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Sample records for bcg-vaccinated children investigated

  1. TO ESTIMATE SERUM ADA LEVELS IN BCG VACCINATED CHILDREN

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    Manjunatha Babu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in both adults and children, especially in developing countries. For prevention of childhood tuberculosis, BCG vaccination is advocated. Protection is attained 4 - 6 weeks after BCG vaccination a nd is mainly due to cell mediated immunity. After BCG vaccination almost 12 to 15% of neonates do not develop scar but have positive cell mediated immune response. ADA estimation is simple and inexpensive method to assess the cell mediated immunity. OBJECT IVE: To estimate serum ADA levels in children with and without BCG scar, after receiving BCG vaccination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital for a period of 2 years. Babies in post natal ward and infants up to the age of 12 weeks attending well baby clinic for BCG vaccination were included in the study. Serum ADA lev els were estimated before BCG vaccination and 12 - 14 weeks after the vaccination. ADA levels were estimated by colorimetric method. Presence or absence of BCG scar was noted at 12 - 14 weeks of age. RESULTS: A total of 75 babies followed up, of which only 60 babies noted to have scar and in rest 15 babies there was no scar noticed. Twenty unvaccinated babies at 12 weeks of age were included as controls. The Mean ADA levels are significantly elevated after BCG vaccination (34 . 12 ± 3 . 28 U/L in comparison to le vels before vaccination (12 . 55± 2 . 64 U/L with p value 0. 06. CONCLUSION: After BCG vaccination, there is increase in serum ADA levels indicating adequ ate immunity. Increase in ADA levels in children without scar after BCG vaccination may indicate the probability of adequate immunity.

  2. Invitro immune responses in children following BCG vaccination

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    Vijayalakshmi V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is still no consensus on the efficacy of BCG vaccine in the prevention of tuberculosis. This study therefore addressed the question of the magnitude of immunity afforded by BCG, by studying the effector mechanisms of protection in children. The main objectives were to assess the degree of immunity conferred by BCG vaccine in children and to identify the most immunogenic antigen(s of BCG by conducting in-vitro studies. Materials and methods: Children in the age-group of 1 to 10 years, were categorized: (A normal, and vaccinated with BCG during the first year, n=45, (B normal, without scar and with no evident history of vaccination, n=31: and (C children admitted in the hospital with a confirmed diagnosis of tuberculosis, n=31. Fractions of BCG were obtained by lysis, sonication, separation by gel chromatography, HPLC and confirmed by SDS-PAGE. In lymphoproliferative assays PBMC were cultured and stimulated with either Concanavalin-A or Tuberculin or the fractions of BCG. Stimulation indices (SI in lymphoproliferation, CD4/CD8 cells, levels of Interferon-γ (IFN- γ in the culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. Results: The vaccinated children displayed significantly high (P< 0.05 mean values of SI in LTT, CD4/CD8 cell ratio against the unfractionated, 67kDa fraction and BCG-CF Ags. While 100% of the vaccinated children had positive lymphoproliferation indices to BCG-CF, only 8.3% of the unvaccinated children were positive. Conclusion: Some of the components of BCG induced a strong Thl cell response in children. These immunogenic antigens were present in the whole cell lysate. The use of BCG vaccine for tuberculosis is worthwhile till a new vaccine is developed.

  3. Is tuberculin testing before BCG vaccination necessary for children over three months of age?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessy, B

    2008-03-01

    In July 2007 Irish national policy changed such that children aged 3 months to 6 years no longer routinely require tuberculin (Mantoux) skin testing prior to BCG vaccination. Previous to that a tuberculin test was required in all children in this age group pre vaccination. While the previous policy was in place this study was conducted to assess the value of this test. The observation that children are frightened by the test (an injection into the skin) prompted the study. The author conducted a retrospective study of the results of 1,854 tuberculin tests performed as a prerequisite to BCG vaccination and found that only 0.7% of children had a positive test result (induration > 5mm). None of 107 children < 6 years of age tested positive. Those > 12 years were more likely to test positive than younger children (1.09% vs 0.4% respectively, p < 0.05). This study suggests that testing young children before BCG vaccination has a low yield of positive results and adds little to the detection of latent or active TB.

  4. The impact of BCG vaccination on tuberculin skin test responses in children is age dependent: evidence to be considered when screening children for tuberculosis infection

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    Seddon, James A; Paton, James; Nademi, Zohreh; Keane, Denis; Williams, Bhanu; Williams, Amanda; Welch, Steven B; Liebeschutz, Sue; Riddell, Anna; Bernatoniene, Jolanta; Patel, Sanjay; Martinez-Alier, Nuria; McMaster, Paddy; Kampmann, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Background Following exposure to TB, contacts are screened to target preventive treatment at those at high risk of developing TB. The UK has recently revised its recommendations for screening and now advises a 5 mm tuberculin skin test (TST) cut-off irrespective of age or BCG status. We sought to evaluate the impact of BCG on TST responses in UK children exposed to TB and the performance of different TST cut-offs to predict interferon γ release assay (IGRA) positivity. Methods Children vaccination on TST positivity was evaluated in IGRA-negative children, as was the performance of different TST cut-offs to predict IGRA positivity. Results Of 422 children recruited (median age 69 months; IQR: 32–113 months), 300 (71%) had been vaccinated with BCG. BCG vaccination affected the TST response in IGRA-negative children less than 5 years old but not in older children. A 5 mm TST cut-off demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity in BCG-unvaccinated children, and an excellent negative predictive value but was associated with low specificity (62.7%; 95% CI 56.1% to 69.0%) in BCG-vaccinated children. For BCG-vaccinated children, a 10 mm cut-off provided a high negative predictive value (97.7%; 95% CI 94.2% to 99.4%) with the positive predictive value increasing with increasing age of the child. Discussion BCG vaccination had little impact on TST size in children over 5 years of age. The revised TST cut-off recommended in the recent revision to the UK TB guidelines demonstrates good sensitivity but is associated with impaired specificity in BCG-vaccinated children. PMID:27335104

  5. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth and antibody responses to childhood vaccines. A randomised clinical trial

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    Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Birk, Nina Marie; Smits, Gaby

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: BCG vaccination has been associated with beneficial non-specific effects on child health. Some immunological studies have reported heterologous effects of vaccines on antibody responses to heterologous vaccines. Within a randomised clinical trial of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG......) vaccination at birth, The Danish Calmette Study, we investigated the effect of BCG at birth on the antibody response to the three routine vaccines against DiTeKiPol/Act-Hib and Prevenar 13 in a subgroup of participants. METHODS: Within 7days after birth, children were randomised 1:1 to BCG vaccination...... children (178 BCG; 122 controls), almost all children (>96%) had antibody responses above the protective levels. Overall BCG vaccination at birth did not affect the antibody level. When stratifying by 'age at randomisation' we found a possible inducing effect of BCG on antibodies against B. pertussis...

  6. Impact of the BCG vaccination policy on tuberculous meningitis in children under 6 years in metropolitan France between 2000 and 2011.

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    Van Bui, T; Lévy-Bruhl, D; Che, D; Antoine, D; Jarlier, V; Robert, J

    2015-03-19

    In France, Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccination by multipuncture device was withdrawn in 2006. In 2007, universal mandatory BCG vaccination was replaced by vaccination of high-risk children. To evaluate the impact of these changes on tuberculous meningitis (TBM) epidemiology, data on culture-positive and culture-negative (or unknown microbiological result) TBM in ≤5 years olds were collected from 2000–2011. Ten culture-positive and 17 culture-negative TBM cases were identified, with an annual incidence rate ranging from 0.16 to 0.66 cases per 10 million inhabitants. The average annual numbers of TBM cases were 2.7 and 1.8 from 2000–2005 and 2006–2011, respectively. In Ile-de-France where all children are considered at risk, the overall incidence rates were 1.14 and 0.29 per million for the two periods. In other regions where only at-risk children are vaccinated since 2007, rates were 0.30 and 0.47, respectively. None of these differences were significant. Annual incidence rates for each one year age group cohort were comparable before and after changes. Childhood TBM remains rare in France. No increase in incidence was observed after changes in BCG vaccination strategy. Ongoing surveillance should be maintained, as a slight increase in TBM in the coming years remains possible, in the context of suboptimal vaccination coverage of high-risk children.

  7. Tuberculosis contact investigation with a new, specific blood test in a low-incidence population containing a high proportion of BCG-vaccinated persons

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    Meywald-Walter K

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BCG-vaccination can confound tuberculin skin test (TST reactions in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection. Methods We compared the TST with a Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific whole blood interferon-gamma assay (QuantiFERON®-TB-Gold In Tube; QFT-G during ongoing investigations among close contacts of sputum smear positive source cases in Hamburg, Germany. Results During a 6-month period, 309 contacts (mean age 28.5 ± 10.5 years from a total of 15 source cases underwent both TST and QFT-G testing. Of those, 157 (50.8% had received BCG vaccination and 84 (27.2% had migrated to Germany from a total of 25 different high prevalence countries (i.e. >20 cases/100,000. For the TST, the positive response rate was 44.3% (137/309, whilst only 31 (10% showed a positive QFT-G result. The overall agreement between the TST and the QFT-G was low (κ = 0.2, with 95% CI 0.14.-0.23, and positive TST reactions were closely associated with prior BCG vaccination (OR 24.7; 95% CI 11.7–52.5. In contrast, there was good agreement between TST and QFT-G in non-vaccinated persons (κ = 0.58, with 95% CI 0.4–0.68, increasing to 0.68 (95% CI 0.46–0.81, if a 10-mm cut off for the TST was used instead of the standard 5 mm recommended in Germany. Conclusion The QFT-G assay was unaffected by BCG vaccination status, unlike the TST. In close contacts who were BCG-vaccinated, the QFT-G assay appeared to be a more specific indicator of latent tuberculosis infection than the TST, and similarly sensitive in unvaccinated contacts. In BCG-vaccinated close contacts, measurement of IFN-gamma responses of lymphocytes stimulated with M. tuberculosis-specific antigen should be recommended as a basis for the decision on whether to perform subsequent chest X-ray examinations or to start treatment for latent tuberculosis infection.

  8. Effectiveness of BCG Vaccination in Prevention of Childhood Tuberculosis: A Prospective Study from Kishanganj, Bihar

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    Kashif Shahnawaz, Goutam Sarkar, Palash Das, Mausumi Basu, Biman Roy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: BCG vaccine has shown consistently high efficacy against childhood tubercular meningitis and miliary tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases. It is considered to be a safe vaccine with a low incidence of adverse effects. Efficacy of BCG vaccine found in different clinical trials is variable in different geography. Objectives: Study was done to assess the efficacy of BCG vac-cine. Materials and Methods: All the children who were less than three years of age and were previously BCG vaccinated and not-vaccinated, were included in this study. A total of sixty (60 vaccinated children and sixty non-vaccinated children were selected. These children were followed up prospectively for 24 months, at the end of which, it was seen whether they developed tuberculosis or not. Results: Out of these 60 children in both the cases and control groups, total number of BCG vaccinated children who developed TB were 4 (i.e. 6.6% and total number of Non-BCG vaccinated children who developed TB were 12 (i.e. 20%. Thus, the efficacy of BCG vaccine calculated in our study was 67%. Conclusion: Most studies in different parts of the world have shown that the efficacy of BCG vaccine varies from zero to eigh-ty percent. This study favors the efficacy of BCG vaccine. This vaccination strategy will be favorable for our children. Creation of awareness among the parents and family members for an early administration of BCG vaccine after child birth can be recom-mended.

  9. Lack of BCG vaccination and other risk factors for bacteraemia in severely malnourished children with pneumonia.

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    Chisti, M J; Salam, M A; Ahmed, T; Shahid, A S M S B; Shahunja, K M; Faruque, A S G; Bardhan, P K; Hossain, M I; Islam, M M; Das, S K; Huq, S; Shahrin, L; Huq, E; Chowdhury, F; Ashraf, H

    2015-03-01

    We sought to examine the factors associated with bacteraemia and their outcome in children with pneumonia and severe acute malnutrition (SAM). All SAM children of either sex, aged 0-59 months, admitted to the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh with radiologically confirmed pneumonia from April 2011 to July 2012 were enrolled (n = 405). Comparison was made between pneumonic SAM children with (cases = 18), and without (controls = 387) bacteraemia. The death rate was significantly higher in cases than controls (28% vs. 8%, P vaccination (odds ratio 7·39, 95% confidence interval 1·67-32·73, P vaccination which may provide benefit beyond its primary purpose.

  10. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

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    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG.......Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  11. Effect Analysis of BCG Vaccination among Children in Hangu District of Tianjin%天津市汉沽区儿童卡介苗免疫接种效果分析

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    窦俊娟

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To learn the immune effect of BCC vaccination among children in Hangu district of Tianjin in the past 3 years. [Methods]The PPD test results of 4281 children who have received the initial BCG vaccination were analyzed. [Results]The positive rates of PPD test of children aged 3~36 months old, 4 -5 years old and 6 ~7 years old in 2008, 2009 and 2010 were 97. 3% - 85.7% , 97.1 % ~ 83.3% and 97.2% ~90.0% respectively. [ Conclusion] The immune effect and vaccination quality of BCG vaccination among children in Hangu district of Tianjin is good in the past 3 years. The key to success of BCG vaccination is the quality of initial BCG vaccination in newboms.%目的 了解天津市汉沽辖区近3年内结核菌素儿童卡介苗接种的免疫效果.方法 对4 281名已初种卡介苗儿童结核菌素( PPD)试验结果进行分析.结果 3个月~3岁、4~5岁和6~7岁3个年龄组PPD试验阳性率,2008、2009和2010年分析为97.3%~85.7%、97.1% ~83.3%和97.2%~90.0%.结论汉沽近3年儿童卡介苗接种免疫效果较好,接种质量较高.抓好新生儿卡介苗初种质量,是提高卡介苗接种成功率的关键.

  12. Identification of biomarkers for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease in BCG-vaccinated young children in Southern India

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    Dhanasekaran, S; Jenum, S; Stavrum, R;

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric tuberculosis (TB) often goes undiagnosed because of the lack of reliable diagnostic methods. With the aim of assessing biomarker(s) that can aid in the diagnosis of TB infection and disease, we investigated 746 Indian children with suspected TB. Whole-blood mRNA from 210 children...

  13. BCG coverage and barriers to BCG vaccination in Guinea-Bissau

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    Thysen, Sanne Marie; Byberg, Stine; Pedersen, Marie;

    2014-01-01

    in selected intervention regions. Factors associated with delayed BCG vaccination were evaluated using logistic regression models. Coverage between intervention and control regions were evaluated in log-binomial regression models providing prevalence ratios. RESULTS: Among 3951 children born in 2010...

  14. BCG vaccination: a role for vitamin D?

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    Maeve K Lalor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: BCG vaccination is administered in infancy in most countries with the aim of providing protection against tuberculosis. There is increasing interest in the role of vitamin D in immunity to tuberculosis. This study objective was to determine if there was an association between circulating 25(OHD concentrations and BCG vaccination status and cytokine responses following BCG vaccination in infants. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from UK infants who were vaccinated with BCG at 3 (n = 47 and 12 (n = 37 months post BCG vaccination. These two time-points are denoted as time-point 1 and time-point 2. Two blood samples were also collected from age-matched unvaccinated infants (n = 32 and 28 respectively, as a control group. Plasma vitamin D concentrations (25(OHD were measured by radio-immunoassay. The cytokine IFNγ was measured in supernatants from diluted whole blood stimulated with M.tuberculosis (M.tb PPD for 6 days. RESULTS: 58% of infants had some level of hypovitaminosis (25(OHD <30 ng/ml at time-point 1, and this increased to 97% 9 months later. BCG vaccinated infants were almost 6 times (CI: 1.8-18.6 more likely to have sufficient vitamin D concentrations than unvaccinated infants at time-point 1, and the association remained strong after controlling for season of blood collection, ethnic group and sex. Among vaccinees, there was also a strong inverse association between IFNγ response to M.tb PPD and vitamin D concentration, with infants with higher vitamin D concentrations having lower IFNγ responses. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D may play an immuno-regulatory role following BCG vaccination. The increased vitamin D concentrations in BCG vaccinated infants could have important implications: vitamin D may play a role in immunity induced by BCG vaccination and may contribute to non-specific effects observed following BCG vaccination.

  15. Vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates

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    Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Baerent; Napirna, Bitiguida Mutna

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates. DESIGN: Randomised, placebo controlled, two by two factorial trial. SETTING: Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. PARTICIPANTS: 1717 low birthweight neonates born at the national hospital....... INTERVENTION: Neonates who weighed less than 2.5 kg were randomly assigned to 25 000 IU vitamin A or placebo, as well as to early BCG vaccine or the usual late BCG vaccine, and were followed until age 12 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Mortality, calculated as mortality rate ratios (MRRs), after follow-up to 12...... months of age for infants who received vitamin A supplementation compared with those who received placebo. RESULTS: No interaction was observed between vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccine allocation (P=0.73). Vitamin A supplementation at birth was not significantly associated with mortality...

  16. Oral Polio Vaccine Influences the Immune Response to BCG Vaccination. A Natural Experiment

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    Sartono, E.; Lisse, I.M.; Terveer, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did...... not receive OPV at birth, but only BCG. We investigated the effect of OPV given simultaneously with BCG at birth on the immune response to BCG vaccine. Methods and Findings: We compared the in vitro and the in vivo response to PPD in the infants who received OPV and BCG with that of infants who received BCG...... scar (0.95 (0.91-1.00), p = 0.057)). Among children with a scar, OPV was associated with reduced scar size, the regression coefficient being -0.24 (-0.43-0.05), p = 0.012. Conclusions: This study is the first to address the consequences for the immune response to BCG of simultaneous administration...

  17. Adverse events following immunisation with bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination: baseline data to inform monitoring in Australia following introduction of new unregistered BCG vaccine.

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    Hendry, Alexandra J; Dey, Aditi; Beard, Frank H; Khandaker, Gulam; Hill, Richard; Macartney, Kristine K

    2016-12-24

    In recent years there has been a global shortage of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and, from September 2012, unregistered vaccines have needed to be used in Australia (a Danish product initially until the end of 2015, and a Polish product used in some jurisdictions from early 2016). We examined rates and types of adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) with BCG vaccine reported to the Therapeutic Goods Administration between 2009 and 2014 in children aged less than 7 years. Reporting rates of AEFI with BCG vaccine increased from 87 per 100,000 doses (registered Sanofi Pasteur product) in 2009 to 201 per 100,000 doses (unregistered Danish Statens Serum Institute product) in 2014, with Victoria having the highest rate each year. Substantial variation between jurisdictions exists, suggesting differential reporting of BCG vaccine doses administered and/or BCG vaccine-related AEFI. The most commonly reported reactions were abscess (31%), injection site reaction (27%) and lymphadenopathy/lymphadenitis (17%). This study provides baseline data on BCG vaccine safety to inform surveillance. Given the current use of unregistered vaccines in the context of vaccine supply issues, improved recording of both administered BCG vaccine doses and the reporting of BCG vaccine-related AEFI are required to facilitate close monitoring of vaccine safety.

  18. Effect of 50 000 IU vitamin A given with BCG vaccine on mortality in infants in Guinea-Bissau: randomised placebo controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, B.R.; Roth, A.; Nante, E.;

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of high dose vitamin A supplementation given with BCG vaccine at birth in an African setting with high infant mortality. Design Randomised placebo controlled trial. Setting Bandim Health Project's demographic surveillance system in Guinea-Bissau, covering...... approximately 90 000 inhabitants. Participants 4345 infants due to receive BCG. Intervention Infants were randomised to 50 000 IU vitamin A or placebo and followed until age 12 months. Main outcome measure Mortality rate ratios. Results 174 children died during follow-up (mortality=47/ 1000 person.......84 (0.55 to 1.27) compared with 1.39 (0.90 to 2.14) in girls (P for interaction=0.10). An explorative analysis revealed a strong interaction between vitamin A and season of administration. Conclusions Vitamin A supplementation given with BCG vaccine at birth had no significant benefit in this African...

  19. How do parents make their decision about letting their child get a BCG vaccination?

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    Thybo Pihl, Gitte; Ammentorp, Jette; Schmidt Jensen, Jane

    Introduction: In a large prospective randomised clinical trial in Denmark we are testing the hypothesis that compared to non-BCG-vaccinated infants, infants who are BCG vaccinated at birth experience less hospitalisations, use less antibiotics, and develop less atopic disease in early childhood. My...... focus for this project is parents decision making and risk evaluation. I want to investigate how parents make their decision about letting their child get a BCG vaccination and how they evaluate the risk of side effects. Method: Before the clinical trial was started, we conducted 5 focus groups...... with expectant mothers and fathers to discuss considerations for and against letting their newborn child vaccinate with BCG in order to achieve a non-specific stimulation of the immune system and to discuss their concerns about side effects. The focus groups were analysed qualitatively. Results: The pre...

  20. Genome sequencing and analysis of BCG vaccine strains.

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    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine against tuberculosis (TB has been available for more than 75 years, one third of the world's population is still infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and approximately 2 million people die of TB every year. To reduce this immense TB burden, a clearer understanding of the functional genes underlying the action of BCG and the development of new vaccines are urgently needed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Comparative genomic analysis of 19 M. tuberculosis complex strains showed that BCG strains underwent repeated human manipulation, had higher region of deletion rates than those of natural M. tuberculosis strains, and lost several essential components such as T-cell epitopes. A total of 188 BCG strain T-cell epitopes were lost to various degrees. The non-virulent BCG Tokyo strain, which has the largest number of T-cell epitopes (359, lost 124. Here we propose that BCG strain protection variability results from different epitopes. This study is the first to present BCG as a model organism for genetics research. BCG strains have a very well-documented history and now detailed genome information. Genome comparison revealed the selection process of BCG strains under human manipulation (1908-1966. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed the cause of BCG vaccine strain protection variability at the genome level and supported the hypothesis that the restoration of lost BCG Tokyo epitopes is a useful future vaccine development strategy. Furthermore, these detailed BCG vaccine genome investigation results will be useful in microbial genetics, microbial engineering and other research fields.

  1. Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Mycobacterium bovis and BCG Vaccine Strains

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Ge

    2013-09-01

    BCG is the only licensed human vaccine currently available against TB. Derived from a virulent strain of M. bovis, the vaccine was thought to have struck a balance between reduced virulence and preserved immunogenicity. Nowadays, BCG vaccine strains used in different countries and vaccination programs show clear variations in their genomes and immune protective properties. The aim of this study was to characterize the proteomic profile on Mycobacterium bovis and five BCG strains Pasteur, Tokyo, Danish, Phipps and Birkhaug by Tandem Mass Tag® (TMT®)-labeling quantitative proteomic approach. In total, 420 proteins were identified and 377 of them were quantitated for their relative abundance. We reported the number and relationship of differential expressed proteins in BCG strains compared to M. bovis and investigated their functions by bioinformatics analysis. Several interesting up-regulated and down-regulated protein targets were found. The identified proteins and their quantitative expression profiles provide a basis for further understanding of the cellular biology of M. bovis and BCG vaccine strains, and hopefully would assist in the design of better anti-TB vaccine and drugs.

  2. BCG vaccination at birth and early childhood hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Sørup, Signe; Aaby, Peter

    2017-01-01

    vaccination at birth would reduce early childhood hospitalisation in Denmark, a high-income setting. METHODS: Pregnant women planning to give birth at three Danish hospitals were invited to participate. After parental consent, newborn children were allocated to BCG or no intervention within 7 days of age......-protocol analyses. RESULTS: 4184 pregnant women were randomised and their 4262 children allocated to BCG or no intervention. There was no difference in risk of hospitalisation up to 15 months of age; 2129 children randomised to BCG experienced 1047 hospitalisations with a mean of 0.49 hospitalisation per child......BACKGROUND: The BCG vaccine is administered to protect against tuberculosis, but studies suggest there may also be non-specific beneficial effects upon the infant immune system, reducing early non-targeted infections and atopic diseases. The present randomised trial tested the hypothesis that BCG...

  3. [Assessment of BCG vaccine practices].

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    Lechiche, C; Charpille, M; Saissi, G; Sotto, A

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem. In France, the vaccine against tuberculosis (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, BCG) is in decline. This decline is firstly due to changes in BGG administration that were implemented in 2006 and secondly because of new recommandations in 2007 that ended compulsory vaccination. To determine their position on this vaccine, in 2013-2014 we asked general practitioners, pediatricians, and Maternal and Infantile Protection Center physicians in the Gard and Herault departments (in Southern France) why this vaccine was not administered and their suggestions for improvement. Most of these doctors (73.9%) stated that they did not oppose this vaccination for children. They expressed concern about potential side effects, technical problems (intradermic injection, multi-dose bottles) and parents' refusal. One quarter of these physicians would have preferred that this vaccine remains compulsory and one third that this vaccine be administered in the maternity hospital. They also requested simplified criteria for patient eligibility, technical improvements (training for intradermal injection, single-dose vaccine) and more information for the public concerning this vaccination.

  4. Nonspecific effect of BCG vaccination at birth on early childhood infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Birk, Nina Marie; Nørrelykke Nissen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundChildhood infections are common and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth may prevent these via non-specific effects.MethodsA randomized, clinical multicenter trial. All women planning to give birth (n = 16521) at the three study sites were invited during the recruitment...... vaccinated. From 3 to 13 months there were 7028 vs. 6791 events, IRR = 1.02 (0.97 to 1.07).ConclusionsThis study did not find a non-specific public health benefit of BCG on parent reported infections. BCG may have reduced the incidence of infections in children of BCG vaccinated mothers during the first 3...... period. Participating children were randomized to receive BCG within seven days of birth or to a no intervention control group. Parent reported infections (events) were collected using telephone interviews at 3 and 13 months. Data collectors were blinded to allocation.ResultsThe analyses included 4224...

  5. Lack of a Negative Effect of BCG-Vaccination on Child Psychomotor Development

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    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Birk, Nina Marie;

    2016-01-01

    MEASURES: Psychomotor development measured using Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) completed by the parents at 12 months. Additionally, parents of premature children (gestational age Developmental assessment was available for 3453/4262 (81%). RESULTS......OBJECTIVES: To assess the non-specific effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on psychomotor development. DESIGN: This is a pre-specified secondary outcome from a randomised, clinical trial. SETTING: Maternity units and paediatric wards at three university hospitals...... was -7.8 points (-20.6 to 5.0, p = 0.23), d = -0.23 (-0.62 to 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: A negative non-specific effect of BCG vaccination at birth on psychomotor development was excluded in term children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01694108....

  6. Early BCG vaccine to low-birth-weight infants and the effects on growth in the first year of life

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    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Andersen, Andreas; Ravn, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have shown that early Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine reduces overall neonatal and infant mortality. However, no study has examined how BCG affects growth. We investigated the effect on infant growth of early BCG vaccine given to low-birth-weight (LBW) infants....... METHODS: Two-thousand three hundred forty-three LBW infants were randomly allocated 1:1 to "early BCG" (intervention group) or "late BCG" (current practice). Furthermore, a subgroup (N = 1717) were included in a two-by-two randomised trial in which they were additionally randomised 1:1 to vitamin...... but not among boys (interaction between "early BCG" and sex: weight p = 0.03 and MUAC p = 0.04). This beneficial effect among girls was particularly seen among the largest infants weighing 2.0 kg or more at inclusion. CONCLUSION: Though BCG vaccination is not recommended to be given to LBW infants at birth...

  7. Effectiveness of BCG vaccination to aged mice

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    Ito Tsukasa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis (TB still increases in the number of new cases, which is estimated to approach 10 million in 2010. The number of aged people has been growing all over the world. Ageing is one of risk factors in tuberculosis because of decreased immune responses in aged people. Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG is a sole vaccine currently used for TB, however, the efficacy of BCG in adults is still a matter of debate. Emerging the multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB make us to see the importance of vaccination against TB in new light. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of BCG vaccination in aged mice. Results The Th1 responses, interferon-γ production and interleukin 2, in BCG inoculated aged mice (24-month-old were comparable to those of young mice (4- to 6-week-old. The protection activity of BCG in aged mice against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was also the same as young mice. Conclusion These findings suggest that vaccination in aged generation is still effective for protection against tuberculosis.

  8. Prova tuberculínica, BCG oral e infecção tuberculosa em crianças menores de 5 anos Tuberculin test, oral BCG vaccine, and tuberculosis infection among children under five years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialda Höfling de Pádua Dias

    1978-12-01

    vaccination and positivation to the tuberculin test in the two age groups was studied, thus obtaining information about the previous oral BCG vaccination. Likewise, in 575 children under one year of age and 1113 children one to four years of age, a positive relationship between the previous oral administration of BCG and the positivation to the tuberculin test was found. In analyzing the relationship between the number of doses of previous oral BCG administration and the results of the tuberculin test by the Goodman method, it was found that the proportion of children who had taken three or more doses of BCG by oral administration and showed strong reaction to the tuberculin test is significantly greater than that observed for the non-reactors, a fact which does not hold true for the one to four age group. For the children who had taken one or two doses there was no significant statistical difference.

  9. Valor preditivo do teste tuberculínico padronizado em crianças vacinadas com BCG The predictive value of the standard tuberculin test in BCG-vaccinated children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Ribeiro Arantes

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available A aplicabilidade do teste tuberculínico em crianças menores de 5 anos vacinadas com BCG é assunto controvertido. Visando contribuir para esclarecê-lo foi analisado o valor preditivo positivo do teste tuberculínico padronizado em população sob elevada cobertura vacinal e baixa prevalência de infecção tuberculosa. A partir da proporção de reatores fortes em lactentes e escolares vacinados e não vacinados, foram calculadas a razão de declínio da alergia tuberculínica nos vacinados e a razão de crescimento nos não vacinados, o que possibilitou a estimativa dos respectivos valores nas idades intermediárias. A expectativa de falsos-positivos (FP foi então calculada por diferença. Conhecidas a sensibilidade e a especificidade do teste (E=1-FP, a cobertura BCG e a prevalência de infecção, os valores preditivos (para a infecção tuberculosa foram: 1,52%, 4,22%, 8,26%, 14,86% e 23,00%, do primeiro ao quinto ano de vida. Nessas condições, a probabilidade de uma reação forte ser devida ao BCG é grande, especialmente nos dois primeiros anos, o que reduz a aplicabilidade clínica e epidemiológica do teste.The applicability of tuberculin test in children under five years of age, BCG-vaccinated during their first year of life, is a controversial matter. With a view to clarifying the subject the predictive positive value of the test in a region of high BCG coverage and low prevalence of tuberculous infection was analysed. From the proportion of strong reactors among infants and school-age children, vaccinated and not unvaccinated, the declining rate of BCG induced allergy and the increment rate of naturally acquired tuberculin sensitivity between the first and the seventh years of life were calculated. Those calculations allowed for the estimation of the respective values for the intermediate ages. The numbers of false positives to be expected were calculated by difference. Knowing the sensibility and the especificity (1 - FP of

  10. BCG vaccine combined with dipyridamole in the treatment of HBV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Wen Gao; Shi Ying Jia; Xue Mei Liu

    2000-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effect of BCG vaccine and dipyridamole in treating hepatitis B due to their anti-virus effects.METHODS Among 602 patients with positive HBeAg, 512 were allocated to the treatment group and 90patients to the control group. There was no significant difference in disease and age between the two groups.All the patients in the treatment group with no abnormal findings by chest X-ray fluoroscopy, whose localskin scleromata diameters were less than 7 mm after the 1:2000 OT test, were given BCG vaccine 0.1 mlintracutaneously at the deltoid once a month, and simultaneously took dipyridamole 50 mg twice a day forfour to eight months. The hepatic function, B-mode ultrasound and the five markers of hepatitis B wereroutinely examined before each injection. The results at one month after the last injection in the treatmentgroup were compared with those of the control group.RESULTS The recovery rates of hepatic functions and the rates of improvement of the symptoms and signsin the treatment group were better than those in the control group. The negative transformation rates ofHBeAg and the positive transformation rates of HBeAb were 60.3% and 31.6% in the treatment group vs.13.3% and 13.0% in the control group (P0.05. Test x2, x2=1.11, 0.22).CONCLUSION The application of BCG vaccine in combination with dipyridamole increased the negativetransformation rate of HBeAg and the positive transformation rate of HBeAb, improved the clinicalsymptoms, signs and hepatic function of the patients. These two drugs had significant anti-HBV effect andshowed good efficacy in the treatment of HBV infection.

  11. The tuberculin skin test (TST is affected by recent BCG vaccination but not by exposure to non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM during early life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Burl

    Full Text Available The tuberculin skin test (TST is widely used in TB clinics to aid Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb diagnosis, but the definition and the significance of a positive test in very young children is still unclear. This study compared the TST in Gambian children at 4(1/2 months of age who either received BCG vaccination at birth (Group 1 or were BCG naïve (Group 2 in order to examine the role of BCG vaccination and/or exposure to environmental mycobacteria in TST reactivity at this age. Nearly half of the BCG vaccinated children had a positive TST (>or=5 mm whereas all the BCG naïve children were non-reactive, confirming that recent BCG vaccination affects TST reactivity. The BCG naïve children demonstrated in vitro PPD responses in peripheral blood in the absence of TST reactivity, supporting exposure to and priming by environmental mycobacterial antigens. Group 2 were then vaccinated at 4(1/2 months of age and a repeat TST was performed at 20-28 months of age. Positive reactivity (>or=5 mm was evident in 11.1% and 12.5% infants from Group 1 and Group 2 respectively suggesting that the timing of BCG vaccination had little effect by this age. We further assessed for immune correlates in peripheral blood at 4(1/2 months of age. Mycobacterial specific IFNgamma responses were greater in TST responders than in non-responders, although the size of induration did not correlate with IFNgamma. However the IFNgamma: IL-10 ratio positively correlated with TST induration suggesting that the relationship between PPD induced IFNgamma and IL-10 in the peripheral blood may be important in controlling TST reactivity. Collectively these data provide further insights into how the TST is regulated in early life, and how a positive response might be interpreted.

  12. BCG vaccination scar associated with better childhood survival in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Gustafson, Per; Nhaga, Alexandro

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a non-specific beneficial effect on infant survival and that a BCG scar may be associated with lower child mortality. No study has previously examined the influence of BCG vaccination on cause of death....

  13. Cutaneous complication after BCG vaccination: Case report and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, R.R.M.C.; Bovenschen, H.J.; Seijger, M.M.B.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The bacille Calmette-Gu?rin (BCG) vaccination protects against tuberculosis (TB)-related meningitis and disseminated tuberculosis. While severe complications after BCG vaccination are relatively rare, different cutaneous reactions have been reported. We report a patient with a 7-mm erythema

  14. Uptake of newly introduced universal BCG vaccination in newborns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Braima, O

    2010-06-01

    Universal neonatal BCG vaccination was discontinued in Cork in 1972. Following an outbreak of TB in 2 creches in the HSE South, a universal BCG vaccination program was re-introduced in October 2008. The aim of this study was to determine the vaccination process (in-hospital and community) and the in-hospital uptake of the vaccine. Following informed parental consent, babies of birth weight > 2.5 Kg were eligible for in-hospital vaccination if they were not: febrile, jaundiced on phototherapy, on antibiotics and if not born to HIV- positive mothers. Parents of babies not vaccinated in-hospital were asked to book an appointment in either of the 2 Cork community clinics. The immunisation nurse collected data on BCG vaccination, prospectively. This study examined vaccination uptakes in-hospital and community over a 6 month period (October 2008 to March 2009). There were 4018 deliveries during the study period. In-hospital consent was declined in only 16 babies (<1%) while the in-hospital vaccination uptake was 80% of total liv births. Although 635 newborns were admitted to the NICU, only 46 (8%) were vaccinated while in the NICU. At least 48% of planned community vaccination has been achieved to date. In conclusion, in-hospital consent was almost universal and vaccination uptake was satisfactory. NICU exclusion criteria accounted for a significant proportion of non-vaccination in-hospital. These criteria need to be readdressed considering that all premature babies are given other routine newborn vaccines at 2 months of age, regardless of weight.

  15. Uptake of newly introduced universal BCG vaccination in newborns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Braima, O

    2012-01-31

    Universal neonatal BCG vaccination was discontinued in Cork in 1972. Following an outbreak of TB in 2 creches in the HSE South, a universal BCG vaccination program was re-introduced in October 2008. The aim of this study was to determine the vaccination process (in-hospital and community) and the in-hospital uptake of the vaccine. Following informed parental consent, babies of birth weight > 2.5 Kg were eligible for in-hospital vaccination if they were not: febrile, jaundiced on phototherapy, on antibiotics and if not born to HIV- positive mothers. Parents of babies not vaccinated in-hospital were asked to book an appointment in either of the 2 Cork community clinics. The immunisation nurse collected data on BCG vaccination, prospectively. This study examined vaccination uptakes in-hospital and community over a 6 month period (October 2008 to March 2009). There were 4018 deliveries during the study period. In-hospital consent was declined in only 16 babies (<1%) while the in-hospital vaccination uptake was 80% of total liv births. Although 635 newborns were admitted to the NICU, only 46 (8%) were vaccinated while in the NICU. At least 48% of planned community vaccination has been achieved to date. In conclusion, in-hospital consent was almost universal and vaccination uptake was satisfactory. NICU exclusion criteria accounted for a significant proportion of non-vaccination in-hospital. These criteria need to be readdressed considering that all premature babies are given other routine newborn vaccines at 2 months of age, regardless of weight.

  16. BCG-vaccination of newborns – a descriptive study about shared decision making and decisional conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo Pihl, Gitte

    mothers, 662 (67 %) had a score single parent status. To investigate the extent to which the decisional conflicts reflected inadequate knowledge......BCG-vaccination of newborns – a descriptive study about shared decision making and decisional conflicts Objective: To evaluate the use of shared decision making to support the parent in a low-evidence decision about a vaccine when using telephone consultations. The present study was conducted.......9 % of the mothers felt that they had inadequate support. Almost half of the mothers (43.7 %) were uncertain about the best choice, indicating that they were not confident that they had made the right decision. Discussion: Because all parents received both written information and were offered personal counselling...

  17. Lack of a Negative Effect of BCG-Vaccination on Child Psychomotor Development: Results from the Danish Calmette Study - A Randomised Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Birk, Nina Marie;

    2016-01-01

    MEASURES: Psychomotor development measured using Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) completed by the parents at 12 months. Additionally, parents of premature children (gestational age Developmental assessment was available for 3453/4262 (81%). RESULTS......OBJECTIVES: To assess the non-specific effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on psychomotor development. DESIGN: This is a pre-specified secondary outcome from a randomised, clinical trial. SETTING: Maternity units and paediatric wards at three university hospitals...... was -7.8 points (-20.6 to 5.0, p = 0.23), d = -0.23 (-0.62 to 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: A negative non-specific effect of BCG vaccination at birth on psychomotor development was excluded in term children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01694108....

  18. Vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth may affect atopy in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiraly, N; Benn, Christine Stabell; Biering-Sørensen, S

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that immunogenic interventions such as vaccines and micronutrients may affect atopic sensitization and atopic disease. We aimed to determine whether neonatal BCG vaccination, vitamin A supplementation and other vaccinations affect atopy in childhood....

  19. Another vaccine, another story: BCG vaccination against tuberculosis in India, 1948 to 1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimnes, Niels

    2011-02-01

    Through an examination of mass BCG vaccination against tuberculosis in India between 1948 and 1960 this article draws attention to the diversity of the history of vaccination. The features of vaccination campaigns often differed from those of the celebrated campaign to eradicate smallpox. Due to differences between smallpox and tuberculosis as well as between the vaccines developed against them, an analysis of BCG mass vaccination against tuberculosis seems particularly well suited for this purpose. Three points of difference are identified. First, in non-Western contexts BCG vaccination procedures were modified to a greater extent than vaccination against smallpox. Second, tuberculosis lacked the drama and urgency of smallpox and BCG vaccination campaigns suffered more from recruitment problems than did the more "heroic" smallpox eradication campaign. Third, the BCG vaccine was contested in medical circles and was much better suited than the vaccine against smallpox as a vehicle for the articulation of concerns about post-colonial modernization.

  20. Adverse effects of BCG vaccine 1173 P2 in Iran: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Mostaan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although in the last two decades the World Health Organization (WHO has introduced tuberculosis as “a threat to global”, the vaccination with the Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG is the only way for the prevention of this fatal infectious disease. Despite of the efficacy of BCG vaccine especially against infants' meningitis, it has still some limitations due to a variety of adverse effects. Many studies have evaluated the side effects of different strains of BCG vaccines in different countries. In Iran, some studies have been done so far to evaluate the adverse effects of 1173 P2 strain which is used for BCG vaccination. Each of these studies have used different standardization and sampling methods. This review will survey all studies that have been published about adverse effects of 1173 P2 strain of BCG vaccine in Iran using data mining methods.

  1. Adverse effects of BCG vaccine 1173 P2 in Iran: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaan, Saied; Yazdanpanah, Bahador; Moukhah, Rasool; Hozouri, Hamid Reza; Rostami, Manouchehr; Khorashadizadeh, Mohsen; Zerehsaz, Javad; Mahabadi, Ramin Pirhajati; Saadi, Arya; Khanahmad, Hossein; Pooya, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Although in the last two decades the World Health Organization (WHO) has introduced tuberculosis as “a threat to global”, the vaccination with the Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the only way for the prevention of this fatal infectious disease. Despite of the efficacy of BCG vaccine especially against infants’ meningitis, it has still some limitations due to a variety of adverse effects. Many studies have evaluated the side effects of different strains of BCG vaccines in different countries. In Iran, some studies have been done so far to evaluate the adverse effects of 1173 P2 strain which is used for BCG vaccination. Each of these studies have used different standardization and sampling methods. This review will survey all studies that have been published about adverse effects of 1173 P2 strain of BCG vaccine in Iran using data mining methods. PMID:27376038

  2. Chest wall granuloma associated with BCG vaccination presenting as hot abscess in an immunocompetent infant

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun Seung; Seo, Kyung Jin; Kim, Jae Jun

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus-Calmette-Gue´rin (BCG) vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine to prevent tuberculosis by cell mediated immune response and is routinely administered early after birth. Although it is considered to be a very safe vaccine, sometimes a variety of complications may develop. Herein we describe a clinically unusual case of chest wall granuloma considered to be induced by BCG, presenting as hot abscess, and developed 7 months after BCG vaccination in an immunocompetent infant. The diagnosis w...

  3. Naive helper T cells from BCG-vaccinated volunteers produce IFN-gamma and IL-5 to mycobacterial antigen-pulsed dendritic cells.

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    JoĂŤl Pestel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-GuĂŠrin (BCG is a live vaccine that has been used in routine vaccination against tuberculosis for nearly 80 years. However, its efficacy is controversial. The failure of BCG vaccination may be at least partially explained by the induction of poor or inappropriate host responses. Dendritic cells (DCs are likely to play a key role in the induction of immune response to mycobacteria by polarizing the reactivity of T lymphocytes toward a Th1 profile, contributing to the generation of protective cellular immunity against mycobacteria. In this study we aimed to investigate the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines by naive CD4+ T cells to mycobacterial antigen-pulsed DCs in the group of young, healthy BCG vaccinated volunteers. The response of naive helper T cells was compared with the response of total blood lymphocytes. Our present results clearly showed that circulating naive CD45RA+CD4+ lymphocytes from BCG-vaccinated subjects can become effector helper cells producing IFN-gamma and IL-5 under the stimulation by autologous dendritic cells presenting mycobacterial protein antigen-PPD or infected with live M. bovis BCG bacilli.

  4. Lupus vulgaris at the site of BCG vaccination: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsinejad, K; Daneshpazhooh, M; Sairafi, H; Barzegar, M; Mortazavizadeh, M

    2009-07-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV) is a rare complication of the bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, and about 65 cases of inoculation tuberculosis resembling LV have been reported in the literature. We report three cases of LV, developing many years later at the inoculation site of BCG vaccine. All three cases had a single BCG vaccination, with a LV lesion at or in the vicinity of the vaccination site, a strong positive Mantoux test, noncaseating granuloma histologically, and two of the patients had a positive PCR result for mycobacterial complex. One of the patients had an unusually delayed appearance of the LV lesion, after an interval of about 17 years, and another case was remarkable because of the large size of the lesion (210 x 110 mm).

  5. Chest wall granuloma associated with BCG vaccination presenting as hot abscess in an immunocompetent infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Seung; Seo, Kyung Jin; Kim, Jae Jun

    2015-03-04

    Bacillus-Calmette-Gue´rin (BCG) vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine to prevent tuberculosis by cell mediated immune response and is routinely administered early after birth. Although it is considered to be a very safe vaccine, sometimes a variety of complications may develop. Herein we describe a clinically unusual case of chest wall granuloma considered to be induced by BCG, presenting as hot abscess, and developed 7 months after BCG vaccination in an immunocompetent infant. The diagnosis was made based on the history, histopathology and virological studies. We suggest, although very rare, a BCG disease should be considered as a differential diagnosis in case of chest wall abscess, even if this is presenting as a hot abscess and even in immunocompetent infants if their age is related to BCG vaccination complications.

  6. The immunological effects of oral polio vaccine provided with BCG vaccine at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Lund, Najaaraq

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccines may have non-specific effects. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau suggested that oral polio vaccine at birth (OPV0) provided with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine was associated with down-regulation of the immune response to BCG vaccine 6 weeks later. Based...... BCG alone at birth, and subsequently randomised to have a blood sample taken at 2, 4 or 6 weeks post-randomisation. Excreted levels of cytokines (IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ) were measured from whole blood in vitro stimulations with a panel of recall vaccine antigens (BCG, PPD, OPV), mitogen...

  7. Oral polio vaccine influences the immune response to BCG vaccination. A natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartono, Erliyani; Lisse, Ida M; Terveer, Elisabeth M;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did...

  8. Neonatal BCG vaccination is associated with enhanced T-helper 1 immune responses to heterologous infant vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. Libraty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG vaccination has been reported to have beneficial effects beyond preventing infantile tuberculous meningitis and miliary disease. We hypothesized that BCG vaccine given at birth would enhance T-helper 1 (Th1 immune responses to the first vaccines given later in infancy. We conducted a nested case-control study of neonatal BCG vaccination and its heterologous Th1 immune effects in 2–3 months old infants. BCG vaccination at birth was associated with an increased frequency of interferon-γ (IFN-γ producing spot-forming cells (SFC to tetanus toxoid 2–3 months later. The frequency of IFN-γ producing SFC to polioviruses 1–3 also trended higher among infants who received BCG vaccination at birth. The frequency of IFN-γ+/tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α+CD45RO+CD4+ T-cells upon stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA/Ionomycin was higher in 2–3 months old infants who received BCG vaccination at birth compared to those who did not. The circulating frequency of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3+ CD45RO+ regulatory CD4+ T-cells also trended lower in these infants. Neonatal BCG vaccination is associated with heterologous Th1 immune effects 2–3 months later.

  9. Drug Treatment Combined with BCG Vaccination Reduces Disease Reactivation in Guinea Pigs Infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Shaobin; Shanley, Crystal A.; Caraway, Megan L.; Orme, Eileen A.; Henao-Tamayo, Marcela; Hascall-Dove, Laurel; Ackart, David; Orme, Ian M.; Ordway, Diane J.; Basaraba, Randall J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin (BCG), the only human tuberculosis vaccine, primes a partially protective immune response against M. tuberculosis infection in humans and animals. In guinea pigs, BCG vaccination slows the progression of disease and reduces the severity of necrotic granulomas, which harbor a population of drug-tolerant bacilli. The objective of this study was to determine if reducing disease severity by BCG vaccination of guinea pigs prior to M. tuberculosis challenge enhanced the efficacy of combination drug therapy. At 20 days of infection, treatment of vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals with rifampin, isoniazid, and pyrizinamide (RHZ) was initiated for 4 or 8 weeks. On days 50, 80 and 190 of infection (10 weeks after drug were withdrawn), treatment efficacy was evaluated by quantifying clinical condition, bacterial loads, lesion severity, and dynamic changes in peripheral blood and lung leukocyte numbers by flow cytometry. In a separate, long-term survival study, treatment efficacy was evaluated by determining disease reactivation frequency post-mortem. BCG vaccination alone delayed pulmonary and extra-pulmonary disease progression, but failed to prevent dissemination of bacilli and the formation of necrotic granulomas. Drug therapy either alone or in combination with BCG, was more effective at lessening clinical disease and lesion severity compared to control animals or those receiving BCG alone. Fewer residual lesions in BCG vaccinated and drug treated animals, equated to a reduced frequency of reactivation disease and improvement in survival even out to 500 days of infection. The combining of BCG vaccination and drug therapy was more effective at resolving granulomas such that fewer animals had evidence of residual infection and thus less reactivation disease. PMID:22244979

  10. Evaluation of BCG Vaccination in Neonatal%新生儿卡介苗接种效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段俊霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective:o investigate the situation of neonatal BCG vaccination in our city,evaluate the vaccination quality and results,and analysis its impact factor.Methods:Analysis the the number of BCG vaccination cases in April 2006 to April 2010 and the number of live births over the same period,analysis vaccination rates in different demographic. And investigation neonatal BCG vaccination after 12 weeks of PPD positive rate,analysis of different kinds of time in early seroconversion rate differences.Results:The total of live births in the city in April 2006 to April 2010 was 10421 cases and neonatal BCG early species of 10059 cases,the total rate of 96.56% in early types.Among them,the early species of the city' s population rate (96.75%) was higher than the initial species field population rate (95.74%).PPD test 3433 cases,the positive rate 95.66%,of which the baby' s positive rate (95.65%) and girls (95.10%) showed no significant difference.The cards scar group PPD test positive rate (96.40%) was significantly higher than non-card scar group (92.67%),the relative odds ratio was 2.121.Kinds of time in early January and the PPD test positive rate (97.02%) was significantly higher than the first time kind of positive rates greater than 1 month (52%),the relative odds ratio was 30.014.Conclusion:The city' s overall neonatal BCG vaccination rate was higher, reaching the state level,but should strengthen the floating population of foreign publicity and vaccination. And care to emphasize the importance of early vaccination.%目的:调查我市新生儿卡介苗接种情况,评价接种质量及效果,并分析其影响因素.方法:收集2006~2010年在我市接种卡介苗例数及同期活产数,分析不同人口构成的接种率差异.并调查12周后卡介苗接种新生儿的PPD阳转率,分析不同初种时间的阳转率差异.结果:2006年4月~2010年4月我市共有活产新生儿10421例,卡介苗初种10059例,总初种率96.56%.

  11. Non-specific immunity of BCG vaccine: A perspective of BCG immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeha Talat Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BCG is a widely used vaccine worldwide for neonates including Pakistan. BCG has more than 90% coverage through the EPI program which was introduced in 1965 in Pakistan. BCG has limited efficacy against the transmissible form of pulmonary tuberculosis in high TB endemic countries. However, BCG vaccination continues in these countries because BCG confers protection against the disseminated form of TB in children. BCG has also shown some protection against leprosy and certain forms of cancers. One reason for such nonspecific protection may be that BCG activates APCs via PAMPS that interacts with TLRs (2, 4 & 8, which initiate the inflammatory cascade thereby recruiting inflammatory cells to the site of infection and providing maturation signals for neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells. Such activation may be crucial for restricting the infection at the initial site. Furthermore, activation of the pro-inflammatory cascade also results in expression of adhesion molecules, co-stimulatory molecules as well as MHC class II molecule. MHC class II molecules engage CD4+ cells via the TCR receptor while the adhesion and costimulatory molecules bind to their respective receptors on CD4+ T cells for additional high affinity binding for T cell activation. Although activation of the innate arm may not provide subsequent memory, activation of T cells may introduce a certain level of memory response and therefore, may form a rational basis for BCG immunotherapy. This review, therefore, focuses on the immune activation related to both the innate and adaptive arm of the immune response that has been reported and further explores the utility of BCG immunotherapy related to non TB conditions.

  12. A live attenuated BCG vaccine overexpressing multistage antigens Ag85B and HspX provides superior protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xuefeng; Teng, Xindong; Jing, Yukai; Ma, Jilei; Tian, Maopeng; Yu, Qi; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Ruibo; Wang, Weihua; Li, Li; Fan, Xionglin

    2015-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most menacing infectious diseases, although attenuated Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine has been widely used to protect children against primary TB. There are increasing evidences that rapid growing and dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) coexist in vivo after infection. However, BCG vaccine only elicits cell-mediated immune responses to secretory antigens expressed by rapid growing pathogen. BCG vaccine is thus unable to thwart the reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), and its protection wanes over age after neonatal immunization. In order to extend its ability for a durable protection, a novel recombinant BCG (rBCG) strain, named rBCG::XB, was constructed by overexpressing immunodominant multistage antigens of Ag85B and HspX, which are expressed by both rapid replicating and dormant M. tuberculosis. Long-term protective effect and immunogenicity of rBCG::XB were compared with the parental BCG in vaccinated C57BL/6 mice. Our results demonstrated that rBCG::XB provided the stronger and long-lasting protection against M. tuberculosis H37Rv intranasal infection than BCG. The rBCG::XB not only elicited the more durable multistage antigen-specific CD4(+)Th1-biased immune responses and specific polyfunctional CD4(+)T cells but also augmented the CD8(+) CTL effects against Ag85B in vivo. In particular, higher levels of CD4(+) TEM and CD8(+) TCM cells, dominated by IL2(+) CD4(+) and CD8(+) TCM cells, were obtained in the spleen of rBCG::XB vaccinated mice. Therefore, our findings indicate that rBCG::XB is a promising candidate to improve the efficacy of BCG.

  13. Comparison of BCG vaccination at birth and at third month of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ildirim, I; Sapan, N; Cavuşoğlu, B

    1992-01-01

    Tuberculosis is an important health problem in developing countries and the BCG vaccine plays an important part in preventing the disease. There are different reports about the preventive value of BCG. Some of them claim that it is satisfactory while others suggest that it provides little protection. There are also varying ideas about the optimum time to vaccinate babies, some studies suggesting that late vaccination confers a high degree of protection. This prospective controlled study has been undertaken to evaluate the value of BCG vaccine given to babies during their first three days of life versus its value when given in their third month of life. Evaluation was measured by the results of tests with purified protein derivative (PPD), by vaccine scars, that by the complications of the vaccine. It was found that BCG given at the end of the third month provides a higher rate of response and fewer complications than when given during the first three days of life.

  14. Stimulation of alveolar macrophages by BCG vaccine enhances the process of lung fibrosis induced by bleomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyczewska, E; Chyczewski, L; Bańkowski, E; Sułkowski, S; Nikliński, J

    1993-01-01

    It was found that the BCG vaccine injected subcutaneously to the rats enhances the process of lung fibrosis induced by bleomycin. Pretreatment of rats with this vaccine results in accumulation of activated macrophages in lung interstitium and in the bronchoalveolar spaces. It may be suggested that the activated macrophages release various cytokines which may stimulate the proliferation of fibroblasts and biosynthesis of extracellular matrix components.

  15. BCG vaccine-induced neuroprotection in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Jing; Lacan, Goran; Dang, Hoa; Hsieh, Terry; Middleton, Blake; Wasserfall, Clive; Tian, Jide; Melega, William P; Kaufman, Daniel L

    2011-01-31

    There is a growing interest in using vaccination with CNS antigens to induce autoreactive T cell responses that home to damaged areas in the CNS and ameliorate neurodegenerative disease. Neuroprotective vaccine studies have focused on administering oligodendrocyte antigens or Copaxone® in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Theoretical considerations, however, suggest that vaccination with a neuronal antigen may induce more robust neuroprotective immune responses. We assessed the neuroprotective potential of vaccines containing tyrosine hydroxylase (a neuronal protein involved in dopamine synthesis) or Copaxone® in CFA in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Surprisingly, we observed that the main beneficial factor in these vaccines was the CFA. Since the major immunogenic component in CFA is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which closely related to the bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) that is used in human vaccines, we tested BCG vaccination in the MPTP mouse model. We observed that BCG vaccination partially preserved markers of striatal dopamine system integrity and prevented an increase in activated microglia in the substantia nigra of MPTP-treated mice. These results support a new neuroprotective vaccine paradigm in which general (nonself-reactive) immune stimulation in the periphery can limit potentially deleterious microglial responses to a neuronal insult and exert a neurorestorative effect in the CNS. Accordingly, BCG vaccination may provide a new strategy to augment current treatments for a wide range of neuropathological conditions.

  16. Effect of vitamin A supplementation with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status at 6 wk and 4 mo of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter;

    2007-01-01

    with higher (9%; 95% CI: 2, 17%) RBP concentrations in children of noneducated mothers but not in children of educated mothers. Overall, RBP concentrations increased between 6 wk and 4 mo of age. The increase correlated inversely with the number of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines received......BACKGROUND: The effect of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth on subsequent vitamin A status has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 50,000 IU vitamin A administered with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status in both sexes. DESIGN: Within a randomized...... A recipients, subsequent DTP vaccines affected vitamin A status negatively. The main trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00168597....

  17. Effect of vitamin A supplementation with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status at 6 wk and 4 mo of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter;

    2007-01-01

    with higher (9%; 95% CI: 2, 17%) RBP concentrations in children of noneducated mothers but not in children of educated mothers. Overall, RBP concentrations increased between 6 wk and 4 mo of age. The increase correlated inversely with the number of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines received......BACKGROUND: The effect of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth on subsequent vitamin A status has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 50,000 IU vitamin A administered with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status in both sexes. DESIGN: Within a randomized...... A recipients, subsequent DTP vaccines affected vitamin A status negatively. The main trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00168597. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Oct...

  18. Tuberculous meningitis in children: a review of clinical, laboratory, epidemiological, and therapeutic aspects and of the usefulness of BCG vaccination Meningitis tuberculosa en niños: una revisión de aspectos clínicos, de laboratorio, epidemiológicos y terapéuticos y de la utilidad de la vacunación con BCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José William Cornejo Ochoa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Tuberculous meningitis is the most frequent extrapulmonary form of tuberculosis in underdeveloped countries, among them Colombia. It is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In this article a review is presented of the following aspects of the disease: clinical, epidemiological, therapeutic, prophylactic by means of BCG vaccination, laboratory diagnosis, and tomographic findings.

    La tuberculosis meníngea (MTB es la enfermedad tuberculosa extrapulmonar más frecuente en los países del tercer mundo, incluida Colombia, y tiene tasas altas de morbilidad y mortalidad. En este artículo se presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre los siguientes aspectos de la enfermedad: clínicos, epidemiológicos, de laboratorio, tomográficos, terapéuticos y de prevención con la vacuna BCG.

  19. Tuberculin skin test distribution following a change in BCG vaccination policy.

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    Sei Won Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic data regarding tuberculin skin test (TST responses are an important basis for TB control strategies. This study analyzed TST responses in Korea, which experienced a rapid change in BCG vaccination status. METHODS: TST responses in young adults were examined over 5 years. Participants with active TB lesions were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 5,552 participants were enrolled with median age of 21 years. When an induration diameter ≥10 mm was used as the criterion for a positive test, TST positivity fell (from 28.0% in 2005 to 15.3% in 2009; however, they remained steady when the criterion was ≥15-20 mm. A positive TST was associated with a personal or family of TB, the presence of a Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG scar, and age (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 4.03 [2.61-6.22], 2.91 [1.80-4.71], 1.50 [1.31-1.72], and 1.15 [1.09-1.20], respectively. Among these factors, the decrease of participants with BCG scars was the most prominent change, which appeared to be associated with the change of TST positivity rate. CONCLUSION: Overall, the rate of TST positivity in Korea decreased. However, this trend seems associated with the change of BCG vaccination strategy rather than successful control of LTBI. This study showed that change in BCG vaccination strategy can have great impact on TB epidemiologic survey based on TST.

  20. A Complication of BCG Vaccine: A Case of Localized Cutaneous Abscess due to Mycobacterium bovis

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    Nathalie Lussier

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The attenuated bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine is administered to prevent tuberculosis. Complications of vaccination are uncommon. A case of cutaneous abscess due to BCG is presented in a 24-year-old woman. The abscess developed at the inoculation site four weeks after vaccination. Routine Gram stain and bacterial cultures of the pus were negative. The auramine stain was positive. Mycobacterial cultures were positive after 14 and 18 days, using the BACTEC 12B bottle and Löwenstein-Jensen media, respectively. The mycobacteria were identified as Mycobacterium bovis, vaccinal strain by high-performance liquid chromatography and DNA probe assays.

  1. The Efficacy of the BCG Vaccine against Newly Emerging Clinical Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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    Marcela Henao-Tamayo

    Full Text Available To date, most new vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including new recombinant versions of the current BCG vaccine, have usually been screened against the laboratory strains H37Rv or Erdman. In this study we took advantage of our recent work in characterizing an increasingly large panel of newly emerging clinical isolates [from the United States or from the Western Cape region of South Africa], to determine to what extent vaccines would protect against these [mostly high virulence] strains. We show here that both BCG Pasteur and recombinant BCG Aeras-422 [used here as a good example of the new generation BCG vaccines] protected well in both mouse and guinea pig low dose aerosol infection models against the majority of clinical isolates tested. However, Aeras-422 was not effective in a long term survival assay compared to BCG Pasteur. Protection was very strongly expressed against all of the Western Cape strains tested, reinforcing our viewpoint that any attempt at boosting BCG would be very difficult to achieve statistically. This observation is discussed in the context of the growing argument made by others that the failure of a recent vaccine trial disqualifies the further use of animal models to predict vaccine efficacy. This viewpoint is in our opinion completely erroneous, and that it is the fitness of prevalent strains in the trial site area that is the centrally important factor, an issue that is not being addressed by the field.

  2. Heterologous Immunological Effects of Early BCG Vaccination in Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Larsen, Nanna; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) seems to have beneficial nonspecific effects; early BCG vaccination of low-birth-weight (LBW) newborns reduces neonatal mortality by >40% due to prevention of primarily septicemia and pneumonia. METHODS:  Within a randomized trial in LBW infants in Guin...

  3. Immunological Links to Nonspecific Effects of DTwP and BCG Vaccines on Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2011-01-01

    A number of mainly observational studies suggest that many African females below the age of one year die each year from the nonspecific effects of vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus toxoids and killed (whole-cell) Bordetella pertussis (DTwP). In contrast, similar studies suggest that many African...... females and males may have their lives saved each year by the nonspecific immunological benefits of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination. From an immunological point of view, we hypothesise that the adverse effects of DTwP vaccine may occur because of the Th2-polarising effect of the aluminium...... phosphate adjuvant in the vaccine and because intramuscular administration of the vaccine may cause chronic inflammation at the site of injection. However, the Th1-polarising effect of BCG is likely to be beneficial. Sexual dimorphism affecting immune functions and vitamin A supplementation may influence...

  4. Immunological Links to Nonspecific Effects of DTwP and BCG Vaccines on Infant Mortality

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    Mogens Helweg Claesson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of mainly observational studies suggest that many African females below the age of one year die each year from the nonspecific effects of vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus toxoids and killed (whole-cell Bordetella pertussis (DTwP. In contrast, similar studies suggest that many African females and males may have their lives saved each year by the nonspecific immunological benefits of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG vaccination. From an immunological point of view, we hypothesise that the adverse effects of DTwP vaccine may occur because of the Th2-polarising effect of the aluminium phosphate adjuvant in the vaccine and because intramuscular administration of the vaccine may cause chronic inflammation at the site of injection. However, the Th1-polarising effect of BCG is likely to be beneficial. Sexual dimorphism affecting immune functions and vitamin A supplementation may influence both the deleterious and beneficial nonspecific effects of immunisation.

  5. Local skin reaction following an accidental injection from a BCG vaccine in a healthcare worker

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    Kundan Mittal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to blood-borne pathogens from sharp injuriescontinue to pose a significant risk to healthcare workers(HCW. The number of sharps injuries sustained by HCW is stillunclear, primarily due to under-reporting of events.Healthcare professionals are at risk of sustaining such injuriesfrom hollow-bore needles. Sharps injuries are associated withrisk of infection with blood-borne pathogens such as humanimmunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV hepatitisC virus (HCV and other live organisms. Here we are reportinga case of an adverse reaction in a HCW due to an accidentalsharps injury by a needle used to administer the BacillusCalmittee Gurien (BCG vaccine.

  6. High-sensitive and rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by IFN-γ release assay among HIV-infected individuals in BCG-vaccinated area

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    Jiang Weimin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An accurate test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is urgently needed in immunosuppressed populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic power of enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT-based IFN-γ release assay in detecting active and latent tuberculosis in HIV-infected population in bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG-vaccinated area. A total of 100 HIV-infected individuals including 32 active tuberculosis patients were recruited. An ELISPOT-based IFN-γ release assay, T-SPOT.TB, was used to evaluate the M. tuberculosis ESAT-6 and CFP-10 specific IFN-γ response. Tuberculin skin test (TST was performed for all recruited subjects. Results The subjects were divided into group HIV+ATB (HIV-infected individuals with active tuberculosis, n = 32, group HIV+LTB (HIV-infected individuals with positive results of T-SPOT.TB assay, n = 46 and group HIV only (HIV-infected individuals with negative results of T-SPOT.TB assay and without evidence of tuberculosis infection, n = 22. In group HIV+ATB and HIV+LTB, T-SPOT.TB positive rate in subjects with TST P 85% in patients with TB treatment for less than 1 month and CD4+ T cells ≥200/μl, while for patients treated for more than 3 months and CD4+ T cells Conclusion ELISPOT-based IFN-γ release assay is more sensitive and rapid for the diagnosis of TB infection in Chinese HIV-infected individuals with history of BCG vaccination, and could be an effective tool for guiding preventive treatment with isoniazid in latently infected people and for TB control in China.

  7. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in children

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    Helena Rabie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Paradoxical deterioration due to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS occurs in up to 21% of children initiating antiretroviral therapy. Mycobacterial diseases are the most common, with BCG-vaccine adenitis predominating in infants and M. tuberculosis (TB in older children. The difficulty of diagnosing TB in HIV-infected children and the increasing risk of drug-resistant TB complicate the diagnosis and management of both paradoxical IRIS and post-antiretroviral therapy TB. History and clinical assessment remain key strategies in the management of these infants and children. There are no prospective studies investigating diagnostic criteria and therapeutic strategies in children.

  8. Vacina BCG: eficácia e indicações da vacinação e da revacinação BCG vaccine: efficacy and indications for vaccination and revaccination

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    Mauricio L. Barreto

    2006-07-01

    in the last 50 years. The studies were grouped according to their design (clinical trials, case-control studies, and meta-analyses and the results were presented separately for each type of study. Other relevant topics such as BCG and HIV/AIDS, use of tuberculin skin test, issues related to vaccine scars and to the development of new vaccines were also reviewed. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: BCG vaccine has been used since 1921. However, the data concerning its use are variable and inconsistent. The protective efficacy of the first dose of BCG vaccine against miliary tuberculosis or tuberculous meningitis is remarkably important. Nevertheless, results regarding pulmonary tuberculosis have been inconsistent, either showing no efficacy or a protective efficacy rate around 80%. There is some evidence that a second dose of BCG vaccine does not increase its protective efficacy. Studies have shown that BCG vaccine protects against leprosy. The development of new vaccines to replace BCG in the future has been investigated. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the hope that a new vaccine against tuberculosis will be available in the future, BCG vaccine, in spite of its deficiencies, is today and will still be for many years to come an important tool in controlling the harmful effects of tuberculosis, especially in countries where this disease has moderate to high levels of incidence.

  9. Assessment of safety and interferon gamma responses of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine in goat kids and milking goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de Val, Bernat; Vidal, Enric; López-Soria, Sergio; Marco, Alberto; Cervera, Zoraida; Martín, Maite; Mercader, Irene; Singh, Mahavir; Raeber, Alex; Domingo, Mariano

    2016-02-10

    Vaccination of domestic animals has emerged as an alternative long-term strategy for the control of tuberculosis (TB). A trial under field conditions was conducted in a TB-free goat herd to assess the safety of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine. Eleven kids and 10 milking goats were vaccinated with BCG. Bacterial shedding and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) responses were monitored throughout the study. Comprehensive pathological examination and mycobacterial culture of target tissues were performed. BCG vaccine strain was only isolated from the draining lymph node of the injection site of a kid euthanized at week 8 post-vaccination. The remaining animals were euthanized at week 24. Six out of 20 showed small granulomas at the injection site. BCG shedding was not detected in either faeces or in milk throughout the study. All vaccinated kids showed BCG-induced IFN-γ responses at week 8 post-vaccination. BCG vaccination of goats showed no lack of biological safety for the animals, environment and public health, and local adverse reactions were negligible.

  10. BCG vaccines: their mechanisms of attenuation and impact on safety and protective efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Tran, Vanessa; Leung, Andrea S; Alexander, David C; Zhu, Baoli

    2009-02-01

    Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) was developed as an attenuated live vaccine for tuberculosis control nearly a century ago. Despite being the most widely used vaccine in human history, the mechanisms of attenuation of BCG remain poorly understood. BCG is not a single organism, but comprises a number of substrains that differ in genotypes and phenotypes. The impacts of these differences on BCG vaccine properties are largely unknown. Nevertheless, in the past decade, the development of sophisticated genome analysis techniques, coupled with advances in knowledge of the virulence mechanisms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, have provided greater insights into the attenuation and evolution of BCG. This review article discusses these new developments, focusing on molecular mechanisms that contribute to the attenuation of BCG substrains. It is evident that BCG strains comprise natural mutants of major virulence factors of M. tb, including ESX-1, PDIM/PGL and PhoP, and that BCG substrains differ markedly in virulence level. The impacts of these findings on vaccine properties including adverse reaction effect, tuberculin reactivity and protective efficacy are discussed. These new insights have extremely important implications for national immunization programs and the development of future vaccines.

  11. PPD-induced monocyte mitochondrial damage is associated with a protective effect to develop tuberculosis in BCG vaccinated individuals: A cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Diana; Marín, Nancy; del Corral, Helena; López, Lucelly; Ramirez-Agudelo, María Elena; Rojas, Carlos A.; Arbeláez, María P.; García, Luis F.; Rojas, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The mechanisms of mononuclear phagocyte death have been associated with the permissiveness and resistance to mycobacterial replication, but it remains unknown whether or not they help predict the risk of developing TB. Objective To describe the factors associated with the induction of monocyte mitochondrial and membrane damage in response to PPD as well as determine if this type of damage might predict the susceptibility of developing active tuberculosis in a cohort of household contacts (HHCs) from Medellin, Colombia from 2005 to 2008. Methods The prospective cohort study contains 2060 HHCs patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who were meticulously followed for two years. A survey of the socio-demographic, clinical, epidemiological factors and blood samples were collected. Mononuclear cell cultures were stimulated with or without PPD and the type of monocyte death was determined by the flow of cytometry, an indicator was also used for its analysis. Logistic regression was adjusted by the Generalized Estimations Equations and the survival was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression. Confidence intervals were used for estimating the association. Results 1,859 out of 2,060 blood samples of the HHCs patients analyzed showed monocyte death. In response to PPD, 83.4% underwent mitochondrial damage while 50.9% had membrane damage. The membrane damage in response to PPD was higher in children under 4 years (OR: 1.57; (95% CI: 1.1 to 2.4) and the HHCs who slept regularly in the same household has an index case of (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.3). After adjustment by age, comorbidities, nutritional status, proximity to index case and overcrowding, the risk of developing active TB among BCG vaccinated HHCs individuals with induction of mitochondrial damage was HR = 0.19 (95% CI: 0.1 to 0.5). Conclusions The induction of monocytes mitochondrial damage by PPD stimulation correlates with protection of TB disease development in BCG-vaccinated HHCs. This

  12. Distinct effector memory CD4+ T cell signatures in latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, BCG vaccination and clinically resolved tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekambi, Toidi; Ibegbu, Chris C; Kalokhe, Ameeta S; Yu, Tianwei; Ray, Susan M; Rengarajan, Jyothi

    2012-01-01

    Two billion people worldwide are estimated to be latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and are at risk for developing active tuberculosis since Mtb can reactivate to cause TB disease in immune-compromised hosts. Individuals with latent Mtb infection (LTBI) and BCG-vaccinated individuals who are uninfected with Mtb, harbor antigen-specific memory CD4(+) T cells. However, the differences between long-lived memory CD4(+) T cells induced by latent Mtb infection (LTBI) versus BCG vaccination are unclear. In this study, we characterized the immune phenotype and functionality of antigen-specific memory CD4(+) T cells in healthy BCG-vaccinated individuals who were either infected (LTBI) or uninfected (BCG) with Mtb. Individuals were classified into LTBI and BCG groups based on IFN-γ ELISPOT using cell wall antigens and ESAT-6/CFP-10 peptides. We show that LTBI individuals harbored high frequencies of late-stage differentiated (CD45RA(-)CD27(-)) antigen-specific effector memory CD4(+) T cells that expressed PD-1. In contrast, BCG individuals had primarily early-stage (CD45RA(-)CD27(+)) cells with low PD-1 expression. CD27(+) and CD27(-) as well as PD-1(+) and PD-1(-) antigen-specific subsets were polyfunctional, suggesting that loss of CD27 expression and up-regulation of PD-1 did not compromise their capacity to produce IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2. PD-1 was preferentially expressed on CD27(-) antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells, indicating that PD-1 is associated with the stage of differentiation. Using statistical models, we determined that CD27 and PD-1 predicted LTBI versus BCG status in healthy individuals and distinguished LTBI individuals from those who had clinically resolved Mtb infection after anti-tuberculosis treatment. This study shows that CD4(+) memory responses induced by latent Mtb infection, BCG vaccination and clinically resolved Mtb infection are immunologically distinct. Our data suggest that differentiation into CD27(-)PD-1(+) subsets in

  13. Distinct effector memory CD4+ T cell signatures in latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, BCG vaccination and clinically resolved tuberculosis.

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    Toidi Adekambi

    Full Text Available Two billion people worldwide are estimated to be latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb and are at risk for developing active tuberculosis since Mtb can reactivate to cause TB disease in immune-compromised hosts. Individuals with latent Mtb infection (LTBI and BCG-vaccinated individuals who are uninfected with Mtb, harbor antigen-specific memory CD4(+ T cells. However, the differences between long-lived memory CD4(+ T cells induced by latent Mtb infection (LTBI versus BCG vaccination are unclear. In this study, we characterized the immune phenotype and functionality of antigen-specific memory CD4(+ T cells in healthy BCG-vaccinated individuals who were either infected (LTBI or uninfected (BCG with Mtb. Individuals were classified into LTBI and BCG groups based on IFN-γ ELISPOT using cell wall antigens and ESAT-6/CFP-10 peptides. We show that LTBI individuals harbored high frequencies of late-stage differentiated (CD45RA(-CD27(- antigen-specific effector memory CD4(+ T cells that expressed PD-1. In contrast, BCG individuals had primarily early-stage (CD45RA(-CD27(+ cells with low PD-1 expression. CD27(+ and CD27(- as well as PD-1(+ and PD-1(- antigen-specific subsets were polyfunctional, suggesting that loss of CD27 expression and up-regulation of PD-1 did not compromise their capacity to produce IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2. PD-1 was preferentially expressed on CD27(- antigen-specific CD4(+ T cells, indicating that PD-1 is associated with the stage of differentiation. Using statistical models, we determined that CD27 and PD-1 predicted LTBI versus BCG status in healthy individuals and distinguished LTBI individuals from those who had clinically resolved Mtb infection after anti-tuberculosis treatment. This study shows that CD4(+ memory responses induced by latent Mtb infection, BCG vaccination and clinically resolved Mtb infection are immunologically distinct. Our data suggest that differentiation into CD27(-PD-1(+ subsets in LTBI is

  14. Impact of PGL-I seropositivity on the protective effect of BCG vaccination among leprosy contacts: a cohort study.

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    Nádia C Düppre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Contacts of leprosy patients are at increased risk of developing leprosy and need to be targeted for early diagnosis. Seropositivity to the phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I antigen of Mycobacterium leprae has been used to identify contacts who have an increased risk of developing leprosy. In the present study, we studied the effect of seropositivity in patient contacts, on the risk of developing leprosy, stratified by Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG vaccination after index case diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Leprosy contacts were examined as part of the surveillance programme of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute Leprosy Outpatient Clinic in Rio de Janeiro. Demographic, social, epidemiological and clinical data were collected. The presence of IgM antibodies to PGL-I in sera and BCG vaccination status at the time of index case diagnosis were evaluated in 2,135 contacts. During follow-up, 60 (2.8%; 60/2,135 leprosy cases were diagnosed: 41 among the 1,793 PGL-I-negative contacts and 19 among the 342 PGL-I-positive contacts. Among PGL-I-positive contacts, BCG vaccination after index case diagnosis increased the adjusted rate of developing clinical manifestations of leprosy (Adjusted Rate Ratio (aRR = 4.1; 95% CI: 1.8-8.2 compared with the PGL-I-positive unvaccinated contacts (aRR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.2-8.1. The incidence density was highest during the first year of follow-up for the PGL-I-positive vaccinated contacts. However, all of those contacts developed PB leprosy, whereas most MB cases (4/6 occurred in PGL-I-positive unvaccinated contacts. CONCLUSION: Contact examination combined with PGL-I testing and BCG vaccination remain important strategies for leprosy control. The finding that rates of leprosy cases were highest among seropositive contacts justifies targeting this specific group for close monitoring. Furthermore, it is recommended that PGL-I-positive contacts and contacts with a high familial bacteriological index

  15. A Modified Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccine with Reduced Activity of Antioxidants and Glutamine Synthetase Exhibits Enhanced Protection of Mice despite Diminished in Vivo Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoen, Carolyn M; DeStefano, Michelle S; Hager, Cynthia C; Tham, Kyi-Toe; Braunstein, Miriam; Allen, Alexandria D; Gates, Hiriam O; Cynamon, Michael H; Kernodle, Douglas S

    2013-01-11

    Early attempts to improve BCG have focused on increasing the expression of prominent antigens and adding recombinant toxins or cytokines to influence antigen presentation. One such modified BCG vaccine candidate has been withdrawn from human clinical trials due to adverse effects. BCG was derived from virulent Mycobacterium bovis and retains much of its capacity for suppressing host immune responses. Accordingly, we have used a different strategy for improving BCG based on reducing its immune suppressive capacity. We made four modifications to BCG Tice to produce 4dBCG and compared it to the parent vaccine in C57Bl/6 mice. The modifications included elimination of the oxidative stress sigma factor SigH, elimination of the SecA2 secretion channel, and reductions in the activity of iron co-factored superoxide dismutase and glutamine synthetase. After IV inoculation of 4dBCG, 95% of vaccine bacilli were eradicated from the spleens of mice within 60 days whereas the titer of BCG Tice was not significantly reduced. Subcutaneous vaccination with 4dBCG produced greater protection than vaccination with BCG against dissemination of an aerosolized challenge of M. tuberculosis to the spleen at 8 weeks post-challenge. At this time, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice also exhibited altered lung histopathology compared to BCG-vaccinated mice and control mice with less well-developed lymphohistiocytic nodules in the lung parenchyma. At 26 weeks post-challenge, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice but not BCG-vaccinated mice had significantly fewer challenge bacilli in the lungs than control mice. In conclusion, despite reduced persistence in mice a modified BCG vaccine with diminished antioxidants and glutamine synthetase is superior to the parent vaccine in conferring protection against M. tuberculosis. The targeting of multiple immune suppressive factors produced by BCG is a promising strategy for simultaneously improving vaccine safety and effectiveness.

  16. A Modified Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG Vaccine with Reduced Activity of Antioxidants and Glutamine Synthetase Exhibits Enhanced Protection of Mice despite Diminished in Vivo Persistence

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    Douglas S. Kernodle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early attempts to improve BCG have focused on increasing the expression of prominent antigens and adding recombinant toxins or cytokines to influence antigen presentation. One such modified BCG vaccine candidate has been withdrawn from human clinical trials due to adverse effects. BCG was derived from virulent Mycobacterium bovis and retains much of its capacity for suppressing host immune responses. Accordingly, we have used a different strategy for improving BCG based on reducing its immune suppressive capacity. We made four modifications to BCG Tice to produce 4dBCG and compared it to the parent vaccine in C57Bl/6 mice. The modifications included elimination of the oxidative stress sigma factor SigH, elimination of the SecA2 secretion channel, and reductions in the activity of iron co-factored superoxide dismutase and glutamine synthetase. After IV inoculation of 4dBCG, 95% of vaccine bacilli were eradicated from the spleens of mice within 60 days whereas the titer of BCG Tice was not significantly reduced. Subcutaneous vaccination with 4dBCG produced greater protection than vaccination with BCG against dissemination of an aerosolized challenge of M. tuberculosis to the spleen at 8 weeks post-challenge. At this time, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice also exhibited altered lung histopathology compared to BCG-vaccinated mice and control mice with less well-developed lymphohistiocytic nodules in the lung parenchyma. At 26 weeks post-challenge, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice but not BCG-vaccinated mice had significantly fewer challenge bacilli in the lungs than control mice. In conclusion, despite reduced persistence in mice a modified BCG vaccine with diminished antioxidants and glutamine synthetase is superior to the parent vaccine in conferring protection against M. tuberculosis. The targeting of multiple immune suppressive factors produced by BCG is a promising strategy for simultaneously improving vaccine safety and effectiveness.

  17. Successive Intramuscular Boosting with IFN-Alpha Protects Mycobacterium bovis BCG-Vaccinated Mice against M. lepraemurium Infection

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    G. G. Guerrero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy caused by Mycobacterium leprae primarily affects the skin and peripheral nerves. As a human infectious disease, it is still a significant health and economic burden on developing countries. Although multidrug therapy is reducing the number of active cases to approximately 0.5 million, the number of cases per year is not declining. Therefore, alternative host-directed strategies should be addressed to improve treatment efficacy and outcome. In this work, using murine leprosy as a model, a very similar granulomatous skin lesion to human leprosy, we have found that successive IFN-alpha boosting protects BCG-vaccinated mice against M. lepraemurium infection. No difference in the seric isotype and all IgG subclasses measured, neither in the TH1 nor in the TH2 type cytokine production, was seen. However, an enhanced iNOS/NO production in BCG-vaccinated/i.m. IFN-alpha boosted mice was observed. The data provided in this study suggest a promising use for IFN-alpha boosting as a new prophylactic alternative to be explored in human leprosy by targeting host innate cell response.

  18. Effectiveness of routine BCG vaccination on buruli ulcer disease: a case-control study in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana and Togo.

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    Richard Odame Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The only available vaccine that could be potentially beneficial against mycobacterial diseases contains live attenuated bovine tuberculosis bacillus (Mycobacterium bovis also called Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG. Even though the BCG vaccine is still widely used, results on its effectiveness in preventing mycobacterial diseases are partially contradictory, especially regarding Buruli Ulcer Disease (BUD. The aim of this case-control study is to evaluate the possible protective effect of BCG vaccination on BUD.The present study was performed in three different countries and sites where BUD is endemic: in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, and Togo from 2010 through 2013. The large study population was comprised of 401 cases with laboratory confirmed BUD and 826 controls, mostly family members or neighbors.After stratification by the three countries, two sexes and four age groups, no significant correlation was found between the presence of BCG scar and BUD status of individuals. Multivariate analysis has shown that the independent variables country (p = 0.31, sex (p = 0.24, age (p = 0.96, and presence of a BCG scar (p = 0.07 did not significantly influence the development of BUD category I or category II/III. Furthermore, the status of BCG vaccination was also not significantly related to duration of BUD or time to healing of lesions.In our study, we did not observe significant evidence of a protective effect of routine BCG vaccination on the risk of developing either BUD or severe forms of BUD. Since accurate data on BCG strains used in these three countries were not available, no final conclusion can be drawn on the effectiveness of BCG strain in protecting against BUD. As has been suggested for tuberculosis and leprosy, well-designed prospective studies on different existing BCG vaccine strains are needed also for BUD.

  19. Immunological efficacy of Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccina-tion in Egyptian children:case series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malak Shaheen; Ashraf Madkour

    2008-01-01

    Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)vaccine is one of the most widely used vaccines in children.In Egypt,it is a part of the national compulsory childhood immunization program.The most controversial aspect of BCG is the variable efficacy found in different studies.This study was to evaluate the efficacy status of the available BCG vaccine in Egypt within the last 10 years (BCG-Copenhagen).The pilot cross sectional study included 597 Egyptian children randomly selected.Their ages ranged from 6 months to 10 years old (mean_5 years,medi-an:3 years).All were assessed for history of BCG vaccine intake (primary at infancy and /or secondary at school age)and examined for the presence BCG scar.A group of the vaccinated children (62 children with BCG scar and 69 children without BCG scar)were further assessed with tuberculin skin test (TST).Preva-lence of BCG vaccine intake in the studied children was 86.9% (519 /597).Efficacy in term of BCG scar af-ter vaccination was 66.6% (346 /519).However,efficacy in term of post BCG vaccination tuberculin sensiti-zation was only 3.8% (5 /131).BCG vaccination program in Egypt seems to be widely prevalent;however, the immunological efficacy of the available strain is questionable.

  20. Long-Lasting Effects of BCG Vaccination on Both Heterologous Th1/Th17 Responses and Innate Trained Immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinnijenhuis, Johanneke; Quintin, Jessica; Preijers, Frank

    2013-01-01

    '. In the present study we assessed whether BCG was able to induce long-lasting effects on both trained immunity and heterologous T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 immune responses 1 year after vaccination. The production of TNFα and IL-1β to mycobacteria or unrelated pathogens was higher after 2 weeks and 3 months...... in proinflammatory cytokine production after stimulation with the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. The heterologous production of Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17 and IL-22) immune responses to nonmycobacterial stimulation remained strongly elevated even 1 year after BCG vaccination. In conclusion, BCG induces sustained...... changes in the immune system associated with a nonspecific response to infections both at the level of innate trained immunity and at the level of heterologous Th1/Th17 responses. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel....

  1. Vaccination technique, PPD reaction and BCG scarring in a cohort of children born in Guinea-Bissau 2000-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Sodemann, Morten; Jensen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The rates of positive tuberculin skin test (TST) reactions and BCG scarring after BCG vaccination vary between studies and populations. Tuberculin reactivity and BCG scarring may be related to better child survival in low-income countries. We therefore studied determinants for TST reaction......=2225) of age. In a subgroup of the children the vaccination technique was monitored by direct observation of post-vaccination wheal and route of administration. Three different types of BCG vaccine supplied by the local Extended Programme on Immunization were used. At 6 months of age the rate of PPD.......66 (1.24-2.21)). In the multivariable analyses of BCG-vaccinated children assessed at 6 months of age, monitoring of vaccination technique and type of BCG vaccine were important. This was not changed by control for other determinants, including sex, season, vaccination place, birthplace, ethnic group...

  2. A New Recombinant BCG Vaccine Induces Specific Th17 and Th1 Effector Cells with Higher Protective Efficacy against Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Adeliane Castro; Costa-Júnior, Abadio de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Fábio Muniz; Nogueira, Sarah Veloso; Rosa, Joseane Damaceno; Resende, Danilo Pires; Kipnis, André; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that is a major public health problem. The vaccine used for TB prevention is Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), which provides variable efficacy in protecting against pulmonary TB among adults. Consequently, several groups have pursued the development of a new vaccine with a superior protective capacity to that of BCG. Here we constructed a new recombinant BCG (rBCG) vaccine expressing a fusion protein (CMX) composed of immune dominant epitopes from Ag85C, MPT51, and HspX and evaluated its immunogenicity and protection in a murine model of infection. The stability of the vaccine in vivo was maintained for up to 20 days post-vaccination. rBCG-CMX was efficiently phagocytized by peritoneal macrophages and induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Following mouse immunization, this vaccine induced a specific immune response in cells from lungs and spleen to the fusion protein and to each of the component recombinant proteins by themselves. Vaccinated mice presented higher amounts of Th1, Th17, and polyfunctional specific T cells. rBCG-CMX vaccination reduced the extension of lung lesions caused by challenge with Mtb as well as the lung bacterial load. In addition, when this vaccine was used in a prime-boost strategy together with rCMX, the lung bacterial load was lower than the result observed by BCG vaccination. This study describes the creation of a new promising vaccine for TB that we hope will be used in further studies to address its safety before proceeding to clinical trials. PMID:25398087

  3. A family history of serious complications due to BCG vaccination is a tool for the early diagnosis of severe primary immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxo-Junior, Pérsio; Silva, Jorgete; Andrea, Mauro; Oliveira, Larissa; Ramalho, Fernando; Bezerra, Thiago; Nunes, Altacílio A

    2013-09-10

    Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) is one of the most severe forms of primary immunodeficiency (PID). Complications of BCG vaccination, especially disseminated infection and its most severe forms, are known to occur in immunodeficient patients, particularly in SCID. A carefully taken family history before BCG injection as well as delaying vaccination if PID is suspected could be a simple and effective method to avoid inappropriate vaccination of an immunodeficient child in some cases until the prospect of newborn screening for SCID has been fully developed. We describe a patient with a very early diagnosis of SCID, which was suspected on the basis of the previous death of two siblings younger than one year due to severe complications secondary to the BCG vaccine. We suggest that a family history of severe or fatal reactions to BCG should be included as a warning sign for an early diagnosis of SCID.

  4. Variation of growth in the production of the BCG vaccine and the association with the immune response. An observational study within a randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Aamand, Susanne Havn

    2015-01-01

    reaction (geometric mean ratio: 1.40 (1.20-1.63)) at 2 months. In response to secondary heterologous stimulation, monocytes primed with Slow growth batches induced higher IL-6 (p=0.03) and TNF-α responses (p=0.03) compared with Normal growth batches. CONCLUSION: The study indicates that variations...... in the production of BCG vaccine may influence important immunological effects of the vaccine. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00625482)....

  5. Association of human TLR1 and TLR6 deficiency with altered immune responses to BCG vaccination in South African infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Kaur Randhawa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of effective immunoprophylaxis against tuberculosis (TB remains a global priority, but is hampered by a partially protective Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine and an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although host genetic factors may be a primary reason for BCG's variable and inadequate efficacy, this possibility has not been intensively examined. We hypothesized that Toll-like receptor (TLR variation is associated with altered in vivo immune responses to BCG. We examined whether functionally defined TLR pathway polymorphisms were associated with T cell cytokine responses in whole blood stimulated ex vivo with BCG 10 weeks after newborn BCG vaccination of South African infants. In the primary analysis, polymorphism TLR6_C745T (P249S was associated with increased BCG-induced IFN-γ in both discovery (n = 240 and validation (n = 240 cohorts. In secondary analyses of the combined cohort, TLR1_T1805G (I602S and TLR6_G1083C (synonymous were associated with increased IFN-γ, TLR6_G1083C and TLR6_C745T were associated with increased IL-2, and TLR1_A1188T was associated with increased IFN-γ and IL-2. For each of these polymorphisms, the hypo-responsive allele, as defined by innate immunity signaling assays, was associated with increased production of TH1-type T cell cytokines (IFN-γ or IL-2. After stimulation with TLR1/6 lipopeptide ligands, PBMCs from TLR1/6-deficient individuals (stratified by TLR1_T1805G and TLR6_C745T hyporesponsive genotypes secreted lower amounts of IL-6 and IL-10 compared to those with responsive TLR1/6 genotypes. In contrast, no IL-12p70 was secreted by PBMCs or monocytes. These data support a mechanism where TLR1/6 polymorphisms modulate TH1 T-cell polarization through genetic regulation of monocyte IL-10 secretion in the absence of IL-12. These studies provide evidence that functionally defined innate immune gene variants are associated with the

  6. Vacina BCG contra tuberculose: efeito protetor e políticas de vacinação BCG vaccine against tuberculosis: its protective effect and vaccination policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Pereira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A vacina BCG é utilizada desde 1921, embora ainda apresente controvérsias e aspectos não esclarecidos. O objetivo do artigo foi analisar aspectos relacionados ao efeito protetor da primeira e segunda doses da vacina BCG e as políticas de vacinação adotadas. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada revisão sistemática da literatura publicada em inglês e espanhol, abrangendo o período compreendido entre 1948 e 2006, na base PubMed. Os principais descritores utilizados foram BCG vaccine, BCG efficacy, BCG e tuberculosis. Os estudos foram agrupados por tipo de desenho, apresentando-se separadamente os principais resultados de ensaios clínicos, estudos de caso-controle e metanálises. RESULTADOS: O efeito protetor da primeira dose da vacina BCG contra a tuberculose na forma miliar ou na meningite é elevado. No entanto, os resultados são discordantes em relação à forma pulmonar, variando de ausência de efeito a níveis próximos a 80%. Estão sendo conduzidas pesquisas sobre novas vacinas candidatas a substituir a BCG ou serem utilizadas como reforço. CONCLUSÕES: Há evidências de que a segunda dose da BCG não aumenta o seu efeito protetor. Apesar de seus limites e da expectativa futura de nova vacina para tuberculose, a vacina BCG mantém-se como importante instrumento no controle dos efeitos danosos da doença, sobretudo em países com taxas de incidência médias e elevadas.OBJECTIVE: The BCG vaccine has been in use since 1921, but still arouses controversy and uncertainties. The objective was to analyze the protective effect of the BCG vaccine in its first and second doses and the accompanying vaccination policies. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature in both English and Spanish was carried out, covering the period 1948 to 2006, using the PubMed database. The main search terms used included BCG vaccine, BCG efficacy, BCG and tuberculosis. The studies were grouped by design, with the main results from the clinic tests, case

  7. 卡介苗接种对新生BALB/c小鼠脾树突状细胞表型和功能的影响%Effect of neonatal BCG vaccination on phenotype and function of splenic dendritic cells of BALB/c mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春花; 刘恩梅; 刘崇海; 刘玮; 杨锡强; 李欣

    2008-01-01

    Objective The impact of dendritic cells(DCs) and regulatory T cells (Tr) on the pathogensis of asthma have been investigated over the past decades.As the professional antigen presenting cells.DCs not only prime immune response directing ThO cells toward different T subtypes but also induce immune tolerance.As an immunoregulator,Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCC) has potential to be applied in allergic diseases such as asthma for prevention.Previous study showed that neonatal BCG vaccination could induce Th1/Tr1 development in mice in vivo.To further identify the mechanism of neonatal BCG vaccination on T cell subsets differentiation,the present study was designed to investigate the impact of BCG vaccination on splenic DCs development in neonatal mice.Methods Neonatal specdlc pathogen free (SPF) BALB/c mice (2-3 days) were divided into intraperitonal BCG-treated group,subcutaneous BCG-treated group and control group:simultaneously adult SPF BALB/c mice (6-8 weeks) were divided into intraporitonal BCG-treated and contrel group.The BCG-treated mice were inoculated with 1×105 CFU BCG.the mice in control group were not inoculated with any vaccine.Four weeks post BCG vaccination,spleen cells were isolated.With flow cytometry,subtype and maturity of splenic DCs were analysed.Moreover,cells were further separated into mononuclear cell by Ficoll solution.The mononuclear ceils were stimulated by 1 μg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 18 or 105 CFU/ml BCG for 48 hours at 37 ℃ in a humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2 and cytokines concentration was detected by ELISA.Results (1) CD11c+CD8α+ and CD11c+ CD8α- DCs were found in spleen cells of the BALB/c mice.In comparison with the control group,the percent of CD11c+α-DCs in intraperitoneal BCG group significantly declined (P<0.01) and that of CD11c+ CD8α+ DCs significantly increased (P<0.01), there were no significant difference in DC subtypes between intraperitonal and subcutaneous BCG-vaccinated mice.In contrast, the

  8. Construction, Expression and Identification of a Recombinant BCG Vaccine Encoding Human Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Heat Shock Protein 65

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴五星; 梁靓; 高红; 黄海浪; 陈智浩; 程继忠; 皇甫永穆

    2004-01-01

    Heat shock protein 65 (HSP65) is one of the most important protective immunogens against the tuberculosis infection. The signal sequence of antigen 85B and the whole HSP65 DNA sequence of human Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) were amplified from BCG genome and plasmid pCMV-MTHSP65 respectively by polymerase chain reactions (PCR). These two sequences were cloned into the plasmid pBCG-2100 under the control of the promoter of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) from human M. tuberculosis, yielding the prokaryotic shuttle expression plasmid pBCG-SP-HSP65. Results of restriction endonuclease analysis, PCR detection and DNA sequencing analysis showed that the two cloned DNA sequences were consistent with those previously reported, and the direction of their inserting into the recombinant was correct and the reading frame had been maintained. The recombinants were electroporated into BCG to construct the recombinant BCG vaccine and induced by heating. The induced expression detected by SDS-PAGE showed that the content of 65 kD protein expressed in recombinant BCG was 35.69 % in total bacterial protein and 74.09 % in the cell lysate supernatants, suggesting that the recombinant HSP65 gene could express in BCG with high efficiency and the expressed proteins were mainly soluble. Western-blot showed that the secretive recombinant proteins could specifically combine with antibody against M.tuberculosis HSP65, indicating that the recombinant proteins possess the biological activity of HSP65.

  9. Effect of deworming on human T cell responses to mycobacterial antigens in helminth-exposed individuals before and after bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, D; Wolday, D; Akuffo, H;

    2001-01-01

    -vaccinated humans. The study population was assessed for helminthic infection and those found to be positive were randomly assigned to either an albendazole treatment group or a control group who received a placebo. The immune response to PPD was compared between the two groups. In addition, subjects who were...... tuberculin skin test-negative in both groups were BCG vaccinated and later on tested for PPD-specific responses. Albendazole induced elimination/or reduction in intestinal worms resulting in a significant improvement in T cell proliferation and in interferon-gamma production by peripheral blood mononuclear...

  10. Improving the Immunogenicity of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccine by Non-Genetic Bacterial Surface Decoration Using the Avidin-Biotin System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Yu Angela Liao

    Full Text Available Current strategies to improve the current BCG vaccine attempt to over-express genes encoding specific M. tuberculosis (Mtb antigens and/or regulators of antigen presentation function, which indeed have the potential to reshape BCG in many ways. However, these approaches often face serious difficulties, in particular the efficiency and stability of gene expression via nucleic acid complementation and safety concerns associated with the introduction of exogenous DNA. As an alternative, we developed a novel non-genetic approach for rapid and efficient display of exogenous proteins on bacterial cell surface. The technology involves expression of proteins of interest in fusion with a mutant version of monomeric avidin that has the feature of reversible binding to biotin. Fusion proteins are then used to decorate the surface of biotinylated BCG. Surface coating of BCG with recombinant proteins was highly reproducible and stable. It also resisted to the freeze-drying shock routinely used in manufacturing conventional BCG. Modifications of BCG surface did not affect its growth in culture media neither its survival within the host cell. Macrophages phagocytized coated BCG bacteria, which efficiently delivered their surface cargo of avidin fusion proteins to MHC class I and class II antigen presentation compartments. Thereafter, chimeric proteins corresponding to a surrogate antigen derived from ovalbumin and the Mtb specific ESAT6 antigen were generated and tested for immunogenicity in vaccinated mice. We found that BCG displaying ovalbumin antigen induces an immune response with a magnitude similar to that induced by BCG genetically expressing the same surrogate antigen. We also found that BCG decorated with Mtb specific antigen ESAT6 successfully induces the expansion of specific T cell responses. This novel technology, therefore, represents a practical and effective alternative to DNA-based gene expression for upgrading the current BCG vaccine.

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPD-induced immune biomarkers measurable in vitro following BCG vaccination of UK adolescents by multiplex bead array and intracellular cytokine staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worth Andrew

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vaccine efficacy reported following Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG administration to UK adolescents is 77% and defining the cellular immune response in this group can inform us as to the nature of effective immunity against tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to identify which cytokines and lymphocyte populations characterise the peripheral blood cellular immune response following BCG vaccination. Results Diluted blood from before and after vaccination was stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative for 6 days, after which soluble biomarkers in supernatants were assayed by multiplex bead array. Ten out of twenty biomarkers measured were significantly increased (p Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative stimulation of PBMC samples from the 12 month group revealed that IFNγ expression was detectable in CD4 and CD8 T-cells and natural killer cells. Polyfunctional flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that cells expressing IFNγ alone formed the majority in each subpopulation of cells. Only in CD4 T-cells and NK cells were there a notable proportion of responding cells of a different phenotype and these were single positive, TNFα producers. No significant expression of the cytokines IL-2, IL-17 or IL-10 was seen in any population of cells. Conclusions The broad array of biomarker responses detected by multiplex bead array suggests that BCG vaccination is capable, in this setting, of inducing a complex immune phenotype. Although polyfunctional T-cells have been proposed to play a role in protective immunity, they were not present in vaccinated adolescents who, based on earlier epidemiological studies, should have developed protection against pulmonary tuberculosis. This may be due to the later sampling time point available for testing or on the kinetics of the assays used.

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE QUALITY OF NEONATAL BCG VACCINATION FROM 2006 TO 2009 IN SUZHOU%苏州市2006~2009年新生儿卡介苗接种质量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄桥梁; 穆卫明; 颜建荣; 吴美芳; 孙明丽

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To evaluate the completion and the effectiveness of BCC vaccination in Suzhou city during the year of 2006 to 2009, and analyze and resolve the problem in BCG vaccination, so as to.provide scientific evidence for tuberculosis control. [Methods] We conduct a analysis on BCG revaecination between Suzhou Center For Disease Prevention and Control and the effectiveness of BCG vaccination in the hospital of the district area in Suzhou, and compared with the PPD positive rate after 12 weeks' BCG vaccination among them. [Results] There were significant difference in BCG vaccination among the CDC and hospitals {P 0.05) in the PPD positive rate after 12 weeks' BCG vaccination. [Conclusion] It should improve the indications of BCG vaccination rate on the hospital in Suzhou, find out the potential tuberculosis as soon as possible, and avoid the newly infection.%[目的]了解苏州市2006~2009年新生儿卡介苗接种效果,为预时结核病提供科学依据.[方法]对在2006~2009年间市辖区医院出生时接种卡介苗和市疾控门诊补种卡介苗新生儿,进行结核菌素实验(PPD)观察比较.[结果]卡介苗接种市辖区医院、市疾控以及两者之间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);而在按种卡介苗3个月后PPD测试结果,市疾控与市辖区医院之间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).[结论]进一步提高医院接种率水平,尽早发现患结核可能性患者,避免产生新的感染者.

  13. Assessment of an oral Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine and an inactivated M. bovis preparation for wild boar in terms of adverse reactions, vaccine strain survival, and uptake by nontarget species

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Romero, Beatriz; Sevilla, Iker A; Barasona, José A.; Garrido, Joseba M; González-Barrio, David; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Casal, Carmen; Vicente, Joaquín; Gortázar, Christian; Aranaz, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife vaccination is increasingly being considered as an option for tuberculosis control. We combined data from laboratory trials and an ongoing field trial to assess the risk of an oral Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine and a prototype heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis preparation for Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). We studied adverse reactions, BCG survival, BCG excretion, and bait uptake by nontarget species. No adverse reactions were observed after administration of BCG (n = 27) or i...

  14. Genomic expression catalogue of a global collection of BCG vaccine strains show evidence for highly diverged metabolic and cell-wall adaptations

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Abdallah M.

    2015-10-21

    Although Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines against tuberculosis have been available for more than 90 years, their effectiveness has been hindered by variable protective efficacy and a lack of lasting memory responses. One factor contributing to this variability may be the diversity of the BCG strains that are used around the world, in part from genomic changes accumulated during vaccine production and their resulting differences in gene expression. We have compared the genomes and transcriptomes of a global collection of fourteen of the most widely used BCG strains at single base-pair resolution. We have also used quantitative proteomics to identify key differences in expression of proteins across five representative BCG strains of the four tandem duplication (DU) groups. We provide a comprehensive map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), copy number variation and insertions and deletions (indels) across fourteen BCG strains. Genome-wide SNP characterization allowed the construction of a new and robust phylogenic genealogy of BCG strains. Transcriptional and proteomic profiling revealed a metabolic remodeling in BCG strains that may be reflected by altered immunogenicity and possibly vaccine efficacy. Together, these integrated-omic data represent the most comprehensive catalogue of genetic variation across a global collection of BCG strains.

  15. The effect of high-dose vitamin A supplementation administered with BCG vaccine at birth may be modified by subsequent DTP vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria;

    2009-01-01

    Unexpectedly, we found no overall beneficial effect on mortality in a randomised trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) or placebo administered with BCG vaccine at birth in Guinea-Bissau. We conducted an explorative analysis to examine whether subsequent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP......) vaccinations had modified the effect of VAS at birth. VAS was associated with a weak tendency for decreased mortality as long as BCG was the most recent vaccination, the mortality rate ratio being 0.86 (0.48-1.54); 0.82 (0.32-2.08) in girls and 0.89 (0.43-1.88) in boys. However, after DTP vaccination VAS...... at birth was associated with increased mortality in girls (2.19 (1.09-4.38)), whereas no difference was seen for boys (0.90 (0.44-1.82)) (p=0.08 for equal effect of VAS in the two sexes if DTP is the last vaccine). The explanation for the lack of beneficial effect in our setting may have been that VAS...

  16. 运用护理干预配合药物治疗卡介苗混合伤寒疫苗误种效果分析%Use of drugs and nursing intervention for the treatment of BCG vaccine BCG mix typhoid vaccine according to the analysis of the effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李白; 陆克; 李惠兰; 黄丽芹

    2016-01-01

    目的:评价运用护理干预辅以药物治疗处理卡介苗混合伤寒疫苗误种皮下效果分析 ,以期为预防接种事故处理提供参考.方法:及时告知家长疫苗误种不良反应和处理措施 ,消除家长恐惧心理 ,对儿童及时局部封闭和药物治疗.结论:及时处理避免发生脓肿或溃疡 ,护理干预可以显著降低不良反应发生 ,化解家长与医务人员对立情绪 ,消除预防接种工作不良影响具有明显的社会效益 ,值得推广运用.%Objective :to evaluate the BCG vaccine mixed by nursing intervention with drug treatment of typhoid vaccine by subcutaneous effect anal-ysis ,so as to provide reference for vaccination incident handling .Methods :inform parents mistakenly adverse reactions and treatment measures ,elimi-nate parents fear ,timely local closed and drug treatment for children .Conclusion:nursing intervention can significantly reduce adverse reaction ,dis-solve the parents and the medical staff antagonism ,eliminate the vaccination work effects has the obvious social benefits .

  17. Increased TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma/IL-2 and decreased TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma production by central memory T cells are associated with protective responses against bovine tuberculosis following BCG vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Fernanda Maggioli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Central memory T cells (Tcm and polyfunctional CD4 T cell responses contribute to vaccine-elicited protection with both human and bovine tuberculosis (TB; however, their combined role in protective immunity to TB is unclear. To address this question, we evaluated polyfunctional cytokine responses by CD4 T cell effector / memory populations from bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG vaccinated and non-vaccinated calves prior to and after aerosol challenge with virulent Mycobacterium bovis. Polyfunctional cytokine expression patterns in the response by Tcm, effector memory, and effector T cell subsets were similar between BCG-vaccinated and M. bovis-infected calves; only differing in magnitude (i.e., infected > vaccinated. BCG vaccination, however, did alter the kinetics of the ensuing response to virulent M. bovis infection. Early after challenge (three weeks post-infection, non-vaccinates had greater antigen-specific IFN-γ/TNF-α and lesser IFN-γ/TNF-α/IL-2 responses by Tcm cells than did vaccinated animals. Importantly, these differences were also associated with mycobacterial burden upon necropsy. Polyfunctional responses to ESAT-6:CFP10 (antigens not synthesized by BCG strains were detected in memory subsets, as well as in effector cells, as early as three weeks after challenge. These findings suggest that cell fate divergence may occur early after antigen priming in the response to bovine TB and that memory and effector T cells may expand concurrently during the initial phase of the immune response. In summary, robust IFN-γ/TNF-α response by Tcm cells is associated with greater mycobacterial burden while IFN-γ/TNF-α/IL-2 response by Tcm cells are indicative of a protective response to bovine TB.

  18. 液质联用技术分析比较基因重组卡介苗与传统卡介苗 Ag85复合体成分%Determination and comparing secretary antigen Ag85 complex components between gene recombinant BCG vaccine strain and traditional BCG vaccine strain by LC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方习静; 刘蓉娜; 张海峰; 段凯; 闭兰

    2015-01-01

    目的:利用液质联用技术分析比较基因重组卡介苗Aeras-422与传统卡介苗的主要分泌型抗原Ag85复合体成分。方法分别提取基因重组卡介苗Aeras-422与传统卡介苗培养上清中的分泌蛋白,采用反相高效液相色谱(Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography,RP-HPLC)进行分离,并将最终得到的目的蛋白峰采用基质辅助激光解吸电离飞行时间质谱仪( MALDI-TOF-MS ReflexⅢ)进行质谱分析鉴定。结果基因重组卡介苗Aeras-422与传统卡介苗培养上清分泌蛋白Ag85复合体成分有所不同,Aeras-422表达的Ag85复合体成分包括Ag85A和Ag85B两种抗原,传统卡介苗菌株仅分泌表达Ag85A抗原。结论基因重组卡介苗Aeras-422分泌Ag85复合体的能力优于传统卡介苗。为建立新型结核病疫苗的质控方法提供了数据支持。%Objective To establish a simple method for the determination and comparing the secretory antigen Ag85 protein complex components from two kinds of TB vaccine strains(AERAS-422 and Danish-SSI 1331 BCG vaccine).Methods Collecting the cultured supernatants of AERAS-422 and Danish-SSI 1331 BCG vaccine strains, the samples were concen-trated by ultrafiltration,then, analysed by reverse high performance liquid chromatography.Collecting the main peak to ana-lyse by SDS-PAGE, and the peaks of protein for mass spectrometric was determined using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry ( MALDI-TOF-MS ReflexⅢ) .Results By optimizing the reversed phase liquid chromatography separation process, the Ag85 mixture composition were further separated, and to establish Ag85A and Ag85B peak corresponding peptides mass spectrum maps by MALDI TOF-MS technology.The Ag85 complex has the differ-ent components in the cultured supernatants of two kinds of strain.Ag85 complex of Aeras-422 strain was composed with Ag85A and Ag85B.The traditional BCG vaccine strain only expressed

  19. Strategies to eradicate minimal residual disease in small cell lung cancer: high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, and BEC2 plus BCG vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, L M; Grant, S C; Miller, V A; Ng, K K; Kris, M G

    1999-10-01

    In the last 25 years, treatment for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has improved with advances in chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Standard chemotherapy regimens can yield 80% to 90% response rates and some cures when combined with thoracic irradiation in limited-stage patients. Nonetheless, small cell lung cancer has a high relapse rate due to drug resistance; this has resulted in poor survival for most patients. Attacking this problem requires a unique approach to eliminate resistant disease remaining after induction therapy. This review will focus on three potential strategies: high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, and BEC2 plus BCG vaccination.

  20. BCG skin reaction in Mantoux-negative healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodhi Sukhbir

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis poses a great challenge, especially in children. The response of BCG Test may be different in previously vaccinated children and needs to be considered before interpreting positivity for TB. This study has been carried out to determine the pattern of BCG reaction comparing previously vaccinated with non-vaccinated children. Methods The study was conducted in the healthy school children aged 4–6 years. The BCG skin reaction in Mantoux-negative children was compared between children with and without previous BCG scar. After the Mantoux and BCG Test, the analysis of variance was done as per protocol. Results Out of 50 children previously BCG vaccinated, 39(78% showed exaggerated BCG test responses while out of another 50 children who were not vaccinated for TB, only 9(18% showed exaggerated BCG Test response (p-value Conclusion The present study indicates that normal healthy children may have a mild exaggerated BCG Test response i.e. induration up to 8 mm because of prior BCG vaccination. Therefore, BCG Test, though important should not be the only criteria for start of chemotherapy for TB in children as the side effects of drugs may cause much morbidity. An induration up to 8 mm after the BCG Test can be normal in Indian settings due to exposure to Mycobacterium in environment and/or BCG vaccine.

  1. 三级监控降低卡介苗接种后异常反应发生率的探讨%THE DISCUSSION OF THREE-LEVEL MONITORING TO REDUCE THE ABNORMAL REACTION INCIDENCE RATE AFTER BCG VACCINATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立群; 邵丽文; 江爱玉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effect of three -level monitoring to reduce the abnormal reaction incidence rate after bacillus calmette - guerin( BCG ) vaccination. Methods A total of 4 346 cases of newborn who were born in 2009 were assigned into control group ,3 999 cases of newborn born in 2010 into experimental group. Experimental group was given three-level monitoring on response after BCG vaccination and control group was observed traditionaly after the BCG vaccinaLion. The abnormal reaction incidence rate after BCG vaccination and the parents' satisfaction of BCG vaccination work were observed. Results The abnormal reactions of experimental group occurred at a rate of 1.50 per thousand, and the control group was 3.91 per thousand, the difference was statistically significant( P < 0. 05 ). The satisfaction of parents at discharge in experimental group was 96. 17% and control group was 94. 22% ; When the babies were six months old the satisfacLion of parenLs in experimental group was 91. 42% and control group was 88.47% with a significant difference( P<0.05 ). Conclusion Implementation of the three-level monitoring reduces the abnormal reaction incidence rate after vaccination, improves the parenLs'satisfaction with BCG vaccination work.%目的 探讨三级监控降低卡介苗接种后异常反应发生率的效果.方法 以2009年出生的新生儿4 346例为对照组,2010年出生的3 999例为试验组.试验组实施卡介苗接种后反应的三级监控,对照组采用传统的卡介苗接种后的观察.观察2组卡介苗接种后异常反应发生率及家长对卡介苗接种工作满意度.结果 试验组的异常反应发生率为1.50‰,对照组发生率为3.91‰,差异有统计学意义(P>0.05).出院时家长满意度试验组为96.17%,对照组为94.22%,婴儿6个月时满意度试验组为91.42%,对照组为88.47%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 实施三级监控降低了接种后异常反应发生率,提高了家长对卡介苗预防接种工作的满意度.

  2. 吉安市城乡儿童卡介菌纯蛋白衍生物试验结果分析%Analysis on the test results of calmette- guerin bacillus ppd among the children in urban and rural of Jian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄光明; 刘晓东; 罗智勇

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解卡介苗的接种质量,分析影响因素,为改善预防接种工作提供依据.方法 应用卡介菌纯蛋白衍生物( BCG- PPD)试验方法,随机抽取城市和乡村各250名3个月~1岁儿童,接种卡介苗3个月后进行PPD阳转率调查.结果BCG- PPD试验总阳性率88.60%,无性别差异,城市儿童BCG- PPD试验阳性率高于农村儿童.BCG-PPD试验阳性率与卡疤大小呈正相关.结论 我市儿童卡介苗接种质量较高,应改善农村预防接种条件,加强对BCG预防接种人员特别是农村预防接种人员的技术培训,有利于提高预防接种质量.%Objective To understand the quality of BCG vaccination, analysis influence factors, and provide basis for improving the vaccination work. Method Application of BCG purified protein derivative ( BCG - PPD ) test method, random selected 250 children of 3 months to 1 years old among each city and countryside, after 3 months, investigation the ppd seroconversion rate. Results The total positive rate of BCG - PPD test was 88. 60% , no sex differences, the positive rate of city children were higher than rural children. BCG - PPD test positive rate and card scar size showed positive correlation. Conclusions The BCG vaccination quality was high in our city, but we should improve rural preventive inoculation conditions, strengthen technical training of BCG vaccination staff especially rural vaccination staff, it profit for improving the quality of vaccination.

  3. 2009-2011年度汕头市新生儿卡介苗接种质量调查%Survey on BCG Vaccination Quality in Shantou City from 2009 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓云

    2013-01-01

      目的评价汕头市2009—2011年新生儿卡介苗接种效果,并探索卡痕与结核菌素反应之间的关系.方法观察10477例接种卡介苗后满12周婴儿卡痕形成情况,并对其进行结核菌素皮试,分析皮试结果.结果在10477例婴儿中,结核菌素试验阳性率93.13%,卡痕率94.83%;卡痕合格者,结核菌素反应阳性率和反应直径大于卡痕不合格者(P<0.05).结论汕头市新生儿卡介苗接种效果良好,卡痕合格者结核菌素试验阳性率高,但卡痕反应并不证明产生免疫力的高低,而用结核菌素试验评价结核免疫水平是目前唯一可靠、准确的方法.因此,应推广结核菌素试验并提高卡介苗接种质量.%Objective To evaluate the BCG vaccination quality of new born babies in Shantou from 2009 to 2011, and discuss the relationship between BCG scar and tuberculin reaction. Methods A total of 10 477 babies’ scars 12 weeks after vaccination were observed, and the positive rate was analyzed by PPD test. Results Of the total, positive rate of PPD test reached 93.13%. And 9 935 babies had scars with the scar rate of 94.83%. The positive rate of PPD and reacted diameter of new born babies with scar size greater than or equal to 3 mm were obviously higher and bigger than those with scar size less than 3 mm. The difference was statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion The quality of new born babies’ BCG vaccination in Shantou maintains good. There is positive correlation between the scar size and the PPD test positive rate. The scar is only the evidence of vaccination, which cannot indicate the immunity level and PPD test is the only reliable and correct approach to measure the tuberculosis immunity level up to now. To guarantee the vaccination quality, technique of BCG vaccination needs to be bolstered.

  4. Occupational safety of BCG vaccine vaccination:risk factors and countermeasure%卡介苗接种的职业安全危险因素及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万正敏

    2012-01-01

    目的 揭示卡介苗接种过程中存在的职业安全危险因素,减少职业伤害风险.方法 观察接种卡介苗过程中的职业安全环节,引导医务人员在卡介苗接种各环节做好防护.结果 通过对接种过程的临床观察,提出可靠的防护方法,在接种过程中按照卡介苗接种流程操作,3年中无一例医务人员发生结核分枝杆菌感染.结论 只要从卡介苗的检查、使用、废弃空安瓿的处理过程中做好防护,对有利器损伤的医务人员及时采取预防治疗,可以防止感染结核病,防护措施值得推广.%OBJECTIVE To reveal the risk factors for the occupational safety of bacillus calmette-guerin (BCG) vaccine vaccination to reduce the risk of occupational hazard. METHODS The links of occupational safety were observed carefully during BCG vaccine inoculation procedure and the medical personnel were guide to make well protection for each link. RESULTS Through the clinical observation on inoculation procedure, a dependable protection method was put forward. And in the process of inoculating BCG vaccine according to the method, no medical personnels had tubercle rod bacteria infection in three years. CONCLUSION Once the protection is well made during the processes of check and use of BGC vaccine and the abandon of empty Ampoule Bottle, and the medical personnel who are injured by sharp instruments adopt a prevention treatment in time, the tuberculosis infection can be prevented and the protection measure is worth of promoting.

  5. Another vaccine, another story: BCG vaccination against tuberculosis in India, 1948 to 1960 Outra vacina, outra história: a vacinação de BCG contra tuberculose na Índia, 1948 a 1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Brimnes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Through an examination of mass BCG vaccination against tuberculosis in India between 1948 and 1960 this article draws attention to the diversity of the history of vaccination. The features of vaccination campaigns often differed from those of the celebrated campaign to eradicate smallpox. Due to differences between smallpox and tuberculosis as well as between the vaccines developed against them, an analysis of BCG mass vaccination against tuberculosis seems particularly well suited for this purpose. Three points of difference are identified. First, in non-Western contexts BCG vaccination procedures were modified to a greater extent than vaccination against smallpox. Second, tuberculosis lacked the drama and urgency of smallpox and BCG vaccination campaigns suffered more from recruitment problems than did the more "heroic" smallpox eradication campaign. Third, the BCG vaccine was contested in medical circles and was much better suited than the vaccine against smallpox as a vehicle for the articulation of concerns about post-colonial modernization.Através da observação da vacinação em massa de BCG contra a tuberculose na Índia durante os anos de 1948 a 1960, este artigo chama a atenção para a diversidade da história da vacinação. As características das campanhas de vacinação geralmente diferem daquelas celebradas nas campanhas para erradicação da varíola. Devido às diferenças entre a varíola e a turberculose, assim como entre as vacinas desenvolvidas para combater essas doenças, uma análise da vacinação em massa de BCG contra a turberculose parece especialmente bem situada para essa proposta. Três pontos de diferença foram identificados. O primeiro é que em contextos não ocidentais os procedimentos da vacinação de BCG foram modificados em uma extensão maior do que a vacinação contra a varíola. Em segundo lugar, a tuberculose não tinha o drama e a urgência da varíola, e as campanhas de vacinação de BCG

  6. Assessment of an oral Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine and an inactivated M. bovis preparation for wild boar in terms of adverse reactions, vaccine strain survival, and uptake by nontarget species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Romero, Beatriz; Sevilla, Iker A; Barasona, Jose A; Garrido, Joseba M; González-Barrio, David; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Casal, Carmen; Vicente, Joaquín; Gortázar, Christian; Aranaz, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife vaccination is increasingly being considered as an option for tuberculosis control. We combined data from laboratory trials and an ongoing field trial to assess the risk of an oral Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine and a prototype heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis preparation for Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). We studied adverse reactions, BCG survival, BCG excretion, and bait uptake by nontarget species. No adverse reactions were observed after administration of BCG (n = 27) or inactivated M. bovis (n = 21). BCG was not found at necropsy (175 to 300 days postvaccination [n = 27]). No BCG excretion was detected in fecal samples (n = 162) or in urine or nasal, oral, or fecal swab samples at 258 days postvaccination (n = 29). In the field, we found no evidence of loss of BCG viability in baits collected after 36 h (temperature range, 11°C to 41°C). Camera trapping showed that wild boar (39%) and birds (56%) were the most frequent visitors to bait stations (selective feeders). Wild boar activity patterns were nocturnal, while diurnal activities were recorded for all bird species. We found large proportions of chewed capsules (29%) (likely ingestion of the vaccine) and lost baits (39%) (presumably consumed), and the proportion of chewed capsules showed a positive correlation with the presence of wild boar. Both results suggest proper bait consumption (68%). These results indicate that BCG vaccination in wild boar is safe and that, while bait consumption by other species is possible, this can be minimized by using selective cages and strict timing of bait deployment.

  7. The "Philosophical Investigations'" Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnik-Oberstein, Karin

    2003-01-01

    In her book on Wittgenstein's "Philosophical Investigations", Beth Savickey points out that few critics pay explicit attention to Wittgenstein's references to the child and childhood, particularly in his later work. She argues (paraphrasing Wittgenstein) that "the figure of the child is the figure that draws together the concepts of teaching and…

  8. Assessment of different formulations of oral Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in rodent models for immunogenicity and protection against aerosol challenge with M. bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Simon; Cross, Martin L; Smith, Alan; Court, Pinar; Vipond, Julia; Nadian, Allan; Hewinson, R Glyn; Batchelor, Hannah K; Perrie, Yvonne; Williams, Ann; Aldwell, Frank E; Chambers, Mark A

    2008-10-29

    vehicles for an oral BCG vaccine in badgers.

  9. Family history of immigration from a tuberculosis endemic country and low family income are associated with a higher BCG vaccination coverage in Ile-de-France region, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Chauvin, Pierre; Le Strat, Yann; Soler, Marion; Fonteneau, Laure; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel

    2013-11-19

    After withdrawal of multipuncture BCG device from the French market in January 2006, vaccination coverage (VC) with the intradermal device has dropped and since remained sub-optimal in Ile-de-France, the only region of mainland France where BCG is recommended to all children. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify socio-economic factors associated with BCG VC in children of Paris metropolitan area born after January 2006. Two-stage random sampling was used to include 425 children up to 5 years old from Paris and its suburbs. Information was collected through face-to-face interviews and vaccination status confirmed by a vaccination document. Poisson regression analyzed the association between VC and potential determinants. VC of children from families with the lowest incomes (first quartile of family income/consumption unit (CU) (history of immigration, regardless of family income, are correctly identified as being at high risk of tuberculosis and properly vaccinated with BCG in this area.

  10. Investigating media artifacts with children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    The dissertation’s aim is to explore the everyday relevance media artifacts have for young children. It discusses and further develops analytical concepts that are committed to taking the children’s perspectives on possibilities and limitations of such artifacts seriously. These conceptual...... developments are rooted in the author’s participation in a daycare practice in Berlin, Germany. The daycare’s situational approach precisely attempted to draw on the children’s everyday life experiences so as to engage in problem-oriented learning projects, on media artifacts and beyond....

  11. Correlation study on MCP-1, MMP-1 gene polymorphism and the incidence of tuberculosis in BCG-vaccinated individuals%卡介苗接种者MCP-1、MMP-1基因多态性与肺结核发病率的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏小学; 陈江; 张美禄; 沈志成; 余文菁; 卢火佺

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨我国汉族人群单核细胞趋化蛋白-1(MCP-1)基因-2518位点、基质金属蛋白酶-1(MMP-1)基因-1607位点多态性与肺结核发病的相关性.方法:选择有卡介苗接种史的肺结核患者188例(TB组)与结核菌素皮试阳性的健康者194例(PPD+组).分析两组人群MCP-1-2518 A/G位点、MMP-1-1607 1G/2G位点基因型、等位基因频率及与肺结核发病的关系.结果:两组人群MCP-1-2518A/G位点、MMP-1-1607 1G/2G位点基因型、等位基因频率分布符合Hardy-Weinberg平衡定律.MCP-1-2518 G、MMP-1-1607 2G等位基因的频率分布与肺结核的发病有显著相关性(P<0.01),MCP-1-2518G/G、MMP-1-1607 2G/2G表型易患肺结核(P<0.05).结论:我国汉族人群MCP-1-2518 G/G表型、MMP-1-1607 2G/2G表型与肺结核的发生有显著相关性.%Objective:To investigate the correlation between monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)gene-2518 loci,matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) gene-1607 loci polymorphism and the incidence of tuberculosis in the Chinese Han population.Methods:One hundred and eighty-eight cases of tuberculosis patients (TB group) and 194 healthy volunteers with positive tuberculin skin test (PPD group) were selected as BCG-vaccinated individuals.The genotype and allele frequencies of MCP-1-2518 A/G locus,MMP-1-1607 1G/2G locus,and the relationship with the incidence of TB were analyzed.Results:The MCP-1-2518 A/G locus,MMP -1-1607 1G/2G locus,allele freauency distribution of the two groups conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.The significant correlation was found MCP-1-2518 G,MMP-1-1607 2G allele frequency distribution and the incidence of TB (P <0.01),and MCP-1-2518 G/G,MMP-1-1607 2G/2G phenotype were susceptible to tuberculosis (P < 0.05).Conclusion:The MCP-1-2518 G/G,MMP-1-1607 2G/2G phenotype might be associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis in Chinese Han population.

  12. Effects of BCG Vaccination on Specific Antibodies in Serum and Ex-pression of Immunity-related Cytokines in Spleen from Mice%BCG免疫对小鼠血清特异性抗体与脾脏免疫相关细胞因子表达的影响∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武月章; 安潇潇; 张文慧; 张林波

    2015-01-01

    为深入了解卡介苗诱导机体产生免疫效应的分子机制,对卡介苗( Bacillus calmettee⁃guerin,BCG)免疫后小鼠血清特异性抗体与脾脏免疫相关细胞因子表达变化及相关性进行了研究。利用BCG免疫C57BL/6小鼠,采集不同时间点的外周血和脾脏样本。应用间接ELISA方法检测血清中特异性抗体效价,实时荧光定量PCR方法检测脾脏中免疫相关细胞因子表达水平。结果表明:在BCG接种的后期,血清中抗体效价呈极显著的上升趋势( P<0�01);脾脏中Th1型细胞因子白细胞介素⁃2( Interleukin⁃2,IL⁃2)、γ干扰素( Interferon⁃γ, IFN⁃γ)的表达水平与对照组相比呈显著性上升( P<0�05),但Th2型细胞因子白细胞介素⁃4( Interleukin⁃4,IL⁃4)的表达水平则明显下降( P<0�05)。这说明BCG免疫后,机体会同时产生细胞免疫应答和体液免疫应答,但免疫后期Th1型细胞因子与体液免疫效应呈正相关,某些Th2型细胞因子则与体液免疫效应呈负相关性。%In order to understand immune mechanism induced by Bacillus Calmettee⁃Guerin( BCG) in vivo, experiments were carried out to study effects of BCG vaccination on specific antibodies in serum and expression of immunity⁃related cytokines in spleen from mice. Peripheral blood and spleen from C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with BCG were collected at different time points. Then specific anti⁃bodies in serum were detected by indirect ELISA, and expression of immunity⁃related cytokines in spleen were detected by real⁃time quantitative PCR. The results showed that value of specific anti⁃bodies was in a significant increase trend in the late stage of vaccination (P<0�01). In addition, expression of Th1 type cytokine interleukin⁃2(IL⁃2), interferon⁃γ(IFN⁃γ) was increased, and difference was significant( P<0�05) . However, expression of Th2 type cytokine interleukin⁃4

  13. Scientific Investigations of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valanides, Nicos; Papageorgiou, Maria; Angeli, Charoula

    2013-04-01

    The study provides evidence concerning elementary school children's ability to conduct a scientific investigation. Two hundred and fifty sixth-grade students and 248 fourth-grade students were administered a test, and based on their performance, they were classified into high-ability and low-ability students. The sample of this study was randomly selected and included 80 students, 40 fourth-grade and 40 sixth-grade students of low and high abilities. Students were specifically instructed to investigate the functioning of a device, to think aloud prior and after any experiment with the device, and to keep a record of their experimental results. The results showed that students were inclined to mainly collect evidence from the experimental space and failed to control variables during their investigation. The majority of the students had difficulties with effectively organizing collected data and failed to coordinate hypotheses with evidence. The significant interaction effect that was found between grade level and ability in terms of students' investigation ability indicates that the existing gap between high- and low-ability students becomes bigger as students become older. Undoubtedly, ongoing research efforts for identifying patterns of children's cognitive development will be most valuable as they can have important implications for the design of teaching scenarios and inquiry-based science activities conducive to accelerating students' cognitive growth and scientific investigation abilities.

  14. Reading aloud: a psychophysiological investigation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarenza, Giuseppe A; Olgiati, Paola; Trevisan, Cristian; Marchi, Igor De; Casarotto, Silvia

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the electrophysiological responses to single-letter reading in children (reading-related potentials) and explored the morphological differences between covert and overt reading conditions. Sixty-five healthy children (6-13 years) participated in this study. Reading-related potentials were recorded during visual stimulation with single Italian alphabetic letters. Stimuli were displayed for 5 ms either automatically at a randomly jittered time lag or upon voluntary self-paced button press by children. In the covert conditions, children had to passively look at single letters, while in the overt conditions children were required to read aloud the letters. Electromyographic activity of the forearm and lips was additionally recorded during all tasks. Superimposition of reading-related potentials with the electromyographic activity of forearm and lips during self-paced reading aloud allowed to segregate the reading-related components into four periods: preparatory, pre-lexical, lexical and post-lexical. Reading-related potentials of the preparatory period can be related to preparation/intention to read, those of the pre-lexical period to visual-perceptual processes, those of the lexical period to the external/internal reafferent activity and those of the post-lexical period to the feedback processes following task completion. Analysis of variance showed a significant interaction of reading-related components with electrode locations and task conditions in all periods. The systematic characterization of the neurophysiological correlates of the elementary association between letters and sounds is helpful to highlight the neurobiological and functional basis of reading in healthy as well as impaired readers, for possibly developing neurophysiologically grounded rehabilitation therapies and further improving the explanatory models of dyslexia.

  15. Investigation on children's social adaptive capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ya-ping; WANG Bao-yan; CHEN Yun-qi; WANG Ai-rong; ZHANG Rong; NIU Xiao-lin

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To understand the present conditions of Children's social adaptive capacity. Methods:social viability and its influence factors were investigated on 628 Children in 7 kindergartens of 4 cities in China. Results: The general trend of development of Child's social adaptive capacity was fairly good. The relevance ratio on the edge level was 0.3%. Of them 16.4% and 7% were excellent and extraordinary intelligence respectively. The family environment had played a very important role in child's social adaptive capacity. Conclusion: The research revealed that in the respect of training a child's social adaptive ability, the initiative of each family should be brought into full play and we should surmount the negative influence, and solve the contradiction between releasing one's control and taking care of everything, and arouse the conscious activity of the child, and ensure the unity and balance between the child's own body and the living environment.

  16. The relative risk and protective factors screening of children patients with asthma after capillry bronchiolitis%毛细支气管炎后患儿发生哮喘的相关危险及保护因素筛查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚方彪; 孙碧霞; 汪玲娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To screen the relative risk and protective factors of children patients with asthma after capillary bronchiolitis.Methods The clinical and follow-up data of 220 children patients with capillary bronchiolitis were collected.Sex,treatment method,immunization vaccination,idiosyncrasy,feeding way,family history were investigated and analyzed.The risk factrs of asthma were screened.Results Univariate analysis showed that the incidence of asthma between different genders had no significant difference (P >0.05).The asthma incidence in patients with BCG vaccination on time and large-dose immunoglobulin treatment were lower than those in patients without BCG vaccination on time and large-dose immunoglobulin treatnent (P< 0.01 ).The asthma incidence in patients with idiosyncrasy,family history was significantly higher than that in patients without idiosyncrasy,family history( P < 0.05 ).The asthma incidence in patients with obesity was higher than that in other children (P < 0.05).The asthma incidence in patients with more than 4 months breast feeding was lower than that in patients with other feeding ways (P < 0.05 ).Multi-factors regression analysis showed that family history,obesity,idiosyncrasy were the risk factors of asthua,and large-dose immunoglobulin treatment,BCG vaccination on time,breast feeding > 4 months were the protective factors.Conclusions Family history,idiosyncrasy,obesity are the risk factors of asthma in children patients with capillary bronchiolitis,and should be focused on olservation.Immunoglobulin treatment and procedural BCG vaccination are the protective factors to reduce the asthma incidence.They are worthy of application especially in children with risk factors.%目的 对毛细支气管炎后患儿发生哮喘的危险因素进行筛查.方法 收集毛细支气管炎患儿220例的临床及随访资料,对性别、治疗方法、免疫接种、特异性体质、喂养方式、哮喘家族史等进行调查统计,筛选

  17. Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshtkar Jahromi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is the most common cause of infection-related death worldwide. Children represent 5 to 15% of all TB cases around the world and are more frequently infected and more easily affected by the most severe forms of the disease such as meningitis and disseminated form .Here, we reviewed TB in children with impact on the routes of transmission, clinical manifestations, treatment, control, and prophylaxis. Electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus were searched from June1995 to May 2014 by using key words (pulmonaryTB,epidemiology,transmission,clinical manifestations,treatment,control, and prophylaxis . Pulmonary tuberculosis may manifest in several forms, including endobronchial TB with focal lymphadenopathy, progressive pulmonary disease, pleural involvement, and reactivated pulmonary disease . Symptoms of primary pulmonary disease in the pediatric population are often insignificant. Gastric aspirates are used instead of sputum in children younger than 6 years. BCG vaccination is used in many parts of the world and the major role of vaccination is the prevention of life-threatening illness such as disseminated TB and meningitis in children.Treatment is the same as for adults. Most people infected with M .tuberculosis do not develop active disease. In healthy individuals, the lifetime risk of developing infection to disease is 5-10%. Reactivation of TB often occurs in older children and adolescent and is more common in patients who acquire TB at age 7 years and older.

  18. Meningitis tuberculosa en menores de cinco años en la Argentina Tuberculous meningitis in children under 5 years of age in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Darnaud

    2006-04-01

    variables registered in cases of TB meningitis in children less than 5 years old in Argentina, from 1999 to 2001 and to determine the real number of TB meningitis cases in our country. Fifteen cases of TB meningitis out of 32 (46.8% were studied through epidemic records. The average age was 14 months. Six children presented BCG scars but in only one child it was proved that he had been vaccinated at birth; 11/13 (92.3% were at the second stage of illness, the bacteriological investigation was positive in 8/11 (72.7% and in (46.8% chest radiography revealed abnormal findings. The tuberculin reaction was negative in all tested cases. This study showed that the diagnosis was made at an advanced stage of disease. None of these patients was cured without sequels and a high death rate (46% was observed. In order to control this epidemic situation, it is necessary to increase case finding and directly observed treatment of smear positive pulmonary TB cases, as well as BCG vaccination given at birth.

  19. Investigating Young Children's Talk about the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Donna J.; Henward, Allison S.

    2013-01-01

    This study was an investigation into the ways in which two classes of six- and seven-year-old children in Hawaii talked about the media. The children were shown video clips from a variety of media and asked to respond both orally and in writing. The qualitative data gathered in this study were researcher notes, video and audio-taped focus group…

  20. An Investigation of School Violence through Turkish Children's Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtal, Filiz; Artut, Kazim

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates Turkish children's perception of violence in school as represented through drawings and narratives. In all, 66 students (12 to 13 years old) from the middle socioeconomic class participated. To elicit children's perception of violence, they were asked to draw a picture of a violent incident they had heard, experienced, or…

  1. An Investigation of Creativity Among Children Attending Preschools

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    Zuhal Gizir Ergen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate creativity among children attending preschools in terms of several variables. The study was conducted with 72 female and 63 male 5-year-old (60-72 months children selected from independent preschools related to the Turkish Ministry of National Education in Ankara. The “General Information Form” was administered to children in order to collect basic information about children and their parents. To determine creativity among children, the “Torrence Creative Thinking Test” developed by Torrence in 1966 and translated into Turkish by Aslan (1999 was used. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis H tests were used to analyze data. As a result of the study, gender and father’s educational level do not affect creativity scores of the children, yet duration of preschool attendance and mother’s educational level statistically have a significant effect on their creativity scores (p<.05.

  2. Emotion understanding in clinically anxious children: A preliminary investigation.

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Patrick K; Francisco ePons; Harris, Paul L.; Barbara H. Esbjørn; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie L.

    2015-01-01

    Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30–40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sam...

  3. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunisation at birth and morbidity among Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Kjærgaard, Jesper;

    2015-01-01

    days of life, infants were randomly assigned to intra-dermal vaccination with BCG or no intervention. At 3 and 13 months of age structured telephone interviews and clinical examinations of the children were conducted. In a subgroup of children blood samples were drawn and stool samples collected at age......, wheezing, eczema, use of prescribed medication, growth, development, thymus index, T- and B-cell subpopulations assessed by flow cytometry, in vitro cytokine responses and specific antibody responses to other vaccines. Adverse reactions were registered. DISCUSSION: With participation of 4184 families...... and more than 93% adherence to clinical follow-up at 3 and 13 months, this randomised clinical trial has the potential to create evidence regarding non-specific effects of BCG vaccination in a high-income setting....

  4. [Criminal investigation in violent and sex crimes against children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Mia; Ellonen, Noora

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of violent and sex crimes against children differs from that of the crimes of violence against adults. This is why every attempt is made to concentrate the investigation of these cases to police officers having received specialized training. The most significant difference in the investigation of violent crimes against children and adults is related to the hearing of children as complainants. A child under the age of 15 will not be heard in the court, and thus the hearing of a child in the stage of preliminary investigation forms part of the trial. The different status of a child must also be taken into account in other investigational procedures. A person under 18 must be treated in accordance with her/his age and developmental status.

  5. The Study On Construction, Immunogenicity and Protection Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis of mpt64-recombinant BCG Vaccine%mpt64-卡介苗重组疫苗的构建、免疫原性及抗结核作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙颖; 张灵霞; 吴雪琼; 董恩军

    2011-01-01

    It was aimed to construct mpt64-recombinant BCG vaccine to find an improved vaccine to replace BCG and to prevent TB effectively. The gene of MPT64 was amplified by PCR and recombined with shuttle plasmids pYUB295. The recombinant shuttle plasmid was identified by PCR, enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing and then transformed into BCG by electroporation. The antigen-specific antibody levels of mouse immunized with recombinant BCG were evaluated by ELISA and multiplication of mouse lymph-cell was detected by MTS. The protection against M. tuberculosis of recombinant BCG vaccines was tested by their prevention and treatment experiments. PCR, enzyme digestion, DNA sequencing and SDS-PAGE results showed: The mpt64-recombinant BCG was constructed successfully and can express extrinsic MPT64 gene. The immunity experiment showed :extrinsic gene can be expressed in BCG and can stimulate B cell to produce antibody,the antibody level reached the peak after 45 days; The lymph-cells of each group proliferated when stimulated by different antigen,all stimulation index reached 2. The stimulation index of each group had no obviously difference. The prevention experiment of recombinant BCG against M. tuberculosis was indicated: mpt64-recombinant BCG and BCG can extend mean time to death and reduce death rate in 2 month of those mouse, the protection effect of mpt64-recombinant BCG had no difference with BCG. It could be concluded that the mpt64-ecombinant BCG was constructed successfully. The protection effect of mpt64-recombinant BCG had no difference with BCG.%通过基因工程重组技术将结核分枝杆菌保护性抗原MPT64的编码基因与穿梭质粒载体pYUB295重组,采用电穿孔技术将重组质粒导入到卡介苗中,应用聚合酶链反应(PCR)扩增、聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(PAGE)对mpt64-卡介苗重组疫苗鉴定:成功地构建了MPT64基因pYUB295重组质粒,MPT64蛋白在卡介苗中能分泌表达.卡介苗重组疫苗免

  6. SIMULTANEOUS SMALLPOX AND B.C.G. VACCINATION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Kumara Rai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaksinasi cacar dan BCG mulai diberikan secara simultan di Jawa dan Bali pada bulan April 1972 vaksinasi cacar diberikan pada lengan kiri dan BCG pada lengan kanan. Secara berangsur-angsur prograi ini kemudian diperluas kedaerah luar Jawa-Bali, sehingga pada akhir tahun 1973 sudah mencakup seluruh Indonesia. Tenaga yang digunakan adalah para juru cacar yang sudah ada dalam rangka proyek pembasmian penyakit cacar yang dimulai tahun 1968, dan terdapat hampir disemua kecamatan diseluru Indonesia. Ide untuk menggabungkan kedua jenis vaksinasi ini yang kebetulan mempunyai target sam (anak2 0 - 14 thn  timbul setelah penderita cacar tidak dilaporkan lagi dibulan September 1971 (ternyata kemudian letusan cacar terakhir adalah dibulan Desember 1971. Sampai saat itu vaksina BCG dilakukan oleh petugas Puskesmas dan tenaga part timer. Ternyata target tidak pernah tercapa hal ini mungkin disebabkan oleh terbatasnya waktu yang tersedia untuk melakukan vaksinasi BCC sehingga para tenaga part timer tsb. hanya mampu mencakup daerah disekitar Puskesmas dan sekolah dasar. Sebelumnya telah diadakan dua trial; yang pertama diadakan di Bandung untuk melihat at tidaknya saling pengaruh mempengaruhi antara kedua jenis vaksin cacar dan BCG bila diberikan pat saat yang bersamaan, sedangkain trial kedua dilakukan untuk menilai kemampuan juru cacar dala melaksanakan vaksinasi BCG serta kesukaran! yang dijumpai dilapangan (masing2 didua kabupaten (Jawa Tengah, Timur dan Yogyakarta. Disamping keuntungan yang diperoleh dari penggabungan kedua jenis vaksinasi ini yakni penghematan tenaga, biaya dan waktu, dijumpai juga beberapa kesukaran antara lain pengumpulan anak2, supply vaksin BCG yang tidak teratur dll. Walaupun demikian, di Jawa dan Bali hasil vaksinasi BCG antara April 1972 sampai dengan April 1973 menunjukkan kenaikan out-put leb dari 4 kali lipat bila dibandingkan dengan out-put sebelum penggabungan, meskipun out-put prin vaksinasi cacar mempunyai tendensi menurun. Disini hanya akan dibahas pelaksanaan vaksinasi cacar dan BCG secara simultan di Jawa dan Bali, mengingat pelaksanaannya yang sudah memasuki tahun kedua.

  7. [Strategies for BCG vaccination 1947 - 94].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harthug, Henrik

    2016-06-01

    The tuberculosis reform of 1947 stipulated a clear responsibility of the state to combat tuberculosis. This entailed sanctions directed at individuals, as well as compulsory vaccination. Universal vaccination was to be achieved through extensive information work that emphasised the responsibility of the individual. The decline in the disease, the dawning of human rights thinking and the decline of professional boards in public administration help to explain the downgrading of compulsory vaccination over time.

  8. Oral medicines for children in the European paediatric investigation plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Riet-Nales, Diana A; Römkens, Erwin G A W; Saint-Raymond, Agnes; Kozarewicz, Piotr; Schobben, Alfred F A M; Egberts, Toine C G; Rademaker, Carin M A

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pharmaceutical industry is no longer allowed to develop new medicines for use in adults only, as the 2007 Paediatric Regulation requires children to be considered also. The plans for such paediatric development called Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs) are subject to agreement by th

  9. Emotion Understanding in Clinically Anxious Children: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Patrick K; Pons, Francisco; Harris, Paul L; Esbjørn, Barbara H; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie L

    2015-01-01

    Children's understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8-12, eight girls/boys) was assessed for emotion understanding (Test of Emotion Comprehension), anxiety (Screening for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised and Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale) and attachment security (Security Scale). Children who reported more overall anxiety also reported greater difficulties in regulating their emotions, and were less securely attached to their parents. The results also showed that more specific symptoms of anxiety (i.e., OCD and PTSD) correlated not only with emotion dysregulation and attachment insecurity but also with emotion understanding. Finally, there were interrelations among emotion understanding, attachment security, and emotion dysregulation. The present results provide the first comprehensive evidence for a socio-emotional framework and its relevance to childhood anxiety.

  10. Prevelence of latent tuberculosis and associated risk factors in children under 5 years of age in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubashir Zafar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As infected children represent a large proportion of the pool from which tuberculosis (TB cases will arise and its associated risk factors that influence TB infection are basic cause for burden of TB. Aim: This study was to determine the prevalence of latent TB and associated risk factors in children less than 5 year of age in Karachi, Pakistan. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study and it was conducted in tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Materials and Methods: In this study, children who were living in contact with individuals who had proven smear-positive pulmonary TB cases were investigated. A tuberculin skin test (TST was performed on each child. TST sizes ≥5 and 10 mm, respectively, were considered positive. Statistical Analysis: A random effects logistic regression model, which takes into account the clustering of contacts within households, was used to assess the relationship between the tuberculin response of the contact and risk factors. Results are reported as unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. The likelihood ratio test was used to assess the overall significance of risk factors, tests for trend, and tests for interaction. Results: The distribution of TST responses followed a bimodal pattern, with 135 (35% children presenting a palpable induration. The risk of positive TST response in the child increased with the geographic proximity of the child to the individual with TB within the household and with the degree of activities shared with the individual with TB. Nutritional status and presence of a bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG scar were not independent risk factors for TST positivity in this population. On multivariate analysis, the effect of geographic proximity to the individual with TB, household size, and duration of cough in the index case persisted for TST responses ≥5 mm. Conclusions: Positive TST in a child reflects most probably TB infection rather than previous BCG

  11. Emotion understanding in clinically anxious children: A preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick K. Bender

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8-12, 8 girls/boys was assessed for emotion understanding (Test of Emotion Comprehension, anxiety (Screening for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised and Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule, emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and attachment security (Security Scale. Children who reported more overall anxiety also reported greater difficulties in regulating their emotions, and were less securely attached to their parents. The results also showed that more specific symptoms of anxiety (i.e., OCD and PTSD correlated not only with emotion dysregulation and attachment insecurity but also with emotion understanding. Finally, there were interrelations among emotion understanding, attachment security, and emotion dysregulation. The present results provide the first comprehensive evidence for a socio-emotional framework and its relevance to childhood anxiety.

  12. Investigation and management of hypertension in children. A personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, M J

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in children is of the order of 1%-3%. Of these children, 10% will have severe hypertension and in the majority the increased blood pressure will be secondary to renal disease. Nephrologically orientated investigation is therefore important. The most helpful investigations are: peripheral plasma-renin activity, 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan, main and segmental renal vein renin measurements and renal angiography plus 123I metaiodobenzyl guanidine (MIBG) scan in suspected phaeochromocytoma. Drug treatment of accelerated hypertension is most successfully undertaken by intravenous labetalol or sodium nitroprusside; sustained moderate-to-severe hypertension by a beta-blocker plus a vasodilator or an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor with or without a diuretic; mild hypertension by diet, diuretic and if necessary by more powerful hypotensives. Surgical treatment by revascularization or nephrectomy and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty can be successful. Utilizing the current range of investigational and therapeutic tools the aetiology and appropriate management of hypertension can be effectively and safely undertaken in the majority of hypertensive children.

  13. 西安市未央区流动儿童免疫规划7种疫苗接种率调查%Investigation on vaccination rates of seven kinds of national immunization program vaccines for migrant children in Weiyang district of Xi'an city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马淑军; 宋立

    2012-01-01

    immunization coverage of seven vaccines was 90. 9%. But the immunization coverage of migrant children (86. 8%) was significantly lower than that of local children (95. 3%). DTP booster shot rate was 94. 0% and MCV revaccination rate was 94. 4%. Except MCV(89. 7%) and JEV(86. 8%) ,the basic vaccination rates of other five vaccines among migrant children were all higher than 90. 0%. Except the BCG vaccination rate and the first hepatitis B vaccine inoculation rate,there were significant differences of other indexes between migrant children and local children. In addition, extending time and unvaccinated were the main problems of injection times. [Conclusion] In the floating population gathering areas, apart from completing the work of routine immune-inoculation for local children, more attention should be paid to strengthen the immune program vaccines inoculation work for migrant children.

  14. Investigation of physical activity and physical fitness of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Saygın

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to investigate of physical activity levels of children and how their physical fitness. Moreover, it was aimed that to analyze physical fitness and physical activity levels of them with regard to their age and gender.Total 665 children (362 boys and 303 girls ages between 11, 12, 13 and 14 were participated to this study. As physical fitness parameters, height, weight, body composition, body fat percentage,max-VO2, muscle strength, flexibility and anaerobic power were measured. Furthermore, Bouchard Three-day Physical Activity Record test was used for determining physical activity level. SPSS program was used for statistical analyses.Independent t test was used for testing differences between variables of boys’ and girls’. Correlation test was performed for identifying the relationship between these variables. If p< 0.005 was, there were significant differences between groups and variables.As a result, it was found that boys’ Max-VO2, hand grip strength and anaerobic power were higher performance than girls while girls’ flexibility and body fat density parameters were higher than boys. Moreover, there were increase in height, weight, max-VO2, hand grip strength, and anaerobic power with age on both of girls and boys.

  15. Investigating the recheck rules for urine analysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y M; Yao, S W; Huang, Y J; Liang, B S; Liu, H Y

    2016-04-25

    The aim of this study was to establish recheck rules of urinalysis in children by investigating the concordance rate of the results obtained using the LabUMat urine dry chemistry analyzer (referred to as dry chemistry) and the UriSed tangible composition analyzer with that of the microscopic examination. First, 1040 urine samples from children (mean age 6.5 years) were analyzed using LabUMat and UriSed analyzers, and subsequently subjected to microscopic examination. The missed detection rate was evaluated and recheck rules were established to avoid missed diagnoses of abnormal renal function. Finally, clinical validations of the recheck rules were performed on 200 additional specimens. Among the samples used to investigate the recheck rules, the samples with positive microscopic examination results accounted for 58.65% of the total, while the samples with negative results accounted for 41.35%. Of the positive samples, a major portion (>50%) were RBC positive. The samples that were WBC positive and CAST positive accounted for 23.08 and 7.69%, respectively. The concordance rate was 87.5% and the missed detection rate was 2.9%. For the validation of the recheck rules in 200 urine samples, the concordance rate was 87.5% and the missed detection rate was 2.4%. When the detection of occult blood, WBC, and protein by dry chemistry, and the detection of RBC, WBC, and CAST by the UriSed analyzer are inconsistent, or the differences between them greater than 2 levels, recheck by microscopic examination is suggested.

  16. Immunization coverage among children in Al-Taizyah district, Taiz Governorate, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Ahmed Al-Rabeei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At least 2 million people die every year from diseases preventable by vaccines recommended by the World Health Organization. Objective: To assess the routine immunization coverage among children aged 12-23 month and to determine the reasons for unvaccinated. Methods: We conducted a community-based survey in Al-Taizyah district, Taiz governorate, Yemen. Information about vaccination status and related barriers was collected for 420 children from 1st March to 31st March 2012. Results: 49.8% of the children had vaccination cards. About 69.5% of the children were fully vaccinated by cards and by history, 15.5% were partially vaccinated and 15% not vaccinated. As a regards to crude vaccination coverage, 82.9% of children were received BCG vaccine. OPV1 vaccine was 82.6%. Pentavalent1 was 82.6%. Measles 1 represented for 71.7% and vitamin A1 was 46.4%. 91% was valid doses for OPV1 and 93% for pentavalent1. Only 76% of measles1 dose was valid. The high scores14% of drop-out rate was recorded between BCG and Measles. The main reasons for partially vaccinated and unvaccinated of children were the lack of information 61.7%. Conclusion: There is low vaccination coverage among children aged 12-23 months. There is a need to raise the awareness of community about vaccination and EPI services in Al-Taizyah district.

  17. Investigating Children's Emotion Regulation in Socio-Emotionally Challenging Classroom Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurki, Kristiina; Järvelä, Sanna; Mykkänen, Arttu; Määttä, Elina

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have associated effective emotion and behaviour regulation with learning and social competence among young children. However, further studies on children's use of emotion regulation in their everyday lives are required. This study focuses on investigating six- to nine-year-old children's (N?=?24) use of emotion regulation…

  18. Investigating Early Years Teachers' Understanding and Response to Children's Preconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambouri, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on young children's scientific preconceptions and discusses teachers' identification of these preconceptions when teaching science in the early years, on which research is still limited. This paper is based on the theoretical framework of constructivism and it defines preconceptions as children's erroneous concepts prior to…

  19. Investigating shadows: a pedagogical intervention project with primary school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noversa, Silvana; Abreu, Cátia; Varela, Paulo; Costa, Manuel F. M.

    2014-07-01

    This communication results from a pedagogical intervention project, carried out at a primary school in the district of Braga - Portugal. The intervention took place in a class of the 3rd year, composed of 16 students, and it incorporated the practice of inquiry-based science teaching addressing the theme "Light Experiments", which is part of the "Environmental Studies" curricular area. Various class activities were planned and implemented concerning some of the factors that influence the shadow of an object, in order to find answers to the following three questions: a) will 3rd year students, aged 7/8 years, be able to construct and execute an investigation strategy that involves manipulating and controlling variables? b) what are the main difficulties experienced by students in the designing and execution of such a strategy? c) how will students, in interaction with the teacher and with their peers, gradually design and execute their investigation strategy in order to respond to the problem formulated? The project adopted an action research methodology. A careful record was kept of the events most relevant to the questions under study in each class. This data was used to prepare the class diaries - descriptive and reflective narratives prepared based on recorded audio and field notes made during participant observation in the context of the classroom. A content analysis of the diaries has identified a few elements that provide answers to the research questions raised. In order to plan and implement a research project with children in the 7/8 years old range require a high level of scaffolding to allow students to gradually build a coherent strategy to tackle the research problem. Teacher's role is crucial. The teacher, by questioning and inducing reasoning and discussion, promotes encourages and regulates the cognitive activity of students. Some level of autonomy should be given to the students in large group collaborative work.

  20. Gender Stereotypes of Children's Toys: Investigating the Perspectives of Adults Who Have and Do Not Have Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekee, Kristy; Brown, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Often certain types of toys are considered more appropriate either for boys or for girls to play with. Therapists often use toys to engage children in intervention activities to promote skill development. This study investigated the gender stereotype perspectives of children's toys held by adults who were and were not parents. Fifty-two…

  1. Investigation of MONE Preschool Program for 36-72 Months Old Children (2006) According to Children Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batur Musaoglu, Ebru; Haktanir, Gelengul

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey, the preschoolers are being schooled under the guidelines of MONE (Ministry of National Education) Preschool Program for 36-72 Months Old Children (2006). The aim of this research is to investigate how children's rights are involved in this program. In this qualitative research based on document analysis, program book and Teacher Guide…

  2. Investigating gaze of children with ASD in naturalistic settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basilio Noris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual behavior is known to be atypical in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. Monitor-based eye-tracking studies have measured several of these atypicalities in individuals with Autism. While atypical behaviors are known to be accentuated during natural interactions, few studies have been made on gaze behavior in natural interactions. In this study we focused on i whether the findings done in laboratory settings are also visible in a naturalistic interaction; ii whether new atypical elements appear when studying visual behavior across the whole field of view. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten children with ASD and ten typically developing children participated in a dyadic interaction with an experimenter administering items from the Early Social Communication Scale (ESCS. The children wore a novel head-mounted eye-tracker, measuring gaze direction and presence of faces across the child's field of view. The analysis of gaze episodes to faces revealed that children with ASD looked significantly less and for shorter lapses of time at the experimenter. The analysis of gaze patterns across the child's field of view revealed that children with ASD looked downwards and made more extensive use of their lateral field of view when exploring the environment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data gathered in naturalistic settings confirm findings previously obtained only in monitor-based studies. Moreover, the study allowed to observe a generalized strategy of lateral gaze in children with ASD when they were looking at the objects in their environment.

  3. IL-12Rβ1 deficiency in two of fifty children with severe tuberculosis from Iran, Morocco, and Turkey.

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    Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In the last decade, autosomal recessive IL-12Rβ1 deficiency has been diagnosed in four children with severe tuberculosis from three unrelated families from Morocco, Spain, and Turkey, providing proof-of-principle that tuberculosis in otherwise healthy children may result from single-gene inborn errors of immunity. We aimed to estimate the fraction of children developing severe tuberculosis due to IL-12Rβ1 deficiency in areas endemic for tuberculosis and where parental consanguinity is common. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched for IL12RB1 mutations in a series of 50 children from Iran, Morocco, and Turkey. All children had established severe pulmonary and/or disseminated tuberculosis requiring hospitalization and were otherwise normally resistant to weakly virulent BCG vaccines and environmental mycobacteria. In one child from Iran and another from Morocco, homozygosity for loss-of-function IL12RB1 alleles was documented, resulting in complete IL-12Rβ1 deficiency. Despite the small sample studied, our findings suggest that IL-12Rβ1 deficiency is not a very rare cause of pediatric tuberculosis in these countries, where it should be considered in selected children with severe disease. SIGNIFICANCE: This finding may have important medical implications, as recombinant IFN-γ is an effective treatment for mycobacterial infections in IL-12Rβ1-deficient patients. It also provides additional support for the view that severe tuberculosis in childhood may result from a collection of single-gene inborn errors of immunity.

  4. An MEG Investigation of Neural Biomarkers and Language in Nonverbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Nonverbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kristina McFadden CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER An MEG Investigation of Neural Biomarkers and Language in Nonverbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders 5b...group by the end of Year 2. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Autism spectrum disorders , magnetoencephalography (MEG), neural biomarkers, nonverbal 16

  5. A Meta-Analysis of Cross Sectional Studies Investigating Language in Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Powell, Martine; Timms, Lydia; Snow, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this review article, meta-analysis was used to summarize research investigating language skills in maltreated children. Method: A systematic search of published studies was undertaken. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they investigated language skills in groups comprising maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Studies were…

  6. Investigation of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery--Children's Revision with Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boliek-Uphoff, Carol; Obrzut, John E.

    Twenty-three learning disabled (LD) children (age 8-12 years) and 15 nondisabled children (age 8-12 years) were individually administered the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision (LNNB). Means and standard deviations for each of the test's scales were computed by group, and individual T-tests were calculated for…

  7. The evaluation of the clinical and laboratory characteristics of children with pulmonary tuberculosis

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    Velat Şen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pulmonary tuberculosis is an important health problem in pediatric patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical signs and treatment results of the children with pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods:Hospital records of 85 children with pulmonary tuberculosis which were diagnosis in Dicle University Medical Faculty, Pediatric Pulmonology Department, between the period of January 2008 and December 2013,were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of 85 patients, 51.7% were girls with a mean age of 9.84±4.66 years (6 months-18 years.Ratio of patients that aged less than 5 years was 22.3%. The most prominent complaints were cough (81.2%, fever (55.2%, inappetence (47.1%, night sweats (38.8%, and weight lost (32.9 %. Sixty five of the patients (76.4 % had a history of contact with adult patients with tuberculosis. BCG vaccine scarring was present in 70.6% of patients. Tuberculin skin test reactivity was present in 75.3%. Hilar lympadenomegaly (58.8%, primary focuscalsification (37.6%, and parenchymal infiltration (32.9% were the most common radiographic findings. Conclusion: Pulmonary tuberculous is not a rare entity and remains an important infectious disease in children in our country. Early diagnosis and treatment of children with pulmonary uberculosis is important to protect late symptoms and to prevent contamination of healthy people.

  8. Investigating Hypervigilance for Social Threat of Lonely Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualter, Pamela; Rotenberg, Ken; Barrett, Louise; Henzi, Peter; Barlow, Alexandra; Stylianou, Maria; Harris, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that lonely children show hypervigilance for social threat was examined in a series of three studies that employed different methods including advanced eye-tracking technology. Hypervigilance for social threat was operationalized as hostility to ambiguously motivated social exclusion in a variation of the hostile attribution…

  9. An Exploratory Investigation of Children's Connectedness with the Natural World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugurian, Linda Paylun

    2014-01-01

    The study examined environmental identity and its relationship to school science in 5th grade students (N=65) in a suburban public elementary school in the southern US using a mixed methods approach. This research was used to establish a proposed model of children's environmental identity, that may be of value to environmental and science…

  10. Investigating the Activities of Children toward a Smart Storytelling Toy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Nuri; Aydin, Cansu Cigdem; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces StoryTech, a smart storytelling toy that features a virtual space, which includes computer-based graphics and characters, and a real space, which includes plush toys, background cards, and a communication interface. When children put real objects on the receiver panel, the computer program shows related backgrounds and…

  11. An Investigation of Teachers' Attitudes towards Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenizi, Mogbel Aid K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to measure the teachers' awareness of, and attitudes towards children with Asperger's Syndrome (AS, hereafter). The main intention was to sample primary school teachers; however time constraints dictated that the 30 teachers (male and female), who participated in this study, were postgraduate students and teaching…

  12. Investigation of signs of attachment disorders in sheltered children using human figure drawing

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Hottum Melani

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate signs of Attachment Disorders in sheltered children using the Human Figure Drawing. 25 children (15 males and 10 female), aged 4 to 12 years living in a sheltered home in São Paulo metropolitan area were assessed. The instrument used for assessment was the Human Figure Drawing (HFD), following Koppitz‟s 30 emotional indicators. Results showed that 48% of the assessed children present shyness, withdrawal and lack of aggression, as well as poor social in...

  13. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2016-01-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  14. The dead end of domestic violence: spotlight on children's narratives during forensic investigations following domestic homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Carmit

    2014-12-01

    The current study provides an in-depth exploration of the narratives of children who witnessed their father killing their mother. This exploration was conducted using a thematic analysis of the children's forensic interviews based on seven investigative interviews that were conducted with children following the domestic homicide. Investigative interviews were selected for study only for substantiated cases and only if the children disclosed the domestic homicide. All of the investigative interviews were conducted within 24h of the domestic homicide. Thematic analysis revealed the following four key categories: the domestic homicide as the dead end of domestic violence, what I did when daddy killed mommy, that one time that daddy killed mommy, and mommy will feel better and will go back home. The discussion examines the multiple layers of this phenomenon as revealed in the children's narratives and its consequences for professionals within the legal and clinical contexts.

  15. INVESTIGATION OF URINARY CONTINANCE AGES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN AND ENURETIC CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin BILBAN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to determine the age of urinary continance of primary school students who had no enuresis problem and had secondary enuresis. Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was carried out on four primary schools of Meram district which were selected by using simple random sample method. Totally, 1399 students who had no enuresis and had secondary enuresis were included to the study. The age of urinary continance of the students and presence of diurnal, nocturnal and continual enuresis in the secondary enuresis group were investigated. Results: The mean urinary continance age of the students was 22.0 ± 7.1 months. Urinary continance age of the male students was 1.2 months bigger than the female students. The prevalance of secondary enuresis was found as 5.6 %. The frequency of secondary enuresis in male students was 2.1 fold higher than in female ones. Of the 87 students with secondary enuresis, 18.4% was diurnal, 60.9 % was nocturnal and 20.7 % was continual enuresis. Conclusion: Toilet education should be given to children by their parents starting before 22 months of age, which was obtained as urinary continance age of primary school students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(1.000: 41-49

  16. [Immune reconstitution syndrome due to BCG in HIV-treated children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Choque, Edwin; Candela-Herrera, Jorge; R Segura, Eddy; Farfán-Ramos, Sonia; Barriga, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the clinical profile of the immune reconstitution syndrome due to Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (IRS-BCG) in children with HIV infection who receive highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) at Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño de Lima (National Children's Health Institute of Lima), Peru. A case study was conducted, including 8 children with IRS-BCG, defined as the presence of regional lymphadenopathy or inflammation on the BCG vaccination site with at least one less logarithm in the viral load or immune improvement. All patients had AIDS (C3). The starting median age in HAART was 7.2 months and the event occurred 3 to 11 weeks after the treatment was started. 7 cases showed axillary adenitis. When compared with the Non IRS-BCG group, a significant association between the age at which HAART was started at one year, severe immunodepression, and increased viral load was found. It is concluded that IRS-BCG was related to a rapid clinical progression of the mother-to-child transmitted HIV/AIDS infection, severe immunosuppression and high viral load when the HAART began.

  17. An Investigation of Korean Children's Prejudicial Attitudes toward a National Tragedy in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkang; Chang, Heesun

    2014-01-01

    Prejudice against another nation or culture is often perceived as a major hindrance to world peace. This paper will report on the early emergence of such prejudices, identified in eight-year-old primary school children in Korea. The research, conducted in June 2012, investigated Korean children's reactions to the Japanese tsunami of 2011. A…

  18. Weight Status in Iranian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Investigation of Underweight, Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memari, Amir Hossein; Kordi, Ramin; Ziaee, Vahid; Mirfazeli, Fatemeh Sadat; Setoodeh, Mohammad S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the weight status of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Iranian pupils and further to investigate the most likely associated factors such as demographics, autism severity and medications. The survey was designed to provide a random sample of 113 children and adolescents (boys =…

  19. Investigations and findings in children with spina-bifida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingmueller, V.; Rutz, A.

    1982-06-01

    Physicians from different fields work together in the care of spina-liefide children. A central position occupy the pediatric physician as a primary reference person and the pediatric radiologist. There has to be a free exchange of ideas and thoughts between them. That is why anyone of them has to know the problems of the other. For the radiologist this means, that he or she has to acquire detailed knowledge of the desease symptoms and of the therapeutic possibilities, so that he or she will be able to work on a diagnostic that is suited for the particular patient.

  20. Study of 120 Cases of Tubercular Meningitis Treatment in Children%120例儿童结核性脑膜炎诊治探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 李曦; 邓长国

    2015-01-01

    Objective To Summarize the clinical characteristics and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculous meningitis in children. Methods The clinical data of 120 children with tubercular meningitis were selected for the retrospective analysis. Results The occurrence of tubercular meningitis in children without BCG Vaccination or scar accounted for 82. 5%,and the positive rate in head CT/MRI examination was 71. 56%. The cured or inproved cases accounted for 72. 5%,while those who gave up diagnosis and died are 27. 5%. The occurrence of tubercular meningitis in nurseling under a year old accounted for 55. 55%. The occurrence of tubercular meningitis in nurseling 1 to 3 years old accounted for 38. 24%. Conclusion The tubercu-lar meningitis in children is severe,97% of whom with tubercular meningitis have fever symptom and the positive rate in head MRI examination is high. The therapeutic effect in infants with tubercular meningitis and in those with drug resistance are poor. The BCG Vaccination is of preventive effect to tubercular meningitis in children.%目的:总结儿童结核性脑膜炎的临床特点,并探讨诊治方法。方法选取120例儿童结核性脑膜炎的临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果未接种卡介苗及无卡痕儿童结脑占82.5%,头颅CT/MRI检查阳性率71.56%。治愈或好转72.5%,放弃治疗及死亡27.5%。1岁以下婴儿结脑中重症结脑占55.55%,1~3岁幼儿结脑中重症结脑占38.24%。讨论儿童结核性脑膜炎病情重,结脑患儿97%有发热症状,头颅MRI检查阳性率高,婴幼儿结核性脑膜炎、耐药结核性脑膜炎治疗效果差,卡介苗接种对儿童结核性脑膜炎有预防作用。

  1. An investigation of the factors affecting flatfoot in children with delayed motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun-Chung; Tung, Li-Chen; Tung, Chien-Hung; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Yang, Jeng-Feng; Wang, Chun-Hou

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of flatfoot in children with delayed motor development and the relevant factors affecting it. In total, 121 preschool-aged children aged 3-6 with delayed motor development (male: 81; female: 40) were enrolled in the motor-developmentally delayed children group, and 4 times that number, a total of 484 children (male: 324; female: 160), of gender- and age-matched normal developmental children were used as a control group for further analyses. The age was from 3.0 to 6.9 years old for the participants. The judgment criterion of flatfoot was the Chippaux-Smirak index >62.70%, in footprint measurement. The results showed that the prevalence of flatfoot in children with motor developmental delay was higher than that in normal developmental children, approximately 58.7%, and that it decreased with age from 62.8% of 3-year-olds to 50.0% of 6-year-olds. The results also showed that motor-developmentally delayed children with flatfoot are at about 1.5 times the risk of normal developmental children (odds ratio=1.511, p=0.005). In addition, the prevalence of flatfoot is relatively higher in overweight children with delayed motor development, and that in obese children is even as high as 95.8% (23/24). Children with both excessive joint laxity and delayed development are more likely to suffer from flatfoot. The findings of this study can serve as a reference for clinical workers to deal with foot issues in children with delayed motor development.

  2. Fatores de risco para morte por pneumonia em menores de um ano em uma região metropolitana do sudeste do Brasil: um estudo tipo caso-controle Risk factors for death by pneumonia among children under one year of age in a metropolitan area of Southeastern Brazil: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria Leal Niobey

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available Através de um estudo tipo caso-controle, foi comparada uma amostra de óbitos pós-neonatais por pneumonia ocorridos na Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (1986-1987 e controles sadios, moradores na vizinhança. Os fatores de risco investigados foram variáveis relacionadas à história gestacional da mãe e ao nascimento da criança, às condições sociais da família e à utilização de serviços de saúde. Na primeira etapa de análise, através de um modelo de regressão logística univariada, foram estimados os coeficientes de cada variável independente, o risco relativo e seus limites de confiança. O peso ao nascer e a idade do desmame mostraram-se das mais fortemente associadas com a variável dependente. Na segunda etapa, foi feito o ajuste pelo modelo de regressão logística múltipla e somente 4 variáveis permaneceram estatisticamente associadas com a mortalidade: idade do desmame, peso ao nascer, número de moradores da casa e aplicação da vacina BCG. Conclui-se que a mortalidade por pneumonia em menores de um ano está fortemente associada às condições sociais da família, em particular da mãe.In a case-control study, a sample of post-neonatal deaths from pneumonia occurring in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1986-1987 were compared with healthy controls who lived in the same neighborhood. Risk factors investigated were variables related to the mother's pregnancy history and the child's birth, to the family's social condition and to the use of health services. Using the univariate logistic regression model, the coefficients of each independent variable, the relative risk and its confidence limits were first estimated. Birth weight and age of weaning were strongly associated with the dependent variable. After adjustment by means of the multiple logistic regression model, only 4 variables remained statistically associated with mortality: age of weaning, birth weight, over crowding, and BCG

  3. The Architecture of Children's Relationships with Nature: A Phenomenographic Investigation Seen through Drawings and Written Narratives of Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvaitis, Darius; Monhardt, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    How do young children portray and describe their relationships with nature? In what ways do young children's relationships with nature vary by grade level? These two research questions guided this phenomenographic study, which investigated developmental differences in children's relationships with nature. A total of 176 children, aged 6-11, from…

  4. Mothers whose children have ADD/ADHD discuss their children's medication use: an investigation of blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Juanne N; Lang, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a frame and discourse analysis of Internet blog sites where parents (usually mothers) discuss their concerns about medication use by their children with attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). This is a particularly important topic in an era characterized by powerful circulating discourses around the contentious medicalization of, and prevalent pharmaceutical treatments for, ADD/ADHD, as well as the mother blame associated with having a child diagnosed with ADD/ADHD. The findings document that the mothers see ADD/ADHD as legitimate medical diagnoses and view themselves as caretakers of children with brain and neuro-chemical anomalies affecting the behavior of their children. They favor pharmaceutical use and describe themselves as experts in the difficult and complex issues related to pharmaceuticalized parenting. At the same time their adoption of medicalization is contingent as they express specific critiques of some doctors, some types of doctors, and critically evaluate science.

  5. No one likes a copycat: a cross-cultural investigation of children's response to plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Shaw, A; Garduno, E; Olson, K R

    2014-05-01

    Copying other people's ideas is evaluated negatively by American children and adults. The current study investigated the influence of culture on children's evaluations of plagiarism by comparing children from three countries--the United States, Mexico, and China--that differ in terms of their emphasis on the protection of intellectual property and ideas. Children (3- to 6-year-olds) were presented with videos involving two characters drawing pictures and were asked to evaluate the character who drew unique work or the character who copied someone else's drawing. The study showed that 5- and 6-year-olds from all three cultures evaluated copiers negatively compared with unique drawers. These results suggest that children from cultures that place different values on the protection of ideas nevertheless develop similar concerns with plagiarism by 5-year-olds.

  6. Investigations of private (egocentric speech in children with normal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomariov I.V.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article gives reason for necessity of introducing the term “private speech” (PS. The article is focused on the empirical study of PS conducted by scholars of three western Universities which is unprecedented from the point of view of the domains under investigation. Studies of PS by western scholars are compared to the ones by Russian scientists with a special focus on a recently published work by L.I. Bozhovich. The article purposefully draws the readers’ attention to a limited number of the latest empirical studies in order to help Russian scholars to orientate in the area of modeling the PS empirical investigation.

  7. Acute liver failure in Chinese children:a multicenter investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Zhao; Chun-Ya Wang; Wei-Wei Liu; Xi Wang; Li-Ming Yu and Yan-Rong Sun

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently,  no  documentation  is  available regarding Chinese children with acute liver failure (ALF). This study was undertaken to investigate etiologies and outcomes of Chinese children with ALF. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 32 pediatric patients with  ALF  admitted  in  ifve  hospitals  in  different  areas  of China from January 2007 to December 2012. The coagulation indices,  serum  creatinine,  serum  lactate  dehydrogenase, blood ammonia and prothrombin activity were analyzed; the relationship between these indices and mortality was evaluated by multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The most common causes of Chinese children with ALF were indeterminate etiology (15/32), drug toxicity (8/32), and acute cytomegalovirus hepatitis (6/32). Only 1 patient (3.13%) received liver transplantation and the spontaneous mortality of Chinese children with ALF was 58.06% (18/31). Patients who eventually died had higher baseline levels of international normalized ratio (P=0.01), serum creatinine (P=0.04), serum lactate dehydrogenase (P=0.01), blood ammonia (P CONCLUSIONS: The indeterminate causes predominated in the etiologies of ALF in Chinese children. The spontaneous mortality of pediatric patients with ALF was high, whereas the proportion of patients undergoing liver transplantation was signiifcantly low. Entry blood ammonia was a reliable predictor for the death of pediatric patients with ALF.

  8. Investigating Deaf Children's Vocabulary Knowledge in British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Wolfgang; Marshall, Chloe

    2012-01-01

    This study explores different aspects of the mapping between phonological form and meaning of signs in British Sign Language (BSL) by means of four tasks to measure meaning recognition, form recognition, form recall, and meaning recall. The aim was to investigate whether there is a hierarchy of difficulty for these tasks and, therefore, whether…

  9. Do Investigator Characteristics Affect Dietary Reports of Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussow, Joan Dye; And Others

    1982-01-01

    High school students' (N=500) and elementary school students' (N=30) dietary reports did not appear to be affected by the apparent attitude toward good food habits of the persons asking for the information. It appeared that the subjects, to the best of their ability, were telling the truth to the investigators in the two studies reported.…

  10. Severe Sepsis in Severely Malnourished Young Bangladeshi Children with Pneumonia: A Retrospective Case Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammod Jobayer Chisti

    Full Text Available In developing countries, there is no published report on predicting factors of severe sepsis in severely acute malnourished (SAM children having pneumonia and impact of fluid resuscitation in such children. Thus, we aimed to identify predicting factors for severe sepsis and assess the outcome of fluid resuscitation of such children.In this retrospective case-control study SAM children aged 0-59 months, admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh from April 2011 through July 2012 with history of cough or difficult breathing and radiologic pneumonia, who were assessed for severe sepsis at admission constituted the study population. We compared the pneumonic SAM children with severe sepsis (cases = 50 with those without severe sepsis (controls = 354. Severe sepsis was defined with objective clinical criteria and managed with fluid resuscitation, in addition to antibiotic and other supportive therapy, following the standard hospital guideline, which is very similar to the WHO guideline.The case-fatality-rate was significantly higher among the cases than the controls (40% vs. 4%; p<0.001. In logistic regression analysis after adjusting for potential confounders, lack of BCG vaccination, drowsiness, abdominal distension, acute kidney injury, and metabolic acidosis at admission remained as independent predicting factors for severe sepsis in pneumonic SAM children (p<0.05 for all comparisons.We noted a much higher case fatality among under-five SAM children with pneumonia and severe sepsis who required fluid resuscitation in addition to standard antibiotic and other supportive therapy compared to those without severe sepsis. Independent risk factors and outcome of the management of severe sepsis in our study children highlight the importance for defining optimal fluid resuscitation therapy aiming at reducing the case fatality in such children.

  11. "The dog see the queen": Investigating Optional Infinitives in Multilingual Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tulloh, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Children acquiring English as a first language go through a stage of optionally producing non-finite verb forms in ungrammatical contexts. This is often referred to as the optional infinitive stage of language development. This study investigates whether multilingual children aged between 3 and 5 years old produce more optional infinitives than their monolingual peers, in line with a constructivist account of first language acquisition (e.g. Gathercole, 2007; Paradis, 2010). The results showe...

  12. Investigator's Guide to Missing Child Cases. For Law-Enforcement Officers Locating Missing Children. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, John C.

    This booklet provides guidance to law enforcement officers investigating missing children cases, whether through parental kidnappings, abductions by strangers, runaway or "throwaway" cases, and those in which the circumstances are unknown. The guide describes, step-by-step, the investigative process required for each of the four types of missing…

  13. Estudo sobre a evolução do risco de infecção tuberculosa em área com elevada cobertura por BCG The trend in the risk of tuberculous infection in an area with wide coverage with BCG vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Ribeiro Arantes

    1985-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir da prevalência de infecção tuberculosa em escolares com 7 anos de idade, calculou-se a taxa de redução do risco anual de infecção na cidade de São Paulo (Brasil, entre 1974 e 1982. Nesse período o declínio médio foi de 5% ao ano. Nas 59 escolas municipais pesquisadas não houve correlação entre a cobertura de vacinação BCG e a prevalência de infecção natural em não-vacinados, à idade estudada. A alergia tuberculínica no grupo de crianças vacinadas, que recebeu a vacina em alguma idade anterior entre o 1° e o 6° ano de vida, revelou-se 2,5 vezes mais intensa do que a alergia no grupo de mesma idade (7 anos, não vacinado previamente. Foram feitos comentários quanto à impropriedade do material utilizado com vistas ao cálculo do verdadeiro valor do risco de infecção tuberculosa na área em questão.The estimation of the risk of tuberculous infection from prevalence data obtained at school-age, in 1974 and in 1982, permitted the determination of the relevant trend in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil, between those years. The risk of infection decreased, on average, by 5% annually during the period. There was no evidence of any association between the proportions of vaccinated children and that of infected children among those unvaccinated, in the 59 schools studied. Tuberculin sensitivity in 7 years old school-children, vaccinated with BCG at any age between the 1st and the 6th year of life was 2.5 times more intense than that in unvaccinaetd children of the same age. With regard to the calculation of the true value of the risk of tuberculous infection, commentaries about the unrealiability of the available data were made.

  14. A longitudinal investigation of oral narrative skills in children with mixed reading disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerveld, Marleen F; Gillon, Gail T; Moran, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This 2-year longitudinal study investigated oral narrative ability in 14 children with mixed reading disability and their age-matched peers with typical development. The children were aged between 6;4 and 7;8 at the commencement of the study and assessments were administered individually to the children on three occasions over a 2-year period. Oral narratives were elicited in a personal narrative context (i.e., the child was encouraged to relate personal experiences in response to photo prompts) and a story retelling context. Oral narrative comprehension was assessed in a fictional story context through questions relating to story structure elements. Results indicated that the children with mixed reading disability demonstrated inferior oral narrative production and oral narrative comprehension performance compared to children with typical reading development at each assessment occasion. To further explore these children's difficulties in oral narrative ability, their performance was compared to a reading comprehension-age match control group at the third assessment trial. The results suggested the children with mixed reading disability had a specific deficit in oral narrative comprehension.

  15. [Investigation of children with congenital cleft lip and palate by Eysenck personality questionnaire(Junior)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H Z; Hu, J F

    1998-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To approach the personality of the children suffering from congenital cleft lip and palate. METHODS: The subject were 50 children (aged 7 to 17) with congenital cleft lip and palate,and 50 normal children as control.Both groups were investigated by Eysenck personality questionnaire EPQ(Junior). RESULTS: According to the general quantitative table of EPQ(Junior),the abnormal cases in cleft group were significantly more than those in control(P<0.005),and also were the abnormal cases in the single quantitative or in the multiple quantitative tables of EPQ(Junior)(P<0.005) respectively. CONCLUSION: The poor personality in children with cleft lip and palate is correlated to the cleft condition.Therefore it is necessary to pay attention to the prevention of poor personality while the cleft lip and palate is treated.

  16. [The diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in children in XXI century. Is tuberculin skin test still up to date?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecka, Teresa; Komorowska-Piotrowska, Anna; Mazur, Agnieszka; Feleszko, Wojciech

    2015-10-13

    Tuberculosis morbidity rates in Poland have been gradually decreasing. Nevertheless, there are approximately 8 thousand cases being registered annually, which includes almost 3 thousand massively infectious patients. In the last 3 years, around 100 cases/year have been reported among children below 14 years of age. Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis should be considered in all patients who present symptoms suggesting tuberculosis, have had recent contact with a person suffering from lung tuberculosis or are planned to undergo an immunosuppressive treatment. HIV infected patients are also supposed to have screening tests for M. tuberculosis infection performed. For over a 100 years tuberculin skin test (TST) was the only test capable of confirming tuberculous infection. TST is based on the assessment of skin reaction to intracutaneous injection of tuberculin. Due to cross-reaction to the injected tuberculin in BCG vaccinated individuals, the correct interpretation of the test is difficult. Since 13 years new immunological assays have been available. They are based on detecting interferon gamma (Interferon Gamma Release Assay - IGRA) concentration in blood serum, which has previously been incubated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens absent in the BCG strain. In infected individuals interferon gamma is intensively produced by memory cells in reaction to the contact with previously met Mycobacterium antigens. Many trials have proved IGRA's high sensitivity and, higher than TST, specificity. Recent guidelines promote the usage of IGRAs, even in children.

  17. Early BCG and pertussis vaccination and atopic diseases in 5- to 7-year-old preschool children from Augsburg, Germany: results from the MIRIAM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhrenschlager, Matthias; Haberl, Victoria M; Krämer, Ursula; Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannnes

    2007-02-01

    The role of immunization in the development of atopic disorders is still under debate. One reason might be, that because of high vaccination coverage in most countries only few and selected children are not immunized, leading to unstable and often biased effect estimates. In Germany, the situation was different between 1985 and 1991: bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and pertussis vaccination were not officially recommended leading to high numbers of non-vaccinated children in the 1990s. We report on a cross-sectional study with 1673 participants among 5- to 7-year-old preschool children conducted in 1996. We found no hint that BCG vaccination or whole-cell pertussis (WCP) vaccination may lead to higher prevalences of asthma, allergic rhinitis, eczema or allergic sensitization at preschool age. None of the associations was significantly positive. WCP vaccination may be protective against asthma OR 0.55 (95% CI: 0.31-0.98) and against symptoms of eczema in boys.

  18. A review of the literature on the economics of vaccination against TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hong-Anh T; Vu, Hoa D; Rozenbaum, Mark H; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Postma, Maarten J

    2012-03-01

    The BCG vaccine was introduced in 1921 and remains the only licensed vaccine for the prevention of TB worldwide. Despite its extensive use, the BCG vaccine lacks the ability to fully control the TB-endemic and -pandemic situations. The BCG vaccine is most effective in preventing pediatric TB, in particular, miliary TB and tuberculous meningitis. However, it has a limited effect in preventing pulmonary TB, which occurs more frequently in adults. BCG vaccination has now been implemented in more than 157 countries worldwide. For various countries, the benefits of vaccination are only limited and potentially not cost effective. The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases had set the criteria for discontinuation of BCG vaccination in 1994. This decision, however, was not based on economic considerations. Many developed countries have met the criteria set by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease and stopped universal BCG vaccination. For developing countries, the BCG vaccine is still an effective intervention in protecting young children from TB infection. A lot of effort has been spent on R&D of new TB vaccines, the first of which are expected to be available within 5-7 years from now. Novel TB vaccines are expected to be better and more effective than the current BCG vaccine and should provide a viable strategy in controlling TB morbidity and mortality. In this review, the aim is to explore economic evaluations that have been carried out for vaccination against TB worldwide. In addition to epidemiological evidence, economic evidence can play a crucial role in supporting the governments of countries in making proper public health decisions on BCG vaccination policies, in particular, to implement, continue, or discontinue.

  19. A Preliminary Investigation of Phonological Encoding Skills in Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Brady, Alison; Stein, Jillian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated phonological encoding skills in children who stutter (CWS) and those who do not (CNS). Participants were 9 CWS (M=11.8 years, SD=1.5) and 9 age and sex matched CNS (M=11.8 years, SD=1.5). Method: Participants monitored target phonemes located at syllable onsets and offsets of bisyllabic words. Performance in…

  20. Efficacy of Attention Regulation in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation assessed the attentional processes of preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during Traditional cueing and Affect cueing tasks. Method: Participants consisted of 12 3- to 5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS (all boys). Both talker groups participated in two tasks of shifting and…

  1. Vocabulary Recycling in Children's Authentic Reading Materials: A Corpus-Based Investigation of Narrow Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Dee

    2008-01-01

    Fourteen collections of children's reading materials were used to investigate the claim that collections of authentic texts with a common theme, or written by one author, afford readers with more repeated exposures to new words than unrelated materials. The collections, distinguished by relative thematic tightness, authorship (1 vs. 4 authors),…

  2. An Open Trial Investigation of a Transdiagnostic Group Treatment for Children with Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Emily L.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the feasibility and preliminary outcomes associated with a transdiagnostic emotion-focused group protocol for the treatment of anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms in youth. Twenty-two children (ages 7 to 12; M = 9.79) with a principal anxiety disorder and varying levels of comorbid depressive symptoms were…

  3. Young Children's Literacy in the Activity Space of the Library: A Geosemiotic Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Sue

    2011-01-01

    An ecological approach, emphasizing the importance of understanding multiple contexts for learning, underpins this study of libraries as activity spaces for young children's literacy participation. Five libraries serving a diversity of communities were the subject of ethnographic investigation incorporating participant observation, visual…

  4. Meta-Analysis of Studies Investigating the Effects of Father Absence on Children's Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, Stephanie A.

    A meta-analysis was conducted of 137 studies investigating the effects of father absence due to employment, military service, death, divorce, separation, or desertion on children's cognitive performance as assessed by scores on standardized intelligence, scholastic aptitude, and academic achievement tests and school grades. Aggregation of the…

  5. The world is a scary place? INvestigating Treatments and Assessment for Children after Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diehle, J.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation provides new insights about treatments and assessment for children who experienced traumatic events. We investigated the comparative effectiveness of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) by means of a randomiz

  6. Investigation of Critical Attributes of Mathematics Software Intended for Use by Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Filiz; Colburn, Linda K.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the critical attributes of mathematical software designed for children between the ages of four and seven. This study sought to offer guidelines that will assist software designers in the design of developmentally appropriate educational software. In addition, teachers and parents may benefit from this…

  7. Investigating Autism-Related Symptoms in Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jeffrey A.; Hodgetts, Sandra; Mackenzie, Michelle L.; Haqq, Andrea M.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2017-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a rare genetic disorder caused by the lack of expression of paternal genes from chromosome 15q11-13, has been investigated for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology in various studies. However, previous findings have been variable, and no studies investigating ASD symptomatology in PWS have exclusively studied children. We aimed to characterize social communication functioning and other ASD-related symptoms in children with PWS, and assessed agreement across measures and rates of ASD diagnosis. Measures included the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2 (ADOS-2), the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2), Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS), and the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales-II (VABS-II). General adaptive and intellectual skills were also assessed. Clinical best estimate (CBE) diagnosis was determined by an experienced developmental pediatrician, based on history and review of all available study measures, and taking into account overall developmental level. Participants included 10 children with PWS, aged 3 to 12 years. Three of the 10 children were male and genetic subtypes were two deletion (DEL) and eight uniparental disomy (UPD) (with a total of 6 female UPD cases). Although 8 of the 10 children exceeded cut-offs on at least one of the ASD assessments, agreement between parent questionnaires (SCQ, SRS-2, SSIS-RS) and observational assessment (ADOS-2) was very poor. None of the children were assigned a CBE diagnosis of ASD, with the caveat that the risk may have been lower because of the predominance of girls in the sample. The lack of agreement between the assessments emphasizes the complexity of interpreting ASD symptom measures in children with PWS. PMID:28264487

  8. Investigating Autism-Related Symptoms in Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Bennett

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS, a rare genetic disorder caused by the lack of expression of paternal genes from chromosome 15q11-13, has been investigated for autism spectrum disorder (ASD symptomatology in various studies. However, previous findings have been variable, and no studies investigating ASD symptomatology in PWS have exclusively studied children. We aimed to characterize social communication functioning and other ASD-related symptoms in children with PWS, and assessed agreement across measures and rates of ASD diagnosis. Measures included the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2 (ADOS-2, the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ, Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2, Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS, and the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales-II (VABS-II. General adaptive and intellectual skills were also assessed. Clinical best estimate (CBE diagnosis was determined by an experienced developmental pediatrician, based on history and review of all available study measures, and taking into account overall developmental level. Participants included 10 children with PWS, aged 3 to 12 years. Three of the 10 children were male and genetic subtypes were two deletion (DEL and eight uniparental disomy (UPD (with a total of 6 female UPD cases. Although 8 of the 10 children exceeded cut-offs on at least one of the ASD assessments, agreement between parent questionnaires (SCQ, SRS-2, SSIS-RS and observational assessment (ADOS-2 was very poor. None of the children were assigned a CBE diagnosis of ASD, with the caveat that the risk may have been lower because of the predominance of girls in the sample. The lack of agreement between the assessments emphasizes the complexity of interpreting ASD symptom measures in children with PWS.

  9. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto de; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age.

  10. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  11. Cross-sectional investigation of visual impairing diseases in Shanghai blind children school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jian-feng; ZOU Hai-dong; HE Xian-gui; LU Li-na; ZHAO Rong; XU Hong-mei; LIANG Qing-feng

    2012-01-01

    Background The control of blindness in children is a high priority within the VISION 2020 initiative.To determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children from Shanghai Blind Children School (SBCS) can provide useful information on childhood blindness in Shanghai.Methods A cross-sectional investigation of students in SBCS was conducted in May 2010.The World Health Organization/Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) eye examination record system for children with low vision and blindness was used.The results were further compared with the findings of two previous investigation studies conducted in 1986 and 2004,respectively in SBCS.Results Of the 146 children observed,80 children (54.8%) were blind (best corrected best visual acuity less than 0.05),27 children (18.5%) had severe visual impairment (best corrected visual acuity less than 0.1 but better than or equal to 0.05),and 34 children (23.3%) had moderate visual impairment (best corrected visual acuity less than 0.3 but better than or equal to 0.1).The major affected anatomic sites in the 107 children with severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL) were retina (47.7%),whole globe (16.8%),optic nerve (13.1%) and lens (9.3%).The leading causes of SVI/BL were retinopathy of prematurity (ROP,25.2%),followed by retinal dystrophy (15.9%),optic nerve atrophy (9.3%) and microphthalmos (9.3%).The two leading etiologic categories of SVI/BL were perinatal/neonatal (36.4%) and congenital/hereditary groups (29.0%).The leading cause of moderate visual impairment was aphakia after cataract surgery (congenital cataract,44.1%).Compared with the findings in two previous investigations in SBCS,the proportion of ROP in visual impairing diseases increased,while the proportion of disorders of the lens (cataract and aphakia)significantly decreased.Conclusions The leading cause of childhood blindness in SBCS nowadays is ROP.It is projected that without improvement in perinatal medical

  12. Association between passive smoking and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children with household TB contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaily Zuliartha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Tuberculosis (TB and cigarette consumption are relatively high in Indonesia. Passive smoking may increase the risk of infection and disease in adults and children exposed to TB. An association between passive smoking and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children has not been well documented. Objective To assess for an association between passive smoking and M. tuberculosis infection in children who had household contact with a TB patient. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in February and March 2011. Children aged 5 to 18 years who had household contact with a TB patient underwent tuberculin testing for M. tuberculosis infection. Subjects were divided into two groups: those exposed to passive smoke and those not exposed to passive smoke. Chi-square test was used to assess for an association between passive smoking and M. tuberculosis infection. Results There were 140 children enrolled in this study, with 70 exposed to passive smoke and 70 not exposed to passive smoke. Prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection was significantly higher in the passive smoking group than in those not exposed to passive smoke [81.4% and 52.9%, respectively, (P= 0.0001]. In the passive smoking group there were significant associations between nutritional state, paternal and maternal education, and M. tuberculosis infection. But no associations were found between M. tuberculosis infection and familial income or BCG vaccination. Conclusion Among children who had household contact with a TB patient, they who exposed to passive smoke are more likely to have M. tuberculosis infection compared to they who not exposed to passive smoke.

  13. Association between passive smoking and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children with household TB contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaily Zuliartha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Tuberculosis (TB and cigarette consumption are relatively high in Indonesia. Passive smoking may increase the risk of infection and disease in adults and children exposed to TB. An association between passive smoking and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children has not been well documented. Objective To assess for an association between passive smoking and M. tuberculosis infection in children who had household contact with a TB patient. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in February and March 2011. Children aged 5 to 18 years who had household contact with a TB patient underwent tuberculin testing for M. tuberculosis infection. Subjects were divided into two groups: those exposed to passive smoke and those not exposed to passive smoke. Chi-square test was used to assess for an association between passive smoking and M. tuberculosis infection. Results There were 140 children enrolled in this study, with 70 exposed to passive smoke and 70 not exposed to passive smoke. Prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection was significantly higher in the passive smoking group than in those not exposed to passive smoke [81.4% and 52.9%, respectively, (P= 0.0001]. In the passive smoking group there were significant associations between nutritional state, paternal and maternal education, and M. tuberculosis infection. But no associations were found between M. tuberculosis infection and familial income or BCG vaccination. Conclusion Among children who had household contact with a TB patient, they who exposed to passive smoke are more likely to have M. tuberculosis infection compared to they who not exposed to passive smoke. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:29-34.].

  14. Contact Investigation of Children Exposed to Tuberculosis in South East Asia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Triasih

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Screening of children who are household contacts of tuberculosis (TB cases is universally recommended but rarely implemented in TB endemic setting. This paper aims to summarise published data of the prevalence of TB infection and disease among child contacts in South East Asia. Methods. Search strategies were developed to identify all published studies from South East Asia of household contact investigation that included children (0–15 years. Results. Eleven studies were eligible for review. There was heterogeneity across the studies. TB infection was common among child contacts under 15 years of age (24.4–69.2% and was higher than the prevalence of TB disease, which varied from 3.3% to 5.5%. Conclusion. TB infection is common among children that are household contacts of TB cases in South East Asia. Novel approaches to child contact screening and management that improve implementation in South East Asia need to be further evaluated.

  15. The relation of narcissism and self-esteem to conduct problems in children: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Christopher T; Frick, Paul J; Killian, Amber L

    2003-03-01

    Investigated several possible models to explain the seemingly discrepant relations between self-esteem and conduct problems, as both low self-esteem and exaggerated levels of self-esteem, thought to be captured by narcissism, have been associated with aggressive and antisocial behavior. Our sample consisted of 98 nonreferred children (mean age = 11.9 years; SD = 1.68 years) recruited from public schools to oversample children at risk for severe aggressive and antisocial behavior. Results indicated that certain aspects of narcissism (i.e., those indicating a need to be evaluated well by, and obtain status over, others) were particularly predictive of maladaptive characteristics and outcomes such as low self-esteem, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and conduct problems. In addition, the relation between narcissism and conduct problems was moderated by self-esteem level, such that children with relatively high levels of narcissism and low self-esteem showed the highest rates of conduct-problem symptoms.

  16. The role of voiding cystourethrography in the investigation of children with urinary tract infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda C.; Lorenzo, Armando J.; Koyle, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a common bacterial cause of febrile illness in children. Of children presenting with a febrile UTI, 25–40% are found to have vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Historically, the concern regarding VUR was that it could lead to recurrent pyelonephritis, renal scarring, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. As a result, many children underwent invasive surgical procedures to correct VUR. We now know that many cases of VUR are low-grade and have a high rate of spontaneous resolution. The roles of surveillance, antibiotic prophylaxis, endoscopic injection, and ureteral reimplantation surgery also continue to evolve. In turn, these factors have influenced the investigation of febrile UTIs. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) is the radiographic test of choice to diagnose VUR. Due to its invasive nature and questionable benefit in many cases, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) no longer recommends VCUG routinely after an initial febrile UTI. Nevertheless, these guidelines pre-date the landmark Randomized Intervention of Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux (RIVUR) trial and there continues to be controversy regarding the diagnosis and management of VUR. This paper discusses the current literature regarding radiographic testing in children with febrile UTIs and presents a practical risk-based approach for deciding when to obtain a VCUG. PMID:27713802

  17. Immunization coverage and its determinants among children born in 2008-2009 by questionnaire survey in Zhejiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Chen, Enfu; Li, Qian; Chen, Yaping; Qi, Xiaohua

    2015-03-01

    The study aimed to assess the determinants of immunization coverage in children born in 2008-2009, living in Zhejiang Province. The World Health Organization's cluster sampling technique was applied. Immunization coverage of 5 vaccines was assessed: BCG vaccine, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine, poliomyelitis vaccine, hepatitis B vaccine, and measles-containing vaccine. Determinants for age-appropriate immunization coverage rates were explored using logistic regression models. Immunization coverage of 5 vaccines were all greater than 90%, but the age-appropriate immunization coverage rates for 3 months and for first dose of measles-containing vaccine was 41.3% and 64.5%, respectively. Siblings in household, mother's education level, household registration, socioeconomic level of resident areas, satisfaction with clinical immunization service, and convenient access to local immunization clinic were associated with age-appropriate coverage rates. Age-appropriate immunization coverage rates should be given more attention and should be considered as a benchmark to strive for in the future intervention.

  18. Prevalence, Trajectories, and Risk Factors for Depression among Caregivers of Young Children Involved in Child Maltreatment Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Cecilia; Cross, Theodore P.; Ringeisen, Heather; Christ, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines depression among caregivers of young children involved in investigations of child maltreatment, in terms of 12-month prevalence of depression across 5 to 6 years. Data were from the "National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being," a national probability study of 5,501 children investigated for maltreatment. The study…

  19. [Immunization for children travelling to the tropics: neglected vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, P; Guérin, N; Sorge, F

    2008-06-01

    Each year hundreds of thousands of children leave France to travel to developing countries where they are exposed to infectious agents that can be prevented by vaccination. During the child's pre-travel check-up, practitioners should check that all mandatory immunizations are up-to-date and provide advice on relevant vaccines in function of the epidemiological situation at the chosen destination. However various factors hinder full compliance with this approach and some vaccines are underused. Underused vaccines are referred to as neglected vaccines. In the French vaccination schedule three vaccinations can be considered as neglected. The first is the hepatitis B vaccine that has a low coverage level in France due to strong reluctance to its use despite the fact that the virus is widespread in tropical areas. The second is pneumococcal vaccine that should be administered to all infants less than 2 years of age, especially for travel to areas where pneumonia and meningitis are frequent. The third is BCG vaccine that is now at greater risk of being neglected in child travellers because its use has been downgraded from a general requirement to a recommendation only for children at risk. A serious limitation on the use of travel vaccinations is cost that can lead families to neglect some infectious risk such as hepatitis A that is a major risk for child travellers as well as for their relatives during or after the trip and typhoid fever that is essentially an imported disease. Rabies vaccine is also underused due to its cost and to poor understanding of the risk by many practitioners and families. The purpose of this article is to underline the need to improve information and access to vaccines that are all too often neglected in child travellers.

  20. Can One-Parent Families or Divorced Families Produce Two-Language Children? An Investigation into How Portuguese-English Bilingual Children Acquire Biliteracy within Diverse Family Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obied, Vicky Macleroy

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the emergence of biliteracy in school-aged Portuguese-English bilingual children growing up within diverse family structures in Portugal. The ethnographic research investigated the premise that some children have the opportunity to acquire biliteracy, like their bilingualism, in naturalistic contexts. There are gaps in…

  1. An Investigation into Bilingual Education for Children from Favored Socio-Economic Backgrounds. Problemes linguistiques des enfants de travailleurs migrants (Linguistic Problems of the Children of Migrant Workers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baetens Beardsmore, Hugo

    The investigation reported sought to discover: (1) whether the problems faced by children of favored socio-economic backgrounds residing in countries other than those of origin are the same as or different from those faced by less favored groups, and (2) whether the techniques and programs provided for these privileged children can give any…

  2. Further investigation of confirmed urinary tract infection (UTI in children under five years: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Julie

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Further investigation of confirmed UTI in children aims to prevent renal scarring and future complications. Methods We conducted a systematic review to determine the most effective approach to the further investigation of confirmed urinary tract infection (UTI in children under five years of age. Results 73 studies were included. Many studies had methodological limitations or were poorly reported. Effectiveness of further investigations: One study found that routine imaging did not lead to a reduction in recurrent UTIs or renal scarring. Diagnostic accuracy: The studies do not support the use of less invasive tests such as ultrasound as an alternative to renal scintigraphy, either to rule out infection of the upper urinary tract (LR- = 0.57, 95%CI: 0.47, 0.68 and thus to exclude patients from further investigation or to detect renal scarring (LR+ = 3.5, 95% CI: 2.5, 4.8. None of the tests investigated can accurately predict the development of renal scarring. The available evidence supports the consideration of contrast-enhanced ultrasound techniques for detecting vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR, as an alternative to micturating cystourethrography (MCUG (LR+ = 14.1, 95% CI: 9.5, 20.8; LR- = 0.20, 95%CI: 0.13, 0.29; these techniques have the advantage of not requiring exposure to ionising radiation. Conclusion There is no evidence to support the clinical effectiveness of routine investigation of children with confirmed UTI. Primary research on the effectiveness, in terms of improved patient outcome, of testing at all stages in the investigation of confirmed urinary tract infection is urgently required.

  3. A pilot investigation of feeding problems in children with esophageal atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, R; Levesque, D; Birnbaum, R; Ramsay, M

    2015-04-01

    While many long-term complications of esophageal atresia (EA) have been well investigated, little is known about feeding difficulties in children after surgical correction of EA and its impact on caregivers. This study investigates the feeding behaviors of children with EA through a validated feeding questionnaire. The Montreal Children's Hospital Feeding Scale (MCH-FS) was filled out by the primary caregiver during patient follow-up visits in the multidisciplinary EA clinic. Demographic information, EA subtype, associated anomalies and outcomes were recorded. Results were compared between groups and to a normative sample. Thirty caregivers have completed the MCH-FS; 26 patients had type C atresia (86.7%). In comparison to controls, 17.5% of EA cases are one standard deviation above the mean feeding difficulty score, while 6.7% (n = 2) cases are greater than two standard deviations above normative values. Typical EA patients (type C who were not born Feeding difficulties of patients with typical EA appear mild. Likely explanations include the use of early protocolized care and intensive multidisciplinary care in follow up. Nonetheless, patients with complicated EA (non-type C) and their caregivers tend to experience significant feeding difficulties. Early targeted care may be required for this patient subset, and additional cases will be investigated to confirm these preliminary findings and explore further risk factors of feeding problem in this cohort.

  4. Research on return visit and investigation of the relapse rate of children allergic purpura after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weihong; Zhou, Yudong; Zhang, Sisen; Yang, Fang; Zhuang, Tanyue; Wu, Xinyan

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed to research on return visit and investigation of the relapse rate of children allergic purpura after treatment. Children with allergic purpura were divided into two groups. The treatment group was treated with the adrenocorticotrophic hormone while the control group did not. We tracked and observed two groups of discharged children in the first month and the second month. It can be found that, at the first month, 5 cases recurred in the treatment group with 20 cases, the relapse rate was 25%, 1 case recurred in control group, the relapse rate was 5%; at the second month, 2 cases recurred in treatment group, the relapse rate was 10%, no case recurred in the control group. There were 8 cases recurred in the past two months, and there were no replace after the second time treatment. In contrast, the children, who treated with adrenocorticotrophic hormone, had higher relapse rate, while the control group had lower relapse rate. Then we can get the conclusion that, the application of adrenocorticotrophic hormone may be one of the main reasons to induce the allergic purpura and we should notice and discuss this conclusion in the clinical practice.

  5. An investigation of the reliability of Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) as a method of assessment of children's computing posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockrell, Sara; O'Grady, Eleanor; Bennett, Kathleen; Mullarkey, Clare; Mc Connell, Rachel; Ruddy, Rachel; Twomey, Seamus; Flannery, Colleen

    2012-05-01

    Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) is a quick observation method of posture analysis. RULA has been used to assess children's computer-related posture, but the reliability of RULA on a paediatric population has not been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of the use of RULA with children. Video recordings of 24 school children were independently viewed by six trained raters who assessed their postures using RULA, on two separate occasions. RULA demonstrated higher intra-rater reliability than inter-rater reliability although both were moderate to good. RULA was more reliable when used for assessing the older children (8-12 years) than with the younger children (4-7 years). RULA may prove useful as part of an ergonomic assessment, but its level of reliability warrants caution for its sole use when assessing children, and in particular, younger children.

  6. Cost effectiveness of high resolution computed tomography with interferon-gamma release assay for tuberculosis contact investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowada, Akiko, E-mail: kowadaa@gmail.com [Kojiya Haneda Healthcare Service, Ota City Public Health Office, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Background: Tuberculosis contact investigation is one of the important public health strategies to control tuberculosis worldwide. Recently, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has been reported as a more accurate radiological method with higher sensitivity and specificity than chest X-ray (CXR) to detect active tuberculosis. In this study, we assessed the cost effectiveness of HRCT compared to CXR in combination with QuantiFERON{sup ®}-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) or the tuberculin skin test (TST) for tuberculosis contact investigation. Methods: We constructed Markov models using a societal perspective on the lifetime horizon. The target population was a hypothetical cohort of immunocompetent 20-year-old contacts with smear-positive tuberculosis patients in developed countries. Six strategies; QFT followed by CXR, QFT followed by HRCT, TST followed by CXR, TST followed by HRCT, CXR alone and HRCT alone were modeled. All costs and clinical benefits were discounted at a fixed annual rate of 3%. Results: In the base-case analysis, QFT followed by HRCT strategy yielded the greatest benefit at the lowest cost ($US 6308.65; 27.56045 quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs])[year 2012 values]. Cost-effectiveness was sensitive to BCG vaccination rate. Conclusions: The QFT followed by HRCT strategy yielded the greatest benefits at the lowest cost. HRCT chest imaging, instead of CXR, is recommended as a cost effective addition to the evaluation and management of tuberculosis contacts in public health policy.

  7. The 'experimental stable' of the BCG vaccine: safety, efficacy, proof, and standards, 1921-1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonah, Christian

    2005-12-01

    The anti-tuberculosis BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccine was conceived and developed between 1905 and 1921 at Pasteur Institutes in France. Between 1921 and A. Calmette's death in 1933, the vaccine went through a first period of national and international production and distribution for its use in humans. In France these activities were exclusively carried out by Calmette and his collaborators at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Initially improvised production in a small room in the cellar gave way in 1931 to the construction of the spacious and magnificent 'New laboratories for research on tuberculosis and the preparation of the BCG' within the premises of the Pasteur Institute. Presentation and image-building of the vaccine in France insisted on the fact that the BCG was not a commercial specialty but distributed free of charge. The technical monopoly of its production nevertheless lay with the Paris Pasteur Institute and standardization of scientific proof of safety, efficacy and stability was dominated by that Institute in France. In contrast, the international production and distribution of the vaccine was entrusted and transferred, free of charge, to trustworthy laboratories outside France. Multiplication of producers and users led to an increased need for standardization. For this process the analysis distinguishes between the standardization of scientific proof concerning safety, efficacy and stability of the vaccine and standardization of its medical uses. Whereas standardization was rather successful in the inter-war period in France, the international efforts remained rather unsuccessful. Only after world war II under Scandinavian leadership and in the context of mass vaccination programs supported by the WHO and UNICEF was the international standardization effectively implemented and succeeded at least to some extend.

  8. "PRESUMED SYSTEMIC BACILLE CALMETTE-GUÉRIN DISEASE AFTER BCG VACCINATION: REPORT OF A CLINICAL CASE "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tabatabaie

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available BCG (bacille Calmette–Guérin vaccine is administered worldwide to prevent severe forms of tuberculosis. It is considered to be safe; however, occasional complications are seen. The most serious complication is BCGosis. We report a case of BCGosis with granulomatous hepatitis and acid-fast bacilli in liver and spleen. We treated the patient with antituberculosis drugs without any response to treatment.

  9. BCG vaccination reduces risk of tuberculosis infection in vaccinated badgers and unvaccinated badger cubs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Carter

    Full Text Available Wildlife is a global source of endemic and emerging infectious diseases. The control of tuberculosis (TB in cattle in Britain and Ireland is hindered by persistent infection in wild badgers (Meles meles. Vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG has been shown to reduce the severity and progression of experimentally induced TB in captive badgers. Analysis of data from a four-year clinical field study, conducted at the social group level, suggested a similar, direct protective effect of BCG in a wild badger population. Here we present new evidence from the same study identifying both a direct beneficial effect of vaccination in individual badgers and an indirect protective effect in unvaccinated cubs. We show that intramuscular injection of BCG reduced by 76% (Odds ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.11-0.52 the risk of free-living vaccinated individuals testing positive to a diagnostic test combination to detect progressive infection. A more sensitive panel of tests for the detection of infection per se identified a reduction of 54% (Odds ratio = 0.46, 95% CI 0.26-0.88 in the risk of a positive result following vaccination. In addition, we show the risk of unvaccinated badger cubs, but not adults, testing positive to an even more sensitive panel of diagnostic tests decreased significantly as the proportion of vaccinated individuals in their social group increased (Odds ratio = 0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.76; P = 0.03. When more than a third of their social group had been vaccinated, the risk to unvaccinated cubs was reduced by 79% (Odds ratio = 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-0.81; P = 0.02.

  10. The Impact of Transcriptomics on the Fight against Tuberculosis : Focus on Biomarkers, BCG Vaccination, and Immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarate-Blades, Carlos Rodrigo; Silva, Celio Lopes; Passos, Geraldo A.

    2011-01-01

    In 1882 Robert Koch identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), a disease as ancient as humanity. Although there has been more than 125 years of scientific effort aimed at understanding the disease, serious problems in TB persist that contribute to the estimate

  11. BCG vaccination status may predict sputum conversion in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeremiah, Kidola; PrayGod, George; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Failure to convert (persistent sputum and/or culture positivity) while on antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment at the end of the second month of anti-TB therapy has been reported to be a predictor of treatment failure. Factors that could be associated with persistent bacillary positivity at the end...

  12. Investigating executive functions in children with severe speech and movement disorders using structured tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine eStadskleiv

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions are the basis for goal-directed activity and include planning, monitoring, and inhibition, and language seems to play a role in the development of these functions. There is a tradition of studying executive function in both typical and atypical populations, and the present study investigates executive functions in children with severe speech and motor impairments who are communicating using communication aids with graphic symbols, letters and/or words. There are few neuropsychological studies of children in this group and little is known about their cognitive functioning, including executive functions. It was hypothesized that aided communication would tax executive functions more than speech. 29 children using communication aids and 27 naturally speaking children participated. Structured tasks resembling everyday activities, where the action goals had to be reached through communication with a partner, were used to get information about executive functions. The children a directed the partner to perform actions like building a Lego tower from a model the partner could not see and b gave information about an object without naming it to a person who had to guess what object it was. The executive functions of planning, monitoring and impulse control were coded from the children’s on-task behavior. Both groups solved most of the tasks correctly, indicating that aided communicators are able to use language to direct another person to do a complex set of actions. Planning and lack of impulsivity was positively related to task success in both groups. The aided group completed significantly fewer tasks, spent longer time and showed more variation in performance than the comparison group. The aided communicators scored lower on planning and showed more impulsivity than the comparison group, while both groups showed an equal degree of monitoring of the work progress. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that aided language

  13. Investigating executive functions in children with severe speech and movement disorders using structured tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadskleiv, Kristine; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Batorowicz, Beata; van Balkom, Hans; Dahlgren-Sandberg, Annika; Renner, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions are the basis for goal-directed activity and include planning, monitoring, and inhibition, and language seems to play a role in the development of these functions. There is a tradition of studying executive function in both typical and atypical populations, and the present study investigates executive functions in children with severe speech and motor impairments who are communicating using communication aids with graphic symbols, letters, and/or words. There are few neuropsychological studies of children in this group and little is known about their cognitive functioning, including executive functions. It was hypothesized that aided communication would tax executive functions more than speech. Twenty-nine children using communication aids and 27 naturally speaking children participated. Structured tasks resembling everyday activities, where the action goals had to be reached through communication with a partner, were used to get information about executive functions. The children (a) directed the partner to perform actions like building a Lego tower from a model the partner could not see and (b) gave information about an object without naming it to a person who had to guess what object it was. The executive functions of planning, monitoring, and impulse control were coded from the children's on-task behavior. Both groups solved most of the tasks correctly, indicating that aided communicators are able to use language to direct another person to do a complex set of actions. Planning and lack of impulsivity was positively related to task success in both groups. The aided group completed significantly fewer tasks, spent longer time and showed more variation in performance than the comparison group. The aided communicators scored lower on planning and showed more impulsivity than the comparison group, while both groups showed an equal degree of monitoring of the work progress. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that aided language tax

  14. Neonatal anthropometrics and body composition in obese children investigated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Thagaard, Ida Näslund

    2014-01-01

    index (BFMI), and fat free mass index (FFMI) in obese children and the preceding in utero conditions expressed by birth weight, birth length, and birth weight for gestational age. The study cohort consisted of 776 obese Danish children (median age 11.6 years, range 3.6-17.9) with a mean Body Mass Index......UNLABELLED: Epidemiological and animal studies have suggested an effect of the intrauterine milieu upon the development of childhood obesity. This study investigates the relationship between body composition measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry expressed as body fat percent, body fat mass...... obesity treatment to be significantly correlated with both birth weight and birth weight for gestational age. CONCLUSION: These results indicate a prenatal influence upon childhood obesity. Although there are currently no sufficient data to suggest any recommendations to pregnant women, it is possible...

  15. Urban/Rural Disparity and Migrant Children's Education: An Investigation into Schools for Children of Transient Workers in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaoqing, Lu; Shouli, Zhang

    2004-01-01

    In the study of compulsory education for transient children, Beijing Xingzhi School for the Children of Transient Workers is a good example. There is no question that this is the most well-known school to date for transient children in China, and it has to a certain extent become a symbol of this social issue. The initial reports regarding this…

  16. Investigating the Effects of Asthma Medication on the Cognitive and Psychosocial Functioning of Primary School Children with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of asthma medication on the cognitive and psychosocial functioning of primary school children with asthma are investigated. A questionnaire survey was conducted in a primary school in Stellenbosch (South Africa) with a population of six hundred and thirty-five students. Among these students, fifty-nine asthmatic children were…

  17. An Investigation of Preschool Children's Family Functions: A General Outlook on the Family from the Mother's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Baran; Guven, Yildiz

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to investigate preschool children's family functions. To fulfill this aim, mothers' viewpoints and characteristics (e.g., educational level, age, number of children, time spent in Istanbul, relations with spouse, employment status, relatives living in the same house, and perceived economic level) have been considered. The study…

  18. Non-Verbal Behavior of Children Who Disclose or Do Not Disclose Child Abuse in Investigative Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Carmit; Hershkowitz, Irit; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lamb, Michael E.; Atabaki, Armita; Spindler, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study focused on children's nonverbal behavior in investigative interviews exploring suspicions of child abuse. The key aims were to determine whether non-verbal behavior in the pre-substantive phases of the interview predicted whether or not children would disclose the alleged abuse later in the interview and to identify…

  19. Perceptions of Children's Television Advertising: An Empirical Investigation of the Beliefs and Attitudes of Consumer, Industry, and Government Respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, James D.

    This paper summarizes the findings of a study investigating the beliefs and attitudes of six key respondent groups regarding issues surrounding television advertising and children. The six groups included in the study are spokesmen for Action for Children's Television (ACT); the presidents and top executive officers of advertising agencies…

  20. Decontextualized Language Production in Two Languages: An Investigation of Children's Word Definition Skills in Korean and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jennifer Yusun

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors that contribute to bilingual children's decontextualized language production and investigate how schooling experience and bilingualism affect the development of this skill. The word definition skills of seventy Korean-English bilingual children whose first language was Korean, yet who had been schooled in…

  1. Children's rights: reasoning and their level of moral development: an empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peens, B J; Louw, D A

    2000-01-01

    Children's reasoning about their rights is largely determined by their level of development. Since rights-reasoning concerns essentially moral issues, the best foundation to contextualise the developmental process mentioned would be to consider a moral-developmental approach. In this regard Kohlberg's theory of moral development has been found to be the primary theory that researchers have built on. The article focuses on an empirical investigation done with 312 South African children of varying ages, cultures and language groups into their level of moral-development and rights-reasoning. The two questionnaires used were Kohlberg's Standard Issue Score (Form B) and Melton's Children's Rights Interview. The most important findings made were that Kohlberg's theory of universalizability and unvariant order of sequence along with its applicability to gender and culture was confirmed for this South African study. Furthermore an important correlation between rights-reasoning development and level of moral ethical development was made which implies that an interdependent relationship exists between them.

  2. Investigation and Evaluation of Children's Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-05-28

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents' occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant.

  3. Investigating Efficacy of Melatonin and Gabapentin in Reducing Anxiety and Pain of Lumbar Puncture in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Fallah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The lumbar puncture is one of the most important diagnostic and therapeutic procedures within children which child’s non-cooperativeness and procedural sedation are regarded necessary to conduct it. This study aimed to compare efficacy and safety of melatonin and gabapentin in reducing anxiety and pain of lumbar puncture in children. Methods: In a parallel single-blinded randomized clinical trial, sixty children aged 6 months -7 years, were evaluated in Pediatric Ward of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, in Yazd (Iran in 2012. The children were distributedrandomly into two groups (30 children in each group. In group one, they received 0.3 mg/kg/dose of melatonin and theother group received 15 mg/kg/dose of gabapentin. Primary endpoints were success rate in reducing anxiety (anxiety score of≥ four and reducing pain when the needle was inserted to skin for lumbarpuncture (pain score of less than four. The clinicalside effects were investigated as well. Results: Twenty two girls (36.7% and 38 boys (63.3% with mean age of 2.79 ± 1.92 years were evaluated. Anxiety reduction (achieving the anxiety score of ≥ four was obtained in 43.3% in melatonin and in 36.7% in gabapentin groups, respectively and both drugs were equally effective in anxiety reduction (p.value = 0.598.Pain reduction ( achieving the pain score of less than four was obtained in 23.3% in melatonin and in 50% in gabapentin groups, respectively and thus, gabapentin wasproved to be more effective in pain reduction (p.value = 0.032.Mild side effects were observed in 10% of melatonin group and in 16.7% of gabapentin group. No statistically significant differences were seen from viewpoint of safety between the two drugs (p.value=0.448. Conclusion: Melatonin and gabapentin were not effective drugs in anxiety reduction for lumbar puncture of children. However, gabapentin is a safe and effective drug in pain reduction in painful diagnostic therapeutic procedures.

  4. Gaze-based rehearsal in children under 7: a developmental investigation of eye movements during a serial spatial memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Candice C; Mareva, Silvana; Lelonkiewicz, Jaroslaw R; Chevalier, Nicolas

    2017-03-12

    The emergence of strategic verbal rehearsal at around 7 years of age is widely considered a major milestone in descriptions of the development of short-term memory across childhood. Likewise, rehearsal is believed by many to be a crucial factor in explaining why memory improves with age. This apparent qualitative shift in mnemonic processes has also been characterized as a shift from passive visual to more active verbal mnemonic strategy use, but no investigation of the development of overt spatial rehearsal has informed this explanation. We measured serial spatial order reconstruction in adults and groups of children 5-7 years old and 8-11 years old, while recording their eye movements. Children, particularly the youngest children, overtly fixated late-list spatial positions longer than adults, suggesting that younger children are less likely to engage in covert rehearsal during stimulus presentation than older children and adults. However, during retention the youngest children overtly fixated more of the to-be-remembered sequences than any other group, which is inconsistent with the idea that children do nothing to try to remember. Altogether, these data are inconsistent with the notion that children under 7 do not engage in any attempts to remember. They are most consistent with proposals that children's style of remembering shifts around age 7 from reactive cue-driven methods to proactive, covert methods, which may include cumulative rehearsal.

  5. An Investigation on 3-6-Year-Old Chinese Children's Perception of "Death"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yan; Cao, Yanhua; Han, Min

    2017-01-01

    Because of the taboo in Chinese culture, there is little research on Chinese children's perception of "death". The research on preschoolers' cognition of "death" could deepen our research on children's cognition process, guide children's life education, and improve the psychologic intervention on the children who experience…

  6. Characterising Developmental Language Impairment in Serbian-Speaking Children: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Mile; Stojanovik, Vesna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to provide preliminary data on the use of auxiliaries and clitics in Serbian-speaking children with developmental language impairment. Two groups of children (a group of 30 children with developmental language impairment and a group of 30 typically developing children) aged between 48 and 83 months and matched on IQ took…

  7. An Investigation of the Fantasy Predisposition and Fantasy Style of Children with Imaginary Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouldin, Paula

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the author tested whether children with imaginary companions (ICs) have a different fantasy life than do children without ICs. To measure the fantasy life of the 74 children aged 3.2 to 8.7 years, the author modified the Children's Fantasy Interview (E. Rosenfeld, L. R. Huesmann, L. D. Eron, & J. V. Torney-Purta, 1982) to make…

  8. Investigating the autonomic nervous system response to anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushki, Azadeh; Drumm, Ellen; Pla Mobarak, Michele; Tanel, Nadia; Dupuis, Annie; Chau, Tom; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of anxiety symptoms in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a challenging task due to the symptom overlap between the two conditions as well as the difficulties in communication and awareness of emotions in ASD. This motivates the development of a physiological marker of anxiety in ASD that is independent of language and does not require observation of overt behaviour. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using indicators of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity for this purpose. Specially, the objectives of the study were to 1) examine whether or not anxiety causes significant measurable changes in indicators of ANS in an ASD population, and 2) characterize the pattern of these changes in ASD. We measured three physiological indicators of the autonomic nervous system response (heart rate, electrodermal activity, and skin temperature) during a baseline (movie watching) and anxiety condition (Stroop task) in a sample of typically developing children (n = 17) and children with ASD (n = 12). The anxiety condition caused significant changes in heart rate and electrodermal activity in both groups, however, a differential pattern of response was found between the two groups. In particular, the ASD group showed elevated heart rate during both baseline and anxiety conditions. Elevated and blunted phasic electrodermal activity were found in the ASD group during baseline and anxiety conditions, respectively. Finally, the ASD group did not show the typical decrease in skin temperature in response to anxiety. These results suggest that 1) signals of the autonomic nervous system may be used as indicators of anxiety in children with ASD, and 2) ASD may be associated with an atypical autonomic response to anxiety that is most consistent with sympathetic over-arousal and parasympathetic under-arousal.

  9. Investigating the Autonomic Nervous System Response to Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushki, Azadeh; Drumm, Ellen; Pla Mobarak, Michele; Tanel, Nadia; Dupuis, Annie; Chau, Tom; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of anxiety symptoms in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a challenging task due to the symptom overlap between the two conditions as well as the difficulties in communication and awareness of emotions in ASD. This motivates the development of a physiological marker of anxiety in ASD that is independent of language and does not require observation of overt behaviour. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using indicators of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity for this purpose. Specially, the objectives of the study were to 1) examine whether or not anxiety causes significant measurable changes in indicators of ANS in an ASD population, and 2) characterize the pattern of these changes in ASD. We measured three physiological indicators of the autonomic nervous system response (heart rate, electrodermal activity, and skin temperature) during a baseline (movie watching) and anxiety condition (Stroop task) in a sample of typically developing children (n = 17) and children with ASD (n = 12). The anxiety condition caused significant changes in heart rate and electrodermal activity in both groups, however, a differential pattern of response was found between the two groups. In particular, the ASD group showed elevated heart rate during both baseline and anxiety conditions. Elevated and blunted phasic electrodermal activity were found in the ASD group during baseline and anxiety conditions, respectively. Finally, the ASD group did not show the typical decrease in skin temperature in response to anxiety. These results suggest that 1) signals of the autonomic nervous system may be used as indicators of anxiety in children with ASD, and 2) ASD may be associated with an atypical autonomic response to anxiety that is most consistent with sympathetic over-arousal and parasympathetic under-arousal. PMID:23577072

  10. Investigating the autonomic nervous system response to anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Kushki

    Full Text Available Assessment of anxiety symptoms in autism spectrum disorders (ASD is a challenging task due to the symptom overlap between the two conditions as well as the difficulties in communication and awareness of emotions in ASD. This motivates the development of a physiological marker of anxiety in ASD that is independent of language and does not require observation of overt behaviour. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using indicators of autonomic nervous system (ANS activity for this purpose. Specially, the objectives of the study were to 1 examine whether or not anxiety causes significant measurable changes in indicators of ANS in an ASD population, and 2 characterize the pattern of these changes in ASD. We measured three physiological indicators of the autonomic nervous system response (heart rate, electrodermal activity, and skin temperature during a baseline (movie watching and anxiety condition (Stroop task in a sample of typically developing children (n = 17 and children with ASD (n = 12. The anxiety condition caused significant changes in heart rate and electrodermal activity in both groups, however, a differential pattern of response was found between the two groups. In particular, the ASD group showed elevated heart rate during both baseline and anxiety conditions. Elevated and blunted phasic electrodermal activity were found in the ASD group during baseline and anxiety conditions, respectively. Finally, the ASD group did not show the typical decrease in skin temperature in response to anxiety. These results suggest that 1 signals of the autonomic nervous system may be used as indicators of anxiety in children with ASD, and 2 ASD may be associated with an atypical autonomic response to anxiety that is most consistent with sympathetic over-arousal and parasympathetic under-arousal.

  11. Social Anxiety Symptoms in Young Children: Investigating the Interplay of Theory of Mind and Expressions of Shyness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonnesi, Cristina; Nikolić, Milica; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-09-24

    Children's early onset of social anxiety may be associated with their social understanding, and their ability to express emotions adaptively. We examined whether social anxiety in 48-month-old children (N = 110; 54 boys) was related to: a) a lower level of theory of mind (ToM); b) a lower proclivity to express shyness in a positive way (adaptive); and c) a higher tendency to express shyness in a negative way (non-adaptive). In addition, we investigated to what extent children's level of social anxiety was predicted by the interaction between ToM and expressions of shyness. Children's positive and negative expressions of shyness were observed during a performance task. ToM was measured with a validated battery, and social anxiety was assessed using both parents' reports on questionnaires. Socially anxious children had a lower level of ToM, and displayed more negative and less positive shy expressions. However, children with a lower level of ToM who expressed more positive shyness were less socially anxious. Additional results show that children who displayed shyness only in a negative manner were more socially anxious than children who expressed shyness only in a positive way and children who did not display any shyness. Moreover, children who displayed both positive and negative expressions of shyness were more socially anxious than children who displayed shyness only in a positive way. These findings highlight the importance of ToM development and socio-emotional strategies, and their interaction, on the early development of social anxiety.

  12. Investigation of parabens in commercial cosmetics for children in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Li, Jie; Tian, Hanmei; Ding, Xiaojing

    2013-01-01

    Parabens are one of the most common preservatives in cosmetics. Because allergenicity and cytotoxicity potential values are major aspects of preservative safety and parabens are xenoestrogens, safety levels of parabens have been restricted in "Hygienic Standard for Cosmetics" (2007 edition) by the Ministry of Public Health of China, and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the simultaneous determination of parabens is recommended. To investigate whether the commonly used parabens in children's cosmetics were at a safety level, 105 cosmetics for children were randomly purchased from the local market in Beijing and analyzed by the proposed HPLC method. The detection rate of methylparaben was the highest and the next was propylparaben. Among the 105 samples, two or more kinds of parabens were detected in 72 samples with concentrations ranging from 0.02% to 0.75%; 18 samples contained one kind of paraben with concentrations ranging from 0.002% to 0.06%. In this study, the contents of parabens in the 105 samples were all below the restricted levels.

  13. Investigation of physical performance parameters of children aged 12-14 years

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    Murat Özşaker

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the physical performance parameters and to determine the profiles of children aged 12-14 years and attending the secondary stage of public schools in Izmir province. The study included a total of 650 voluntary students (323 girls, and 327 boys attending the 6th, 7th and 8th classes. Physical parameters of students were evaluated with tests selected from Fitnessgram, American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD and Eurofit Test Battery (Muscle Strength: hand grip strength, standing long jump; Muscle Resistance: pull-up; Flexibility: sit and reach test; Cardiovascular Endurance:1 mile running test (1609 m endurance running; Speed: 30 m sprint.Statistical analysis of data was made by Two-Way Variance Analysis in SPSS 15.0 packet software, and Further Bonferroni analysis was used for age.As a result of the study, performance parameters of children aged 12-14 years were determined to be lower than those reported by similar studies made on the same age group. Among the reasons, there are lack of physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, inadequate physical education and sport class and the reflections of education system.

  14. Investigation of physical performance parameters of children aged 12-14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Özşaker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the physical performance parameters and to determine the profiles of children aged 12-14 years and attending the secondary stage of public schools in Izmir province. The study included a total of 650 voluntary students (323 girls, and 327 boys attending the 6th, 7th and 8th classes. Physical parameters of students were evaluated with tests selected from Fitnessgram, American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD and Eurofit Test Battery (Muscle Strength: hand grip strength, standing long jump; Muscle Resistance: pull-up; Flexibility: sit and reach test; Cardiovascular Endurance:1 mile running test (1609 m endurance running; Speed: 30 m sprint.Statistical analysis of data was made by Two-Way Variance Analysis in SPSS 15.0 packet software, and Further Bonferroni analysis was used for age. As a result of the study, performance parameters of children aged 12-14 years were determined to be lower than those reported by similar studies made on the same age group. Among the reasons, there are lack of physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, inadequate physical education and sport class and the reflections of education system.

  15. Executive function and psychosocial adjustment in healthy children and adolescents: A latent variable modelling investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Adam R

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish latent executive function (EF) and psychosocial adjustment factor structure, to examine associations between EF and psychosocial adjustment, and to explore potential development differences in EF-psychosocial adjustment associations in healthy children and adolescents. Using data from the multisite National Institutes of Health (NIH) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Study of Normal Brain Development, the current investigation examined latent associations between theoretically and empirically derived EF factors and emotional and behavioral adjustment measures in a large, nationally representative sample of children and adolescents (7-18 years old; N = 352). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was the primary method of data analysis. CFA results revealed that, in the whole sample, the proposed five-factor model (Working Memory, Shifting, Verbal Fluency, Externalizing, and Internalizing) provided a close fit to the data, χ(2)(66) = 114.48, p psychosocial adjustment associations. Findings indicate that childhood EF skills are best conceptualized as a constellation of interconnected yet distinguishable cognitive self-regulatory skills. Individual differences in certain domains of EF track meaningfully and in expected directions with emotional and behavioral adjustment indices. Externalizing behaviors, in particular, are associated with latent Working Memory and Verbal Fluency factors.

  16. A Tuberculin Skin Test Survey and the Annual Risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Gambian School Children.

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    Ifedayo M O Adetifa

    Full Text Available A Tuberculin skin test (TST survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of latent TB Infection (LTBI and to estimate the annual risk of M. tuberculosis infection (ARTI in Gambian school children. The results are expected to contribute to understanding of Tuberculosis epidemiology in The Gambia.This was a nationwide, multi-cluster survey in children aged 6-11 years. Districts, 20 of 37, were selected by probability proportional to size and schools by simple random sampling. All TST were performed using the Mantoux method. Height and weight measurements were obtained for all participants. We calculated prevalence of LTBI using cut-off points of 10mm, the mirror and mixture modelling methods.TST readings were completed 13,386 children with median age of 9 years (interquartile range [IQR] 8-10 years. Mixture analysis yielded a cut-off point of 12 mm, and LTBI prevalence of 6.9% [95%CI 6.47-7.37] and the ARTI was 0.75% [95%CI 0.60-0.91]. LTBI was associated gender and urban residence (p <0.01. Nutritional status was not associated with non-reactive TST or sizes of TST indurations. ARTI did not differ significantly by age, gender, BCG vaccination or residence.This estimates for LTBI prevalence and ARTI were low but this survey provides updated data. Malnutrition did not affect estimates of LTBI and ARTI. Given the low ARTI in this survey and the overlapping distribution of indurations with mixture modelling, further surveys may require complementary tests such as interferon gamma release assays or novel diagnostic tools.

  17. Investigation of a reinforcement-based toilet training procedure for children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Frank R; Pfadt, Al

    2002-01-01

    Independent toileting is an important developmental skill which individuals with developmental disabilities often find a challenge to master. Effective toilet training interventions have been designed which rely on a combination of basic operant principles of positive reinforcement and punishment. In the present study, the effectiveness of a reinforcement-based toilet training intervention was investigated with three children with a diagnosis of autism. Procedures included a combination of positive reinforcement, graduated guidance, scheduled practice trials and forward prompting. Results indicated that all procedures were implemented in response to urination accidents. A three participants reduced urination accidents to zero and learned to spontaneously request use of the bathroom within 7-11 days of training. Gains were maintained over 6-month and 1-year follow-ups. Findings suggest that the proposed procedure is an effective and rapid method of toilet training, which can be implemented within a structured school setting with generalization to the home environment.

  18. Using Simulations to Investigate the Longitudinal Stability of Alternative Schemes for Classifying and Identifying Children with Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatschneider, Christopher; Wagner, Richard K.; Hart, Sara A.; Tighe, Elizabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    The present study employed data simulation techniques to investigate the 1-year stability of alternative classification schemes for identifying children with reading disabilities. Classification schemes investigated include low performance, unexpected low performance, dual-discrepancy, and a rudimentary form of constellation model of reading…

  19. The Development of an Online Research Tool to Investigate Children's Social Bonds with Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Dana Nathalie; Evers, Vanessa

    As children are increasingly exposed to robots, it is important to learn more about the social interaction and bond that may develop between robots and children. In this paper we report the development of an interactive tool to measure children's attitudes toward social robots for children ages 6-10. A first version of the KidSAR instrument was tested and a pilot study was carried out to evaluate and improve the design of the KidSAR (Children's Social Attitude toward Robots) tool. The pilot study involved a small scale field experiment assessing whether children feel more social connection with a robot in a caring role compared with a role where it needed to be taken care of. The final KidSAR tool was developed after evaluation of children's responses and observation of children using the tool.

  20. Psychological complaints reported by sexually abused children during criminal investigations: Istanbul example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğangün, Burak; Gönültaş, Burak M; Uzun-Oğuz, Esin; Oral, Gökhan; Öztürk, Meral

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims at describing the psychological complaints reported, as a part of the criminal investigation process, by the victims of sexual abuse as a part of the criminal investigation process, without attempting at reaching a medical diagnosis; and it discusses the relation of these reports with variables such as victim's gender, age and relation to the offender, type and duration of abuse, and parental marital status of the victim. Data is obtained from the statements of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) victims under the age of 15, as taken by Istanbul Juvenile Justice Department between the years 2009 and 2012. The sample consists of 175 cases with a total of 202 victim statements. Through the use of content analysis, the main and sub-categories of themes of the statements were determined. By means of the evaluation of the psychological condition of victims, we evaluated them in two categories: psychological complaints including self-harm and risk taking behaviors and psychological complaints with no self-harm and risk taking behaviors. The statistical analyses yield significant relations between the psychological complaints and children's parental marital status. Analysis of initial statements of sexual abuse victims is important as it may greatly contribute to professionals diagnosing and treating psychological complaints of these victims. It is essential that victims of sexual abuse should receive immediate psychological support starting with the criminal investigation process.

  1. Investigation of Copy Number Variation in Children with Conotruncal Heart Defects

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    Carla Marques Rondon Campos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital heart defects (CHD are the most prevalent group of structural abnormalities at birth and one of the main causes of infant morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown a contribution of the copy number variation in the genesis of cardiac malformations. Objectives: Investigate gene copy number variation (CNV in children with conotruncal heart defect. Methods: Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA was performed in 39 patients with conotruncal heart defect. Clinical and laboratory assessments were conducted in all patients. The parents of the probands who presented abnormal findings were also investigated. Results: Gene copy number variation was detected in 7/39 patients: 22q11.2 deletion, 22q11.2 duplication, 15q11.2 duplication, 20p12.2 duplication, 19p deletion, 15q and 8p23.2 duplication with 10p12.31 duplication. The clinical characteristics were consistent with those reported in the literature associated with the encountered microdeletion/microduplication. None of these changes was inherited from the parents. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that the technique of MLPA is useful in the investigation of microdeletions and microduplications in conotruncal congenital heart defects. Early diagnosis of the copy number variation in patients with congenital heart defect assists in the prevention of morbidity and decreased mortality in these patients.

  2. Investigation of Copy Number Variation in Children with Conotruncal Heart Defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Carla Marques Rondon, E-mail: carlamcampos@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, MT (Brazil); Zanardo, Evelin Aline; Dutra, Roberta Lelis [Departamento de Patologia - Laboratório de Citogenômica - LIM 03 - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Patologia - Laboratório de Citogenômica - LIM 03 - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kim, Chong Ae [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most prevalent group of structural abnormalities at birth and one of the main causes of infant morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown a contribution of the copy number variation in the genesis of cardiac malformations. Investigate gene copy number variation (CNV) in children with conotruncal heart defect. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was performed in 39 patients with conotruncal heart defect. Clinical and laboratory assessments were conducted in all patients. The parents of the probands who presented abnormal findings were also investigated. Gene copy number variation was detected in 7/39 patients: 22q11.2 deletion, 22q11.2 duplication, 15q11.2 duplication, 20p12.2 duplication, 19p deletion, 15q and 8p23.2 duplication with 10p12.31 duplication. The clinical characteristics were consistent with those reported in the literature associated with the encountered microdeletion/microduplication. None of these changes was inherited from the parents. Our results demonstrate that the technique of MLPA is useful in the investigation of microdeletions and microduplications in conotruncal congenital heart defects. Early diagnosis of the copy number variation in patients with congenital heart defect assists in the prevention of morbidity and decreased mortality in these patients.

  3. Brief Report: Pilot Investigation of Service Receipt by Young Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, John D.; Huculak, Susan; Sheehan, Debbie

    2008-01-01

    Whether children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families are receiving recommended assessments and services is poorly known. This pilot study examined service receipt as reported by parents of young children with ASD (n = 64) from four specialty centers in Canada. While almost all children had a speech and language assessment…

  4. A Multidimensional Investigation of Children's /r/ Productions: Perceptual, Ultrasound, and Acoustic Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Harriet B.; McAllister Byun, Tara; Davidson, Lisa; Grigos, Maria I.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored relationships among perceptual, ultrasound, and acoustic measurements of children's correct and misarticulated /r/ sounds. Longitudinal data documenting changes across these parameters were collected from 2 children who acquired /r/ over a period of intervention and were compared with data from children with typical…

  5. Fries or a fruit bag? Investigating the nutritional composition of fast food children's meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Lyndal; Glasson, Colleen; Chapman, Kathy

    2012-02-01

    The impact of children's fast food meals on their daily nutritional requirements has not been assessed in Australia. Analysis of the nutritional composition of children's meals from six fast food chains was conducted. The energy, saturated fat, sugar and sodium content of all children's meals from the chains were assessed against the fast food industry-defined nutrient criteria for healthy meals and children's recommended daily nutritional requirements, as defined by the Nutrient Reference Values and the Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents in Australia. Overall children's fast food meals are high in saturated fat, sugar and sodium. Only 16% and 22% of meals met the industry's nutrient criteria for children aged 4-8 and 9-13 years, respectively. Seventy-two percent of fast food meals exceeded 30% of the daily energy recommendations for 4 year old children, and 90% of meals exceeded 30% of the upper limit for sodium for children aged 4-8. Some meals also exceeded the upper limit for sodium and daily saturated fat recommendations for children aged 4-8 years. Reformulation of children's meals to improve their nutritional composition and revision of the industry's nutrient criteria to align with children's dietary requirements are urgently needed.

  6. A Preliminary Investigation of a Specialized Music Therapy Model for Children with Disabilities Delivered in a Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Yasmine; Hans, Laura; Adebari, Richard; Goldsmith, Ali; Ozler, Burcu; Buehne, Kristen; Jones, Sarah; Shapleton, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Music therapy is gaining popularity as an intervention strategy for children with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study was a pilot investigation of a classroom-based music-based intervention, Voices Together®, for improving communication skills in children with ASD and children with intellectual disabilities. Four local public elementary school special education classrooms, serving 5 children with a classification of autistic disorder and 32 children with intellectual disability without autism, were randomly selected to receive one of two levels of exposure to Voices Together music therapy: “long-term” (15 weeks beginning in January 2015 (Time 1), n = 14) or “short-term” (7 weeks beginning 7 weeks later in February (Time 2), n = 17). Using observational ratings, investigators reliably scored participants live in terms of their level of verbal responsiveness to prompts during three songs featured each week of the program. Both groups demonstrated increases in verbal responses over time; however, only the long-term group demonstrated significant within-group increases. Preliminary findings suggest that music therapy delivered in a classroom in 45-minute weekly sessions for 15 weeks can promote improvements in verbal responsiveness among individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy of classroom-based music therapy programs. PMID:27999683

  7. A Preliminary Investigation of a Specialized Music Therapy Model for Children with Disabilities Delivered in a Classroom Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Mendelson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Music therapy is gaining popularity as an intervention strategy for children with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD. This study was a pilot investigation of a classroom-based music-based intervention, Voices Together®, for improving communication skills in children with ASD and children with intellectual disabilities. Four local public elementary school special education classrooms, serving 5 children with a classification of autistic disorder and 32 children with intellectual disability without autism, were randomly selected to receive one of two levels of exposure to Voices Together music therapy: “long-term” (15 weeks beginning in January 2015 (Time 1, n=14 or “short-term” (7 weeks beginning 7 weeks later in February (Time 2, n=17. Using observational ratings, investigators reliably scored participants live in terms of their level of verbal responsiveness to prompts during three songs featured each week of the program. Both groups demonstrated increases in verbal responses over time; however, only the long-term group demonstrated significant within-group increases. Preliminary findings suggest that music therapy delivered in a classroom in 45-minute weekly sessions for 15 weeks can promote improvements in verbal responsiveness among individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy of classroom-based music therapy programs.

  8. An investigation into the relationship among ADHD symptomatology, creativity, and neuropsychological functioning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Dione; Rucklidge, Julia J

    2006-12-01

    This paper examined the relationship between creativity and ADHD symptomatology. First, the presence of ADHD symptomatology within a creative sample was explored. Secondly, the relationship between cognitive functioning and ADHD symptomatology was examined by comparing four groups, aged 10-12 years: 1) 29 ADHD children without creativity, 2) 12 creative children with ADHD symptomatology, 3) 18 creative children without ADHD symptomatology, and 4) 30 controls. Creativity, intelligence, processing speed, reaction time, working memory, and inhibitory control were measured. Results showed that 40% of the creative children displayed clinically elevated levels of ADHD symptomatology, but none met full criteria for ADHD. With regard to cognitive functioning, both ADHD and creative children with ADHD symptoms had deficits in naming speed, processing speed, and reaction time. For all other cognitive measures the creative group with ADHD symptoms outperformed the ADHD group. These findings have implications for the development and management of creative children.

  9. Is there a correlation between the size of the BCG scar and renal scar of urinary tract infections in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Kavukçu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pyelonephritis cause cellular death, and developmentof scars in kidneys. The aim of this study is todemonstrate a correlation (if any between renal scar, andsize of the scar induced by BCG vaccine in children whohad experienced urinary tract infections. In case of detectionof any correlation, BCG scar formation can be usedas a determinative marker of renal scars, which developfollowing urinary tract infection.Methods: Patients with a history of urinary tract infectionat least 4 months old who had undergone 99mTcDMSAscanning were included in this study. Vertical and horizontaldiameters of BCG scars of the patients in the studygroup were measured. For statistical analysis the greatestdiameter was taken into consideration, and the patientswere divided into 2 subgroups based on the greatest diameterof their BCG scars (Subgroups 1, ≤5 mm, and 2,>5 mm. The patients were also evaluated in 2 groupsas those with (Group 1 or without (Group 2 scars. Bothgroups were compared with subgroups with the largestscar diameters of ≤ 5mm or >5 mmResults: Study population included 108 (82 girls patients.DMSA detected scars in a total of 51 patients.Mean ages of the patients with and without scars were notdifferent (p=0.414. No significant difference was found insize of the BCG scars between renal scar positive andnegative groups (p>0.05.Conclusion: No correlation was found between developmentof renal scar and the size of BCG scar in childrenafter urinary tract infection. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (1:8-12Key words: BCG scar, renal scar, urinary tract infection,children

  10. A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Educational Attainment of Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tors, Barbara

    The total number of children affected by divorce has more than tripled since 1960, even though the total number of children has declined from the 1970s to the 1980s. In 1988 female-headed households with children and no spouse present constituted 44.7 percent of all families at or below the poverty level. The purpose of this paper is to show that…

  11. Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Disease due to IL-12Rβ1 Deficiency in Three Iranian Children

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    Shokouh azam SARRAFZADEH

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD is a rare inheritance syndrome, characterized by a disseminated infection with mycobacterium in children following BCG vaccination at birth. Regarding the vaccination program in Iran, it may consider as a public health problem. The pathogenesis of MSMD is dependent on either insufficient production of IFN-gamma (γ or inadequate response to it. Here, we want to introduce three cases including two siblings and one girl from two unrelated families with severe mycobacterial infections referred to Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute (IAARI, from 2013 to 2015; their MSMD was confirmed by both cytokine assessment and genetic analysis. Regarding the clinical features of the patients, cell proliferation against a mitogen and BCG antigen was ordered in a lymphocyte transformation test (LTT setting. ELISA was performed for the measurement of IL-12p70 and IFN- γ in whole blood samples activated by BCG + recombinant human IFN-γ and BCG + recombinant human IL-12, respectively. In contrast to mitogen, the antigen-dependent proliferation activity of the patients’ leukocytes was significantly lower than that in normal range. We identified a homozygous mutation in IL12RB1 gene for two kindred who had a homozygous mutation affecting an essential splice site. For the third patient, a novel frameshift deletion in IL12RB1 gene was found. The genetic study results confirmed the impaired function of stimulated lymphocytes to release IFN-γ following stimulation with BCG+IL-12 while the response to rhIFN-γ for IL-12p70 production was relatively intact. Our findings show that cellular and molecular assessments are needed for precise identification of immunodeficiency disorders especially those without clear-cut diagnostic criteria. Keywords: Mendelian, IL-12Rβ1 Deficiency, Interfron-gamma, Interleukin 12, Mycobacterium

  12. 警惕儿童结缔组织疾病合并结核感染%Awareness of children with connective tissue diseases combined tuberculosis infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何威逊; 郭桂梅

    2011-01-01

    结缔组织病患儿本身存在多种免疫紊乱,大剂量皮质激素、免疫抑制剂的应用加重了细胞免疫缺陷,生物制剂进一步增加了结核感染的风险.结缔组织病合并结核感染临床表现复杂,有时很难鉴别是原发疾病活动还足结核感染.肺部影像学检查是临床诊断结核病的主要手段,QFT-G试验和T-SPOT.TB开辟了辅助诊断新途径.应详细询问结核接触史、卡介苗接种史,常规进行血清结核杆菌抗体检测及PPD皮试.临床高度提示结核感染者,应给予诊断性抗结核治疗.%There are many immune disorders in children with connective tissue diseases. The use of high dose of steroid and immunosuppressant would aggravate cellular immunity defects. Biological agents would further increase the risk of tuberculosis infection. The clinical manifestations are very complex in children with connective tissue diseases combined tuberculosis infection. It is difficult to distinguish between connective tissue disease activity and tuberculosis infection. Lung imaging is the primary means of diagnose of tuberculosis infection. Quanti FERON-TB Gold test and TSPOT.TB test had been developed to assist diagnosis. For children with connective tissue diseases, TB contact history and BCG vaccination history should be inquired, and serum TB antibody and PPD skin test should be performed. Diagnostic treatment should be conducted when tuberculosis infection is highly suspected.

  13. Investigating Use of a Parent Report Tool to Measure Vocabulary Development in Deaf Greek-Speaking Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktapoti, Maria; Okalidou, Areti; Kyriafinis, George; Petinou, Kakia; Vital, Victor; Herman, Rosalind

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There are very few measures of language development in spoken Greek that can be used with young deaf children. This study investigated the use of Cyprus Lexical List (CYLEX), a receptive and expressive vocabulary assessment based on parent report that has recently been adapted to Standard Greek, to measure the vocabulary development of…

  14. Investigating the Place and Meaning of "Physical Education" to Preschool Children: Methodological Lessons from a Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvilly, Nollaig

    2015-01-01

    Preschool physical education has not been extensively researched. Furthermore, research in physical activity and physical education rarely seeks young children's perspectives. The current paper focuses on one aspect of a post-structural study concerned with investigating the place and meaning of "physical education" to practitioners and…

  15. Investigating the validity of a structured interview protocol for assessing the preferences of children with autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuur, R.; Didden, H.C.M.; Meer, L. van der; Achmadi, D.; Kagohara, D.; Green, V.A.; Lang, R.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the congruent validity of a structured interview protocol for assessing the preferences of seven children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHOD: Using the structured interview protocol described by Green et al., parents were asked to provide a rank ordering of their chi

  16. Investigating the Social Engagement of Children with Autism in Mainstream Schools for the Purpose of Identifying Learning Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    The social needs of children with autism are complex, and their inclusion in mainstream schools necessitates a consideration of the nature of a child's participation in peer culture and how it is received by others. The case study reported here sought to investigate the social engagement of a child with autism and his peers using naturalistic…

  17. An Investigation of Comorbid Psychological Disorders, Sleep Problems, Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Epilepsy in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, Arlene; Leader, Geraldine; Healy, Olive

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated comorbidity in eighty-nine children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Ireland. Comorbidity is the presence of one or more disorders in addition to a primary disorder. The prevalence of comorbid psychological disorders, behaviours associated with comorbid psychopathology, epilepsy, gastrointestinal…

  18. An Investigation into Risks Awareness and E-Safety Needs of Children on the Internet: A Study of Devon, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annansingh, Fenio; Veli, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate children interaction in cyberspace and their use of Web 2.0 technologies. It sought their perception of internet risks as well as their knowledge and experience with electronic safety (e-safety) measures. It also considered parents', teachers' and other stakeholders' perception of internet risks, e-safety…

  19. An Investigation of the Security of Caregiver Attachment during Middle Childhood in Children with High-Functioning Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Felicity; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has investigated caregiver attachment relationships in children with autism during early childhood, with few differences found from matched control groups. However, little is known of this relationship during middle childhood (ages 8-12 years). In this study, the aim was to establish whether there are differences in the security…

  20. Caregiver reports of serious injuries in children who remain at home after a child protective services investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U; Leslie, Laurel K; Hurlburt, Michael S; Zhang, Jinjin; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2012-02-01

    The study objectives were to examine serious injuries requiring medical attention among children who remain at home after a child welfare/child protective services (CPS) maltreatment investigation in the US and to determine whether child/caregiver characteristics and ongoing CPS involvement are related to injuries requiring medical attention. Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being, we analyzed data on the subsample of children who remained at home (N = 3,440). A multivariate logistic regression model included child characteristics, chronic illness and disability in the child, level of CPS involvement, subsequent foster care placement, caregiver characteristics, and caregiver/family psychological variables. Injuries requiring medical attention were identified in 10.6% of the in-home population over a 15-month period, with no differences in rates by age. Children with a chronic medical condition (OR = 2.07; 95% CI, 1.20-3.58) and children with depressed caregivers (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 1.45-3.58) were more likely to have an injury that required medical care. Older caregivers (>54 years) were less likely (OR = 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.69) to have a child with an injury requiring care. Injuries were not related to further involvement with CPS after the initial maltreatment investigation. Children with chronic medical conditions who remained in their biological homes or whose caregivers were depressed were likely to experience an injury requiring medical attention. Older caregivers were less likely to report a child injury. Extending existing health policies for foster children to children who remain at home following referral to CPS may encourage more comprehensive injury prevention for this population.

  1. Sources of Stress among Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Investigation in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldosari, Mubarak S.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified differences in sources of stress between parents of male children with intellectual disabilities in Saudi Arabia. Seventeen pairs of parents completed the Parent Stress Index (Abidin, 1995). Each pair of parents had a male child diagnosed with intellectual disability who either attended an institute for male children with…

  2. Investigating Negotiation of Meaning in EFL Children with Very Low Levels of Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Amparo; Azpilicueta-Martinez, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies hold that interaction has beneficial effects on second language acquisition among adults and children in second language contexts. However, data from children learning English as a foreign language are still unavailable. In order to fill this research niche, this study examines the conversational interactions of 8 pairs of young…

  3. An Investigation of Children's Peer Trust across Culture: Is the Composition of Peer Trust Universal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Lucy R.; Rotenberg, Ken J.; Petrocchi, Serena; Lecciso, Flavia; Sakai, Atsushi; Maeshiro, Kazumi; Judson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The components of children's trust in same-gender peers (trust beliefs, ascribed trustworthiness, and dyadic reciprocal trust) were examined in samples of 8-11-year-olds from the UK, Italy, and Japan. Trust was assessed by children's ratings of the extent to which same-gender classmates kept promises and kept secrets. Social relations analyses…

  4. The Force of Gardening: Investigating Children's Learning in a Food Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Monica; Duhn, Iris

    2015-01-01

    School gardens are becoming increasingly recognised as important sites for learning and for bringing children into relationship with food. Despite the well-known educational and health benefits of gardening, children's interactions with the non-human entities and forces within garden surroundings are less understood and examined in the wider…

  5. The Effects of Sleep Disturbance on School Performance: A Preliminary Investigation of Children Attending Elementary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Laura; Guarnera, Manuela; Mazzone, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disorders in children are common. Sleep plays an important role in children's development and sleep disorders can have a substantial impact on their quality of life. Indeed, sleep is crucial for physical growth, behavior, and emotional development and it is also closely related to cognitive functioning, learning and attention, and…

  6. Children's Understanding of Advertising: An Investigation Using Verbal and Pictorially Cued Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Laura; Auty, Susan; Lewis, Charlie; Berridge, Damon

    2007-01-01

    Conflicting results on children's understanding of advertising may stem from differences in research methods. Most studies are conducted using interviewing techniques, employing only verbal questioning. In the present study, 136 children of two age groups (7 and 10 years) were first asked what advertising was for and, after responding, shown…

  7. The Effects of Sleep Disturbance on School Performance: A Preliminary Investigation of Children Attending Elementary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Laura; Guarnera, Manuela; Mazzone, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disorders in children are common. Sleep plays an important role in children's development and sleep disorders can have a substantial impact on their quality of life. Indeed, sleep is crucial for physical growth, behavior, and emotional development and it is also closely related to cognitive functioning, learning and attention, and therefore…

  8. Empirical Investigation of the Psychosocial Functioning of Children Raised by Grandparents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Oliver W.

    2009-01-01

    Empirical studies describing the functioning of children raised by their grandparents are noticeably limited, yet custodial grandparenting has become a prominent alternate family structure. Grandparents may function better as surrogate parents than abusive parents, nonrelatives, or foster caregivers. Although many children raised by their…

  9. Investigation and management of foreign body ingestion in children at a major paediatric trauma unit in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Delport

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The age distribution and types of FBs ingested are comparable to other published studies, though the investigation and management of FBs varied widely. Most patients with FB ingestion had several radiographs performed, exposing them to potentially harmful radiation. The use of a hand-held metal detector in emergency centres could reduce the number of radiographs performed. Guidelines for the investigation and management of FB ingestions in children in SA are necessary.

  10. The treatment of H.pylori infected adults and children in Volgograd: pharmaco-epidemilological investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnitskaya O.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article represents results of pharmacoepidemiological research of H.pylori eradication treatment of adults and children in Volgograd. The aim was to determine H. pylori pharmacotherapy stereotypes and compare with international experts' recommendations. Material and Methods. There were analyzed CRFs of 94 adults and 132 children with H.pylori associated diseases in Volgograd region. Results. There were identified mistakes of treatment regimes and eradication control principles. Conclusion. The treatment of H.pylori infected adults and children in Volgograd does not match to international experts' recommendations.

  11. Early diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination associated with higher female mortality and no difference in male mortality in a cohort of low birthweight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin

    2012-01-01

    Studies from low-income countries have suggested that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine provided after Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a negative effect on female survival. The authors examined the effect of DTP in a cohort of low birthweight (LBW) infants....

  12. The investigation of the level of preschool children with eyesight problems functional state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedova O.O.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Separate characteristics of the functional state of preschool children with eyesight problems are shown in the article. The study included children of all age groups: younger, middle and older – 35 girls and 42 boys. During testing were determined: the functional state of cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the vestibular analyses, the length of sound audibility during the air conduction are determined in the article. The results suggest that the functional state of preschool children with vision problems somewhat below normal. Baseline data of the age dynamics of the functional state of preschool children with vision problems revealed that performance improved with age. In the sexual aspect, it was found that the performance of boys, mostly higher than that of girls.

  13. A prospective investigation of borderline personality disorder in abused and neglected children followed up into adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; Paris, Joel

    2009-10-01

    Child abuse has been implicated as a risk factor for borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet few prospective longitudinal studies exist. The current study examined whether 500 individuals with documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect were at elevated risk of BPD in adulthood, compared to 396 demographically similar control children. Results indicated that significantly more abused and/or neglected children overall met criteria for BPD as adults, compared to controls, as did physically abused and neglected children. Having a parent with alcohol/drug problems and not being employed full-time, not being a high school graduate, and having a diagnosis of drug abuse, major depressive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder were predictors of BPD and mediated the relationship between childhood abuse/neglect and adult BPD. These results call attention to a heightened risk of BPD in physically abused and neglected children and the need to consider multiple pathways to BPD.

  14. An Investigation of Spatial Hearing in Children with Normal Hearing and with Cochlear Implants and the Impact of Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misurelli, Sara M.

    The ability to analyze an "auditory scene"---that is, to selectively attend to a target source while simultaneously segregating and ignoring distracting information---is one of the most important and complex skills utilized by normal hearing (NH) adults. The NH adult auditory system and brain work rather well to segregate auditory sources in adverse environments. However, for some children and individuals with hearing loss, selectively attending to one source in noisy environments can be extremely challenging. In a normal auditory system, information arriving at each ear is integrated, and thus these binaural cues aid in speech understanding in noise. A growing number of individuals who are deaf now receive cochlear implants (CIs), which supply hearing through electrical stimulation to the auditory nerve. In particular, bilateral cochlear implants (BICIs) are now becoming more prevalent, especially in children. However, because CI sound processing lacks both fine structure cues and coordination between stimulation at the two ears, binaural cues may either be absent or inconsistent. For children with NH and with BiCIs, this difficulty in segregating sources is of particular concern because their learning and development commonly occurs within the context of complex auditory environments. This dissertation intends to explore and understand the ability of children with NH and with BiCIs to function in everyday noisy environments. The goals of this work are to (1) Investigate source segregation abilities in children with NH and with BiCIs; (2) Examine the effect of target-interferer similarity and the benefits of source segregation for children with NH and with BiCIs; (3) Investigate measures of executive function that may predict performance in complex and realistic auditory tasks of source segregation for listeners with NH; and (4) Examine source segregation abilities in NH listeners, from school-age to adults.

  15. An Investigation of the Overlap Among Disinhibited Eating Behaviors in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Barzin, M., Hosseinpanah, F., Fekri, S., & Azizi, F. (2011). Predictive value ofbody mass index and waist circumference for metabolic syndrome in 6-12...significant public health threat among children and adolescents. The identification of common risk factors promoting obesity and eating disorders in youth...and loss of control eating-appear to elevate risk for eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology, and weight problems among children

  16. Motor and functional skills of children with developmental coordination disorder: a pilot investigation of measurement issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Sylvia; Ziviani, Jenny; Watter, Pauline; Ozanne, Anne; Woodyatt, Gail; Springfield, Elizabeth

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports on the motor and functional outcomes of 20 children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) aged 4-8 years consecutively referred to a pediatric physiotherapy service. Children with a Movement ABC (M-ABC) score less than the 15th percentile, and with no concurrent medical, sensory, physical, intellectual or neurological impairments, were recruited. The Motor Assessment Outcomes Model (MAOM) [Coster and Haley, Infants and Young Children 4 (1992) 11] provided the theoretical base for measurement selection, and preliminary findings at the activities and participation levels of the model are reported in this article. Children with DCD performed at the lower end of the normal range on the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (fine motor total score) (M=85.65, SD=12.23). Performance on the Visual Motor Integration Test (VMI) standard scores was within the average range (M=96.15, SD=10.69). Videotaped observations of the children's writing and cutting indicated that 29% were left-handed and that a large proportion of all children (31%) utilized unusual pencil grasp patterns and immature prehension of scissors. Measurement at the participation level involved use of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance (PCSA) and Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Overall, these young children rated themselves towards the more competent and accepted end of the PCSA over the dimensions of physical and cognitive competence and peer and maternal acceptance. The PEDI revealed generally average performance on social (M=49.98, SD=16.62) and mobility function (M=54.71, SD=3.99), however, self-care function was below the average range for age (M=38.01, SD=12.19). The utility of the MAOM as a framework for comprehensive measurement of functional and motor outcomes of DCD in young children is discussed.

  17. Growth impairment after TBI of leukemia survivors children: a model- based investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Galletto, Chiara; Gliozzi, Antonio; Nucera, Daniele; Bertorello, Nicoletta; Biasin, Eleonora; Corrias, Andrea; Chiabotto, Patrizia; Fagioli, Franca; Guiot, Caterina

    2014-01-01

    Background Children receiving Total Body Irradiation (TBI) in preparation for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) are at risk for Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD), which sometimes severely compromises their Final Height (FH). To better represent the impact of such therapies on growth we apply a mathematical model, which accounts both for the gompertzian-like growth trend and the hormone-related ‘spurts’, and evaluate how the parameter values estimated on the children undergoing TBI ...

  18. Cytomorphometric and clinical investigation of the gingiva before and after low-level laser therapy of gingivitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igic, Marija; Mihailovic, Dragan; Kesic, Ljiljana; Milasin, Jelena; Apostolovic, Mirjana; Kostadinovic, Ljiljana; Janjic, Olivera Trickovic

    2012-07-01

    Gingival epithelial cells are the first physical barrier against periodontal pathogenic microorganisms. Bacterial products may penetrate the epithelium and directly disturb its integrity. We investigated the clinical and cytomorphological status of the gingiva in children with gingivitis before and after low-level laser therapy. The study enrolled 130 children divided into three groups: group 1 comprised 50 children with chronic catarrhal gingivitis who received basic treatment, group 2 comprised 50 children with chronic catarrhal gingivitis who received low-level laser treatment in addition to basic treatment, and group 3 comprised 30 children with healthy gingiva as controls. Oral hygiene and the status of the gingiva were assessed using the appropriate indexes before and after treatment. Inflammation of the gingiva was monitored by cytomorphometric evaluation. Cytomorphometric analysis revealed a statistically significant difference (p gingivitis. Evaluation using clinical parameters showed that treatment of gingivitis with basic treatment was successful. Cytomorphometric analysis showed that after basic treatment the nuclei of the stratified squamous epithelial cells of the gingiva were reduced in size, although not to the size found in healthy gingiva. However, after adjuvant low-level laser therapy, the size of the nuclei of the stratified squamous epithelial cells in the gingiva matched the size of the nuclei in the cells in healthy gingiva.

  19. Prospective Investigation of Video Game Use in Children and Subsequent Conduct Disorder and Depression Using Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Etchells

    Full Text Available There is increasing public and scientific concern regarding the long-term behavioural effects of video game use in children, but currently little consensus as to the nature of any such relationships. We investigated the relationship between video game use in children, degree of violence in games, and measures of depression and a 6-level banded measure of conduct disorder. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used. A 3-level measure of game use at age 8/9 years was developed, taking into account degree of violence based on game genre. Associations with conduct disorder and depression, measured at age 15, were investigated using ordinal logistic regression, adjusted for a number of potential confounders. Shoot-em-up games were associated with conduct disorder bands, and with a binary measure of conduct disorder, although the strength of evidence for these associations was weak. A sensitivity analysis comparing those who play competitive games to those who play shoot-em-ups found weak evidence supporting the hypothesis that it is violence rather than competitiveness that is associated with conduct disorder. However this analysis was underpowered, and we cannot rule out the possibility that increasing levels of competition in games may be just as likely to account for the observed associations as violent content. Overall game exposure as indicated by number of games in a household was not related to conduct disorder, nor was any association found between shoot-em-up video game use and depression.

  20. Prospective Investigation of Video Game Use in Children and Subsequent Conduct Disorder and Depression Using Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Adam D.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing public and scientific concern regarding the long-term behavioural effects of video game use in children, but currently little consensus as to the nature of any such relationships. We investigated the relationship between video game use in children, degree of violence in games, and measures of depression and a 6-level banded measure of conduct disorder. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used. A 3-level measure of game use at age 8/9 years was developed, taking into account degree of violence based on game genre. Associations with conduct disorder and depression, measured at age 15, were investigated using ordinal logistic regression, adjusted for a number of potential confounders. Shoot-em-up games were associated with conduct disorder bands, and with a binary measure of conduct disorder, although the strength of evidence for these associations was weak. A sensitivity analysis comparing those who play competitive games to those who play shoot-em-ups found weak evidence supporting the hypothesis that it is violence rather than competitiveness that is associated with conduct disorder. However this analysis was underpowered, and we cannot rule out the possibility that increasing levels of competition in games may be just as likely to account for the observed associations as violent content. Overall game exposure as indicated by number of games in a household was not related to conduct disorder, nor was any association found between shoot-em-up video game use and depression. PMID:26820149

  1. Prospective Investigation of Video Game Use in Children and Subsequent Conduct Disorder and Depression Using Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchells, Peter J; Gage, Suzanne H; Rutherford, Adam D; Munafò, Marcus R

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing public and scientific concern regarding the long-term behavioural effects of video game use in children, but currently little consensus as to the nature of any such relationships. We investigated the relationship between video game use in children, degree of violence in games, and measures of depression and a 6-level banded measure of conduct disorder. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used. A 3-level measure of game use at age 8/9 years was developed, taking into account degree of violence based on game genre. Associations with conduct disorder and depression, measured at age 15, were investigated using ordinal logistic regression, adjusted for a number of potential confounders. Shoot-em-up games were associated with conduct disorder bands, and with a binary measure of conduct disorder, although the strength of evidence for these associations was weak. A sensitivity analysis comparing those who play competitive games to those who play shoot-em-ups found weak evidence supporting the hypothesis that it is violence rather than competitiveness that is associated with conduct disorder. However this analysis was underpowered, and we cannot rule out the possibility that increasing levels of competition in games may be just as likely to account for the observed associations as violent content. Overall game exposure as indicated by number of games in a household was not related to conduct disorder, nor was any association found between shoot-em-up video game use and depression.

  2. Investigating the Grammatical and Pragmatic Origins of Wh-Questions in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyotishi, Manya; Fein, Deborah; Naigles, Letitia

    2017-01-01

    Compared to typically developing children, children with autism (ASD) show delayed production of wh-questions. It is currently controversial the degree to which such deficits derive from social-pragmatic requirements and/or because these are complex grammatical structures. The current study employed the intermodal preferential looking (IPL) paradigm, which reduces social-pragmatic demands. The IPL paradigm can help distinguish these proposals, as successful comprehension promotes the “pragmatics-origins” argument whereas comprehension difficulties would implicate a “grammatical-origins” argument. Additionally, we tested both the linguistic and social explanations by assessing the contributions of children's early grammatical knowledge (i.e., SVO word order) and their social-pragmatic scores on the Vineland to their later wh-question comprehension. Fourteen children with ASD and 17 TD children, matched on language level, were visited in their homes at 4-month intervals. Comprehension of wh-questions and SVO word order were tested via IPL: the wh-question video showed a costumed horse and bird serving as agents or patients of familiar transitive actions. During the test trials, they were displayed side by side with directing audios (e.g., “What did the horse tickle?”, “What hugged the bird?”, “Where is the horse/bird?”). Children's eye movements were coded offline; the DV was their percent looking to the named item during test. To show comprehension, children should look longer at the named item during a where-question than during a subject-wh or object-wh question. Results indicated that TD children comprehended both subject and object wh-questions at 32 months of age. Comprehension of object-wh questions emerged chronologically later in children with ASD compared to their TD peers, but at similar levels of language. Moreover, performance on word order and social-pragmatic scores independently predicted both groups' later performance on wh

  3. Ten Steps to a Conducting Large, Multi-site, Longitudinal Investigation of Language and Reading in Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Language and Reading Research eConsortium

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper describes methodological procedures involving execution of a large-scale, multi-site longitudinal study of language and reading comprehension in young children. Researchers in the Language and Reading Research Consortium (LARRC developed and implemented these procedures to ensure data integrity across multiple sites, schools, and grades. Specifically, major features of our approach, as well as lessons learned, are summarized in ten steps essential for successful completion of a large-scale longitudinal investigation in early grades. Method: Over five years, children in preschool through third grade were administered a battery of 35 higher- and lower-level language, listening, and reading comprehension measures. Data were collected from children, their teachers, and their parents/guardians at four sites across the United States. Substantial and rigorous effort was aimed toward maintaining consistency in processes and data management across sites for children, assessors, and staff. Conclusion: With appropriate planning, flexibility, and communication strategies in place, LARRC developed and executed a successful multi-site longitudinal research study that will meet its goal of investigating the contribution and role of language skills in the development of children’s listening and reading comprehension. Through dissemination of our design strategies and lessons learned, research teams embarking on similar endeavors can be better equipped to anticipate the challenges.

  4. Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis by score system in children and adolescents: a trial in a reference center in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemax Couto Sant'Anna

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 2002, the Brazilian Ministry of Health has recommended a score system for tuberculosis diagnosis of children and adolescents that does not need bacteriological positivity, because most cases in this age group have few bacteria. An observational, transversal study was carried out at the outpatient health care service of the reference medical service in Salvador, Bahia, including 164 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, with ages ranging between 1 and 15 years of age, who were treated from 1990 to 2001. The gold standard used to establish the diagnosis was clinical, radiological, epidemiological and based on follow-up data. The score system for diagnosis purposes was tested retrospectively. The median age and the average age of the 164 patients were 6 and 6.62 years (SD ± 4.33, respectively. About 65% of the sample reported a history of close contact with a tuberculous adult. The BCG vaccine coverage was 70.7% (116/164. It was found that 26% (43/164 of the patients had severe malnutrition. Out of this group, 26/43 (60.47% were < 5mm reactive to the tuberculin test. On the other hand, out of the 91 patients with tuberculin test < 5mm, 29% (26/ 91 had severe malnutrition. The use of the score gave the following distribution: a TB very likely in 81.7% (134/164 of the patients; b possible TB in 15.9% (26/164 and TB unlikely in 2.4% (4/164. Among patients who had been vaccinated more than 2 years before, there was a 9 times higher risk of finding a tuberculin test above 10 mm in individuals with probable TB in comparison with the patients with possible or unlikely TB.

  5. An investigation to validate the grammar and phonology screening (GAPS test to identify children with specific language impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather K J van der Lely

    larger investigation is warranted in children with SLI and other developmental disorders.

  6. An investigation of gait in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: a case controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nicole; McGinley, Jennifer L; Bradshaw, John L; Rinehart, Nicole J

    2014-08-30

    This study aimed to compare the gait of children with ADHD - Combined Type (ADHD-CT) to typically developing (TD) children. Children with ADHD-CT (n=14; mean age 10 years 4 months) and a TD group (n=13; mean age 10 years 9 months) walked at self-selected slow, preferred and fast speed on an electronic walkway system. Participants completed a total of 15 walking trials; 5 trials per walking condition. Groups were matched on age, intellectual functioning, height and weight. In the preferred walking condition, there was no difference in spatio-temporal gait variables between the ADHD-CT and TD control groups. At self-selected fast speed, children with ADHD-CT were faster and walked with a higher cadence. The subtle alterations in gait pattern that may reflect a timing deficit is consistent with previous ADHD motor studies. In addition, this study extends previous studies in characterising the unique gait profile of non-medicated children with ADHD-CT where a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder has been ruled out.

  7. Do children with autism 'switch off' to speech sounds? An investigation using event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2008-07-01

    Autism is a disorder characterized by a core impairment in social behaviour. A prominent component of this social deficit is poor orienting to speech. It is unclear whether this deficit involves an impairment in allocating attention to speech sounds, or a sensory impairment in processing phonetic information. In this study, event-related potentials of 15 children with high functioning autism (mean nonverbal IQ = 109.87) and 15 typically developing children (mean nonverbal IQ = 115.73) were recorded in response to sounds in two oddball conditions. Participants heard two stimulus types: vowels and complex tones. In each condition, repetitive 'standard' sounds (condition 1: vowel; condition 2: complex tone) were replaced by a within stimulus-type 'deviant' sound and a between stimulus-type 'novel' sound. Participants' level of attention was also varied between conditions. Children with autism had significantly diminished obligatory components in response to the repetitive speech sound, but not to the repetitive nonspeech sound. This difference disappeared when participants were required to allocate attention to the sound stream. Furthermore, the children with autism showed reduced orienting to novel tones presented in a sequence of speech sounds, but not to novel speech sounds presented in a sequence of tones. These findings indicate that high functioning children with autism can allocate attention to novel speech sounds. However, they use top-down inhibition to attenuate responses to repeated streams of speech. This suggests that problems with speech processing in this population involve efferent pathways.

  8. Serologic Investigations in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk

    2009-01-01

    Patients and methods. The study comprised 95 children at the ages of 2 to 18 years. The diagnosis of IBD was established on the basis of Porto criteria. Tests of blood serum were performed in all children: IgA and IgG ASCA, p-ANCA, c-ANCA using ELISA method. Results. IgE-dependent FA was found in 32.5% children with UC and in 21% with CD. We did not observe any relation between the occurrence of FA and the frequency and ASCA titre. p-ANCA were significantly more frequent in the group of children with UC. The occurrence of ASCA antibodies was observed in 73.7% of children with CD, 17.5% with UC and almost 30% with allergic colitis. Conclusions. Patients with CD and the presence of ASCA revealed a significantly more frequent localization of lesions within the small bowel and a tendency towards older age. We observed a connection between the occurrence of antibodies and the examined mutations of gene NOD2/CARD15.

  9. Exploring story grammar structure in the book reading interactions of African American mothers and their preschool children: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Yvette R; Rothstein, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to identify the book reading behaviors and book reading styles of middle class African American mothers engaged in a shared book reading activity with their preschool children. To this end, the mothers and their children were videotaped reading one of three books, Julius, Grandfather and I, or Somewhere in Africa. Both maternal and child behaviors were coded for the frequency of occurrence of story grammar elements contained in their stories and maternal behaviors were also coded for their use of narrative eliciting strategies. In addition, mothers were queried about the quality and quantity of book reading/story telling interactions in the home environment. The results suggest that there is a great deal of individual variation in how mothers use the story grammar elements and narrative eliciting strategies to engage their children in a shared book reading activity. Findings are discussed in terms of suggestions for additional research and practical applications are offered on ways to optimally engage African American preschool children and African American families from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds in shared book reading interactions.

  10. A 5-Year Investigation of Children's Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Localized Ependymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu Shengjie; Xiong Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies have the potential to preserve cognitive outcomes in children with ependymoma; however, functional behavior remains uninvestigated. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intelligence quotient (IQ) and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years after irradiation in children diagnosed with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 123 children with intracranial ependymoma. Mean age at irradiation was 4.60 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.85-5.35). Serial neurocognitive evaluations, including an age-appropriate IQ measure and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), were completed before irradiation, 6 months after treatment, and annually for 5 years. A total of 579 neurocognitive evaluations were included in these analyses. Results: Baseline IQ and VABS were below normative means (P<.05), although within the average range. Linear mixed models revealed stable IQ and VABS across the follow-up period, except for the VABS Communication Index, which declined significantly (P=.015). Annual change in IQ (-.04 points) did not correlate with annual change in VABS (-.90 to +.44 points). Clinical factors associated with poorer baseline performance (P<.05) included preirradiation chemotherapy, cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, number and extent of surgical resections, and younger age at treatment. No clinical factors significantly affected the rate of change in scores. Conclusions: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies provided relative sparing of functional outcomes including IQ and adaptive behaviors, even in very young children. Communication skills remained vulnerable and should be the target of preventive and rehabilitative interventions.

  11. Is executive function specifically impaired in children with neurofibromatosis type 1? A neuropsychological investigation of cognitive flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arnaud; Barbarot, Sébastien; Roulin, Jean-Luc; Charbonnier, Valérie; Fasotti, Luciano; Stalder, Jean-François; Le Gall, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Our study investigated spontaneous versus reactive cognitive flexibility in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and their comorbidity with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thirty children with NF1 aged 7 to 12 years old were compared to 60 healthy controls matched by age, gender, and parental education. On the basis of Eslinger and Grattan's definition ( 1993 ), spontaneous shifting was assessed using fluency tests, whereas reactive flexibility was measured by a child adaptation of the Modified Card-Sorting Test and the Brixton Test. IQ and basic skills were taken into account as confounding variables that might influence executive measures. NF1 children performed below the level of healthy children on both reactive flexibility tasks, even when intelligence and basic skills were partialled out, but ADHD symptomatology was not found to adversely affect the performance of patients. Our findings support the hypothesis of a specific executive impairment in NF1, uncovering a dissociation between (impaired) reactive flexibility and (preserved) spontaneous shifting, with no impact of ADHD on executive performance.

  12. Investigating the effects of tic suppression on premonitory urge ratings in children and adolescents with Tourette's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himle, Michael B; Woods, Douglas W; Conelea, Christine A; Bauer, Christopher C; Rice, Kevin A

    2007-12-01

    Tics represent a complex class of behaviors that have a neurobiological origin and are influenced by factors both internal and external to the individual. One factor that has gained recent attention is the premonitory urge. Contemporary behavioral models suggest that some tics are preceded by aversive somatic urges that increase in severity when tics are suppressed and are attenuated by performance of the tic. It has been proposed that the removal of premonitory urges may strengthen or maintain tics via negative reinforcement. This investigation is the first to empirically evaluate the effect of tic suppression on the premonitory urge phenomenon. Five children and adolescents, ages 8-17years, participated in the study. Using an ABAB reversal design, tic frequency and subjective premonitory urge ratings were recorded under conditions of free-to-tic baseline (BL) and reinforced tic suppression (differential reinforcement of zero-rate behavior). Results show that four of the five children demonstrated reliable suppression. Of the four children who achieved suppression, three demonstrated a pattern in which subjective urge ratings were higher during suppression than during BL. Results provide preliminary support for the negative reinforcement view of tic function for some children.

  13. A Longitudinal Investigation of the Effects of a School Intervention Program on Children's Social Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Daniel; And Others

    The Child Development Project (CDP) is a school-based program designed to foster children's social, ethical, and intellectual development through activities emphasizing cooperative learning, developmental discipline, social understanding, interpersonal helping, and prosocial values. The CDP was implemented in kindergarten through fourth grade by…

  14. "Spiritual Friends": An Investigation of Children's Spirituality in the Context of British Urban Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkinshaw, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This article argues relational consciousness of Self and Other is influenced by multiple significant relationships--what are termed "Spiritual Friends". The research on which this article is based explores the spirituality of children within the context of British urban secondary education, and identifies significant relationships in…

  15. An Investigation of Social Skills in Children with Different Perfectionism Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Emel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze social skills in children with different perfectionism. The participants were 514 (254 females and 260 males) elementary school students. Data were collected from "multidimensional perfectionism scale" and "Matson evaluation of social skills with youngsters". In order to analyze data, t…

  16. Age-related changes in error processing in young children: A school-based investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie K. Grammer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth in executive functioning (EF skills play a role children's academic success, and the transition to elementary school is an important time for the development of these abilities. Despite this, evidence concerning the development of the ERP components linked to EF, including the error-related negativity (ERN and the error positivity (Pe, over this period is inconclusive. Data were recorded in a school setting from 3- to 7-year-old children (N = 96, mean age = 5 years 11 months as they performed a Go/No-Go task. Results revealed the presence of the ERN and Pe on error relative to correct trials at all age levels. Older children showed increased response inhibition as evidenced by faster, more accurate responses. Although developmental changes in the ERN were not identified, the Pe increased with age. In addition, girls made fewer mistakes and showed elevated Pe amplitudes relative to boys. Based on a representative school-based sample, findings indicate that the ERN is present in children as young as 3, and that development can be seen in the Pe between ages 3 and 7. Results varied as a function of gender, providing insight into the range of factors associated with developmental changes in the complex relations between behavioral and electrophysiological measures of error processing.

  17. Gifted & Green: Sustainability/Environmental Science Investigations That Promote Gifted Children's Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Stephen T.; Helfer, Jason A.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental studies provide an ideal opportunity for gifted children of any age to build critical and creative-thinking skills while also building skills in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) areas. Exploring issues related to sustainability and environmental concerns permits gifted learners to identify problems, develop…

  18. Investigating the Measurement Properties of the Social Responsiveness Scale in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Szatmari, Peter; Georgiades, Stelios; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Smith, Isabel M.; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Thompson, Ann; Bennett, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement properties of the Social Responsiveness Scale in an accelerated longitudinal sample of 4-year-old preschool children with the complementary approaches of categorical confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis. Measurement models based on the literature and other hypothesized measurement…

  19. An investigation on the effect of emotional management problems on children's anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Afshari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s research on emotion regulation reveals its importance on many mental and physical heath related issues. One of the problems to deregulation of emotions is anxiety disorders subject. The aim of this research is to identify the relationship between emotional management problems including emotional inhibition, emotional deregulation and emotional coping on children’s anxiety symptoms, where it includes separation anxiety, social anxiety, panic disorder, school phobia and generalized anxiety symptoms. The sample was consisted of 307 primary students including boy and girl aged between 9-13 years old in city of Isfahan selected by simple random sampling. The instruments were Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders (SCARED, child Sadness Management Scale (CSMS and child Anger Management Scale (CAMS. The results shows that problems of children in management of anger and sadness consist of anger and sadness inhibition; anger and sadness deregulation predicts anxiety symptoms in children (p<0.0001. However, emotional coping could not predict children's anxiety symptoms, significantly. In addition, deregulation and inhibition of sadness and anger predicts anxiety in children.

  20. Children's Production and Application of Story Imagery: A Cross-Medium Investigation. Technical Report Number 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibbert, Martha M.; Meringoff, Laurene K.

    A study examined how children visualize, draw, and make inferences about story content presented either aurally on tape or as an animated film. Audio versions of the story were manipulated to include short descriptions, in either literal or nonliteral language, directly analogous to the film's visual depiction at four points in the story. These…

  1. A Preliminary Investigation of Communication Skills among Rural Hawaiian Children. Technical Report No. 73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciborowski, Tom; Price-Williams, D.

    Fifty-six bidialectical rural Hawaiian children participated in a study to determine whether they possessed comparable communicative competence in both dialects (Hawaiian-Creole English and standard English). The subjects, selected from kindergarten, first, third, and sixth grades, worked in groups of two to complete a communication task. Half of…

  2. Investigating acculturation, diet, and physical activity among Chinese-American children aged 9-13 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acculturation among those of Chinese descent may be related to changes in diet and physical activity. Research to understand the acculturative process early in life is important; however, there is no qualitative research directly with Chinese-American children. This study, currently in progress, a...

  3. Investigation of the applicability of dry powder inhalation in school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, A. J.; Kruizinga, T. J.; Hagedoorn, P.; Frijlink, H. W.; Rottier, B. L.; de Boer, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    Children are an important target group for inhalation therapy, but little is known about their intellectual and inspiratory capacities to operate dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Most studies so far have focused either on a specific DPI, or on (single) inhala- tion parameters and how these are affected b

  4. Vi. Marital conflict, vagal regulation, and children's sleep: a longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J Benjamin; Erath, Stephen A

    2015-03-01

    We examined longitudinal relations between adult interpartner conflict (referred to as marital conflict) and children's subsequent sleep minutes and quality assessed objectively via actigraphy, and tested parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity indexed through respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity (RSA-R) and initial sleep as moderators of predictive associations. At Wave 1 (W1), children (85 boys, 75 girls) with a mean age of 9.43 years (SD=.69) reported on marital conflict, and their sleep was assessed with actigraphs for seven nights. Sleep minutes, sleep efficiency, sleep activity, and number of long wake episodes were derived. RSA-R was measured in response to a lab challenge. Sleep parameters were assessed again 1 year later at Wave 2 (W2; mean age=10.39; SD=.64). Analyses consistently revealed 3-way interactions among W1 marital conflict, sleep, and RSA-R as predictors of W2 sleep parameters. Sleep was stable among children with more sleep minutes and better sleep quality at W1 or low exposure to marital conflict at W1. Illustrating conditional risk, marital conflict predicted increased sleep problems (reduced sleep minutes, worse sleep quality) at W2 among children with poorer sleep at W1 in conjunction with less apt physiological regulation (i.e., lower levels of RSA-R or less vagal withdrawal) at W1. Findings build on the scant literature and underscore the importance of simultaneous consideration of bioregulatory systems (PNS and initial sleep in this study) in conjunction with family processes in the prediction of children's later sleep parameters.

  5. A preliminary investigation of the IQs of 7-13 year-old children from an area with coal burning-related fluoride poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, X.C.; Wang, R.Y.; Cheng, C.F.; Wei, W.S.; Tang, L.M.; Wang, Q.S.; Tang, D.X.; Liu, G.W.; He, G.D.; Li, S.L.

    2008-04-15

    The Chinese Binet IQ Test was used to investigate the IQs of 7-13 year old children suffering from dental fluorosis, living and attending school in an area with coal burning-related fluoride poisoning. The average IQ of these children was found to be markedly lower than in the control area, and the number of children classified as having low intelligence was significantly higher. For both groups, IQ and serum fluoride show a negative correlation (r = -0.205).

  6. Comparative investigation of the traumatic injuries' prevalence of primary and permanent incisors at children aged 3 to 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcheva, Anni B; Ilieva, Emilia L; Veleganova, Vania Kr

    2003-01-01

    Traumatic injures distribution of children's teeth is determined of different factors at different ages: beginning to walk, games, sport, orthodontic anomalies. The aim of this investigation is to compare tooth traumatic injures distribution of temporary and permanent incisors at children aged 3 to 14. Object of investigation are 1825 children aged 3 to 14 from the town of Plovdiv. A clinical dental examination has been carried out and had been registrated: expulsio dentis, fractura coronae dentis involving only the enamel, involving and the dentin, exposing the pulp. There also has been pointed out if the fracture is treated or not. The data received has been statistically processed. The results show that tooth traumatic injures distribution at primary teeth is 31-40 per cent of boys and 16-30 per cent of girls and at permanent teeth is 12-33 per cent of boys and 4-19 per cent of girls. There is a statistical significance of differences between tooth traumatic injures of primary and permanent incisors.

  7. Number sense growth in kindergarten: a longitudinal investigation of children at risk for mathematics difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C; Kaplan, David; Nabors Oláh, Leslie; Locuniak, Maria N

    2006-01-01

    Number sense development of 411 middle- and low-income kindergartners (mean age 5.8 years) was examined over 4 time points while controlling for gender, age, and reading skill. Although low-income children performed significantly worse than middle-income children at the end of kindergarten on all tasks, both groups progressed at about the same rate. An exception was story problems, on which the low-income group achieved at a slower rate; both income groups made comparable progress when the same problems were presented nonverbally with visual referents. Holding other predictors constant, there were small but reliable gender effects favoring boys on overall number sense performance as well as on nonverbal calculation. Using growth mixture modeling, 3 classes of growth trajectories in number sense emerged.

  8. The CyberCruiser: an investigation of development of prospective memory in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, K A

    2000-01-01

    Prospective memory can be defined as the timely execution of a previously formed intention, and is critical in daily life because of its inherent involvement in goal-directed behavior. Cognitive systems involved in prospective memory have been hypothesized as involving the frontal cortex, and in adults, associated with working memory and executive functions. This study introduces a new computerized measure of prospective memory designed for children. In this study prospective memory is examined in a driving game task called the CyberCruiser. In a sample of 80 children ages 6-12 years, variables from this task demonstrated a significant age effect and were significantly correlated with other well known measures of executive function, even after controlling for chronological age. Performance on this task also demonstrated the anticipated pattern of strategic monitoring that has been demonstrated in other studies of prospective memory.

  9. THE EMPIRICAL METHOD OF INVESTIGATING THE CHILDHOOD SUBCULTURE: GROUP OF CHILDREN BEHAVIOR OBSERVATION IN THE GUESTHOUSE POOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Yelena N. Suvorkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with one of the empirical research methods investigating the childhood sub-culture. The method is called observation. The author marked general theoretical position, recommendations on its implementation. Based on observations of the group of children behavior in the guesthouse pool it is found out that such category, as honesty is very important in the organization of the order, taking into account that the subculture of childhood is an open, self-organizing system. In the pool, the children come up with a wide variety of games. The adjacent areas are also involved. The author identified two borders, taking place for the child: a clear (fixed border is the side of the pool and unclear border as the transitional designation of states, qualities (dangerous – safe.

  10. Investigating the opportunities of using mobile learning by young children in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kraleva, Radoslava; Stoimenovski, Aleksandar; Kostadinova, Dafina; Kralev, Velin

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of literature related to the use of mobile devices in teaching young children. For this purpose, the most popular mobile operating systems in Bulgaria are considered and the functionality of the existing mobile applications with Bulgarian interface is discussed. The results of a survey of parents' views regarding the mobile devices as a learning tool are presented and the ensuing conclusions are provided.

  11. An investigation of the smoking behaviours of parents before, during and after the birth of their children in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Chi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many studies have investigated the negative effects of parental smoking on children and Taiwan has started campaigns to promote smoke-free homes, little is known about the smoking behaviours of Taiwanese parents during the childbearing period. To help fill the gap, this study investigated Taiwanese parents' smoking behaviours before, during and after the birth of their children, particularly focusing on smoking cessation during pregnancy and relapse after childbirth. Methods We used data from the Survey of Health Status of Women and Children, conducted by Taiwan's National Health Research Institutes in 2000. After excluding survey respondents with missing information about their smoking behaviours, our sample consisted of 3,109 women who were married at the time of interview and had at least one childbearing experience between March 1, 1995 and February 28, 1999. Data on parental smoking behaviour in the six months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and in the first year after childbirth were extracted from the survey and analysed by descriptive statistics as well as logistic regression. Results Four percent of the mothers and sixty percent of the fathers smoked before the conception of their first child. The educational attainment and occupation of the parents were associated with their smoking status before the first pregnancy in the family. Over 80% of smoking mothers did not quit during pregnancy, and almost all of the smoking fathers continued tobacco use while their partners were pregnant. Over two thirds of the women who stopped smoking during their pregnancies relapsed soon after childbirth. Very few smoking men stopped tobacco use while their partners were pregnant, and over a half of those who quit started to smoke again soon after their children were born. Conclusion Among Taiwanese women who had childbearing experiences in the late 1990s, few smoked. Of those who smoked, few quit during pregnancy. Most

  12. An Investigation of an Arts Infusion Program on Creative Thinking, Academic Achievement, Affective Functioning, and Arts Appreciation of Children at Three Grade Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luftig, Richard L.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effects of an arts infusion program (SPECTRA+) on the creative thinking, academic achievement, self-esteem, locus of control, and appreciation of the arts by school children (n=615). Reports that SPECTRA+ program children scored higher than the control group in creativity, self-esteem, and arts appreciation, while data for…

  13. A Preliminary Investigation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Parent Scale as a Screening Tool for Anxiety in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Hani; Magiati, Iliana; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Sung, Min; Fung, Daniel S.; Howlin, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Despite high rates of clinically elevated anxiety difficulties in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very few studies have systematically examined the usefulness of commonly used caregiver report anxiety screening tools with this population. This study investigated the use of the Spence Children's Anxiety…

  14. Investigating the Effectiveness of an Arts-Based and Mindfulness-Based Group Program for the Improvement of Resilience in Children in Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coholic, Diana; Eys, Mark; Lougheed, Sean

    2012-01-01

    We discuss preliminary findings from a study that investigated the effectiveness of a Holistic Arts-Based Group Program (HAP) for the development of resilience in children in need. The HAP teaches mindfulness using arts-based methods, and aims to teach children how to understand their feelings and develop their strengths. We assessed the…

  15. The sooner the better?: An investigation into the role of age of onset and its relation with transfer and exposure in bilingual Frisian-Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Blom; E. Bosma

    2016-01-01

    In this study, age of onset (AoO) was investigated in five- and six-year-old bilingual Frisian-Dutch children. AoO to Dutch ranged between zero and four and had a positive effect on Dutch receptive vocabulary size, but hardly influenced the children's accurate use of Dutch inflection. The influence

  16. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Investigating the Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation in Children Aged 8-10 Years from a Mainstream School Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, A.; Woodward, A.; Jackson, S.; Wang, Y.; Crawford, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increased interest in the effects of omega-3 supplementation on childrens' learning and behaviour, there are a lack of controlled studies of this kind that have utilised a typically developing population. This study investigated the effects of omega-3 supplementation in 450 children aged 8-10 years old from a mainstream school…

  17. Vitamin A capsule supplementation in Malawi villages: missed opportunities and possible interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, R A; Courtright, P; Barrows, J

    1995-01-01

    A population-based survey was used to assess childhood and maternal vitamin A capsule coverage in Malawi and to investigate missed opportunities for capsule distribution. Overall, 9.3% of children had received vitamin A supplementation in the previous 6 months. Missed opportunities for receiving vitamin A were high in younger children. Fifty-five percent of mothers were covered in 8 villages served by volunteers and 23% in the 58 villages without volunteers. Existing strategies need to be redesigned and new strategies defined. For instance, mothers could receive supplementation during infant BCG vaccination, and children could receive initial supplementation during measles vaccination. Village health volunteers could be used to target children over 2 years of age. PMID:7733436

  18. Salt, fruit and vegetable consumption and blood pressure development: a longitudinal investigation in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lijie; Krupp, Danika; Remer, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Low salt intake and high fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) have been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP) in adults. Longitudinal data on the independent effect of both FVI and salt intake on BP in healthy normotensive children are not available yet. In the present study, we aimed to characterise the concomitant influence of salt intake and FVI on BP development throughout childhood and adolescence. We examined 435 healthy subjects, for whom at least three repeated measurements of BP had been taken and who had provided 24 h urine samples and 3 d weighed dietary records between 4 and 18 years of age. BP was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer (Mercuro 300, WelchAllyn) and salt intake was determined based on 24 h Na excretion. The intra-individual change in salt intake was almost significantly associated with the change in systolic BP (SBP, P= 0·06) and marginally (P= 0·09) with that in diastolic BP (DBP) in puberty, but not in pre-puberty. A 1 g/d increase in salt intake was associated with a 0·2 mmHg increase in SBP. In pre-puberty, but not in puberty, differences in FVI between children predicted between-person variations in SBP and DBP (P= 0·03). Corresponding findings were obtained for 24 h K excretion (a urinary indicator for FVI). A 100 g/d lower FVI was related to a 0·4 mmHg higher BP value. In conclusion, in healthy children and adolescents with BP in the low-normal range, both salt intake and FVI may already start to influence BP, although at a small magnitude. The potential importance of establishing healthy eating habits in childhood for later BP development emphasises the role of higher FVI and lower salt intake in the prevention of hypertension in the long run.

  19. Bullying victimisation, internalising symptoms, and conduct problems in South African children and adolescents: a longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Mark E; Bowes, Lucy; Cluver, Lucie D; Ward, Catherine L; Badcock, Nicholas A

    2014-11-01

    Bullying victimisation has been prospectively linked with mental health problems among children and adolescents in longitudinal studies in the developed world. However, research from the developing world, where adolescents face multiple risks to social and emotional development, has been limited by cross-sectional designs. This is the first longitudinal study of the psychological impacts of bullying victimisation in South Africa. The primary aim was to examine prospective relationships between bullying victimisation and internalising and externalising symptoms in South African youth. Secondary aims were to examine gender and age-related differences in experiences of bullying victimisation. Children and adolescents (10-17 years, 57 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up 1 year later (97 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Exposure to multiple experiences of bullying victimisation at baseline predicted internalising symptoms and conduct problems 1 year later. Additionally, baseline mental health scores predicted later bullying victimisation, demonstrating bi-directionality of relationships between bullying victimisation and mental health outcomes in this sample. Expected gender differences in physical, verbal, and relational bullying victimisation were evident and predicted declines in bullying victimisation over time were observed. In the developed world, school-based anti-bullying programmes have been shown to be effective in reducing bullying and victimisation. Anti-bullying programmes should be implemented and rigorously evaluated in South Africa, as this may promote improved mental health among South African children and adolescents.

  20. Clinical, biochemical and molecular investigations of three Taiwanese children with Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Chen, Julia Yi-Ru; Lai, Chien-Cherng; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Yeh, Geng-Chang; Hsu, Hsun-Hui

    2004-02-01

    Three children of two Taiwanese families were diagnosed with Laron syndrome, two sisters and one boy. Both sets of parents were consanguineous. Clinically, all three presented with the typical craniofacies of Laron syndrome, consisting of prominent forehead and hypoplastic nasal bridge, high-pitched voice, short stature, and central obesity. Biochemically, their levels of serum IGF-I were less than 5 microg/ml before and after an IGF-I generation test, and levels of IGFBP-3 were reduced in all three patients. Sequence analysis of the growth hormone receptor gene revealed that all three carried a homozygous missense D152G mutation in exon 6.

  1. INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS ACTIVITIES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION LEVELS OF CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine whether regular application of physical education and sports activities was effective on psychological adaptation levels of children or not. The research group was constituted of 80 students in the range of 10-11 years old who take education in Ankara Keçioren Hacı Sabancı Secondary School. The research was designed as a test-module with pretest-posttest control group. Physical education and sports activities were performed with application group as 2 hours a day, 4 days a week throughout 20 weeks. The data were collected by Hacettepe Psychological Adaptation Scale. For the statistical evaluation of the data, SPSS 15.0 statistical software program was used and significance was tested at levels of 0.05 and 0.01. In accordance with findings of the research, while psychological adaptation levels of application and control groups showed similarity before physical education and sports activity program, significant differences in favour of application group were determined positively after 20-week program. In the light of findings, it can be significantly resulted from this research that physical education and sports activities might have positive effect on psychological adaptation levels of children.

  2. The investigation of children and insane'scriminal liability in Imamiyah jurisprudence (Figh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaddese Yahyapour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A punishment decree regarding children is not contrary to the hadith of Raf' al-Qalam and lack of criminal liability.In other words, since the Islamic criminal law have rational system and deliberate policy, so it has chosen a balanced approach about child offenders.This means that, they are not exempt from any responsibility in general but is not considered like adults responsible for them.That is, the determination of criminal liability in this comprehensive legal system is considering the physical and psychological situation of children and the development of sense of discernment in them.Considering the importance of child delinquency issue and their and society improvement in the future,Islam hasconsidered it is necessary to adopt certain security and training measures in criminal law and even some mild safeguarding measures and has ordered some punishment, such as censure, reprimand, beat. Furthermore, the insane person is free of obligations and responsibilities inImamiyah jurisprudence, Hadd in Sahih narration of Abu Ubaidah which is mentioned earlier,does not include punishment, and it is bind by those narration that considered the respect of interest is necessary in implementing punishment. As a result, the second decree is regardedlimited toHudud, otherwise, there is no another reason in relation to this issue. Therefore, the madness make toexclude the punishment.

  3. Investigating the neural correlates of voice versus speech-sound directed information in pre-school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Maria Raschle

    Full Text Available Studies in sleeping newborns and infants propose that the superior temporal sulcus is involved in speech processing soon after birth. Speech processing also implicitly requires the analysis of the human voice, which conveys both linguistic and extra-linguistic information. However, due to technical and practical challenges when neuroimaging young children, evidence of neural correlates of speech and/or voice processing in toddlers and young children remains scarce. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 20 typically developing preschool children (average age  = 5.8 y; range 5.2-6.8 y to investigate brain activation during judgments about vocal identity versus the initial speech sound of spoken object words. FMRI results reveal common brain regions responsible for voice-specific and speech-sound specific processing of spoken object words including bilateral primary and secondary language areas of the brain. Contrasting voice-specific with speech-sound specific processing predominantly activates the anterior part of the right-hemispheric superior temporal sulcus. Furthermore, the right STS is functionally correlated with left-hemispheric temporal and right-hemispheric prefrontal regions. This finding underlines the importance of the right superior temporal sulcus as a temporal voice area and indicates that this brain region is specialized, and functions similarly to adults by the age of five. We thus extend previous knowledge of voice-specific regions and their functional connections to the young brain which may further our understanding of the neuronal mechanism of speech-specific processing in children with developmental disorders, such as autism or specific language impairments.

  4. The effect of zinc supplementation during pregnancy on immune response to Hib and BCG vaccines in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osendarp, S.J.M.; Fuchs, G.J.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Mahmud, H.; Tofail, F.; Black, R.E.; Prabhakar, H.; Santosham, M.

    2006-01-01

    An essential role for zinc in development of the fetal immune system has been documented. However, the effect of antenatal zinc supplementation on infants' postnatal immune response to vaccinations is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation during preg

  5. Placental malaria is associated with attenuated CD4 T-cell responses to tuberculin PPD 12 months after BCG vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walther Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Placental malaria (PM is associated with prenatal malaise, but many PM+ infants are born without symptoms. As malaria has powerful immunomodulatory effects, we tested the hypothesis that PM predicts reduced T-cell responses to vaccine challenge. Methods We recruited healthy PM+ and PM- infants at birth. At six and 12 months, we stimulated PBMCs with tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD and compared expression of CD154, IL-2 and IFNγ by CD4 T-cells to a negative control using flow cytometry. We measured the length, weight and head circumference at birth and 12 months. Results IL-2 and CD154 expression were low in both groups at both timepoints, without discernable differences. Expression of IFNγ was similarly low at 6 months but by 12 months, the median response was higher in PM- than PM + infants (p = 0.026. The PM+ infants also had a lower weight (p = 0.032 and head circumference (p = 0.041 at 12 months, indicating lower growth rates. At birth, the size and weight of the PM+ and PM- infants were equivalent. By 12 months, the PM+ infants had a lower weight and head circumference than the PM- infants. Conclusions Placental malaria was associated with reduced immune responses 12 months after immune challenge in infants apparently healthy at birth.

  6. An oral Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine for wildlife produced in the absence of animal-derived reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Martin L; Lambeth, Matthew R; Aldwell, Frank E

    2009-09-01

    Cultures of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, comprising predominantly single-cell bacilli, were prepared in broth without animal-derived reagents. When formulated into a vegetable-derived lipid matrix, the vaccine was stable in vitro and was immunogenic in vivo upon feeding it to mice. This formulation could be useful for oral vaccination of wildlife against tuberculosis, where concern over transmissible prions may preclude the field use of vaccines containing animal products.

  7. BCG vaccination status may predict sputum conversion in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: a new consideration for an old vaccine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeremiah, Kidola; Praygod, George Amani; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Failure to convert (persistent sputum and/or culture positivity) while on antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment at the end of the second month of anti-TB therapy has been reported to be a predictor of treatment failure. Factors that could be associated with persistent bacillary positivity at the e...

  8. Polyfunctional cytokine production by central memory T cells from cattle in response to Mycobacterium bovis infection and BCG vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyfunctional T cells simultaneously produce IFN-gamma, IL-2 and TNF-alpha and play relevant roles in several chronic infections, including TB. Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle elicits ex vivo polyfunctional T cell responses. Vaccine-elicited IFN-gamma Tcm (CD4 plus CD45RO plus CCR7 plus) re...

  9. Effect of 50,000 IU vitamin A given with BCG vaccine on mortality in infants in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Roth, Adam;

    2008-01-01

    -years). Vitamin A supplementation was not significantly associated with mortality; the mortality rate ratio was 1.07 (95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.44). The effect was 1.00 (0.65 to 1.56) during the first four months and 1.13 (0.75 to 1.68) from 4 to 12 months of age. The mortality rate ratio in boys was 0...

  10. An Investigation into the Role of Coping in Preventing Depression associated with Perfectionism in Preadolescent Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silja M Dry

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between self oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism and maladaptive and adaptive coping strategies and their collective impact on depression symptoms were examined in the context of a randomised controlled universal trial of the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills intervention. 541 children aged 8 to 12 completed a battery of self reports, of which responses for measures of depression symptoms, perfectionism and coping strategies were examined for the purposes of this study. Structural equation modelling tested whether coping mediated the effects of perfectionism on depression indicated that socially prescribed perfectionism had both a direct and indirect relationship with depression symptoms through a moderate association with maladaptive coping. Implications for prevention of depression were discussed and recommendations for future research were proposed.

  11. Children with pertussis inform the investigation of other pertussis cases among contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Laura C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of reported pertussis has increased in the last two decades. However, many cases of pertussis may be underreported or not diagnosed. The World Health Organization estimates that pertussis causes 200.000 – 400.000 deaths each year, most deaths are in infants and in developing countries. Infants with pertussis can indicate an undetected source cases in the community. Methods At a University Hospital in Brazil individuals that had frequent contacts with a child with confirmed pertussis (the index case and had recent history of cough were enrolled into the study. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from every contact that had cough within the last 21 days. Cases confirmation followed the guidelines of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention – Atlanta, U.S.A. Results Pertussis diagnosis was confirmed in 51 children, (considered the index cases. Among the index cases, 72.5% (37/51 were under 6 months of age; culture for Bordetella pertussis was positive in 78.4% (40/51. Pertussis was confirmed in 39% (107/276 of the contacts of 51 index cases. Among these contacts identified as a pertussis case, 40.2% (43/107 were between 6 months and 111/2 years of age and 59.8% (64/107 were older than 111/2 years of age. Pertussis was confirmed by culture in 11.2% (12/107 of them and by epidemiologic linkage in 88.8% (95/107. Each index case allowed identifying two new cases of pertussis. Conclusion Public health authorities should consider implementing early recognition of pertussis index cases and searching for pertussis cases among the contacts. Treatment of the cases and prophylaxis of the contacts is fundamental to control outbreaks in the community.

  12. Do Young and Old Preschoolers Exhibit Response Bias Due to Different Mechanisms? Investigating Children's Response Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that younger preschoolers exhibit a yes bias due to underdeveloped cognitive abilities, whereas older preschoolers exhibit a response bias due to other factors. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the response latency to yes-no questions pertaining to familiar and unfamiliar objects in 3- to 6-year-olds. The…

  13. Metabolic investigations prevent liver transplantation in two young children with citrullinemia type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Martijn J.; Cuppen, Marcel; Eling, Marc; Verheijen, Frans W.; Rings, Edmond H. H. M.; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; de Vries, Maaike M. C.; van Spronsen, Francjan J.

    2010-01-01

    Acute liver failure may be caused by a variety of disorders including inborn errors of metabolism. In those cases, rapid metabolic investigations and adequate treatment may avoid the need for liver transplantation. We report two patients who presented with acute liver failure and were referred to ou

  14. Metabolic investigations prevent liver transplantation in two young children with citrullinemia type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. de Groot (Martijn); M. Cuppen (Marcel); M. Eling (Marc); F.W. Verheijen (Frans); E.H.H.M. Rings (Edmond); D.J. Reijngoud; M.M.C. de Vries (Maaike); F.J. van Spronsen (Francjan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAcute liver failure may be caused by a variety of disorders including inborn errors of metabolism. In those cases, rapid metabolic investigations and adequate treatment may avoid the need for liver transplantation. We report two patients who presented with acute liver failure and were re

  15. Investigation fo Helicobacter Pylori prevalance in children with vitamine B12 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ishak abdurrahman isik

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Although vitamin B 12 levels of HP positive patients were lower than that of HP negative patients this differance was not statistically significant. Hereafter new studies with high number of patients will be helpful to investigate relation between HP infection and vitamin B 12 deficiency. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(4.000: 221-225

  16. Perceptions of Students in Primary Education Department Related to Children's Rights: A Comparative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hareket, Erdem; Gülhan, Meryem

    2017-01-01

    This research was performed with the purpose of comparative investigation of perceptions which are related to child rights of the prospective primary school teachers' and pre-school teachers'. The research was designed properly to qualitative research approach. This research was performed with 80 the prospective primary school teachers and…

  17. Differential susceptibility to maternal expressed emotion in children with ADHD and their siblings? Investigating plasticity genes, prosocial and antisocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jennifer S; Hartman, Catharina A; Franke, Barbara; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Arias Vásquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2015-02-01

    The differential susceptibility theory states that children differ in their susceptibility towards environmental experiences, partially due to plasticity genes. Individuals carrying specific variants in such genes will be more disadvantaged in negative but, conversely, more advantaged in positive environments. Understanding gene-environment interactions may help unravel the causal mechanisms involved in multifactorial psychiatric disorders such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The differential susceptibility theory was examined by investigating the presence of interaction effects between maternal expressed emotion (EE; warmth and criticism) and the solitary and combined effects of plasticity genes (DAT1, DRD4, 5-HTT) on prosocial and antisocial behaviour (measured with parent- and self-reports) in children with ADHD and their siblings (N = 366, M = 17.11 years, 74.9% male). Maternal warmth was positively associated with prosocial behaviour and negatively with antisocial behaviour, while maternal criticism was positively associated with antisocial behaviour and negatively with prosocial behaviour. No evidence of differential susceptibility was found. The current study found no evidence for differential susceptibility based on the selected plasticity genes, in spite of strong EE-behaviour associations. It is likely that additional factors play a role in the complex relationship between genes, environment and behaviour.

  18. [Investigation of viral nucleic acids in middle-ear effusion specimens from children with acute otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Sitteh, Muhammed H; Sener, Kenan; Yapar, Mehmet; Kiliç, Abdullah; Güney, Cakir; Kubar, Ayhan

    2008-07-01

    Acute otitis media with effusion (OME) is one of the major causes of antibiotic use, indication for operation and hearing loss in children. In two third of the cases the etiologic agents are bacteria. Nonetheless, increasing numbers of reports have implicated viruses as etiologic agents that may have some effect on prognosis of OME. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of nucleic acids of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) type A and B, influenza type A virus, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), and enteroviruses in the middle ear effusion specimens from children with otitis media by TaqMan real-time PCR. As a result, 18 of 30 (60%) OME samples were found positive in terms of viral nucleic acids by real-time PCR. RSV-A was detected in nine samples (30%), CMV in 3 (10%) samples and HSV-1 in 1 (3.3%) sample. In five of the samples two viruses were detected in the same sample (three were positive for adenovirus and RSV-A, and two were positive for CMV and RSV-A). Our data have supported the importance of viruses as etiologic agents of OME. Additionally, it was thought that TaqMan real-time PCR may be used as a reliable and rapid method for the detection of viruses in the middle ear effusion samples.

  19. A Study Related to the Investigation of Multiple Intelligence Profiles of Gifted and Talented Children across Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze DOLU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the dominant intelligences of individuals from their early ages will be beneficial for them and the society in terms of improving their talents. When this situation is considered for gifted and talented children, we believe that there is a need for detailed analysis for Turkey beginning from the early years of children. Hence, in this study, it is aimed to investigate the multiple intelligence domains of Turkish gifted and talented students studying in science and art centres (SACs across the country via a survey research. This paper presents the results gained from 12 SACs. Those SACs were selected according to the socio-economic development index (SEDI of Turkey as declared by Ministry of Development (MD which considered the country to consist of 6 regions. Two SACs from each of those six regions were included in the study. Thus, the sample consisted of 390 middle school 5th grade students. A Likert type multiple intelligence test which included 80 items related to eight domains of multiple intelligence was utilized as data collection instrument (Demirel, Başbay & Erdem, 2006: 155. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics tests were conducted in order to analyze the study data. The results indicated various differences among multiple intelligence scores of the participants.

  20. INVESTIGATION ON THE VACCINATION SITUATION OF 1186 MOBILE CHILDREN%1186名流动儿童疫苗接种状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾秀敏; 于翠美

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] To investigate the vaccination situation of mobile children in Cudao county. [Mathods] The vaccination situation of 1186 mobile children was analyzed. [Results] 1186 migrant children were investigated. The full immunization rate was 71.1%, and the leakage rate of immunization was 28.9%. [Conclusion] The vaccination rate of children is seen to be low.%[目的]了解孤岛地区流动儿童的疫苗接种情况.[方法]对1186名流动儿童疫苗接种情况进行分析.[结果]调查流动儿童1186人,全程接种率71.1%,漏种率28.9%.[结论]流动儿童疫苗接种率偏低.

  1. Caring in nursing: Investigating the meaning of caring from the perspective of Chinese children living with leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Han

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: With a better understanding of children's communication status and their expectations of communication, nurses can promote effective nurse–patient communication strategies to meet children's psychological needs and build harmonious relationship.

  2. Clinical association between teeth malocclusions, wrong posture and ocular convergence disorders: an epidemiological investigation on primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestrini-Biavati Armando

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the various systems in the body are inter-connected to form a single structural unit, a pathological condition in one area can also affect other areas. There are many known correlations between the visual and motor system. The importance of visual function, particularly the paracentral peripheral field of view, in motor coordination, ambulation and the maintenance of balance has been amply demonstrated. In line with current medical principles, which are moving towards a more holistic view of the human body, this study aims to investigate, in an interdisciplinary manner, the incidence of dental malocclusions together with posture and eye convergence disorders. Methods Six hundred and five children attending at the 3rd, 4th and 5th years of seven Genoa primary schools were examined. Each child underwent the following examinations: (i dental/occlusal; (ii orthoptic; and (iii postural. Occlusal data concerned the presence of cross-bite, midline deviation with a mandibular shift, bad habits and deep or open bite. Postural assessment involved frontal and lateral inspection, investigation during trunk flexion and ambulation, and note of any asymmetry in the lower limbs. The recorded orthoptic data included those pertaining to ocular dominance, a cover test, convergence and the Brock string test. Results A prevalence of cases with an unphysiological gait was found in patients with overjet (14.70% or overbite (14.87%, while the percentage of patients with normal occlusion that showed an unphysiological gait was 13.08%. Also, about 93.8%–94.2% of children showed normal legs without dysmetry, with no difference in respect to the type of occlusion. Subjects with an open bite or deep bite showed a slightly different distribution of right or left dominant eyes. Conclusion About 13% of children showed a pathological gait and, among them, vertical anomalies of occlusion (deep bite or open bite were prevalent with respect to the other

  3. Investigation fo Helicobacter Pylori prevalance in children with vitamine B12 deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    ishak abdurrahman isik; cahit baris erdur; ufuk Bozkurt Obuz; Nur Arslan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Together with low intake, malabsorbtion is the most important factor causing vitamin B 12 (vit B 12) deficiency. Vitamin B 12 deficiency also has been shown to be associated with Helicobacter pylori (HP) gastritis in some studies. Aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of HP gastritis in patients with vit B 12 deficiency. Patients and methods: 24 patients (mean age: 15.6 +/- 1.3 years ) have been included the study. Serum vit B12 level has been measured by electrochemilumi...

  4. Development and Initial Validation of the Narcissistic Personality Questionnaire for Children: A Preliminary Investigation Using School-Based Asian Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Yusof, Noradlin

    2006-01-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Questionnaire for Children (NPQC) is a brief self-report scale for measuring narcissism in children. In Study 1, a factor analysis on 370 children's NPQC scores revealed four factors that were labeled superiority, exploitativeness, self-absorption, and leadership. Study 2 established convergent and discriminant…

  5. Value Development Underlies the Benefits of Parents' Involvement in Children's Learning: A Longitudinal Investigation in the United States and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Cecilia Sin-Sze; Pomerantz, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    This research examined whether the benefits of parents' involvement in children's learning are due in part to value development among children. Four times over the 7th and 8th grades, 825 American and Chinese children (M age = 12.73 years) reported on their parents' involvement in their learning and their perceptions of the value their parents…

  6. Heart Rate Profiles of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder in Response to Physical Play: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Wadsworth, Danielle W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the heart rate response of children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exposed to outdoor free play sessions during preschool was examined. Participants (n = 7; four children with ASD and three children who show typical development) wore Actiheart heart rate monitors during 6 school days. Using a single-subject design,…

  7. Investigation of Current Situation of Learning Motivation, Social Anxiety and Loneliness of the Left-behind Children in Rural Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Biyun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the situation of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children. Method: Selecting three rural primary schools in Xian’an District of Xianning City to investigate left-behind situation, learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of pupils in Grades 4 to 6 in rural primary school in Xian’an District by the use of the MAAT-I-A which is revised by Zhou Bucheng, the Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC and the Children’s Loneliness Scale (CLS. Results: (1 The learning motivation of the left-behind children in rural primary school is in a slightly higher medium level. Social anxiety is significantly higher than normal level in Chinese city, and the level of loneliness of about 1/5 of the left-behind children is relatively high. (2 The score of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children in the level of knowledge learning has significant grade differences, without significant gender differences. (3 The level of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children is slightly higher than that of non-left-behind children, but both differences are not significant.

  8. The immunological effect of revaccination with Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine at 19 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas; Roth, Adam; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov;

    2013-01-01

    Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination has important non-specific immune effects. In a randomized trial in Guinea-Bissau, BCG revaccination was associated with significantly increased survival in children who received diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP)-booster vaccine before enrolment...

  9. BCG protects against tuberculosis irrespective of HIV status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Range, Nyagosya; PrayGod, George

    2013-01-01

    While BCG vaccine protects against severe tuberculosis (TB) in children, its effect against adult TB is questionable. Furthermore, it is not known if HIV co-infection modifies the effect of BCG. Among 352 pairs of Tanzanian TB cases and matched controls, the BCG scar was associated with a reduced...

  10. Ny test til diagnostik af tuberkulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Rose, Michala Vaaben; Søborg, Bolette;

    2009-01-01

    The performance of two commercially-available Interferon Gamma Release Assays, QuantiFERON-TB-Gold and T-SPOT-TB, is reviewed. The tests can indirectly detect M. tuberculosis infection based on T-cell recognition of specific proteins which are not present in the BCG vaccine M. avium, or most other...... environmental mycobacteria.The sensitivity (76-88%) of the IGRAs is not optimal for a diagnostic test for active tuberculosis. However, the specificity is high (92-97%), and the IGRAs may play an important role in the investigation for active tuberculosis and screening for latent tuberculosis infection in BCG...... vaccinated populations and immunosuppressed patients. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Sep-7...

  11. An investigation of the concept of balance in children ages 6--9: Logic and protologic identifiable in making mobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Seon

    This research was conducted to explore children's construction of protologic (foreshadowing of operations) in the context of experience with balance mobiles in a constructivist setting and to explore the usefulness of making mobiles in promoting children's development of the concept of balance. The statement of the problem is (a) Can constructivist principles of cognitive development be used to understand children's progress in the course of educational activities involving balance? If so, how? What does the progressive construction of notions about balance look like in children's behaviors? and (b) Does children's understanding of balance improve after experimenting with making mobiles? The participants in this study were 10 first grade children and 12 third grade children from a public elementary laboratory school located in Cedar Falls, Iowa. The pretest and posttest used a primary balance scale and a beam balance. Making mobiles was used as the intervention. The research of Piaget, Kamii, and Parrat-Dayan (1974/1980) and Inhelder and Piaget (1955/1958) were used as the basic framework for the pretest and posttest. All interviews and the dialogues during the tests and making mobiles were video-ecorded and transcribed for analysis. Evidence of compensation and reversibility, coherence, coordination, and contradiction were assessed in children's reasoning during intervention activities using operational definitions developed by Jean Piaget. Before the intervention, all children had an idea that weight impacts balance, 13 out of 22 children had the idea that distance from the fulcrum impacts balance, and 6 out of 22 children considered weight and distance at the same time. After the intervention, all children maintained the idea that weight is related to balance but more children, 16 out of 22, had the idea that distance is related to balance; and 6 children among the 16 children considered weight and distance at the same time. Through the three intervention

  12. Investigation of the quality of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and its related factors in 1533 infants%1533名婴幼儿卡介苗接种质量及其相关影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时文明; 史太平; 朋文佳; 顾昕

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the vaccination quality of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin ( BCG ) in infants, analyze its related impacting factors and improve the effects of vaccination. Methods:The results of tuberculin( PPD) test in 1533 infants vaccinated with BCG and its related factors from Institute of Preventive Vaccination of Changzhou were analyzed,which was used to evaluate the quality of BCG vaccination. Results:The BCG scar rate and PPD positive rate were 94. 59% and 96. 09%,respectively. The differences of PPD positive rate in different gender,household register,birthweight and age were not statistically significant(P>0. 05). The PPD positive rates in infants with 3 to 5 mm or more than 5 mm of BCG scar diameter were significantly higher than that in infants with less than 3 mm of BCG scar diameter(P 0.05).卡痕均径3~5 mm和>5 mm的婴幼儿PPD试验阳转率均明显高于卡痕<3 mm者(P<0.01).结论:常州市结核病防治研究所BCG接种质量较好,达到国家基础免疫标准.性别、户籍地、出生体质量、PPD试验年龄对BCG阳转率均无明显影响,重视BCG质量和BCG接种技术对提高接种效果作用显著.

  13. An investigation of cognitive factors involved in the development of problem-solving strategies by young children

    OpenAIRE

    Whitebread, David

    1993-01-01

    There is much current interest in children's problem-solving, both within education, and within psychology. The present study explores the development of young children's problem-solving abilities, and the cognitive factors which might be related to this. Such development is conceptualised in terms of the emergence of increasingly sophisticated and powerful cognitive strategies. In a previous study (Whitebread, 1983), which involved 20 children aged 5 and 6 years, a strong interact...

  14. An Investigation into the Relationship between Parents' Child-rearing Styles and Domestic Violence against Children in Ahvaz City

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Yaghoubidoust; Halimeh Enayat

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Domestic violence against children is a global issue which devastates family bonds and threatens individuals' health in mental, physical as well as sexual aspects (Sajadifar 2002:11). There are a lot of factors involving in domestic violence against children. It seems that the parents' child-rearing style is an important factor that plays a pivotal role in decrease or increase of violence against children. Child-rearing style can act as a predicator of social and mental devel...

  15. Urban and Rural Integration of 0~6 Years Old Children Parents Vaccination Health Education Intervention%城乡结合部0~6岁儿童家长预防接种健康教育干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程凌云; 张娜

    2016-01-01

    .00% and 68.00%, the experimental group children type I vaccination qualified rate of the experimental class I children vaccination rate 96.67%, the hepatitis b vaccine BCG leprosy vaccine, DPT vaccine 96.67%, 98.00% and 96.67% 96.67% and five seedlings, polio vaccine all eligible vaccination rate 97.33% 86.67%, the hepatitis b vaccine 86.00%, significantly higher than the control group the BCG vaccine, leprosy vaccine 87.33%, polio vaccine, DPT vaccine 82.67 82.67% and five seedlings all eligible vaccination rate 85.33%, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion The parents of inoculation against health education intervention can cognize level and satisfaction, increase the type I qualified rate of vaccination, is worthy of popularization and application.

  16. Comparative study between using QuantiFERON and tuberculin skin test in diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair A. Abdel-Samea

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: QFT-Gold IT, has excellent sensitivity and specificity unaffected by BCG vaccination. Tuberculin test specificity is high in non-BCG-vaccinated populations but low and variable in BCG vaccinated populations.

  17. Annual risk of tuberculous infection using different methods in communities with a high prevalence of TB and HIV in Zambia and South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwame Shanaube

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARTI is a key epidemiological indicator of the extent of transmission in a community. Several methods have been suggested to estimate the prevalence of tuberculous infection using tuberculin skin test data. This paper explores the implications of using different methods to estimate prevalence of infection and ARTI. The effect of BCG vaccination on these estimates is also investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tuberculin surveys among school children in 16 communities in Zambia and 8 in South Africa (SA were performed in 2005, as part of baseline data collection and for randomisation purposes of the ZAMSTAR study. Infection prevalence and ARTI estimates were calculated using five methods: different cut-offs with or without adjustments for sensitivity, the mirror method, and mixture analysis. A total of 49,835 children were registered for the surveys, of which 25,048 (50% had skin tests done and 22,563 (90% of those tested were read. Infection prevalence was higher in the combined SA than Zambian communities. The mirror method resulted in the least difference of 7.8%, whereas that estimated by the cut-off methods varied from 12.2% to 17.3%. The ARTI in the Zambian and SA communities was between 0.8% and 2.8% and 2.5% and 4.2% respectively, depending on the method used. In the SA communities, the ARTI was higher among the younger children. BCG vaccination had little effect on these estimates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ARTI estimates are dependent on the calculation method used. All methods agreed that there were substantial differences in infection prevalence across the communities, with higher rates in SA. Although TB notification rates have increased over the past decades, the difference in cumulative exposure between younger and older children is less dramatic and a rise in risk of infection in parallel with the estimated incidence of active tuberculosis cannot be excluded.

  18. Face-to-Face and Online: An Investigation of Children's and Adolescents' Bullying Behavior through the Lens of Moral Emotions and Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Lauryn; Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Talwar, Victoria; Shariff, Shaheen

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the influence of type of aggression (cyberbullying or traditional bullying) and participant role (bystander or perpetrator) on children and adolescents' self-attribution of moral emotions and judgments, while examining the influence of chronological age. Participants (N = 122, 8-16 years) evaluated vignettes and were…

  19. Investigating the Effect of Educating Philosophy in the Children on the Spiritual Development of Female Students with 12-14 Years Old in the City of Isfahan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaspour, Nafiseh; Nowrozi, Reza Ali; Latifi, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of educating philosophy curriculum in the children on the spiritual development of female students with 12-14 years old in the city of Isfahan. The present study is a semi-experiment research. The research design is pretest-posttest research with experiment and control group. In order to select…

  20. The sooner the better? An investigation into the role of age of onset and its relation with transfer and exposure in bilingual Frisian-Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.B.T.; Bosma, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, age of onset (AoO) was investigated in five- and six-yearold bilingual Frisian–Dutch children. AoO to Dutch ranged between zero and four and had a positive effect on Dutch receptive vocabulary size, but hardly influenced the children’s accurate use of Dutch inflection. The influence o

  1. An Exploratory Study Investigating the Viability of a Communication and Feedback Intervention for School Children at Risk of Exclusion: Analysis of Staff Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechten, Frances; Tweed, Alison E.

    2014-01-01

    Every day nearly 900 children will be excluded from UK schools for disruptive behaviour and almost one-third of this population has a diagnosed mental health disorder. Exclusion from school is the endpoint of most schools' sanction-based behaviour management policies. This exploratory study investigated staff opinions for using a communication and…

  2. Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GB-CBT) Group Program for Children Who Have Experienced Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misurell, Justin R.; Springer, Craig; Tryon, Warren W.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary investigation examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral therapy group program for elementary school-aged children who have experienced sexual abuse. Treatment aimed to improve: (a) internalizing symptoms, (b) externalizing behaviors, (c) sexually inappropriate behaviors, (d) social skills deficits, (e) self-esteem…

  3. "I Can Read Further and There's More Meaning While I Read": An Exploratory Study Investigating the Impact of a Rhythm-Based Music Intervention on Children's Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Marion

    2014-01-01

    A substantial proportion of children underachieve in reading (Brooks & Tough, 2006; Doubek & Cooper, 2007; Tymms & Merrill, 2007). This paper builds on the existing evidence base for the link between reading and rhythm, presenting findings of an investigation into a rhythm-based music intervention. Following participation in the…

  4. Self-Management Training With Families of Insulin-Dependent Diabetic Children: A Controlled Long-Term Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alan M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetic children and their parents were trained in behavioral self management and conducted behavior change projects designed to enhance compliance with the medical regimen and reduce diabetes-related conflicts. Participating families experienced fewer arguments concerning diabetes, and the children displayed an increase in…

  5. A Study of Prospective Elementary Teachers' Perceptions and Reflections while Investigating Children's Thinking in a Mathematics for Teaching Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeman, Laura Kondek

    2009-01-01

    Teacher educators use children's thinking activities as a means to prepare prospective teachers to teach mathematics. Research in methods courses and student teaching practica has shown these types of activities help prospective teachers deepen their own mathematical knowledge as well as better understand how children think. This study…

  6. Randomized controlled trial to investigate the effects of growth hormone treatment on scoliosis in children with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lind van Wijngaarden, R.F. de; Klerk, L.W. de; Festen, D.A.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Otten, B.J.; Hokken-Koelega, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: The prevalence of scoliosis in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is 30-80%, depending on age. Although reports about effects of GH treatment on scoliosis in children with PWS are limited, scoliosis is generally considered a contraindication for GH treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim was t

  7. Individual Differences in Auditory Sentence Comprehension in Children: An Exploratory Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Jason D.; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Glover, Gary H.; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore changes in activation of the cortical network that serves auditory sentence comprehension in children in response to increasing demands of complex sentences. A further goal is to study how individual differences in children's receptive language abilities are associated with such changes in cortical…

  8. An Investigation of the Intentional Communication and Symbolic Play Skills of Children with Down Syndrome and Cerebral Palsy in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joginder Singh, Susheel; Iacono, Teresa; Gray, Kylie M.

    2014-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) and cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk of remaining pre-symbolic in their communication and play for prolonged periods. The aim of this study was to explore the early communication and play of children with DS and with CP who communicated at the pre-symbolic stage, and to determine the association between these…

  9. A phonetic investigation of single word versus connected speech production in children with persisting speech difficulties relating to cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Sara

    2013-03-01

    Objective : To investigate the phonetic and phonological parameters of speech production associated with cleft palate in single words and in sentence repetition in order to explore the impact of connected speech processes, prosody, and word juncture on word production across contexts. Participants : Two boys (aged 9 years 5 months and 11 years 0 months) with persisting speech impairments related to a history of unilateral cleft lip and palate formed the main focus of the study; three typical adult male speakers provided control data. Method : Audio, video, and electropalatographic recordings were made of the participants producing single words and repeating two sets of sentences. The data were transcribed and the electropalatographic recordings were analyzed to explore lingual-palatal contact patterns across the different speech conditions. Acoustic analysis was used to further inform the perceptual analysis and to make specific durational measurements. Results : The two boys' speech production differed across the speech conditions. Both boys showed typical and atypical phonetic features in their connected speech production. One boy, although often unintelligible, resembled the adult speakers more closely prosodically and in his specific connected speech behaviors at word boundaries. The second boy produced developmentally atypical phonetic adjustments at word boundaries that appeared to promote intelligibility at the expense of naturalness. Conclusion : For older children with persisting speech impairments, it is particularly important to examine specific features of connected speech production, including word juncture and prosody. Sentence repetition data provide useful information to this end, but further investigations encompassing detailed perceptual and instrumental analysis of real conversational data are warranted.

  10. Investigation and Analysis of Detection of Trace Elements in Children of 500 cases%500例小儿微量元素检测调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婉琴

    2016-01-01

    Objective 500 cases of trace elements in the results of investigation and analysis,In order to understand the content of trace elements in children, to provide the basis for the targeted. Methods 500 cases of children as the object of study, in children with blood, take 80 mu l of peripheral blood, for detection of calcium, iron, magnesium, copper, zinc and other trace elements in children in the content, in the peripheral blood of 40 mu l join BH-5100 type special diluent for, with BH-5100 five elements analysis instrument were detected. Results Five months to one year old children with anemia Maung (97.6%);2~3 years old children have the appearance of anemia in children was 91.4%;4~6 years old children have the appearance of anemia in children occupied 66.0%; and 7 to 13 years old only 65.2% of children with anemia appear_ance. The emergence of anemia in children, 5 months to 1 years and 2 to 3 years old was higher than that of 4~6 and 7~13 years old, two groups of P0.05), comparison of trace elements of zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium, statistically significant differences in the content of (P0.05)外,微量元素锌、铁、钙、镁比较,含量差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),具有可比性。结论微量元素在人体中发挥着重要的作用,而小儿正处于生长发育的关键时刻,体内微量元素的含量容易缺乏,导致生长痛、贫血等临床症状的发生,了解小儿体内微量元素含量,并及时进行补充,利于小儿成长。

  11. Exploratory Study Investigating the Opinions of Russian-Speaking Parents on Maintaining their Children's Use of the Russian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Kraftsoff

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored why and how Russian speaking parents in an Irish context maintained the Russian language in their school-age children. Using a self-administered unstandardised questionnaire, the opinions of 16 Russian-speaking parents, reporting on 24 children, were surveyed. Of this sample, five parents were then interviewed using focus group methodology. The main findings revealed that Russian-speaking parents living in Ireland strongly supported Russian language maintenance in their families and wanted their children to be as fluent as possible in the Russian language. The reasons for the support of Russian language were: cultural preservation, general knowledge of languages in addition to English, and communication with the homeland. Methods employed to maintain the Russian language included conversing with children through Russian, reading and watching Russian TV/DVD. Although most parents spoke only Russian to their children, just three children were considered by their parents to have sufficient language skills to interact through Russian in Russian speaking countries. Interestingly, 15 children were thought to have adequate skills in Russian to speak with those outside their immediate family when in Ireland. Congruent with other studies of bilingualism, development of English, or the secondary, majority language, was also important to parents, as they lived in a dominant English-speaking society.

  12. 235例肺外结核性创面患者流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigation of 235 patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis wounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常娜; 贾赤宇; 刘真; 张亚洁; 李文婷; 田甜

    2015-01-01

    目的 初步探讨肺外结核性创面流行病学特点和规律,为临床研究提供可靠数据.方法 对笔者单位2010年1月-2012年12月收治的肺外结核性创面患者的性别、年龄、民族、家庭背景、卡介苗接种情况、原发病灶、外伤史这几项资料进行回顾性分析,总结其规律及特点. 结果 5 863例肺外结核病患者中,235例出现结核性创面,占4.0%.其中男139例、女96例,男女之比为1.4∶1.0.年龄1~87(37±18)岁,其中大于15岁且小于或等于30岁青壮年患者构成比最大(100例,42.6%).多数患者为汉族;仅有11例患者为少数民族,占4.7%.患者中163例来自农村,占69.4%;72例来自城镇,占30.6%.卡介苗接种率为13.6%(32例).原发病灶中,以周围淋巴结结核为主,共112例,占47.7%,其中又以颈部淋巴结结核为主(99例,88.4%).21例(男19例、女2例)患者近期有车祸等外伤史. 结论 结核性创面有一定的发病率,并非罕见,以农村地区青壮年人群多发,患者的卡介苗接种率较低,颈部淋巴结结核为主要原发病灶.%Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and patterns of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis wounds in order to provide reliable data for further clinical research.Methods Records of patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis wounds hospitalized from January 2010 to December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed,including gender,age,nationality,family background,Bacille CalmetteGuerin (BCG) vaccination,primary lesion,and history of injury.Results Tuberculosis wounds were found in 235 patients among 5 863 patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis,accounting for 4.0%.Among the patients with tuberculosis wounds,there were 139 male and 96 female,and the ratio of male to female was 1.4∶ 1.0.The age of patients ranged from 1 to 87 (37 ± 18) years old,and the highest incidence occurred in patients older than 15 and younger than or equal to 30 years old (100 cases

  13. Differential susceptibility to maternal expressed emotion in children with ADHD and their siblings? Investigating plasticity genes, prosocial and antisocial behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, Jennifer S; Hartman, Catharina A; Franke, Barbara; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Arias Vásquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2015-01-01

    The differential susceptibility theory states that children differ in their susceptibility towards environmental experiences, partially due to plasticity genes. Individuals carrying specific variants in such genes will be more disadvantaged in negative but, conversely, more advantaged in positive en

  14. Pyrethroid Pesticide Metabolite in Urine and Microelements in Hair of Children Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Domingues, Valentina F.; Cinzia Nasuti; Marco Piangerelli; Luísa Correia-Sá; Alessandro Ghezzo; Marina Marini; Abruzzo, Provvidenza M; Paola Visconti; Marcello Giustozzi; Gerardo Rossi; Rosita Gabbianelli

    2016-01-01

    The number of children affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is dramatically increasing as well as the studies aimed at understanding the risk factors associated with the development of ASD. Since the etiology of ASD is partly genetic and partly environmental, factors (i.e., heavy metals, pesticides) as well as lifestyle seem to have a key role in the development of the disease. ASD and Control (CTR) children, aged 5–12 years, were compared. Gas chromatography coupled with trap mass det...

  15. A Longitudinal Investigation of the Affective Environment in Families with Young Children: From Infancy to Early School Age

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Robin A.; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2010-01-01

    We examined the affective environment in 102 families studied longitudinally when children were 7, 15, 25, 38, 52, and 67 months. At each assessment, every mother-child and father-child dyad was observed in typical daily contexts. Each person’s emotions of affection, joy, and anger were coded. Both parents rated marital quality when children were 15, 52, and 67 months. Growth curve analyses, using Actor-Partner Interdependence Modeling, examined (a) developmental changes in emotions, (b) with...

  16. Pyrethroid Pesticide Metabolite in Urine and Microelements in Hair of Children Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Valentina F; Nasuti, Cinzia; Piangerelli, Marco; Correia-Sá, Luísa; Ghezzo, Alessandro; Marini, Marina; Abruzzo, Provvidenza M; Visconti, Paola; Giustozzi, Marcello; Rossi, Gerardo; Gabbianelli, Rosita

    2016-04-01

    The number of children affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is dramatically increasing as well as the studies aimed at understanding the risk factors associated with the development of ASD. Since the etiology of ASD is partly genetic and partly environmental, factors (i.e., heavy metals, pesticides) as well as lifestyle seem to have a key role in the development of the disease. ASD and Control (CTR) children, aged 5-12 years, were compared. Gas chromatography coupled with trap mass detector was used to measure the level of 3-PBA, the main pyrethroid metabolite in urine in a group of ASD patients, while optical emission spectrometry analysis was employed to estimate the level of metals and microelements in hair in a different group of ASD children. The presence of 3-PBA in urine seems to be independent of age in ASD children, while a positive correlation between 3-PBA and age was observed in the control group of the same age range. Urine concentration of 3-BPA in ASD children had higher values than in the control group, which were marginally significant (p = 0.054). Mg results were significantly decreased in ASD with respect to controls, while V, S, Zn, and Ca/Mg were marginally increased, without reaching statistical significance. Results of Principal Component (PC) analysis of metals and microelements in hair were not associated with either age or health status. In conclusion, 3-PBA in urine and Mg in hair were changed in ASD children relative to control ones.

  17. Uptake of Isoniazid Preventive Therapy among Under-Five Children: TB Contact Investigation as an Entry Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Yared; Gebre, Nigussie; Daba, Shallo; Gashu, Zewdu; Habte, Dereje; Hiruy, Nebiyu; Negash, Solomon; Melkieneh, Kassahun; Jerene, Degu; K Haile, Yared; Kassie, Yewulsew; Melese, Muluken; G Suarez, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    A child's risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) can be reduced by nearly 60% with administration of 6 months course of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). However, uptake of IPT by national TB programs is low, and IPT delivery is a challenge in many resource-limited high TB-burden settings. Routinely collected program data was analyzed to determine the coverage and outcome of implementation of IPT for eligible under-five year old children in 28 health facilities in two regions of Ethiopia. A total of 504 index smear-positive pulmonary TB (SS+) cases were reported between October 2013 and June 2014 in the 28 health facilities. There were 282 under-five children registered as household contacts of these SS+ TB index cases, accounting for 17.9% of all household contacts. Of these, 237 (84%) were screened for TB symptoms, and presumptive TB was identified in 16 (6.8%) children. TB was confirmed in 5 children, producing an overall yield of 2.11% (95% confidence interval, 0.76-4.08%). Of 221 children eligible for IPT, 64.3% (142) received IPT, 80.3% (114) of whom successfully completed six months of therapy. No child developed active TB while on IPT. Contact screening is a good entry point for delivery of IPT to at risk children and should be routine practice as recommended by the WHO despite the implementation challenges.

  18. Uptake of Isoniazid Preventive Therapy among Under-Five Children: TB Contact Investigation as an Entry Point.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yared Tadesse

    Full Text Available A child's risk of developing tuberculosis (TB can be reduced by nearly 60% with administration of 6 months course of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT. However, uptake of IPT by national TB programs is low, and IPT delivery is a challenge in many resource-limited high TB-burden settings. Routinely collected program data was analyzed to determine the coverage and outcome of implementation of IPT for eligible under-five year old children in 28 health facilities in two regions of Ethiopia. A total of 504 index smear-positive pulmonary TB (SS+ cases were reported between October 2013 and June 2014 in the 28 health facilities. There were 282 under-five children registered as household contacts of these SS+ TB index cases, accounting for 17.9% of all household contacts. Of these, 237 (84% were screened for TB symptoms, and presumptive TB was identified in 16 (6.8% children. TB was confirmed in 5 children, producing an overall yield of 2.11% (95% confidence interval, 0.76-4.08%. Of 221 children eligible for IPT, 64.3% (142 received IPT, 80.3% (114 of whom successfully completed six months of therapy. No child developed active TB while on IPT. Contact screening is a good entry point for delivery of IPT to at risk children and should be routine practice as recommended by the WHO despite the implementation challenges.

  19. Understanding physical activity and motivations for children with developmental coordination disorder: an investigation using the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Matthew Y W; Cairney, John; Hay, John A; Faught, Brent E

    2013-11-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition, affecting approximately 5-6% of children. Previous research has consistently found children with DCD being less physically active compared to typically-developing (TD) children; however, the psychosocial factors associated with physical activity for children with DCD are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine how theory-based physical activity cognitions impacts physical activity behaviors for children with and without DCD. Participants included a sample of boys (N=61, Mage=13.25 ±.46) with DCD (n=19) and without DCD (n=42), drawn from a larger prospective cohort study. A questionnaire with psychosocial measures was first administered, and accelerometers were used to assess their physical activity behavior over the subsequent week. Findings indicate that DCD was significantly associated with lower physical activity (F(1,58)=6.51, pactivity cognitions (F(4,56) Wilks Lambda=2.78, pactivity. Overall, this study further confirms that the activity deficit that exists among boys with DCD, and that the relationship is partially mediated through some physical activity cognitions. Interventions should target the perceived approval of influential people, and the personal evaluations of physical activity for boys with motoric difficulties. These findings further emphasizes the discrepancy in physical activity that exist between boys with DCD and TD boys, and highlight the need to better understand the psychological factors related to physical activity for children with DCD.

  20. Cause or consequence? Investigating attention bias and self-regulation skills in children at risk for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, Nora; Bergmann, Sarah; Klein, Annette M; Daum, Moritz; von Klitzing, Kai; Horstmann, Annette

    2017-03-01

    Impaired self-regulation, especially in food-specific situations, has been linked to childhood obesity. These deficits may be acquired during the development of obesity rather than being a prerequisite thereof. The current study, hence, focused on an at-risk population versus controls. Normal-weight children of obese and normal-weight parents were tested regarding attentional flexibility, emotion regulation, and inhibitory control. A sample of 50 preschoolers of obese parents (n=25) or normal-weight parents (n=25) participated in this study. Through eye-tracking, attentional bias for food cues was measured during a visual probe task using food and toy images. Emotion regulation was assessed during a distress-evoking task, and inhibitory control was examined through a delay-of-gratification task. Both tasks are standardized and were conducted in non-food contexts. Results showed no significant group differences in overall attentional bias to food images over toy images. However, children of normal-weight parents showed a preference for toy images. Regarding emotion regulation, children in the risk group expressed significantly less overall emotional distress. In addition, less gaze aversion and bodily sadness could be observed in this group. No differences were found for inhibitory control. Findings suggest that general deficits in self-regulation are not yet present in normal-weight children at risk for obesity. Instead, they might develop as a by-product of unhealthy weight gain. Results indicate, however, that children of obese parents are less emotionally expressive compared with children of normal-weight parents. Furthermore, children of normal-weight parents appeared to be more interested in toy images than in food images.

  1. An Investigation into the Relationship between Parents' Child-rearing Styles and Domestic Violence against Children in Ahvaz City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Yaghoubidoust

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Domestic violence against children is a global issue which devastates family bonds and threatens individuals' health in mental, physical as well as sexual aspects (Sajadifar 2002:11. There are a lot of factors involving in domestic violence against children. It seems that the parents' child-rearing style is an important factor that plays a pivotal role in decrease or increase of violence against children. Child-rearing style can act as a predicator of social and mental development, academic performance, welfare and even the potentiality of children's problematic behaviors in the future. Child-rearing style can be both the facilitator and inhibitor of antisocial behavior, like domestic violence against adolescent and children. Those studies that talk about antisocial behavior as a result of offensive child-rearing styles have mainly emphasized autocratic parents (Adams, Mount & Mayer 1998. Many studies have indicated that unstable and unorganized child-rearing style is more likely to increase in domestic violence against children. On the other hand, other studies talk about those child-rearing styles which reduce violence against children, emphasizing stable and controlled punishments, in proportion to improper behavior committed by children, which may decrease violence against them (Denton & Kaspf 1994, Krunkuych & Gyrdan 1987. Therefore, with regard to this issue and the importance of the role that parenting styles play in child-rearing, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between parents' child-rearing styles and domestic violence against children in Ahvaz city. Material and Method This is a survey study and research population is consisted of all male and female students of high schools and their parents in Ahvaz, out of which 384 subjects were selected by using Cochran’s formula and through multistage cluster sampling method. By using SPSS software, the questionnaire was processed at two levels of descriptive

  2. 肾病综合征患儿行为问题探讨%An investigation of related behavior problems in children with nephrotic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞杰; 周辉; 赵建美; 徐美玉; 杨丽丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the behavior problems in children with nephrotic syndrome.Methods The state of behavior problems in 52 children with nephrotic syndrome (treatment group) was investigated with Conners children behavior questionnaires (parents questionnaires).Fifty-two healthy children with the same sex and age in treatment group were taken as the control group.Results The behavior problems such as study, heart, and anxiety were significantly higher in the children with nephrotic syndrome than those before tratment and in control group (P<0.05).Conclusion The children with nephrotic syndrome have behavior problems in study, heart, and anxiety.%目的 探讨肾病综合征患儿行为问题.方法 随访52例肾病综合征患儿,应用Conners儿童行为问卷(父母问卷)调查其治疗前后的行为问题状况.按1:1配比性别、年龄相同健康幼儿为对照组.结果 肾病综合征患儿的学习问题、心身问题和焦虑明显高于对照组(P<0.05).治疗后的学习、心身问题和焦虑明显高于治疗前(P<0.05).结论 肾病综合征患儿存在学习问题、心身问题和焦虑等行为问题.

  3. Profound expressive language impairment in low functioning children with autism: an investigation of syntactic awareness using a computerised learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle-Chalmers, Maggie; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fleming, Joanna; Monsen, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Nine low-functioning children with profound expressive language impairment and autism were studied in terms of their responsiveness to a computer-based learning program designed to assess syntactic awareness. The children learned to touch words on a screen in the correct sequence in order to see a corresponding animation, such as 'monkey flies'. The game progressed in levels from 2 to 4 word sequences, contingent upon success at each stage. Although performance was highly variable across participants, a detailed review of their learning profiles suggested that no child lacked syntactic awareness and that elementary syntactic control in a non-speech domain was superior to that manifest in their spoken language. The reasons for production failures at the level of speech in children with autism are discussed.

  4. A qualitative study investigating knowledge and attitudes regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) and the HPV vaccine among parents of immunosuppressed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Holly; Trung, Linda; Mackie, Fiona E; Kennedy, Sean E; Boros, Christina; Marshall, Helen; Tidswell, Jane; Shaw, Peter J; Montgomery, Kay; MacIntyre, C Raina

    2012-11-19

    Barriers influencing the willingness of parents to vaccinate immunocompetent children include a lack of knowledge about human papillomavirus (HPV) and low perception of risk regarding their child's acquisition of HPV infection. However, it cannot be assumed that the facilitators and barriers of HPV vaccination are the same for parents/guardians of children who are immunocompromised, or who have chronic medical conditions. This study aimed to document the knowledge and attitudes of parents/guardians of immunosuppressed children and adolescents towards HPV infection and the vaccine. A study using qualitative methods which incorporated 27 semi-structured interviews was undertaken with parents/guardians of immunosuppressed children vaccinated against HPV at three hospitals in two states of Australia. Thematic analysis revealed that while participants acknowledged that they had heard of HPV, they did not have a strong sense of what it actually was. The level of concern held about their child acquiring an HPV infection (prior to vaccination) ranged from 'not at all' to 'extremely'. Some believed that their child was at increased risk of developing a severe HPV-related illness because of their underlying condition. The participants supported their child receiving the HPV vaccine, as they did not want to take a risk with a disease that may cause their child to return to hospital for treatment. The majority had little apprehension about the use of the HPV vaccine but expressed some concern that potential adverse effects would be more severe for immunosuppressed children. However, they stressed their belief in the safety of the vaccine and their trust in the child's health team. Our study results show that parents of children with impaired immunity would benefit from further information about the safety of the vaccine and about the important role of the vaccine for boys as well as girls.

  5. Pyrethroid Pesticide Metabolite in Urine and Microelements in Hair of Children Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina F. Domingues

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of children affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD is dramatically increasing as well as the studies aimed at understanding the risk factors associated with the development of ASD. Since the etiology of ASD is partly genetic and partly environmental, factors (i.e., heavy metals, pesticides as well as lifestyle seem to have a key role in the development of the disease. ASD and Control (CTR children, aged 5–12 years, were compared. Gas chromatography coupled with trap mass detector was used to measure the level of 3-PBA, the main pyrethroid metabolite in urine in a group of ASD patients, while optical emission spectrometry analysis was employed to estimate the level of metals and microelements in hair in a different group of ASD children. The presence of 3-PBA in urine seems to be independent of age in ASD children, while a positive correlation between 3-PBA and age was observed in the control group of the same age range. Urine concentration of 3-BPA in ASD children had higher values than in the control group, which were marginally significant (p = 0.054. Mg results were significantly decreased in ASD with respect to controls, while V, S, Zn, and Ca/Mg were marginally increased, without reaching statistical significance. Results of Principal Component (PC analysis of metals and microelements in hair were not associated with either age or health status. In conclusion, 3-PBA in urine and Mg in hair were changed in ASD children relative to control ones.

  6. A community based field research project investigating anaemia amongst young children living in rural Karnataka, India: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Jim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting. Methods and design A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory. Discussion Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and

  7. Immunisation of colorectal cancer patients with autologous tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Stenholm, A C; Kronborg, O

    1998-01-01

    Patients with colorectal cancer were entered into a clinical phase I trial of immunotherapy with an autologous tumour cell/bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine. We attempted to describe the possible effects and side effects of the immunisation, and further to investigate whether expression...

  8. Investigation of Helicobacter pylori infection among symptomatic children in Hangzhou from 2007 to 2014: a retrospective study with 12,796 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiaoli; Ping, Mingfang; Yin, Guofeng

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aim The infection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is acquired in childhood and the prevalence vary greatly in different countries and regions. The study aimed to investigate the characteristics of H. pylori infection among children with gastrointestinal symptoms in Hangzhou, a representative city of eastern China. Methods A systematic surveillance of H. pylori infection according to the 13C-urea breath test was conducted from January 2007 to December 2014 in the Children’s hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine. The demographic information and main symptoms of every subject were recorded. Results A total of 12,796 subjects were recruited and 18.6% children evaluated as H. pylori positive. The annual positive rates decreased from 2007 to 2014 (χ2 = 20.461, p pylori infection. Age, gender, gastrointestinal symptoms and history of H. pylori infected family member were all significantly associated with H. pylori infection (all p pylori infection rates in children with gastrointestinal symptoms were lower than most of those reported in mainland China. Further studies are required to determine the prevalence in the general population. Comprehensively understanding of the characteristics and the possible risk factors of H. pylori infection will be helpful to its management strategies in children in China. PMID:28168109

  9. Afrikaans-speaking parents' perceptions of the rights of their children with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities: A descriptive investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Alta; Bornman, Juan; Dada, Shakila

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to describe the perceptions of Afrikaans-speaking parents regarding the human rights, as defined by the United Nation's Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), of their children, aged between 8.0 and 14.11 (years/months), with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities. The underlying premise is that the CRC defines the rights of children, whereas the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Child and Youth version (ICF-CY) can provide the framework for documenting a deprivation of rights and the conditions under which those rights can be realized. Forty-seven Afrikaans-speaking parents completed a custom-designed survey. The results of the closed-ended questions indicated that most parents felt that their children had rights and that these rights were met. A theme analysis performed on the open-ended questions revealed that parents were mostly concerned about their children's rights pertaining to school education and safety. These rights were discussed in terms of the CRC articles and linked to environmental codes of the ICF-CY. Finally, the limitations and implications of the study are discussed and recommendations are made.

  10. Opinions of Turkish Parents and Teachers about Safety Skills Instruction to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Nursinem; Tekin-Iftar, Elif

    2016-01-01

    Safety skills instruction should be regarded as one of the important teaching areas. A descriptive study was designed to reveal the opinions of Turkish parents and teachers of children with autism spectrum disorders regarding safety skills instruction. Data were collected through interview and analyzed descriptively. Findings showed that (a) both…

  11. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Family-Centred Positive Behaviour Support of Young Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Szu-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Positive Behaviour Intervention and Support (PBIS) is an evidence-based approach that has been proven to be effective in remediating problem behaviours in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the family-centred PBIS approach when involving Taiwanese families in the treatment of off-task and non-compliant…

  12. An Investigation of Bilateral Isokinematic Training and Neurodevelopmental Therapy in Improving Use of the Affected Hand in Children with Hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Loretta; Mudie, Heather; Froude, Elspeth

    2007-01-01

    Motor impairment in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy leads to a predominance of use of the unaffected hand. This impedes development of bimanual skills and deprives the affected side of the stimulus needed for normal growth. Occupational therapists aim to improve use of the affected hand, traditionally using Neurodevelopmental Therapy.…

  13. An Investigation of the Reliability of the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration (P-F) Study, Children's Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Saul

    1978-01-01

    Data are presented on the retest and split-half reliability of the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration (P-F) Study, Children's Form, for two groups of subjects (aged 10-11 and 12-13), each group tested twice at an interval of three months. Reliability by retest was consistently higher than by the split-half method. (Author/CTM)

  14. The Effects of Interpolated Reinforcement on Resistance to Extinction in Children Diagnosed with Autism: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbee, Thomas S.; Carr, James E.; Patel, Meeta R.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated use of the interpolation of reinforcement effect, which combines intermittent (INT) and continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedules, with four young children with autism using a free-operant preparation. Results suggest that responding may be less resistant to extinction following interpolated CRF reinforcement than following INT…

  15. Bad Influence?--An Investigation into the Purported Negative Influence of Foreign Domestic Helpers on Children's Second Language English Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Alex Ho-Cheong

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the purported negative influence of foreign domestic helpers (FDHs) on child second language acquisition (SLA) by studying Hong Kong Cantonese children's listening ability in second language (L2) English. 31 kindergarten third graders aged 4;6 to 6, and 29 first year secondary students aged 11-14 who have had a Filipino…

  16. The relationship between emotion awareness and somatic complaints in children and adolescents: Investigating the mediating role of anxiety and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.C. van der Veek; R.A. Nobel; H.H.F. Derkx

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine if emotion awareness in children and adolescents (age 7-18 years old) is directly related to somatic complaints, and if this relationship holds when considering symptoms of anxiety and depression as mediating factors. A number of questionnaires measuring em

  17. Gender Differences in the Reading of E-Books: Investigating Children's Attitudes, Reading Behaviors and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueh-Min; Liang, Tsung-Ho; Chiu, Chiung-Hui

    2013-01-01

    As indicated by some studies, the problem of "falling behind" often exists when using computer-assisted learning with children, and gender may be a factor in this. While digital contents presented on various e-readers are promising replacements for paper-and-ink books, the question arises as to whether this emerging technology will have…

  18. Compensatory Vowel Lengthening for Omitted Coda Consonants: A Phonetic Investigation of Children's Early Representations of Prosodic Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae Yung; Demuth, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Children's early word productions often differ from the target form, sometimes exhibiting vowel lengthening when word-final coda consonants are omitted (e.g., "dog" /d[open o]g/ [arrow right] [d[open o]:]). It has typically been assumed that such lengthening compensates for a missing prosodic unit (a mora). However, this study raises the…

  19. Selectivity in social and asocial learning: investigating the prevalence, effect and development of young children's learning preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Emma; Turner, Cameron; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain

    2016-03-19

    Culture evolution requires both modification and faithful replication of behaviour, thus it is essential to understand how individuals choose between social and asocial learning. In a quasi-experimental design, 3- and 5-year-olds (176), and adults (52) were presented individually with two novel artificial fruits, and told of the apparatus' relative difficulty (easy versus hard). Participants were asked if they wanted to attempt the task themselves or watch an experimenter attempt it first; and then had their preference either met or violated. A significant proportion of children and adults (74%) chose to learn socially. For children, this request was efficient, as observing a demonstration made them significantly quicker at the task than learning asocially. However, for 5-year-olds, children who selected asocial learning were also found to be highly efficient at the task, showing that by 5 years children are selective in choosing a learning strategy that is effective for them. Adults further evidenced this trend, and also showed selectivity based on task difficulty. This is the first study to examine the rates, performance outcomes and developmental trajectory of preferences in asocial and social learning, ultimately informing our understanding of innovation.

  20. A novel study design to investigate the early-life origins of asthma in children (SAGE study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrskyj, A L; HayGlass, K T; Sandford, A J; Paré, P D; Chan-Yeung, M; Becker, A B

    2009-08-01

    This is a description of the Study of Asthma, Genes and the Environment (SAGE), a novel birth cohort created from provincial healthcare administrative records. It is a general population-based cohort, composed of children at high and low risk for asthma, living in urban and rural environments in Manitoba, Canada. The SAGE study captures the complete longitudinal healthcare records of children born in 1995 and contains detailed information on early-life exposures, such as antibiotic utilization and immunization, in relationship to the development of asthma. Nested within the birth cohort is a case-control study, which was created to collect information on home environmental exposures from detailed surveys and home dust sampling, to confirm asthma status in children and use this data to validate healthcare database measures of asthma, to determine differences in immune system responsiveness to innate and adaptive immune stimuli in asthma, to genotype children for genes likely associated with the development of asthma and to study the epigenetic regulation of pre-established protective vs allergic immune responses. The SAGE study is a multidisciplinary collaboration of researchers from pediatric allergy, population health, immunology, and genetic and environmental epidemiology. As such, it serves as a fertile, interdisciplinary training ground for graduate students, and postdoctoral and clinician fellows.

  1. An Investigation on Loneliness Feeling of 1250 Children%1250名儿童孤独感现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴佳芮; 邓冰

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解儿童主观孤独感的实际状况,为有针对的进行心理健康干预和促进儿童心理健康提供依据.方法:利用随机整群抽样的方法抽取了1 250名3~5年级在校儿童进行儿童孤独量表问卷调查,获得儿童孤独感情况以及性别、年级、父母有无职业等相关信息.结果:9~12岁儿童孤独量表总分为25.65±9.79,不同性别、不同年级的儿童孤独量表总分有统计学差异(P<0.01);父母是否有固定工作也会造成儿童的孤独感(P<0.01).结论:有13.84%的儿童所体验到的主观孤独感较高,应引起学校、家长、社会的重视.%Objective: To realize current situation of loneliness feeling in children, and so as to provide reliable basis for mental health intervention and promotion of children's mentalhealth. Methods: A questionnaire was conducted among 1250 students of grade 3 to grade 5 in 2 primary schools, by u-sing cluster sampling methods, and Childrens Loneliness Scale. Basic information including loneliness feeling, gender, study grades, parents'employment situation were obtained. Results: The total score of Children's Longliness Scale of children aged 9 to 12 was 25.65 ±9.79; There were significant differences between male and female students, and among students of different grades (P <0.01); Parents' employment situation had significant influence on children's loneliness feeling (P <0.01 ) . Conclusions: About 13. 84% of the children felt strong loneliness, which should cause attention on this problem from school, parents, and the society.

  2. Investigating the genetic and environmental bases of biases in threat recognition and avoidance in children with anxiety problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Jennifer Y F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adults with anxiety show biased categorization and avoidance of threats. Such biases may emerge through complex interplay between genetics and environments, occurring early in life. Research on threat biases in children has focuses on a restricted range of biases, with insufficient focus on genetic and environmental origins. Here, we explore differences between children with and without anxiety problems in under-studied areas of threat bias. We focused both on associations with anxious phenotype and the underlying gene-environmental correlates for two specific processes: the categorisation of threat faces and avoidance learning. Method Two-hundred and fifty 10-year old MZ and DZ twin pairs (500 individuals completed tasks assessing accuracy in the labelling of threatening facial expressions and in the acquisition of avoidant responses to a card associated with a masked threatening face. To assess whether participants met criteria for an anxiety disorder, parents of twins completed a self-guided computerized version of the Development and Well-being Assessment (DAWBA. Comparison of MZ and DZ twin correlations using model-fitting were used to compute estimates of genetic, shared and non-shared environmental effects. Results Of the 500 twins assessed, 25 (5% met diagnostic criteria for a current anxiety disorder. Children with anxiety disorders were more accurate in their ability to recognize disgust faces than those without anxiety disorders, but were commensurate on identifying other threatening face emotions (angry, fearful, sad. Children with anxiety disorders but also more strongly avoided selecting a conditioned stimulus than non-anxious children. While recognition of socially threatening faces was moderately heritable, avoidant responses were heavily influenced by the non-shared environment. Conclusion These data add to other findings on threat biases in anxious children. Specifically, we found biases in the labelling of

  3. Investigation on Children with Nutritional Iron Deficiency Anemia%小儿营养性缺铁性贫血调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许银辉; 徐丹凤

    2016-01-01

    目的:对小儿营养型缺铁性贫血调查结果进行分析探究。方法选取在该院接受治疗的100例缺铁性贫血患儿的临床资料进行调查,并以调查问卷的形式向家长了解患儿的基本情况。结果营养性缺铁性贫血患儿中,其发病原因多为辅食添加不合理或未添加辅食,发病情况多以轻度贫血为主,患儿家庭中多为农村家庭且母亲文化程度较低,大部分患儿家长未接受任何健康教育,并且对疾病的认识有限。结论在患儿发病早期,对家长的健康教育是预防营养性缺铁性贫血的重要因素,具有十分重要的临床意义。%Objective To investigate the results of the investigation of nutritional deficiency anemia in children. Methods The clinical data of 100 children with iron deficiency anemia treated in our hospital were investigated, and the basic situa-tion of the parents in the form of questionnaire was investigated. Results Nutritional iron deficiency anemia in children and its causes more as a food supplement, add unreasonable or add a food supplement, incidence of mild anemia, children in the family for rural families and mother's education level is low, most parents of children did not receive any health education, and the disease's understanding is limited. Conclusion In patients with early onset of health education for parents is an im-portant factor in the prevention of iron deficiency anemia, it has very important clinical significance.

  4. Muscle fat content and abdominal adipose tissue distribution investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in obese children and youths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonvig, Cilius E; Bille, Dorthe S; Chabanova, Elizaveta

    2012-01-01

    The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in children and youths are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20) with a body mass index (BMI) >90(th) percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle...... fat content (MFC) was measured in the psoas muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The patients were assigned to two groups: MFC...

  5. Experimental investigation of the effects of the acoustical conditions in a simulated classroom on speech recognition and learning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Daniel L; Plevinsky, Hallie M; Franco, John M; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth C; Lewis, Dawna E

    2012-01-01

    The potential effects of acoustical environment on speech understanding are especially important as children enter school where students' ability to hear and understand complex verbal information is critical to learning. However, this ability is compromised because of widely varied and unfavorable classroom acoustics. The extent to which unfavorable classroom acoustics affect children's performance on longer learning tasks is largely unknown as most research has focused on testing children using words, syllables, or sentences as stimuli. In the current study, a simulated classroom environment was used to measure comprehension performance of two classroom learning activities: a discussion and lecture. Comprehension performance was measured for groups of elementary-aged students in one of four environments with varied reverberation times and background noise levels. The reverberation time was either 0.6 or 1.5 s, and the signal-to-noise level was either +10 or +7 dB. Performance is compared to adult subjects as well as to sentence-recognition in the same condition. Significant differences were seen in comprehension scores as a function of age and condition; both increasing background noise and reverberation degraded performance in comprehension tasks compared to minimal differences in measures of sentence-recognition.

  6. A longitudinal investigation of the affective environment in families with young children: from infancy to early school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Robin A; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2010-04-01

    We examined the affective environment in 102 families studied longitudinally when children were 7, 15, 25, 38, 52, and 67 months of age. At each assessment, every mother-child and father-child dyad was observed in typical daily contexts. Each person's emotions of affection, joy, and anger were coded. Both parents rated marital satisfaction when children were 15, 52, and 67 months. Growth curve analyses, using Actor-Partner Interdependence Modeling, examined (a) developmental changes in emotions, (b) within-relationship influences of the partner's emotions, (c) across-relationship influences of emotions in other parent's interactions with the child, and (d) associations between marital quality and emotions over time. Parents' emotional expressiveness was highest early in the child's development, and declined thereafter. Children's anger was highest at 15 months of age, and declined thereafter, and their positive emotions, particularly with mothers, increased over time. Generally, one's positive emotions and better marital quality were associated with greater positive emotion within- and across-relationships, whereas one's anger was associated with greater anger within- and across-relationships. However, any emotion expression elicited greater affection in the interaction partner. Parents' neuroticism did not account for the convergence of emotions across relationships.

  7. Gamma-Irradiated Bacille Calmette-Guérin Vaccination Does Not Modulate the Innate Immune Response during Experimental Human Endotoxemia in Adult Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda A. C. Hamers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine exerts nonspecific immunostimulatory effects and may therefore represent a novel therapeutic option to treat sepsis-induced immunoparalysis. We investigated whether BCG vaccination modulates the systemic innate immune response in humans in vivo during experimental endotoxemia. We used inactivated gamma-irradiated BCG vaccine because of the potential risk of disseminated disease with the live vaccine in immunoparalyzed patients. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, healthy male volunteers were vaccinated with gamma-irradiated BCG (n=10 or placebo (n=10 and received 1 ng/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS intravenously on day 5 after vaccination to assess the in vivo immune response. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with various related and unrelated pathogens 5, 8 to 10, and 25 to 35 days after vaccination to assess ex vivo immune responses. BCG vaccination resulted in a scar in 90% of vaccinated subjects. LPS administration elicited a profound systemic immune response, characterized by increased levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, hemodynamic changes, and flu-like symptoms. However, BCG modulated neither this in vivo immune response, nor ex vivo leukocyte responses at any time point. In conclusion, gamma-irradiated BCG is unlikely to represent an effective treatment option to restore immunocompetence in patients with sepsis-induced immunoparalysis. This trial is registered with NCT02085590.

  8. Mental health investigation of left behind children in the countryside%农村留守儿童心理健康状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁瑞; 徐凌忠

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the mental health of children left behind in order to provide a scientific basis for improving their mental health. Methods:The stratified sampling and cluster sampling method were used in the 622 students of a junior high school and a primary school from rural area Bengbu,with 342 children left behind,and 280 non-left-be-hind. By the scale of mental health test(MHT),all of the childrenˊs mental health status were surveyed. Results:For chil-dren left behind,MHT total score,learning anxiety,people anxiety,self-blame tendencies,terror propensity scores were significantly higher than those of non-left-behind children. The difference was significant(P < 0. 01). The differences exis-ted in general mental health of different gender differences of children left behind(P < 0. 01),the differences also existed in whether their parents were local workers or not(P < 0. 01). Different ages of children left behind were diverse in general mental health(P < 0. 01). Children left behind had different care(P < 0. 01). Conclusion:There are some psychological problems among children left behind,and the community concerned should take specific measures and carry out mental health education for rural children left behind.%目的:调查分析留守儿童的心理健康状况,为提高留守儿童心理健康水平提供科学依据。方法采用分层抽样法和整群抽样法,抽取蚌埠市某农村地区一所初级中学、一所小学学生共622名,其中留守儿童342名,非留守儿童280名。采用心理健康诊断测验量表(MHT)对342名留守儿童和280名非留守儿童的心理健康状况进行调查。结果留守儿童的 MHT 总分、学习焦虑、对人焦虑、自责倾向、恐怖倾向、得分均明显高于非留守儿童,差异有显著意义(P <0.01)。不同性别留守儿童总体心理健康水平存在差异(P <0.01),父母是否本地务工留守儿童心理健康水平存在差异(P <0.05

  9. Caregivers' Experiences of Pathways to Care for Seriously Ill Children in Cape Town, South Africa: A Qualitative Investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline H D Jones

    Full Text Available Understanding caregivers' experiences of care can identify barriers to timely and good quality care, and support the improvement of services. We aimed to explore caregivers' experiences and perceptions of pathways to care, from first access through various levels of health service, for seriously ill and injured children in Cape Town, South Africa, in order to identify areas for improvement.Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted with primary caregivers of children who were admitted to paediatric intensive care or died in the health system prior to intensive care admission. Interviews explored caregivers' experiences from when their child first became ill, through each level of health care to paediatric intensive care or death. A maximum variation sample of transcripts was purposively sampled from a larger cohort study based on demographic characteristics, child diagnosis, and outcome at 30 days; and analysed using the method of constant comparison.Of the 282 caregivers who were interviewed in the larger cohort study, 45 interviews were included in this qualitative analysis. Some caregivers employed 'tactics' to gain quicker access to care, including bypassing lower levels of care, and negotiating or demanding to see a healthcare professional ahead of other patients. It was sometimes unclear how to access emergency care within facilities; and non-medical personnel informally judged illness severity and helped or hindered quicker access. Caregivers commonly misconceived ambulances to be slow to arrive, and were concerned when ambulance transfers were seemingly not prioritised by illness severity. Communication was often good, but some caregivers experienced language difficulties and/or criticism.Interventions to improve child health care could be based on: reorganising the reception of seriously ill children and making the emergency route within healthcare facilities clear; promoting caregivers' use of ambulances and prioritising

  10. Investigating the role of social-affective attachment processes in cradling bias: the absence of cradling bias in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Lea-Ann; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Solms, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that leftward cradling bias may facilitate mother-infant relationships, as it preferentially locates the infant in the mother's left hemi-space, which is specialized for several social-affective processes. If leftward cradling bias is mediated by social-affective attachment processes, it should be reduced in humans who are deficient in such processes. Individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) constitute a population with known deficits in social and emotional relating. A pilot study confirmed reduced bias in this group, and in the present study, we elaborated methods to assess also the impact of higher cognitive processes on cradling bias. Direct systematic observation was used to investigate the occurrence of cradling bias in ASD, non-ASD intellectually disabled children and typically developing children. Ninety-three participants aged 5-15 years cradled a life-like doll on four separate occasions. Intelligence and executive functions were assessed. Regression analyses revealed that ASD diagnosis was the only significant predictor of atypical cradling preference. While intellectually disabled and typically developing children clearly preferred to cradle to the left, no preference was evident in the ASD group. Results support the hypothesis that leftward cradling bias is associated with basic social-affective capacities.

  11. The value of embedded measures in detecting suboptimal effort in children: an investigation into the WISC-IV Digit Span and CMS Verbal Memory subtests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R; Hertza, Jeremy; Segraves, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a measure of test-taking effort that has traditionally been utilized with adults but more recently has demonstrated utility with children. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether commonly used neuropsychological measures can be used as embedded measures in detecting effort during testing. Participants (N = 75) who completed neuropsychological evaluations including the TOMM, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Digit Span, Children's Memory Scale (CMS) Verbal Memory, and other neuropsychological measures were divided into two groups: Optimal Effort and Suboptimal Effort, based on their TOMM Trial 2 scores. Digit Span findings suggest a useful standard score of ≤ 70 resulted in optimal cutoff scores, yielding specificity of 94% and sensitivity of 44%. The CMS Verbal Memory Recall > Recognition scores did not appear as valuable indicating a discrepancy of 20+ points were required for specificity to attain optimal scores of 90% and sensitivity of 11%. This study illustrates the WISC-IV may have good utility in determining optimal effort; however, the CMS may not be as functional.

  12. 危重患儿284例住院期间营养调查%Nutrition investigation of critical children during hospitalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬娥

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the incidence rates of nutritional risk and malnutrition of critical children,and provide the basis for clinical nutrition support. Methods:The nutrition risks in 284 critical children during hospitalization were screened by STRONG kids,and the nutrition status of children were evaluated by physical examination. Results:The detection rate of nutrition risk in critical children during hospitalization was 52. 82%,and the detection rates of malnutrition of all critical children at the beginning and end of hospitalization were 19. 01% and 33. 80%,respectively. The nutrition risk was positive correlation with malnutrition(P<0. 01). The hospitalization duration was positive correlation with the detection rates of nutrition risk and malnutrition(P<0. 05). Conclusions:The incidence of acute malnutrition and detection rates of nutrition risk and malnutrition in critical children with unideal nutrition support during hospitalization are high,and the hospitalization duration is long.%目的::调查住院危重患儿营养风险及营养不良发生情况,为临床进行营养支持提供依据。方法:采用营养风险评价工具STRONG kids对284例住院危重患儿进行营养风险筛查,分别在入院第1天和出院前1天通过体格检查评估其营养状况。结果:284例危重患儿营养风险检出率为52.82%,入院时营养不良检出率为19.01%,出院时营养不良检出率为33.80%,营养不良检出率与营养风险之间呈正相关关系(P<0.01)。住院时间与营养风险检出率及营养不良检出率均呈正相关关系(P<0.05)。结论:危重患儿住院期间营养支持不理想以至于出院时急性营养不良发生率较入院时增加,营养风险及营养不良检出率越高,住院时间可能越长。

  13. We're Creative on a Friday Afternoon: Investigating Children's Perceptions of their Experience of Design & Technology in Relation to Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Clare; Lunt, Julie

    2011-10-01

    In the last 15 years there has been an increased emphasis in both educational research and curriculum development upon investigating children's perspectives of their experience of learning. Children naturally have very particular and important insights to offer in helping us to develop our understanding of teaching and learning. However, research into children's perceptions in the field of primary Design & Technology education is still at a very early stage (Lunt in International handbook of research and development in technology education, Sense Publishers, Utrecht, 2009a). For example, in three reviews of educational research in Design & Technology (Kimbell in A guide to educational research, The Woburn Publishers, London, 1996; Eggleston in Teaching and learning design and technology: a guide to recent research and its applications, Continuum, London, 2000; Harris and Wilson in Designs on the curriculum? A review of the literature on the impact of design and technology in schools, Department for Education and Skills, London, 2003) there are only passing references made to eliciting and considering pupils' views and, in the studies where it does occur, it is used as a supplementary method of data collection rather than as a focus of research. The work which exists is small-scale and the majority of studies relate to secondary-aged pupils. The research that we have recently undertaken has tried to redress this gap. It has focused on primary children's (aged 9-11 years) perceptions of Design & Technology in general (Benson and Lunt in PATT 18 international conference on design and technology educational research: teaching and learning technological literacy in the classroom, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, 2007) and latterly creativity in Design & Technology. It has been claimed by many that Design & Technology is a `creative' subject which develops children's creative abilities. This is a bold claim and one that needs careful consideration. This paper sets out a

  14. A One-Message Question in a Structured Interview: Investigating Psychological Needs of Children and Adolescents with Eating Disorders Directed toward Their Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe,Kumi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological needs of children and adolescents with eating disorders (ED directed toward their mothers. Patients with ED have low self-assertion and various abnormal eating behaviors. Therefore, mothers face difficulty in understanding their children's psychological needs, and the mother-child relationship is sometimes strained. We developed a One-Message Question (OMQ-structured interview. The OMQ was easy to answer, and it helped the patients with ED. We examined the relationship between psychological needs and illness phase of the children and adolescents, and we discuss the viability of implementing the OMQ in clinical settings. The subjects were 23 patients and their parents. Their parents were just asked about the patients' background. The mean age of the patients was 15.8 years, and the average age of ED onset was 13.5 years. The EDs were anorexia nervosa (n=20 and bulimia nervosa (n=3. The phases of patients' illness were identified as anorexic (n=5, bulimic (n=7, chronic (n=3, and stable (n=8. All subjects provided specific responses to the OMQ-structured interview. Data analyses revealed the following seven categories of patients' psychological needs directed toward their mothers:attachment, cooperation in meeting their goals, longing for love, changing attitude toward family members, respect for self-reliance, expression of apology, and expression of appreciation. These findings suggested that the OMQ-structured interview may prove useful for mothers to understand their children's psychological needs and may encourage positive interactions as a foundation for future recovery.

  15. Muscle fat content and abdominal adipose tissue distribution investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in obese children and youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilius E. Fonvig

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in youth are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20 with a body mass index (BMI >90th percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle fat content (MFC was measured in the psoas muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The patients were assigned to two groups: MFC <5% or ³5%. Visceral adipose tissue volume (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume (SAT were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Blood samples were obtained from 119 patients, and liver enzyme concentrations and other variables were measured. The data were analysed to detect any associations between MFC and BMI standard deviation scores, VAT and SAT, blood values, and physical activity levels. The mean BMI standard deviation score (SDS was 3.04 (range 1.32-5.02. The mean MFC was 8.9% (range 0.8-46.7, and 118 (74.2% of 159 patients had an MFC ³5%. Children with a high MFC had a higher BMI SDS (P=0.03 and had a higher VAT, but not SAT or SAT/VAT ratio. Both intramyocellular lipid (IMCL and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL content were elevated in patients with an MFC ³5%. Blood values and physical activity levels did not differ between the two groups. Severely obese children and adolescents tend to have a high MFC, which is associated with elevated VAT and IMCL and EMCL content. An increased MFC may be associated with impaired metabolic processes, which may predispose young people to obesity-related complications.

  16. Is Animal Cruelty a "Red Flag" for Family Violence? Investigating Co-Occurring Violence toward Children, Partners, and Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGue, Sarah; DiLillo, David

    2009-01-01

    Cross-reporting legislation, which permits child and animal welfare investigators to refer families with substantiated child maltreatment or animal cruelty for investigation by parallel agencies, has recently been adopted in several U.S. jurisdictions. The current study sheds light on the underlying assumption of these policies--that animal…

  17. 边远地区学龄前儿童贫血情况调查%Investigation of incidence of anemia in preschool children in remote area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋晓琼; 和士兰

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨云南省玉龙县龙蟠乡学龄前儿童贫血发生情况。方法对2013年该县1993例学龄前儿童进行机体血液实验室检查并记录结果,回顾性分析其相关资料,给予统计学分析后得出结论。结果1993例学龄前儿童贫血发生率为31.16%,且大多数均属于轻度贫血(98.07%),仅0.16%患儿属于重度贫血;621例学龄前贫血儿童中,男性患儿所占比例为51.85%,略高于女性患儿(48.15%),年龄在0-6个月患儿所占比例最低(5.31%),7-12个月患儿所占比例最高(38.65%),此后患儿贫血发生率随年龄增加而减少,学龄前儿童贫血发生率与母亲发生孕期贫血及父母受教育程度密切相关,对比结果具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论临床相关工作者应根据实际情况采取针对性的干预措施,不定期抽查掌握学龄前儿童贫血发生情况,从而有效降低学龄前儿童贫血发生率,保障其生活质量,值得今后工作中开展应用。%Objective To investigate the incidence of anemia in preschool children in Longpan Village of Yulong County, Yunnan Province, China. Methods A total of 1993 preschool children in Yulong County underwent blood tests in 2013, and the test results were recorded. The related data were retrospectively analyzed statistically. Results The incidence of anemia in 1993 preschool children was 31.16%; most (98.07%) of them had mild anemia, and only 0.16 had severe anemia. Among 621 preschool children with anemia, 51.85% were male, while 48.15% were female;children aged 0-6 months accounted for the smallest portion (5.31%), while those aged 7-12 months accounted for the largest portion (38.65%), and then the proportion decreased as the age increased. The incidence of anemia in preschool children was closely related to maternal anemia during pregnancy and the educational levels of parents (P<0.05). Conclusion Clinical professionals should take corresponding

  18. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes investigation revealed atypical enteropathogenic E. coli as putative emerging diarrheal agents in children living in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Regiane C B; Dos Santos, Bruna C; Dos Santos, Luis F; Vieira, Melissa A; Yamatogi, Ricardo S; Mondelli, Alessandro L; Sadatsune, Terue; Sforcin, José M; Gomes, Tânia A T; Hernandes, Rodrigo T

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) pathotypes, a leading cause of diarrhea worldwide, among diarrheal and healthy children, up to 5 years of age, living in the city of Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. DEC, investigated by PCR detection of virulence factor-encoding genes associated with the distinct pathotypes, was isolated from 18.0% of the patients, and 19.0% of the controls, with enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), the most frequent pathotype, being detected in equal proportion between patients and controls (10.0%). Among the enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) isolates, only one isolate was able to produce the localized adherence pattern to HeLa cells, being thus the only typical EPEC identified. All the remaining EPEC were classified as atypical (aEPEC), and detected in 8.0% and 8.5% of the patients and controls, respectively. Regarding the serotypes, 26.5% of the analyzed EPEC isolates belonged to classical EPEC-serogroups, and the only two STEC found were serotyped as O26:H11 (patient) and O119:H7 (control). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests revealed that 43.6%, 29.5% and 2.6% of the DEC isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and gentamicin, respectively. Our data indicate that EAEC remains prevalent among children living in Botucatu, and revealed atypical EPEC as emerging putative diarrheal agents in this geographical region.

  19. Endocarditis - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valve infection - children; Staphylococcus aureus - endocarditis - children; Enterococcus - endocarditis- children; Streptococcus viridians - endocarditis - children; Candida - endocarditis - children; Bacterial endocarditis - children; Infective ...

  20. Can They Use Their Words? An Investigation of the Relationship between Language Competence and Emotion Regulation in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachimowicz, Tamara D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between language competence and emotion regulation in children between the ages of 48 and 60 months. Thirty-one children who attended subsidized preschool programs serving children from low SES families participated, along with their primary caretaker. The children's receptive and expressive language…

  1. 学龄前儿童刷牙行为调查与分析%Investigation and analysis of brushing tooth behavior of preschool children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐轶虹; 丁美华; 江长缨

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解学龄前儿童刷牙行为,探索适宜的口腔保健干预措施。方法:随机选取本社区某幼儿园3岁儿童62例,采用《学龄前儿童刷牙行为调查问卷》进行调查。结果:调查结果显示,坚持早晚刷牙、刷牙方法正确、刷牙持续时间>3 min、使用保健牙刷、2~3个月更换1次牙刷的儿童分别为38.71%、56.45%、19.35%、93.55%、66.13%。结论:必须加强对学龄前儿童口腔保健干预,改善儿童刷牙行为,预防儿童龋齿的发生。%Objective:To understand the brushing tooth behavior of preschool children,explore appropriate oral health care intervention measures.Methods:62 cases of 3 years old children of a kindergarten in this community were randomly selected.They were investigated by 《the questionnaire of brushing tooth behavior of preschool children》.Results:The survey result showed that persisting brushing tooth in the morning and evening,correct brushing tooth method,the duration of brushing tooth more than 3 minutes,using care toothbrush,replacing 1 toothbrush in 2~3 months were 38.71% ,56.45% ,19.35% ,93.55% ,66.13% . Conclusion:We should strengthen the oral health care intervention of preschool children,improve children's brushing tooth behavior,prevent the occurrence of dental caries in children.

  2. Investigation of sleep disorder in seventy-three children with epilepsy%73例癫(癎)患儿睡眠情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于涛; 王华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the sleep conditions, the prevalence of sleep disorders, and the related factors in epileptic children. Methods Children who received antiepileptic treatment in outpatient clinic were randomly selected, their parents were investigated with questionnaires related to their family, social-economic status and sleep conditions of the children. Results Prevalence of sleep disorder was 13.70%. The average PSQI score among the epileptic children was (4.69 ± 3.68). The main possible risk factors affecting the sleep conditions were age and seizure frequency. The gender, smoking history of parents, educational background of parents were not closely related to sleep disorder. Conclusions There is a lower prevalence rate of sleep disorders in epileptic children received medical treatment in outpatient clinic. The main risk factors linked to sleep disorders were age and seizure frequency.%目的 了解癫(癎)患儿睡眠障碍发生情况及可能的影响因素.方法 随机选取门诊就诊的癫(癎)患儿,对患儿家长进行儿童家庭社会环境与睡眠状况的问卷调查.结果 所调查的患儿匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)平均得分为4.69±3.68.13.70%的患儿存在睡眠障碍.患儿性别、出生体质量、父母文化程度、癫(癎)发作类型等对睡眠障碍发生无影响;患儿年龄以及每天发作频率对睡眠障碍发生有影响.结论 门诊癫(癎)患儿睡眠障碍发生率较低,癫(癎)发作频率对患儿睡眠质量有较大影响,控制患儿发作频率对改善其睡眠质量有重要意义.

  3. IFN-γ release assay: a diagnostic assistance tool of tuberculin skin test in pediatric tuberculosis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lin; SHEN A-dong; YAN Hui-min; HU Ying-hui; JIAO Wei-wei; GU Yi; XIAO Jing; LI Hui-min; JIAO An-xia; GUO Ya-jie

    2010-01-01

    Background Prompt diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection is an essential step in tuberculosis control and elimination. However, it is often difficult to accurately diagnose pediatric tuberculosis (TB). The tuberculin test (TST) may have a low specificity because of cross-reactivity with antigens present in Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and other mycobacteria, especially in China with a predominantly BCG-vaccinated population.Early-secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10), stand out as suitable antigens that induce an interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) secreting, T-cell-mediated immune response to infection. While,considered the higher costs and complexity of the IFN-γ release assay (TSPOT), we aimed to evaluate the TSPOT and TST test in the clinical diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis and to establish a diagnostic process suitable for China.Methods The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were evaluated in total seventy four children with active tuberculosis and fifty one nontuberculous children with other disease, and then the results were compared with TST.Logistic regression models were used to identify variables that were associated with positive results for each assay. The independent variables included sex, age, birth place, vaccination history, close contract with an active TB patient.Results The sensitivity of TSPOT was higher than TST in active TB children with or without BCG vaccination, as well as in children with culture-confirmed TB. But the difference was not significant statistically. Combining results of the TSPOT and TST improved the sensitivity to 94.6%. Agreement of the TST and TSPOT was low (77.0%, k=0.203) in active TB patients. The difference in specificity between TSPOT and TST test was statistically significant (94.1% vs.70.6%, P=0.006). Specificity of the two tests in patients without prior BCG vaccination history was similar (80.0% vs.60.0%). The concordance

  4. Investigation on risk factors for asthma in children in Changsha%长沙地区哮喘儿童高危因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳萍; 段效军; 孟燕妮; 陈璐

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the major risk factors for asthma in children of different ages and to provide epidemiological evidence for the prevention and management of this disease in Changsha. Methods 600 children with asthma aged from 0 to 14 years were selected and assigned into three groups according to the age. The questionnaires developed by Hunan Asthma Collaborative Group were answered by the parents and analyzed by SPSS 15. 0. Results The analysis showed that respiratory infection was the leading risk factor of asthma in children of all ages (x2 = 1. 91, P>0.05). Compared to the olders. younger children were more vulnerable to the environmental factors such as living condition, weather change and passive smoking (x2 = 12. 82, P<0. 05). Allergic history was more contributive to the development of asthma in older children (x2 = 16. 48, P<0. 05). Conclusions Respiratory infection is the major risk factor of asthma in children of all ages. Asthma in younger children can be easily affected by environmental factors, while genetic background is closely related to asthma in the olders.%目的 调查长沙地区不同年龄哮喘儿童的高危因素和各年龄层主要高危因素,为长沙地区儿童哮喘的防治和管理提供流行病学依据.方法 应用湖南省哮喘防治协作组制定的哮喘儿童调查问卷,据整群抽样结果,对长沙地区0~14岁600名儿童,分婴幼儿组、学龄前组、学龄组三个年龄阶段分别进行问卷调查.在家长知情同意后,发放调查问卷,由家长与儿童共同完成调查问卷.由课题组成员收回,采用SPSS 15.0统计学软件包进行统计.采用x2检验,P<0.05为差异有统计学意义.结果 通过问卷调查发现呼吸道感染是诱发各个年龄段哮喘发作的主要危险因素;婴幼儿组儿童受居住房间潮湿、天气变化、居住在主干道边等外界环境因素的影响较大(x2=12.82,14.82,22.02,P均<0.05);学龄前组和学龄组儿童与过敏

  5. 小儿厌食症相关因素调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of Related Factors in Children with Anorexia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 马彩霞

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze the related factors of 120 children with anorexia. Methods A total of February 2015 to 2016 2 months in our hospital were diagnosed and accept treatment of 120 cases of anorexia in children with design as the observation group and 120 cases of no anorexia children set up as the control group. The clinical data of the two groups of children, physical examination and relevant auxiliary examination means, to induce children complicated with anorexia related factors of comprehensive analysis. Results The occurrence of infantile anorexia with a variety of fac-tors, choice of feeding, complementary use of time, interest in food and food choices, parents of nutrition attention factors such as the degree of influence is most prominent. There were significant differences between the observation group and the control group in the above related factors, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion In the life of parents according to the pathogenic factors to take targeted preventive measures, can effectively prevent the occurrence of anorexia, investigate the effect of the relevant factors in children with anorexia for the control of anorexia has important sig-nificance.%目的:探讨分析120例小儿厌食症的相关因素。方法选取2015年1月-2016年1月在该院确诊并接受治疗的120例厌食症患儿设为观察组和120例无厌食症患儿设为对照组,通过对两组患儿的临床资料、体格检查以及相关辅助检查手段,对于诱发小儿并发厌食症的相关因素进行全面分析。结果小儿厌食症的发生与多种因素密切相关,喂养方式的选择、辅食的使用时间、对食物的兴趣和对食物的选择、家长对营养重视程度等因素的影响最为突出。观察组在以上相关因素上与对照组存在明显差异,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论在生活中家长根据致病因素采取针对性预防措施,可以有效

  6. 1 048名3~12岁儿童适应行为及相关因素的调查%An Investigation on Adaptive Behaviors and Related Factors in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘航英; 郑淑芹; 吕维; 吴洪剑; 徐志敏; 王壮业

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To investigate adaptive behaviors and related factors in children. Methods: 1 048 children, aged 3 to 12, were administered the Adaptive Behavioral Scale (ABS) of Children, as well as being observed for significant related factors. Results: Overall mean score on the ABS for all subjects in the sample was within normal range. 17 children(1.62%) were diagnosed as adaptive deficient, and there was significant positive correlation between scores on the ABS and parental education levels. Scores of boys were higher when compared to girls. Conclusion: An incidence of 1.62% was diagnosed as deficient in adaptive behaviors among children in our study. Parental education was identified as an important contributing factor.

  7. 4662名学龄前期儿童龋病调查分析%An Investigation on Dental Caries Among 4662 Earlier School Age Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔士杰; 孙泽河

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨学龄前期儿童龋齿与是否独生子女、寄托、婴儿期喂养方式的关系。方法口腔保健医师采用提问填表法进行调查。结果受检4662名儿童,患龋齿儿童1767名,其中总龋患率为37.90%,6~7岁龋患率为43.24%。与独生子女、寄托、婴儿期喂养方式有极大关系。结论说明建立健全口腔卫生保健制度,提倡母乳喂养,儿童入托后培养其良好的卫生生活习惯及采取正确的口腔卫生保健措施,对龋齿病的发生有重要的防治作用。%Objective To dicuss the relation of Dental caries of earlier school age children with single child, entrusting, and feeding ways. Methods Mouth carity Doctors investigated with the questionaire through health examination . Results  4662 children were examined in Dental caries in 1767 cses,accounting for 37.9%. Dental caries peak 6~7 years old children with the rate 43.24%.It was related to single child,entrusting and feeding ways. Conclusion To build perfect health protection system and encourage mother milkfeeding and carry out mouth cavity health protection system are important to prevent and cure dental caries.

  8. [Carriage of Streptococcus pyogenes in primary school children: M-protein types, pyrogenic toxin genes, and investigation of the clonal relationships between the isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlu, Barış; Karakurt, Cemşit; Bayındır, Yaşar; Kayabaş, Üner; Yakupoğulları, Yusuf; Gözükara Bağ, Harika

    2015-07-01

    M-protein and pyrogenic toxins are the most important virulence factors of Streptococcus pyogenes, and they play significant role in the pathophysiology of acute rheumatoid fever and scarlet fever, respectively. In this study, the pharyngeal carriage of S.pyogenes of the primary school children, clonal relationship of the strains, M-protein types, and the presence of pyrogenic toxin genes were aimed to be investigated. A total of 668 throat cultures obtained from children (age range: 6-16 years) in two primary schools in our region, were included in the study. The clonal relationships of the isolated group A streptococci (GAS) strains were investigated by DiversiLab assay (BioMérieux, France), and the clonal relatedness was confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. M-protein (emm) typing was performed by DNA sequencing as suggested by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The genes encoding pyrogenic toxins, speA and speC, were investigated by an in-house multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. S.pyogenes was isolated from 134 (20.05%) of the throat samples. The GAS carriage rate of the students aged ≥10 was statistically higher than those 7-9 years age group (%22 vs %16.4, pvaccine was determined to be over 90% with respect to M-protein types. Since the pyrogenic toxin-encoding genes were found in one fifth of the isolates from the studied subjects, we concluded that the carrier population may also have high risk for scarlet fever. We also concluded that, the clonal relationship ratio determined among the isolates may be a risk in school transmission of GAS.

  9. 胸膜活组织检查诊断儿童结核性胸膜炎的临床价值分析%Clinical value of pleural biopsy in the diagnosis of children with tuberculous pleurisy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂洪梅; 代继宏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of pleural biopsy in the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy in children.Method Fifty-one cases with tuberculous pleurisy,whose diagnosis was established according to the clinical diagnostic criteria of the child pulmonary tuberculosis formulated by the Chinese Medical Association (CMA) in 2006,after pleural biopsy hospitalized in Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from Jan.1,2007 to Jan.1,2013 were enrolled into this study.Clinical symptoms,history traits,laboratory examination,imaging tests,pleural fluid characteristics and the results of pleural biopsy were retrospectively analyzed.Medical records of the cases who were diagnosed with tuberculous pleurisy by histological examination were reviewed to assess tuberculosis detection rate of pleural biopsy and to get the percentage of cases with a preoperative diagnosis inconsistent with the final diagnosis.Result There were 35 boys and 16 girls,and the mean age was(9.7 ± 3.5)years.The common symptoms included fever(82%),cough(71%),chest pain(23%),weakness(10%)and shortness of breath (10%) ; 27% (14/51) children had shown tuberculosis toxic symptoms; 76% (39/51) patients had BCG vaccination history;12% (6/51) cases had a history of contact with tuberculosis patients.The positive rates of the tuberculin skin test,serum tuberculosis antibody detection,detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA by polymerase chain reaction,acid-fast bacillus test of sputum (or gastric juice) smear,acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear and culture of pleural effusion were respectively 61% (20/33),6% (3/46),0(0/12),4% (1/27),22% (7/32).Pleural effusion was found by using imaging tests in 50 cases,among whom 28 cases (55%)with encapsulated effusion,and the multilocular cysts separated by fibrous tissue in 12 patients (23 %).Other features included pleural thickening(53%),hilar and mediastinal lymph-nodes enlargement (14%)and white nodules of calcification(10

  10. Observational Learning of Tool Use in Children: Investigating Cultural Spread through Diffusion Chains and Learning Mechanisms through Ghost Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Lydia M.; Flynn, Emma G.; Wood, Lara A. N.; Whiten, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    In the first of two experiments, we demonstrate the spread of a novel form of tool use across 20 "cultural generations" of child-to-child transmission. An experimentally seeded technique spread with 100% fidelity along twice as many "generations" as has been investigated in recent exploratory "diffusion" experiments of this type. This contrasted…

  11. Narrative Coherence of Mandarin-Speaking Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Investigation into Causal Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Wen-hui; Torng, Pao-chuan

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) had difficulty integrating narrative information coherently. The majority of these studies focused on people narrating in English; however, little is known about the narrative abilities of Mandarin-speaking individuals with ASD. This study investigates the ability of…

  12. Drug: D06466 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06466 Drug Freeze-dried BCG vaccine (for percutaneous use) (JP16); Immunobladder (...ns 631 Vaccines 6311 Bacterial vaccines D06466 Freeze-dried BCG vaccine (for perc...utaneous use) (JP16) 639 Miscellaneous 6391 Antiallergic preparations with tubercle bacilli D06466 Freeze-dried BCG vaccine...STIMULANTS L03AX Other immunostimulants L03AX03 BCG vaccine D06466 Freeze-dried BCG vaccine (for percutaneous use) (JP16) PubChem: 47208122 ...

  13. 三门峡市学龄前儿童身高体重调查%Investigation on Growth and Development of Preschool Children in Sanmenxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解三门峡市幼儿园儿童生长发育状况,提出改进意见. 方法 采用全国统一的测量方法,测量2所幼儿园826名儿童(男410名,女416名)的身高和体重.使用SPSS16.0进行分析,运用2009年我国7岁以下儿童生长发育参照标准计算Z评分,与2002年中国居民营养与健康调查结果比较. 结果 营养不良率、生长迟缓率、消瘦率及超重率按照国家标准计算所得结果均低于全国城市平均水平,肥胖发生率与2002年全国水平相当. 结论 本次调查儿童体格发育总体上优于我国2009年标准,生长发育状况良好.%Objective To investigate the physical development of children in Sanmenxia, and to put forward some suggestions for the improvement. Methods The body weight and height of 826 preschool children (410 boys and 416 girls) aged 3 to 7 years in the 2 kindergartens of Sanmenxia City were measured by the national unified measurement method. The China Child Growth Standard was used to compute the Z- scores with SPSS16.0 software, and then the Z-scores were compared with the results of 2002 national nutrition survey. Results The rates of malnutrition, stunting, underweight and overweight which counted by the national standards were all lower than the average levels of the whole country, but the rate of obesity was similar to that of the whole country. Conclusions In general, the growth and development of the surveyed children are better than 2009 national growth standards, and the growth and development status of these children are good.

  14. Investigate the reasonableand healthy eating habit for children by investigating the development and health condition of children under 14 years old%调查儿童生长发育和健康状况探讨儿童合理健康的饮食生活习惯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢桂芳; 李佩玲; 姜艳; 钟诗婷; 李艳萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate development and health condition of children under 14 years old, in order to explore reasonable and healthy eating habits for children .Methods We supplied free medical examination for children under 14 years in Shilong , input examination results into an Excellspreadsheet database and datas were analyzed using descriptive method .Using the grey system theory to predict the develop trend of children cacotrophy.Results The medical examination results indicated that micronutrient deficiencies (82%), malnutrition ( 37%) , urological problems ( 44%) were existed in children under 14 years old in Shilong . Conclusions Extensive health education and lectures on children and appropriate norms and healthy eating habits based on their own problems were the best ways to promote growing development and health condition for children.%目的:了解我镇14岁以下独生子女的生长发育和健康状况,探讨儿童合理健康的饮食生活习惯。方法对石龙镇14岁以下的儿童进行免费的体检,对检查结果建立Excel表格数据库并进行描述性研究,并用灰色系统理论对儿童营养不良的发病趋势进行预测。结果石龙镇14岁以下独生子女的微量元素缺乏(82%)、营养不良(37%)、泌尿外科问题(44%)较严重。结论广泛开展儿童健康教育和知识讲座、针对儿童自身问题制定相应的饮食规范和健康生活习惯是提高儿童生长发育和健康水平的主要方法。

  15. What factors underlie children's susceptibility to semantic and phonological false memories? investigating the roles of language skills and auditory short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P; Gray, Eleanor A; Robinson, Jamey L; Dewhurst, Stephen A

    2014-06-01

    Two experiments investigated the cognitive skills that underlie children's susceptibility to semantic and phonological false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott procedure (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995). In Experiment 1, performance on the Verbal Similarities subtest of the British Ability Scales (BAS) II (Elliott, Smith, & McCulloch, 1997) predicted correct and false recall of semantic lures. In Experiment 2, performance on the Yopp-Singer Test of Phonemic Segmentation (Yopp, 1988) did not predict correct recall, but inversely predicted the false recall of phonological lures. Auditory short-term memory was a negative predictor of false recall in Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2. The findings are discussed in terms of the formation of gist and verbatim traces as proposed by fuzzy trace theory (Reyna & Brainerd, 1998) and the increasing automaticity of associations as proposed by associative activation theory (Howe, Wimmer, Gagnon, & Plumpton, 2009).

  16. Emerging inequality in effort: A longitudinal investigation of parental involvement and early elementary school-aged children's learning time in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoji; Nakamuro, Makiko; Inui, Tomohiko

    2015-11-01

    While studies on effort (e.g., Carbonaro, 2005; Kariya, 2000, 2013) have revealed relationships among students' effort (e.g., self-reported learning time), socioeconomic status, and school-related factors (e.g., tracking) through secondary education data, whether and how the effort gap emerges and widens in the early years of compulsory education have not been researched. This study investigates the beginning of inequality in effort by using four waves (from first- to fourth-grade students) of the Longitudinal Survey of Babies in the 21st Century, collected in Japan. The results indicate that college-educated parents tend to employ parenting practices that directly and indirectly shape children's learning time; inequality in effort exists, and it becomes exacerbated partly because of parenting differences in a society with a relatively equal elementary education system.

  17. Text (Oral) Reading Fluency as a Construct in Reading Development: An Investigation of its Mediating Role for Children from Grades 1 to 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Wagner, Richard K

    In the present study we investigated a developmentally changing role of text reading fluency in mediating the relations of word reading fluency and listening comprehension to reading comprehension. We addressed this question by using longitudinal data from Grades 1 to 4, and employing structural equation models. Results showed that the role of text reading fluency changes over time as children's reading proficiency develops. In the beginning phase of reading development (Grade 1), text reading fluency was not independently related to reading comprehension over and above word reading fluency and listening comprehension. In Grades 2 to 4, however, text reading fluency completely mediated the relation between word reading fluency and reading comprehension whereas it partially mediated the relation between listening comprehension and reading comprehension. These results suggest that text reading fluency is a dissociable construct that plays a developmentally changing role in reading acquisition.

  18. The Effect of 50 000 IU Vitamin A with BCG Vaccine at Birth on Growth in the First Year of Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Benn, Christine Stabell; Diness, Birgitte Rode;

    2011-01-01

    interaction between VAS and DTP in girls would be reflected in growth. Length and weight were measured at 6 weekly visits and WHO-growth-reference z-scores derived. Neonatal VAS had no effect on anthropometric measures at 12 months, but may interact sex differentially with routine vaccines. While BCG...... was the most recent vaccine, neonatal VAS benefitted growth (difference in weight-for-length z-score (dWFL: 0.31(95% CI: 0.03-0.59)). While DTP was the most recent vaccine, VAS tended to affect growth adversely in girls (dWFL = -0.21 (-0.48-0.06)). After measles vaccine (MV) there was no overall effect...

  19. Surveillance on the guality of BCG vaccination in nowborns%武钢新生儿卡介苗质量监测评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高桂英

    2006-01-01

    目的分析武钢20年新生儿卡介苗接种质量监测情况.方法对1985-2004年武钢医院各年新生儿卡介苗接种和质量监测的原始记录进行统计分析.结果20年武钢的新生儿卡介苗及时接种率、卡介苗接种12周末阳转率、PPD平均直径、有卡痕率、合格卡痕率、卡痕大小的分布频率均逐年稳步提高到理想水平,对接种无效的506名进行了补种.结论武钢新生儿卡介苗接种质量稳步提高到较高水平,为预防儿童结核病发挥了重要作用.

  20. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-related cold thigh abscess as an unusual cause of thigh swelling in infants following BCG vaccine administration: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Shaalan Mohammad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Thigh swelling in an infant can be a symptom of a simple benign condition or a life-threatening condition. We observed a cluster of thigh swelling episodes in infants in which the cause was Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-related cold thigh abscess. We report this unusual case series to raise awareness about this diagnosis. Case presentations We performed a retrospective review of five infants (four boys and one girl who presented with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-related left thigh abscess. The swelling was noticed by the parents at a mean period of three months prior to presentation. The ages at presentation were five, five, eight and nine months for the boys, and six months for the girl. All of the patients were healthy Saudi infants, and received the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine at birth. Clinically, all of the patients were well and did not demonstrate signs of systemic infection. All patients underwent needle aspiration, with subsequent incision and drainage in four of the five cases. The cultures obtained from the abscess fluids were the key to establishing the diagnosis. Only three patients (60% received antituberculosis drugs. Wound healing lasted for a mean period of approximately seven months. Two-year follow-up was unremarkable for all of our patients. Conclusions Technical errors continue to be significant in the development of vaccine-related complications. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-related cold thigh abscess is an extremely rare entity.

  1. T-Cell mRNA Expression in Response to Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccination and Mycobacterium bovis Infection of White-Tailed Deer▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler C Thacker; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Waters, W. Ray

    2009-01-01

    Understanding immune responses of white-tailed deer (WTD) to infection with Mycobacterium bovis provides insight into mechanisms of pathogen control and may provide clues to development of effective vaccine strategies. WTD were vaccinated with either M. bovis BCG strain Pasteur or BCG strain Danish. Both vaccinees and unvaccinated controls were subsequently inoculated with virulent M. bovis via the intratonsillar route. Real-time PCR was used to assess T-cell mRNA expression in peripheral blo...

  2. Appearances Are Deceiving: Observing the World as It Looks and How It Really Is—Theory of Mind Performances Investigated in 3-, 4-, and 5-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Bigozzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appearance-reality (AR distinction understanding in preschoolers is worth of further consideration. This also goes for its relationship with false-belief (FB understanding. This study helped fill these gaps by assessing 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children’s performances on an appearance-reality distinction task and by investigating relationships with unexpected location, deceptive content, and deception comprehension task performances. 91 preschoolers participated in this study divided into 3 groups: (1 37 children, M-age 3.4 years; (2 23 children, M-age 4.5 years; (3 31 children, M-age 5.4 years. A developmental trend was found where appearance-reality distinction understanding was significantly influenced by age. If wrong answers were particularly high by 3-year-old children, they greatly decreased by 4- and 5-year-old children. 3-year-old children also tended to fail in FB tasks; instead 4- and 5-year-old children performed AR tasks better than FB tasks. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  3. The Investigation and Analysis of 1284 Children with Bad Oral Habits%1284例儿童口腔不良习惯调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠

    2013-01-01

      目的:调查惠州地区儿童口腔不良习惯现状及其不同牙龄阶段的儿童的分布情况,为口腔卫生健康教育和防治提供合理临床依据.方法:通过发放问卷的形式在本地调查8种主要常见的口腔不良习惯的发生率和错颌畸形的发生率,并分析这些不良习惯与错颌畸形发生的关系.结果:被调查群体中27.72%的儿童有口腔不良习惯;女童口腔不良习惯明显高于男童(P<0.05);替牙期儿童的口腔不良习惯发生率明显高于乳牙组和恒牙组(P<0.05);错颌畸形在本调查群体中的发生率为41.43%,有口腔不良习惯的儿童群体错颌畸形发生率明显高于无口腔不良习惯的儿童(P<0.05).结论:口腔不良习惯在儿童中并不少见,并且和错颌畸形的发生有一定关系.女童生长发育较早可能是其口腔不良习惯发生率高于男童的原因之一;加强相关健康教育,尤其是在替牙期彻底去除这些不良习惯有利于儿童健康成长.%Objective:To investigate the situation of bad oral habits among Chinese children,and provide reasonable and scientific evidence for oral health education,prevention and cure.Methods:Acquire and col ect the data of eight usual bad oral habits and malocclusion by standardized interview questionnaire,and find the relationship between malocclusion and bad oral habits.Results:About 27.72% investigated children have bad oral habits,the occurring proportion of bad oral habits of female is significant higher than men's(P<0.05);the occurring proportion of bad oral habits in teeth-changing period group is both significant higher than temporary teeth period group and permanent teeth period group(P<0.05);incidence rate of malocclusion is 41.43%,and the difference of malocclusion incidence rate between bad oral habits group and negative group is significant.Conclusion:Bad oral habits are usual in children population,and it has certain relationship with

  4. 白血病患儿家庭充权现状调查%Investigation on family empowerment among parents of children with leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴媚斯; 周芬; 管萍; 张冰花; 陆红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine family empowerment among parents of children with leukemia, and to analyze the relationship between family empowerment, parents' self-efficacy and mental disorders. Methods A total of 125 parents of children with leukemia were investigated by using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) , the General Self-efficacy Scale, the Self-rating Anxiety Scale, and the Self-rating Depression Scale. Results Three items with highest scores belonged to the subscales of 'family empowerment' and 'service system empowerment', while 3 items with lowest scores were in the subscale of 'community/political-empowerment'. The total FES score was correlated with self-efficacy, depression, family income, and length of chemotherapy (P<0. 05, P< 0. 01). Conclusion In order to improve family empowerment of parents of children with leukemia, we should pay attention to community/political aspect, adjust parents negative moods, and improve their self-efficacy.%目的 探讨白血病患儿家庭充权现状及其与家长自我效能、心理不良情绪等影响因素的关系.方法 采用家庭充权量表及其他量表对125名白血病患儿家长进行调查.结果 白血病患儿家庭充权条目平均分最高的3项属于家庭和服务维度,最低的3项属于社区/政策维度.充权总分与照顾者自我效能、抑郁水平、家庭月总收入水平、患儿化疗时间等密切相关(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 提高家庭充权应重视社区/政策层面这一薄弱环节,调整照顾者不良心理情绪,自我效能感也影响其充权水平的提升.

  5. Investigating portable fluorescent microscopy (CyScope® as an alternative rapid diagnostic test for malaria in children and women of child-bearing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa-Figueiredo José

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt and correct diagnosis of malaria is crucial for accurate epidemiological assessment and better case management, and while the gold standard of light microscopy is often available, it requires both expertise and time. Portable fluorescent microscopy using the CyScope® offers a potentially quicker, easier and more field-applicable alternative. This article reports on the strengths, limitations of this methodology and its diagnostic performance in cross-sectional surveys on young children and women of child-bearing age. Methods 552 adults (99% women of child-bearing age and 980 children (99% ≤ 5 years of age from rural and peri-urban regions of Ugandan were examined for malaria using light microscopy (Giemsa-stain, a lateral-flow test (Paracheck-Pf® and the CyScope®. Results from the surveys were used to calculate diagnostic performance (sensitivity and specificity as well as to perform a receiver operating characteristics (ROC analyses, using light microscopy as the gold-standard. Results Fluorescent microscopy (qualitative reads showed reduced specificity (400 parasites/μL blood: sensitivity of 64.2% and specificity of 86.0%. Overall, the diagnostic performance of the CyScope was found inferior to that of Paracheck-Pf®. Discussion Fluorescent microscopy using the CyScope® is certainly a field-applicable and relatively affordable solution for malaria diagnoses especially in areas where electrical supplies may be lacking. While it is unlikely to miss higher parasitaemia, its application in cross-sectional community-based studies leads to many false positives (i.e. small fluorescent bodies of presently unknown origin mistaken as malaria parasites. Without recourse to other technologies, arbitration of these false positives is presently equivocal, which could ultimately lead to over-treatment; something that should be further explored in future investigations if the CyScope® is to be more widely implemented.

  6. 儿童静脉留置针送管方法的探讨%To investigate the children send venous indwelling needle tube method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晶晶; 黄静波; 贾丽丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察儿童静脉留置针送管方法对提高穿刺成功率的影响。方法将600例住院需采用静脉留置针的患儿随机分为3组,均需采用BD24G静脉留置针,A组200例采用双手送管法,B组200例采用单手送管法,C组200例采用改良式单手送管法,比较三种方法的穿刺成功率。结果 C组穿刺成功率明显高于A组和B组,P<0.05。结论改进后的单手送管法可明显提高留置针的穿刺成功率。%Objective To investigate the children send venous indwelling needle tube method to improve the success rate of puncture. Methods 600 cases of hospitalized children were randomly divided into 3 groups, all needed to intravenous indwelling needle. 200 cases of group A used both hands to send tube method, 200 cases of group B with one hand to send tube method, 200 cases of group C used modified single hand to send tube method. Puncture success rate of three methods were compared. Results The success rate of puncture in group C was obviously higher than that of group A and group B. Conclusions The improved single hand pipe method can improve the success rate of indwelling needle puncture.

  7. Successful Handling of Disseminated BCG Disease in a Child with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacalhau, Sílvia; Freitas, Cristina; Valente, Rosalina; Barata, Deolinda; Neves, Conceição; Schäfer, Katrin; Lubatschofski, Annelie; Schulz, Ansgar; Neves, João Farela

    2011-01-01

    In high-burden countries, Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is administered in newborn to prevent severe Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Because life-threatening disseminated BCG disease may occur in children with primary immunodeficiency, vaccination strategy against tuberculosis should be redefined in non-high-burden countries. We report the case of a patient with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) who developed disseminated BCG disease, highlighting the specific strategies adopted. PMID:22110512

  8. Successful Handling of Disseminated BCG Disease in a Child with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Bacalhau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In high-burden countries, Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine is administered in newborn to prevent severe Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Because life-threatening disseminated BCG disease may occur in children with primary immunodeficiency, vaccination strategy against tuberculosis should be redefined in non-high-burden countries. We report the case of a patient with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID who developed disseminated BCG disease, highlighting the specific strategies adopted.

  9. Disseminated Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) disease in an infant with severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Shagufta; Afzal, Muhammad; Anwar, Vaqas; Shama, Quratulain

    2014-11-01

    Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is administered to all newborns in countries where tuberculosis is still endemic. It is a live attenuated vaccine and considered quite safe in immunocompetent children. Disseminated BCG disease is the most serious complication seen only in individuals with underlying primary or secondary immunodeficiencies. We report a case of disseminated BCG disease in an infant with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) who received BCG administration prior to diagnosis of SCID.

  10. 自闭症儿童家庭应对方式和应对策略的调查%Investigation on coping style and coping strategy of parents with autistic children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦秀群; 陈华丽; 彭碧秀

    2010-01-01

    目的 调查自闭症儿童父母的应对方式和应对策略,为提高自闭症儿童父母的身心健康干预提供依据.方法 采用简易应对方式问卷对105名自闭症儿童的父母进行问卷调查.结果 自闭症儿童父母的积极应对方式得分(1.85±0.46)分,低于正常儿童父母(P0.05),白闭症儿童父亲比母亲更多采用积极应对策略.结论 相关部门和医护人员应指导帮助自闭症儿童父母尤其是自闭症儿童母亲更多采取积极应对方式和应对策略.%Objective To investigate the coping style and coping strategy of parents with autistic children, and provide reference basis for parents with autistic children.Methods Parents of 105 children with autism were investigated by adopting the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire.Results Parents of children with autism scored significantly lower than those of healthy children in the domains of positive coping style.But there was no significant difference in positive coping style and negative coping style between mothers and fathers of children with autism.However, fathers of children with autism were more likely to use positive coping strategy.Conclusions Government and medical staff should help and support parents with autistic children, especially mothers, to take positive coping style and coping strategy.

  11. 孤独症家长需求分析与对策建议%Investigations and Analysis on the Needs of Parents of Children with Autism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭德华; 邓学易; 赵琦; 温洪; 黄晶晶

    2014-01-01

    This paper aimed to understand the objective situation and basic needs of parents of children with autism and provide scientific basis for the relevant departments issuing and implementing autism related policy. Directed by “the needs questionnaire for parents of children with autism", using purposive sampling method based on the principle of convenience, it conducted a survey of 3,867 parents of autistic children and structured interviews in 30 provinces and autonomous regions.Also it investigated four aspects from the parents / family information, autistic patient information, autism family status evaluation and parents demand. To parents demand perspective, analysis of the current situation and countermeasures, the results showed that currently the contradiction between the objective demand of parents of children with autism in China and the weak social support system is very outstanding; autism family environment and parents living condition are not optimistic. To improve the present situation, it is urgent and necessary to construct an effective social support system. This should cause enough attention of the government and the society.%为了解孤独症家长的客观现状和基本需求,为相关部门出台和实施孤独症相关政策提供科学依据,中国精神残疾人及亲友协会通过自编的《中国孤独症家长需求调查问卷》和结构式访谈,采用立意抽样方法结合方便取样原则,在全国30个省市自治区调查孤独症家长3867人,从家长及家庭信息、孤独症患者信息、家庭现状评价和家长需求四个方面进行调查。以家长需求为视角,分析现状和探讨对策。结果表明,现阶段我国孤独症家长的客观需求与薄弱的社会支持体系之间的矛盾非常突出,孤独症家庭生态环境与家长生存状态不容乐观,应引起政府和社会的足够重视。以期构建有效的社会支持体系,改善现状,为孤独症儿童的成长提供良好的家庭环境。

  12. Investigations on Allergens of Allergic Diseases in Children from Tongling%铜陵地区儿童过敏性疾病过敏原的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文辉; 刘萍; 周云霞; 朱应玉; 胡春玖; 王万平; 王华峰; 江文胜; 张丽新

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristic of allergens in children's hypersensitivity disease of Tongling, so as to provide scientific basis for the prevention of hypersensitivity disease among children in Tongling. Methods Fifty cases suffered from bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and(or) atopic dermatitis were selected. In 50 cases, 31 were males and 19 were females. The average age was 6.32 β. 13 years old. All the patients underwent skin prick tests(SPT) with 20 allergens, with histamine as positive control. Normal saline was used for negative control. Results Of the inhalant allergens in the Tongling, dust mite was positive in 84% , followed by house dust mite(82% ) ,feather of dogs and cats(54% ) , cockroach(48% ) , wormwood and hamulus pollen and weed pollen(46% ) . Compared with those of food allergens, the positive rite were in order of sea shrimp(62% ) , beef and yolk(58% ) , peanut(56% ) , egg white and mango and milk(54% ) , rice field eel and ribbonfish( 52% ) , soybean(46% ) , apple and peach(42% ). Conclusion It is concluded that dust mite and house dust mite allergen are the most common allergens in Tongling. In preschoolers, the main food allergen is yolk and peanut; in school - age children, sea shrimp and beef. Therefore, SPT is one of the safest and most effective methods to detect hypersensitivity diseases among children.%目的 探讨铜陵地区儿童过敏性疾病过敏原的分布特点,为本地区儿童常见过敏性疾病的防治提供科学依据.方法 选择患有儿童哮喘、过敏性鼻炎和特异性皮炎等的患儿50例,男性31例,女性19例,平均年龄6.32±3.13岁.所有对象均选用20种过敏原进行皮肤点刺试验,以组胺作阳性对照,生理盐水作阴性对照.结果 铜陵地区吸入性过敏原以粉尘螨阳性率最高为84%,其次是户尘螨阳性率82%、猫毛和狗上皮阳性率54%、蟑螂阳性率48%、艾蒿和葎草、玉米花粉阳性率46%.食物性过

  13. Needs of Children Experiencing Homelessness who are Living in Shelters: A Qualitative Investigation of Perceptions of Care Workers to Inform Music Therapy Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Jean Yates

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On a single night in January in 2014 there were 194,000 children living with their families in shelters in the United States (National Center on Family Homelessness, 2015. A typical family experiencing homelessness consists of a single mother with two to three children. Children experiencing homelessness are more likely to face academic, social, and emotional problems compared to children in poverty. As there is currently a dearth of peer reviewed publications related to music therapy with children experiencing homelessness, the purpose of this study was to explore the perceived needs of children living in a homeless shelter through interviews with care workers and apply results to the music therapy clinical practice. Participants were seven staff members employed at a shelter for women and children experiencing homelessness in the Midwestern part of the United States. Data analysis was based upon Braun and Clarke’s (2006 six phases of thematic analysis. Emerging themes included: (a staff need to be positive role models and provide trusting and affectionate relationships, (b older children require programming and opportunities for communication and emotional support, (c wellbeing must be screened and monitored, and (d routine and expectations are needed to promote a calm living environment. Implications for music therapy clinical practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research concerning music therapy with children experiencing homelessness are provided.

  14. Investigation on lactose intolerance in 600 children in Wuxi city%无锡市600例儿童乳糖不耐受情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琼; 王叶红; 徐惠

    2012-01-01

    目的:调查不同年龄腹泻儿童乳糖不耐受的发生情况.方法:采用尿半乳糖测定试剂盒对600例儿童进行乳糖不耐受检测.结果:腹泻小儿乳糖不耐受的发生率与健康小儿差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),随年龄的增长儿童乳糖不耐受的发生率呈下降趋势.在腹泻儿童中,0~1岁儿童乳糖不耐受的发生率均高于1~3、4~6及7~12岁儿童,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:腹泻小儿易出现继发性乳糖不耐受,特别是腹泻婴儿.%Objective: To survey the occurrence of lactose intolerance in children with diarrhea at different age groups. Methods: Urine galactose test kit was used to detect lactose intolerance in 600 children. Results < There was statistically significant difference in the incidence of lactose intolerance between the children with diarrhea and healthy children ( P < 0.01) , the incidence of lactose intolerance in children showed a decreasing trend with age. Among the children with diarrhea, the incidence of lactose intolerance in 0 - 1 - year - old children was statistically significantly higher than those in 1 - 3 - year - old children, 4 - 6 - year - old children, and 7 - 12 - year - old children, there was statistically significant difference (P <0.01) . Conclusion: Secondary lactose intolerance is easily to occur in children with diarrhea, especially in infants with diarrhea.

  15. Inference Generation during Discourse and Its Relation to Social Competence: An Online Investigation of Abilities of Children with and without Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Janet A.; Milosky, Linda A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether young children with typical language development (TL) and children with language impairment (LI) make emotion inferences online during the process of discourse comprehension, identified variables that predict emotion inferencing, and explored the relationship of these variables to social competence. Method:…

  16. Identification of Children with Language Impairment: Investigating the Classification Accuracy of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories, Level III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth; Campbell, Wenonah; Dempsey, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the accuracy with which the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories, Level III (CDI-III), a parent report measure of language ability, discriminated children with language impairment from those developing language typically. Method: Parents of 58 children, 49 with typically developing language (age 30 to 42…

  17. The APPLE Project: An Investigation of the Barriers and Promoters of Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in New Zealand Children Aged 5-12 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williden, Micalla; Taylor, Rachael W; McAuley, Kirsten A; Simpson, Jean C; Oakley, Maggie; Mann, Jim I

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To use the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework to determine the barriers and promoters of healthy eating and physical activity in children aged 5-12 years, as a basis for the development of a pilot community-based programme for preventing obesity in children (APPLE project: A Pilot Programme for Lifestyle…

  18. 2011年西宁地区儿童腹泻病毒流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigation on diarrhea virus among children in Xining area in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂香; 易虎; 田登; 赵生仓; 杨维成; 徐琼; 石燕; 张华一

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To conduct an epidemiological investigation on diarrhea virus in Xining city in 2011, analyze epidemic strains and trend of diarrhea virus in Qinghai province, and provide experimental data for diarrhea induced by diarrhea virus to control prevalence of diarrhea virus. Methods: Nest - PCR and multiplex PCR were used to detect diarrhea virus among 488 infants in Xining area. Results : The detection rates of diarrhea virus in children with diarrhea in Xining area; group A rotavirus (6. 76% , 33 children, including 15 children of G9 type, 13 children of G3 type, 1 child of P6 type, 2 children of P8 type, and 2 children of P9 type) , group B/C rotavirus (0. 61% , 3 children) , calicivirus (4. 71% , 23 children, including 17 children with sapovirus and 6 children with norovirus of GⅡ type) , astrovirus (1. 43% , 7 children) . Conclusion: Group A rotavirus and calicivirus are main pathogens of infantile diarrhea in Xining area.%目的:对2011年西宁市腹泻病毒进行流行病学调查,对青海省腹泻病毒流行株和流行趋势进行统计分析,为腹泻病毒引起的腹泻提供实验室资料,更好地控制病毒性腹泻的流行.方法:用巢式PCR和多重PCR方法对西宁地区488例婴幼儿腹泻标本进行腹泻病毒检测.结果:西宁地区腹泻儿童中腹泻病毒的检出率分别为:轮状病毒A组阳性33例(6.76%),其中G9型15例、G3型13例、P6型1例、P8型2例、P9型2例;轮状病毒B/C组阳性3例(0.61%);杯状病毒阳性23例(4.71%),其中扎如病毒17例、诺如病毒GⅡ型6例;星状病毒阳性7例(1.43%).结论:轮状病毒A组和杯状病毒是西宁地区婴幼儿腹泻的主要病原体之一.

  19. Investigation and analysis of oral habits of children with dental caries%患龋儿童口腔行为习惯的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈善萍; 刘春丽; 房夏玲; 屠军波

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解患龋学龄前儿童的口腔卫生行为习惯及其家长对口腔健康知识的知晓情况,为龋病儿童健康宣教提供指导。方法采用随机抽样方法选取2015年1至3月在西安交通大学口腔医院儿科就诊的400名学龄前儿童及家长作为调查对象,进行问卷调查,并对资料进行统计学分析。结果不同年龄组学龄前儿童在甜食类食品、睡前进食、首次刷牙年龄、每天刷牙次数方面比较差异均有统计学意义(χ2值分别为10.761、11.403、12.579、13.577,均P<0.05)。饮食习惯:学龄前儿童58.64%喜欢甜类食品,睡前进食占54.67%;口腔行为习惯:3岁前首次刷牙为30.88%,每天2次刷牙为44.48%;就医情况:以牙齿有洞为主诉的患儿为59.49%,定期检查占13.03%,有18.98%做过干扰措施;家长的认知情况:态度积极,但口腔知识相对不足,有73.65%的家长关注预防保健知识,54.67%的家长通过网络、电视了解口腔卫生知识。结论患龋的学龄前儿童没有养成良好的口腔行为习惯,家长的保健知识有待提高,应通过多种措施提高儿童的口腔保健水平。%Objective To provide a guideline for oral health education by investigating preschool children ’ s oral health behavior and their parents’ awareness of oral health knowledge .Methods From January to March in 2015 totally 400 preschool children and their parents were randomly selected in Hospital of Stomatology of Xi ’ an Jiaotong University .A questionnaire survey of oral health knowledge was conducted and statistical analysis was conducted .Results Statistical significance was found in the differences in taking sweet food , eating before sleep, age of first brush and brush times every day among different groups (χ2 value was 10.761, 11.403, 12.579 and 13.577, respectively, all P<0.05).In diet habits, 58.64% preschool children liked

  20. The use of MR imaging and spectroscopy of the brain in children investigated for developmental delay: What is the most appropriate imaging strategy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, Paul D. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Batty, Ruth; Raghavan, Ashok; Connolly, Daniel J.A. [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Warren, Daniel; Hart, Anthony [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sharrard, Mark [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Paediatrics, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Mordekar, Santosh R. [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Developmental delay is a common problem in paediatric practice and many children with developmental delay are referred for MR imaging. Our study was performed as part of a continuing audit process to optimise our MR protocol and case selection. We performed MR imaging and spectroscopy protocol on 157 children with developmental delay. We analysed the effect of these interventions by looking at the overall detection rate of relevant pathology and in particular subgroups of the children. 71% of the children had normal MR imaging, 10% had non-specific findings and 19% had specific abnormalities on MR imaging. The overall risk of having a specific structural abnormality with isolated developmental was 7.5% but if other neurological symptoms/signs were present the risk was 28%. Two children had abnormal spectroscopic findings, one with tuberous sclerosis and the other with absent brain creatine. Case selection for MR imaging is important in children with developmental delay. The best strategies for selecting children for MR are either; not performing MR with developmental delay in one domain only or performing MR with developmental delay in three or four domains or if there are other neurological features. (orig.)

  1. Children's Theories of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…

  2. 南昌市儿童家长对麻疹疫苗再次强化免疫态度调查%Investigation on attitude about measles vaccine strengthen Immunization again among children s guardian in nanchang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊昌辉; 廖征; 文海蓉; 张艳霞; 彭时辉; 陈淑华; 李剑; 万刚凤

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the children parents attitude about measles vaccine strengthen immunization, and provide scientific basis for elimination the measles. Method Using household survey method to investigate the children's parents. Results Attitude about Measles vaccine strengthen immunization among children's parents are different in gender, profession , spousea'profession. usual attitude of the children vaccinated. urban and rural locations, number of children, living witb children, vaccine safety, knowing measles vaccine strengthen immunization, vaccinating measles vaccine, and there are statistically significant difference between them. Conclusions Children's guardian'attitude about measles vaccine strengthen immunization are related to gender, profession, spouses'profession, usual attitude of the children vaccinated, urban and rural locations, number of children, living with children, vaccine safety, knowing measles vaccine strengthen immunization and vaccinating measles vaccine. Because of this we should take appropriate strategy to improve measles vaccine strengthen immunization coverage rates.%目的 了解儿童家长对再次麻疹疫苗强化免疫的态度,为消除麻疹提供科学依据.方法 采用入户调查方式对儿童家长进行调查.结果 儿童家长对麻疹疫苗强化免疫的态度在性别、职业、配偶职业、平时对孩子接种疫苗态度、城乡位置、孩子数量、与孩子同住、接种疫苗安全、知道麻疹疫苗强化免疫及其孩子强化接种麻疹疫苗这10个方面的差异具有统计学意义.结论 儿童家长对于麻疹疫苗强化免疫的态度与性别、职业、配偶职业、平时重视孩子接种疫苗态度、城乡位置、孩子数量、与孩子同住、接种疫苗安全、知道麻疹疫苗强化免疫及其孩子强化接种麻疹疫苗因素有关,应采取针对性策略,提高麻疹疫苗的强化接种率.

  3. Investigating Clinical and Radiographical Success Rate of Dental Procedures Performed On Children under General Anesthesia in a Surgical Clinic in Yazd between 2006- 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z bahrololoomi

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Regarding failure rate of amalgam and composite restorations, a definitive treatment plan consisting of SSC, pulp therapy and / or extraction may be preferred for oral rehabilitation of the children under GA.

  4. 关于弱视、斜视患儿社区护理的现状调查%Investigation on Present Situation of Community Nursing in Children with Amblyopia and Strabismus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢志霞; 刘文兰

    2016-01-01

    目的:探究目前针对弱视、斜视患儿实施社区护理的状况é方法利用问卷调查的形式对该市200名弱视、斜视患儿的护理需求进行调查,并对目前社区50名护理人员护理现状进行调查分析é结果在经过问卷调查后,74%的弱视、斜视患儿有社区护理需求,且社区内有54%的护理人员对弱视、斜视患儿的规范护理措施知晓é结论目前社区内弱视、斜视患儿对社区护理的需求率较高,因而有必要强化社区对弱视、斜视儿童患儿的护理模式,提升社区护理质量é%Objective To explore the current status of the implementation of community nursing for children with amblyopia and strabismus. Methods Using the questionnaire of nursing needs of our 200 children with amblyopia and strabismus were investigated, and the current community nurses from 50 nursing status investigation and analysis. Results After the survey, 74% of the children with amblyopia and strabismus of community nursing needs and community awareness of standardized nursing care personnel of 54% children with amblyopia and strabismus. Conclusion The community of amblyopia and stra-bismus in children with community nursing demand rate is higher, so it is necessary to strengthen the nursing mode of com-munity of amblyopia and strabismus of children, improve the quality of community nursing.

  5. Investigation and analysis on cognition of mothers to somatotype of children and nutritional status of children%母亲对儿童体形认知与营养状况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任建立; 德艳艳; 刘明清; 于彩霞; 张丽萍; 任静华

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the current situation of cognition of mothers to somatotype of their children and the difference of nutritional status of children, provide a basis for making strategies to promote health of children. Methods: A uniform measuring method was used to measure the body weight and body height of 259 children aged 5 ~ 6 years old from two kindergartens, their nutritional status was e-valuated; meanwhile, the cognitive situations of their mothers to somatotype of children were surveyed by a questionnaire, the coincidence degree of cognition of mothers to somatotype of their children and nutritional status of the population was compared. Results: The detection rates of marasmus and overweight/obesity among the children were 3. 86% and 6. 18% , respectively. There was no significant difference in nutritional status between boys and girls (x2= 1. 806, P > 0. 05) . The total coincidence rate of cognition of mothers to somatotype of their children and screening result of physical examination was 64. 48% , the coincidence degree was not ideal (u =4. 36, P 0.05);母亲对儿童体形认知与体格筛查结果比较总符合率64.48%,一致程度不够理想(u=4.36,P<0.01).结论:沧州市城区5~6岁集体儿童生长发育总体水平良好,但仍存在营养不良和营养过剩舣重问题;母亲对儿童体形的评价存在认知偏差;当前普及科学育儿知识是一项紧迫的、长期的任务.

  6. Clinical investigation of visiting conditions of pediatric dental outpatients in Children's Hospital%儿童医院口腔门诊就诊情况临床调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红

    2015-01-01

    目的::了解就诊儿童口腔科疾病的发生特点及就诊情况。方法:采用回顾性的调查研究,对8463例初诊病例的资料进行分析,按照年龄,疾病类型进行分类记录,并进行统计学分析。结果:初诊患者最多年龄组为4~7岁组。最常见的儿童口腔疾病依次是牙体牙髓疾病、黏膜病、深窝沟、乳牙滞留。结论:儿童口腔病疾较普遍,预防保健工作不足。%Objective: To investigate characteristics of oral diseases in children and their visiting conditions. Methods: The data of 8463 newly diagnosed cases were retrospectively investigated, recorded by age and type of diseases, and statistically analyzed. Results: The children of the newly diagnosed cases peaked at 4-7 years. The most common oral diseases in order were dental and pulp disease, mucosal disease, deep pit and fissure, and retained deciduous teeth. Conclusions: The children's oral diseases are common. It is urgent to strengthen the propaganda and education on the oral diseases of children.

  7. An Investigation into the Peer Relationships of the Preschool Hearing-impaired Children Learning in Regular Classes%学龄前随班就读听障儿童同伴关系现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘里里; 杜巧新; 卢晓月; 杨帆; 王段霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the peer relationships of preschool hearing-impaired children learning in regular classes and to analyze their social adaptability. Methods Peer nomination instrument was used to assess the types of social interaction for 18 hearing-impaired children(4 children at age 4,7 children at age 5 and 7 children at age 6)at the beginning, middle and end of the term. Results In all of the three tests, the “general” type is the most as compared to other types of social interaction. The social interaction types of hearing-impaired children changed over time. The peer relationships between the hearing-impaired children in the same class can affect their acceptance by others.The interaction behavior, compliance with rules, authoritative effects will directly influence the acceptance of hearing-impaired children by their classmates. Conclusion From the perspective of peer relationships, most preschool hearing-impaired children learning in regular classes can be accepted by their classmates.%目的了解学龄前随班就读听障儿童在班级中的同伴关系,分析其社会适应状况。方法采用同伴提名法,对18名随班就读听障儿童(小班4名,中班7名,大班7名)在学期初、学期中、学期末进行3次社会交往类型评估。结果3次评估中,听障儿童最多的社会交往类型均为“一般型”,其他交往类型较少;听障儿童的社会交往类型随时间推移呈现一定的变化。班级中听障儿童群体的存在影响了其整体被接纳的程度。“交往技能”的高低、是否遵守“规则规范”、“权威影响”等因素直接影响听障儿童是否被班级同伴所接纳。结论从同伴关系的角度来看,学龄前随班就读听障儿童基本能被班级其他成员接纳。

  8. Sleeping Beauty and the Story of the Bacille Calmette-Guérin Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Helen A

    2016-08-30

    Mycobacterium bovis BCG is the only available vaccine for protection against tuberculosis (TB). While BCG protects children from severe disease, it has little impact on pulmonary disease in adults. A recombinant BCG vaccine BCG ΔureC::hly (strain VPM1002) is in advanced clinical trials and shows promise for improved vaccine safety but little change in efficacy in animal models. A second-generation recombinant BCG vaccine with an additional deletion of the nuoG gene (BCG ΔureC::hly ΔnuoG) shows improved efficacy in a mouse model compared to that of VPM1002. BCG was first used in humans in 1921 and, like Sleeping Beauty pricked by the spinning wheel, we have slept for 100 years, showing a reluctance to invest in clinical development or in biomanufacturing capacity for TB vaccines. The advance of recombinant BCGs should awaken us from our sleep and call us to invest in new-generation TB vaccines and to protect the biomanufacture of our current BCG vaccine.

  9. BCG LYMPHADENITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization (WHO has recommended Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG vaccination as a part of the global expanded program for immunization. Although the BCG vaccine is usually a safe vaccine, a number of complications with lymphadenitis being the most common complication, can occur. AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical presentation and the histomorphological features of BCG adenitis in children. RESULTS: A total of 60 patients with BCG lymphadenitis presented between June 2010 and December 2013. The most common age of presentation was 3 months. In the majority (50 of the cases, the lymphadenitis involved ipsilateral left axillary nodes. Other sites of involvement included the left supraclavicular lymph nodes in 5 (8.3% patients, and both the left axillary and supraclavicular lymph nodes were involved in 5 cases (8.3%. All the patients had history of BCG vaccination prior to the onset of lymphadenitis. CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of BCG lymphadenitis is clinical. Parental education and awareness among paramedical personnel, including general practitioners, is essential so that prompt recognition and management of BCG adenitis can be ensured.

  10. [Commemorative lecture of receiving Imamura Memorial Prize. Studies on prevention and treatment of childhood tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, I

    1999-11-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of 394 patients who were treated for active tuberculosis (TB) at our hospital from 1976 to 1997. We had started early BCG vaccination campaign in Osaka Prefecture from 1995 and the coverage of BCG vaccination in infants rose up to about 90%. From that experience, we studied the current situations and measures on prevention and treatment of childhood tuberculosis. Pulmonary TB in children is successfully treated with 6-month standard short-course chemotherapy using isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide daily for 2 months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin daily for 4 months. Prognosis of childhood tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is poor, early diagnosis and prevention of TBM is important. In order to promote TB control and eliminate childhood TB, especially in infants, the following is necessary; 1) early detection and treatment of adult TB patients, source of infection, 2) prompt and appropriate contact examination and chemoprophylaxis, 3) BCG vaccination during early infancy, 4) protection from MDR-TB are most important.

  11. An investigation of concepts and words used by Turkish children and teenagers to define their perceptions regarding events involving emotional situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozabaci, Nilüfer

    2011-06-01

    The present study aimed to determine the concepts and words children and teenagers use to define their perceptions of events that involve emotions. It attempted to identify words that children and teenagers use to express emotions and the differences between children and teenagers in this regard. The study focused on 214 children and adolescents, including 124 students from four primary schools in Eskisehir, Turkey (59 girls and 65 boys) and 90 students from one secondary school and two high schools (39 girls and 51 boys). The students were given a questionnaire that asked 10 questions focusing on three emotional categories (happiness, sadness and fear), two types of self-descriptive adjectives (positive and negative) and two neutral categories (semantically related and semantically unrelated). The questionnaire was developed from a form used by Doost et al. (1999). We concluded that the positive and negative expressions used by both children and teenagers were examined regardless of frequency of use, and the constituents, which were basically detected, were gathered under definite titles.

  12. 2010年深圳市福田区新入学、入托儿童接种证查验工作调查分析%The survey of vaccination certificates inspection in school and kindergarten children in Futian district of Shenzhen city in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宝妮; 方琼; 周志锋; 蔡琳; 刘俊玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand the prophylactic immunization condition in school and kindergarten children in Fu-tian district of Shenzhen city in 2010, in order to provide the basis for advancing preventive vaccination certificate inspection system and strengthening the supervision system. Methods: According to The notice on further strengthening inspection of vaccination certificates in school and kindergarten beginners of Futian district, inoculate certificates and inoculate registration condition of 28 192 children in 211 schools and kindergartens were checked. Results: Inspection coverage rate of vaccination certificates was 100%. The number of 28 192 children should be checked, and 27 625 children were really checked, the rate of inspection was 99.79%, among which the rate of certificates holder was 99.16%. The full vaccination rate was 76.32%, 5 975 children were supplementary vaccination, with the rate of 91.35%. The rate of full vaccination and supplementary vaccination of children in kindergartens were higher than that in schools, the differences were statistically significant (x2=6.632, 20.392, P=0.01, 0). The average vaccination rate of BCG vaccine, hepatitis B vaccine and measles vaccine were up to 98%, whereas the average vaccination rate of DBT, OPV and JEV were relatively low. Conclusion: Vaccination certificates inspection of children in school and kindergarten of Futian district has achieved great progress. Education department and health department need coordinate and increase propaganda, in order to improve the rate of full and supplementary vaccination of type I vaccine.%目的:了解深圳市福田区2010 年入学、入托儿童预防接种情况,为完善预防接种证查验制度和监督体系提供依据.方法:按照深圳市福田区卫生局和教育局发布的,对福田区所辖211 所幼儿园和小学28 192 名入学、入托儿童预防接种证及接种登记情况进行查验.结果:接种证查验覆盖率为100%,应查验儿童28

  13. Clinical evaluation of MPT-64 and MPT-59, two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for skin test reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcke, J T; Jensen, B N; Ravn, P;

    1996-01-01

    SETTING: Department of Pulmonary Medicine P, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. OBJECTIVE: To study the ability of two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, MPT-64 and MPT-59 to induce delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions following intradermal administration. DESIGN......: In a small scale clinical investigation, skin reactions to these antigens were compared to reactions to tuberculin PPD RT23 in 1) patients with active tuberculosis, 2) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects with close contact with tuberculous patients, and 3) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects without contact...... with tuberculous patients. Tests for in vitro reactivity to these antigens were carried out in similar groups. RESULTS: All subjects gave positive reaction to tuberculin PPD RT23, whereas approximately half of the subjects in each of the three groups reacted to MPT-59. Two subjects (one patient with tuberculosis...

  14. Infants and children with cow milk allergy/intolerance. Investigation of the uptake of cow milk protein and activation of the complement system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, S; Høst, A; Teisner, B

    1990-01-01

    and up to 24 h after the start of the challenge. The cow milk protein beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) was determined in serum with ELISA (lower detection limit 0.3 micrograms/l). BLG was detectable in five children at low levels (below 2 micrograms/l). Analysis of the size distribution of the BLG by size......Seventeen children with challenge-verified cow milk allergy/intolerance (CMAI), age 3-78 months, median 12 months, were re-challenged with cow milk in increasing doses. All subjects developed symptoms, such as bronchospasm, rhinitis, diarrhoea, erythema or eczema. Blood samples were taken before...

  15. 2010年吉林市学龄前儿童营养状况调查%Investigation on nutritional status of preschool children in Jilin city in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凤祥; 张艳杰

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解吉林市3~6岁儿童的营养状况及不良的饮食习惯,为制定干预措施提供依据.方法:选取吉林市不同城区内7所幼儿园3~6岁儿童进行饮食行为调查,调查均通过抚养人同意,采用自拟调查问卷;根据儿童体格检查结果,按照Kaup指数标准对儿童的营养状况进行评价.结果:各年龄段的儿童均存在一定比例的营养不良和超重肥胖;不同营养状态的儿童均有挑食、偏食的习惯,女童挑食偏食情况比男童严重(P<0.01);而且吃零食对正餐也造成一定程度的影响,二者之间存在统计学差异(P<0.01).结论:为促进吉林市学龄前儿童的健康成长,培养儿童良好的饮食行为习惯是改善儿童营养状况的根本性措施.%Objective: To understand the nutritional status and dietary habit of children aged 3 ~6 years old in Jilin city, provide reference for making interventional measures. Methods: The children aged 3-6 years old were selected from seven kindergartens of different districts in Jilin city for dietary behavior investigation which was agreed by their guardians, a self - designed questionnaire was used in the study; then the nutritional status of the children were evaluated according to the result of physical examination and Kaup index. Results: There was a certain percentages of children in all age groups with malnutrition and overweight/ obesity; all the children had the habits of monophagia and particular about their food, especially the girls (P <0. 01) ; eating snacks had a certain impact on the intake of dinner, there was significant difference (P <0. 01) . Conclusion: In order to promote healthy growth of preschool children in Jilin city, developing good dietary behaviors and habits of children is a fundamental measure to improve the nutritional status of children.

  16. Investigation and analysis on the relationship between dietary behaviours and trace elements among preschool children%学龄前儿童饮食行为与微量元素关系调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄璀玥; 肖满田

    2011-01-01

    目的:调查学龄前儿童饮食行为习惯及与微量元素水平关系,更好地进行儿童营养指导.方法:对2008年9月~2010年9月健康体检的120例儿童进行饮食行为习惯调查及血微量元素钙、镁、铁、锌、硒检测并进行t检验.结果:饮食行为习惯较好的儿童66例(55.0%),饮食行为习惯较差54例(45.0%);饮食行为习惯好组儿童血锌与血硒明显高于饮食行为习惯差组儿童,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:儿童微量元素缺乏与儿童饮食行为习惯有密切关系,饮食行为习惯差的儿童可导致血锌、血铁和血硒缺乏,改善饮食行为习惯有助于预防微量元素的缺乏.%Objective; To investigate the relationship between dietary and behavioral habits of preschool children and trace elements, in order to better carry out nutritional guidance. Methods; The dietary and behavioral habits of 120 children who received physical examination in the hospital from September 2008 to September 2010 were surveyed, their blood trace elements (including calcium, magnesi-um, iron, zinc, selenium) levels were detected, then t test was performed. Results; 66 children had good dietary and behavioral habits, accounting for 55. 0% ; and 54 children had bad dietary and behavioral habits, accounting for 45.0%. The levels of blood zinc and selenium among the children with good dietary and behavioral habits were significantly higher than those among the children with bad dietary and behavioral habits (P <0. 05) . Conclusion: Trace elements deficiency is related to dietary and behavioral habits of children, bad dietary and behavioral habits can induce blood zinc, iron and selenium deficiencies of children, improving dietary and behavioral habits is helpful to prevent trace elements deficiencies.

  17. 低龄儿童厌学问题的实证性调查及对策分析%Empirical Investigation and Countermeasure Analysis for Young Children with Disgusted with School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾红; 黄文庚; 黎光明; 刘海英

    2013-01-01

    厌学是影响低龄儿童心理发展与教育的重要因素。为了找出影响低龄儿童厌学的根源,对南昌市三所中小学儿童进行问卷调查,共发出调查问卷400份,回收389份,有效问卷353份,平均年龄10.2岁。调查表明,影响低龄儿童厌学的根源性因素包括儿童自身因素、父母教养方式、教师因素和社会因素等方面。在分析这些影响因素的基础上,提出了帮助低龄儿童克服厌学情绪的对策,包括家长要勇于承认自己教育上的失误、教师积极配合家长做好学生工作、学校培养学生的自尊心和自信心、辅导学生的人际关系和为低龄儿童创造良好的社会环境等。%learning is an important factor affecting young children's psychological development and education. In order to find out the effect of root of young children to school, 400 children from three schools in Nanchang City were asked to conduct a questionnaire survey and only 389 were recovered. There were 353 effective questionnaires. Average age of these children is 10.2 years old. Investigation showed that fundamental factors for young children with disgusted with school included self factors of children, parenting style, teachers and social factors and so on. Based on the analysis of these factors, the paper put forward some countermeasures to help young children overcome weariness, including that parents must have the courage to admit their mistakes, the teacher education actively cooperate with the parents to student work, schools to cultivate student's interpersonal relationship counseling students self-esteem and self-confidence, and to create a good social environment for young children and so on.

  18. 1%环戊通在儿童屈光流行病学调查中的应用%The application of the use of 1% Cyclopentolate in ametropia epidemiological investigation of children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小梅; 杨发斌; 周华; 师文; 李海燕; 王晓林; 马自明; 曹仕涛; 左芸

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The goal of the present research is to probe the application of 1% cyclopentolate in ametropia epidemiological investigation of children.Methods There was a ametropia epidemiological investigation carried out among children aged 2 to 6 in seven kindergartens in Yuxi City,Lincang City,using the small-pupil-retinoscope,and examining children with symptoms of direct or indirect shade movements >+1.50DS,or symptom of unsymmetrical shade movements between the two meridians,who can be considered as potential ametropia patients and then notified to their parents.When given 1% cyclopentolate to palsy ciliary muscles,once every five minutes,two to three times in total,there will be a retina retionoscopy optometry 60 minutes later.The patients can be diagnosed as ametrapia if the symptoms maintain.Results The results shows:among the 3378 children (6756 eyes),there were 246 (7.28%) children were notified re-examination.In fact,only 144 (288 eyes/58.54%) children recame,237 eyes were diagnosed as ametropia,83 (1.23%) eyes as potential amblyopia,and 37 (1.10%) children as strabismus.Conclusions The using of 1% cyclopentolate in ametropia epidemiological investigation of children.has been an easy-carrying-out method.The optometry can be done within a day after using the 1% cyclopentolate,therefore,it is well welcomed by both children and parents,bringing more convenience to children and less communication problems between doctors and patients.%目的 探讨1%环戊通在儿童屈光流行病学调查中的应用价值 方法 用小瞳检影法分别对玉溪市、临沧市7所幼儿园2~6岁儿童进行屈光筛查,对在检影时顺影动>+1.50DS(远视)、有逆影动(近视)或两个子午线影动不对称(散光)的儿童,疑为屈光不正,通知家长复诊.对复诊儿童给1%环戊通点眼麻痹睫状肌,5min/次,连续点眼2~3次,休息60 min进行视网膜检影,明确诊断.结果 在受检的3378名(6756

  19. 鄂州市0~6岁残疾儿童疾病谱3年调查分析%Investigation analysis on the spectrum and 0-6 years the incidence and characteristics of disability children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蕊; 艾方红

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the spectrum and 0-6 years the incidence and characteristics of disability children .Methods:Complete the special population distribution information .2011 May -2013 of May in Ezhou City , all the disabled children aged 0-6 in large area of investigation , improve screening , and pediatric expert appraisal and summary information .Results:0-6 years old children positive for disabled children in 262 cases, three cerebral palsy disease was disabled , mental retardation .Conclusion:Discussion of chil-dren with disabilities was a global health problem was becoming more and more popular , the disabled children directly influence the happi-ness of a family .Disabled children sooner discrimination , more timely treatment and rehabilitation , the rehabilitation effect was better , not only can prevent complications and secondary disease occurrence , but also can reduce the disability severity .%目的:探讨0~6岁残疾儿童疾病谱及特点,完成特殊人群分布信息。方法:对2011年5月~2013年5月鄂州市所有0~6岁残疾儿童进行大面积摸底调查,然后筛查,再由儿科专家进行评估鉴定,汇总信息。结果:筛查出0~6岁残疾儿童262例,疾病前3位的是脑瘫、肢残、智力障碍。结论:儿童残疾是一项全球日益受关注的健康问题,残疾儿童直接影响一个家庭的幸福。残疾儿童越早得到甑别,越早得到及时治疗和康复,其康复的效果就越好,不但可以预防并发症和继发症的发生,还可以减轻残疾严重程度。

  20. A Preliminary Investigation of the Prevalence of Corporal Punishment of Children and Selected Co-occurring Behaviours in Households on New Providence, The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adderley, Latanya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the link between violence in homes, focusing on corporal punishment of children as a means of discipline, and other behaviours (including sexual abuse, illegal drug use, domestic violence, hitting of pets which may be a cause for concern. This paper reports the results of a survey of 933 people and 12 case studies. Violence, physical or domestic, occurred in 62% of survey participants’ homes. The survey indicated that in respondents’ homes many children were physically hurt as a means of discipline. Children were spanked in 77% of homes with children, pets were hit in 25% of homes with pets, and domestic violence was found in 23% of homes. These findings suggest that those who use violence in their homes may not understand the wider and longer-term consequences of their actions for both victims and society. Case study participants seemed to view only severe physical violence as abuse. They also appeared reluctant to report abuse to the authorities which can hamper the efforts to curb violence in homes.

  1. An Investigation of the Effect of the Communication Skills of the Children with Intellectual Disability to the Anxiety Level of Their Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmese, Pelin Pistav; Kayhan, Nilay

    2016-01-01

    Communication in the family environment is highly important for every child although their cognitive, emotional, social and language development characteristics differ. The children are able to communicate with the adults who take the most or the caregivers in the mother's role in terms of development in the family environment in most cultures.…

  2. The Universal and the Unique in Dyslexia: A Cross-Linguistic Investigation of Reading and Reading Fluency in Hebrew- and English-Speaking Children with Reading Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzir, Tami; Shaul, Shelly; Breznitz, Zvia; Wolf, Maryanne

    2004-01-01

    Cross-linguistic studies provide a unique tool for the identification of universal processes in oral and written language, both in development and in breakdown ("Annual Review of psychology," 52, 369?396). Examining the differential strengths and weaknesses of children with dyslexia in contrasting orthographies can help illumine both the more…

  3. Diverging or Converging Trends: An Investigation of Education Policies Concerning the Incorporation of Ethnic Minority Children in England, France and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Yasmeen F.; Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses specifically on the incorporation of ethnic minority children within the education systems of England, France and Germany. The trends in policy development after World War II in these countries are examined through the prism of three ideal-typical incorporation strategies--integration, assimilation and separation. This is done…

  4. Developing Navigational Skills with Young Children: Investigating Serial and Conceptual Approaches to the Teaching of Compass Skills. Sports Science Education Programme, Annual Report 1989/90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverpool Univ. (England).

    Map and compass skills are a neglected aspect of the elementary school curriculum. Orienteering--a sport that involves running a prescribed course with the aid of map and compass--may provide an avenue for teaching these skills. This study taught orienteering to 148 10-year-old children and compared the effectiveness of a serial approach based on…

  5. Predictors of Change Following Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Children with Anxiety Problems: A Preliminary Investigation on Negative Automatic Thoughts and Anxiety Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Mayer, Birgit; den Adel, Madelon; Roos, Tamara; van Wamelen, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate negative automatic thoughts and anxiety control as predictors of change produced by cognitive-behavioral treatment of youths with anxiety disorders. Forty-five high-anxious children aged between 9 and 12 years who were selected from the primary school population, received a standardized CBT…

  6. Evaluation of the Revised Algorithm of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in the Diagnostic Investigation of High-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp-Becker, Inge; Ghahreman, Mardjan; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Peters, Mira; Remschmidt, Helmut; Becker, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) is a semi-structured, standardized assessment designed for use in diagnostic evaluation of individuals with suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The ADOS has been effective in categorizing children who definitely have autism or not, but has lower specificity and sometimes sensitivity for…

  7. An Investigation of the Impact of Small Group Direct Vocabulary Instruction on the Vocabulary Development of Kindergarten Children Living in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Katie A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which tri-weekly evidence-based vocabulary lessons implemented throughout the regular school day would increase kindergarten students' expressive and receptive vocabulary development, thus decreasing the vocabulary gap exhibited between low-income children and their more advantaged peers…

  8. A Qualitative Study in a Rural Community: Investigating the Attitudes, Beliefs, and Interactions of Young Children and Their Parents regarding Storybook Read Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnyak, Natalie Conrad

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study describes the physical and verbal interactions of rural children and their parents regarding reading books aloud. The participants' attitudes and beliefs about sharing storybooks are also explored. The theoretical framework is based upon Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model. One interview was conducted with each participant and…

  9. Effects of Age and Language on Co-Speech Gesture Production: An Investigation of French, American, and Italian Children's Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletta, Jean-Marc; Guidetti, Michele; Capirci, Olga; Cristilli, Carla; Demir, Ozlem Ece; Kunene-Nicolas, Ramona N.; Levine, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare speech and co-speech gestures observed during a narrative retelling task in five- and ten-year-old children from three different linguistic groups, French, American, and Italian, in order to better understand the role of age and language in the development of multimodal monologue discourse abilities. We asked 98…

  10. Early Learning with Digital Media: A Naturalistic, Ethnographic Investigation of Children's Engagement with and Learning from Television and Digital Technology in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Therese E.

    2012-01-01

    Digital media is a broad concept that includes everything from movies to video games to websites. These media are cultural norms for young people, becoming part of their identity as they use and create content. In this dissertation I discuss the observed diversity of interactions that children from infancy through kindergarten have with digital…

  11. Study on Language Function Evaluation for Hearing-impaired Children: Investigation in Healthy Children%听障儿童语言功能评估的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽燕; 孙喜斌; 吕明臣; 曲成毅; 刘建菊; 王段霞; 陈军兰; 张芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics of language function development and establish the reference standards in children of 4~6 years old. Methods 616 hearing normal children at the age of 3~7 from 13 provinces in China were assessed with Language Function Evaluation for Hearing-impaired Children. 583 usable data were analyzed via SPSS 17.0. Results The older the children were, the higher their scores of language function evaluation were (P<0.001). The differences between boys and girls on coordination function and relaxation function were significant (P<0.01). The girls were better than the boys. The reference standards of children of 4~6 years old were set down based on the regression analysis. Conclusion There are some laws on children's language function development. The reference standards of children by 4~6 years old has been developed.%目的 考查健听儿童语言功能的特点,制定4~6岁儿童语言功能评估参考标准,为听障儿童语言功能的康复和评估提供效标。方法 以听障儿童语言功能评估为工具,对13个省市的616名3~7岁健听儿童进行评估,得到有效数据583份,采用SPSS 17.0对数据进行统计分析。结果 语言功能的5个方面以及综合功能均存在显著的年龄主效应,年龄越大,言语功能水平越高(P<0.001);在协调功能和娱乐功能两个方面,女孩得分明显高于男孩(P<0.01);在回归分析的基础上,制定了4~6岁儿童语言功能评估参考标准。结论 儿童的语言功能发展具有一定规律,制定4~6岁儿童语言功能评估参考标准对听障儿童康复教学有意义。

  12. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial to investigate whether home access to electronic games decreases children's physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piek Jan P

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children are reported to have insufficient physical activity (PA placing them at greater risk of poor health outcomes. Participating in sedentary activities such as playing electronic games is widely believed to contribute to less PA. However there is no experimental evidence that playing electronic games reduces PA. There is also no evidence regarding the effect of different types of electronic games (traditional sedentary electronic games versus new active input electronic games on PA. Further, there is a poor understanding about how characteristics of children may moderate the impact of electronic game access on PA and about what leisure activities are displaced when children play electronic games. Given that many children play electronic games, a better understanding of the effect of electronic game use on PA is critical to inform child health policy and intervention. Methods This randomised and controlled trial will examine whether PA is decreased by access to electronic games and whether any effect is dependent on the type of game input or the child's characteristics. Children aged 10–12 years (N = 72, 36 females will be recruited and randomised to a balanced ordering of 'no electronic games', 'traditional' electronic games and 'active' electronic games. Each child will participate in each condition for 8 weeks, and be assessed prior to participation and at the end of each condition. The primary outcome is PA, assessed by Actical accelerometers worn for 7 days on the wrist and hip. Energy expenditure will be assessed by the doubly labelled water technique and motor coordination, adiposity, self-confidence, attitudes to technology and PA and leisure activities will also be assessed. A sample of 72 will provide a power of > 0.9 for detecting a 15 mins difference in PA (sd = 30 mins. Discussion This is the first such trial and will provide critical information to understand whether access to electronic games affects

  13. Investigation of psychological needs of parents of children with cleft lip and palate%唇腭裂患儿家长的心理需求调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿依努尔·达吾提; 阿孜古丽; 魏红

    2015-01-01

    目的::了解唇腭裂患儿家长的心理需求,为临床治疗提供基础性资料。方法:通过问卷和访谈的方式,对375例唇腭裂患儿家长进行了解,并对资料进行整理和分析。结果:患儿家长存在着巨大的精神压力,表现为由初期的惊恐、绝望转变为无奈接受现实,对孩子的未来充满了忧虑。结论:唇腭裂患儿家长的心理存在巨大压力,需要医护人员情感支持与良好沟通。%Objective: To understand psychological needs of parents of children with cleft lip and palate, in order to provide a basis for clinical treatment. Methods: The data of 375 parents, whose children had cleft lip and palate, were collected through ques-tionnaire and interview, then summarized and analyzed. Results: The parents, whose children had cleft lip and palate, had psycholog-ical pressure, expressed from being terrified and hopelessness in early age to receiving hopelessly, and were full of anxious for their children's future. Conclusions: These parents, whose children get cleft lip and palate, have great psychological pressure and need e-motional supporting and favorable communication from medical personnels.

  14. ELISPOT Refinement Using Spot Morphology for Assessing Host Responses to Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally A. Sharpe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a global health problem. The Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG vaccine has variable efficacy (0–80% so there is a drive to develop novel vaccines. The cytokine, interferon gamma (IFNγ, is an essential component of the protective response to M. tuberculosis (M. tb infection and is also produced in response to BCG vaccination. Induction of an IFNγ response is used as a biomarker of successful vaccination in the assessment of new tuberculosis (TB vaccines. The IFNγ ELISPOT assay provides an important tool for TB research. It is used for both the diagnosis of infection (T.Spot assay, and for the evaluation of the immunogenicity of new TB vaccine candidates in human clinical trials, in the non-human primate (NHP model of TB infection studies. The ELISPOT assay captures IFNγ produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs following specific stimulation, onto a membrane so individual cells can be enumerated and the frequency of responding cells determined. Hence spot forming units (SFU per 106 cells provide the traditional measure for ELISPOT assays. The discriminatory power of SFU is limited. In some situations, the number of SFU in BCG vaccinated, and unvaccinated, subjects was found to be similar, although the spots were observed to be larger in vaccinated subjects. Spot size potentially provides a measure of the quantity of cytokine produced by individual cells. The AID ELISPOT plate reader software used to determine frequency of spots also has the capability to determine the size of each spot. Consideration of spot size in combination with spot forming units was investigated in our studies of BCG immunogenicity. This additional readout was found to enhance the discriminatory power of the ELISPOT assay, and provide more information on the immune response to BCG vaccination and infection with M.tb.

  15. The long-term effect of current and new interventions on the new case detection of leprosy: a modeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egil A J Fischer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the number of newly detected leprosy cases has decreased globally, a quarter of a million new cases are detected annually and eradication remains far away. Current options for leprosy prevention are contact tracing and BCG vaccination of infants. Future options may include chemoprophylaxis and early diagnosis of subclinical infections. This study compared the predicted trends in leprosy case detection of future intervention strategies. METHODS: Seven leprosy intervention scenarios were investigated with a microsimulation model (SIMCOLEP to predict future leprosy trends. The baseline scenario consisted of passive case detection, multidrug therapy, contact tracing, and BCG vaccination of infants. The other six scenarios were modifications of the baseline, as follows: no contact tracing; with chemoprophylaxis; with early diagnosis of subclinical infections; replacement of the BCG vaccine with a new tuberculosis vaccine ineffective against Mycobacterium leprae ("no BCG"; no BCG with chemoprophylaxis; and no BCG with early diagnosis. FINDINGS: Without contact tracing, the model predicted an initial drop in the new case detection rate due to a delay in detecting clinical cases among contacts. Eventually, this scenario would lead to new case detection rates higher than the baseline program. Both chemoprophylaxis and early diagnosis would prevent new cases due to a reduction of the infectious period of subclinical cases by detection and cure of these cases. Also, replacing BCG would increase the new case detection rate of leprosy, but this effect could be offset with either chemoprophylaxis or early diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the leprosy incidence would be reduced substantially by good BCG vaccine coverage and the combined strategies of contact tracing, early diagnosis, and treatment of infection and/or chemoprophylaxis among household contacts. To effectively interrupt the transmission of M. leprae, it is

  16. 农村留守儿童心理健康状况的调查研究%Investigation on the Mental Health of Left-behind Children in Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永娟; 沈汪兵; 刘国雄; 袁媛

    2011-01-01

    本文采用MHT量表对安徽省农村117名儿童进行调查,以考察留守和年级对儿童心理健康的影响,结果发现:(1)3分标准与8分检出标准差异显著,表明双基线健康检出标准有很好的实际作用,低分标准可用于预防筛查,高分标准可用作临床诊断的参考;(2)农村留守儿童的对人焦虑、冲动倾向、孤独感及恐怖倾向检出率明显高于非留守儿童,表明留守儿童心理健康问题较非留守儿童严峻;(3)非留守儿童孤独感显著高于留守儿童;(4)在学习焦虑、对人焦虑、恐怖倾向和身体症状上年级差异显著,并且7年级得分最高,总体呈N趋势变化,表明7年级心理问题最严重;(5)除冲动倾向外,学习焦虑等各因素女生得分均显著高于男生,表明女生心理健康问题相对更明显。%This study adopted Mental Health Test(MHT) to investigate how the two factors of being left-behind and grade influence rural children's mental health.Subjects were 117 left-behind children in rural Anhui.The findings are that 1) significant difference is found in 3-score and 8-score standards respectively;2) detection rate of interpersonal anxiety,impulsive tendency,aggressive tendency and loneliness in left-behind children is significantly higher than children staying with parents;3) children staying with parents has higher loneliness than left-behind children;4) there are significant differences of learning anxiety,interpersonal anxiety,fear tendency and physical symptoms among all grades of left-behind children,and stduents in Grade Seven have the highest anxiety and tendency;5) female left-behind children have higher anverage score in all items except impulsive tendency.Some conclusions can be draw from the findings that dual-baseline standard has excellent practical effect,3-score standard for the prevention and 8-score standard for clinical diagnosis,that left-behind children feel lonelier than

  17. 济南市7~18岁儿童体格发育调查%Investigation on physical development of children aged 7 ~ 18 years in Jinan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冰; 曲敬师; 孙涛

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the rule of physical development of children aged 7-18 in Jinan. [Method] The data of height and weight of children aged 7-18 in Jinan were calculated and compared with the standard data of nine East provinces of China,using screening indicators of overweight and obesity according to the NCHS recomended by WHO. [Result] The data of height and weight of children aged 7~18 in Jinan were higher than the standard of nine Eastern provinces of China,indicated the higher obesity rate of this age group in Jinan. [Conclusion] The overall physical development of children aged 7-18 in Jinan is good. There is a higher incidence of obesity around puberty age group. It is important to strengthen the management of children's physical development for this age group for preventing obesity.%[目的]了解济南市7~18岁儿童体格发育规律,为制定干预措施提供理论依据.[方法]计算济南市7~18岁儿童身高、体重,并与中国华东九省市标准比较;以WHO推荐的NCHS测定值筛选超重、肥胖儿童,计算发生率.[结果]济南市7~18岁儿童身高体重高于中国九省市标准,围青春期肥胖发生率高.[结论]济南市7~18岁儿童体格发育状况良好,围青春期是肥胖高发年龄组,加强此关键期儿童管理.

  18. 儿童分泌性中耳炎的临床特点及治疗方案的探讨%investigate the clinical characteristics and treatment programs of secretory otitis media in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁燕

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨讨儿童分泌性中耳炎的临床特点及不同治疗方案的治疗效果。方法:选择2009年至2013年收入住院治疗的308名分泌性中耳炎儿童,其中运用药物治疗的106例,传统开刀手术手术治疗96例,微创腔镜手术治疗106例。收集308例患者的临床资料,回顾性分析其临床特点及三种治疗后的效果。结果:儿童渗出性中耳炎易反复发作,本组患儿每年发作2次以上者有156例(50.7%),通过三中不同的治疗方案处理后,患儿的听力显著提高(P<0.05)。结论:认识儿童分泌性中耳炎的临床特点,了解药物治疗和外科治疗皆对儿童分泌性中耳炎有效。%Objective:To investigate the characteristic of secretory otitis media(SOM)in children and to evaluate therapeutic ef2ficacy of different treatment plans.Methods Select the 2009-2013 income of 308 hospitalized children with secretory otitis media.Of which 106 cases of the use medication.96 cases use traditional surgery.106 cases use minimal y invasive endoscopic surgery.Col ected 308 cases of patients with clinical data were retrospectively analyzed the clinical features and results of the three treatment.Results Children with recurrent otitis media with effusioneasily, this group of children with seizures were more than two times a year there are 156 cases (50.7%),after the passage of three different treatment regimens, hearing of children significantly increased (P<0.05) Conclusion Recognizing the clinical characteristics of children with secretory otitis media, understanding medication and surgical treatment are effective in children with secretory otitis media.

  19. Investigation on etiology of bacterial diarrhea of children in summer in Guangzhou in 2010%2010年广州某医疗中心儿童夏季细菌性腹泻的病原学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉开; 付捷; 关锐梨; 曹慧玲; 邓秋连; 谢永强; 黄勇; 周珍文

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the etiology of bacterial diarrhea of children in summer in Guangzhou in 2010.Methods Children with initial clinical diagnosis of acute bacterial diarrhea during May to July in Guangzhou women and children's medical centre of Zhujiang new town hospital were enrolled in 2010.Enteric pathogenic bacteria were isolated,cultured, and identified by biochemistry reaction and serum agglutination test from flesh stool specimens. Campylobacter jejuni antigen was detected by gold colloid methods. Results 44 pathogenic bacteria were detected in 110 stool specimens; the positive rate was 40.0%. 17 Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli were isolated, among them 15 strains were isolated from children under 2 year; 12 Campylobacter jejuni were detected, 10 strains were detected from children under 2 year; 6 Salmonella, 6 Candida, 3 Clostridiurn perfringens were detected. Conclusion Enteropathogenie Escherichi coli and Campylobacter jejuni were the major pathogens among children with summer bacterial diarrhea in Guangzhou in 2010.children under 2 years were susceptible to these two species of bacteria.%目的 研究广州地区小儿夏季细菌性腹泻的病原菌分布.方法 采集2010年5~7月广州市妇女儿童医疗中心珠江新城院区腹泻患儿的大便标本进行常规病原菌的分离培养,通过生化反应和血清凝集试验进行鉴定和分型,并使用金标法对空肠弯曲菌抗原进行检测.结果 从110份标本中检出44株病原菌,检出率为40.0%.其中致病性大肠埃希菌17株,2岁以下患儿检出15株;空肠弯曲菌12株,2岁以下患儿检出10株;沙门菌6株;念珠菌纯生长6株;产气荚膜杆菌3株.结论 广州地区夏季儿童细菌性腹泻的主要病原菌是致病性大肠埃希菌及空肠弯曲菌,两者的易感人群以2岁以下婴幼儿为主.

  20. A psychometric investigation of somatic and emotional symptoms of children and adolescents in Hong Kong : the role of physiological hyperarousal in differentiating anxiety and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Wai-Yee; 梁慧儀

    2013-01-01

    Emotional disorders of anxiety and depression have been recognized as the most prevalent mental disorders in children and adolescents. High rates of co-morbidity between anxiety and depression have been reported in both adults and youths. Clark and Watson (1991) proposed a tripartite model to explain both the overlap and distinctiveness of anxiety and depression. In that model, negative affectivity (NA) is experienced in both anxiety and depression; lack of positive affectivity (PA) is specif...