and depression in adulthood. To determine whether abused and neglected children were at elevated risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) and psychiatric comorbidity, compared with matched control subjects, when followed up into young adulthood. Prospective cohort design study. Midwestern metropolitan county area. Children with substantiated cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (before the age of 11 years) from January 1, 1967, to December 31, 1971 (n = 676) were matched based on age, race, sex, and approximate family social class with a group of non-abused and non-neglected children (n = 520) and followed up into young adulthood (mean age, 28.7 years). Between October 20, 1989, and December 22, 1995, 2-hour in-person interviews were conducted, using the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version III Revised, to determine DSM-III-R MDD and other psychiatric diagnoses. Child abuse and neglect were associated with an increased risk for current MDD (odds ratio [OR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-2.14; PChildren who were physically abused (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.00-2.52; Pneglect increased risk for current MDD (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.10-2.29; Pneglected children compared with controls. Among those with MDD, comorbidity was higher for abused and neglected individuals than for controls. These results support the need for clinicians to increase efforts to detect and treat depression in physically abused and neglected children.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine parental attitudes of parents with children between 48-72 months old, depending upon different variables while they are raising their children. Out of quantitative research patterns, descriptive survey model was used in the research. As data collecting tool, Parental Attitude Scale (PAS, developed by Demir and Şendil (2008 and which consists of 46 items in total and determines democratic, authoritative, overprotective, and permissive attitudes of parents in raising children was used. The sample of the research was composed of 422 parents who were selected in accordance with random sampling method and residing in İstanbul Province, Pendik District. Within context of the research, gender of parents, educational background, average income, family structure, number of children, whether or not they joined a seminar on pediatric development, the amount of time they spend with their child and the gender of the child were determined as independent variables and it was examined, based on these independent variables, whether there is a significant difference in parental attitude points which are dependent variables. In the analysis of data obtained from the research, it was concluded that non-employed parents are relatively more protective than employed parents, the fact that parents joined a seminar on pediatric development decreased the authoritative and overprotective attitude average points and parents adopted a more authoritative manner towards boys compared to girls. Also, in line with research findings, a significant difference was detected on parental attitude scale sub-dimension points depending on the independent variables of parents’ ages, educational background, income level and number of children.
Gao, Zan; Chen, Senlin; Huang, Charles C; Stodden, David F; Xiang, Ping
The purpose of the study was to quantify the contributions of physical education, exergaming (active video games that also are a type of exercise), recess, lunch break and after-school time segments to children's daily physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Participants were 138 second and third graders (71 girls) who attended 20-min recess and 75-min lunch time daily, 25-min regular physical education or exergaming-based classes being alternated daily. The after-school period was defined as 3:20-10:00pm. Physical activity was assessed via accelerometry and the dependent variables were children's time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Children's percentages of time spent in MVPA (P < .001; except for the difference between exergaming and lunch break: P = .63), light physical activity (P < .001) and sedentary behaviour (P < .001) differed significantly across the time segments (i.e., physical education/exergaming, recess, lunch break and after-school). Additionally, children accumulated significantly more MVPA (t = 10.22, P < .001) but less light physical activity (t = -3.17, P = .002) and sedentary behaviour (t = -3.91, P < .001) in physical education than in exergaming. Overall, physical education was more effective in generating MVPA than other segments over the school day. The after-school segment holds potential as an avenue for promoting children's MVPA, as this long period could be better utilised to organise structured physical activity.
Andersen, Annemette; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Rodrigues, Amabelia
study using data from Bandim Health Project's continuous registration of all admissions to the paediatric ward at the National Hospital Simão Mendes in Bissau, we investigated whether DTP was associated with higher female than male in-hospital mortality (female/male case fatality ratio (F/M CFR......Background: In spite of protection against the targeted infections, a large volume of observational data indicates that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine may have a negative impact on overall childhood mortality in low-income countries, especially in girls. Methods: In an observational......-vaccinated children was 1.23 (1.03-1.46); while it was 0.95 (0.66-1.38) among the 506 children who had not received DTP. DTP-vaccinated children were older and had better socioeconomic status. Adjusted for age, BCG-vaccination, residence, and maternal education the CFR comparing DTP-vaccinated boys with DTP...
White, C. T.; Matsell, D. G.
OBJECTIVE: To provide an effective approach for family physicians treating children presenting with urinary tract infections (UTIs). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The information presented, and articles quoted, are drawn from both review of the literature and recent consensus guidelines. Data and recommendations come from prospective multicentre trials; retrospective reviews; expert consensus statements; and some smaller trials, commentaries, and editorials. MAIN MESSAGE: Urinary tract infections are often seen in family practice. Diagnosis requires suspicion and a realization that children, especially those younger than 2 years, often have very few, nonspecific signs of infection. Obtaining a proper urine sample is vital, because true infections require radiographic studies. Antibiotic prophylaxis is promoted because of the link between vesicoureteral reflux, recurrent UTIs, and renal scarring and hypertension. We generally provide prophylaxis until children are 3 or 4 years, when risk of damage from reflux is lessened and timely urine samples are easier to obtain for prompt therapy. Surgical opinion is sought only when medical management has failed. Failure is defined as either recurrent infections and pyelonephritis or poor renal growth. CONCLUSION: To diagnose UTIs in children, physicians must suspect them, obtain proper urine samples, order appropriate investigations to rule out underlying anatomic abnormalities, and treat with appropriate antibiotics considering both organism sensitivities and length of therapy. PMID:11561337
Aydınlı, Fatma Esen; Özcebe, Esra; Kulak Kayıkçı, Maviş E; Yılmaz, Taner; Özgür, Fatma F
The aim was to investigate the effects of glottal stop productions (GS) on voice in children with cleft palate using multidimensional voice assessment methods. This is a prospective case-control study. Children with repaired cleft palate (n = 34) who did not have any vocal fold lesions were separated into two groups based on the results of the articulation test. The glottal stop group (GSG) consisted of 17 children who had GS. The control group (CG) consisted of an equal number of age- and gender-matched children who did not have GS. The voice evaluation protocol included acoustic analysis, Pediatric Voice Handicap Index (pVHI), and perceptual analysis (Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, Strain method). The velopharyngeal statuses of the groups were compared using the nasopharyngoscopy and the nasometer. The total pVHI score and the subscales of the pVHI were found to be significantly higher in the GSG. The F0, jitter, and shimmer were found to be numerically higher in the GSG with the difference being statistically significant in jitter (P speech and language pathology intervention including voice therapy techniques. Copyright Â© 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Batnini, Soulef; Uno, Akira
This study investigated first the main cognitive abilities; phonological processing, visual cognition, automatization and receptive vocabulary in predicting reading and spelling abilities in Arabic. Second, we compared good/poor readers and spellers to detect the characteristics of cognitive predictors which contribute to identifying reading and spelling difficulties in Arabic speaking children. A sample of 116 Tunisian third-grade children was tested on their abilities to read and spell, phonological processing, visual cognition, automatization and receptive vocabulary. For reading, phonological processing and automatization uniquely predicted Arabic word reading and paragraph reading abilities. Automatization uniquely predicted Arabic non-word reading ability. For spelling, phonological processing was a unique predictor for Arabic word spelling ability. Furthermore, poor readers had significantly lower scores on the phonological processing test and slower reading times on the automatization test as compared with good readers. Additionally, poor spellers showed lower scores on the phonological processing test as compared with good spellers. Visual cognitive processing and receptive vocabulary were not significant cognitive predictors of Arabic reading and spelling abilities for Tunisian third grade children in this study. Our results are consistent with previous studies in alphabetic orthographies and demonstrate that phonological processing and automatization are the best cognitive predictors in detecting early literacy problems. We suggest including phonological processing and automatization tasks in screening tests and in intervention programs may help Tunisian children with poor literacy skills overcome reading and spelling difficulties in Arabic. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Harris, Yvette R.; Rothstein, Susan E.
The aim of this investigation was to identify the book reading behaviors and book reading styles of middle class African American mothers engaged in a shared book reading activity with their preschool children. To this end, the mothers and their children were videotaped reading one of three books, Julius, Grandfather and I, or Somewhere in Africa. Both maternal and child behaviors were coded for the frequency of occurrence of story grammar elements contained in their stories and maternal behaviors were also coded for their use of narrative eliciting strategies. In addition, mothers were queried about the quality and quantity of book reading/story telling interactions in the home environment. The results suggest that there is a great deal of individual variation in how mothers use the story grammar elements and narrative eliciting strategies to engage their children in a shared book reading activity. Findings are discussed in terms of suggestions for additional research and practical applications are offered on ways to optimally engage African American preschool children and African American families from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds in shared book reading interactions. PMID:24926276
Harris, Yvette R; Rothstein, Susan E
The aim of this investigation was to identify the book reading behaviors and book reading styles of middle class African American mothers engaged in a shared book reading activity with their preschool children. To this end, the mothers and their children were videotaped reading one of three books, Julius, Grandfather and I, or Somewhere in Africa. Both maternal and child behaviors were coded for the frequency of occurrence of story grammar elements contained in their stories and maternal behaviors were also coded for their use of narrative eliciting strategies. In addition, mothers were queried about the quality and quantity of book reading/story telling interactions in the home environment. The results suggest that there is a great deal of individual variation in how mothers use the story grammar elements and narrative eliciting strategies to engage their children in a shared book reading activity. Findings are discussed in terms of suggestions for additional research and practical applications are offered on ways to optimally engage African American preschool children and African American families from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds in shared book reading interactions.
Aldemir, Ramazan; Demirci, Esra; Per, Huseyin; Canpolat, Mehmet; Özmen, Sevgi; Tokmakçı, Mahmut
To investigate the frequency domain effects and changes in electroencephalography (EEG) signals in children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study contains 40 children. All children were between the ages of 7 and 12 years. Participants were classified into four groups which were ADHD (n=20), ADHD-I (ADHD-Inattentive type) (n=10), ADHD-C (ADHD-Combined type) (n=10), and control (n=20) groups. In this study, the frequency domain of EEG signals for ADHD, subtypes and control groups were analyzed and compared using Matlab software. The mean age of the ADHD children's group was 8.7 years and the control group 9.1 years. Spectral analysis of mean power (μV 2 ) and relative-mean power (%) was carried out for four different frequency bands: delta (0--4 Hz), theta (4--8 Hz), alpha (8--13 Hz) and beta (13--32 Hz). The ADHD and subtypes of ADHD-I, and ADHD-C groups had higher average power value of delta and theta band than that of control group. However, this is not the case for alpha and beta bands. Increases in delta/beta ratio and statistical significance were found only between ADHD-I and control group, and in delta/beta, theta/delta ratio statistical significance values were found to exist between ADHD-C and control group. EEG analyzes can be used as an alternative method when ADHD subgroups are identified.
Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu Shengjie; Xiong Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: email@example.com [Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)
Purpose: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies have the potential to preserve cognitive outcomes in children with ependymoma; however, functional behavior remains uninvestigated. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intelligence quotient (IQ) and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years after irradiation in children diagnosed with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 123 children with intracranial ependymoma. Mean age at irradiation was 4.60 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.85-5.35). Serial neurocognitive evaluations, including an age-appropriate IQ measure and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), were completed before irradiation, 6 months after treatment, and annually for 5 years. A total of 579 neurocognitive evaluations were included in these analyses. Results: Baseline IQ and VABS were below normative means (P<.05), although within the average range. Linear mixed models revealed stable IQ and VABS across the follow-up period, except for the VABS Communication Index, which declined significantly (P=.015). Annual change in IQ (-.04 points) did not correlate with annual change in VABS (-.90 to +.44 points). Clinical factors associated with poorer baseline performance (P<.05) included preirradiation chemotherapy, cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, number and extent of surgical resections, and younger age at treatment. No clinical factors significantly affected the rate of change in scores. Conclusions: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies provided relative sparing of functional outcomes including IQ and adaptive behaviors, even in very young children. Communication skills remained vulnerable and should be the target of preventive and rehabilitative interventions.
Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N; Evans, Gary W
While emotionality is often thought of as a risk factor, differential susceptibility theory argues that emotionality reflects susceptibility to both positive and negative environmental influences. The present study explored whether emotional children might be more susceptible to the effects of both high and low maternal responsiveness on allostatic load, a physiological indicator of chronic stress. Participants were 226 mother and child dyads. Mothers reported on children's emotionality at child age 9. Maternal responsiveness was measured at age 13 using self-reports and behavioral observation. Allostatic load was measured at age 13 and 17 using neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and metabolic biomarkers. Emotionality was associated with higher allostatic load if self-reported responsiveness was low, but with lower allostatic load, when self-reported responsiveness was high. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
This report presents two findings of the U.K. Health and Safety Executive study group responsible for examining the conclusions of the Gardner Report that ''the raised incidence of leukaemia particularly, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, among children near Sellafield was associated with paternal employment and recorded external dose of whole body penetrating radiation during work at the plant before conception''. The HSE report is divided into three:- the Case-only study and the Radiation Dose study, concerned with the 11 case fathers who had worked at Sellafield. The third part, the Case-control study, is an epidemiological study which seeks to identify all cancer cases diagnosed before the age of 25, where the children concerned had been born in West Cumbria to fathers who were Sellafield employees. The search included the whole country from January 1980 to September 1989. (UK)
Chen, Yang; Kimelman, Mikael D Z; Micco, Katie
This study is designed to compare the habitual pitch measured in two different speech activities (free play activity and traditionally used structured speech activity) for normally developing preschool-aged children to explore to what extent preschoolers vary their vocal pitch among different speech environments. Habitual pitch measurements were conducted for 10 normally developing children (2 boys, 8 girls) between the ages of 31 months and 71 months during two different activities: (1) free play; and (2) structured speech. Speech samples were recorded using a throat microphone connected with a wireless transmitter in both activities. The habitual pitch (in Hz) was measured for all collected speech samples by using voice analysis software (Real-Time Pitch). Significantly higher habitual pitch is found during free play in contrast to structured speech activities. In addition, there is no showing of significant difference of habitual pitch elicited across a variety of structured speech activities. Findings suggest that the vocal usage of preschoolers appears to be more effortful during free play than during structured activities. It is recommended that a comprehensive evaluation for young children's voice needs to be based on the speech/voice samples collected from both free play and structured activities.
Hussak, Larisa J; Cimpian, Andrei
We tested the hypothesis that political attitudes are influenced by an information-processing factor - namely, a bias in the content of everyday explanations. Because many societal phenomena are enormously complex, people's understanding of them often relies on heuristic shortcuts. For instance, when generating explanations for such phenomena (e.g., why does this group have low status?), people often rely on facts that they can retrieve easily from memory - facts that are skewed toward inherent or intrinsic features (e.g., this group is unintelligent). We hypothesized that this bias in the content of heuristic explanations leads to a tendency to (1) view socioeconomic stratification as acceptable and (2) prefer current societal arrangements to alternative ones, two hallmarks of conservative ideology. Moreover, since the inherence bias in explanation is present across development, we expected it to shape children's proto-political judgments as well. Three studies with adults and 4- to 8-year-old children (N = 784) provided support for these predictions: Not only did individual differences in reliance on inherent explanations uniquely predict endorsement of conservative views (particularly the stratification-supporting component; Study 1), but manipulations of this explanatory bias also had downstream consequences for political attitudes in both children and adults (Studies 2 and 3). This work contributes to our understanding of the origins of political attitudes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vukovic, Rose K; Lesaux, Nonie K
This longitudinal study examined how language ability relates to mathematical development in a linguistically and ethnically diverse sample of children from 6 to 9 years of age. Study participants were 75 native English speakers and 92 language minority learners followed from first to fourth grades. Autoregression in a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework was used to evaluate the relation between children's language ability and gains in different domains of mathematical cognition (i.e., arithmetic, data analysis/probability, algebra, and geometry). The results showed that language ability predicts gains in data analysis/probability and geometry, but not in arithmetic or algebra, after controlling for visual-spatial working memory, reading ability, and sex. The effect of language on gains in mathematical cognition did not differ between language minority learners and native English speakers. These findings suggest that language influences how children make meaning of mathematics but is not involved in complex arithmetical procedures whether presented with Arabic symbols as in arithmetic or with abstract symbols as in algebraic reasoning. The findings further indicate that early language experiences are important for later mathematical development regardless of language background, denoting the need for intensive and targeted language opportunities for language minority and native English learners to develop mathematical concepts and representations. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Lalor, Aislinn; Farnworth, Louise; Pallant, Julie F; Knightbridge, Elizabeth; McLelland, Gayle
Lifestyle may influence many health-related issues currently facing Australian women. The extent to which women with school-aged children attend to their own health is unknown and the associations between health behaviours and health status requires investigation. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of health behaviours (alcohol consumption, health-promoting activities) and their impact on self-reported health (weight, sleep quality, mental health) among mothers of school-aged children in Victoria. Mail-out survey design (n=263) including the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) and Health Promoting Activities Scale was used to explore issues. The results indicated that substantial numbers of mothers reported moderate to extreme DASS scores: depression (n=45, 17%); anxiety (n=41, 15.6%); stress (n=57, 21.7%). The majority participated in physical activity less often than daily. High rates of daily alcohol use (20%) and poor sleep quality were reported. Nearly one-half (n=114, 46%) of the sample were overweight or obese and also reported poorer mental health than other women in the sample (Pmaternal weight, mental health and participation in health-promoting activities. The findings indicate that there is a need for increased health education and services for women with school-aged children. Direct services and population-based health promotion strategies may be required to address healthy lifestyle issues and educate mothers about the possible health legacy of poor health behaviours.
Dileo, J F; Brewer, W; Northam, E; Yucel, M; Anderson, V
Maltreatment of children is a chronic community problem that increases the risk of future aggression. Despite several decades of research highlighting this relationship, few studies have explored the potential neuropsychological deficits that are likely to mediate it. This exploratory study aimed to examine how child maltreatment may be associated with aggression via impairment in the developing prefrontal-limbic-autonomic pathways that are implicated in neuropsychological models of aggression. Furthermore, it aimed to investigate the relationship between child maltreatment and both reactive and proactive aggression subtypes. To investigate this non-invasively in an at-risk population, children with a documented protective care history (n = 20) and a community control group (n = 30), aged between 6 and 12 years, were compared on measures of cardiovascular functioning, affect regulation and cognitive functioning aligned with this neuropsychological model. Whilst no group differences were found on cardiovascular functioning (i.e., resting heart rate, heart rate reactivity, heart rate variability), the protective care group performed significantly worse on measures of affect regulation and cognitive functioning (i.e., global intelligence, executive functioning, smell identification and social cognition). The relationship between child maltreatment and aggression was mediated by executive dysfunction and affect dysregulation but not global IQ, social cognition or olfactory identification. The results suggest that interventions targeting aggression in maltreated children will benefit from clinical assessment and psychological strategies that address the executive dysfunction and affect dysregulation that has been associated with this clinical outcome.
Hammerton, Gemma; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; Thapar, Ajay
Objective To examine the relationship between blood pressure and depressive disorder in children and adolescents at high risk for depression. Design Multisample longitudinal design including a prospective longitudinal three-wave high-risk study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression and an on-going birth cohort for replication. Setting Community-based studies. Participants High-risk sample includes 281 families where children were aged 9–17 years at baseline and 10–19 years at the final data point. Replication cohort includes 4830 families where children were aged 11–14 years at baseline and 14–17 years at follow-up and a high-risk subsample of 612 offspring with mothers that had reported recurrent depression. Main outcome measures The new-onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, fourth edition defined depressive disorder in the offspring using established research diagnostic assessments—the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment in the high-risk sample and the Development and Wellbeing Assessment in the replication sample. Results Blood pressure was standardised for age and gender to create SD scores and child's weight was statistically controlled in all analyses. In the high-risk sample, lower systolic blood pressure at wave 1 significantly predicted new-onset depressive disorder in children (OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.96; p=0.029) but diastolic blood pressure did not. Depressive disorder at wave 1 did not predict systolic blood pressure at wave 3. A significant association between lower systolic blood pressure and future depression was also found in the replication cohort in the second subset of high-risk children whose mothers had experienced recurrent depression in the past. Conclusions Lower systolic blood pressure predicts new-onset depressive disorder in the offspring of parents with depression. Further studies are needed to investigate how this association arises. PMID:24071459
Martinelli, Mary K; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Rosch, Keri S
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by deficits in impulse control across a range of behaviors, from simple actions to those involving complex decision-making (e.g., preference for smaller-sooner versus larger later rewards). This study investigated whether changes in motor response control with increased cognitive load and motivational contingencies are associated with decision-making in the form of delay discounting among 8-12 year old children with and without ADHD. Children with ADHD (n = 26; 8 girls) and typically developing controls (n = 40; 11 girls) completed a standard go/no-go (GNG) task, a GNG task with motivational contingencies, a GNG task with increased cognitive load, and two measures of delay discounting: a real-time task in which the delays and immediately consumable rewards are experienced in real-time, and a classic task involving choices about money at longer delays. Children with ADHD, particularly girls, exhibited greater delay discounting than controls during the real-time discounting task, whereas diagnostic groups did not significantly differ on the classic discounting task. The effect of cognitive load on response control was uniquely associated with greater discounting on the real-time task for children with ADHD, but not for control children. The effect of motivational contingencies on response control was not significantly associated with delay discounting for either diagnostic group. The findings from this study help to inform our understanding of the factors that influence deficient self-control in ADHD, suggesting that impairments in cognitive control may contribute to greater delay discounting in ADHD.
Ms. Yelena N. Suvorkina
Full Text Available The article deals with one of the empirical research methods investigating the childhood sub-culture. The method is called observation. The author marked general theoretical position, recommendations on its implementation. Based on observations of the group of children behavior in the guesthouse pool it is found out that such category, as honesty is very important in the organization of the order, taking into account that the subculture of childhood is an open, self-organizing system. In the pool, the children come up with a wide variety of games. The adjacent areas are also involved. The author identified two borders, taking place for the child: a clear (fixed border is the side of the pool and unclear border as the transitional designation of states, qualities (dangerous – safe.
Weusmann, Jens; Mahmoodi, Benjamin; Azaripour, Adriano; Kordsmeyer, Kristian; Walter, Christian; Willershausen, Brita
The annual examination of first graders' oral health as stipulated by law aimed to reach every child in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) in their first year of school. We intended to evaluate the first graders' oral health based on the examination data for 2013/2014. Instructed examiners measured the d3mft(deciduous)/D3MFT(permanent) index according to World Health Organization criteria in 25,020 predominantly 6-7 year-old first-grade school children. Only caries affecting dentin was diagnosed; no radiography or fiber-transillumination was used. Out of the d3mft value, the "Significant Caries Index" (SiC) was calculated. This index identifies the dmft score of the third of the population with the highest caries experience. Descriptive analysis was performed. Out of the the examined children, 60.9% were caries free. Mean d3mft score was 1.28 ± 2.27 while the mean SiC was 3.73 ± 2.51. A distinctly higher d3mft was found in the decidous molars compared to the front teeth. Boys were significantly more caries-experienced than girls (p < 0.001). The results of this study confirm the lasting trend towards decreasing caries prevalence in children starting school found in previous cross-sectional studies. This trend was observed in the high-risk group (obtained by SiC) as well as in the entire study population. Particular attention in caries prophylaxis should be paid to the primary molars.
Michelle C. Starr
Full Text Available Food insecurity (FI is common - affecting one in six American households with children. FI is defined as limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods. Awareness of food insecurity and its impact on health has increased since the American Academy of Pediatrics 2015 policy statement, “Promoting Food Security for All Children.” Though FI is frequently addressed in general pediatric primary care, it is not routinely identified in patients with chronic medical problems. Patients with complex care needs, prescription medication, or restrictive nutritional requirements may be at higher risk of food insecurity. The prevalence of FI in patients with chronic disease, including pediatric patients with kidney disease, remains unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence of FI among our pediatric nephrology clinic patients with a cross-sectional screening pilot study. Nearly 35% of 118 children seen in our pediatric nephrology outpatient clinic lived in food insecure households, a prevalence rate more than double the general pediatric population (16%. Barriers to food security were variable; common themes included challenges with restricted diet and available food, identifying and accessing community resources, and not qualifying for support. For physicians, dietitians, and other health providers that counsel patients with kidney disease on dietary interventions, it is important to be aware of food security status. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the prevalence of food insecurity in pediatric patients with kidney disease. Further studies of food insecurity and social determinants of heath in this patient population are needed. Keywords: Kidney disease, Pediatrics, Child, Healthcare utilization, Food insecurity, Nutritional status
Boyes, Mark E; Bowes, Lucy; Cluver, Lucie D; Ward, Catherine L; Badcock, Nicholas A
Bullying victimisation has been prospectively linked with mental health problems among children and adolescents in longitudinal studies in the developed world. However, research from the developing world, where adolescents face multiple risks to social and emotional development, has been limited by cross-sectional designs. This is the first longitudinal study of the psychological impacts of bullying victimisation in South Africa. The primary aim was to examine prospective relationships between bullying victimisation and internalising and externalising symptoms in South African youth. Secondary aims were to examine gender and age-related differences in experiences of bullying victimisation. Children and adolescents (10-17 years, 57 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up 1 year later (97 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Exposure to multiple experiences of bullying victimisation at baseline predicted internalising symptoms and conduct problems 1 year later. Additionally, baseline mental health scores predicted later bullying victimisation, demonstrating bi-directionality of relationships between bullying victimisation and mental health outcomes in this sample. Expected gender differences in physical, verbal, and relational bullying victimisation were evident and predicted declines in bullying victimisation over time were observed. In the developed world, school-based anti-bullying programmes have been shown to be effective in reducing bullying and victimisation. Anti-bullying programmes should be implemented and rigorously evaluated in South Africa, as this may promote improved mental health among South African children and adolescents.
Yang, Chen; Chen, Julia Yi-Ru; Lai, Chien-Cherng; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Yeh, Geng-Chang; Hsu, Hsun-Hui
Three children of two Taiwanese families were diagnosed with Laron syndrome, two sisters and one boy. Both sets of parents were consanguineous. Clinically, all three presented with the typical craniofacies of Laron syndrome, consisting of prominent forehead and hypoplastic nasal bridge, high-pitched voice, short stature, and central obesity. Biochemically, their levels of serum IGF-I were less than 5 microg/ml before and after an IGF-I generation test, and levels of IGFBP-3 were reduced in all three patients. Sequence analysis of the growth hormone receptor gene revealed that all three carried a homozygous missense D152G mutation in exon 6.
Merriman, W J; Barnett, B E
This study was undertaken to explore the relationship between language skills and gross-motor skills of 28 preschool children from two private preschools in New York City. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated for language (revised Preschool Language Scale) and gross motor (Test of Gross Motor Development) scores. Locomotor skills were significantly related to both auditory comprehension and verbal ability while object control scores did not correlate significantly with either language score. These results were discussed in terms of previous research and with reference to dynamical systems theory. Suggestions for research were made.
He Yu; Wu Chungen; Gu Yifeng; Cheng Yongde
Objective: To assess the clinical value of interventional management in treating spine eosinophilic granuloma in children. Methods: Interventional therapies, including per cutaneous biopsy and percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP), were carried out in three child patients with five pathologically-proved eosinophilic granuloma lesions, which were localized in the vertebrae. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Visual analogue pain scale (VAS) and Oswesty disability index (ODI) were assessed before and after operation. Results: A total of four operations were successfully carried out in all of three patients. The mean VAS score reduced from 7 before treatment of 1 after treatment. The mean ODI decreased from preoperative 52.5% to postoperative 10.5%. During procedures no significant complications occurred except for cement leakage in some cases. Pain relief and daily activity were remarkably improved after treatment. All patients were followed up for 3 months to 5 years. Conclusion: For the treatment of spine eosinophilic granuloma in children, interventional techniques are mini-invasive, safe and effective therapeutic methods. (authors)
Gadermann, Anne M.; Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.
The objective of this study was to investigate the substantive aspect of construct validity of the Satisfaction with Life Scale adapted for Children (SWLS-C; Gadermann et al. in Soc Indic Res 96:229-247, "2010"). Specifically, the study examined the cognitive processes of children when responding to the items of the SWLS-C to find out how they…
Anna Cristina de Carvalho Rettore
Full Text Available In foreign law, there has been intense debates concerning civil registry of children born of surrogacy pregnancy, when such birth disrespects the country’s norms. Thus, based on the analysis of recent Spain Supreme Court judgments – that is, through a juridical-comparative investigation, using primary and secondary sources –, and considering that although Brazil lacks an express federal law about the issue, a Resolution of the Federal Counsel of Medicine establishing parameters is being generally applied, the paper aims to answer whether or not Brazilian registry should be facilitated for births (demonstrated as not uncommon that disregard such parameters.
Kelly, Philip A; Viding, Essi; Puetz, Vanessa B; Palmer, Amy L; Mechelli, Andrea; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Samuel, Sophie; McCrory, Eamon J
While maltreatment is known to impact social and emotional functioning, threat processing, and neural structure, the potentially dimorphic influence of sex on these outcomes remains relatively understudied. We investigated sex differences across these domains in a large community sample of children aged 10 to 14 years (n = 122) comprising 62 children with verified maltreatment experience and 60 well-matched nonmaltreated peers. The maltreated group relative to the nonmaltreated comparison group exhibited poorer social and emotional functioning (more peer problems and heightened emotional reactivity). Cognitively, they displayed a pattern of attentional avoidance of threat in a visual dot-probe task. Similar patterns were observed in males and females in these domains. Reduced gray matter volume was found to characterize the maltreated group in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral middle temporal lobes, and bilateral supramarginal gyrus; sex differences were observed only in the supramarginal gyrus. In addition, a disordinal interaction between maltreatment exposure and sex was found in the postcentral gyrus. Finally, attentional avoidance to threat mediated the relationship between maltreatment and emotional reactivity, and medial orbitofrontal cortex gray matter volume mediated the relationship between maltreatment and peer functioning. Similar mediation patterns were observed across sexes. This study highlights the utility of combining multiple levels of analysis when studying the "latent vulnerability" engendered by childhood maltreatment and yields tentative findings regarding a neural basis of sex differences in long-term outcomes for maltreated children.
Berendsen, M.L.T.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Netea, M.G.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der
BACKGROUND - Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination possesses effects on health beyond its target disease, the so called “non-specific effects”. We evaluate these effects, as well as the effect of timing of BCG and other vaccinations, on stunting in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) children under
Objective: To assess the Mantoux test reaction pattern in healthy BCG vaccinated Primary School Children aged .... the parents and guardians at a Parent Teachers. Association Meeting organized by the school heads following a directive from the Local Government. Education Authority. ..... Current issues in tuberculosis.
Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Range, Nyagosya; PrayGod, George
While BCG vaccine protects against severe tuberculosis (TB) in children, its effect against adult TB is questionable. Furthermore, it is not known if HIV co-infection modifies the effect of BCG. Among 352 pairs of Tanzanian TB cases and matched controls, the BCG scar was associated with a reduced...
Silja M Dry
Full Text Available The relationships between self oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism and maladaptive and adaptive coping strategies and their collective impact on depression symptoms were examined in the context of a randomised controlled universal trial of the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills intervention. 541 children aged 8 to 12 completed a battery of self reports, of which responses for measures of depression symptoms, perfectionism and coping strategies were examined for the purposes of this study. Structural equation modelling tested whether coping mediated the effects of perfectionism on depression indicated that socially prescribed perfectionism had both a direct and indirect relationship with depression symptoms through a moderate association with maladaptive coping. Implications for prevention of depression were discussed and recommendations for future research were proposed.
Johnson, Jake; Piercy, Fred P
In this study, we explored how couples raising children with autism spectrum disorder negotiate intimacy, including what contextual and temporal factors influence these processes. We conducted conjoint interviews with 12 couples, employing grounded theory methodology to collect and analyze the data. Our results indicated that fostering intimacy in these couples' relationships involves partners working together to make key cognitive and relational shifts. Couples are aided or hindered in making these shifts by the degree to which they experience various contextual and environmental factors as resources or roadblocks. We also found that intimacy is not a fixed point at which couples one day arrive, but is an iterative process taking place over time and requiring work to develop and maintain. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Full Text Available This article describes a school-based telehealth service delivery model and reports outcomes made by school-age students with speech sound disorders in a rural Ohio school district. Speech therapy using computer-based speech sound intervention materials was provided either by live interactive videoconferencing (telehealth, or conventional side-by-side intervention. Progress was measured using pre- and post-intervention scores on the Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation-2 (Goldman & Fristoe, 2002. Students in both service delivery models made significant improvements in speech sound production, with students in the telehealth condition demonstrating greater mastery of their Individual Education Plan (IEP goals. Live interactive videoconferencing thus appears to be a viable method for delivering intervention for speech sound disorders to children in a rural, public school setting. Keywords: Telehealth, telerehabilitation, videoconferencing, speech sound disorder, speech therapy, speech-language pathology; E-Helper
Nora Maria Raschle
Full Text Available Studies in sleeping newborns and infants propose that the superior temporal sulcus is involved in speech processing soon after birth. Speech processing also implicitly requires the analysis of the human voice, which conveys both linguistic and extra-linguistic information. However, due to technical and practical challenges when neuroimaging young children, evidence of neural correlates of speech and/or voice processing in toddlers and young children remains scarce. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 20 typically developing preschool children (average age = 5.8 y; range 5.2-6.8 y to investigate brain activation during judgments about vocal identity versus the initial speech sound of spoken object words. FMRI results reveal common brain regions responsible for voice-specific and speech-sound specific processing of spoken object words including bilateral primary and secondary language areas of the brain. Contrasting voice-specific with speech-sound specific processing predominantly activates the anterior part of the right-hemispheric superior temporal sulcus. Furthermore, the right STS is functionally correlated with left-hemispheric temporal and right-hemispheric prefrontal regions. This finding underlines the importance of the right superior temporal sulcus as a temporal voice area and indicates that this brain region is specialized, and functions similarly to adults by the age of five. We thus extend previous knowledge of voice-specific regions and their functional connections to the young brain which may further our understanding of the neuronal mechanism of speech-specific processing in children with developmental disorders, such as autism or specific language impairments.
Seyed Ali Hosseini
Full Text Available Background: Centre of pressure displacement is an indicator of postural control. Children with cerebral palsy have poor postural control. One common intervention to enhance their balance is vestibular stimulation. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of vestibular stimulation on COP parameters in children with cerebral palsy (3-10 years old. Methods: This study was a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial. Twenty children with cerebral palsy received vestibular stimulation, two sessions per week with a course of twelve sessions, based on vestibular stimulation protocol including anteroposterior, lateral, ascending–descending movements and spinning. One cerebral palsy group experienced current and conventional occupational therapy while the other received a period of vestibular stimulation during treatment. Force plate outcome measures were center of pressure displacement parameters as well as velocity, area, displacement in X and Y axes. Results: According to Mann-Whitney U test, means in post-tests in two groups with both conditions of eyes open and closed were significant in velocity parameter (eyes open P=0.036; eyes closed P=0.021 while Area parameter, COP displacement in X axis (Rang fore after, COP displacement in Y axis (Rang side way were not significant (P>0.05. Wilcoxon Test showed significant difference in the velocity parameter; eyes open (P=0.012 and eyes closed (P=0.018. Conclusion: Children who received vestibular stimulation are able to change and control COP displacement faster (according to changes in velocity parameters. So we suggest rehabilitation team members especially occupational therapist to apply vestibular stimulation during their treatment.
Varga, Nicole L.; Stewart, Rebekah A.; Bauer, Patricia J.
Semantic memory, defined as our store of knowledge about the world, provides representational support for all of our higher order cognitive functions. As such, it is crucial that the contents of semantic memory remain accessible over time. Although memory for knowledge learned through direct observation has been previously investigated, we know very little about the retention of knowledge derived through integration of information acquired across separate learning episodes. The present research investigated cross-episode integration in 4-year-old children. Participants were presented with novel facts via distinct story episodes and tested for knowledge extension through cross-episode integration, as well as for retention of the information over a 1-week delay. In Experiment 1, children retained the self-derived knowledge over the delay, though performance was primarily evidenced in a forced-choice format. In Experiment 2, we sought to facilitate the accessibility and robustness of self-derived knowledge by providing a verbal reminder after the delay. The accessibility of self-derived knowledge increased, irrespective of whether participants successfully demonstrated knowledge of the integration facts during the first visit. The results suggest knowledge extended through integration remains accessible after delays, even in a population in which this learning process is less robust. The findings also demonstrate the facilitative effect of reminders on the accessibility and further extension of knowledge over extended time periods. PMID:26774259
Mayes, Theresa; Gottschlich, Michele M; Khoury, Jane; Kagan, Richard J
The effect of supplemental vitamin D on fracture occurrence following burn injuries is unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate postintervention incidence of fractures in children during the rehabilitative phase postburn (PB) following participation in a randomized clinical trial of vitamin D supplementation. Follow-up for fracture evaluation was obtained in 39 of 50 patients randomized to daily enteral vitamin D2, D3, or placebo throughout the acute burn course. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, D2, D3, calcitonin, and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) measurements were obtained PB day 7, midpoint, discharge, and 1-year PB. Urinary calcium was obtained PB day 7 and midpoint. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed at discharge and 1-year PB. Fractures were reported in 6 of 39 respondents. Four fractures occurred in the placebo group, 2 in the D2 group, and none in the D3 group. Serum vitamin D, calcitonin, BAP, and urinary calcium were similar between fracture groups. The group with fracture morbidity had larger burn size (83.8% ± 4.9% vs 53.0% ± 2.9%, P vitamin D3 in reducing postdischarge fracture risk. Results reaffirm the importance of monitoring bone health in pediatric patients postburn. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Three experiments compared the verbal memory skills of children with poor reading comprehension with that of same-age good comprehenders. The aims were to determine if semantic and/or inhibitory deficits explained comprehenders' problems on measures of verbal short-term memory and verbal working memory. In Experiment 1 there were no group differences on word- and number-based measures of short-term storage and no evidence that semantic knowledge mediated word recall. In Experiment 2 poor comprehenders were impaired on word- and number-based assessments of working memory, the greatest deficit found on the word-based task. Error analysis of both word-based tasks revealed that poor comprehenders were more likely to recall items that should have been inhibited than were good comprehenders. Experiment 3 extended this finding: Poor comprehenders were less able to inhibit information that was no longer relevant. Together, these findings suggest that individual differences in inhibitory processing influence the ability to regulate the contents of working memory, which may contribute to the differential memory performance of good and poor comprehenders.
Nemati, Shahram; Teimourian, Shahram; Tabrizi, Mina; Najafi, Mehri; Dara, Naghi; Imanzadeh, Farid; Ahmadi, Mitra; Aghdam, Maryam Kazemi; Tavassoli, Mohmoud; Rohani, Pejman; Madani, Seyyed Ramin; de Boer, Martin; Kuijpers, T. W.; Roos, Dirk
Background & aim: Comparing to adult inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), those with early onset manifestations have different features in terms of the underlying molecular pathology, the course of disease and the response to therapy. We investigated the IL-10 signaling pathway previously reported as
Rodrigues Laura C
Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of reported pertussis has increased in the last two decades. However, many cases of pertussis may be underreported or not diagnosed. The World Health Organization estimates that pertussis causes 200.000 – 400.000 deaths each year, most deaths are in infants and in developing countries. Infants with pertussis can indicate an undetected source cases in the community. Methods At a University Hospital in Brazil individuals that had frequent contacts with a child with confirmed pertussis (the index case and had recent history of cough were enrolled into the study. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from every contact that had cough within the last 21 days. Cases confirmation followed the guidelines of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention – Atlanta, U.S.A. Results Pertussis diagnosis was confirmed in 51 children, (considered the index cases. Among the index cases, 72.5% (37/51 were under 6 months of age; culture for Bordetella pertussis was positive in 78.4% (40/51. Pertussis was confirmed in 39% (107/276 of the contacts of 51 index cases. Among these contacts identified as a pertussis case, 40.2% (43/107 were between 6 months and 111/2 years of age and 59.8% (64/107 were older than 111/2 years of age. Pertussis was confirmed by culture in 11.2% (12/107 of them and by epidemiologic linkage in 88.8% (95/107. Each index case allowed identifying two new cases of pertussis. Conclusion Public health authorities should consider implementing early recognition of pertussis index cases and searching for pertussis cases among the contacts. Treatment of the cases and prophylaxis of the contacts is fundamental to control outbreaks in the community.
Lúcio, Patrícia Silva; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Puglisi, Marina; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; Little, Todd D
The present study investigated the psychometric properties of the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) test in a sample of preschoolers from Brazil ( n = 582; age: mean = 57 months, SD = 7 months; 46% female). We investigated the plausibility of unidimensionality of the items (confirmatory factor analysis) and differential item functioning (DIF) for sex and age (multiple indicators multiple causes method). We tested four unidimensional models and the one with the best-fit index was a reduced form of the Raven's CPM. The DIF analysis was carried out with the reduced form of the test. A few items presented DIF (two for sex and one for age), confirming that the Raven's CPM items are mostly measurement invariant. There was no effect of sex on the general factor, but increasing age was associated with higher values of the g factor. Future research should indicate if the reduced form is suitable for evaluating the general ability of preschoolers.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARTI is a key epidemiological indicator of the extent of transmission in a community. Several methods have been suggested to estimate the prevalence of tuberculous infection using tuberculin skin test data. This paper explores the implications of using different methods to estimate prevalence of infection and ARTI. The effect of BCG vaccination on these estimates is also investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tuberculin surveys among school children in 16 communities in Zambia and 8 in South Africa (SA were performed in 2005, as part of baseline data collection and for randomisation purposes of the ZAMSTAR study. Infection prevalence and ARTI estimates were calculated using five methods: different cut-offs with or without adjustments for sensitivity, the mirror method, and mixture analysis. A total of 49,835 children were registered for the surveys, of which 25,048 (50% had skin tests done and 22,563 (90% of those tested were read. Infection prevalence was higher in the combined SA than Zambian communities. The mirror method resulted in the least difference of 7.8%, whereas that estimated by the cut-off methods varied from 12.2% to 17.3%. The ARTI in the Zambian and SA communities was between 0.8% and 2.8% and 2.5% and 4.2% respectively, depending on the method used. In the SA communities, the ARTI was higher among the younger children. BCG vaccination had little effect on these estimates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ARTI estimates are dependent on the calculation method used. All methods agreed that there were substantial differences in infection prevalence across the communities, with higher rates in SA. Although TB notification rates have increased over the past decades, the difference in cumulative exposure between younger and older children is less dramatic and a rise in risk of infection in parallel with the estimated incidence of active tuberculosis cannot be excluded.
Chabanova, Elizaveta; Bille, Dorthe S.; Thisted, Ebbe; Holm, Jens-Christian; Thomsen, Henrik S.
Objective: The objective was to investigate T 2 relaxation values and to optimize hepatic fat quantification using proton MR spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) at 3 T in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Subjects: The study included 123 consecutive children and adolescents with a body mass index above the 97th percentile according to age and sex. 1 H MR spectroscopy was performed at 3.0 T using point resolved spectroscopy sequence with series TE. T 2 relaxation values and hepatic fat content corrected for the T 2 relaxation effects were calculated. Results: T 2 values for water ranged from 22 ms to 42 ms (mean value 28 ms) and T 2 values for fat ranged from 36 ms to 99 ms (mean value 64 ms). Poor correlation was observed: (1) between T 2 relaxation times of fat and T 2 relaxation times of water (correlation coefficient r = 0.038, P = 0.79); (2) between T 2 relaxation times of fat and fat content (r = 0.057, P = 0.69); (3) between T 2 relaxation times of water and fat content (r = 0.160, P = 0.26). Correlation between fat peak content and the T 2 corrected fat content decreased with increasing echo time TE: r = 0.97 for TE = 45, r = 0.93 for TE = 75, r = 0.89 for TE = 105, P 1 H MRS at 3 T is an effective technique for measuring hepatic fat content in overweight and obese children and adolescents. It is necessary to measure T 2 relaxation values and to correct the spectra for the T 2 relaxation effects in order to obtain an accurate estimate of the hepatic fat content.
Meaney, K S; Edwards, R
This study investigated the effects of modeling and verbal rehearsal on the motor performance of English-speaking and limited English proficient (LEP) children. Children (N = 64) in 4th-grade classes were randomly assigned to conditions in a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 (Gender x Primary Language x Model Type x Rehearsal) factorial design. Boys and girls whose primary language was English or Spanish were assigned to either a verbal model or no-model condition as well as to a verbal rehearsal or no-rehearsal condition of the motor skills required to be performed. Analysis of variance revealed a significant Model Type x Primary Language interaction as well as a significant Rehearsal x Primary Language interaction. Follow-up analyses revealed that English-speaking children provided with a verbal rehearsal strategy recalled significantly more skills than English-speaking children in the no-rehearsal condition; for LEP children, there were no differences due to rehearsal. Moreover, LEP children presented with a verbal model recalled significantly more skills than LEP children in the no-model condition; for English-speaking children, there were no differences attributed to model type. These results indicate that effective modeling conditions that are provided with verbal cues in English are related to children's primary language.
Reese, L E; Vera, E M; Thompson, K; Reyes, R
Conducted a qualitative investigation to identify the perceptions of risk factors for violence in a sample of inner-city African American youth. Using ethnographic analyses, themes emerging from these data included concerns about the reciprocity between drugs and violence, familial quality of life issues, gender differences in the experience of violence and risk for violence, community safety concerns, and fears about managing peer relationships specific to violence. These data are interpreted relative to the risk factors the violence prevention literature has identified among youth residing in urban environments. Findings are discussed in terms of their potential contribution to generating hypotheses for the development of theory and effective violence prevention practice.
Full Text Available Focusing on the dominant intelligences of individuals from their early ages will be beneficial for them and the society in terms of improving their talents. When this situation is considered for gifted and talented children, we believe that there is a need for detailed analysis for Turkey beginning from the early years of children. Hence, in this study, it is aimed to investigate the multiple intelligence domains of Turkish gifted and talented students studying in science and art centres (SACs across the country via a survey research. This paper presents the results gained from 12 SACs. Those SACs were selected according to the socio-economic development index (SEDI of Turkey as declared by Ministry of Development (MD which considered the country to consist of 6 regions. Two SACs from each of those six regions were included in the study. Thus, the sample consisted of 390 middle school 5th grade students. A Likert type multiple intelligence test which included 80 items related to eight domains of multiple intelligence was utilized as data collection instrument (Demirel, Başbay & Erdem, 2006: 155. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics tests were conducted in order to analyze the study data. The results indicated various differences among multiple intelligence scores of the participants.
Richards, Jennifer S; Hartman, Catharina A; Franke, Barbara; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Arias Vásquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K
The differential susceptibility theory states that children differ in their susceptibility towards environmental experiences, partially due to plasticity genes. Individuals carrying specific variants in such genes will be more disadvantaged in negative but, conversely, more advantaged in positive environments. Understanding gene-environment interactions may help unravel the causal mechanisms involved in multifactorial psychiatric disorders such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The differential susceptibility theory was examined by investigating the presence of interaction effects between maternal expressed emotion (EE; warmth and criticism) and the solitary and combined effects of plasticity genes (DAT1, DRD4, 5-HTT) on prosocial and antisocial behaviour (measured with parent- and self-reports) in children with ADHD and their siblings (N = 366, M = 17.11 years, 74.9% male). Maternal warmth was positively associated with prosocial behaviour and negatively with antisocial behaviour, while maternal criticism was positively associated with antisocial behaviour and negatively with prosocial behaviour. No evidence of differential susceptibility was found. The current study found no evidence for differential susceptibility based on the selected plasticity genes, in spite of strong EE-behaviour associations. It is likely that additional factors play a role in the complex relationship between genes, environment and behaviour.
Foster, D; Davies, S; Steele, H
The authors used attachment theory to hypothesize about the possible long-term psychological effects of evacuation during World War II, focusing on children who were evacuated unaccompanied by their parents. The study aimed to establish whether this experience had long-term effects on psychological well-being, and to investigate mediating and moderating factors. The study utilized a retrospective non-randomized design, comparing 169 former evacuees with 43 people who were children during the war but not evacuated. No differences between the groups were found in terms of demographic variables or exposure to war-related events. All participants completed a range of standardized self-report questionnaires. Findings indicated that former evacuees were more likely to have insecure attachment styles and lower levels of present psychological well-being. Satisfaction with, but not quantity of, current social support was found to mediate the relationship between attachment style and present psychological well-being. Conclusions are limited due to the method of measurement of attachment style, non-randomized design and method of recruitment. Nevertheless, findings offer an indication that the experience of evacuation is associated with long-term psychological vulnerability through its relationship with insecure attachment.
Full Text Available Abstract Background As the various systems in the body are inter-connected to form a single structural unit, a pathological condition in one area can also affect other areas. There are many known correlations between the visual and motor system. The importance of visual function, particularly the paracentral peripheral field of view, in motor coordination, ambulation and the maintenance of balance has been amply demonstrated. In line with current medical principles, which are moving towards a more holistic view of the human body, this study aims to investigate, in an interdisciplinary manner, the incidence of dental malocclusions together with posture and eye convergence disorders. Methods Six hundred and five children attending at the 3rd, 4th and 5th years of seven Genoa primary schools were examined. Each child underwent the following examinations: (i dental/occlusal; (ii orthoptic; and (iii postural. Occlusal data concerned the presence of cross-bite, midline deviation with a mandibular shift, bad habits and deep or open bite. Postural assessment involved frontal and lateral inspection, investigation during trunk flexion and ambulation, and note of any asymmetry in the lower limbs. The recorded orthoptic data included those pertaining to ocular dominance, a cover test, convergence and the Brock string test. Results A prevalence of cases with an unphysiological gait was found in patients with overjet (14.70% or overbite (14.87%, while the percentage of patients with normal occlusion that showed an unphysiological gait was 13.08%. Also, about 93.8%–94.2% of children showed normal legs without dysmetry, with no difference in respect to the type of occlusion. Subjects with an open bite or deep bite showed a slightly different distribution of right or left dominant eyes. Conclusion About 13% of children showed a pathological gait and, among them, vertical anomalies of occlusion (deep bite or open bite were prevalent with respect to the other
Altay Koçak, Aylin; Öcal, Murat; Polat, Meltem; Kanık Yüksek, Saliha; Aktaş Tapısız, Anıl; Tezer, Hasan; Özkul, Aykut; Ergünay, Koray; Bozdayı, Gülendam; Ahmed, Kamruddin
Bufavirus (BuV) is a newly-identified parvovirus in the family of Parvoviridae. Metagenomic analysis of fecal samples from children in Burkina Faso with acute diarrhea showed a highly divergent parvovirus, which was named bufavirus (BuV). The global distribution, epidemiology and genetic characteristics of BuVs infections are obscure. It was first discovered as an agent causing gastroenteritis but the association of BuV infections with various clinical presentations mostly remain to be explored. The aims of this study were to investigate probable impact of BuV in central nervous system infections in a region where it was previously reported to cause human infections and to detect enteroviruses (EV) which are reported as a cause of central nervous system infections in our country. The study was undertaken in three institutions in Ankara province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. Patients, clinically diagnosed with febrile disease and/or central nervous system infections of presumed viral etiology, were enrolled in the study with informed consent. Cerebrospinal fluid specimens were collected from 93 children attended to Gazi University Hospital and Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Hospital from October 2011-April 2015 and 33 adult patients, attended to Hacettepe University Hospital from June 2012 to March 2013. Clinical history and follow-up, physical examination and standard laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Nucleic acid extraction was performed via commercially available spin-column assays and complementery DNA (cDNA) synthesis was performed by using commercially available cDNA synthesis kit with randomised hexamer primers. BuV detection was carried out by in house nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) utilized with previously-described primers. EV detection was carried out by in house PCR with pan-enterovirus primers. Seventy-four percent (93/126) and 26% (33/126) of the patients were children (0-18) and adults (19-86), respectively. In all patients
Tenenbaum, Ariel; Phillip, Moshe; de Vries, Liat
Few studies have addressed the role of the glucagon stimulation test (GST) in evaluating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in children. We investigated the diagnostic value of the GST in evaluating the adrenocortical response in short healthy children. The GST was performed in 190 children investigated for short stature. A peak cortisol >500 nmol/l was considered a normal response. In the 45 (23.7%) with subnormal response, a 250-μg ACTH test was done. The rate of subnormal adrenal response to GST was higher among boys (33.9 vs. 8.9%, p 500 nmol/l in all the patients undergoing an ACTH stimulation test. Since adrenal response to GST is age- and gender-related and the false-positive rate is high, its routine performance in healthy children warrants reconsideration. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Story-Based Social Skills Training Program on the social skill development of 5-6 year-old children. In the study, the pre-test/post-test and retention test experimental design with a control group was used. 5-6 year-old 60 (30 experimental, 30 control) preschool children participated in the…
Blom, Elma; Bosma, Evelyn
In this study, age of onset (AoO) was investigated in five- and six-year-old bilingual Frisian-Dutch children. AoO to Dutch ranged between zero and four and had a positive effect on Dutch receptive vocabulary size, but hardly influenced the children's accurate use of Dutch inflection. The influence of AoO on vocabulary was more prominent than the…
Fatemeh Heshmati Nabavi; Malihe Shoja; Monir Ramezani; Azadeh Saki; Marjan Joodi
Background: Surgery is a stressful experience for children, and preoperative anxiety in children could be affected by the level of parental anxiety. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between anxiety in school-age children before surgery and parental state-trait anxiety. Method: This descriptive study was performed on 81 children within the age group of 6-12 years admitted for elective surgical operation and 128 parents in Doctor Sheikh Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, 2016....
Moyo, S.; Isaacs, F.; Gelderbloem, S.; Verver, S.; Hawkridge, A. J.; Hatherill, M.; Tameris, M.; Geldenhuys, H.; Workman, L.; Pai, M.; Hussey, G.; Hanekom, W. A.; Mahomed, H.
Although the literature on interferon-gamma release assays on tuberculosis (TB) in children has increased, data pertaining to young children remain relatively limited. To compare results from the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube assay (QFT) in children aged <3 years
Cheung, Cecilia Sin-Sze; Pomerantz, Eva M.
This research examined whether the benefits of parents' involvement in children's learning are due in part to value development among children. Four times over the 7th and 8th grades, 825 American and Chinese children (M age = 12.73 years) reported on their parents' involvement in their learning and their perceptions of the value their parents…
Durmusoglu-Saltali, Neslihan; Arslan, Emel
The purpose of this study is for the emotional skills of six-year-old children attending nursery school according to some variables. The participants were 306 (135 girls and 171 boys) six-year-old children attending nursery school. Data were collected from Assessment of Children's Emotional Skills and personal information form. In order to analyze…
Breslin, Casey M.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Wadsworth, Danielle W.
In this study, the heart rate response of children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exposed to outdoor free play sessions during preschool was examined. Participants (n = 7; four children with ASD and three children who show typical development) wore Actiheart heart rate monitors during 6 school days. Using a single-subject design,…
Bekkering, S.; Blok, B. A.; Joosten, Leo A B
experimental protocol of monocyte training using three of the most commonly used training stimuli from the literature: β-glucan, the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). We investigated and optimized a protocol of monocyte trained immunity induced by an initial....... All Rights Reserved....
Hajek, M.; Horska, A.; Grosmanova, A.; Urban, P.; Suchanek, M.; Jirasek, A.
31 P MR spectroscopy was used to investigate neuromuscular diseases of various origin in 35 patients, mostly children. In devising the procedure of MR examination and of evaluation of results, pattern recognition analysis was used. According to the results of 31 P MR spectroscopy, the patients can be divided into three groups. Group A comprises patients with severe muscular lesions such as Duchenne dystrophy. The second, B group is characterized by milder atrophic changes of muscle fibres. The third group comprises dubious cases. The 31 P MRS method was also used for investigating the development of the disease in time - a decrease in parameter P CR /P i (P CR is an indicator of phosphocreatinine and P i an indicator of inorganic phosphate) corresponds to a deterioration of the clinical condition of patients from group one. In group B fairly stable values of the parameter were observed. An increase in P CR /P i was also observed during administration of Prednisone in a patient with child polymyositis. 3 figs., 3 tabs., 23 refs
Berry, Nina J; Henry, Alexandra; Danchin, Margie; Trevena, Lyndal J; Willaby, Harold W; Leask, Julie
Increasingly, the experiences and perceptions of parents who decline vaccination are the subject of investigation. However, the experiences of clinicians who encounter these parents in the course of their work has received little academic attention to date. This study aimed to understand the challenges faced and strategies used when general practitioners and immunising nurses encounter parents who choose not to vaccinate their children. Primary care providers were recruited from regions identified through the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR) as having higher than national average rates of registered objection to childhood vaccination. Interviews began with an exploration of provider experiences with parents who accept, are hesitant towards, and who decline vaccination. Participants were asked specifically about how they addressed any difficulties they encountered in their interactions. Thematic analysis focused on encounters with parents - challenges and strategies. Twenty-six general practitioners (GPs), community and practice nurses (PNs) were interviewed across two regions in NSW, Australia. Providers' sense of professional identity as health advocates and experts became conflicted in their encounters with vaccine objecting parents. Providers were dissatisfied when such consultations resulted in a 'therapeutic roadblock' whereby provider-parent communication came to a standstill. There were mixed views about being asked to sign forms exempting parents from vaccinating their children. These ranged from a belief that completing the forms rewarded parents for non-conformity to seeing it as a positive opportunity for engagement. Three common strategies were employed by providers to navigate through these challenges; 1) to explore and inform, 2) to mobilise clinical rapport and 3) to adopt a general principle to first do no harm to the therapeutic relationship. Many healthcare providers find consultations with vaccine objecting parents challenging
Bernatas, J J; Mohamed Ali, I; Ali Ismaël, H; Barreh Matan, A
The purpose of this report was to describe a tuberculin survey conducted in 2001 to assess the trend in the annual risk for tuberculosis infection in Djibouti and compare resulting data with those obtained in a previous survey conducted in 1994. In 2001 cluster sampling allowed selection of 5599 school children between the ages of 6 and 10 years including 31.2% (1747/5599) without BCG vaccination scar. In this sample the annual risk of infection (ARI) estimated using cutoff points of 6 mm, 10 mm, and 14 mm corrected by a factor of 1/0.82 and a mode value (18 mm) determined according to the "mirror" method were 4.67%, 3.64%, 3.19% and 2.66% respectively. The distribution of positive tuberculin skin reaction size was significantly different from the normal law. In 1994 a total of 5257 children were selected using the same method. The distribution of positive reactions was not significantly different from the gaussian distribution and 28.6% (1505/5257) did not have a BCG scar. The ARI estimated using cutoff points of 6 mm, 10 mm, and 14 mm corrected by a factor of 1/0.82 and a mode value (17 mm) determined according to the "mirror" method were 2.68%, 2.52%, 2.75% and 3.32 respectively. Tuberculin skin reaction size among positive skin test reactors was correlated with the presence of a BCG scar, and its mean was significantly higher among children with BCG scar. The proportion of positive skin test reactors was also higher in the BCG scar group regardless of the cutoff point selected. Comparison of prevalence rates and ARI values did not allow any clear conclusion to be drawn, mainly because of a drastic difference in the positive reaction distribution profiles between the two studies. The distribution of the skin test reaction's size 1994 study could be modelized by a gaussian distribution while it could not in 2001. A partial explanation for the positive reaction distribution observed in the 2001 study might be the existence of cross-reactions with environmental
Full Text Available Objective: To understand the situation of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children. Method: Selecting three rural primary schools in Xian’an District of Xianning City to investigate left-behind situation, learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of pupils in Grades 4 to 6 in rural primary school in Xian’an District by the use of the MAAT-I-A which is revised by Zhou Bucheng, the Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC and the Children’s Loneliness Scale (CLS. Results: (1 The learning motivation of the left-behind children in rural primary school is in a slightly higher medium level. Social anxiety is significantly higher than normal level in Chinese city, and the level of loneliness of about 1/5 of the left-behind children is relatively high. (2 The score of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children in the level of knowledge learning has significant grade differences, without significant gender differences. (3 The level of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children is slightly higher than that of non-left-behind children, but both differences are not significant.
Yang, Weikang; Xia, Hui; Wen, Guoming; Liu, Li; Fu, Xiaoyuan; Lu, Junqiang; Li, Haitao
Individuals with autism put a heavy demand on medical services, and prevalence estimates are needed for the planning of such services. Screening for autism in children has important implications for individuals and policy makers. This study aimed to estimate prevalence of suspected autism in children in Longhua District, Shenzhen, and to investigate risk factors for autism. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Longhua District, Shenzhen in October 2014. A total of 141 kindergartens were approached and consented to participate in the current study. All children who met the inclusion criteria were screened for autism by using the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). 15,200 children in total completed the survey and were included in the final analysis. 2.6 % (95 % CI 2.3-2.9) respondents had a high probability of autism, while 4.0 % (95 % CI 3.7-4.3) respondents had questionable autism. Male children were more likely to develop autism when compared with their female counterparts (P autism in children which suggests an urgent need of early detection of autism with ABC across the Shenzhen city, or even around China. Further studies with diagnostic procedure are warranted. Maternal age and education level, and gender of children are possible factors related to autism.
This research was conducted to explore children's construction of protologic (foreshadowing of operations) in the context of experience with balance mobiles in a constructivist setting and to explore the usefulness of making mobiles in promoting children's development of the concept of balance. The statement of the problem is (a) Can constructivist principles of cognitive development be used to understand children's progress in the course of educational activities involving balance? If so, how? What does the progressive construction of notions about balance look like in children's behaviors? and (b) Does children's understanding of balance improve after experimenting with making mobiles? The participants in this study were 10 first grade children and 12 third grade children from a public elementary laboratory school located in Cedar Falls, Iowa. The pretest and posttest used a primary balance scale and a beam balance. Making mobiles was used as the intervention. The research of Piaget, Kamii, and Parrat-Dayan (1974/1980) and Inhelder and Piaget (1955/1958) were used as the basic framework for the pretest and posttest. All interviews and the dialogues during the tests and making mobiles were video-ecorded and transcribed for analysis. Evidence of compensation and reversibility, coherence, coordination, and contradiction were assessed in children's reasoning during intervention activities using operational definitions developed by Jean Piaget. Before the intervention, all children had an idea that weight impacts balance, 13 out of 22 children had the idea that distance from the fulcrum impacts balance, and 6 out of 22 children considered weight and distance at the same time. After the intervention, all children maintained the idea that weight is related to balance but more children, 16 out of 22, had the idea that distance is related to balance; and 6 children among the 16 children considered weight and distance at the same time. Through the three intervention
Dean, G; Nevin, N C; Mikkelsen, M; Karadima, G; Petersen, M B; Kelly, M; O'Sullivan, J
To investigate a reported cluster of Down's syndrome in offspring of former pupils of a girls' school in Ireland, to establish the prevalence of Down's syndrome among live births in the area around the school, and to review the literature on the possible causes of reported clusters of Down's syndrome. Questionnaire survey of obstetric and personal histories of women who had attended the girls' school at Dundalk, County Louth, Republic of Ireland, at some time during 1956-7, and also of women who had attended another, nearby, girls' school during the same period. Comparison of observed numbers of cases of Down's syndrome identified by these surveys with maternal age adjusted expected numbers for the reported live births. Laboratory tests were conducted to verify and characterise the cases of Down's syndrome constituting the cluster. Retrospective collection and collation of data on Down's syndrome occurring among live births, and the compilation of maternal age specific incidences, in County Louth and in Newry and Mourne District in neighbouring Northern Ireland, during 1961-80. These rates were compared with reference rates and rates for other areas of Ireland. Six children with Down's syndrome were confirmed among 387 reported live births to women who had been pupils at the girls' school in Dundalk during 1956-7, compared with 0.69 expected (nominal p<10(-4)). Five of the affected births were to mothers under 30 years of age, against 0.15 expected (nominal p<10(-6)), although only four of these mothers were attending the school at any one time. The origin of the non-disjunction was found to be maternal first meiotic in four children, mitotic after fertilisation in another (with the youngest mother), and in the remaining one could not be determined. The marked excess of Down's syndrome in births to young mothers did not extend to offspring of former pupils of the other Dundalk girls' school surveyed, or to live births in County Louth generally or in adjacent Newry
Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Toomey, Russell B; Jahromi, Laudan B; Updegraff, Kimberly A
We describe the development and psychometric testing of the Cultural Socialization Behaviors Measure (CSBM) and the Cultural Socialization Attitudes Measure (CSAM). The CSBM assesses cultural socialization behaviors that parents use with young children, and the CSAM assesses the attitudes that parents have regarding the importance of socializing their young children about their culture. Both measures demonstrated strong reliability, validity, and cross-language equivalence (i.e., Spanish and English) among a sample of 204 Mexican-origin young mothers ( M age = 20.94 years, SD = 1.01) with 4-year-old children. In addition, the measures demonstrated longitudinal equivalence when children were 4 and 5 years of age.
Lin, Rongjun; Guan, Renzheng; Liu, Xiaomei; Zhao, Baochun; Guan, Jie; Lu, Ling
Recent investigations suggested that the trend of childhood asthma has been stabilizing or even reversing in some countries. The observation provides contrast to our experience. Thus, the study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical features of asthma in children aged 0-14 years in Qingdao China, determine the changes of childhood asthma in China, and discover evidence that can allow better diagnosis and treatment of childhood asthma. A cluster sampling method was used. We randomly extracted the investigation clusters from schools, kindergartens, and communities in Qingdao. Subsequently, we interviewed the members of the clusters using a questionnaire from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) to find children with asthmatic symptoms. After determination by the doctors, more details on the asthmatic children were obtained by asking questions from the National Epidemiology Study of Asthma and Allergies in China questionnaire to obtain more details. We intended to survey 10,800 children. However, the actual number of children was 10,082. The prevalence of asthma in Qingdao children aged 0-14 years was 3.69%. The prevalence among male children was higher than in female (χ2 = 24.53,P China increased significantly based on data obtained ten years ago (2000). Respiratory tract infections were the most important precursors of asthma attack. The attack was most commonly manifested as cough. The treatment, especially the use of ICS, was more rational. However, a certain difference was found, which has yet to be contrasted with the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) project.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Shigella spp. are gram negative bacteria that can cause shigellosis in human. It is important in young children as well as elderly and immunocompromised people. Threatening complications can occur in severe cases with multidrug resistance species. It has been observed that Shigella spp. have become resistant to antibiotics like other bacteria. Investigation of resistance to azithromycin, tetracycline and pattern of resistance are the objectives of this study. Methods: Fifty isolates of Shigella spp. which have been collected from three hospitals in Tehran were studied. Isolates identified and confirmed as Shigella spp. by biochemical, serological and molecular methods (ipaH, wbgz, rfc genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for ampicillin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, levofloxacin, minocycline, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline by disc agar diffusion method. Minimal inhibition concentrations were performed for azithromycin and tetracycline. Results: From a total of 50 Shigella spp. isolates, 16% of them were Shigella flexneri and 84% Shigella sonnei. The majority of isolates were multidrug resistant. The most resistance was seen to doxycycline, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline. Resistance to azithromycin was 6% and all of the isolates were susceptible to norfloxacin and levofloxacin. Nine patterns of resistance were revealed to these isolates. Conclusion: High resistance to tetracycline was observed and resistance to azithromycin as an alternative treatment choice was also considerable.
Bal, C.S.; Padhy, A.K.; Handa, R.; Bajpai, M.
Optimal assessment of a child with congenital or acquired renal disease consists of quantitation of renal cortical and excretory function. This at present is routinely done with a 99m Tc-GHA/DMSA and 99m Tc-DTPA scans, respectively. This study was undertaken to assess if 99m Tc-MAG 3 can be utilized as a single modality investigation to provide adequate information about these functions. Sixteen children attending the pediatric urology clinic at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi with a variety of renal disorders like posterior urethral valves, hydronephrosis vesicoureteral reflux etc. were included in the study. All the cases were subjected to 99m Tc-MAG 3 , 99m -DTPA and 99m Tc-GHA scans on separate occasions, but as close to one other as possible. The time required for the completion of a 99m Tc-MAG 3 renogram was only twenty minutes. 99m Tc-MAG 3 produced significantly better scintigraphic images of the kidneys and ureters, enabling differentiation between pelviureteric and vesicoureteric junction obstruction. Because of the abundance of photons in 99m Tc-MAG 3 , antegrade ureteric visualization was possible in nine renal units with active ureteric peristalsis appreciable in three renal units. Being a renal tubular agent, it gave a better assessment of renal health of the involved renal unit as compared to 99m Tc-DTPA, a glomerular filtration agent. Detection of renal scars as compared to 99m Tc-GHA showed a sensitivity of 69% and specificity of 93%. Amount of radioactivity required was consistently less than either GHA or DTPA scans. Use of 99m Tc-MAG 3 for renal functional evaluation may result in decreased radiation exposure and optional gamma camera utilization. Besides it is more cost-effective and may reduce the number of investigations that a child needs to be subjected to. It may be of immense value in a country like India where patients have to travel long distances to avail such investigations in a few, overworked nuclear
Barfoot, J; Meredith, P; Ziviani, J; Whittingham, K
Emotionally available parent-child relationships are supportive of child health and development. When a child has cerebral palsy, a range of child and parent factors can potentially impact the parent-child relationship; however, little research has specifically addressed this question. The aim of this study is to investigate links between parent-child emotional availability and both child functional abilities and parent distress in a sample of parents and children with cerebral palsy. Twenty-three mothers (mean age 37.3+/-5.7 years) and their children (mean age 4.9+/-3.3 years) with cerebral palsy completed a 20 min videoed parent-child interaction, scored using the Emotional Availability Scales. Parents also completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Paediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Correlational analyses were conducted, and qualitative observations were made. Parent-child dyads in which the parent reported depressive symptoms scored poorer on all aspects of parent-child emotional availability. Where parents reported experiencing anxiety or stress, increased parent hostility and decreased child responsiveness was found. There was no relationship between child functional abilities and either parent distress or parent-child emotional availability. Parent sensitivity, structuring, and nonintrusiveness were negatively associated with child peer problems. Both child responsiveness and child involvement were negatively associated with hyperactivity/inattention. Observations of video footage suggested that parent implementation of therapy strategies impacted negatively on parent-child emotional availability for some dyads. Findings from this study are consistent with the wider literature showing a link between parental depression and the parent-child relationship and extend this link to the cerebral palsy population. The importance of routine screening for parental mental health problems in early
Robinson, Joanne C; Butler, Richard J; Holland, Philip; Doherty-Williams, Dianne
This study aims to measure different aspects of self-construing in children with primary mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis. 25 children aged 7-14 years, with nocturnal enuresis were recruited from a paediatric outpatient's unit specialising in enuresis [mean age 10.6 [males], 9.39 [females
Lind van Wijngaarden, R.F. de; Klerk, L.W. de; Festen, D.A.M.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Otten, B.J.; Hokken-Koelega, A.C.S.
CONTEXT: The prevalence of scoliosis in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is 30-80%, depending on age. Although reports about effects of GH treatment on scoliosis in children with PWS are limited, scoliosis is generally considered a contraindication for GH treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim was
Reisener, Carmen D.; Lancaster, Amity Lewis; McMullin, W. Arrel; Ho, Tuan
At present, the incidence rates of children identified with autism spectrum disorders are on the rise, leading to an increased number of school-aged children needing specialized services in public schools. Most intervention efforts in the school setting focus on behavioral interventions and/or communication and social skills remediation services…
Yeatman, Jason D.; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Glover, Gary H.; Feldman, Heidi M.
The purpose of this study was to explore changes in activation of the cortical network that serves auditory sentence comprehension in children in response to increasing demands of complex sentences. A further goal is to study how individual differences in children's receptive language abilities are associated with such changes in cortical…
Roux, Amy Loomis
Epilepsy is one of the most common diseases to affect the human nervous system, affecting approximately 0.5% of school-age children (Leppik, 2001; Kaleyias et al., 2005). Epilepsy has the potential to profoundly impact a child's adjustment to school. A large body of literature documents that children with epilepsy are at an increased risk for…
Normand, Sebastien; Schneider, Barry H.; Lee, Matthew D.; Maisonneuve, Marie-France; Kuehn, Sally M.; Robaey, Philippe
This multimethod study provides detailed information about the friendships of 87 children (76% boys) with ADHD and 46 comparison children aged 7-13 years. The methods included parent and teacher ratings, self-report measures and direct observation of friends' dyadic behaviors in three structured analogue tasks. Results indicated that, in contrast…
Conway, Lauryn; Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Talwar, Victoria; Shariff, Shaheen
The current study investigated the influence of type of aggression (cyberbullying or traditional bullying) and participant role (bystander or perpetrator) on children and adolescents' self-attribution of moral emotions and judgments, while examining the influence of chronological age. Participants (N = 122, 8-16 years) evaluated vignettes and were…
Misurell, Justin R.; Springer, Craig; Tryon, Warren W.
This preliminary investigation examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral therapy group program for elementary school-aged children who have experienced sexual abuse. Treatment aimed to improve: (a) internalizing symptoms, (b) externalizing behaviors, (c) sexually inappropriate behaviors, (d) social skills deficits, (e) self-esteem…
Blom, W.B.T.; Bosma, E.
In this study, age of onset (AoO) was investigated in five- and six-yearold bilingual Frisian–Dutch children. AoO to Dutch ranged between zero and four and had a positive effect on Dutch receptive vocabulary size, but hardly influenced the children’s accurate use of Dutch inflection. The influence
Full Text Available The current body of evidence suggests that an aerobic exercise session has a beneficial effect on inhibitory control, whereas the impact of coordinative exercise on this executive function has not yet been examined in children with ADHD. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the acute effects of aerobic and coordinative exercise on behavioral performance and the allocation of attentional resources in an inhibitory control task.Using a cross-over design, children with ADHD-combined type and healthy comparisons completed a Flanker task before and after 20Â min moderately-intense cycling exercise, coordinative exercise and an inactive control condition. During the task, stimulus-locked event-related potentials were recorded with electroencephalography.Both groups showed an increase of P300 amplitude and decrease of reaction time after exercise compared to the control condition. Investigating the effect of exercise modality, aerobic exercise led to greater increases of P300 amplitude and reductions in reaction time than coordinative exercise in children with ADHD.The findings suggest that a single exercise bout improves inhibitory control and the allocation of attentional resources. There were some indications that an aerobic exercise session seems to be more efficient than coordinative exercise in reducing the inhibitory control deficits that persist in children with ADHD. Keywords: P300, Executive function, Cognitive performance, Flanker task, Development, Healthy children
Mohamed, Aida M
children aged 5 years or less experienced household exposure, of whom 252 (84.9%) were fully evaluated. Tuberculin test was positive in 136 of the 252 child contacts (54.0%), of whom 130 were contacts of sputum-positive patients and six were contacts of sputum-negative patients. The important risk factors for transmission of TB infection were younger age, male sex, severe malnutrition, absence of BCG vaccination, contact with a sputum-positive adult who was a source case, household overcrowding, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Thirty-three children were diagnosed and treated for TB at the baseline screening and 217 received preventive INH chemotherapy. Of the children who received preventive chemotherapy, only 36 (16.6%) completed at least 4 months of unsupervised INH monotherapy. During the subsequent follow-up period, eight children developed TB (secondary attack rate for TB disease was 3.7%), of whom four received no preventive chemotherapy and four were poorly adherent. The prevalence of TB infection and clinical disease among children in household contact with adult patients is high, and risk is significantly increased because of child contact, index patients and environmental factors. Adherence to 6 months of unsupervised INH chemoprophylaxis was very poor.
Abuosi, Aaron A; Adzei, Francis A; Anarfi, John; Badasu, Delali M; Atobrah, Deborah; Yawson, Alfred
The introduction of the Ghana national health insurance scheme (NHIS) has led to progressive and significant increase in utilization of health services. However, the financial burden of caring for children with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) under the dispensation of the NHIS, especially during hospitalization, is less researched. This paper therefore sought to assess the financial burden parents/caregivers face in caring for children hospitalized with NCDs in Ghana, in the era of the Ghana NHIS. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 225 parents or caregivers of children with NCDS hospitalized in three hospitals. Convenience sampling was used to select those whose children were discharged from hospital after hospitalization. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies and chi-square and logistic regression were used in data analysis. The main outcome variable was financial burden of care, proxied by cost of hospitalization. The independent variable included socio-economic and other indicators such as age, sex, income levels and financial difficulties faced by parents/caregivers. The study found that over 30 % of parents/caregivers spend more than Gh¢50 (25$) as cost of treatment of children hospitalized with NCDs; and over 40 % of parents/caregivers also face financial difficulties in providing health care to their wards. It was also found that even though many children hospitalized with NCDs have been covered by the NHIS, and that the NHIS indeed, provides significant financial relief to parents in the care of children with NCDs, children who are insured still pay out-of-pocket for health care, in spite of their insurance status. It was also found that there is less support from relatives and friends in the care of children hospitalized with NCDs, thus exacerbating parents/caregivers financial burden of caring for the children. Even though health insurance has proven to be of significant relief to the financial burden of caring for children with NCDs
Dackis, Melissa N.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante
Child maltreatment is associated with disruptions in physiological arousal, emotion regulation, and defensive responses to cues of threat and distress, as well as increased risk for callous unemotional (CU) traits and externalizing behavior. Developmental models of callous unemotional (CU) traits have focused on biological and genetic risk factors that contribute to hypoarousal and antisocial behavior, but have focused less on environmental influences (Blair, 2004; Daversa, 2010; Hare, Frazell, & Cox, 1978; Krueger, 2000; Shirtcliff et al., 2009; Viding, Fontaine, & McCrory, 2012). The aim of the present investigation was to measure the independent and combined effects of child maltreatment and high CU trait on emotion-modulated startle (EMS) response in children. Participants consisted of 132 low-income maltreated (n = 60) and nonmaltreated (n = 72) children between 8–12 years old who attended a summer camp program. Acoustic startle response (ASR) was elicited in response to a 110-dB 50-ms probe while children viewed a slideshow of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS images. Maltreatment status was assessed through examination of Department of Human Services records. CU traits were measured using counselor reports from the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits (ICU; Frick, 2004), and conduct problems were measured using counselor and child self-report. We found no significant differences in emotion-modulated startle in the overall sample. However, significant differences in ASR by maltreatment status, maltreatment subtype, and level of CU traits were apparent. Results indicated differential physiological responses for maltreated and nonmaltreated children based on CU traits, including a pathway of hypoarousal for nonmaltreated/high CU children that differed markedly from a more normative physiological trajectory for maltreated/high CU children. Further, we found heightened ASR for emotionally and physically neglected children with high CU and elevated
Sambai, Ami; Uno, Akira; Kurokawa, Suzuko; Haruhara, Noriko; Kaneko, Masato; Awaya, Noriko; Kozuka, Junko; Goto, Takashi; Tsutamori, Eishi; Nakagawa, Kazumi; Wydell, Taeko N
This is the first study to report differences between Japanese children with and without dyslexia in the way string-length and lexicality effects are manifested when reading Japanese kana. These children were asked to read kana words and non-words consisting of either two or five kana characters. The results showed that the error rates of the normal Preschoolers and Primary-School children with dyslexia were higher than those of the normal Primary-School children. Further, the reading latencies of the normal Preschoolers, First-graders and dyslexics were significantly longer than those of the normal Second, Third and Fifth/Sixth graders. Moreover, reading latencies became shorter as the age of the participants increased. Both normal and dyslexic children showed significant effects of length and lexicality on reading latencies. However, the interaction between the length and lexicality was only seen in normal children from the Second-grade onwards. These results suggest that (1) normal First-graders reach a ceiling in terms of reading accuracy and that (2) as Japanese normal children become older, they become better at lexical reading processes, which leads to fluent kana reading, but that (3) the dyslexics, even at Fifth/Sixth grades, have not developed sufficient lexical reading processes. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study explored why and how Russian speaking parents in an Irish context maintained the Russian language in their school-age children. Using a self-administered unstandardised questionnaire, the opinions of 16 Russian-speaking parents, reporting on 24 children, were surveyed. Of this sample, five parents were then interviewed using focus group methodology. The main findings revealed that Russian-speaking parents living in Ireland strongly supported Russian language maintenance in their families and wanted their children to be as fluent as possible in the Russian language. The reasons for the support of Russian language were: cultural preservation, general knowledge of languages in addition to English, and communication with the homeland. Methods employed to maintain the Russian language included conversing with children through Russian, reading and watching Russian TV/DVD. Although most parents spoke only Russian to their children, just three children were considered by their parents to have sufficient language skills to interact through Russian in Russian speaking countries. Interestingly, 15 children were thought to have adequate skills in Russian to speak with those outside their immediate family when in Ireland. Congruent with other studies of bilingualism, development of English, or the secondary, majority language, was also important to parents, as they lived in a dominant English-speaking society.
Full Text Available In this study, we sought to investigate the oral microbiota structure of children with cleft lip and palate (CLP and explore the pre-operative oral bacterial composition related to the prognosis of alveolar bone grafting. In total, 28 patients (19 boys, 9 girls with CLP who were scheduled to undergo alveolar bone grafting for the first time were recruited. According to the clinical examination of operative sites at the third month after the operation, the individuals were divided into a non-inflammation group (n = 15 and an inflammation group (n = 13. In all, 56 unstimulated saliva samples were collected before and after the operation. The v3-v4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform. Based on the beta diversity of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs in the inflammation and non-inflammation samples, the microbial variation in the oral cavity differed significantly between the two groups before and after the operation (P < 0.05. Analysis of the relative abundances of pre-operative OTUs revealed 26 OTUs with a relative abundance higher than 0.01%, reflecting a significant difference of the relative abundance between groups (P < 0.05. According to a principal component analysis of the pre-operative samples, the inflammation-related OTUs included Tannerella sp., Porphyromonas sp., Gemella sp., Moraxella sp., Prevotella nigrescens, and Prevotella intermedia, most of which were enriched in the inflammation group and showed a significant positive correlation. A cross-validated random forest model based on the 26 different OTUs before the operation was able to fit the post-operative status of grafted sites and yielded a good classification result. The sensitivity and specificity of this classified model were 76.9% and 86.7%, respectively. These findings show that the oral microbiota profile before alveolar bone grafting may be related to the risk of post-operative inflammation at grafted
Zhang Biyun; Xu Ming
Objective: To understand the situation of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children. Method: Selecting three rural primary schools in Xian’an District of Xianning City to investigate left-behind situation, learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of pupils in Grades 4 to 6 in rural primary school in Xian’an District by the use of the MAAT-I-A which is revised by Zhou Bucheng, the Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC) and the Children’s Lonelin...
Using a cross-cultural approach the book investigates children's places in different societies. "Children's Places" examines the ways in which children and adults, from their different vantage-points in society, negotiate proper places of children in both social and spatial terms. It looks at some...
Richards, Jennifer S; Hartman, Catharina A; Franke, Barbara; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Arias Vásquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K
The differential susceptibility theory states that children differ in their susceptibility towards environmental experiences, partially due to plasticity genes. Individuals carrying specific variants in such genes will be more disadvantaged in negative but, conversely, more advantaged in positive
Gabbard, Carl; Caçola, Priscila; Bobbio, Tatiana
Theory and anatomical research suggest that the ability to mentally represent intended actions affect level of execution. This study presents preliminary data examining the association between children's ability to mentally represent action and general motor ability. Children aged 7- to 10 years were assessed for motor imagery ability using a simulation of reach task and motor ability via the Movement ABC-2. Motor ability values, based on percentile rank, ranged from 2 to 91, with a mean of 36. The overall correlation between mental representation and motor ability yielded a moderately positive relationship (r = .39). Interestingly, when looking at motor ability subcategories, only Balance was significant in the model, explaining 20% of the variance. These results provide preliminary evidence that children's motor ability and the ability to mentally represent action are associated in a positive direction. Furthermore, given the results for Balance, we speculate that there are clinical implications regarding work with potentially at-risk children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
The course of 137 Cs content of children after the reactor accident of Chernobyl measured by means of a whole-body counter could be reconstructed theoretically by a pharmacokinetic model. The children of the kindergarten of the hospital of the University of Cologne accumulated during the vegetation periods 1986/87 (I) 86.9, 1987/88 (II) 114.4 and 1988/89 (III) 24.4 Bq 137 Cs per kg body weight. (orig.) [de
Aksit B?cak, Damla; Akyuz, Serap; K?ratl?, Binnur; Usta, Merve; Urganci, Nafiye; Alev, Burcin; Yarat, Aysen; Sahin, Fikrettin
Background The oral cavity can be an extra-gastric reservoir for Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori). This can play a role in the pathogenesis of halitosis, glossitis, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, and dental caries. The present study was conducted to detect the presence of H.pylori within the dental biofilm and in saliva samples collected from children suffering from dyspepsia and children without any gastrointestinal complaints. Associations with gastric infection, halitosis, and some oral para...
Sommer, Isolde; Mackenzie, Heather; Venter, Carina; Dean, Taraneh
Background Childrens food choice behaviour is influenced by a number of family and social factors. About 20% to 30% of the population modifies their diet for a suspected adverse reaction to food. Since avoidance is the mainstay of managing food allergy, it can be assumed to significantly affect food choices. It is therefore important to understand if and to what extent food allergy influences the way parents and children make their food choice decisions. Methods The research project has utili...
Food allergies in children, teenagers and adults are managed by eliminating the allergenic food from the diet. Healthcare professionals and policy makers have developed guidelines for the dietary management of food allergies, but as yet there has been no assessment of how individuals with food allergies are able to adapt their behaviour to them. In order to be able to improve the diet and nutrition of children, teenagers and adults with food allergies, and thereby to increase their quality of...
A small group of high-performing East Asian economies dominate the top of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) rankings. This has caught the attention of Western policymakers, who want to know why East Asian children obtain such high PISA scores, and what can be done to replicate their success. In this paper I investigate…
Yuan Xinyu; Xie Sheng; Xiao Jiangxi; Zhang Yuanzhe; Jiang Xuexiang; Jin Chunhua; Bai Zhenhua; Yi Xiaoli
Objective: To detect brain structural difference between children with unexplained mental retardation and children with typically normal development. Methods: The high-resolution magnetic MR imaging were obtained from 21 children with unexplained mental retardation and 30 age-matched control children without intellectual disabilities. Voxel-based morphometry analysis with an optimization of spatial segmentation and normalization procedures were applied to compare differences of gray matter volume between the two groups. The total and regional gray matter volume were compared between the two groups with independent t test. Meanwhile, correlation was conducted to analyze the relationship between the total gray matter volume and intelligence quotient (IQ) with partial correlation test. Results: The total gray matter volume was significantly increased in the mental retardation children (1.012±0.079) × 10 6 mm 3 ] in relative to the controls [(0.956±0.059)×10 6 mm 3 , t=-2.80, P 0.05). Conclusions: VBM would detect the gray matter abnormalities that were not founded in routine MR scanning. The increase of gray matter volume in the frontal-thalamus network might indicate the delayed maturation of the brain development. This might be one of the causations of' mental retardation in children. (authors)
Broadis, E; Kronfli, R; Flett, M E; Cascio, S; O'Toole, S J
Investigations following urinary tract infection (UTI) aim to identify children who are prone to renal scarring, which may be preventable. In 2002, in an attempt to reduce unnecessary intervention, the present institution standardised the investigation of children with a confirmed UTI. This study aimed to identify the significance of urological abnormalities on investigations following a UTI in children, prior to the introduction of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines. Clinical information on the first 1000 patients was retrieved from a prospective UTI hospital database. The follow-up period was 10 years. There were 180 males and 820 females (M:F = 1:4.5). The median age of presentation was 5 years (range 11 days-16 years). A renal ultrasound (US) was performed on all patients, and was normal in 93% of cases (n = 889) (see Figure). Of the 7% who had an abnormal US (n = 71), 54 were female and 17 male (M:F = 1:3). A total of 372 DMSA scans were requested and 350 attended their appointment. Of these, 278 cases (79%) were reported as normal, while 72 had an abnormality documented. Of these 72 patients with abnormalities on DMSA scan, 49 had a repeat DMSA scan: 30 demonstrated permanent scarring, while the DMSA scan became normal in 19. Sixteen of the 278 patients whose DMSA scan was initially normal had a repeat DMSA scan due to symptoms, and all scans were normal. Twelve (1.2%) patients required surgical intervention: three underwent circumcision for recurrent UTIs; three underwent endoscopic treatment of VUR; one had a PUV resection; one underwent a cystoscopy; three had a pyeloplasty for pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction; and one had a ureteric reimplantation for vesico-ureteric junction obstruction. After initial investigations and management, 936 patients were discharged from the UTI clinic: 47 of them re-presented - 40 with recurrent UTIs and seven with dysuria. Thirty-five of the 47 children who re-presented with urological
Mehl, Nora; Bergmann, Sarah; Klein, Annette M; Daum, Moritz; von Klitzing, Kai; Horstmann, Annette
Impaired self-regulation, especially in food-specific situations, has been linked to childhood obesity. These deficits may be acquired during the development of obesity rather than being a prerequisite thereof. The current study, hence, focused on an at-risk population versus controls. Normal-weight children of obese and normal-weight parents were tested regarding attentional flexibility, emotion regulation, and inhibitory control. A sample of 50 preschoolers of obese parents (n=25) or normal-weight parents (n=25) participated in this study. Through eye-tracking, attentional bias for food cues was measured during a visual probe task using food and toy images. Emotion regulation was assessed during a distress-evoking task, and inhibitory control was examined through a delay-of-gratification task. Both tasks are standardized and were conducted in non-food contexts. Results showed no significant group differences in overall attentional bias to food images over toy images. However, children of normal-weight parents showed a preference for toy images. Regarding emotion regulation, children in the risk group expressed significantly less overall emotional distress. In addition, less gaze aversion and bodily sadness could be observed in this group. No differences were found for inhibitory control. Findings suggest that general deficits in self-regulation are not yet present in normal-weight children at risk for obesity. Instead, they might develop as a by-product of unhealthy weight gain. Results indicate, however, that children of obese parents are less emotionally expressive compared with children of normal-weight parents. Furthermore, children of normal-weight parents appeared to be more interested in toy images than in food images. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Based on the Early Life Theory, maternal smoking may be a factor affecting child weight status, adiposity level and blood pressure later in life. The purpose of this study was primarily to examine the risk of maternal smoking during pregnancy with overweight and obesity, central and total adiposity in school children. Secondarily, to assess the effect of maternal smoking, with children's blood pressure (BP.Data from the Greek Childhood Obesity cross sectional study (GRECO, conducted from October 2008 to May 2009, were used. A total of 2400 questionnaires gathered from children and their parents were analysed. Maternal and gestational data were gathered by a self-administered questionnaire. Women were categorized as non-smokers or smokers if they smoked ≥1 cigarettes/day during pregnancy. Children's body weight, height, waist circumference and BP were measured. Multiple logistic and linear regression analysis was conducted, adjusting for covariates. Four models were used in the process.The study found that children of maternal-smokers were more likely to be overweight or obese (OR: 1.6 to 1.82 and to have a larger waist circumference (OR: 1.73 to 1.85, compared to children of non-smokers in all models used. Total fat percentage was not significantly associated with maternal smoking when adjusted. Systolic and diastolic BP was not associated with maternal smoking. Results of this study strengthen the need for smoking cessation during pregnancy in order to possibly reduce the childhood obesity epidemic. Creating public health awareness of the potential risk of maternal-smoking on children's weight status later in life is warranted. Keywords: Maternal smoking, Central adiposity, Childhood obesity, Blood pressure, Public health
Jackson, Dylan B; Lynch, Kellie R; Helton, Jesse J; Vaughn, Michael G
Children experiencing or witnessing violence in the home are at risk of a number of cognitive, social, and behavioral challenges as they age. A handful of recent studies have suggested that food insecurity may be one factor associated with violence against children in the home. The present study uses data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort to explore the link between household food insecurity during the first three waves of data collection (i.e., the first few years of life) and witnessing or being the victim of violence in the home among very young children (~ age 4). The results suggest that the predicted probability of early childhood exposure to violence and/or victimization in the home is nearly 6 times more likely in persistently food-insecure households (i.e., households that are food insecure across all three waves) relative to food secure households. Limitations and avenues for future research are noted.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting. Methods and design A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory. Discussion Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and
Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Vijaykumar, Varalaxmi; Prashanth, N S; Sudarshan, H; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Black, Jim; Shet, Arun
Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting. A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory. Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and our study design and technique provide a useful demonstration of a
Aksit Bıcak, Damla; Akyuz, Serap; Kıratlı, Binnur; Usta, Merve; Urganci, Nafiye; Alev, Burcin; Yarat, Aysen; Sahin, Fikrettin
The oral cavity can be an extra-gastric reservoir for Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori). This can play a role in the pathogenesis of halitosis, glossitis, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, and dental caries. The present study was conducted to detect the presence of H.pylori within the dental biofilm and in saliva samples collected from children suffering from dyspepsia and children without any gastrointestinal complaints. Associations with gastric infection, halitosis, and some oral parameters were also evaluated. Seventy children (aged between 5-16) with dyspepsia were selected for the study group and control group composed of 30 healthy children without dyspepsia were also included in the study. After detailed oral and clinical examinations for oral parameters, saliva, and supragingival dental biofilm samples were collected for 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA genes detection by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The presence of gastric H.pylori was evaluated in endoscopic biopsy specimens histopathologically. Halitosis was evaluated by benzoyl-DL-arginine-naphthylamid (BANA) test. Salivary S.mutans and Lactobacilli sp. counts were also carried out by commercial kits. H.pylori was histopathologically detected amongst 83% of the children with the dyspeptic condition. The detection rate of this bacteria in dental biofilm and saliva samples and halitosis were found relatively higher in the dyspeptic children rather than the control group (p pylori (p > 0.05). In the gastric H.pylori positive group with dyspepsia, DMFT/S and dmft/s numbers and plaque indices were found higher than the control group (p pylori negative group with dyspepsia were found higher than the control group (p pylori positive and negative groups (p > 0.05). Comparing to those with negative for both genes, in children whose dental biofilm and saliva samples were positive for both 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA genes, significantly higher results for halitosis, and DMFS numbers and significantly
Lee, Jonathan H; Ellison, Jay W; Schears, Gregory J; Thompson, Dana M
Clinical evaluation of children with skeletal dysplasias is often concentrated on morphologic and radiographic assessments, but many of these patients also have disease processes of the ear, nose, and throat. We report a case of an 11-month-old girl with an unknown short-limbed dwarfism, similar to acromicric dysplasia, with grade II subglottic stenosis. Laryngotracheoplasty with anterior autologous costal cartilage graft and posterior cricoid split was performed at age 13 months, with subsequent improvement of her airway status. In cases of children with skeletal dysplasias and obstructive airway symptoms, formal otolaryngologic evaluation is warranted for definitive diagnosis and treatment.
Ahmet Kurnaz; Eyup Yurt; Ümit Çiftci
In this study, too, an attempt was made to reveal the place and effects of information technologies on the lives and education of gifted children based on the views of gifted. To this end, the effects of information technologies on gifted are general skills, technology use, academic and social skills, and cooperative and personal skills were investigated. These skills were explored depending on whether or not gifted had their own computers, had internet connection at home...
The Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative: Objectives, design and recruitment results of a prospective cohort study investigating infant viral respiratory illness and the development of asthma and allergic diseases.
Hartert, Tina V; Carroll, Kecia; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Woodward, Kimberly; Minton, Patricia
The 'attack rate' of asthma following viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) is about 3-4 fold higher than that of the general population; however, the majority of children who develop viral LRTI during infancy do not develop asthma, and asthma incidence has been observed to continuously decrease with age. Thus, we do not understand how viral LRTI either predispose or serve as a marker of children to develop asthma. The Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative has been established as a longitudinal prospective investigation of infants and their biological mothers. The primary goals are to investigate both the acute and the long-term health consequences of varying severity and aetiology of clinically significant viral respiratory tract infections on early childhood outcomes. Over four respiratory viral seasons, 2004–2008, term, predominantly non-low weight previously healthy infants and their biological mothers were enrolled during an infant's acute viral respiratory illness.Longitudinal follow up to age 6 years is ongoing [corrected]. This report describes the study objectives, design and recruitment results of the over 650 families enrolled in this longitudinal investigation. The Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative is additionally unique because it is designed in parallel with a large retrospective birth cohort of over 95,000 mother-infant dyads with similar objectives to investigate the role of respiratory viral infection severity and aetiology in the development of asthma. Future reports from this cohort will help to clarify the complex relationship between infant respiratory viral infection severity, aetiology, atopic predisposition and the subsequent development of early childhood asthma and atopic diseases.
Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important indicators of infant's health and could predict their health condition in future. This study was conducted to determine and compare indicators of growth [weight, height, and body mass index (BMI] and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, 236 children (126 with normal weight, 100 with low birth weight, and 10 with very low birth weight at pre-school age were investigated in three groups. Data collection tools were a two-part questionnaire including the Rutter Children Behavior Questionnaire for parents, and parents' and children's demographic characteristics questionnaire, scale, and stadiometer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, variance analysis, Chi square, and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: The mean of weight, height, and BMI at pre-school age in three groups had a significant difference (P = 0.009 and it was lower in the group with very low birth weight than the other two groups; however, the difference between the group with normal birth weight and the group with low birth weight was not significant (P = 0.10. The mean score of behavioral disorder had no significant difference between groups (P = 0.49. Conclusions: Results showed that children with very low birth weight grew less than the other two groups. Therefore, this group needs special attention and long-term follow-up for taking care of them to ensure better growth. It is recommended to conduct more extended studies to evaluate behavioral disorders in these children.
Brian, Ali S.; Haegele, Justin A.; Bostick, Laura; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Nesbitt, Danielle
Because children with visual impairments tend to be inactive, they are 1.5 times more likely to be considered overweight or obese than are their sighted peers. Although some barriers to physical activity have been identified (for example, lack of opportunity and transportation issues); little has been done to empirically identify predictors of…
Stewart, Latoya S.; Carlson, John S.
This study takes an in-depth look at parental acceptability (i.e., the ability to meet parent needs) of an intervention that has shown strong empirical support for treating and preventing childhood conduct disorder. The authors obtained acceptability data from 30 parents of children ages 5 to 12 years presenting externalizing behavior problems…
Aktug, Zait Burak; Iri, Ruckan; Top, Elif
The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between children's 50 m freestyle swimming performances and motor performances. There were 32 swimmers (male = 21, female = 11), who had been swimming for at least one and a half year, participated in the study. The motor performances of the participating swimmers were determined through the…
Bowles, Caoimhe; Frizelle, Pauline
Background: Lámh is a key word signing approach used in Ireland, which can support the communication needs of children with Down syndrome. However, the success of this approach in mainstream schools relies heavily on the attitudes of those within the school environment. To date, two studies have explored the attitudes of teaching staff towards the…
Positive Behaviour Intervention and Support (PBIS) is an evidence-based approach that has been proven to be effective in remediating problem behaviours in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the family-centred PBIS approach when involving Taiwanese families in the treatment of off-task and non-compliant…
Although previous studies have established the effectiveness of using small reward-based incentives in inducing the choice and consumption of healthier foods among children, little is known about their impact outside of experimental settings or their effectiveness over time when administered daily. This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted to provide insight on these matters. The study employs a removed treatment within-subject design and was conducted at a summer program catering to low-income children between the ages of 5 and 12. The month long experiment-wherein participants were offered a small prize for choosing a fruit cup for dessert after lunch in lieu of cookies-involved 23 children between the ages of 5 and 8. Corroborating existing studies, the introduction of small reward-based incentives in this context was found to induce large increases in the number of children choosing the healthy dessert options after lunch, but disaggregating the results by week and day suggests that their impact diminished over time. Attempts to ascertain their effect outside of experimental settings did not indicate that the introduction of rewards had any adverse effects, but also did not provide definitive conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rakap, Salih; Parlak-Rakap, Asiye; Aydin, Burak
Inclusion of young children with disabilities into general education classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for many years in developed countries around the world and many developing countries have been creating and implementing laws and regulations to support inclusive education in early years. Although extant literature…
Erasmus, Alta; Bornman, Juan; Dada, Shakila
This study aimed to describe the perceptions of Afrikaans-speaking parents regarding the human rights, as defined by the United Nation's Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), of their children, aged between 8.0 and 14.11 (years/months), with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities. The underlying premise is that the CRC defines the rights of children, whereas the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Child and Youth version (ICF-CY) can provide the framework for documenting a deprivation of rights and the conditions under which those rights can be realized. Forty-seven Afrikaans-speaking parents completed a custom-designed survey. The results of the closed-ended questions indicated that most parents felt that their children had rights and that these rights were met. A theme analysis performed on the open-ended questions revealed that parents were mostly concerned about their children's rights pertaining to school education and safety. These rights were discussed in terms of the CRC articles and linked to environmental codes of the ICF-CY. Finally, the limitations and implications of the study are discussed and recommendations are made. © The Author(s) 2015.
Hindman, Annemarie H.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Miller, Alison L.
This article reviews the mechanics of conventional and piecewise growth models to demonstrate the unique affordances of each technique for examining the nature and predictors of children's early literacy learning during the transition from preschool through first grade. Using the nationally representative Family and Child Experiences Survey…
Leung, Alex Ho-Cheong
This paper explores the purported negative influence of foreign domestic helpers (FDHs) on child second language acquisition (SLA) by studying Hong Kong Cantonese children's listening ability in second language (L2) English. 31 kindergarten third graders aged 4;6 to 6, and 29 first year secondary students aged 11-14 who have had a Filipino…
Wang, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Guo-Fei; Zhang, Lin-Xiu; Luo, Ren-Fu; Tian, Hong-Chun; Tang, Li-Na; Wang, Ju-Jun; Medina, Alexis; Wise, Paul; Rozelle, Scott
To understand the infection status and main risk factors of soil-transmitted nematodes in southwest China so as to provide the evidence for making the control programs for soil-transmitted nematodiasis. The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematode infections was determined by Kato-Katz technique and influencing factors were surveyed by using a standardized questionnaire, and in part of the children, the examination of Enterobius vermicularis eggs was performed by using the cellophane swab method. The relationship between soil-transmitted nematode infections and influencing factors was analyzed by the multiple probit estimated method. A total of 1 707 children were examined, with a soil-transmitted nematode infection rate of 22.2%, the crowd infection rates ofAscaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura were 16.0%, 3.8% and 6.6% respectively and 495 children were examined on Enterobius vermicularis eggs, with the infection rate of 5.1%. The results of probit estimated analysis suggested that the effects of 4 factors on soil-transmitted nematode infections were significant (all P values were less than 0.05), namely the number of sib, educational level of mother, drinking unboiled water and raising livestock and poultry. Among the factors above, the educational level of mother could reduce the probability of infection (ME = -0.074), while the number of sib, drinking unboiled water and raising livestock and poultry could increase the probability of the infections (with ME of 0.028, -0.112 and 0.080, respectively). Soil-transmitted nematode infection rates are still in a high level for children in southwest poor areas of China, with Ascaris lumbricoides as a priority. The changes of children's bad health habits, raising livestock and poultry habits, and implementing the health education about parasitic diseases in mothers would be of great significance for the prevention and control of soil-transmitted nematodiasis.
Aljafari, A K; Scambler, S; Gallagher, J E; Hosey, M T
To: 1, Explore opinions of parents of children undergoing caries treatment under general anaesthesia (GA) regarding delivery of oral health advice; 2, Discover current oral health practices and beliefs; 3, Inform further research and action. Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and thematic data analysis, sampling parents of children aged 3-10 years undergoing GA tooth extraction due to dental caries. Twenty nine parents were interviewed (mean age 38.9 years, range 28-50, sd 6.4). The mean age of their children was seven years (range 3-10, sd 2.1). All children required deciduous tooth extractions (5.1 teeth on average). Those that also required permanent tooth extractions had on average 2.1 permanent teeth extracted. Many parents knew the importance of oral hygiene and sugar limitation, describing it as 'general knowledge' and 'common sense'. However, few understood that fruit juice is potentially cariogenic. Parenting challenges seemed to restrict their ability to control the child's diet and establish oral hygiene. Many reported not previously receiving oral health advice and reported never having fluoride varnish applied. There were requests for more caries prevention information and advice via the internet, schools or video games. Parental oral health knowledge, parenting skills, and previous advice received seem to all be issues related to the oral health of those children. Providing advice, especially in respect to fruit juice cariogenicity and the benefits of fluoride application through a child-friendly website, including a video game, as well as the use of school programmes might be an acceptable approach.
Andersen, Andreas; Roth, Adam; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov
Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination has important non-specific immune effects. In a randomized trial in Guinea-Bissau, BCG revaccination was associated with significantly increased survival in children who received diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP)-booster vaccine before enrolment and in c...... and in children who did not receive micronutrient supplementation (MN). Within the trial we assessed the immunological effects of BCG revaccination....
Fonvig, Cilius E; Bille, Dorthe S; Chabanova, Elizaveta
The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in children and youths are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20) with a body mass index (BMI) >90(th) percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle...... fat content (MFC) was measured in the psoas muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The patients were assigned to two groups: MFC...
Mentzel, H.J.; Malich, A.; Boettcher, J.; Vogt, S.; Kaiser, W.A.; Wuensche, K.
Purpose: To determine whether quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters speed of sound (SOS) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) on the calcaneus are different between athletic children and a reference population. Patients and Methods: From a college of physical education, 177 children and adolescents (121 boys and 56 girls, age range from 11 to 18 years) were included in this study. QUS was performed on the calcaneus using the Sahara trademark device (Hologic, USA). SOS and BUA were estimated. Regional reference values of 3299 children were used to determine significant differences between athletes and reference population. The influence of activity level, age, height, and weight was estimated using correlation analysis. Results: Sportsmen showed significant (p<0.05) higher values of the QUS parameters (SOS 1581.1 m/s; BUA 69.7 dB/MHz) compared to the reference data (SOS 1563.9 m/s; BUA 64.2 dB/MHz). Significant correlation was observed between BUA and the level of activity, age, weight, and height (p<0.01) and between SOS and weight and height (p<0.05). In the group of soccer players and athletes, significant correlation was found between BUA vs. age and BUA vs. weight (p<0.05). Furthermore, significant correlation was observed between BUA vs. age and weight in Judokas and Wrestlers. For the level of activity, a significant correlation to BUA was only found in the group of Judokas and Wrestlers (p<0.01). Conclusion: An increase in quantitative ultrasound parameters on the calcaneus occurs in children and adolescents with increased physical activity. (orig.)
Buehrer, Sabin; Hanke, Ursula; Klaghofer, Richard; Fruehauf, Melanie; Weiss, Markus; Schmitz, Achim
A rating scale for thirst and hunger was evaluated as a noninvasive, simple and commonly available tool to estimate preanesthetic gastric volume, a surrogate parameter for the risk of perioperative pulmonary aspiration, in healthy volunteer school age children. Numeric scales with scores from 0 to 10 combined with smileys to rate thirst and hunger were analyzed and compared with residual gastric volumes as measured by magnetic resonance imaging and fasting times in three settings: before and for 2 h after drinking clear fluid (group A, 7 ml/kg), before and for 4 vs 6 h after a light breakfast followed by clear fluid (7 ml/kg) after 2 vs 4 h (crossover, group B), and before and for 1 h after drinking clear fluid (crossover, group C, 7 vs 3 ml/kg). In 30 children aged 6.4-12.8 (median 9.8) years, participating on 1-5 (median two) study days, 496 sets of scores and gastric volumes were determined. Large inter- and intra-individual variations were seen at baseline and in response to fluid and food intake. Significant correlations were found between hunger and thirst ratings in all groups, with children generally being more hungry than thirsty. Correlations between scores and duration of fasting or gastric residual volumes were poor to moderate. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that thirst and hunger rating scales cannot predict gastric content. Hunger and thirst scores vary considerably inter- and intra-individually and cannot predict gastric volume, nor do they correlate with fasting times in school age children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jacola, Lisa M; Conklin, Heather M; Scoggins, Matthew A; Ashford, Jason M; Merchant, Thomas E; Mandrell, Belinda N; Ogg, Robert J; Curtis, Elizabeth; Wise, Merrill S; Indelicato, Daniel J; Crabtree, Valerie M
Despite excellent survival prognosis, children treated for craniopharyngioma experience significant morbidity. We examined the role of hypothalamic involvement (HI) in excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and attention regulation in children enrolled on a Phase II trial of limited surgery and proton therapy. Participants completed a sleep evaluation (N = 62) and a continuous performance test (CPT) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI; n = 29) prior to proton therapy. EDS was identified in 76% of the patients and was significantly related to increased HI extent (p = .04). There was no relationship between CPT performance during fMRI and HI or EDS. Visual examination of group composite fMRI images revealed greater spatial extent of activation in frontal cortical regions in patients with EDS, consistent with a compensatory activation hypothesis. Routine screening for sleep problems during therapy is indicated for children with craniopharyngioma, to optimize the timing of interventions and reduce long-term morbidity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ana Cristina Coll Delgado
Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta reflexões sobre metodologias investigativas com as crianças e suas culturas, a partir do referencial da Sociologia da Infância. Este campo teórico considera as crianças como atores sociais que acionam estratégias de luta por meio das suas culturas de pares. Na produção acadêmica brasileira sobre as crianças e suas culturas, ainda não possuímos uma tradição de estudos que tratem das vozes das crianças por elas próprias. A questão motivou a organização deste texto em três sessões. Na primeira, refletimos sobre a ausência das crianças como protagonistas das pesquisas brasileiras e as influências de uma ciência androcêntrica, que nasce com a modernidade. Na segunda, apresentamos a etnografia das infâncias como possibilidade de contato e aceitação dos adultos nos grupos infantis para a compreensão das suas culturas de pares. Na terceira, levantamos algumas idéias acerca dos traços das culturas infantis como base teórica para a construção de outros modos de fazer pesquisa que articulem ciência e estética, razão e emoção, fantasia e realidade.This article features reflections on investigative methodologies with children and their cultures from the point of view of Sociology of Childhood. This theoretical field considers children as social actors that build fight strategies by means of their peer cultures. The Brazilian academic production on children and their cultures does not have yet a tradition of studies on the voices of children themselves. This issue has led to the organization of this text in three sections. In the first section we think of the absence of children in Brazilian researches and the influences of an androcentric science emerging with modernity. In the second section we present the ethnography of childhoods as a possibility of contact and acceptance of adults by groups of children in order to understand their peer cultures. In the third section we raise some ideas
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Speech and language pathologists (SLP often refer to phonological data as part of their assessment protocols in evaluating the communication skills of children. The aim of this study was to develop the Persian version of the phonological test in evaluating and diagnosing communication skills in Persian speaking children and to evaluate its validity and reliability.Methods: The Persian phonological test (PPT was conducted on 387 monolingual Persian speaking boys and girls (3-6 years of age who were selected from 12 nurseries in the northwest region of Tehran. Content validity ratio (CVR and content validity index (CVI were assessed by speechtherapists and linguists. Correlation between speech and language pathologists experts' opinions and Persian phonological test results in children with and without phonological disorders was evaluated to investigate the Persian phonological test validity. In addition, the Persian phonological test test-retest reliability was investigated.Results: Both content validity ratio and content validity index were found to be acceptable (CVR≥94.71 and CVI=97.35. The PPT validity was confirmed by finding a good correlation between s peech and language pathologists experts' opinions and Persian phonological test results ( r Kappa =0.73 and r Spearman =0.76. The percent of agreement between transcription and analyzing error patterns in test-retest (ranging from 86.27%-100% and score-rescore (ranging from 94.28%-100% showed that Persian phonological test had a very high reliability.Conclusion: The results of this study show that the Persian phonological test seems to be a suitable tool in evaluating phonological skills of Persian speaking children in clinical settings and research projects.
Holm-Denoma, Jill M; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Gau, Jeffrey M; Joiner, Thomas E; Striegel-Moore, Ruth; Otamendi, Ainhoa
The current study examined parental perception of offspring body shape, differential reporting of offspring eating behaviors by mothers and fathers, and gender-specific patterns of offspring feeding habits. Parents of a community sample of 36-month-old children (N = 93) completed measures regarding their offspring's feeding patterns and body shape. Results revealed noteworthy correlates (e.g., concerns about their child's appetite) of parental perception of offspring weight status. They further suggested that mothers and fathers often differed in their accounts of their child's eating habits, and that parents report certain eating behaviors differently depending on the gender of their child. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed.
Piana, H; Fortin, C; Noulhiane, M; Golse, B; Robel, L
Autism is characterized by impairments in communication and socialization and by the presence of circumscribed and stereotyped interest. Previous studies have shown that genetic mechanisms may enhance the vulnerability to autism. These mechanisms are complex and may involve the combination of several genes, in interaction with the environment. The genetic mechanism involved in the vulnerability to autism may also concern other disorders and some features, with enhanced prevalence in relatives of autistic patients. It has been shown, for example, that the frequency of language disorders or serial difficulties is increased in the siblings of autistic patients. Characterization and taking into account the presence of such phenotypic traits in the relations may help in understanding the results of genetic studies, in particular association studies in sibling pairs or trios. In this study, we used a new self-report in order to identify endophenotype traits in socialization, communication, rigidity and imagination in parents of autistic children. This self-report is the French adaptation of the previous self-report created by Baron-Cohen et al., aimed at the identification of Asperger profiles in a population of students studying science. Ten autistic children and their parents from a clinical setting were asked to participate in the study. Autistic children were characterized using the ADI-R and various psychometric tests, according to the possibilities of the child (PEP-R, WPPSI-R, WISC3). Twenty parents of normal children were recruited from three different professional settings. There were no differences between the two groups of parents in terms of age or social status. Parents of both groups were asked to fill in the FAQ self-report. We performed a post-hoc analysis comparing the scores of the parents in the two groups. We found a main group, but no sex effect [F (1,37)=5.46; p<0.05]. Scores of autistic parents were higher in all domains compared to the control
Zhao, Li-Ping; An, Rong; Shi, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Li; Li, Yan-Kui
A total of Eight hundred eighty-six children from 3 to 7 years old in 8 kindergartens were sampled in urban and rural area in Xianyang City from March to May 2012. The cellophane tape swab technique was used to examine pinworm eggs. Children's hygiene habits, clinical symptoms and hygienic condition were surveyed by questionnairing. The total infection rate of pinworm was 11.2% (99/886). The rate in males and females was 10.4% (52/500) and 12.2% (47/386), respectively. The infection rate in rural kindergartens (19.1%, 70/367) was higher than that of urban kindergartens (5.6%, 29/519) (chi2 = 39.39, P 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the hygiene habits such as washing hands before eating (OR = 0.180), drinking unboiled water and eating non-cooked food (OR = 2.473), cleaning perianal region frequently (OR = 0.836), cutting nails frequently (OR = 0.450), drying the quilt regularly (OR = 0.224) and health education (OR = 0.639) were the influence factors on pinworm infection. The main symptoms of pinworm infection include pruritus and bruxism.
Butler, Christopher C; Sterne, Jonathan Ac; Lawton, Michael; O'Brien, Kathryn; Wootton, Mandy; Hood, Kerenza; Hollingworth, William; Little, Paul; Delaney, Brendan C; van der Voort, Judith; Dudley, Jan; Birnie, Kate; Pickles, Timothy; Waldron, Cherry-Ann; Downing, Harriet; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Lisles, Catherine; Rumsby, Kate; Durbaba, Stevo; Whiting, Penny; Harman, Kim; Howe, Robin; MacGowan, Alasdair; Fletcher, Margaret; Hay, Alastair D
The added diagnostic utility of nappy pad urine samples and the proportion that are contaminated is unknown. To develop a clinical prediction rule for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) based on sampling using the nappy pad method. Acutely unwell children UTI; diagnostic utility quantified as area under the receiver operator curves (AUROC). Nappy pad rule characteristics, AUROC, and contamination, compared with findings from clean-catch samples. Nappy pad samples were obtained from 3205 children (82% aged UTI on culture. Female sex, smelly urine, darker urine, and the absence of nappy rash were independently associated with a UTI, with an internally-validated, coefficient model AUROC of 0.81 (0.87 for clean-catch), which increased to 0.87 (0.90 for clean-catch) with the addition of dipstick results. GPs' 'working diagnosis' had an AUROC 0.63 (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 0.53 to 0.72). A total of 12.2% of nappy pad and 1.8% of clean-catch samples were 'frankly contaminated' (risk ratio 6.66; 95% CI = 4.95 to 8.96; P<0.001). Nappy pad urine culture results, with features that can be reported by parents and dipstick tests, can be clinically useful, but are less accurate and more often contaminated compared with clean-catch urine culture. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.
DeGue, Sarah; DiLillo, David
Cross-reporting legislation, which permits child and animal welfare investigators to refer families with substantiated child maltreatment or animal cruelty for investigation by parallel agencies, has recently been adopted in several U.S. jurisdictions. The current study sheds light on the underlying assumption of these policies--that animal…
Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; Bentley, Tyrone; Johnson, Mark S
We investigated whether abused and neglected children are at risk for negative physical health outcomes in adulthood. Using a prospective cohort design, we matched children (aged 0-11 years) with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect from a US Midwestern county during 1967 through 1971 with nonmaltreated children. Both groups completed a medical status examination (measured health outcomes and blood tests) and interview during 2003 through 2005 (mean age=41.2 years). After adjusting for age, gender, and race, child maltreatment predicted above normal hemoglobin, lower albumin levels, poor peak airflow, and vision problems in adulthood. Physical abuse predicted malnutrition, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, and hemoglobin A1C. Neglect predicted hemoglobin A1C, albumin, poor peak airflow, and oral health and vision problems, Sexual abuse predicted hepatitis C and oral health problems. Additional controls for childhood socioeconomic status, adult socioeconomic status, unhealthy behaviors, smoking, and mental health problems play varying roles in attenuating or intensifying these relationships. Child abuse and neglect affect long-term health status-increasing risk for diabetes, lung disease, malnutrition, and vision problems-and support the need for early health care prevention.
Benson, Clare; Lunt, Julie
In the last 15 years there has been an increased emphasis in both educational research and curriculum development upon investigating children's perspectives of their experience of learning. Children naturally have very particular and important insights to offer in helping us to develop our understanding of teaching and learning. However, research into children's perceptions in the field of primary Design & Technology education is still at a very early stage (Lunt in International handbook of research and development in technology education, Sense Publishers, Utrecht, 2009a). For example, in three reviews of educational research in Design & Technology (Kimbell in A guide to educational research, The Woburn Publishers, London, 1996; Eggleston in Teaching and learning design and technology: a guide to recent research and its applications, Continuum, London, 2000; Harris and Wilson in Designs on the curriculum? A review of the literature on the impact of design and technology in schools, Department for Education and Skills, London, 2003) there are only passing references made to eliciting and considering pupils' views and, in the studies where it does occur, it is used as a supplementary method of data collection rather than as a focus of research. The work which exists is small-scale and the majority of studies relate to secondary-aged pupils. The research that we have recently undertaken has tried to redress this gap. It has focused on primary children's (aged 9-11 years) perceptions of Design & Technology in general (Benson and Lunt in PATT 18 international conference on design and technology educational research: teaching and learning technological literacy in the classroom, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, 2007) and latterly creativity in Design & Technology. It has been claimed by many that Design & Technology is a `creative' subject which develops children's creative abilities. This is a bold claim and one that needs careful consideration. This paper sets out a
Cilius E. Fonvig
Full Text Available The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in youth are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20 with a body mass index (BMI >90th percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle fat content (MFC was measured in the psoas muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The patients were assigned to two groups: MFC <5% or ³5%. Visceral adipose tissue volume (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume (SAT were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Blood samples were obtained from 119 patients, and liver enzyme concentrations and other variables were measured. The data were analysed to detect any associations between MFC and BMI standard deviation scores, VAT and SAT, blood values, and physical activity levels. The mean BMI standard deviation score (SDS was 3.04 (range 1.32-5.02. The mean MFC was 8.9% (range 0.8-46.7, and 118 (74.2% of 159 patients had an MFC ³5%. Children with a high MFC had a higher BMI SDS (P=0.03 and had a higher VAT, but not SAT or SAT/VAT ratio. Both intramyocellular lipid (IMCL and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL content were elevated in patients with an MFC ³5%. Blood values and physical activity levels did not differ between the two groups. Severely obese children and adolescents tend to have a high MFC, which is associated with elevated VAT and IMCL and EMCL content. An increased MFC may be associated with impaired metabolic processes, which may predispose young people to obesity-related complications.
Ramos-Pascua, Luis R; Sánchez-Herraéz, Sergio; Casas-Ramos, Paula; Molnar Fuentes, Sebastián; Santos Sánchez, José Ángel
There is no consensus on when and how to treat unicameral bone cysts (UBCs), partly because of a lack of knowledge of the aetiology. To review the different treatment techniques for UBCs and to describe our results with a single injection of autogenous bone marrow (BM) mixed with demineralised bone matrix (DBM) in very young children. We reviewed five patients under the age of 8 years with UBCs treated by percutaneous aspiration and a single injection of BM associated with DBM. The cyst was located in the proximal humerus in four patients and in the proximal femur in one patient. Assessment of the need for surgery was based on the clinical and radiographic suspicion of new pathological fractures. The administration of a second injection, when necessary, was based on the surgeon's judgement regarding the risk of fracture. The mean follow-up after first injection was 41 months. There were no complications related to the procedure, except a non-displaced fracture, which healed without problems. All patients were pain free and progressively resumed their activities without restriction until a new fracture occurred in two cases. According to Capanna's classification, only one case healed completely (grade 1), one lesion was classified as grade 2, and there were three recurrences at 11, 12 and 27 months after initial treatment (grade 3). The final outcome was treatment failure for three out of the five patients. Two patients were treated with a second injection and one patient is waiting for surgery. A single injection of aspirated autogenous BM mixed with DBM in very young children with active UBCs at risk of fracture is very simple, comfortable and safe. Nevertheless, the results seem to be unpredictable and are probably more dependent on the natural evolution of the cyst than on the treatment. Further comparative studies with larger sample numbers are needed.
Full Text Available In high-burden countries, Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine is administered in newborn to prevent severe Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Because life-threatening disseminated BCG disease may occur in children with primary immunodeficiency, vaccination strategy against tuberculosis should be redefined in non-high-burden countries. We report the case of a patient with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID who developed disseminated BCG disease, highlighting the specific strategies adopted.
Bacalhau, S; Freitas, C; Valente, R; Barata, D; Neves, C; Schäfer, K; Lubatschofski, A; Schulz, A; Farela Neves, J
In high-burden countries, Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is administered in newborn to prevent severe Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Because life-threatening disseminated BCG disease may occur in children with primary immunodeficiency, vaccination strategy against tuberculosis should be redefined in non-high-burden countries. We report the case of a patient with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) who developed disseminated BCG disease, highligh...
Nishigaki, Kaori; Yoneyama, Akira; Ishii, Mitsuko; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko
Limited time away from the child is cited as the main factor that increases the burden for the primary caregiver of severely disabled children. The aim of this study was to quantitatively elucidate the factors related to the desire to use social services and the actual use of respite care services by the primary caregivers of severely disabled children in Japan. In this study, we investigated the use of respite care services in accordance with the primary caregivers' wishes by examining inhibiting or promoting factors associated with respite care service use only among those who wished to use social services. A total of 169 Japanese mothers participated and answered the questionnaires. We conducted a logistic regression analysis and a multiple regression analysis to investigate the factors related to respite care service use. The most important factors affecting a primary caregiver's desire to use social services were the belief that the child would enjoy using social services and the family's approval of the social service use. The most important factors affecting respite care service use were the family's approval of the use and a large care burden on the primary caregiver. Respite care services should be sought out before the care burden becomes too great to enable the primary caregiver to more easily contribute to the continuation of home care. A background of mother-child separation anxiety disrupted the use of respite care. However, believing that the child enjoys using social services may reduce primary caregivers' psychological resistance to being separated from their child, which is supported by tradition. Thus, it is also important for respite care service providers to provide information about the children to their primary caregivers and families while they are using respite care services. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hopper, Lydia M.; Flynn, Emma G.; Wood, Lara A. N.; Whiten, Andrew
In the first of two experiments, we demonstrate the spread of a novel form of tool use across 20 "cultural generations" of child-to-child transmission. An experimentally seeded technique spread with 100% fidelity along twice as many "generations" as has been investigated in recent exploratory "diffusion" experiments of this type. This contrasted…
Turan, Figen; Ökçün Akçamuş, Meral Çilem
This study aimed to compare imitation skills in children with autism spectrum disorder, and age-matched typically developing children and children with developmental delay, as well as to examine the association between imitation skills, and receptive and expressive language development in children with autism spectrum disorder. Imitation skills in children with autism spectrum disorder (n=18), and age-matched children with developmental delay (n=15) and typically developing children (n= 16) were assessed using the Motor Imitation Scale and Imitation Battery, and the differences in mean imitation scores between the groups were examined. Receptive language and expressive language development in the children with autism spectrum disorder were assessed using the Turkish Communicative Development Inventory (TCDI), and their association with imitation scores was explored. The children with autism spectrum disorder had significantly lower imitation scores than the children with developmental delay and typically developing children; however, there wasn't a significant difference in imitation scores between the children with developmental delay and typically developing children. A significant association between imitation scores, and receptive and expressive language development was observed in the children with autism spectrum disorder. The present findings indicate that deficient imitation skills are a distinctive feature of children with autism spectrum disorder and that imitation skills play a crucial role in children's language development.
Ercan, Zülfiye Gül; Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman
This study aims to define whether age creates any differences in the visual-motor integration skills of 60-72 months old children at low and high socio-economic status. The study was conducted on a total of 148 children consisting of 78 children representing low socio-economic status and 70 children representing high socio-economic status in the…
Full Text Available BackgroundNotwithstanding its beneficial immunoprophylactic outcomes regarding leprosy and childhood TB, BCG vaccination may cause adverse events, particularly of the skin. However, this local hyper-immune reactivity cannot be predicted before vaccination, nor is its association with protection against leprosy known. In this study we investigated the occurrence of adverse events after BCG (revaccination in contacts of leprosy patients and analyzed whether the concomitant systemic anti-mycobacterial immunity was associated with these skin manifestations.MethodsWithin a randomized controlled BCG vaccination trial in Bangladesh, 14,828 contacts of newly diagnosed leprosy patients received BCG vaccination between 2012 and 2017 and were examined for adverse events 8 to 12 weeks post-vaccination. From a selection of vaccinated contacts, venous blood was obtained at follow-up examination and stimulated with Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae antigens in overnight whole-blood assays (WBA. M. leprae phenolic glycolipid-I-specific antibodies and 32 cytokines were determined in WBAs of 13 individuals with and 13 individuals without adverse events after vaccination.ResultsOut of the 14,828 contacts who received BCG vaccination, 50 (0.34% presented with adverse events, mainly (80% consisting of skin ulcers. Based on the presence of BCG scars, 30 of these contacts (60% had received BCG in this study as a booster vaccination. Similar to the pathological T-cell immunity observed for tuberculoid leprosy patients, contacts with adverse events at the site of BCG vaccination showed elevated IFN-γ levels in response to M. leprae-specific proteins in WBA. However, decreased levels of sCD40L in serum and GRO (CXCL1 in response to M. leprae simultaneously indicated less T-cell regulation in these individuals, potentially causing uncontrolled T-cell immunity damaging the skin.ConclusionSkin complications after BCG vaccination present surrogate markers for protective
An investigation of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration creep among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from pediatric patients and healthy children in Northern Taiwan.
Chang, Chia-Ning; Lo, Wen-Tsung; Chan, Ming-Chin; Yu, Ching-Mei; Wang, Chih-Chien
The phenomenon of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) creep is an increasingly serious problem in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. In this study, we investigated the vancomycin and daptomycin MIC values of MRSA strains isolated from pediatric patients and MRSA colonized healthy children. Then, we assessed whether there was evidence of clonal dissemination for strains with an MIC to vancomycin of ≥ 1.5 μg/mL. We collected clinical MRSA isolates from pediatric patients and from healthy children colonized with MRSA during 2008-2012 at a tertiary medical center in northern Taiwan and obtained vancomycin and daptomycin MIC values using the Etest method. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCCmec) typing were used to assess clonal dissemination for strains with an MIC to vancomycin of ≥ 1.5 μg/mL. A total 195 MRSA strains were included in this study; 87 were isolated patients with a clinical MRSA infection, and the other 108 strains from nasally colonized healthy children. Vancomycin MIC≥1.5 μg/mL was seen in more clinical isolates (60/87, 69%) than colonized isolates (32/108, 29.6%), p < 0.001. The PFGE typing of both strains revealed multiple pulsotypes. Vancomycin MIC creeps existed in both clinical MRSA isolates and colonized MRSA strains. Great diversity of PFGE typing was in both strains collected. There was no association between the clinical and colonized MRSA isolates with vancomycin MIC creep. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
McGeown, Sarah P; Gray, Eleanor A; Robinson, Jamey L; Dewhurst, Stephen A
Two experiments investigated the cognitive skills that underlie children's susceptibility to semantic and phonological false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott procedure (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995). In Experiment 1, performance on the Verbal Similarities subtest of the British Ability Scales (BAS) II (Elliott, Smith, & McCulloch, 1997) predicted correct and false recall of semantic lures. In Experiment 2, performance on the Yopp-Singer Test of Phonemic Segmentation (Yopp, 1988) did not predict correct recall, but inversely predicted the false recall of phonological lures. Auditory short-term memory was a negative predictor of false recall in Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2. The findings are discussed in terms of the formation of gist and verbatim traces as proposed by fuzzy trace theory (Reyna & Brainerd, 1998) and the increasing automaticity of associations as proposed by associative activation theory (Howe, Wimmer, Gagnon, & Plumpton, 2009). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Matsuoka, Ryoji; Nakamuro, Makiko; Inui, Tomohiko
While studies on effort (e.g., Carbonaro, 2005; Kariya, 2000, 2013) have revealed relationships among students' effort (e.g., self-reported learning time), socioeconomic status, and school-related factors (e.g., tracking) through secondary education data, whether and how the effort gap emerges and widens in the early years of compulsory education have not been researched. This study investigates the beginning of inequality in effort by using four waves (from first- to fourth-grade students) of the Longitudinal Survey of Babies in the 21st Century, collected in Japan. The results indicate that college-educated parents tend to employ parenting practices that directly and indirectly shape children's learning time; inequality in effort exists, and it becomes exacerbated partly because of parenting differences in a society with a relatively equal elementary education system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The paper that takes Ou Town in Hubei Province as a case, studies the influence on the socialization of left-behind children after the intrusion of the Internet café industry into rural areas by ethnographic investigation. This study figures out a large number of migrant workers crowding into urban areas left nothing but the hollowing-out in rural regions. Unfortunately, the Internet café industry makes use of this chance to scramble for the children’s market. Mentally immature left-behind children find it hard to resist the temptation because of lack of self-control, so that they waste massive amount of time and energy in the virtue world. Despite they have experienced the "pleasure", and relieved from loneliness and boredom, their interaction activities have also been involved in the online game industry chain. This does not only exert impacts on the communication among people, but also on the construction of social capital in their social interaction, which leads to the disadvantaged accumulation of social capital. The group affected by the network, inadvertently learns at school and drops out one after another, ending up in their flow-life work from one city to another.
Greta Jean Yates; Michael Joseph Silverman
On a single night in January in 2014 there were 194,000 children living with their families in shelters in the United States (National Center on Family Homelessness, 2015). A typical family experiencing homelessness consists of a single mother with two to three children. Children experiencing homelessness are more likely to face academic, social, and emotional problems compared to children in poverty. As there is currently a dearth of peer reviewed publications related to music therapy with c...
An Action Research Study Investigating Children's Use of an iPad during Free Play in a Kindergarten Classroom: An Exploration of Teaching Pedagogy and Children's Learning, Social Interactions, and Digital Literacy
As part of human development, technology plays an important role in many children's lives. As digital technologies continue to permeate aspects of many children's everyday lives, educators are integrating digital technologies into classroom practices and, as such, have created a need to examine the ways in which children use technologies in their…
Background Child neglect is a pernicious child protection issue with adverse consequences that extend to adulthood. Simultaneously, though it remains prevalent, childhood dental caries is a preventable disease. Public health nurses play a pivotal role in assessing oral health in children as part of general health surveillance. However, little is known about how they assess dental neglect or what their thresholds are for initiating targeted support or instigating child protection measures. Understanding these factors is important to allow improvements to be made in care pathways. Methods We investigated public health nurses’ assessment of oral health in preschool children in relation to dental neglect and any associations they make with child neglect more broadly. A qualitative study was conducted in Scotland during 2011/12. Sixteen public health nurses were recruited purposively from one health region. Individual, semi-structured interviews were undertaken and data were analyzed inductively using a framework approach. Categories were subsequently mapped to the research questions. Results Public health nurses assess oral health through proxy measures, opportunistic observation and through discussion with parents. Dental neglect is rarely an isolated issue that leads on its own to child protection referral. It tends to be other presenting issues that initiate a response. Threshold levels for targeted support were based on two broad indicators: social issues and concerns about child (and parental) dental health. Thresholds for child protection intervention were untreated dental caries or significant dental pain. Barriers to intervention are that dental neglect may be ‘unseen’ and ‘unspoken’. The study revealed a communication gap in the care pathway for children where a significant dental problem is identified. Conclusions Public health nurses take their child protection role seriously, but rarely make a link between dental caries and child neglect. Clear
Wilcke, J T; Jensen, B N; Ravn, P
: In a small scale clinical investigation, skin reactions to these antigens were compared to reactions to tuberculin PPD RT23 in 1) patients with active tuberculosis, 2) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects with close contact with tuberculous patients, and 3) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects without contact...... with tuberculous patients. Tests for in vitro reactivity to these antigens were carried out in similar groups. RESULTS: All subjects gave positive reaction to tuberculin PPD RT23, whereas approximately half of the subjects in each of the three groups reacted to MPT-59. Two subjects (one patient with tuberculosis...... and one healthy bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccinated subject without patient contact) reacted to MPT-64. The studies of cell proliferation and induction of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) following stimulation with tuberculin PPD and MPT-64 supported this profile of reactivity. CONCLUSION: None...
Full Text Available Appearance-reality (AR distinction understanding in preschoolers is worth of further consideration. This also goes for its relationship with false-belief (FB understanding. This study helped fill these gaps by assessing 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children’s performances on an appearance-reality distinction task and by investigating relationships with unexpected location, deceptive content, and deception comprehension task performances. 91 preschoolers participated in this study divided into 3 groups: (1 37 children, M-age 3.4 years; (2 23 children, M-age 4.5 years; (3 31 children, M-age 5.4 years. A developmental trend was found where appearance-reality distinction understanding was significantly influenced by age. If wrong answers were particularly high by 3-year-old children, they greatly decreased by 4- and 5-year-old children. 3-year-old children also tended to fail in FB tasks; instead 4- and 5-year-old children performed AR tasks better than FB tasks. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
Valve infection - children; Staphylococcus aureus - endocarditis - children; Enterococcus - endocarditis- children; Streptococcus viridians - endocarditis - children; Candida - endocarditis - children; Bacterial endocarditis - children; Infective ...
Kibby, Michelle Y; Cohen, Morris J
We examined memory functioning in children with reading disabilities (RD), Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and RD/ADHD using a clinic sample with a clinical instrument: the Children's Memory Scale, enhancing its generalizability. Participants included 23 children with RD, 30 with ADHD, 30 with RD/ADHD, and 30 controls. Children with RD presented with reduced verbal short-term memory (STM) but intact visual STM, central executive (CE), and long-term memory (LTM) functioning. Their deficit in STM appeared specific to tasks requiring phonetic coding of material. Children with ADHD displayed intact CE and LTM functioning but reduced visual-spatial STM, especially when off stimulant medication. Children with RD/ADHD had deficits consistent with both disorders.