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Sample records for bcg-vaccinated children investigated

  1. Asthmatic Children And Immunological Effects Of BCG Vaccine Key words: Asthmatic children, BCG vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saaed, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    A TH2 screwed immune response is known to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of allergy, so, preventing the differentiation of TH cells. The TH2 cells are appeared as a logical therapeutic approach to atopic asthma. The purpose of TH1 study was to determine the possible role of BCG vaccine on asthma and whether a TH1 type immune response elicited by BCG immunization could suppress the allergic sensitization in childhood asthma. Seventy asthmatic patients (50 atopic and 20 non-atopic) and fifty healthy individuals were subjected to TH1 study. Tuberculin test was performed for all groups then subjects with positive tuberculin test were excluded. The BCG vaccine was given for all groups with assessment of TH1 and TH2 cytokine response by measuring total IgE, IL-4 (for TH2 response) and INF-γ (for TH1 response). Significant reduction in IgE and IL-4, and elevation in INF-γ were determined in group I (atopic asthma) following BCG vaccination. There was non-significant change observed in IgE and IL-4 levels of group II while significant reduction in IL-4 and significant increase in INF-γ was observed after BCG vaccine

  2. Invitro immune responses in children following BCG vaccination

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    Vijayalakshmi V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is still no consensus on the efficacy of BCG vaccine in the prevention of tuberculosis. This study therefore addressed the question of the magnitude of immunity afforded by BCG, by studying the effector mechanisms of protection in children. The main objectives were to assess the degree of immunity conferred by BCG vaccine in children and to identify the most immunogenic antigen(s of BCG by conducting in-vitro studies. Materials and methods: Children in the age-group of 1 to 10 years, were categorized: (A normal, and vaccinated with BCG during the first year, n=45, (B normal, without scar and with no evident history of vaccination, n=31: and (C children admitted in the hospital with a confirmed diagnosis of tuberculosis, n=31. Fractions of BCG were obtained by lysis, sonication, separation by gel chromatography, HPLC and confirmed by SDS-PAGE. In lymphoproliferative assays PBMC were cultured and stimulated with either Concanavalin-A or Tuberculin or the fractions of BCG. Stimulation indices (SI in lymphoproliferation, CD4/CD8 cells, levels of Interferon-γ (IFN- γ in the culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. Results: The vaccinated children displayed significantly high (P< 0.05 mean values of SI in LTT, CD4/CD8 cell ratio against the unfractionated, 67kDa fraction and BCG-CF Ags. While 100% of the vaccinated children had positive lymphoproliferation indices to BCG-CF, only 8.3% of the unvaccinated children were positive. Conclusion: Some of the components of BCG induced a strong Thl cell response in children. These immunogenic antigens were present in the whole cell lysate. The use of BCG vaccine for tuberculosis is worthwhile till a new vaccine is developed.

  3. Non-specific effects of BCG vaccination on morbidity among children in Greenland: a population-based cohort study.

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    Haahr, S; Michelsen, S W; Andersson, M; Bjorn-Mortensen, K; Soborg, B; Wohlfahrt, J; Melbye, M; Koch, A

    2016-12-01

    The potential non-specific effects of BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccination, with reported reduction of infectious disease morbidity among vaccinated children, in addition to the protective effect against tuberculosis (TB), are highly debated. In Greenland, BCG vaccination was introduced in 1955, but temporarily discontinued from 1991 to 1996 due to nationwide policy changes. Using the transient vaccination stop, we aimed to investigate possible non-specific effects of BCG vaccination by measuring nation-wide hospitalization rates due to infectious diseases other than TB among vaccinated and unvaccinated children. A retrospective cohort study including all children born in Greenland aged 3 months to 3 years from 1989 to 2004. A personal identification number assigned at birth allowed for follow-up through national registers. Information on hospitalization due to infectious diseases was obtained from the Greenlandic inpatient register using ICD-8 and ICD-10 codes. Participants with notified TB were censored. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using Poisson regression. Overall, 19 363 children, hereof 66% BCG-vaccinated, were followed for 44 065 person-years and had 2069 hospitalizations due to infectious diseases. IRRs of hospitalization in BCG-vaccinated as compared with BCG-unvaccinated children were 1.07 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96-1.20] for infectious diseases overall, and specifically 1.10 (95% CI 0.98-1.24) for respiratory tract infections. Among BCG-vaccinated children aged 3 to 11 months, the IRR of hospitalization due to infectious diseases was 1.00 (95% CI 0.84-1.19) as compared with BCG-unvaccinated children. Our results do not support the hypothesis that neonatal BCG vaccination reduces morbidity in children caused by infectious diseases other than TB. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  4. Is tuberculin testing before BCG vaccination necessary for children over three months of age?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessy, B

    2008-03-01

    In July 2007 Irish national policy changed such that children aged 3 months to 6 years no longer routinely require tuberculin (Mantoux) skin testing prior to BCG vaccination. Previous to that a tuberculin test was required in all children in this age group pre vaccination. While the previous policy was in place this study was conducted to assess the value of this test. The observation that children are frightened by the test (an injection into the skin) prompted the study. The author conducted a retrospective study of the results of 1,854 tuberculin tests performed as a prerequisite to BCG vaccination and found that only 0.7% of children had a positive test result (induration > 5mm). None of 107 children < 6 years of age tested positive. Those > 12 years were more likely to test positive than younger children (1.09% vs 0.4% respectively, p < 0.05). This study suggests that testing young children before BCG vaccination has a low yield of positive results and adds little to the detection of latent or active TB.

  5. BCG vaccination status of children with tuberculous meningitis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From 1985 to 1992, 193 children with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) with a median age of 26 months were admitted to the Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Hospital. Of these children 143 (74%) were documented to have received BCG, either by reference to 'Road to Health' cards or by contact with ...

  6. BCG vaccination status of children with tuberculous meningitis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From 1985 to 1992, 193 children with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) with a median age of 26 months were admitted to the Department of Paediatrics and Child. Health, Tygerberg Hospital. Of these children 143 (74%) were documented to have received BCG, either by reference to 'Road to Health' cards or by contact with.

  7. BCG-osis after BCG vaccination in immunocompromised children: Case series and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Shahmohammadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG developed by Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin in France between 1908 and 1921 contained a live attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis and was administered worldwide to prevent tuberculosis. BCG vaccination is also administered at birth to all the newborns in Iran. Disseminated BCG infection after BCG vaccination is rare. Here in, we report 2 new cases of disseminated BCGinfection and review 15 additional cases identified from our previous retrospective study during a 5-year period from 2005-2010. All of these reported patients were vaccinated. Impaired immunity was detected in 10 cases (59% including severe combined immunodeficiency, chronic granulomatous disease, Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease, combined variable immunodeficiency, and HIV infection. Response to therapy was poor among those patients with immune deficiencies, but the overall mortality rate was 32.3%. Disseminated BCG infection is a rare but devastating complication of vaccination. Immune-compromised children are at high risk of developing BCG related complications including regional BCG-itis or disseminated disease; BCG-osis.

  8. Tuberculin Reaction Among Healthy BCG Vaccinated Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the Mantoux test reaction pattern in healthy BCG vaccinated Primary School Children aged 6 -10 years in Nnewi, South–East Nigeria. Materials and methods:Four Primary Schools were randomly selected out of 43 government owned primary schools in the town. The entire BCG vaccinated pupils in ...

  9. [Vaccination coverage and socioeconomic determinants of BCG vaccination in children before 3 months: Results of the Elfe cohort study, 2011].

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    Guthmann, J-P; Ragot, M; Ben Boutieb, M; Bois, C; Dufourg, M-N; Lévy-Bruhl, D

    2016-09-01

    In 2007, French authorities changed mandatory BCG vaccination for all children into a strong recommendation to vaccinate only children considered at high risk of tuberculosis. Vaccination coverage (VC) data are insufficient in France. We estimated VC at approximately two months of age and identified socioeconomic factors associated with BCG vaccination. The Elfe study (Étude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance) included a random sample of about 18 000 children born in 2011 selected at birth from 320 maternity wards from mainland France. Information was collected through questionnaires and telephone interviews conducted approximately two months after delivery. Because BCG recommendations are different in the Paris region (Île-de-France [IDF]) and outside this region, VC was estimated separately in these two regions. We estimated VC for different levels of tuberculosis risk, approached by the geographical origin of the parents. Poisson regression was performed to analyze the association between socioeconomic factors and BCG vaccination status, and results expressed by prevalence ratios (PR). CV was higher in IDF (59.5%) compared to at-risk children outside IDF (46.7%) (pchildren with two parents from a tuberculosis highly endemic country was 80.5% in IDF and 60.4% outside IDF. In the multivariable model, having one or two parents from a tuberculosis highly endemic country (PR around 1.40) or consulting a private pediatrician (PR around 1.15) or a maternal and child health (MCH) center (PR around 1.40) after leaving the maternity ward were associated with a higher VC, whereas a university educational level in mothers was associated with a lower VC (PR=0.80). In France, BCG vaccination in infants is performed early after discharge from the maternity ward. A first consultation with a pediatrician or in a MCH center is associated with better vaccination coverage. Children at higher risk are probably well identified by physicians and better vaccinated. Copyright

  10. [BCG vaccination--controversy and compromise].

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    Petrini, B

    2000-11-29

    In Sweden, BCG-vaccination is recommended to certain risk groups only, as the incidence of TB is very low. Children from high-endemic areas, as well as health care personnel, especially those working in risk areas, are the most important target groups. The efficacy of BCG vaccination has varied in different investigations, but early Nordic studies have shown approximately 80 percent protection. Vaccination prevents disseminated but not localized pulmonary disease. There are no data supporting revaccination. Today some Swedish children are vaccinated without a clear indication, due to caretakers' fear of TB. The risk of new infection is very low in Sweden today, and is for all practical purposes limited to the closest family members of affected individuals. If large numbers of refugees from high-endemic countries arrive in Sweden, the epidemiological situation must be closely monitored.

  11. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth and antibody responses to childhood vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Birk, Nina Marie; Smits, Gaby

    2017-01-01

    Introduction BCG vaccination has been associated with beneficial non-specific effects on child health. Some immunological studies have reported heterologous effects of vaccines on antibody responses to heterologous vaccines. Within a randomised clinical trial of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG......) vaccination at birth, The Danish Calmette Study, we investigated the effect of BCG at birth on the antibody response to the three routine vaccines against DiTeKiPol/Act-Hib and Prevenar 13 in a subgroup of participants. Methods Within 7 days after birth, children were randomised 1:1 to BCG vaccination...... included children (178 BCG; 122 controls), almost all children (>96%) had antibody responses above the protective levels. Overall BCG vaccination at birth did not affect the antibody level. When stratifying by ‘age at randomisation’ we found a possible inducing effect of BCG on antibodies against B...

  12. Effect of BCG vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children: systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Roy, A; Eisenhut, M; Harris, R J; Rodrigues, L C; Sridhar, S; Habermann, S; Snell, L; Mangtani, P; Adetifa, I; Lalvani, A; Abubakar, I

    2014-08-05

    To determine whether BCG vaccination protects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection as assessed by interferon γ release assays (IGRA) in children. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Searches of electronic databases 1950 to November 2013, checking of reference lists, hand searching of journals, and contact with experts. Community congregate settings and households. Vaccinated and unvaccinated children aged under 16 with known recent exposure to patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Children were screened for infection with M tuberculosis with interferon γ release assays. Study results relating to diagnostic accuracy were extracted and risk estimates were combined with random effects meta-analysis. The primary analysis included 14 studies and 3855 participants. The estimated overall risk ratio was 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.92), indicating a protective efficacy of 19% against infection among vaccinated children after exposure compared with unvaccinated children. The observed protection was similar when estimated with the two types of interferon γ release assays (ELISpot or QuantiFERON). Restriction of the analysis to the six studies (n=1745) with information on progression to active tuberculosis at the time of screening showed protection against infection of 27% (risk ratio 0.73, 0.61 to 0.87) compared with 71% (0.29, 0.15 to 0.58) against active tuberculosis. Among those infected, protection against progression to disease was 58% (0.42, 0.23 to 0.77). BCG protects against M tuberculosis infection as well as progression from infection to disease.Trial registration PROSPERO registration No CRD42011001698 (www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/). © Roy et al 2014.

  13. Prevalence of BCG scar among BCG-vaccinated children in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The burden of tuberculosis is high in Nigeria as in other developing countries. The administration of BCG vaccine to neonates is essential in the control of tuberculosis. A scar usually develops 6 – 8 weeks later at the site of vaccination, which can be used clinically as a proof of vaccination. Not all vaccinated ...

  14. The impact of BCG vaccination on tuberculin skin test responses in children is age dependent: evidence to be considered when screening children for tuberculosis infection.

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    Seddon, James A; Paton, James; Nademi, Zohreh; Keane, Denis; Williams, Bhanu; Williams, Amanda; Welch, Steven B; Liebeschutz, Sue; Riddell, Anna; Bernatoniene, Jolanta; Patel, Sanjay; Martinez-Alier, Nuria; McMaster, Paddy; Kampmann, Beate

    2016-10-01

    Following exposure to TB, contacts are screened to target preventive treatment at those at high risk of developing TB. The UK has recently revised its recommendations for screening and now advises a 5 mm tuberculin skin test (TST) cut-off irrespective of age or BCG status. We sought to evaluate the impact of BCG on TST responses in UK children exposed to TB and the performance of different TST cut-offs to predict interferon γ release assay (IGRA) positivity. Children vaccination on TST positivity was evaluated in IGRA-negative children, as was the performance of different TST cut-offs to predict IGRA positivity. Of 422 children recruited (median age 69 months; IQR: 32-113 months), 300 (71%) had been vaccinated with BCG. BCG vaccination affected the TST response in IGRA-negative children less than 5 years old but not in older children. A 5 mm TST cut-off demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity in BCG-unvaccinated children, and an excellent negative predictive value but was associated with low specificity (62.7%; 95% CI 56.1% to 69.0%) in BCG-vaccinated children. For BCG-vaccinated children, a 10 mm cut-off provided a high negative predictive value (97.7%; 95% CI 94.2% to 99.4%) with the positive predictive value increasing with increasing age of the child. BCG vaccination had little impact on TST size in children over 5 years of age. The revised TST cut-off recommended in the recent revision to the UK TB guidelines demonstrates good sensitivity but is associated with impaired specificity in BCG-vaccinated children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Persistence of the immune response induced by BCG vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blitz Rose

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although BCG vaccination is recommended in most countries of the world, little is known of the persistence of BCG-induced immune responses. As novel TB vaccines may be given to boost the immunity induced by neonatal BCG vaccination, evidence concerning the persistence of the BCG vaccine-induced response would help inform decisions about when such boosting would be most effective. Methods A randomised control study of UK adolescents was carried out to investigate persistence of BCG immune responses. Adolescents were tested for interferon-gamma (IFN-γ response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (M.tb PPD in a whole blood assay before, 3 months, 12 months (n = 148 and 3 years (n = 19 after receiving teenage BCG vaccination or 14 years after receiving infant BCG vaccination (n = 16. Results A gradual reduction in magnitude of response was evident from 3 months to 1 year and from 1 year to 3 years following teenage vaccination, but responses 3 years after vaccination were still on average 6 times higher than before vaccination among vaccinees. Some individuals (11/86; 13% failed to make a detectable antigen-specific response three months after vaccination, or lost the response after 1 (11/86; 13% or 3 (3/19; 16% years. IFN-γ response to Ag85 was measured in a subgroup of adolescents and appeared to be better maintained with no decline from 3 to 12 months. A smaller group of adolescents were tested 14 years after receiving infant BCG vaccination and 13/16 (81% made a detectable IFN-γ response to M.tb PPD 14 years after infant vaccination as compared to 6/16 (38% matched unvaccinated controls (p = 0.012; teenagers vaccinated in infancy were 19 times more likely to make an IFN-γ response of > 500 pg/ml than unvaccinated teenagers. Conclusion BCG vaccination in infancy and adolescence induces immunological memory to mycobacterial antigens that is still present and measurable for at least 14 years in the

  16. Tuberculosis contact investigation with a new, specific blood test in a low-incidence population containing a high proportion of BCG-vaccinated persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meywald-Walter K

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BCG-vaccination can confound tuberculin skin test (TST reactions in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection. Methods We compared the TST with a Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific whole blood interferon-gamma assay (QuantiFERON®-TB-Gold In Tube; QFT-G during ongoing investigations among close contacts of sputum smear positive source cases in Hamburg, Germany. Results During a 6-month period, 309 contacts (mean age 28.5 ± 10.5 years from a total of 15 source cases underwent both TST and QFT-G testing. Of those, 157 (50.8% had received BCG vaccination and 84 (27.2% had migrated to Germany from a total of 25 different high prevalence countries (i.e. >20 cases/100,000. For the TST, the positive response rate was 44.3% (137/309, whilst only 31 (10% showed a positive QFT-G result. The overall agreement between the TST and the QFT-G was low (κ = 0.2, with 95% CI 0.14.-0.23, and positive TST reactions were closely associated with prior BCG vaccination (OR 24.7; 95% CI 11.7–52.5. In contrast, there was good agreement between TST and QFT-G in non-vaccinated persons (κ = 0.58, with 95% CI 0.4–0.68, increasing to 0.68 (95% CI 0.46–0.81, if a 10-mm cut off for the TST was used instead of the standard 5 mm recommended in Germany. Conclusion The QFT-G assay was unaffected by BCG vaccination status, unlike the TST. In close contacts who were BCG-vaccinated, the QFT-G assay appeared to be a more specific indicator of latent tuberculosis infection than the TST, and similarly sensitive in unvaccinated contacts. In BCG-vaccinated close contacts, measurement of IFN-gamma responses of lymphocytes stimulated with M. tuberculosis-specific antigen should be recommended as a basis for the decision on whether to perform subsequent chest X-ray examinations or to start treatment for latent tuberculosis infection.

  17. Children with lymphadenitis associated with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination do not experience more infections when compared with BCG-vaccinated children without lymphadenitis: a three years paired-cohort in Mexico.

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    Chacon-Cruz, Enrique; Arellano-Estrada, Jorge Luis; Lopatynsky-Reyes, Erika; Alvelais-Palacios, Jorge; Becka, Chandra

    2017-08-01

    Vaccination against tuberculosis with live-attenuated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is widely used even though its effectiveness is controversial. BCG-lymphadenitis (BCG-LA) is its most common complication. Some studies have proposed that BCG-LA can be associated with primary immunodeficiencies (PIs). This study's aim is to see whether patients who developed BCG-LA (named as 'LA') developed more infections than BCG-vaccinated children without BCG-LA (named as 'NON-LA'). From January 2009 to April 2014, 31 LA children were seen at the outpatient clinic of the General Hospital of Tijuana, Mexico. Among them, 22 (70.97%), 5 (16.13%) and 4 (12.9%) had axillary, supraclavicular, or both BCG-LA, respectively. No treatment was given and complications were not seen. Per LA subject, a NON-LA not >1 month of age difference and same gender was paired and followed for 3 years to look for ambulatory infections (AINFs), acute otitis media (AOM) and hospitalizations. Surveillance per patient was performed by phone monthly, and they were seen at the clinic every 4 months. All patients were HIV-negative and had no family history of PI. Statistical analyses used were relative risk (RR) with confidence intervals (CI), t test for independent variables and z test. In total 62 subjects were enrolled: 31 LA paired with 31 NON-LA. Between them, there were no differences in age, day care attendance and breastfeeding. There were no differences in the total number of AINF per patient (LA: 18.61 avg. ± 5.03 SD versus NON-LA: 18.19 avg. ± 4.17 SD, RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.33-0.66), AOM total episodes (LA: 30 versus NON-LA: 26, RR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.31-0.68) and hospitalizations (LA: 5 versus NON-LA: 4, RR = 1, 95% CI = 0.25-0.74). This cohort strongly suggests that BCG-LA in healthy children is not associated with more episodes of AINF and hospitalizations, when paired and compared with children BCG-vaccinated without BCG-LA.

  18. Impact of the BCG vaccination policy on tuberculous meningitis in children under 6 years in metropolitan France between 2000 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bui, T; Lévy-Bruhl, D; Che, D; Antoine, D; Jarlier, V; Robert, J

    2015-03-19

    In France, Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccination by multipuncture device was withdrawn in 2006. In 2007, universal mandatory BCG vaccination was replaced by vaccination of high-risk children. To evaluate the impact of these changes on tuberculous meningitis (TBM) epidemiology, data on culture-positive and culture-negative (or unknown microbiological result) TBM in ≤5 years olds were collected from 2000–2011. Ten culture-positive and 17 culture-negative TBM cases were identified, with an annual incidence rate ranging from 0.16 to 0.66 cases per 10 million inhabitants. The average annual numbers of TBM cases were 2.7 and 1.8 from 2000–2005 and 2006–2011, respectively. In Ile-de-France where all children are considered at risk, the overall incidence rates were 1.14 and 0.29 per million for the two periods. In other regions where only at-risk children are vaccinated since 2007, rates were 0.30 and 0.47, respectively. None of these differences were significant. Annual incidence rates for each one year age group cohort were comparable before and after changes. Childhood TBM remains rare in France. No increase in incidence was observed after changes in BCG vaccination strategy. Ongoing surveillance should be maintained, as a slight increase in TBM in the coming years remains possible, in the context of suboptimal vaccination coverage of high-risk children.

  19. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children: beneficial nonspecific effects in the neonatal period?

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    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam; Ravn, Henrik; Napirna, Bitiguida Mutna; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida Maria; Stensballe, Lone; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Lausch, Karen Rokkedal; Lund, Najaaraq; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Whittle, Hilton; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2011-07-15

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG. In the period 2004-2008 we recruited 2320 LBW children in Bissau. The children were visited at home at 2, 6, and 12 months of age. With a pretrial infant mortality of 250 per 1000, we hypothesized a 25% reduction in infant mortality for LBW children. Infant mortality was only 101 per 1000 during the trial. In the primary analysis, infant mortality was reduced insignificantly by 17% (mortality rate ratio [MRR] = .83 [.63-1.08]). In secondary analyses, early BCG vaccine was safe with an MRR of .49 (.21-1.15) after 3 days and .55 (.34-.89) after 4 weeks. The reduction in neonatal mortality was mainly due to fewer cases of neonatal sepsis, respiratory infection, and fever. The impact of early BCG on infant mortality was marked for children weighing <1.5 kg (MRR = .43 [.21-.85]) who had lower coverage for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccinations. Though early BCG did not reduce infant mortality significantly, it may have a beneficial effect in the neonatal period. This could be important for public health because BCG is often delayed in low-income countries.

  20. [BCG vaccination in the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toida, I

    2000-01-01

    BCG vaccination programme and BCG vaccination coverage in the world were summarized mainly based on the published informations from official organizations, such as World Health Organization (WHO), International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). From this review, we can see how widely BCG has been used for the prevention of tuberculosis in the world. In most of the developing countries, especially in Africa, the Americas, and Pacific Region, BCG vaccination is carried out to newborn babies soon after birth by intradermal injection according to the recommendations from WHO, but some of the developing countries in Asia and Europe have their own modified BCG vaccination programmes. In economically developed countries, BCG vaccination programme has been established according to the tuberculosis status of each countries. Some countries have general vaccination policy, and other countries have selected vaccination policy, but there is no country where BCG vaccination is not carried out at all. Among G8 contries, as representatives of the economically developed countries, Japan, United Kingdom, France and Russian Federation have BCG general vaccination policy for the specified age group. In these 4 countries revaccination (s) of BCG are still carried out. In Germany, some provinces have general vaccination policy and some others have selected vaccination policy. In the United States of America, BCG vaccination is recommended to selected high risk infants and health care workers by CDC. There are many debates as for the efficacy and safety of BCG vaccination, and the development of new vaccine better than BCG has been actively discussed and some encouraging results in animal models have been reported from several laboratories. But, there is almost no possibility to be able to use a new vaccine in the routine practice within a couple of years. From the practical point of view, therefore, the operational

  1. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of first BCG vaccination against tuberculosis in school-age children without previous tuberculin test (BCG-REVAC trial): a cluster-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Susan M; Barreto, Mauricio L; Pilger, Daniel; Cruz, Alvaro A; Sant'Anna, Clemax; Hijjar, Miguel A; Ichihara, Maria Y; Santos, Andreia C; Genser, Bernd; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2012-04-01

    Neonatal BCG vaccination is part of routine vaccination schedules in many developing countries; vaccination at school age has not been assessed in trials in low-income and middle-income countries. Catch-up BCG vaccination of school-age children who missed neonatal BCG vaccination could be indicated if it confers protection and is cost-effective. We did a cluster-randomised trial (BCG REVAC) to estimate the effectiveness (efficacy given in routine settings) of school-age vaccination. We assessed the effectiveness of BCG vaccination in school-age children (aged 7-14 years) with unknown tuberculin status who did not receive neonatal BCG vaccination (subpopulation of the BCG REVAC cluster-randomised trial), between July, 1997, and June, 2006, in Salvador, Brazil, and between January, 1999, and December, 2007, in Manaus, Brazil. 763 schools were randomly assigned into BCG vaccination group or a not-vaccinated control group. Neither allocation nor intervention was concealed. Incidence of tuberculosis was the primary outcome. Cases were identified via the Brazilian Tuberculosis Control Programme. Study staff were masked to vaccination status when identified cases were linked to the study population. We estimated cost-effectiveness in Salvador by comparison of the cost for vaccination to prevent one case of tuberculosis (censored at 9 years) with the average cost of treating one case of tuberculosis. Analysis of all included children was by intention to treat. For calculation of the incidence rate we used generalised estimating equations and correlated observations over time. We randomly assigned 20,622 children from 385 schools to the BCG vaccination group and 18,507 children from 365 schools to the control group. The crude incidence of tuberculosis was 54·9 (95% CI 45·3-66·7) per 100,000 person-years in the BCG vaccination group and 72·7 (62·8-86·8) per 100,000 person-years in the control group. The overall vaccine effectiveness of a first BCG vaccination at school

  2. Lack of BCG vaccination and other risk factors for bacteraemia in severely malnourished children with pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisti, M J; Salam, M A; Ahmed, T; Shahid, A S M S B; Shahunja, K M; Faruque, A S G; Bardhan, P K; Hossain, M I; Islam, M M; Das, S K; Huq, S; Shahrin, L; Huq, E; Chowdhury, F; Ashraf, H

    2015-03-01

    We sought to examine the factors associated with bacteraemia and their outcome in children with pneumonia and severe acute malnutrition (SAM). All SAM children of either sex, aged 0-59 months, admitted to the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh with radiologically confirmed pneumonia from April 2011 to July 2012 were enrolled (n = 405). Comparison was made between pneumonic SAM children with (cases = 18), and without (controls = 387) bacteraemia. The death rate was significantly higher in cases than controls (28% vs. 8%, P vaccination (odds ratio 7·39, 95% confidence interval 1·67-32·73, P vaccination which may provide benefit beyond its primary purpose.

  3. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  4. Comparative Tuberculosis (TB) Prevention Effectiveness in Children of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccines from Different Sources, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favorov, Michael; Ali, Mohammad; Tursunbayeva, Aigul; Aitmagambetova, Indira; Kilgore, Paul; Ismailov, Shakhimurat; Chorba, Terence

    2012-01-01

    Background Except during a 1-year period when BCG vaccine was not routinely administered, annual coverage of infants with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in Kazakhstan since 2002 has exceeded 95%. BCG preparations from different sources (Japan, Serbia, and Russia) or none were used exclusively in comparable 7-month time-frames, September through March, in 4 successive years beginning in 2002. Our objective was to assess relative effectiveness of BCG immunization. Methods/Findings We compared outcomes of birth cohorts from the 4 time-frames retrospectively. Three cohorts received vaccine from one of three manufacturers exclusively, and one cohort was not vaccinated. Cohorts were followed for 3 years for notifications of clinical TB and of culture-confirmed TB, and for 21 months for TB meningitis notifications. Prevention effectiveness based on relative risk of TB incidence was calculated for each vaccinated cohort compared to the non-vaccinated cohort. Although there were differences in prevention effectiveness observed among the three BCG vaccines, all were protective. The Japanese vaccine (currently used in Kazakhstan), the Serbian vaccine, and the Russian vaccine respectively were 69%, 43%, and 22% effective with respect to clinical TB notifications, and 92%, 82%, and 51% effective with respect to culture confirmed TB. All three vaccines were >70% effective with respect to TB meningitis. Limitations Potential limitations included considerations that 1) the methodology used was retrospective, 2) multiple risk factors could have varied between cohorts and affected prevention effectiveness measures, 3) most cases were clinically diagnosed, and TB culture-positive case numbers and TB meningitis case numbers were sparse, and 4) small variations in reported population TB burden could have affected relative risk of exposure for cohorts. Conclusions/Significance All three BCG vaccines evaluated were protective against TB, and prevention effectiveness varied by

  5. Comparative tuberculosis (TB prevention effectiveness in children of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccines from different sources, Kazakhstan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Favorov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Except during a 1-year period when BCG vaccine was not routinely administered, annual coverage of infants with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG in Kazakhstan since 2002 has exceeded 95%. BCG preparations from different sources (Japan, Serbia, and Russia or none were used exclusively in comparable 7-month time-frames, September through March, in 4 successive years beginning in 2002. Our objective was to assess relative effectiveness of BCG immunization. METHODS/FINDINGS: We compared outcomes of birth cohorts from the 4 time-frames retrospectively. Three cohorts received vaccine from one of three manufacturers exclusively, and one cohort was not vaccinated. Cohorts were followed for 3 years for notifications of clinical TB and of culture-confirmed TB, and for 21 months for TB meningitis notifications. Prevention effectiveness based on relative risk of TB incidence was calculated for each vaccinated cohort compared to the non-vaccinated cohort. Although there were differences in prevention effectiveness observed among the three BCG vaccines, all were protective. The Japanese vaccine (currently used in Kazakhstan, the Serbian vaccine, and the Russian vaccine respectively were 69%, 43%, and 22% effective with respect to clinical TB notifications, and 92%, 82%, and 51% effective with respect to culture confirmed TB. All three vaccines were >70% effective with respect to TB meningitis. LIMITATIONS: Potential limitations included considerations that 1 the methodology used was retrospective, 2 multiple risk factors could have varied between cohorts and affected prevention effectiveness measures, 3 most cases were clinically diagnosed, and TB culture-positive case numbers and TB meningitis case numbers were sparse, and 4 small variations in reported population TB burden could have affected relative risk of exposure for cohorts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: All three BCG vaccines evaluated were protective against TB, and prevention effectiveness

  6. Comparative tuberculosis (TB) prevention effectiveness in children of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines from different sources, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favorov, Michael; Ali, Mohammad; Tursunbayeva, Aigul; Aitmagambetova, Indira; Kilgore, Paul; Ismailov, Shakhimurat; Chorba, Terence

    2012-01-01

    Except during a 1-year period when BCG vaccine was not routinely administered, annual coverage of infants with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in Kazakhstan since 2002 has exceeded 95%. BCG preparations from different sources (Japan, Serbia, and Russia) or none were used exclusively in comparable 7-month time-frames, September through March, in 4 successive years beginning in 2002. Our objective was to assess relative effectiveness of BCG immunization. We compared outcomes of birth cohorts from the 4 time-frames retrospectively. Three cohorts received vaccine from one of three manufacturers exclusively, and one cohort was not vaccinated. Cohorts were followed for 3 years for notifications of clinical TB and of culture-confirmed TB, and for 21 months for TB meningitis notifications. Prevention effectiveness based on relative risk of TB incidence was calculated for each vaccinated cohort compared to the non-vaccinated cohort. Although there were differences in prevention effectiveness observed among the three BCG vaccines, all were protective. The Japanese vaccine (currently used in Kazakhstan), the Serbian vaccine, and the Russian vaccine respectively were 69%, 43%, and 22% effective with respect to clinical TB notifications, and 92%, 82%, and 51% effective with respect to culture confirmed TB. All three vaccines were >70% effective with respect to TB meningitis. Potential limitations included considerations that 1) the methodology used was retrospective, 2) multiple risk factors could have varied between cohorts and affected prevention effectiveness measures, 3) most cases were clinically diagnosed, and TB culture-positive case numbers and TB meningitis case numbers were sparse, and 4) small variations in reported population TB burden could have affected relative risk of exposure for cohorts. All three BCG vaccines evaluated were protective against TB, and prevention effectiveness varied by manufacturer. When setting national immunization policy, consideration

  7. Relation between BCG vaccine scar and an interferon-gamma release assay in immigrant children with "positive" tuberculin skin test (≥10 mm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjónsdóttir, Margret Johansson; Kötz, Karsten; Nielsen, Ruth Stangebye; Wilmar, Philip; Olausson, Sofia; Wallmyr, Daniel; Trollfors, Birger

    2016-10-06

    Immigrants from countries with high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) are usually offered screening when they arrive to low incidence countries. The tuberculin skin test (TST) is often used. The interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) are more specific and not affected by BCG vaccination. The aims of this study were 1. To see if there if there is a correlation between a positive IGRA (QFT) and presence of a BCG scar in children with TST ≥10 mm, 2. To compare the TST diameter with QFT result, 3. To see if chest X-ray can be omitted in QFT negative children despite TST ≥10 mm. 762 healthy children/adolescents (median age 14 years) arriving to Gothenburg and surroundings with TST ≥10 mm were tested with QFT. A total of 163/492 (33 %) children with BCG scar had positive QFT, whereas 205/270 (76 %) without BCG scar had positive QFT (p BCG scar. Among the QFT positive children 25/368 had chest X-ray changes compared to 2/393 among the QFT negative children (p BCG vaccination had an effect on the TST diameter so an IGRA is recommended to diagnose latent TB. Using only TST for screening of latent TB would lead to overdiagnosis. The TST diameter was larger in QFT positive than in QFT negative children but could not predict QFT in the individual patient. Chest X ray contributes little to the diagnosis of TB in QFT negative children but can not be omitted because of late seroconversion of QFT in some patients. Not applicable.

  8. Lupus Vulgaris Following Bcg Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Pandhi

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of lupus vulgaris developing at the site of BCG vaccination are reported. All the patients had lesions starting before the age of 15 years. Clinically and histologically the lesions ′were indistinguishable from spontaneous lupus vulgarism Treatment with streptomycin and isonicotinic acid hydrazide for 1 year produced complete resolution of lesions.

  9. BCG vaccination at birth and early childhood hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Sørup, Signe; Aaby, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The BCG vaccine is administered to protect against tuberculosis, but studies suggest there may also be non-specific beneficial effects upon the infant immune system, reducing early non-targeted infections and atopic diseases. The present randomised trial tested the hypothesis that BCG...... vaccination at birth would reduce early childhood hospitalisation in Denmark, a high-income setting. METHODS: Pregnant women planning to give birth at three Danish hospitals were invited to participate. After parental consent, newborn children were allocated to BCG or no intervention within 7 days of age.......94). The effect was also similar in the two sexes and across study sites. The results were essentially identical in the per-protocol analysis and after adjustment for baseline characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: BCG vaccination at birth did not reduce the risk of hospitalisation for somatic acquired disease until 15...

  10. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth and antibody responses to childhood vaccines. A randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Birk, Nina Marie; Smits, Gaby; Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Netea, Mihai G; van der Klis, Fiona; Benn, Christine Stabell; Pryds, Ole

    2017-04-11

    BCG vaccination has been associated with beneficial non-specific effects on child health. Some immunological studies have reported heterologous effects of vaccines on antibody responses to heterologous vaccines. Within a randomised clinical trial of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth, The Danish Calmette Study, we investigated the effect of BCG at birth on the antibody response to the three routine vaccines against DiTeKiPol/Act-Hib and Prevenar 13 in a subgroup of participants. Within 7days after birth, children were randomised 1:1 to BCG vaccination or to the control group (no intervention). After three routine vaccinations given at age 3, 5 and 12months, antibodies against DiTeKiPol/Act-Hib and Prevenar 13 (Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype type 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F) were measured 4weeks after the third vaccine dose. Among the 300 included children (178 BCG; 122 controls), almost all children (>96%) had antibody responses above the protective levels. Overall BCG vaccination at birth did not affect the antibody level. When stratifying by 'age at randomisation' we found a possible inducing effect of BCG on antibodies against B. pertussis and all pneumococcal serotypes, when BCG was given after the first day of life. Girls had significantly higher antibody levels for Haemophilus influenza type b and pneumococcus than boys. Three routine vaccinations with DiTeKiPol/Act-Hib and Prevenar 13 induced sero-protective levels in almost all children. No overall effect of neonatal BCG vaccination was observed. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine induces non-specific immune responses in Japanese flounder against Nocardia seriolae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Goshi; Kondo, Hidehiro; Aoki, Takashi; Hirono, Ikuo

    2012-08-01

    Nocardiosis caused by Nocardia seriolae has been causing severe loss of fish production, so that an effective vaccine is urgently needed. Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG) is a live attenuated vaccine for tuberculosis, which is effective against various infectious diseases including nocardiosis in mammals. In this study, the protective efficacy of BCG against N. seriolae was evaluated in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and antigen-specific immune responses induced in BCG vaccinated fish were investigated. Cumulative mortality of BCG-vaccinated fish was 21.4% whereas that of PBS-injected fish was 56.7% in N. seriolae challenge. However, gene expression level of IFN-γ was only slightly up-regulated in BCG-vaccinated fish after injection of N. seriolae antigen. In order to reveal non-specific immune responses induced by BCG vaccination, transcriptome of the kidney after BCG vaccination was investigated using oligo DNA microarray. Gene expression levels of antimicrobial peptides such as C-type and G-type lysozyme were significantly up-regulated after BCG vaccination. Consistently, BCG vaccination appeared to increase the bacteriolysis activity of the serum against Micrococcus luteus and N. seriolae. These results suggest that BCG-vaccinated Japanese flounder fight N. seriolae infection mainly by non-specific immune responses such as by the production of bacteriolytic lysozymes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Protective effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination in children with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, but not the pulmonary disease. A case-control study in Rosario, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifachich, Elena; Chort, Monica; Astigarraga, Ana; Diaz, Nora; Brunet, Beatriz; Pezzotto, Stella Maris; Bottasso, Oscar

    2006-04-05

    A hospital-based case-control study was carried out at the Vilela Children's Hospital in Rosario, Argentina, to measure the protection conferred by BCG vaccination against tuberculosis (TB). The study included 148 newly diagnosed cases of TB (75 males and 73 females, mean age 3.34+/-2.97 years, S.D.), 134 of them with pulmonary TB and 14 cases with extra-pulmonary disease. Controls (425 males and 357 females, 3.39+/-2.98 years) were selected randomly among children who attended to the Hospital showing, neither respiratory diseases nor any other infectious illnesses. Information on BCG vaccination history was assessed from scars or immunisation records. All participants were negative to human immunodeficiency virus and belonged to the lower and upper-lower socioeconomic status, being similar in place of residence and ethnic characteristics. Rate of vaccinated children was 92.6% of cases and 94.5% of controls (3.4 and 3.9% of them without scars, respectively). Regarding the total cases, the protective association between BCG and TB was statistically insignificant, as was for the pulmonary form. Among cases with extra-pulmonary disease, vaccine effectiveness attained significance [79% (95% CI=26-94)], no matter their age, sex or nutritional status. BCG vaccination exerted a beneficial role in extra-pulmonary TB, even in children not seriously undernourished.

  13. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    TheraCys® BCG ... TICE® BCG ... WHY is this medicine prescribed?BCG vaccine provides immunity or protection against tuberculosis (TB). The vaccine may be given to persons at high risk of developing TB. ...

  14. Improvement of Thermal Stability of BCG Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbakhsh Sefidi, Fatemeh; Kaghazian, Homan; Moradli, Gholam Ali; Hassanzadeh, Seyed Mehdi

    2017-11-01

    Thermal stability (TS) is a part of the BCG vaccine characterization by which the consistency of process in BCG vaccine production could be confirmed. To enhance the TS of the vaccine, some prevalent stabilizers in different concentrations were added to the final formulation of BCG bulk prior to Freeze-drying process. We found a formulation more effective than the current stabilizer for retaining the higher viability of lyophilized BCG vaccine produced by Pasteur Institute of Iran. In the design of experiments using Taguchi method, lactose, trehalose, glucose, dextran, and monosodium glutamate were added to the final formulation of BCG bulk prior to freeze-drying process. Viability of the samples was determined by counting the colony forming unit. Maximum signal-to-noise ratio equal to maximum TS and viability was obtained by adding lactose, dextran, and glutamate in defined concentrations. Adding the stabilizers had a significant impact on TS of BCG vaccine to meet the quality requirements.

  15. [The practice of BCG vaccination in 1930 s' China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, R S

    2017-07-28

    Wang Liang introduced Bacille-Calmatte-Guerin(BCG) to China in 1933 in order to prevent tuberculosis. He established a BCG laboratory and make BCG strains by himself in Chongqing, and vaccinated children around, until he was forced to stop doing it by the government in November, 1937. In 1938 Shanghai Pasteur Institute was established, and they built a BCG laboratory to promote BCG vaccination in Shanghai, and these actions were insisted during 1940s. But in 1930s the medical profession all over the world was skeptical to BCG efficacy, which impeded the promotion of BCG vaccination in China. Without the collaboration of the government and the national medical profession, tuberculosis problem in China couldn't be improved by the effort of single doctor or an institute.

  16. Oral polio vaccine influences the immune response to BCG vaccination. A natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartono, Erliyani; Lisse, Ida M; Terveer, Elisabeth M; van de Sande, Paula J M; Whittle, Hilton; Fisker, Ane B; Roth, Adam; Aaby, Peter; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Benn, Christine S

    2010-05-21

    Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did not receive OPV at birth, but only BCG. We investigated the effect of OPV given simultaneously with BCG at birth on the immune response to BCG vaccine. We compared the in vitro and the in vivo response to PPD in the infants who received OPV and BCG with that of infants who received BCG only. At age 6 weeks, the in vitro cytokine response to purified protein derivate (PPD) of M. Tuberculosis was reduced in LBW and NBW infants who had received OPV with BCG. In a pooled analysis receiving OPV with BCG at birth was associated with significantly lower IL-13 (p = 0.041) and IFN-gamma (p = 0.004) and a tendency for lower IL-10 (p = 0.054) in response to PPD. Furthermore, OPV was associated with reduced in vivo response to PPD at age 2 months, the prevalence ratio (PR) of having a PPD reaction being 0.75 (0.58-0.98), p = 0.033, and with a tendency for reduced likelihood of having a BCG scar (0.95 (0.91-1.00), p = 0.057)). Among children with a scar, OPV was associated with reduced scar size, the regression coefficient being -0.24 (-0.43-0.05), p = 0.012. This study is the first to address the consequences for the immune response to BCG of simultaneous administration with OPV. Worryingly, the results indicate that the common practice in low-income countries of administering OPV together with BCG at birth may down-regulate the response to BCG vaccine.

  17. Oral polio vaccine influences the immune response to BCG vaccination. A natural experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erliyani Sartono

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oral polio vaccine (OPV is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW and normal-birth-weight (NBW infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did not receive OPV at birth, but only BCG. We investigated the effect of OPV given simultaneously with BCG at birth on the immune response to BCG vaccine. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared the in vitro and the in vivo response to PPD in the infants who received OPV and BCG with that of infants who received BCG only. At age 6 weeks, the in vitro cytokine response to purified protein derivate (PPD of M. Tuberculosis was reduced in LBW and NBW infants who had received OPV with BCG. In a pooled analysis receiving OPV with BCG at birth was associated with significantly lower IL-13 (p = 0.041 and IFN-gamma (p = 0.004 and a tendency for lower IL-10 (p = 0.054 in response to PPD. Furthermore, OPV was associated with reduced in vivo response to PPD at age 2 months, the prevalence ratio (PR of having a PPD reaction being 0.75 (0.58-0.98, p = 0.033, and with a tendency for reduced likelihood of having a BCG scar (0.95 (0.91-1.00, p = 0.057. Among children with a scar, OPV was associated with reduced scar size, the regression coefficient being -0.24 (-0.43-0.05, p = 0.012. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to address the consequences for the immune response to BCG of simultaneous administration with OPV. Worryingly, the results indicate that the common practice in low-income countries of administering OPV together with BCG at birth may down-regulate the response to BCG vaccine.

  18. Tuberculosis: looking beyond BCG vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Abu S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an infectious disease of international importance and ranks among the top 10 causes of death in the World. About one-third of the world′s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Every year, approximately eight million people develop active disease and two million die of TB. The currently used BCG vaccines have shown variable protective efficacies against TB in different parts of the world. Moreover, being a live vaccine, BCG can be pathogenic in immunocompromised recipients. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new vaccines against TB. The comparative genome analysis has revealed the existence of several M. tuberculosis-specific regions that are deleted in BCG. The work carried out to determine the immunological reactivity of proteins encoded by genes located in these regions revealed several major antigens of M. tuberculosis, including the 6 kDa early secreted antigen target (ESAT6. Immunization with ESAT6 and its peptide (aa51-70 protects mice challenged with M. tuberculosis. The protective efficacy of immunization further improves when ESAT6 is recombinantly fused with M. tuberculosis antigen 85B. In addition, ESAT6 delivered as a DNA vaccine is also protective in mice. Whether these vaccines would be safe or not cannot be speculated. The answer regarding the safety and efficacy of these vaccines has to await human trials in different parts of the world.

  19. Identification of biomarkers for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease in BCG-vaccinated young children in Southern India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhanasekaran, S; Jenum, S; Stavrum, R

    2013-01-01

    or equal to0.05) was downregulated in TB disease compared with uninfected controls, while transcription of RAB33A was downregulated in TB disease compared with both latent TB (PCD4, TGFβ-1 (P... in discriminating between TB disease and controls (AUC 91.7%). A combination of 11 biomarkers predicted latent TB with moderate discriminatory power (AUC 72.2%). In conclusion, RAB33A is a potential biomarker for TB disease, whereas CD4, TGFβ-1 and IL-2, IL-13 may identify latent TB in children....... was examined by dual-color Reverse-Transcriptase Multiple Ligation-dependent Probe-Amplification for the expression of 45 genes and a Bio-Plex assay for the expression of cytokines/chemokines in QuantiFERON supernatants. The study shows that transcription of SEC14L1, GUSB, BPI, CCR7 and TGFβ-1 (all Pless than...

  20. Adverse reactions to the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in new-born infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke Nissen, Thomas; Birk, Nina Marie; Kjærgaard, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate adverse reactions of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Statens Serum Institut (SSI) (Danish strain 1331) used as intervention in a randomized clinical trial. DESIGN: A randomized clinical multicenter trial, The Danish Calmette Study, randomizing newborns to BCG...... and eighty four families consented to participate and 4262 children, gestational age 32 weeks and above, were randomized: 2129 to BCG vaccine and 2133 to no vaccine. None of the participants withdrew because of adverse reactions. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE: Trial-registered adverse reactions after BCG...... vaccination at birth. Follow-up at 3 and 13 months by telephone interviews and clinical examinations. RESULTS: Among the 2118 BCG-vaccinated children we registered no cases of severe unexpected adverse reaction related to BCG vaccination and no cases of disseminated BCG disease. Two cases of regional...

  1. BCG coverage and barriers to BCG vaccination in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Sanne Marie; Byberg, Stine; Pedersen, Marie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BCG vaccination is recommended at birth in low-income countries, but vaccination is often delayed. Often 20-dose vials of BCG are not opened unless at least ten children are present for vaccination ("restricted vial-opening policy"). BCG coverage is usually reported as 12-month coverage......, not disclosing the delay in vaccination. Several studies show that BCG at birth lowers neonatal mortality. We assessed BCG coverage at different ages and explored reasons for delay in BCG vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) runs a health and demographic surveillance system...... in selected intervention regions. Factors associated with delayed BCG vaccination were evaluated using logistic regression models. Coverage between intervention and control regions were evaluated in log-binomial regression models providing prevalence ratios. RESULTS: Among 3951 children born in 2010...

  2. Adverse events following immunisation with bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination: baseline data to inform monitoring in Australia following introduction of new unregistered BCG vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Alexandra J; Dey, Aditi; Beard, Frank H; Khandaker, Gulam; Hill, Richard; Macartney, Kristine K

    2016-12-24

    In recent years there has been a global shortage of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and, from September 2012, unregistered vaccines have needed to be used in Australia (a Danish product initially until the end of 2015, and a Polish product used in some jurisdictions from early 2016). We examined rates and types of adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) with BCG vaccine reported to the Therapeutic Goods Administration between 2009 and 2014 in children aged less than 7 years. Reporting rates of AEFI with BCG vaccine increased from 87 per 100,000 doses (registered Sanofi Pasteur product) in 2009 to 201 per 100,000 doses (unregistered Danish Statens Serum Institute product) in 2014, with Victoria having the highest rate each year. Substantial variation between jurisdictions exists, suggesting differential reporting of BCG vaccine doses administered and/or BCG vaccine-related AEFI. The most commonly reported reactions were abscess (31%), injection site reaction (27%) and lymphadenopathy/lymphadenitis (17%). This study provides baseline data on BCG vaccine safety to inform surveillance. Given the current use of unregistered vaccines in the context of vaccine supply issues, improved recording of both administered BCG vaccine doses and the reporting of BCG vaccine-related AEFI are required to facilitate close monitoring of vaccine safety.

  3. Early versus late BCG vaccination in HIV-1-exposed infants in Uganda: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankabirwa, Victoria; Tumwine, James K; Namugga, Olive; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Ndeezi, Grace; Robberstad, Bjarne; Netea, Mihai G; Sommerfelt, Halvor

    2017-03-31

    Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination may have nonspecific effects, i.e., effects on childhood morbidity and mortality that go beyond its effect on the risk of childhood tuberculosis (TB). Though the available scientific literature is mostly from observational studies, and is fraught with controversy, BCG vaccination at birth may protect infants in high-mortality populations against serious infections other than TB. Yet, other studies indicate that giving BCG later in infancy may modify immune responses to non-TB antigens and potentially enhance immunity, potentially also against tuberculosis (TB). It is unclear whether BCG vaccination very early in life offers adequate protection against TB and other infections among HIV-1-exposed children because even those who remain uninfected with HIV-1 show signs of impaired immunocompetence early in infancy. This study will compare BCG vaccination at birth with BCG vaccination at 14 weeks of age in HIV-1-exposed infants. This is an individually randomized controlled trial in 2200 HIV-1-exposed infants. The intervention is BCG vaccination within 24 h of birth while the comparator is BCG given at 14 weeks of age. The study co-primary outcomes are severe illness in the first 14 weeks of life, and production of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and interferon-γ in response to mycobacterial and nonmycobacterial antigens. The study is being conducted in three health centers in Uganda. A well-timed BCG vaccination could have important nonspecific effects in HIV-1-exposed infants. This trial could inform the development of appropriate timing of BCG vaccination for HIV-1-exposed infants. ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02606526 . Registered on 12 November 2015.

  4. BCG Vaccination: Is there light at end of the Tunnel?

    OpenAIRE

    PARTHASARATHY, A; HITT, Sharma

    2010-01-01

    The first Human BCG Vaccine was developed in 1921.Since 1960s billions of beneficiaries have received the vaccine in almost all the countries of the world .However its efficacy has been rated from 0 - 80% in several studies world over which include large randomized/controlled/case-control studies. Since 1974 BCG vaccine was included in the Expanded Program on Immunization(EPI) benefitting approx. 2 billion infants. Despite controversy BCG vaccine efficacy has been established in preventing he...

  5. Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Mycobacterium bovis and BCG Vaccine Strains

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Ge

    2013-09-01

    BCG is the only licensed human vaccine currently available against TB. Derived from a virulent strain of M. bovis, the vaccine was thought to have struck a balance between reduced virulence and preserved immunogenicity. Nowadays, BCG vaccine strains used in different countries and vaccination programs show clear variations in their genomes and immune protective properties. The aim of this study was to characterize the proteomic profile on Mycobacterium bovis and five BCG strains Pasteur, Tokyo, Danish, Phipps and Birkhaug by Tandem Mass Tag® (TMT®)-labeling quantitative proteomic approach. In total, 420 proteins were identified and 377 of them were quantitated for their relative abundance. We reported the number and relationship of differential expressed proteins in BCG strains compared to M. bovis and investigated their functions by bioinformatics analysis. Several interesting up-regulated and down-regulated protein targets were found. The identified proteins and their quantitative expression profiles provide a basis for further understanding of the cellular biology of M. bovis and BCG vaccine strains, and hopefully would assist in the design of better anti-TB vaccine and drugs.

  6. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccination in Infancy and Risk of Childhood Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Marie-Claude; El-Zein, Mariam; Conus, Florence; Legault, Laurent; Parent, Marie-Elise

    2016-03-01

    A narrow time window in infancy may be relevant for the aetiology of immune-mediated type 1 diabetes. We investigated whether a non-specific immune stimulation in the first year of life, as resulting from Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, was associated with childhood diabetes. Using data from a birth cohort assembled through linkage of administrative databases, 78,492 subjects born in 1974 were the object of the present analysis. Information was extracted from the birth, death, and BCG vaccination registries. Diabetes-related health services were obtained from administrative health databases (physician billing claims and hospitalisation data) until 1994. Subjects were classified as having diabetes according to two validated definitions: (1) ≥2 diabetes-related medical visits within 2 years or ≥1 hospitalisation for diabetes; and 2) ≥4 diabetes-related medical visits within 2 years. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI), adjusted for potential confounders. Forty-four per cent of subjects were BCG vaccinated in the first year of life. According to the first and second definition, respectively, 293 (0.37%) and 230 (0.29%) subjects were classified as having diabetes. There was no association between BCG vaccination in the first year of life and risk of diabetes with either definition (HR(def1)  = 0.92, 95% CI 0.73, 1.17; HR(def2)  = 1.04, 95% CI 0.80, 1.37), and results did not differ by sex. Given the potentially critical importance of the exposure window and paucity of studies addressing BCG vaccination timing in relation to diabetes risk, this question deserves further investigation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination patterns in the province of Québec, Canada, 1956-1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Conus, Florence; Kâ, Khady; El-Zein, Mariam; Parent, Marie-Élise; Menzies, Dick

    2017-08-24

    In the province of Québec, Canada, the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine was offered to newborns and school-age children from the 1950s to mid-1970s in an organized tuberculosis prevention program. We aimed to describe the annual rates of skin test administration, proportion of skin tests that were positive, and rates of BCG vaccination from 1956 to 1974 according to age, sex, and administrative region. For rates, numerators were extracted from the Québec BCG Vaccination Registry whereas population denominators were obtained from the Canadian Census and governmental publications. Time trends were assessed with linear regression. A total of 2,755,336 skin tests and 2,531,366 BCG vaccinations were administered. Yearly rates of skin tests, routinely administered before vaccination among all except newborns, were highest among children aged 5-9 (9.3 per 100) and 10-14years (7.9 per 100). The proportion of positive skin tests varied greatly by age, ranging from 10.2% among children BCG vaccination. Our results confirm that the targeted groups, newborns and school-age children, were preferentially reached. Socioeconomic, demographic, and organizational factors may explain regional differences in immunization rates. Beyond presenting a historical context for this vaccination campaign, our findings are relevant to contemporary uses of the Québec BCG Vaccination Registry in epidemiological research. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Neonatal BCG vaccination and atopic dermatitis before 13 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Pihl, Gitte Thybo

    2018-01-01

    in the control group (RR=0.90 (95% confidence intervals 0.80 to 1.00)). The effect of neonatal BCG vaccination differed significantly between children with atopic predisposition (RR 0.84 (0.74 to 0.95)) and children without atopic predisposition (RR 1.09 (0.88 to 1.37)) (test of no interaction, p=0.04). Among......Studies have suggested that Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination may reduce the risk of allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis. The Danish Calmette Study was conducted 2012-2015. Within 7 days of birth new-borns were randomised 1:1 to BCG or no BCG. Exclusion criteria were gestational...... age children in the BCG group and 495/1,952 (25.4%) children...

  9. Neonatal BCG-vaccination and atopic dermatitis before 13 months of age. A randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Pihl, Gitte Thybo

    2017-01-01

    Studies have suggested that Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination may reduce the risk of allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis. The Danish Calmette Study was conducted 2012-2015. Within 7 days of birth new-borns were randomised 1:1 to BCG or no BCG. Exclusion criteria were gestational...... in the control group (RR=0.90 (95% confidence intervals 0.80 to 1.00)). The effect of neonatal BCG vaccination differed significantly between children with atopic predisposition (RR 0.84 (0.74 to 0.95)) and children without atopic predisposition (RR 1.09 (0.88 to 1.37)) (test of no interaction, p=0.04). Among...

  10. Lack of a Negative Effect of BCG-Vaccination on Child Psychomotor Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Birk, Nina Marie

    2016-01-01

    MEASURES: Psychomotor development measured using Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) completed by the parents at 12 months. Additionally, parents of premature children (gestational age Developmental assessment was available for 3453/4262 (81%). RESULTS......OBJECTIVES: To assess the non-specific effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on psychomotor development. DESIGN: This is a pre-specified secondary outcome from a randomised, clinical trial. SETTING: Maternity units and paediatric wards at three university hospitals...... was -7.8 points (-20.6 to 5.0, p = 0.23), d = -0.23 (-0.62 to 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: A negative non-specific effect of BCG vaccination at birth on psychomotor development was excluded in term children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01694108....

  11. Effect of deworming on human T cell responses to mycobacterial antigens in helminth-exposed individuals before and after bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, D; Wolday, D; Akuffo, H

    2001-01-01

    The protective efficacy of BCG vaccination against pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is highly variable in different populations. The reason remains to be elucidated. This study aims to investigate the possible effect of intestinal helminths on the immune response to PPD in naturally immunized or BCG-vaccinated...... tuberculin skin test-negative in both groups were BCG vaccinated and later on tested for PPD-specific responses. Albendazole induced elimination/or reduction in intestinal worms resulting in a significant improvement in T cell proliferation and in interferon-gamma production by peripheral blood mononuclear...... cells (PBMC) stimulated with PPD. Moreover, BCG vaccination significantly improved PPD-specific immune responses in the treated group but not in the placebo group. The differences in the in vivo skin test responses were not significant. The data show that cellular immune responses to PPD are reduced...

  12. Early BCG vaccine to low-birth-weight infants and the effects on growth in the first year of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Andersen, Andreas; Ravn, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have shown that early Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine reduces overall neonatal and infant mortality. However, no study has examined how BCG affects growth. We investigated the effect on infant growth of early BCG vaccine given to low-birth-weight (LBW) infants...... A supplementation (VAS) or placebo. Anthropometric measurements were obtained 2, 6, and 12 months after enrolment. RESULTS: Overall there was no effect of early BCG on growth in the first year of life. The effect of early BCG on weight and mid-upper-arm circumference at 2 months tended to be beneficial among girls...... but not among boys (interaction between "early BCG" and sex: weight p = 0.03 and MUAC p = 0.04). This beneficial effect among girls was particularly seen among the largest infants weighing 2.0 kg or more at inclusion. CONCLUSION: Though BCG vaccination is not recommended to be given to LBW infants at birth...

  13. [BCG vaccine against tuberculosis: its protective effect and vaccination policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Susan M; Dantas, Odimariles Maria Souza; Ximenes, Ricardo; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2007-09-01

    The BCG vaccine has been in use since 1921, but still arouses controversy and uncertainties. The objective was to analyze the protective effect of the BCG vaccine in its first and second doses and the accompanying vaccination policies. A systematic review of the literature in both English and Spanish was carried out, covering the period 1948 to 2006, using the PubMed database. The main search terms used included BCG vaccine, BCG efficacy, BCG and tuberculosis. The studies were grouped by design, with the main results from the clinic tests, case-control studies and meta-analyses presented separately. The protective effect of the first dose of the BCG vaccine against tuberculosis in its miliary and meningeal forms is high. However, the results vary in relation to the pulmonary form of the disease, with some indicating zero effect and others levels of nearly 80%. Research is being carried out to develop new vaccines that could substitute the BCG or be used as a booster. There are evidences that the protective effect of the BCG vaccine does not increase with a second dose. In spite of its limitations and the expectation that a new tuberculosis vaccine will be developed in the future, the BCG vaccine remains an important tool in controlling the harmful effects of tuberculosis, particularly in countries with medium or high incidence levels of the disease.

  14. Tuberculin reactivity in a population of schoolchildren with high BCG vaccination coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bierrenbach Ana L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of BCG vaccination or revaccination on tuberculin skin test reactivity, in order to guide the correct interpretation of this test in a setting of high neonatal BCG vaccination coverage and an increasing BCG revaccination coverage at school age. METHODS: We conducted tuberculin skin testing and BCG scar reading in 1148 children aged 7-14 years old in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. We measured the positive effect of the presence of one or two BCG scars on the proportion of tuberculin skin test results above different cut-off levels (induration sizes of > 5 mm, > 10 mm, and > 15 mm and also using several ranges of induration size (0, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14, and > 15 mm. We also measured the effects that age, gender, and the school where the child was enrolled had on these proportions. RESULTS: The proportion of tuberculin results > 10 mm was 14.2% (95% confidence interval (CI = 8.0%-20.3% for children with no BCG scar, 21.3% (95% CI = 18.5%-24.1% for children with one BCG scar, and 45.0% (95% CI = 32.0%-58.0% for children with two BCG scars. There was evidence for an increasing positive effect of the presence of one and two BCG scars on the proportion of results > 5 mm and > 10 mm. Similarly, there was evidence for an increasing positive effect of the presence of one and two scars on the proportion of tuberculin skin test results in the ranges of 5-9 mm and of 10-14 mm. The BCG scar effect on the proportion of results > 5 mm and > 10 mm did not vary with age. There was no evidence for BCG effect on the results > 15 mm. CONCLUSIONS: In Brazilian schoolchildren, BCG-induced tuberculin reactivity is indistinguishable, for results under 15 mm, from reactivity induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. BCG revaccination at school age increases the degree of BCG-induced tuberculin reactivity found among schoolchildren. This information should be taken into account in tuberculin skin test surveys intended to

  15. Vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Baerent; Napirna, Bitiguida Mutna

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates. DESIGN: Randomised, placebo controlled, two by two factorial trial. SETTING: Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. PARTICIPANTS: 1717 low birthweight neonates born at the national hospital...... months of age for infants who received vitamin A supplementation compared with those who received placebo. RESULTS: No interaction was observed between vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccine allocation (P=0.73). Vitamin A supplementation at birth was not significantly associated with mortality......: the MRR of vitamin A supplementation compared with placebo, controlled for randomisation to "early BCG" versus "no early BCG" was 1.08 (95% CI 0.79 to 1.47). Stratification by sex revealed a significant interaction between vitamin A supplementation and sex (P=0.046), the MRR of vitamin A supplementation...

  16. How do parents make their decision about letting their child get a BCG vaccination?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo Pihl, Gitte; Ammentorp, Jette; Schmidt Jensen, Jane

    focus for this project is parents decision making and risk evaluation. I want to investigate how parents make their decision about letting their child get a BCG vaccination and how they evaluate the risk of side effects. Method: Before the clinical trial was started, we conducted 5 focus groups......-analysis of the results shows, that some danish parents are still concerned about nondescribed and non-specific side effects, even if the BCG-vaccine has been used for over 100 years and the side effects is well-described in medical research. They express doubt about the medical descriptions of the side effects and wants...... to discuss it with a professional they trust before they can decide to let their child vaccinate with BCG or not. I will show how parents try to make their own risk evaluation on the basis of a lay epidemiology, as described by Davison, Frankel and Davey Smith (1). They use their own interpretation of cases...

  17. Effectiveness of BCG vaccination to aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Tsukasa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis (TB still increases in the number of new cases, which is estimated to approach 10 million in 2010. The number of aged people has been growing all over the world. Ageing is one of risk factors in tuberculosis because of decreased immune responses in aged people. Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG is a sole vaccine currently used for TB, however, the efficacy of BCG in adults is still a matter of debate. Emerging the multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB make us to see the importance of vaccination against TB in new light. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of BCG vaccination in aged mice. Results The Th1 responses, interferon-γ production and interleukin 2, in BCG inoculated aged mice (24-month-old were comparable to those of young mice (4- to 6-week-old. The protection activity of BCG in aged mice against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was also the same as young mice. Conclusion These findings suggest that vaccination in aged generation is still effective for protection against tuberculosis.

  18. Effect of 50,000 IU vitamin A given with BCG vaccine on mortality in infants in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Roth, Adam

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of high dose vitamin A supplementation given with BCG vaccine at birth in an African setting with high infant mortality. DESIGN: Randomised placebo controlled trial. Setting Bandim Health Project's demographic surveillance system in Guinea-Bissau, covering app...

  19. Effect of 50,000 IU vitamin A given with BCG vaccine on mortality in infants in Guinea-Bissau: randomised placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Roth, Adam; Nante, Ernesto; Fisker, Ane Baerent; Lisse, Ida Maria; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Whittle, Hilton; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter

    2008-06-21

    To investigate the effect of high dose vitamin A supplementation given with BCG vaccine at birth in an African setting with high infant mortality. Randomised placebo controlled trial. Setting Bandim Health Project's demographic surveillance system in Guinea-Bissau, covering approximately 90,000 inhabitants. Participants 4345 infants due to receive BCG. Infants were randomised to 50,000 IU vitamin A or placebo and followed until age 12 months. Mortality rate ratios. 174 children died during follow-up (mortality=47/1000 person-years). Vitamin A supplementation was not significantly associated with mortality; the mortality rate ratio was 1.07 (95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.44). The effect was 1.00 (0.65 to 1.56) during the first four months and 1.13 (0.75 to 1.68) from 4 to 12 months of age. The mortality rate ratio in boys was 0.84 (0.55 to 1.27) compared with 1.39 (0.90 to 2.14) in girls (P for interaction=0.10). An explorative analysis revealed a strong interaction between vitamin A and season of administration. Vitamin A supplementation given with BCG vaccine at birth had no significant benefit in this African setting. Although little doubt exists that vitamin A supplementation reduces mortality in older children, a global recommendation of supplementation for all newborn infants may not contribute to better survival. Clinical trials NCT00168597.

  20. Prova tuberculínica, BCG oral e infecção tuberculosa em crianças menores de 5 anos Tuberculin test, oral BCG vaccine, and tuberculosis infection among children under five years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialda Höfling de Pádua Dias

    1978-12-01

    vaccination and positivation to the tuberculin test in the two age groups was studied, thus obtaining information about the previous oral BCG vaccination. Likewise, in 575 children under one year of age and 1113 children one to four years of age, a positive relationship between the previous oral administration of BCG and the positivation to the tuberculin test was found. In analyzing the relationship between the number of doses of previous oral BCG administration and the results of the tuberculin test by the Goodman method, it was found that the proportion of children who had taken three or more doses of BCG by oral administration and showed strong reaction to the tuberculin test is significantly greater than that observed for the non-reactors, a fact which does not hold true for the one to four age group. For the children who had taken one or two doses there was no significant statistical difference.

  1. Oral Polio Vaccine Influences the Immune Response to BCG Vaccination. A Natural Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartono, E.; Lisse, I.M.; Terveer, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    not receive OPV at birth, but only BCG. We investigated the effect of OPV given simultaneously with BCG at birth on the immune response to BCG vaccine. Methods and Findings: We compared the in vitro and the in vivo response to PPD in the infants who received OPV and BCG with that of infants who received BCG...... scar (0.95 (0.91-1.00), p = 0.057)). Among children with a scar, OPV was associated with reduced scar size, the regression coefficient being -0.24 (-0.43-0.05), p = 0.012. Conclusions: This study is the first to address the consequences for the immune response to BCG of simultaneous administration...... only. At age 6 weeks, the in vitro cytokine response to purified protein derivate (PPD) of M. Tuberculosis was reduced in LBW and NBW infants who had received OPV with BCG. In a pooled analysis receiving OPV with BCG at birth was associated with significantly lower IL-13 (p = 0.041) and IFN-gamma (p...

  2. Valor preditivo do teste tuberculínico padronizado em crianças vacinadas com BCG The predictive value of the standard tuberculin test in BCG-vaccinated children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Ribeiro Arantes

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available A aplicabilidade do teste tuberculínico em crianças menores de 5 anos vacinadas com BCG é assunto controvertido. Visando contribuir para esclarecê-lo foi analisado o valor preditivo positivo do teste tuberculínico padronizado em população sob elevada cobertura vacinal e baixa prevalência de infecção tuberculosa. A partir da proporção de reatores fortes em lactentes e escolares vacinados e não vacinados, foram calculadas a razão de declínio da alergia tuberculínica nos vacinados e a razão de crescimento nos não vacinados, o que possibilitou a estimativa dos respectivos valores nas idades intermediárias. A expectativa de falsos-positivos (FP foi então calculada por diferença. Conhecidas a sensibilidade e a especificidade do teste (E=1-FP, a cobertura BCG e a prevalência de infecção, os valores preditivos (para a infecção tuberculosa foram: 1,52%, 4,22%, 8,26%, 14,86% e 23,00%, do primeiro ao quinto ano de vida. Nessas condições, a probabilidade de uma reação forte ser devida ao BCG é grande, especialmente nos dois primeiros anos, o que reduz a aplicabilidade clínica e epidemiológica do teste.The applicability of tuberculin test in children under five years of age, BCG-vaccinated during their first year of life, is a controversial matter. With a view to clarifying the subject the predictive positive value of the test in a region of high BCG coverage and low prevalence of tuberculous infection was analysed. From the proportion of strong reactors among infants and school-age children, vaccinated and not unvaccinated, the declining rate of BCG induced allergy and the increment rate of naturally acquired tuberculin sensitivity between the first and the seventh years of life were calculated. Those calculations allowed for the estimation of the respective values for the intermediate ages. The numbers of false positives to be expected were calculated by difference. Knowing the sensibility and the especificity (1 - FP of

  3. BCG vaccination in southern rural Mozambique: an overview of coverage and its determinants based on data from the demographic and health surveillance system in the district of Manhiça.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbán-Castro, Elena; Sacoor, Charfudin; Nhacolo, Ariel; Augusto, Orvalho; Jamisse, Edgar; López-Varela, Elisa; Casellas, Aina; Aponte, John J; Bassat, Quique; Sigauque, Betuel; Macete, Eusebio; Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L

    2018-02-13

    Over the past four decades, the World Health Organization established the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) to foster universal access to all relevant vaccines for all children at risk. The success of this program has been undeniable, but requires periodic monitoring to ensure that coverage rates remain high. The aim of this study was to measure the BCG vaccination coverage in Manhiça district, a high TB burden rural area of Southern Mozambique and to investigate factors that may be associated with BCG vaccination. We used data from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) run by the Manhiça Health Research Centre (CISM) in the district of Manhiça. A questionnaire was added in the annual HDSS round visits to retrospectively collect the vaccination history of children under the age of 3 years. Vaccinations are registered in the National Health Cards which are universally distributed at birth. This information was collected for children born from 2011 to 2014. Data on whether a child was vaccinated for BCG were collected from these National Health Cards and/or BCG scar assessment. A total of 10,875 number of children were eligible for the study and 7903 presented the health card. BCG coverage was 97.4% for children holding a health card. A BCG-compatible scar was observed in 99.0% of all children and in 99.6% of children with recorded BCG in the card. A total of 93.4% of children had been vaccinated with BCG within their first 28 days of life. None of the factors analysed were found to be associated with lack of BCG vaccination except for living in the municipality of Maluana compared to living in the municipality of Manhiça; (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.18-3.00). Coverage for other EPI vaccines during the first year of life was similarly high, but decreased for subsequent doses. BCG coverage is high and timely administered. Almost all vaccinated infants develop scar, which is a useful proxy for monitoring BCG vaccine implementation.

  4. Neonatal BCG vaccination influences cytokine responses to Toll-like receptor ligands and heterologous antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyne, B; Donath, S; Germano, S; Gardiner, K; Casalaz, D; Robins-Browne, R M; Amenyogbe, N; Messina, N L; Netea, M G; Flanagan, K L; Kollmann, T; Curtis, N

    2018-02-03

    Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination is associated with a reduction in all-cause infant mortality in high-mortality settings. The underlying mechanisms remain uncertain but long-term modulation of the innate immune response (trained immunity) may be involved. Whole blood, collected 7 days post randomisation from 212 neonates enrolled in a randomised trial of neonatal BCG vaccination, was stimulated with killed pathogens and Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands to interrogate cytokine responses. BCG-vaccinated infants had increased production of IL-6 in unstimulated samples and decreased production of IL-1ra, IL-6, and IL-10 and the chemokines MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MCP-1 following stimulation with peptidoglycan (TLR2) and R848 (TLR7/8). BCG-vaccinated infants also had decreased MCP-1 responses following stimulation with heterologous pathogens. Sex and maternal BCG vaccination status interacted with neonatal BCG vaccination. Neonatal BCG vaccination influences cytokine responses to TLR ligands and heterologous pathogens. This effect is characterised by decreased anti-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses in the context of higher levels of IL-6 in unstimulated samples. This supports the hypothesis that BCG vaccination modulates the innate immune system. Further research is warranted to determine if there is an association between these findings and the beneficial non-specific (heterologous) effects of BCG vaccine on all-cause mortality.

  5. Effect of 50 000 IU vitamin A given with BCG vaccine on mortality in infants in Guinea-Bissau: randomised placebo controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, B.R.; Roth, A.; Nante, E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of high dose vitamin A supplementation given with BCG vaccine at birth in an African setting with high infant mortality. Design Randomised placebo controlled trial. Setting Bandim Health Project's demographic surveillance system in Guinea-Bissau, covering...... approximately 90 000 inhabitants. Participants 4345 infants due to receive BCG. Intervention Infants were randomised to 50 000 IU vitamin A or placebo and followed until age 12 months. Main outcome measure Mortality rate ratios. Results 174 children died during follow-up (mortality=47/ 1000 person......-years). Vitamin A supplementation was not significantly associated with mortality; the mortality rate ratio was 1.07 (95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.44). The effect was 1.00 (0.65 to 1.56) during the first four months and 1.13 (0.75 to 1.68) from 4 to 12 months of age. The mortality rate ratio in boys was 0...

  6. The humoral immune response after BCG vaccination in humans: consequences for the serodiagnosis of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turneer, M; Van Vooren, J P; Nyabenda, J; Legros, F; Lecomte, A; Thiriaux, J; Serruys, E; Yernault, J C

    1988-07-01

    The IgM and IgG response to BCG vaccination was investigated in 75 adults, tuberculin negative before vaccination, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with purified protein derivative (PPD) as antigen. The mean optical density (OD) increased significantly (p less than 0.001) in both immunoglobulin classes. Increase in at least one class was significant in 89% of the subjects. The observed increase in anti-PPD IgG was rather small but comparable to that seen in 17 newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients with negative direct smear [mean OD (SD): 0.59 (0.38) in vaccinated and 0.70 (0.48) in patients] but significantly lower (p less than 0.001) than that seen in 31 newly diagnosed patients with positive direct smear [mean OD (SD): 1.07 (0.67)]. With 55% of sera above the upper normal limit, smear positive patients differentiated (p less than 0.001) from vaccinated subjects (20% of positive sera) whilst smear negative patients (29% of positive sera) did not. We conclude that BCG vaccination induces a definite but small increase in anti-PPD serum IgM and IgG, which is likely to interfere when interpreting serological tests for the diagnosis of tuberculosis, especially in those patients who would most benefit from an early and fast diagnosis.

  7. Effect of BCG vaccine on peritoneal endometriotic implants in a rat model of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, Ismail Mete; Cirpan, Teksin; Akercan, Fuat; Gamaa, Akram; Kazandi, Mert; Kazandi, Ali Can; Yildiz, Pinar Solmaz; Askar, Niyazi

    2006-02-01

    To investigate the effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine on peritoneal implantation of endometrial tissue in rats. Forty sexually mature virgin Wistar albino rats weighing 190-200 g were randomly assigned (double blind) to two groups. The rats in the first group were vaccinated with 0.1 mL BCG and those in the second group were injected with 0.1 mL saline into the tail, intracutaneously. All the rats underwent median laparotomy after 4 weeks of vaccination or injection. The right uterine horn was excised, and the two samples of endometrial tissue dissected from myometrium were implanted on each side of peritoneum at the 2 cm lateral line of the median laparotomy incision. The implanted peritoneal segments were excised after 8 weeks of laparotomy. The tissue samples were accepted, histologically, as endometriosis when both glands and stroma of endometrial tissue were seen in sections. Thirty-six implants from the study group and 34 implants from the control group were obtained. Ten and 23 implants were accepted as endometriosis in the study and control group, respectively. The number of endometriotic foci were significantly lower in the study group than in the control group (P = 0.01). Stimulation of the cellular immune response with BCG vaccine could exert an inhibitory effect on ectopic endometriotic implants.

  8. Effects of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination at birth on T and B lymphocyte subsets: Results from a clinical randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birk, N.M.; Nissen, T.N.; Kjaergaard, J.; Hartling, H.J.; Thostesen, L.M.; Kofoed, P.E.; Stensballe, L.G.; Andersen, A.; Pryds, O.; Netea, M.G.; Benn, C.S.; Nielsen, S.D.; Jeppesen, D.L.

    2017-01-01

    The Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine (BCG) has been associated with beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs) on infant health. Within a randomized trial on the effect of neonatal BCG on overall health, we investigated the possible immunological impact of neonatal BCG vaccination on lymphocyte subsets,

  9. Effect of 50 000 IU vitamin A given with BCG vaccine on mortality in infants in Guinea-Bissau: randomised placebo controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, B.R.; Roth, A.; Nante, E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of high dose vitamin A supplementation given with BCG vaccine at birth in an African setting with high infant mortality. Design Randomised placebo controlled trial. Setting Bandim Health Project's demographic surveillance system in Guinea-Bissau, covering appro...

  10. BCG vaccination at birth and early childhood hospitalisation: a randomised clinical multicentre trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Sørup, Signe; Aaby, Peter; Benn, Christine Stabell; Greisen, Gorm; Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Birk, Nina Marie; Kjærgaard, Jesper; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Pihl, Gitte Thybo; Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Pryds, Ole; Ravn, Henrik

    2017-03-01

    The BCG vaccine is administered to protect against tuberculosis, but studies suggest there may also be non-specific beneficial effects upon the infant immune system, reducing early non-targeted infections and atopic diseases. The present randomised trial tested the hypothesis that BCG vaccination at birth would reduce early childhood hospitalisation in Denmark, a high-income setting. Pregnant women planning to give birth at three Danish hospitals were invited to participate. After parental consent, newborn children were allocated to BCG or no intervention within 7 days of age. Randomisation was stratified by prematurity. The primary study outcome was number of all-cause hospitalisations analysed as repeated events. Hospitalisations were identified using The Danish National Patient Register. Data were analysed by Cox proportional hazards models in intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. 4184 pregnant women were randomised and their 4262 children allocated to BCG or no intervention. There was no difference in risk of hospitalisation up to 15 months of age; 2129 children randomised to BCG experienced 1047 hospitalisations with a mean of 0.49 hospitalisation per child compared with 1003 hospitalisations among 2133 control children (mean 0.47), resulting in a HR comparing BCG versus no BCG of 1.05 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.18) (intention-to-treat analysis). The effect of BCG was the same in children born at term (1.05 (0.92 to 1.18)) and prematurely (1.07 (0.63 to 1.81), p=0.94). The effect was also similar in the two sexes and across study sites. The results were essentially identical in the per-protocol analysis and after adjustment for baseline characteristics. BCG vaccination at birth did not reduce the risk of hospitalisation for somatic acquired disease until 15 months of age in this Danish study population. NCT01694108, results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. BCG vaccination scar associated with better childhood survival in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Gustafson, Per; Nhaga, Alexandro

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a non-specific beneficial effect on infant survival and that a BCG scar may be associated with lower child mortality. No study has previously examined the influence of BCG vaccination on cause of death....

  12. Uptake of newly introduced universal BCG vaccination in newborns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Braima, O

    2012-01-31

    Universal neonatal BCG vaccination was discontinued in Cork in 1972. Following an outbreak of TB in 2 creches in the HSE South, a universal BCG vaccination program was re-introduced in October 2008. The aim of this study was to determine the vaccination process (in-hospital and community) and the in-hospital uptake of the vaccine. Following informed parental consent, babies of birth weight > 2.5 Kg were eligible for in-hospital vaccination if they were not: febrile, jaundiced on phototherapy, on antibiotics and if not born to HIV- positive mothers. Parents of babies not vaccinated in-hospital were asked to book an appointment in either of the 2 Cork community clinics. The immunisation nurse collected data on BCG vaccination, prospectively. This study examined vaccination uptakes in-hospital and community over a 6 month period (October 2008 to March 2009). There were 4018 deliveries during the study period. In-hospital consent was declined in only 16 babies (<1%) while the in-hospital vaccination uptake was 80% of total liv births. Although 635 newborns were admitted to the NICU, only 46 (8%) were vaccinated while in the NICU. At least 48% of planned community vaccination has been achieved to date. In conclusion, in-hospital consent was almost universal and vaccination uptake was satisfactory. NICU exclusion criteria accounted for a significant proportion of non-vaccination in-hospital. These criteria need to be readdressed considering that all premature babies are given other routine newborn vaccines at 2 months of age, regardless of weight.

  13. Uptake of newly introduced universal BCG vaccination in newborns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Braima, O

    2010-06-01

    Universal neonatal BCG vaccination was discontinued in Cork in 1972. Following an outbreak of TB in 2 creches in the HSE South, a universal BCG vaccination program was re-introduced in October 2008. The aim of this study was to determine the vaccination process (in-hospital and community) and the in-hospital uptake of the vaccine. Following informed parental consent, babies of birth weight > 2.5 Kg were eligible for in-hospital vaccination if they were not: febrile, jaundiced on phototherapy, on antibiotics and if not born to HIV- positive mothers. Parents of babies not vaccinated in-hospital were asked to book an appointment in either of the 2 Cork community clinics. The immunisation nurse collected data on BCG vaccination, prospectively. This study examined vaccination uptakes in-hospital and community over a 6 month period (October 2008 to March 2009). There were 4018 deliveries during the study period. In-hospital consent was declined in only 16 babies (<1%) while the in-hospital vaccination uptake was 80% of total liv births. Although 635 newborns were admitted to the NICU, only 46 (8%) were vaccinated while in the NICU. At least 48% of planned community vaccination has been achieved to date. In conclusion, in-hospital consent was almost universal and vaccination uptake was satisfactory. NICU exclusion criteria accounted for a significant proportion of non-vaccination in-hospital. These criteria need to be readdressed considering that all premature babies are given other routine newborn vaccines at 2 months of age, regardless of weight.

  14. A lipidated peptide of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resuscitates the protective efficacy of BCG vaccine by evoking memory T cell immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Pradeep K; Chodisetti, Sathi Babu; Zeng, Weiguang; Nadeem, Sajid; Maurya, Sudeep K; Pahari, Susanta; Janmeja, Ashok K; Jackson, David C; Agrewala, Javed N

    2017-10-06

    The current BCG vaccine induces only short-term protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), suggesting its failure to generate long-lasting memory T cells. Previously, we have demonstrated that a self-adjuvanting peptide of Mtb (L91), successfully generated enduring memory Th1 cells. Consequently, we investigated if L91 was able to recuperate BCG potency in perpetuating the generation of memory T cells and protection against Mtb infected mice. In the present study, we evaluated the potency of a self adjuvanting Mtb peptide vaccine L91 in invigorating BCG immune response against Mtb in mice. Female BALB/c mice were immunized with BCG. Later, they were boosted twice with L91 or an antigenically irrelevant lipidated influenza virus hemagglutinin peptide (LH). Further, PBMCs obtained from BCG vaccinated healthy subjects were cultured in vitro with L91. T cell responses were determined by surface markers and intracellular cytokine staining. Secretion of cytokines was estimated in the culture supernatants (SNs) by ELISA. Compared to the BCG-vaccinated controls, L91 booster significantly enhanced the percentage of memory Th1 cells and Th17 cells and reduced the mycobacterial burden in BCG primed and L91-boosted (BCG-L91) group, even after 229 days of BCG vaccination. Further, substantial augmentation in the central (CD44 hi CD62L hi CD127 hi ) and effector memory (CD44 hi CD62L lo CD127 lo ) CD4 T cells was detected. Furthermore, greater frequency of polyfunctional Th1 cells (IFN-γ + TNF-α + ) and Th17 cells (IFN-γ + IL-17A + ) was observed. Importantly, BCG-L91 successfully prevented CD4 T cells from exhaustion by decreasing the expression of PD-1 and Tim-3. Additionally, augmentation in the frequency of Th1 cells, Th17 cells and memory CD4 T cells was observed in the PBMCs of the BCG-vaccinated healthy individuals following in vitro stimulation with L91. Our study demonstrated that L91 robustly reinvigorate BCG potency to invoke enduring protection against

  15. Foreign body granuloma caused by monosodium glutamate after BCG vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yao-Kun; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Jeng, Jingyueh; Shiea, Jentaie; Chen, Wei-Jen

    2006-08-01

    We describe a 7-month-old male infant with a foreign body granuloma caused by monosodium glutamate (MSG) after a Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunization. A ridged, erythematous, indurated plaque developed over a BCG injection site on his left upper arm 1 month after the first BCG immunization. Biopsy showed multiple noncaseating foreign body granulomas without detectable mycobacteria by both Ziehl-Neelsen stain and polymerase chain reaction assay. Birefringent crystals were identified in the foreign body giant cells with polarized light microscopy. The crystals were further determined to be glutamic acid by the method of fast atom bombardment. Hence, MSG, the only composite of BCG vaccine except the bacillus, was believed to be responsible for the granulomatous foreign body reaction. On review of the literature, we could find no previous report of an adverse reaction of BCG immunization attributable to MSG (glutamic acid).

  16. Another vaccine, another story: BCG vaccination against tuberculosis in India, 1948 to 1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimnes, Niels

    2011-02-01

    Through an examination of mass BCG vaccination against tuberculosis in India between 1948 and 1960 this article draws attention to the diversity of the history of vaccination. The features of vaccination campaigns often differed from those of the celebrated campaign to eradicate smallpox. Due to differences between smallpox and tuberculosis as well as between the vaccines developed against them, an analysis of BCG mass vaccination against tuberculosis seems particularly well suited for this purpose. Three points of difference are identified. First, in non-Western contexts BCG vaccination procedures were modified to a greater extent than vaccination against smallpox. Second, tuberculosis lacked the drama and urgency of smallpox and BCG vaccination campaigns suffered more from recruitment problems than did the more "heroic" smallpox eradication campaign. Third, the BCG vaccine was contested in medical circles and was much better suited than the vaccine against smallpox as a vehicle for the articulation of concerns about post-colonial modernization.

  17. Vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth may affect atopy in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiraly, N; Benn, Christine Stabell; Biering-Sørensen, S

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that immunogenic interventions such as vaccines and micronutrients may affect atopic sensitization and atopic disease. We aimed to determine whether neonatal BCG vaccination, vitamin A supplementation and other vaccinations affect atopy in childhood....

  18. Adverse reactions to the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in new-born infants-an evaluation of the Danish strain 1331 SSI in a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Birk, Nina Marie; Kjærgaard, Jesper; Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Pihl, Gitte Thybo; Hoffmann, Thomas; Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Greisen, Gorm; Benn, Christine Stabell; Aaby, Peter; Pryds, Ole; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2016-05-11

    To evaluate adverse reactions of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Statens Serum Institut (SSI) (Danish strain 1331) used as intervention in a randomized clinical trial. A randomized clinical multicenter trial, The Danish Calmette Study, randomizing newborns to BCG or no intervention. Follow-up until 13 months of age. Pediatric and maternity wards at three Danish university hospitals. All women planning to give birth at the three study sites (n=16,521) during the recruitment period were invited to participate in the study. Four thousand one hundred and eighty four families consented to participate and 4262 children, gestational age 32 weeks and above, were randomized: 2129 to BCG vaccine and 2133 to no vaccine. None of the participants withdrew because of adverse reactions. Trial-registered adverse reactions after BCG vaccination at birth. Follow-up at 3 and 13 months by telephone interviews and clinical examinations. Among the 2118 BCG-vaccinated children we registered no cases of severe unexpected adverse reaction related to BCG vaccination and no cases of disseminated BCG disease. Two cases of regional lymphadenitis were hospitalized and thus classified as serious adverse reactions related to BCG. The most severe adverse reactions were 10 cases of suppurative lymphadenitis. This was nearly a fivefold increase compared to what was expected based on the summary of product characteristics of the vaccine. All cases were treated conservatively and recovered. Six of 10 (60%) families of children experiencing suppurative lymphadenitis compared to 117/2071 (6%) of those with no lymphadenitis indicated that the vaccine had more adverse effects than expected (p-value <0.001). BCG vaccination was associated with only mild morbidity and no mortality. A higher incidence of suppurative lymphadenitis than expected was observed. All children were treated conservatively without sequelae or complications. Trial registration number NCT01694108 at www

  19. Effects of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on T and B lymphocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Kjærgaard, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    , determined by flow cytometry. In 118 infants blood samples were obtained 4 (±2) days post randomization to BCG vaccination or no intervention, and at 3 and 13 months of age. No effects of BCG were found at 4 days. However, BCG increased proportions of effector memory cells at 3 months (Geometric mean ratio......The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) has been associated with beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs) on infant health. Within a randomized trial on the effect of neonatal BCG on overall health, we investigated the possible immunological impact of neonatal BCG vaccination on lymphocyte subsets...... (GMR) 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.20-2.21), p = 0.002 for CD4(+) T cells and GMR 1.69, 95% CI (1.06-2.70), p = 0.03 for CD8(+) T cells), and reduced proportions of late differentiated CD4(+) T cells (GMR = 0.62, 95% CI (0.38-1.00), p = 0.05) and apoptotic CD4(+) T cells at 13 months (GMR = 0...

  20. Naive helper T cells from BCG-vaccinated volunteers produce IFN-gamma and IL-5 to mycobacterial antigen-pulsed dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JoĂŤl Pestel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-GuĂŠrin (BCG is a live vaccine that has been used in routine vaccination against tuberculosis for nearly 80 years. However, its efficacy is controversial. The failure of BCG vaccination may be at least partially explained by the induction of poor or inappropriate host responses. Dendritic cells (DCs are likely to play a key role in the induction of immune response to mycobacteria by polarizing the reactivity of T lymphocytes toward a Th1 profile, contributing to the generation of protective cellular immunity against mycobacteria. In this study we aimed to investigate the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines by naive CD4+ T cells to mycobacterial antigen-pulsed DCs in the group of young, healthy BCG vaccinated volunteers. The response of naive helper T cells was compared with the response of total blood lymphocytes. Our present results clearly showed that circulating naive CD45RA+CD4+ lymphocytes from BCG-vaccinated subjects can become effector helper cells producing IFN-gamma and IL-5 under the stimulation by autologous dendritic cells presenting mycobacterial protein antigen-PPD or infected with live M. bovis BCG bacilli.

  1. Effects of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on T and B lymphocyte subsets: Results from a clinical randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Kjærgaard, Jesper; Hartling, Hans Jacob; Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Andersen, Andreas; Pryds, Ole; Netea, Mihai G; Benn, Christine Stabell; Nielsen, Susanne Dam; Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth

    2017-09-29

    The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) has been associated with beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs) on infant health. Within a randomized trial on the effect of neonatal BCG on overall health, we investigated the possible immunological impact of neonatal BCG vaccination on lymphocyte subsets, determined by flow cytometry. In 118 infants blood samples were obtained 4 (±2) days post randomization to BCG vaccination or no intervention, and at 3 and 13 months of age. No effects of BCG were found at 4 days. However, BCG increased proportions of effector memory cells at 3 months (Geometric mean ratio (GMR) 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.20-2.21), p = 0.002 for CD4 + T cells and GMR 1.69, 95% CI (1.06-2.70), p = 0.03 for CD8 + T cells), and reduced proportions of late differentiated CD4 + T cells (GMR = 0.62, 95% CI (0.38-1.00), p = 0.05) and apoptotic CD4 + T cells at 13 months (GMR = 0.55, 95% CI (0.32-0.92), p = 0.03). In conclusion, limited overall impact of neonatal BCG vaccination on lymphocyte subsets was found in healthy Danish infants within the first 13 months of life. This is in line with the limited clinical effects of BCG observed in our setting.

  2. Complications after BCG vaccination in a big city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Sevostyanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Complications after specific prevention of tuberculosis for the last 10 years have been analyzed using the example of a big city. The frequency of severe complications (BCG-ostitis made 0.004% and the frequency of minor complications (lymphadenitis made 0.005% and cold abscesses made 0.01% per 100 000 vaccinated children. Often complications were caused by mistakes in the vaccine administration related to premature discharge from maternity hospital and administration of the vaccine in the polyclinic and also concurrent prenatal disorder. The issue of complications caused by anti-tuberculosis vaccination makes no grounds to review the policy of the primary BCG vaccination.

  3. Lupus vulgaris at the site of BCG vaccination: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsinejad, K; Daneshpazhooh, M; Sairafi, H; Barzegar, M; Mortazavizadeh, M

    2009-07-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV) is a rare complication of the bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, and about 65 cases of inoculation tuberculosis resembling LV have been reported in the literature. We report three cases of LV, developing many years later at the inoculation site of BCG vaccine. All three cases had a single BCG vaccination, with a LV lesion at or in the vicinity of the vaccination site, a strong positive Mantoux test, noncaseating granuloma histologically, and two of the patients had a positive PCR result for mycobacterial complex. One of the patients had an unusually delayed appearance of the LV lesion, after an interval of about 17 years, and another case was remarkable because of the large size of the lesion (210 x 110 mm).

  4. BCG lymphadenopathy detected in a BCG-vaccinated infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Barouni

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale vaccination with BCG, the live attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, is being adopted around the world, although sporadic complications have occurred after the procedure. Lymphadenopathy is not uncommon especially in babies under one year (0.73% of vaccinated infants, but the swelling subsides within 2 months in most cases, with no medical or surgical treatment. Brazil adopted BCG vaccination program earlier in the seventies and by 1995 more than 96% of the infant population received this immunization. We report here the occurrence of lymphadenopathy in a two-year-old child vaccinated with the Brazilian BCG strain. The diagnosis was made using a lymph node biopsy and intestinal aspirates that yielded a positive mycobacterial culture. The isolate was resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and thiophen-2-carbonic acid hydrazide, sensitive to streptomycin, ethambutol, and p-nitrobenzoic acid, and reacted positively to cyclo-serine and negatively to niacin. The pncA gene involved in bacterial activation of pyrazinamide contains in M. bovis a point mutation that renders pyrazinamidase unable to catalyze drug activation. Therefore, this polymorphism is a good option for developing methods to differentiate M. bovis and M. tuberculosis. Taking advantage of this difference we further analyzed the isolates by single-stranded conformation polymorphism electrophoresis of DNA following PCR of the pncA gene. The isolate identity was confirmed by RFLP electrophoretic analysis of the amplified fragment following Eco065I digestion, which selectively cleaves M. tuberculosis DNA. From this result it is proposed that RFLP of pncA gene represents an alternative for differential diagnosis of M. bovis.

  5. The immunological effects of oral polio vaccine provided with BCG vaccine at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Lund, Najaaraq

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccines may have non-specific effects. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau suggested that oral polio vaccine at birth (OPV0) provided with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine was associated with down-regulation of the immune response to BCG vaccine 6 weeks later. Based...... BCG alone at birth, and subsequently randomised to have a blood sample taken at 2, 4 or 6 weeks post-randomisation. Excreted levels of cytokines (IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ) were measured from whole blood in vitro stimulations with a panel of recall vaccine antigens (BCG, PPD, OPV), mitogen...

  6. Nonspecific effect of BCG vaccination at birth on early childhood infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas N

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood infections are common and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth may prevent these via nonspecific effects. METHODS: A randomized, clinical multicenter trial. All women planning to give birth (n = 16,521) at the three study sites were invited during the recruitm......BACKGROUND: Childhood infections are common and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth may prevent these via nonspecific effects. METHODS: A randomized, clinical multicenter trial. All women planning to give birth (n = 16,521) at the three study sites were invited during...... during the first 3 mo....

  7. Neonatal BCG vaccination is associated with enhanced T-helper 1 immune responses to heterologous infant vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. Libraty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG vaccination has been reported to have beneficial effects beyond preventing infantile tuberculous meningitis and miliary disease. We hypothesized that BCG vaccine given at birth would enhance T-helper 1 (Th1 immune responses to the first vaccines given later in infancy. We conducted a nested case-control study of neonatal BCG vaccination and its heterologous Th1 immune effects in 2–3 months old infants. BCG vaccination at birth was associated with an increased frequency of interferon-γ (IFN-γ producing spot-forming cells (SFC to tetanus toxoid 2–3 months later. The frequency of IFN-γ producing SFC to polioviruses 1–3 also trended higher among infants who received BCG vaccination at birth. The frequency of IFN-γ+/tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α+CD45RO+CD4+ T-cells upon stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA/Ionomycin was higher in 2–3 months old infants who received BCG vaccination at birth compared to those who did not. The circulating frequency of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3+ CD45RO+ regulatory CD4+ T-cells also trended lower in these infants. Neonatal BCG vaccination is associated with heterologous Th1 immune effects 2–3 months later.

  8. Coley's toxin and BCG vaccine in prevention and treatment of malignant melanoma in humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučerová, Petra; Vlasáková, Jitka; Červinková, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2017), s. 124-128 ISSN 0954-139X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1609 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : BCG vaccine * Coley´s toxin * cytokines Subject RIV: EC - Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology

  9. Evolution of M. bovis BCG Vaccine: Is Niacin Production Still a Valid Biomarker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarman; Singh, Pragati

    2015-01-01

    BCG vaccine is usually considered to be safe though rarely serious complications have also been reported, often incriminating contamination of the seed strain with pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In such circumstances, it becomes prudent to rule out the contamination of the vaccine seed. M. bovis BCG can be confirmed by the absence of nitrate reductase, negative niacin test, and resistance to pyrazinamide and cycloserine. Recently in India, some stocks were found to be niacin positive which led to a national controversy and closer of a vaccine production plant. This prompted us to write this review and the comparative biochemical and genotypic studies were carried out on the these contentious vaccine stocks at the Indian vaccine plant and other seeds and it was found that some BCG vaccine strains and even some strains of M. bovis with eugenic-growth characteristics mainly old laboratory strains may give a positive niacin reaction. Most probably, the repeated subcultures lead to undefined changes at the genetic level in these seed strains. These changing biological characteristics envisage reevaluation of biochemical characters of existing BCG vaccine seeds and framing of newer guidelines for manufacturing, production, safety, and effectiveness of BCG vaccine. PMID:25694828

  10. Oral Polio Vaccine Influences the Immune Response to BCG Vaccination. A Natural Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartono, E.; Lisse, I.M.; Terveer, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did...

  11. Oral polio vaccine influences the immune response to BCG vaccination. A natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartono, Erliyani; Lisse, Ida M; Terveer, Elisabeth M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did...

  12. CD4 and CD8 counts of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the cellular immune factors responsible for combating infections by assessing CD4 and CD8 counts of neonates (pre and post BCG vaccination). A total of 373 blood samples were collected from neonates that visited the immunization clinics at Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH), Irrua and Federal ...

  13. Non-specific immunity of BCG vaccine: A perspective of BCG immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeha Talat Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BCG is a widely used vaccine worldwide for neonates including Pakistan. BCG has more than 90% coverage through the EPI program which was introduced in 1965 in Pakistan. BCG has limited efficacy against the transmissible form of pulmonary tuberculosis in high TB endemic countries. However, BCG vaccination continues in these countries because BCG confers protection against the disseminated form of TB in children. BCG has also shown some protection against leprosy and certain forms of cancers. One reason for such nonspecific protection may be that BCG activates APCs via PAMPS that interacts with TLRs (2, 4 & 8, which initiate the inflammatory cascade thereby recruiting inflammatory cells to the site of infection and providing maturation signals for neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells. Such activation may be crucial for restricting the infection at the initial site. Furthermore, activation of the pro-inflammatory cascade also results in expression of adhesion molecules, co-stimulatory molecules as well as MHC class II molecule. MHC class II molecules engage CD4+ cells via the TCR receptor while the adhesion and costimulatory molecules bind to their respective receptors on CD4+ T cells for additional high affinity binding for T cell activation. Although activation of the innate arm may not provide subsequent memory, activation of T cells may introduce a certain level of memory response and therefore, may form a rational basis for BCG immunotherapy. This review, therefore, focuses on the immune activation related to both the innate and adaptive arm of the immune response that has been reported and further explores the utility of BCG immunotherapy related to non TB conditions.

  14. Various ultrasonographic manifestations of Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) lymphadenitis in infants after BCG vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Choon Sik; Kim, Myung Joon; Lee, Kwang Hun; Kwon, Woo Cheol; Cho, Nariya; Lee, Sung Il; Park, Kae Young; Kim, Dong Jin

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the various ultrasonographic manifestations of BCG lymphadenitis complicated by BCG vaccination in infants. Among a total of 59 patients of BCG lymphadenitis, we retrospectively evaluated the ultrasonographic findings of five patients (seven involved areas), who were operated and confirmed by histopathology. Three cases were male and two were female and the age range is from 3 months to 9 months (mean: 5.5 months). Among five cases two had only a single lesion and three had multiple lesions, and two of those had multiple lesions at 2 separate locations. All five cases had ipsilateral supraclavicular lesions with same BCG vaccination site and two also had ipsilaeteral axillary lesions. Ultrasonography showed enlarged lymph nodes and heterogeneous hypoechoic changes suggesting internal necrosis or suppurative changes in three cases, but 1 had cystic necrotic change with fluid-fluid level and another had conglomerated mass with intermingled hyper and hypoechoic areas, which were initially suspected to be a tumorous conditions but revealed conglomerated lymph nodes on follow-up ultrasonography and MRI. BCG lymphadenitis is usually located adjacent to a BCG vaccination site, but ultrasonography can show single or multiple lymph node enlargement and various manifestations from homogeneous lymphadenitis to cystic abscess changes and even a mass-like appearance, demonstrating that the evaluation of ultrasonography should be done very carefully.

  15. Mucosal BCG Vaccination Induces Protective Lung-Resident Memory T Cell Populations against Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdomo, Carolina; Zedler, Ulrike; Kühl, Anja A.; Lozza, Laura; Saikali, Philippe; Sander, Leif E.; Vogelzang, Alexis; Kupz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), yet its moderate efficacy against pulmonary TB calls for improved vaccination strategies. Mucosal BCG vaccination generates superior protection against TB in animal models; however, the mechanisms of protection remain elusive. Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells have been implicated in protective immune responses against viral infections, but the role of TRM cells following mycobacterial infection is unknown. Using a mouse model of TB, we compared protection and lung cellular infiltrates of parenteral and mucosal BCG vaccination. Adoptive transfer and gene expression analyses of lung airway cells were performed to determine the protective capacities and phenotypes of different memory T cell subsets. In comparison to subcutaneous vaccination, intratracheal and intranasal BCG vaccination generated T effector memory and TRM cells in the lung, as defined by surface marker phenotype. Adoptive mucosal transfer of these airway-resident memory T cells into naive mice mediated protection against TB. Whereas airway-resident memory CD4+ T cells displayed a mixture of effector and regulatory phenotype, airway-resident memory CD8+ T cells displayed prototypical TRM features. Our data demonstrate a key role for mucosal vaccination-induced airway-resident T cells in the host defense against pulmonary TB. These results have direct implications for the design of refined vaccination strategies. PMID:27879332

  16. [Severe adverse reactions after vaccination with Japanese BCG vaccine: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toida, Ichiro; Nakata, Shizuko

    2007-11-01

    Japanese BCG vaccine has been admitted by the quality control of World Health Organization (WHO) as the safest BCG vaccine in the world. Even though, BCG, as a live bacterial vaccine, inevitably causes dissemination beyond vaccination site and regional lymph-nodes to various part of the body under certain special conditions. We tried to review the clinical features and immunological status of the cases in which "severe" adverse reactions had developed after vaccination with Japanese freeze-dried BCG vaccine prepared from BCG substrain Tokyo. "Severe" adverse reaction was arbitrarily defined as the adverse reactions of clinical significance developed beyond vaccination site and regional ipsilateral axillary lymph-nodes. By the extensive search of the literatures, 39 cases were identified since 1951 when vaccination with freeze-dried BCG vaccine became compulsory by the Tuberculosis Prevention Law in Japan. Incidence rate was calculated as 0.0182 cases per 100,000 vaccinations. Clinical manifestations of bone and joint were reported in 27 cases (multiple sites: 15 cases, single site: 12 cases), abnormalities in chest X-ray in 13 cases, skin manifestations in 17 cases, diseases in other sites or organs in 8 cases. Most of the cases had lesions in multiple organs. Among these 39 cases, 13 had been diagnosed to have some types of primary immunodeficiency (5 cases: chronic granulomatous disease (CGD); 4 cases: severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID); 4 cases: IFN-gamma receptor 1 deficiency). Further, unidentified defects in cellular immunity were reported in other 6 cases. Death was reported in 6 cases, but in two cases the causes of death were the infections due to different pathogens, namely, pulmonary abscess due to Staphylococcus sp. and bacteremia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, and in only one case death was evidenced as due to disseminated BCG infection by autopsy. All of 6 death cases had some type of immunodeficiency. Apart from fatal cases

  17. Lack of a Negative Effect of BCG-Vaccination on Child Psychomotor Development: Results from the Danish Calmette Study - A Randomised Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Foss, Kim Thestrup; Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Pihl, Gitte Thybo; Andersen, Andreas; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Pryds, Ole; Greisen, Gorm

    2016-01-01

    To assess the non-specific effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on psychomotor development. This is a pre-specified secondary outcome from a randomised, clinical trial. Maternity units and paediatric wards at three university hospitals in Denmark. Children born at gestational age (GA) 32 weeks and above. All women planning to give birth at the three sites were invited during the recruitment period. Out of 4262 randomised children, 144 were premature (GA Psychomotor development measured using Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) completed by the parents at 12 months. Additionally, parents of premature children (gestational age psychomotor development was excluded in term children. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01694108.

  18. The effect of current Schistosoma mansoni infection on the immunogenicity of a candidate TB vaccine, MVA85A, in BCG-vaccinated adolescents: An open-label trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Wajja

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infection may affect vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. Adolescents, a target population for tuberculosis booster vaccines, often have a high helminth burden. We investigated effects of Schistosoma mansoni (Sm on the immunogenicity and safety of MVA85A, a model candidate tuberculosis vaccine, in BCG-vaccinated Ugandan adolescents.In this phase II open label trial we enrolled 36 healthy, previously BCG-vaccinated adolescents, 18 with no helminth infection detected, 18 with Sm only. The primary outcome was immunogenicity measured by Ag85A-specific interferon gamma ELISpot assay. Tuberculosis and schistosome-specific responses were also assessed by whole-blood stimulation and multiplex cytokine assay, and by antibody ELISAs.Ag85A-specific cellular responses increased significantly following immunisation but with no differences between the two groups. Sm infection was associated with higher pre-immunisation Ag85A-specific IgG4 but with no change in antibody levels following immunisation. There were no serious adverse events. Most reactogenicity events were of mild or moderate severity and resolved quickly.The significant Ag85A-specific T cell responses and lack of difference between Sm-infected and uninfected participants is encouraging for tuberculosis vaccine development. The implications of pre-existing Ag85A-specific IgG4 antibodies for protective immunity against tuberculosis among those infected with Sm are not known. MVA85A was safe in this population.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02178748.

  19. Individual-level factors associated with variation in mycobacterial-specific immune response: Gender and previous BCG vaccination status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Sophie J; Knight, Gwenan M; Fielding, Katherine; Scriba, Thomas J; Pathan, Ansar A; McShane, Helen; Fletcher, Helen; White, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    A more effective tuberculosis (TB) vaccine is needed to eliminate TB disease. Many new vaccine candidates enhance the immunogenicity of the existing vaccine, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Understanding BCG induced immune variation is key to developing a new vaccine. We aimed to establish if individual-level covariates were associated with cell-mediated immune response (interferon gamma (IFN-γ)) at vaccine trial enrolment (baseline) in a long-term retrospective analysis (LTR) and after BCG vaccination in a short-term prospective analysis (STP). Four covariates were analysed: gender, country, BCG vaccination history and monocyte/lymphocyte cell count ratio. Univariable and multivariable linear regression were conducted on IFN-γ response at baseline for LTR, and area under the curve (AUC), 24 week and peak IFN-γ response for STP. Previous BCG vaccination was strongly associated with higher IFN-γ response at baseline (LTR analysis) (p-values response (p-value = 0.1). BCG revaccination was strongly associated with a larger response increase than primary-vaccination (AUC & peak p-values 0.1). This analysis suggests that previous BCG vaccination and gender are associated with durable IFN-γ responses. Vaccine trials may need to stratify by BCG vaccination history and gender. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of vitamin A supplementation with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status at 6 wk and 4 mo of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter

    2007-01-01

    concentrations indicated vitamin A deficiency in 32% of the children at age 6 wk and in 16% at age 4 mo. VAS was not associated with higher RBP concentrations overall or in either sex. However, the effect of VAS varied with maternal education (P for interaction = 0.004): At age 6 wk, VAS was associated......BACKGROUND: The effect of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth on subsequent vitamin A status has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 50,000 IU vitamin A administered with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status in both sexes. DESIGN: Within a randomized...... with higher (9%; 95% CI: 2, 17%) RBP concentrations in children of noneducated mothers but not in children of educated mothers. Overall, RBP concentrations increased between 6 wk and 4 mo of age. The increase correlated inversely with the number of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines received...

  1. Variation of growth in the production of the BCG vaccine and the association with the immune response. An observational study within a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biering-Sorensen, S.; Jensen, K.J.; Aamand, S.H.; Blok, B.; Andersen, A.; Monteiro, I.; Netea, M.G.; Aaby, P.; Benn, C.S.; Haslov, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine has beneficial non-specific effects on overall survival. After BCG vaccination, positive PPD response and scar formation are associated with increased survival. During a trial randomising low-birth-weight neonates to BCG at birth or the usual

  2. Variation of growth in the production of the BCG vaccine and the association with the immune response. An observational study within a randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Aamand, Susanne Havn

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has beneficial non-specific effects on overall survival. After BCG vaccination, positive PPD response and scar formation are associated with increased survival. During a trial randomising low-birth-weight neonates to BCG at birth or the usual de...... in the production of BCG vaccine may influence important immunological effects of the vaccine. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00625482).......INTRODUCTION: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has beneficial non-specific effects on overall survival. After BCG vaccination, positive PPD response and scar formation are associated with increased survival. During a trial randomising low-birth-weight neonates to BCG at birth or the usual...

  3. A Complication of BCG Vaccine: A Case of Localized Cutaneous Abscess due to Mycobacterium bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Lussier

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The attenuated bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine is administered to prevent tuberculosis. Complications of vaccination are uncommon. A case of cutaneous abscess due to BCG is presented in a 24-year-old woman. The abscess developed at the inoculation site four weeks after vaccination. Routine Gram stain and bacterial cultures of the pus were negative. The auramine stain was positive. Mycobacterial cultures were positive after 14 and 18 days, using the BACTEC 12B bottle and Löwenstein-Jensen media, respectively. The mycobacteria were identified as Mycobacterium bovis, vaccinal strain by high-performance liquid chromatography and DNA probe assays.

  4. Tuberculous meningitis in children: a review of clinical, laboratory, epidemiological, and therapeutic aspects and of the usefulness of BCG vaccination Meningitis tuberculosa en niños: una revisión de aspectos clínicos, de laboratorio, epidemiológicos y terapéuticos y de la utilidad de la vacunación con BCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José William Cornejo Ochoa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Tuberculous meningitis is the most frequent extrapulmonary form of tuberculosis in underdeveloped countries, among them Colombia. It is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In this article a review is presented of the following aspects of the disease: clinical, epidemiological, therapeutic, prophylactic by means of BCG vaccination, laboratory diagnosis, and tomographic findings.

    La tuberculosis meníngea (MTB es la enfermedad tuberculosa extrapulmonar más frecuente en los países del tercer mundo, incluida Colombia, y tiene tasas altas de morbilidad y mortalidad. En este artículo se presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre los siguientes aspectos de la enfermedad: clínicos, epidemiológicos, de laboratorio, tomográficos, terapéuticos y de prevención con la vacuna BCG.

  5. BCG vaccination at birth and early childhood hospitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Sørup, Signe; Aaby, Peter

    2017-01-01

    vaccination at birth would reduce early childhood hospitalisation in Denmark, a high-income setting. METHODS: Pregnant women planning to give birth at three Danish hospitals were invited to participate. After parental consent, newborn children were allocated to BCG or no intervention within 7 days of age....... Randomisation was stratified by prematurity. The primary study outcome was number of all-cause hospitalisations analysed as repeated events. Hospitalisations were identified using The Danish National Patient Register. Data were analysed by Cox proportional hazards models in intention-to-treat and per...... compared with 1003 hospitalisations among 2133 control children (mean 0.47), resulting in a HR comparing BCG versus no BCG of 1.05 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.18) (intention-to-treat analysis). The effect of BCG was the same in children born at term (1.05 (0.92 to 1.18)) and prematurely (1.07 (0.63 to 1.81), p=0...

  6. The Efficacy of the BCG Vaccine against Newly Emerging Clinical Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Henao-Tamayo

    Full Text Available To date, most new vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including new recombinant versions of the current BCG vaccine, have usually been screened against the laboratory strains H37Rv or Erdman. In this study we took advantage of our recent work in characterizing an increasingly large panel of newly emerging clinical isolates [from the United States or from the Western Cape region of South Africa], to determine to what extent vaccines would protect against these [mostly high virulence] strains. We show here that both BCG Pasteur and recombinant BCG Aeras-422 [used here as a good example of the new generation BCG vaccines] protected well in both mouse and guinea pig low dose aerosol infection models against the majority of clinical isolates tested. However, Aeras-422 was not effective in a long term survival assay compared to BCG Pasteur. Protection was very strongly expressed against all of the Western Cape strains tested, reinforcing our viewpoint that any attempt at boosting BCG would be very difficult to achieve statistically. This observation is discussed in the context of the growing argument made by others that the failure of a recent vaccine trial disqualifies the further use of animal models to predict vaccine efficacy. This viewpoint is in our opinion completely erroneous, and that it is the fitness of prevalent strains in the trial site area that is the centrally important factor, an issue that is not being addressed by the field.

  7. Quality control and safety assessment of BCG vaccines in the post-genomic era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, Tzvetelina

    2014-01-01

    A hundred and five years ago, Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin began a daunting task, which is unmatched even today, that led to the most widely used vaccine in human history. Despite a century of scientific advances, BCG (an acronym for Bacillus Calmette–Guérin) remains the only vaccine for prevention of tuberculosis. Due to the fact that the use of BCG vaccines will continue, either as a stand-alone or as a prime vaccine in prime-boost immunization strategies, the World Health Organization (WHO) has underlined the necessity for further work toward better characterization, evaluation and quality control of the BCG vaccine, taking into account recent advances in genetics and molecular biology. The potential benefit of such improved characterization could be addressed to better and easier differentiation between sub-strains used by different manufacturers. It may help to ensure consistency of production in terms of genetic stability and it may also help the clinical evaluation of new antituberculosis vaccines. Last but not least, the state-of-the-art technologies could facilitate the quality control performed by the manufacturers and by National Control Authorities as well. PMID:26019525

  8. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine: A global assessment of demand and supply balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernuschi, Tania; Malvolti, Stefano; Nickels, Emily; Friede, Martin

    2018-01-25

    Over the past decade, several countries across all regions, income groups and procurement methods have been unable to secure sufficient BCG vaccine supply. While the frequency of stock-outs has remained rather stable, duration increased in 2014-2015 due to manufacturing issues and attracted the attention of national, regional and global immunization stakeholders. This prompted an in-depth analysis of supply and demand dynamics aiming to characterize supply risks. This analysis is unique as it provides a global picture, where previous analyses have focused on a portion of the market procuring through UN entities. Through literature review, supplier interviews, appraisal of shortages, stock-outs and historical procurement data, and through demand forecasting, this analysis shows an important increase in global capacity in 2017: supply is sufficient to meet forecasted BCG vaccine demand and possibly buffer market shocks. Nevertheless, risks remain mainly due to supply concentration and limited investment in production process improvements, as well as inflexibility in demand. Identification of these market risks will allow implementation of risk-mitigating interventions in three areas: (1) enhancing information sharing between major global health actors, countries and suppliers, (2) identifying interests and incentives to expand product registration and investment in the BCG manufacturing process, and (3) working with countries for tighter vaccine management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Early versus late BCG vaccination in HIV-1-exposed infants in Uganda: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nankabirwa, V.; Tumwine, J.K.; Namugga, O.; Tylleskar, T.; Ndeezi, G.; Robberstad, B.; Netea, M.G.; Sommerfelt, H.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have nonspecific effects, i.e., effects on childhood morbidity and mortality that go beyond its effect on the risk of childhood tuberculosis (TB). Though the available scientific literature is mostly from observational studies, and is

  10. BCG Vaccination Protects against Experimental Viral Infection in Humans through the Induction of Cytokines Associated with Trained Immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, Rob J W; Moorlag, Simone J C F M; Novakovic, Boris; Li, Yang; Wang, Shuang-Yin; Oosting, Marije; Kumar, Vinod; Xavier, Ramnik J; Wijmenga, Cisca; Joosten, Leo A B; Reusken, Chantal B E M; Benn, Christine S; Aaby, Peter; Koopmans, Marion P; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; van Crevel, Reinout; Netea, Mihai G

    2018-01-01

    The tuberculosis vaccine bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has heterologous beneficial effects against non-related infections. The basis of these effects has been poorly explored in humans. In a randomized placebo-controlled human challenge study, we found that BCG vaccination induced genome-wide

  11. Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination at birth and antibody responses to childhood vaccines. A randomised clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nissen, T.N.; Birk, N.M.; Smits, G.; Jeppesen, D.L.; Stensballe, L.G.; Netea, M.G.; Klis, F. van der; Benn, C.S.; Pryds, O.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: BCG vaccination has been associated with beneficial non-specific effects on child health. Some immunological studies have reported heterologous effects of vaccines on antibody responses to heterologous vaccines. Within a randomised clinical trial of Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG)

  12. Neonatal BCG vaccination has no effect on recurrent wheeze in the first year of life: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Pihl, Gitte Thybo; Kjærgaard, Jesper; Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Jensen, Aksel Karl Georg; Aaby, Peter; Olesen, Annette Wind; Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Benn, Christine Stabell; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2017-12-01

    Recurrent wheeze (RW) is frequent in childhood. Studies have suggested that BCG vaccination can have nonspecific effects, reducing general nontuberculosis morbidity, including respiratory tract infections and atopic diseases. The mechanisms behind these nonspecific effects of BCG are not fully understood, but a shift from a T H 2 to a T H 1 response has been suggested as a possible explanation. We hypothesized that BCG at birth would reduce the cumulative incidence of RW during the first year of life. The Danish Calmette Study is a multicenter randomized trial conducted from 2012-2015 at 3 Danish hospitals. The 4262 newborns of 4184 included mothers were randomized 1:1 to BCG (SSI strain 1331) or to a no-intervention control group within 7 days of birth; siblings were randomized together as one randomization unit. Exclusion criteria were gestational age of less than 32 weeks, birth weight of less than 1000 g, known immunodeficiency, or no Danish-speaking parent. Information was collected through telephone interviews and clinical examinations at 3 and 13 months of age; data collectors were blind to randomization group. RW was defined in several ways, with the main definition being physician-diagnosed and medically treated RW up to 13 months of age. By 13 months, 211 (10.0%) of 2100 children in the BCG group and 195 (9.4%) of 2071 children in the control group had received a diagnosis of RW from a medical doctor and received antiasthma treatment (relative risk, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.89-1.28). Supplementary analyses were made, including an analysis of baseline risk factors for development of RW. Neonatal BCG had no effect on the development of RW before 13 months of age. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tuberculosis case finding for vaccine trials in young children in high-incidence settings: a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moyo, S.; Verver, S.; Hawkridge, A.; Geiter, L.; Hatherill, M.; Workman, L.; Ontong, C.; Msemburi, W.; Tameris, M.; Geldenhuys, H.; Mulenga, H.; Snowden, M. A.; Hanekom, W. A.; Hussey, G.; Mahomed, H.

    2012-01-01

    SETTING: A high tuberculosis (TB) burden rural area in South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To compare TB case yield and disease profile among bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccinated children using two case-finding strategies from birth until 2 years of age. DESIGN: BCG-vaccinated infants were enrolled within

  14. High-sensitive and rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by IFN-γ release assay among HIV-infected individuals in BCG-vaccinated area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Weimin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An accurate test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is urgently needed in immunosuppressed populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic power of enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT-based IFN-γ release assay in detecting active and latent tuberculosis in HIV-infected population in bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG-vaccinated area. A total of 100 HIV-infected individuals including 32 active tuberculosis patients were recruited. An ELISPOT-based IFN-γ release assay, T-SPOT.TB, was used to evaluate the M. tuberculosis ESAT-6 and CFP-10 specific IFN-γ response. Tuberculin skin test (TST was performed for all recruited subjects. Results The subjects were divided into group HIV+ATB (HIV-infected individuals with active tuberculosis, n = 32, group HIV+LTB (HIV-infected individuals with positive results of T-SPOT.TB assay, n = 46 and group HIV only (HIV-infected individuals with negative results of T-SPOT.TB assay and without evidence of tuberculosis infection, n = 22. In group HIV+ATB and HIV+LTB, T-SPOT.TB positive rate in subjects with TST P 85% in patients with TB treatment for less than 1 month and CD4+ T cells ≥200/μl, while for patients treated for more than 3 months and CD4+ T cells Conclusion ELISPOT-based IFN-γ release assay is more sensitive and rapid for the diagnosis of TB infection in Chinese HIV-infected individuals with history of BCG vaccination, and could be an effective tool for guiding preventive treatment with isoniazid in latently infected people and for TB control in China.

  15. The Impact of Transcriptomics on the Fight against Tuberculosis: Focus on Biomarkers, BCG Vaccination, and Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodrigo Zárate-Bladés

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1882 Robert Koch identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB, a disease as ancient as humanity. Although there has been more than 125 years of scientific effort aimed at understanding the disease, serious problems in TB persist that contribute to the estimated 1/3 of the world population infected with this pathogen. Nonetheless, during the first decade of the 21st century, there were new advances in the fight against TB. The development of high-throughput technologies is one of the major contributors to this advance, because it allows for a global vision of the biological phenomenon. This paper analyzes how transcriptomics are supporting the translation of basic research into therapies by resolving three key issues in the fight against TB: (a the discovery of biomarkers, (b the explanation of the variability of protection conferred by BCG vaccination, and (c the development of new immunotherapeutic strategies to treat TB.

  16. Comparison of Karl Fischer titrimetric and gravimetric methods for determination of moisture content in BCG vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, M; Klegerman, M E; Groves, M J

    1989-01-01

    A model 447 Coulomatic K-F titrimeter was used to determine the water content of seventeen lots of freeze-dried Tice-substrain BCG vaccine. The results were compared with corresponding moisture contents determined by a standard gravimetric method at the time of manufacture. The advantages of the titrimetric method include simplicity, rapidity, convenience, sensitivity, reproducibility and specificity, whereas the gravimetric method is tedious and time-consuming. Although moisture content determined by the K-F titrimeter tended to be higher than that determined by the gravimetric method, the results correlated significantly (r = 0.882, P less than 10(-5]. Alteration of national and international regulations to permit use of the K-F titrimeter is recommended.

  17. Recombinant BCG vaccines: molecular features and their influence in the expression of foreign genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Thaís Larré; Rizzi, Caroline; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio

    2017-09-01

    Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccines (rBCG) were first developed in the 1990s as a means of expressing antigens from multiple pathogens. This review examines the key structural factors of recombinant M. bovis that influence the expression of the heterologous antigens and the generation of genetic and functional stability in rBCG, which are crucial for inducing strong and lasting immune responses. The fundamental aim of this paper is to provide an overview of factors that affect the expression of recombinant proteins in BCG and the generation of the immune response against the target antigens, including mycobacterial promoters, location of foreign antigens, and stability of the vectors. The reporter systems that have been employed for evaluation of these molecular features in BCG are also reviewed here.

  18. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in children | Rabie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IRIS) occurs in up to 21% of children initiating antiretroviral therapy. Mycobacterial diseases are the most common, with BCG-vaccine adenitis predominating in infants and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) in older children. The difficulty of ...

  19. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Rabie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Paradoxical deterioration due to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS occurs in up to 21% of children initiating antiretroviral therapy. Mycobacterial diseases are the most common, with BCG-vaccine adenitis predominating in infants and M. tuberculosis (TB in older children. The difficulty of diagnosing TB in HIV-infected children and the increasing risk of drug-resistant TB complicate the diagnosis and management of both paradoxical IRIS and post-antiretroviral therapy TB. History and clinical assessment remain key strategies in the management of these infants and children. There are no prospective studies investigating diagnostic criteria and therapeutic strategies in children.

  20. Assessment of safety and interferon gamma responses of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine in goat kids and milking goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de Val, Bernat; Vidal, Enric; López-Soria, Sergio; Marco, Alberto; Cervera, Zoraida; Martín, Maite; Mercader, Irene; Singh, Mahavir; Raeber, Alex; Domingo, Mariano

    2016-02-10

    Vaccination of domestic animals has emerged as an alternative long-term strategy for the control of tuberculosis (TB). A trial under field conditions was conducted in a TB-free goat herd to assess the safety of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine. Eleven kids and 10 milking goats were vaccinated with BCG. Bacterial shedding and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) responses were monitored throughout the study. Comprehensive pathological examination and mycobacterial culture of target tissues were performed. BCG vaccine strain was only isolated from the draining lymph node of the injection site of a kid euthanized at week 8 post-vaccination. The remaining animals were euthanized at week 24. Six out of 20 showed small granulomas at the injection site. BCG shedding was not detected in either faeces or in milk throughout the study. All vaccinated kids showed BCG-induced IFN-γ responses at week 8 post-vaccination. BCG vaccination of goats showed no lack of biological safety for the animals, environment and public health, and local adverse reactions were negligible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hypoxia induces an immunodominant target of tuberculosis specific T cells absent from common BCG vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Priyadarshini Gideon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available M. tuberculosis (MTB species-specific antigenic determinants of the human T cell response are important for immunodiagnosis and vaccination. As hypoxia is a stimulus in chronic tuberculosis infection, we analyzed transcriptional profiles of MTB subject to 168 hours of hypoxia to test the hypothesis that upregulation by hypoxia might result in gene products being recognized as antigens. We identified upregulation of two region of difference (RD 11 (Rv2658C and Rv2659c, and one RD2 (Rv1986 absent from commonly used BCG strains. In MTB infected persons, the IL-2 ELISpot response to Rv1986 peptides was several times greater than the corresponding IFN-γ response to the reference immunodominant ESAT-6 or CFP-10 antigens. The IL-2 response was confined to two epitopic regions containing residues 61-80 and 161-180. The biggest population of IL-2 secreting T cells was single cytokine positive central memory T cells. The IL-2 response to live MTB bacilli lacking Rv1986 was significantly lower than the response to wild type or mutant complemented with Rv1986. In addition, the IL-2 response to Rv1986 was significantly lower in HIV-TB co-infected persons than in HIV uninfected persons, and significantly increased during antiretroviral therapy. These findings demonstrate that Rv1986 is an immunodominant target of memory T cells and is therefore of relevance when considering the partial efficacy of currently used BCG vaccines and provide evidence for a clinical trial comparing BCG strains.

  2. Variable Virulence and Efficacy of BCG Vaccine Strains in Mice and Correlation With Genome Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Ru, Huan-wei; Chen, Fu-zeng; Jin, Chun-yan; Sun, Rui-feng; Fan, Xiao-yong; Guo, Ming; Mai, Jun-tao; Xu, Wen-xi; Lin, Qing-xia; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, is the only vaccine available for tuberculosis (TB) control. However, BCG is not an ideal vaccine and has two major limitations: BCG exhibits highly variable effectiveness against the development of TB both in pediatric and adult populations and can cause disseminated BCG disease in immunocompromised individuals. BCG comprises a number of substrains that are genetically distinct. Whether and how these genetic differences affect BCG efficacy remains largely unknown. In this study, we performed comparative analyses of the virulence and efficacy of 13 BCG strains, representing different genetic lineages, in SCID and BALB/c mice. Our results show that BCG strains of the DU2 group IV (BCG-Phipps, BCG-Frappier, BCG-Pasteur, and BCG-Tice) exhibit the highest levels of virulence, and BCG strains of the DU2 group II (BCG-Sweden, BCG-Birkhaug) are among the least virulent group. These distinct levels of virulence may be explained by strain-specific duplications and deletions of genomic DNA. There appears to be a general trend that more virulent BCG strains are also more effective in protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge. Our findings have important implications for current BCG vaccine programs and for future TB vaccine development. PMID:26643797

  3. [Our experience with 1 mg BCG vaccine instillation in T1 stage cancer of the bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, P; Orio, M; Hinostroza, J; Venegas, P; Pastor, P; Gorena, M; Lagos, M; Pinochet, R

    1999-10-01

    We studied 67 patients with bladder cancer in stage T1, with terminated BCG treatment and in pursuit. No stage Ta neither carcinoma in situ was included. The protocol was: beginning of treatment upon retiring vesical catheter, instilation of 1 mg of liofilized BCG vaccine (16 x 10(6) bacilles) in 40-50 ml of intravesical saline solution. A weekly instilation during the first month. An instilation each 15 days during the second and third month and one monthly until complete 12 months of treatment. Also was carried out an study of T lymphocites and cytokines. The average followup of the 67 patients treated was 51.3 months. 17 patients relapses (25.4%). A 33% were grade 3 and 27% grade 2. Like complications there was a case of inguinal TBC adenititis, 2 TBC prostatitis, 2 TBC cistitis and 5 cases of slight disuric syndrome. The study of subpopulations of lymphocites in peripheral blood demonstrated a significant increase of CD3 and CD4/CD8 ratio. The interleukin 2 measurement in serum also increased significantly after the BCG instilations. Our protocol gets similar results to the higher doses, but with minimal complications diminishing the relapses of the tumors in stage T1. A monthly maintenance dose would help to maintain immunity.

  4. Observational study to estimate the changes in the effectiveness of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination with time since vaccination for preventing tuberculosis in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangtani, Punam; Nguipdop-Djomo, Patrick; Keogh, Ruth H; Trinder, Lucy; Smith, Peter G; Fine, Paul Em; Sterne, Jonathan; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Vynnycky, Emilia; Watson, John; Elliman, David; Lipman, Marc; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2017-07-01

    Until recently, evidence that protection from the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination lasted beyond 10 years was limited. In the past few years, studies in Brazil and the USA (in Native Americans) have suggested that protection from BCG vaccination against tuberculosis (TB) in childhood can last for several decades. The UK's universal school-age BCG vaccination programme was stopped in 2005 and the programme of selective vaccination of high-risk (usually ethnic minority) infants was enhanced. To assess the duration of protection of infant and school-age BCG vaccination against TB in the UK. Two case-control studies of the duration of protection of BCG vaccination were conducted, the first on minority ethnic groups who were eligible for infant BCG vaccination 0-19 years earlier and the second on white subjects eligible for school-age BCG vaccination 10-29 years earlier. TB cases were selected from notifications to the UK national Enhanced Tuberculosis Surveillance system from 2003 to 2012. Population-based control subjects, frequency matched for age, were recruited. BCG vaccination status was established from BCG records, scar reading and BCG history. Information on potential confounders was collected using computer-assisted interviews. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated as a function of time since vaccination, using a case-cohort analysis based on Cox regression. In the infant BCG study, vaccination status was determined using vaccination records as recall was poor and concordance between records and scar reading was limited. A protective effect was seen up to 10 years following infant vaccination [BCG vaccination were adjusted for confounders, including birth cohort and ethnicity. For school-aged BCG vaccination, VE was 51% (95% CI 21% to 69%) 10-15 years after vaccination and 57% (95% CI 33% to 72%) 15-20 years after vaccination, beyond which time protection appeared to wane. Ascertainment of vaccination status was based on self-reported history and scar

  5. The effect of zinc supplementation during pregnancy on immune response to Hib and BCG vaccines in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Fuchs, George J; van Raaij, Joop M A; Mahmud, Hasan; Tofail, Fahmida; Black, Robert E; Prabhakar, Hari; Santosham, Mathuram

    2006-10-01

    An essential role for zinc in development of the fetal immune system has been documented. However, the effect of antenatal zinc supplementation on infants' postnatal immune response to vaccinations is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation during pregnancy on immune response to the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine and the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) component of the combined diphtheria, tetanus toxoid and pertussis (DTP)-Haemophilus influenzae type-b (Hib)- conjugate vaccine in poor Bangladeshi infants. We immunized 405 infants whose mothers were supplemented daily with 30 mg elemental zinc or placebo beginning at 12-16 weeks gestation with the standard BCG vaccine at birth. A subcohort of 203 infants were in addition immunized at 1-month intervals with three doses of DTP-Hib vaccine starting at 9 weeks of age. The delayed hypersensitivity (PPD) skin test was performed in 345 infants at 24 weeks of age. Hib polysaccharide (PRP) antibodies were assessed for 91 infants at 4 and 24 weeks of age. In infants born with low birth weight (LBW) a lower proportion of negative responses to PPD skin test were observed in the zinc (66.2%) compared to placebo (78.5%) group (p = 0.07). No differences were observed in normal birth weight infants. There were no differences in proportion of infants above the protective thresholds for anti-PRP antibodies between zinc (81%) and placebo (89%) group. Geometric mean PRP antibody titres at 4 and 24 weeks of age were not different between groups. Zinc supplementation during pregnancy did not enhance immune response to Hib-conjugate vaccine but there was a suggestion of improved delayed hypersensitivity immune responses to BCG-vaccine in Bangladeshi LBW infants.

  6. BCG vaccine powder-laden and dissolvable microneedle arrays for lesion-free vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fan; Yan, Qinying; Yu, Yang; Wu, Mei X

    2017-06-10

    Live attenuated Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) bacillus is the only licensed vaccine for tuberculosis prevention worldwide to date. It must be delivered intradermally to be effective, which causes severe skin inflammation and sometimes, permanent scars. To minimize the side effects, we developed a novel microneedle array (MNA) that could deliver live attenuated freeze-dried BCG powder into the epidermis in a painless, lesion-free, and self-applicable fashion. The MNA was fabricated with biocompatible and dissolvable hyaluronic acid with a deep cave formed in the basal portion of each microneedle, into which BCG powder could be packaged directly. Viability of BCG vaccine packaged in the caves and the mechanical strength of the powder-laden MNA did not alter significantly before and after more than two months of storage at room temperature. Following insertion of the MNA into the skin, individual microneedle shafts melted away by interstitial fluid from the epidermis and upper dermis, exposing the powder to epidermal tissues. The powder sucked interstitial fluid, dissolved slowly, and diffused into the epidermis in a day against the interstitial fluid influx. Vaccination with BCG-MNA caused no overt skin irritation, in marked contrast to intradermal vaccination that provoked severe inflammation and bruise. While causing little skin irritation, vaccination efficacy of BCG-MNAs was comparable to that of intradermal immunization whether it was evaluated by humoral or cellular immunity. This powder-laden and dissolvable MNA represents a novel technology to sufficiently deliver live attenuated vaccine powders into the skin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Scar formation and tuberculin conversion following BCG vaccination in infants: A prospective cohort study

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    Sara S Dhanawade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is considerable variation in BCG scar failure rate on available data and correlation between BCG scar and tuberculin conversion remains controversial. Through this study we aimed to determine the scar failure rate and tuberculin conversion in term infants vaccinated with BCG within the first month. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted among 85 consecutive infants weighing >2 kg attending the immunization clinic of a medical college hospital. Fifteen subjects who could not complete the follow up were excluded. Total of 70 cases were analyzed. All babies were administered 0.1 ml of BCG and examined at 3 months (+1 week for scar. Tuberculin test was done with 5TU PPD. An induration of >5 mm was considered positive. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel and SPSS-22. Results: Out of the 70 infants, 41 (58.6% were males. Although majority (72.9% of infants were vaccinated within 7 days, only 18 (25.7% received BCG within 48 hours of birth. Sixty-four (91.4% had a visible scar at 12 weeks post vaccination representing a scar failure rate of 8.6%. Tuberculin test was positive in 50 (71.4%. The mean ± s.d. for scar and tuberculin skin test (TST reaction size was 4.93 ± 2.01 mm and 6.01 ± 3.22 mm, respectively. The association between scar formation and tuberculin positivity was highly significant (P < 0.001. There was significant correlation between scar size and TST size (r = 0.401, P = 0.001 Conclusions: Less than 10% of infants fail to develop a scar following BCG vaccination. There is good correlation between scar positivity and tuberculin conversion.

  8. Impact of PGL-I seropositivity on the protective effect of BCG vaccination among leprosy contacts: a cohort study.

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    Nádia C Düppre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Contacts of leprosy patients are at increased risk of developing leprosy and need to be targeted for early diagnosis. Seropositivity to the phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I antigen of Mycobacterium leprae has been used to identify contacts who have an increased risk of developing leprosy. In the present study, we studied the effect of seropositivity in patient contacts, on the risk of developing leprosy, stratified by Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG vaccination after index case diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Leprosy contacts were examined as part of the surveillance programme of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute Leprosy Outpatient Clinic in Rio de Janeiro. Demographic, social, epidemiological and clinical data were collected. The presence of IgM antibodies to PGL-I in sera and BCG vaccination status at the time of index case diagnosis were evaluated in 2,135 contacts. During follow-up, 60 (2.8%; 60/2,135 leprosy cases were diagnosed: 41 among the 1,793 PGL-I-negative contacts and 19 among the 342 PGL-I-positive contacts. Among PGL-I-positive contacts, BCG vaccination after index case diagnosis increased the adjusted rate of developing clinical manifestations of leprosy (Adjusted Rate Ratio (aRR = 4.1; 95% CI: 1.8-8.2 compared with the PGL-I-positive unvaccinated contacts (aRR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.2-8.1. The incidence density was highest during the first year of follow-up for the PGL-I-positive vaccinated contacts. However, all of those contacts developed PB leprosy, whereas most MB cases (4/6 occurred in PGL-I-positive unvaccinated contacts. CONCLUSION: Contact examination combined with PGL-I testing and BCG vaccination remain important strategies for leprosy control. The finding that rates of leprosy cases were highest among seropositive contacts justifies targeting this specific group for close monitoring. Furthermore, it is recommended that PGL-I-positive contacts and contacts with a high familial bacteriological index

  9. Differential Cell Composition and Cytokine Expression Within Lymph Node Granulomas from BCG-Vaccinated and Non-vaccinated Cattle Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salguero, F J; Gibson, S; Garcia-Jimenez, W; Gough, J; Strickland, T S; Vordermeier, H M; Villarreal-Ramos, B

    2017-12-01

    Cattle vaccination against bovine tuberculosis (bTB) has been proposed as a supplementary method to help control the incidences of this disease. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is currently the only viable candidate vaccine for immunization of cattle against bTB, caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). In an attempt to characterize the differences in the immune response following M. bovis infection between BCG-vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals, a combination of gross pathology, histopathology and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses was used. BCG vaccination was found to significantly reduce the number of gross and microscopic lesions present within the lungs and lymph nodes. Additionally, the microscopically visible bacterial load of stages III and IV granulomas was reduced. IHC using cell surface markers revealed the number of CD68+ (macrophages), CD3+ (T lymphocytes) and WC1+ cells (γδ T cells) to be significantly reduced in lymph node granulomas of BCG-vaccinated animals, when compared to non-vaccinated animals. B lymphocytes (CD79a+) were significantly increased in BCG-vaccinated cattle for granulomas at stages II, III and IV. IHC staining for iNOS showed a higher expression in granulomas from BCG-vaccinated animals compared to non-vaccinated animals for all stages, being statistically significant in stages I and IV. TGFβ expression decreased alongside the granuloma development in non-vaccinated animals, whereas BCG-vaccinated animals showed a slight increase alongside lesion progression. IHC analysis of the cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α demonstrated significantly increased expression within the lymph node granulomas of BCG-vaccinated cattle. This is suggestive of a protective role for IFN-γ and TNF-α in response to M. bovis infection. Findings shown in this study suggest that the use of BCG vaccine can reduce the number and severity of lesions, induce a different phenotypic response and increase the local expression of key cytokines related to

  10. Successive Intramuscular Boosting with IFN-Alpha Protects Mycobacterium bovis BCG-Vaccinated Mice against M. lepraemurium Infection

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    G. G. Guerrero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy caused by Mycobacterium leprae primarily affects the skin and peripheral nerves. As a human infectious disease, it is still a significant health and economic burden on developing countries. Although multidrug therapy is reducing the number of active cases to approximately 0.5 million, the number of cases per year is not declining. Therefore, alternative host-directed strategies should be addressed to improve treatment efficacy and outcome. In this work, using murine leprosy as a model, a very similar granulomatous skin lesion to human leprosy, we have found that successive IFN-alpha boosting protects BCG-vaccinated mice against M. lepraemurium infection. No difference in the seric isotype and all IgG subclasses measured, neither in the TH1 nor in the TH2 type cytokine production, was seen. However, an enhanced iNOS/NO production in BCG-vaccinated/i.m. IFN-alpha boosted mice was observed. The data provided in this study suggest a promising use for IFN-alpha boosting as a new prophylactic alternative to be explored in human leprosy by targeting host innate cell response.

  11. The Type of Growth Medium Affects the Presence of a Mycobacterial Capsule and Is Associated With Differences in Protective Efficacy of BCG Vaccination Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Carreño, Leandro J.; Weinrick, Brian; Batista-Gonzalez, Ana; Glatman-Freedman, Aarona; Xu, Jiayong; Chan, John; Jacobs, William R.; Porcelli, Steven A.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Background. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is widely used for the prevention of tuberculosis, despite limited efficacy. Most immunological studies of BCG or Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains grow bacteria in the presence of detergent, which also strips the mycobacterial capsule. The impact of the capsule on vaccine efficacy has not been explored.

  12. PO and ID BCG vaccination in humans induce distinct mucosal and systemic immune responses and CD4+T cell transcriptomal molecular signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoft, D F; Xia, M; Zhang, G L; Blazevic, A; Tennant, J; Kaplan, C; Matuschak, G; Dube, T J; Hill, H; Schlesinger, L S; Andersen, P L; Brusic, V

    2017-08-30

    Protective efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) may be affected by the methods and routes of vaccine administration. We have studied the safety and immunogenicity of oral (PO) and/or intradermal (ID) administration of BCG in healthy human subjects. No major safety concerns were detected in the 68 healthy adults vaccinated with PO and/or ID BCG. Although both PO and ID BCG could induce systemic Th1 responses capable of IFN-γ production, ID BCG more strongly induced systemic Th1 responses. In contrast, stronger mucosal responses (TB-specific secretory IgA and bronchoalveolar lavage T cells) were induced by PO BCG vaccination. To generate preliminary data comparing the early gene signatures induced by mucosal and systemic BCG vaccination, CD4 + memory T cells were isolated from subsets of BCG vaccinated subjects pre- (Day 0) and post-vaccination (Days 7 and 56), rested or stimulated with BCG infected dendritic cells, and then studied by Illumina BeadArray transcriptomal analysis. Notably, distinct gene expression profiles were identified both on Day 7 and Day 56 comparing the PO and ID BCG vaccinated groups by GSEA analysis. Future correlation analyses between specific gene expression patterns and distinct mucosal and systemic immune responses induced will be highly informative for TB vaccine development.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication 30 August 2017; doi:10.1038/mi.2017.67.

  13. Heterologous Immunological Effects of Early BCG Vaccination in Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Guinea-Bissau: A Randomized-controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, K.J.; Larsen, N.; Biering-Sorensen, S.; Andersen, A.; Eriksen, H.B.; Monteiro, I.; Hougaard, D.; Aaby, P.; Netea, M.G.; Flanagan, K.L.; Benn, C.S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) seems to have beneficial nonspecific effects; early BCG vaccination of low-birth-weight (LBW) newborns reduces neonatal mortality by >40% due to prevention of primarily septicemia and pneumonia. METHODS: Within a randomized trial in LBW infants in

  14. Immunotherapy with autologous tumor cell-BCG vaccine in patients with colon cancer: a prospective study of medical and economic benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyl-de Groot, C. A.; Vermorken, J. B.; Hanna, M. G.; Verboom, P.; Groot, M. T.; Bonsel, G. J.; Meijer, C. J. L. M.; Pinedo, H. M.

    2005-01-01

    We have completed a multicenter, randomized controlled phase III clinical trial in Stages II and III colon cancer patients with active specific immunotherapy (ASI) using autologous tumor cells with an immunomodulating adjuvant bacillus Callmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine (OncoVAX (R)) in an adjuvant

  15. The effect of high-dose vitamin A supplementation administered with BCG vaccine at birth may be modified by subsequent DTP vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Unexpectedly, we found no overall beneficial effect on mortality in a randomised trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) or placebo administered with BCG vaccine at birth in Guinea-Bissau. We conducted an explorative analysis to examine whether subsequent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP...

  16. Effect of vitamin A supplementation with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status at 6 wk and 4 mo of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth on subsequent vitamin A status has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 50,000 IU vitamin A administered with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status in both sexes. DESIGN: Within a randomized pla...

  17. Vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth may affect atopy in childhood: long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraly, N; Benn, C S; Biering-Sørensen, S; Rodrigues, A; Jensen, K J; Ravn, H; Allen, K J; Aaby, P

    2013-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that immunogenic interventions such as vaccines and micronutrients may affect atopic sensitization and atopic disease. We aimed to determine whether neonatal BCG vaccination, vitamin A supplementation and other vaccinations affect atopy in childhood. In Guinea-Bissau, low-birthweight infants were randomized to early (intervention) or delayed (usual policy) BCG. A subgroup was also randomly assigned vitamin A supplementation or placebo in a two-by-two factorial design. Participants were followed up at age 3-9 years. The main outcome was atopy defined as skin prick test reaction ≥3 mm. Secondary outcomes were symptoms of eczema, asthma and food allergy. Two hundred eighty-one children had valid skin prick tests performed, and 14% (39/281) were atopic. There was no significant difference in atopy between the early and delayed BCG groups (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.34-1.47). Atopy was significantly reduced in children who had responded to BCG with a scar (OR, 0.42; 0.19-0.94). Vitamin A supplementation was associated with increased atopy (OR, 2.88; 1.26-6.58), especially in those who received simultaneous BCG (5.99; 1.99-18.1, P = 0.09 for interaction between vitamin A supplementation and BCG). Early vs delayed BCG was not associated with symptoms of atopic disease, but vitamin A supplementation increased odds of wheeze within the past 12 months (OR, 2.45; 1.20-4.96). There were no statistically significant effects of early vs delayed BCG on atopy or symptoms of atopic disease. Having a BCG scar was associated with reduced atopy, whereas neonatal vitamin A supplementation was associated with increased atopy. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT 01420705. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The expression of ferritin, lactoferrin, transferrin receptor and solute carrier family 11A1 in the host response to BCG-vaccination and Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, R E; Elmore, M J; Williams, A; Andrews, S C; Drobniewski, F; Marsh, P D; Tree, J A

    2012-05-02

    Iron is an essential cofactor for both mycobacterial growth during infection and for a successful protective immune response by the host. The immune response partly depends on the regulation of iron by the host, including the tight control of expression of the iron-storage protein, ferritin. BCG vaccination can protect against disease following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, but the mechanisms of protection remain unclear. To further explore these mechanisms, splenocytes from BCG-vaccinated guinea pigs were stimulated ex vivo with purified protein derivative from M. tuberculosis and a significant down-regulation of ferritin light- and heavy-chain was measured by reverse-transcription quantitative-PCR (P≤0.05 and ≤0.01, respectively). The mechanisms of this down-regulation were shown to involve TNFα and nitric oxide. A more in depth analysis of the mRNA expression profiles, including genes involved in iron metabolism, was performed using a guinea pig specific immunological microarray following ex vivo infection with M. tuberculosis of splenocytes from BCG-vaccinated and naïve guinea pigs. M. tuberculosis infection induced a pro-inflammatory response in splenocytes from both groups, resulting in down-regulation of ferritin (P≤0.05). In addition, lactoferrin (P≤0.002), transferrin receptor (P≤0.05) and solute carrier family 11A1 (P≤0.05), were only significantly down-regulated after infection of the splenocytes from BCG-vaccinated animals. The results show that expression of iron-metabolism genes is tightly regulated as part of the host response to M. tuberculosis infection and that BCG-vaccination enhances the ability of the host to mount an iron-restriction response which may in turn help to combat invasion by mycobacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effectiveness of Routine BCG Vaccination on Buruli Ulcer Disease: A Case-Control Study in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana and Togo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Richard Odame; Phanzu, Delphin Mavinga; Beissner, Marcus; Badziklou, Kossi; Luzolo, Elysée Kalundieko; Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Halatoko, Wemboo Afiwa; Amoako, Yaw; Frimpong, Michael; Kabiru, Abass Mohammed; Piten, Ebekalisai; Maman, Issaka; Bidjada, Bawimodom; Koba, Adjaho; Awoussi, Koffi Somenou; Kobara, Basile; Nitschke, Jörg; Wiedemann, Franz Xaver; Kere, Abiba Banla; Adjei, Ohene; Löscher, Thomas; Fleischer, Bernhard; Bretzel, Gisela; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Background The only available vaccine that could be potentially beneficial against mycobacterial diseases contains live attenuated bovine tuberculosis bacillus (Mycobacterium bovis) also called Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Even though the BCG vaccine is still widely used, results on its effectiveness in preventing mycobacterial diseases are partially contradictory, especially regarding Buruli Ulcer Disease (BUD). The aim of this case-control study is to evaluate the possible protective effect of BCG vaccination on BUD. Methodology The present study was performed in three different countries and sites where BUD is endemic: in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, and Togo from 2010 through 2013. The large study population was comprised of 401 cases with laboratory confirmed BUD and 826 controls, mostly family members or neighbors. Principal Findings After stratification by the three countries, two sexes and four age groups, no significant correlation was found between the presence of BCG scar and BUD status of individuals. Multivariate analysis has shown that the independent variables country (p = 0.31), sex (p = 0.24), age (p = 0.96), and presence of a BCG scar (p = 0.07) did not significantly influence the development of BUD category I or category II/III. Furthermore, the status of BCG vaccination was also not significantly related to duration of BUD or time to healing of lesions. Conclusions In our study, we did not observe significant evidence of a protective effect of routine BCG vaccination on the risk of developing either BUD or severe forms of BUD. Since accurate data on BCG strains used in these three countries were not available, no final conclusion can be drawn on the effectiveness of BCG strain in protecting against BUD. As has been suggested for tuberculosis and leprosy, well-designed prospective studies on different existing BCG vaccine strains are needed also for BUD. PMID:25569674

  20. Heterologous Immunological Effects of Early BCG Vaccination in Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Larsen, Nanna; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    -Bissau of early BCG vs the usual postponed BCG, a subgroup was bled 4 weeks after randomization. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured from whole-blood assays stimulated with innate agonists to Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, -4...... or -7/8, or purified protein derivative (PPD). RESULTS:  Among 467 infants, BCG significantly increased the in vitro cytokine responses to purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (PPD), as expected. BCG was also associated with increased responses to heterologous innate stimulation......, particularly of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. CONCLUSION:  Four weeks after immunization, BCG-vaccinated infants have a significantly increased production of cytokines upon heterologous challenge, particularly T helper cell type 1 polarizing and typically monocyte-derived pro...

  1. Long-Lasting Effects of BCG Vaccination on Both Heterologous Th1/Th17 Responses and Innate Trained Immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinnijenhuis, Johanneke; Quintin, Jessica; Preijers, Frank

    2013-01-01

    '. In the present study we assessed whether BCG was able to induce long-lasting effects on both trained immunity and heterologous T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 immune responses 1 year after vaccination. The production of TNFα and IL-1β to mycobacteria or unrelated pathogens was higher after 2 weeks and 3 months...... in proinflammatory cytokine production after stimulation with the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. The heterologous production of Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17 and IL-22) immune responses to nonmycobacterial stimulation remained strongly elevated even 1 year after BCG vaccination. In conclusion, BCG induces sustained...... changes in the immune system associated with a nonspecific response to infections both at the level of innate trained immunity and at the level of heterologous Th1/Th17 responses. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel....

  2. Resposta de testes de hipersensibilidade tardia utilizando PPD e outros antígenos em crianças e adolescentes saudáveis e infectados pelo HIV-1 e vacinados com BCG Delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test responses to PPD and other antigens among BCG-vaccinated HIV-1-infected and healthy children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Moriya Xavier da Costa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A contagem de células CD4+ representa marcador da resposta imune celular em pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1. Testes cutâneos de hipersensibilidade tardia (DTH podem ser empregados para avaliar in vivo respostas celulares a antígenos comuns. MÉTODOS: DTH para derivado proteico purificado de tuberculina (PPD, esporotriquina, tricofitina, candidina e estreptoquinase/estreptodornase foram realizados. Foram testados crianças/adolescentes infectados pelo HIV-1 (n=36 e indivíduos saudáveis (n=56, soronegativos para HIV-1/HIV-2 pareados por sexo-idade, todos com cicatriz vacinal por BCG. Teste exato de Fisher foi aplicado (pINTRODUCTION: Among HIV-1-infected patients, CD4+ T cell counts are well-established markers of cell-mediated immunity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH skin tests can be used to evaluate in vivo cell-mediated immunity to common antigens. METHODS: DTH responses to tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD, sporotrichin, trichophytin, candidin and streptokinase/streptodornase antigens were assessed. Thirty-six HIV-1-infected children/adolescents and 56 age- and sex-matched HIV-1/HIV-2-seronegative participants were tested. All participants had a BCG scar. Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate significant differences between groups (p<0.05. RESULTS: The main characteristics of the HIV-1 patients were as follows: median age 8.1 years; 20/36 were males; 35 were vertical transmission cases; 34 were AIDS cases under antiretroviral therapy; median viral load = 3.04 log10 copies/ml; median CD4+ T cell count = 701 cells/μl. A total of 25% (9/36 and 87.5% (49/56 of HIV-1-infected and healthy participants, respectively, displayed DTH reactivity to at least one antigen (p<0.001. Among HIV-1-infected participants, reactivity to candidin predominated (8/36, 22.2%, while PPD positivity prevailed among healthy participants (40/56, 71.4%. PPD reactivity in the HIV-1-positive group was 8.3% (p<0.01. The median PPD

  3. A family history of serious complications due to BCG vaccination is a tool for the early diagnosis of severe primary immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxo-Junior, Pérsio; Silva, Jorgete; Andrea, Mauro; Oliveira, Larissa; Ramalho, Fernando; Bezerra, Thiago; Nunes, Altacílio A

    2013-09-10

    Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) is one of the most severe forms of primary immunodeficiency (PID). Complications of BCG vaccination, especially disseminated infection and its most severe forms, are known to occur in immunodeficient patients, particularly in SCID. A carefully taken family history before BCG injection as well as delaying vaccination if PID is suspected could be a simple and effective method to avoid inappropriate vaccination of an immunodeficient child in some cases until the prospect of newborn screening for SCID has been fully developed. We describe a patient with a very early diagnosis of SCID, which was suspected on the basis of the previous death of two siblings younger than one year due to severe complications secondary to the BCG vaccine. We suggest that a family history of severe or fatal reactions to BCG should be included as a warning sign for an early diagnosis of SCID.

  4. Lactococcus lactis carrying a DNA vaccine coding for the ESAT-6 antigen increases IL-17 cytokine secretion and boosts the BCG vaccine immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, V B; da Cunha, V P; Preisser, T M; Souza, B M; Turk, M Z; De Castro, C P; Azevedo, M S P; Miyoshi, A

    2017-06-01

    A regimen utilizing Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and another vaccine system as a booster may represent a promising strategy for the development of an efficient tuberculosis vaccine for adults. In a previous work, we confirmed the ability of Lactococcus lactis fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA+) (pValac:ESAT-6), a live mucosal DNA vaccine, to produce a specific immune response in mice after oral immunization. In this study, we examined the immunogenicity of this strain as a booster for the BCG vaccine in mice. After immunization, cytokine and immunoglobulin profiles were measured. The BCG prime L. lactis FnBPA+ (pValac:ESAT-6) boost group was the most responsive group, with a significant increase in splenic pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17, IFN-γ, IL-6 and TNF-α compared with the negative control. Based on the results obtained here, we demonstrated that L. lactis FnBPA+ (pValac:ESAT-6) was able to increase the BCG vaccine general immune response. This work is of great scientific and social importance because it represents the first step towards the development of a booster to the BCG vaccine using L. lactis as a DNA delivery system. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Vacina BCG contra tuberculose: efeito protetor e políticas de vacinação BCG vaccine against tuberculosis: its protective effect and vaccination policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Pereira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A vacina BCG é utilizada desde 1921, embora ainda apresente controvérsias e aspectos não esclarecidos. O objetivo do artigo foi analisar aspectos relacionados ao efeito protetor da primeira e segunda doses da vacina BCG e as políticas de vacinação adotadas. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada revisão sistemática da literatura publicada em inglês e espanhol, abrangendo o período compreendido entre 1948 e 2006, na base PubMed. Os principais descritores utilizados foram BCG vaccine, BCG efficacy, BCG e tuberculosis. Os estudos foram agrupados por tipo de desenho, apresentando-se separadamente os principais resultados de ensaios clínicos, estudos de caso-controle e metanálises. RESULTADOS: O efeito protetor da primeira dose da vacina BCG contra a tuberculose na forma miliar ou na meningite é elevado. No entanto, os resultados são discordantes em relação à forma pulmonar, variando de ausência de efeito a níveis próximos a 80%. Estão sendo conduzidas pesquisas sobre novas vacinas candidatas a substituir a BCG ou serem utilizadas como reforço. CONCLUSÕES: Há evidências de que a segunda dose da BCG não aumenta o seu efeito protetor. Apesar de seus limites e da expectativa futura de nova vacina para tuberculose, a vacina BCG mantém-se como importante instrumento no controle dos efeitos danosos da doença, sobretudo em países com taxas de incidência médias e elevadas.OBJECTIVE: The BCG vaccine has been in use since 1921, but still arouses controversy and uncertainties. The objective was to analyze the protective effect of the BCG vaccine in its first and second doses and the accompanying vaccination policies. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature in both English and Spanish was carried out, covering the period 1948 to 2006, using the PubMed database. The main search terms used included BCG vaccine, BCG efficacy, BCG and tuberculosis. The studies were grouped by design, with the main results from the clinic tests, case

  6. Interruption of persistent exposure to leprosy combined or not with recent BCG vaccination enhances the response to Mycobacterium leprae specific antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Fernanda Marques; Rodrigues, Luciana Silva; Duppre, Nádia Cristina; Alvim, Iris Maria Peixoto; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Pereira, Geraldo Moura Batista

    2017-05-01

    Household contacts of multibacillary leprosy patients (HCMB) constitute the group of individuals at the highest risk of developing leprosy. Early diagnosis and treatment of their index cases combined with Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunization remain important strategies adopted in Brazil to prevent HCMB from evolving into active disease. In the present study, we assessed the impact of these measures on the immune response to Mycobacterium leprae in HCMB. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HCMB (n = 16) were obtained at the beginning of leprosy index case treatment (T0). At this time point, contacts were vaccinated (n = 13) or not (n = 3) in accordance with their infancy history of BCG vaccination and PBMCs were recollected at least 6 months later (T1). As expected, a significant increase in memory CD4 and CD8 T cell frequencies responsive to M. leprae whole-cell sonicate was observed in most contacts. Of note, higher frequencies of CD4+ T cells that recognize M. leprae specific epitopes were also detected. Moreover, increased production of the inflammatory mediators IL1-β, IL-6, IL-17, TNF, IFN-γ, MIP1-β, and MCP-1 was found at T1. Interestingly, the increment in these parameters was observed even in those contacts that were not BCG vaccinated at T0. This result reinforces the hypothesis that the continuous exposure of HCMB to live M. leprae down regulates the specific cellular immune response against the pathogen. Moreover, our data suggest that BCG vaccination of HCMB induces activation of T cell clones, likely through "trained immunity", that recognize M. leprae specific antigens not shared with BCG as an additional protective mechanism besides the expected boost in cell-mediated immunity by BCG homologues of M. leprae antigens.

  7. Oral vaccination of badgers (Meles meles) against tuberculosis: comparison of the protection generated by BCG vaccine strains Pasteur and Danish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Denise; Costello, Eamon; Aldwell, Frank E; Lesellier, Sandrine; Chambers, Mark A; Fitzsimons, Tara; Corner, Leigh A L; Gormley, Eamonn

    2014-06-01

    Vaccination of badgers by the subcutaneous, mucosal and oral routes with the Pasteur strain of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has resulted in significant protection against experimental infection with virulent M. bovis. However, as the BCG Danish strain is the only commercially licensed BCG vaccine for use in humans in the European Union it is the vaccine of choice for delivery to badger populations. As all oral vaccination studies in badgers were previously conducted using the BCG Pasteur strain, this study compared protection in badgers following oral vaccination with the Pasteur and the Danish strains. Groups of badgers were vaccinated orally with 10(8) colony forming units (CFU) BCG Danish 1331 (n = 7 badgers) or 10(8) CFU BCG Pasteur 1173P2 (n = 6). Another group (n = 8) served as non-vaccinated controls. At 12 weeks post-vaccination, the animals were challenged by the endobronchial route with 6 × 10(3) CFU M. bovis, and at 15 weeks post-infection, all of the badgers were euthanased. Vaccination with either BCG strain provided protection against challenge compared with controls. The vaccinated badgers had significantly fewer sites with gross pathology and significantly lower gross pathological severity scores, fewer sites with histological lesions and fewer sites of infection, significantly lower bacterial counts in the thoracic lymph node, and lower bacterial counts in the lungs than the control group. No differences were observed between either of the vaccine groups by any of the pathology and bacteriology measures. The ELISPOT analysis, measuring production of badger interferon - gamma (IFN-γ), was also similar across the vaccinated groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Current status of new tuberculosis vaccine in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yu; Zhao, Aihua; Cohen, Chad; Kang, Wanli; Lu, Jie; Wang, Guozhi; Zhao, Yanlin; Zheng, Suhua

    2016-04-02

    Pediatric tuberculosis contributes significantly to the burden of TB disease worldwide. In order to achieve the goal of eliminating TB by 2050, an effective TB vaccine is urgently needed to prevent TB transmission in children. BCG vaccination can protect children from the severe types of TB such as TB meningitis and miliary TB, while its efficacy against pediatric pulmonary TB ranged from no protection to very high protection. In recent decades, multiple new vaccine candidates have been developed, and shown encouraging safety and immunogenicity in the preclinical experiments. However, the limited data on protective efficacy in infants evaluated by clinical trials has been disappointing, an example being MVA85A. To date, no vaccine has been shown to be clinically safer and more effective than the presently licensed BCG vaccine. Hence, before a new vaccine is developed with more promising efficacy, we must reconsider how to better use the current BCG vaccine to maximize its effectiveness in children.

  9. The effect of BCG vaccine from protection of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Karaci

    2012-03-01

    As a result, we concluded that if BCG is vaccine is applied at least twice and , the first dose is gives in the newborn period may exert a protective effect for the development of type I DM in children . [J Contemp Med 2012; 2(1.000: 1-8

  10. Improving the Immunogenicity of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccine by Non-Genetic Bacterial Surface Decoration Using the Avidin-Biotin System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Yu Angela Liao

    Full Text Available Current strategies to improve the current BCG vaccine attempt to over-express genes encoding specific M. tuberculosis (Mtb antigens and/or regulators of antigen presentation function, which indeed have the potential to reshape BCG in many ways. However, these approaches often face serious difficulties, in particular the efficiency and stability of gene expression via nucleic acid complementation and safety concerns associated with the introduction of exogenous DNA. As an alternative, we developed a novel non-genetic approach for rapid and efficient display of exogenous proteins on bacterial cell surface. The technology involves expression of proteins of interest in fusion with a mutant version of monomeric avidin that has the feature of reversible binding to biotin. Fusion proteins are then used to decorate the surface of biotinylated BCG. Surface coating of BCG with recombinant proteins was highly reproducible and stable. It also resisted to the freeze-drying shock routinely used in manufacturing conventional BCG. Modifications of BCG surface did not affect its growth in culture media neither its survival within the host cell. Macrophages phagocytized coated BCG bacteria, which efficiently delivered their surface cargo of avidin fusion proteins to MHC class I and class II antigen presentation compartments. Thereafter, chimeric proteins corresponding to a surrogate antigen derived from ovalbumin and the Mtb specific ESAT6 antigen were generated and tested for immunogenicity in vaccinated mice. We found that BCG displaying ovalbumin antigen induces an immune response with a magnitude similar to that induced by BCG genetically expressing the same surrogate antigen. We also found that BCG decorated with Mtb specific antigen ESAT6 successfully induces the expansion of specific T cell responses. This novel technology, therefore, represents a practical and effective alternative to DNA-based gene expression for upgrading the current BCG vaccine.

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPD-induced immune biomarkers measurable in vitro following BCG vaccination of UK adolescents by multiplex bead array and intracellular cytokine staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worth Andrew

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vaccine efficacy reported following Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG administration to UK adolescents is 77% and defining the cellular immune response in this group can inform us as to the nature of effective immunity against tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to identify which cytokines and lymphocyte populations characterise the peripheral blood cellular immune response following BCG vaccination. Results Diluted blood from before and after vaccination was stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative for 6 days, after which soluble biomarkers in supernatants were assayed by multiplex bead array. Ten out of twenty biomarkers measured were significantly increased (p Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative stimulation of PBMC samples from the 12 month group revealed that IFNγ expression was detectable in CD4 and CD8 T-cells and natural killer cells. Polyfunctional flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that cells expressing IFNγ alone formed the majority in each subpopulation of cells. Only in CD4 T-cells and NK cells were there a notable proportion of responding cells of a different phenotype and these were single positive, TNFα producers. No significant expression of the cytokines IL-2, IL-17 or IL-10 was seen in any population of cells. Conclusions The broad array of biomarker responses detected by multiplex bead array suggests that BCG vaccination is capable, in this setting, of inducing a complex immune phenotype. Although polyfunctional T-cells have been proposed to play a role in protective immunity, they were not present in vaccinated adolescents who, based on earlier epidemiological studies, should have developed protection against pulmonary tuberculosis. This may be due to the later sampling time point available for testing or on the kinetics of the assays used.

  12. Improving the Immunogenicity of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccine by Non-Genetic Bacterial Surface Decoration Using the Avidin-Biotin System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ting-Yu Angela; Lau, Alice; Joseph, Sunil; Hytönen, Vesa; Hmama, Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Current strategies to improve the current BCG vaccine attempt to over-express genes encoding specific M. tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens and/or regulators of antigen presentation function, which indeed have the potential to reshape BCG in many ways. However, these approaches often face serious difficulties, in particular the efficiency and stability of gene expression via nucleic acid complementation and safety concerns associated with the introduction of exogenous DNA. As an alternative, we developed a novel non-genetic approach for rapid and efficient display of exogenous proteins on bacterial cell surface. The technology involves expression of proteins of interest in fusion with a mutant version of monomeric avidin that has the feature of reversible binding to biotin. Fusion proteins are then used to decorate the surface of biotinylated BCG. Surface coating of BCG with recombinant proteins was highly reproducible and stable. It also resisted to the freeze-drying shock routinely used in manufacturing conventional BCG. Modifications of BCG surface did not affect its growth in culture media neither its survival within the host cell. Macrophages phagocytized coated BCG bacteria, which efficiently delivered their surface cargo of avidin fusion proteins to MHC class I and class II antigen presentation compartments. Thereafter, chimeric proteins corresponding to a surrogate antigen derived from ovalbumin and the Mtb specific ESAT6 antigen were generated and tested for immunogenicity in vaccinated mice. We found that BCG displaying ovalbumin antigen induces an immune response with a magnitude similar to that induced by BCG genetically expressing the same surrogate antigen. We also found that BCG decorated with Mtb specific antigen ESAT6 successfully induces the expansion of specific T cell responses. This novel technology, therefore, represents a practical and effective alternative to DNA-based gene expression for upgrading the current BCG vaccine. PMID:26716832

  13. Tuberculosis case finding for vaccine trials in young children in high-incidence settings: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, S; Verver, S; Hawkridge, A; Geiter, L; Hatherill, M; Workman, L; Ontong, C; Msemburi, W; Tameris, M; Geldenhuys, H; Mulenga, H; Snowden, M A; Hanekom, W A; Hussey, G; Mahomed, H

    2012-02-01

    A high tuberculosis (TB) burden rural area in South Africa. To compare TB case yield and disease profile among bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccinated children using two case-finding strategies from birth until 2 years of age. BCG-vaccinated infants were enrolled within 2 weeks of birth and randomised to 3-monthly home visits for questionnaire-based TB screening plus record surveillance of TB registers, hospital admission and X-ray lists at health facilities for TB suspects and cases (Group 1), or record surveillance (as above) only (Group 2). Both groups received a close-out visit after 2 years. Participants were evaluated for suspected TB disease using standardised investigations. A total of 4786 infants were enrolled: 2392 were randomised to Group 1 and 2394 to Group 2. The case-finding rate was significantly greater in Group 1 (2.2/100 py) than in Group 2 (0.8/100 py), with a case-finding rate ratio of 2.6 (95%CI 1.8-4.0, P surveillance detected significantly more cases than record surveillance with a single study-end visit. The TB case profile did not differ significantly between the two groups.

  14. Characteristics of children with positive tuberculin skin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocaoğlu, Arzu Babayiğit; Erge, Duygu Olmez; Anal, Ozden; Makay, Balahan; Uzuner, Nevin; Karaman, Ozkan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the characteristics of children with latent tuberculosis diagnosed with positive tuberculin skin test (TST) and evaluate potential risk factors in children with positive TST. Children followed with the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection were included in the study retrospectively. Demographic characteristics of patients including history of atopy, respiratory infections, family history of tuberculosis and atopy, number of BCG vaccinations, findings of physical examination and laboratory data were extracted from patient's file. Eighty-one children (51 male, 30 female) who had positive TST were retrospectively evaluated in the study. Mean age of the patients was 8.00 ± 4.00 years. Only 13 (16%) of the children had contact with a case who had active tuberculosis. It was shown that the age of the patients, number of BCG scars and BCG vaccination significantly affected TST reaction size. TST size was not affected with time passed after last dose of BCG vaccination, family history of tuberculosis, presence of TST positive case in the family, exposure to cigarette smoke, number of household family members and presence of respiratory allergic disease. The patient's age, numbers of BCG vaccination and BCG scars significantly affect TST results in childhood. This may cause difficulty in diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection and in decision of initiating prophylactic treatment. The results of this study may show that recently developed, more accurate and convenient in vitro tests that they have higher costs and require sophisticated laboratory, can be used to diagnose latent tuberculosis.

  15. Antimycobacterial immune responses in HIV-infected children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A total of 59 children of age 9 months to 5 years initiating ART with a history of BCG vaccination from Matero Reference Clinic in Lusaka were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Demographic and clinical data were collected using questionnaires. Blood samples were drawn before starting ART, at 3 months and ...

  16. MicroRNA expression profiling of PPD-B stimulated PBMC from M. bovis-challenged unvaccinated and BCG vaccinated cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golby, P; Villarreal-Ramos, B; Dean, G; Jones, G J; Vordermeier, M

    2014-10-07

    There is an urgent need to identify additional diagnostic biomarkers for bovine TB to complement existing read-out systems such as interferon-gamma and for predictive markers of vaccine efficacy to accelerate vaccine development. To evaluate the potential of miRNAs as such biomarkers, we have analysed their expression in bovine PPD stimulated PBMC isolated from unvaccinated and BCG vaccinated cattle before and following Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection. Using a bovine microRNA microarray, miR-155 was found to show a significant up-regulation in expression in early (week 2) and late (week 11) M. bovis post-infection samples from unvaccinated cattle, while in BCG vaccinated cattle up-regulation was observed only in late post-infection samples. No differential expression of miR-155 was observed in pre-infection samples from unvaccinated and vaccinated cattle. These observations suggest that miR-155 could be exploited as a marker distinguishing vaccinated from infected animals (DIVA). Analysis by TaqMan RT-PCR, verified the up-regulation of miR-155 in unvaccinated cattle post-infection. Significant correlation was found between the degree of pathology and miR-155 induction in the experimentally infected cattle, suggesting miR-155 is a biomarker of disease development and/or severity. Induction of miR155 expression in cattle sourced from farms with confirmed bTB that tested positive in the tuberculin skin or interferon-gamma blood test was found to be significantly higher in cattle presenting with more advanced pathology (defined by the presence of visible TB lesions) compared to infected cattle without visible pathology and thus likely to be of lower infectivity than those with more advanced disease. In conclusion, our data indicate that miR-155 has potential both as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker that could be used to identify animals with advanced pathology and as a DIVA test read-out. Its role in the immune biology of bovine TB will also be discussed

  17. The Type of Growth Medium Affects the Presence of a Mycobacterial Capsule and Is Associated With Differences in Protective Efficacy of BCG Vaccination Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Carreño, Leandro J; Weinrick, Brian; Batista-Gonzalez, Ana; Glatman-Freedman, Aarona; Xu, Jiayong; Chan, John; Jacobs, William R; Porcelli, Steven A; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-08-01

    Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is widely used for the prevention of tuberculosis, despite limited efficacy. Most immunological studies of BCG or Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains grow bacteria in the presence of detergent, which also strips the mycobacterial capsule. The impact of the capsule on vaccine efficacy has not been explored. We tested the influence of detergent in cultures of BCG and M. tuberculosis strains on the outcome of vaccination experiments on mice and transcriptional responses on M. tuberculosis  Vaccination of mice with encapsulated BCG promoted a more potent immune response relative to vaccination with unencapsulated BCG, including higher polysaccharide-specific capsule antibody titers, higher interferon γ and interleukin 17 splenic responses, and more multifunctional CD4(+) T cells. These differences correlated with variability in the bacterial burden in lung and spleen of mice infected with encapsulated or unencapsulated M. tuberculosis The combination of vaccination and challenge with encapsulated strains resulted in the greatest protection efficacy. The transcriptome of encapsulated M. tuberculosis was similar to that of starvation, hypoxia, stationary phase, or nonreplicating persistence. The presence of detergent in growth media and a capsule on BCG were associated with differences in the outcome of vaccination, implying that these are important variables in immunological studies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Genomic expression catalogue of a global collection of BCG vaccine strains show evidence for highly diverged metabolic and cell-wall adaptations

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Abdallah

    2015-10-21

    Although Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines against tuberculosis have been available for more than 90 years, their effectiveness has been hindered by variable protective efficacy and a lack of lasting memory responses. One factor contributing to this variability may be the diversity of the BCG strains that are used around the world, in part from genomic changes accumulated during vaccine production and their resulting differences in gene expression. We have compared the genomes and transcriptomes of a global collection of fourteen of the most widely used BCG strains at single base-pair resolution. We have also used quantitative proteomics to identify key differences in expression of proteins across five representative BCG strains of the four tandem duplication (DU) groups. We provide a comprehensive map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), copy number variation and insertions and deletions (indels) across fourteen BCG strains. Genome-wide SNP characterization allowed the construction of a new and robust phylogenic genealogy of BCG strains. Transcriptional and proteomic profiling revealed a metabolic remodeling in BCG strains that may be reflected by altered immunogenicity and possibly vaccine efficacy. Together, these integrated-omic data represent the most comprehensive catalogue of genetic variation across a global collection of BCG strains.

  19. Genomic expression catalogue of a global collection of BCG vaccine strains show evidence for highly diverged metabolic and cell-wall adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Abdallah M.; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Otto, Thomas D.; Coll, Francesc; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Gao, Ge; Naeem, Raeece; Ansari, Hifzur; Malas, Tareq B.; Adroub, Sabir A.; Verboom, Theo; Ummels, Roy; Zhang, Huoming; Panigrahi, Aswini Kumar; McNerney, Ruth; Brosch, Roland; Clark, Taane G.; Behr, Marcel A.; Bitter, Wilbert; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    Although Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines against tuberculosis have been available for more than 90 years, their effectiveness has been hindered by variable protective efficacy and a lack of lasting memory responses. One factor contributing to this variability may be the diversity of the BCG strains that are used around the world, in part from genomic changes accumulated during vaccine production and their resulting differences in gene expression. We have compared the genomes and transcriptomes of a global collection of fourteen of the most widely used BCG strains at single base-pair resolution. We have also used quantitative proteomics to identify key differences in expression of proteins across five representative BCG strains of the four tandem duplication (DU) groups. We provide a comprehensive map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), copy number variation and insertions and deletions (indels) across fourteen BCG strains. Genome-wide SNP characterization allowed the construction of a new and robust phylogenic genealogy of BCG strains. Transcriptional and proteomic profiling revealed a metabolic remodeling in BCG strains that may be reflected by altered immunogenicity and possibly vaccine efficacy. Together, these integrated-omic data represent the most comprehensive catalogue of genetic variation across a global collection of BCG strains. PMID:26487098

  20. A single, low dose of a cGMP recombinant BCG vaccine elicits protective T cell immunity against the human respiratory syncytial virus infection and prevents lung pathology in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, Pablo F; Rey-Jurado, Emma; Espinoza, Janyra A; Rivera, Claudia A; Canedo-Marroquín, Gisela; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2017-02-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a major health burden worldwide, causing the majority of hospitalizations in children under two years old due to bronchiolitis and pneumonia. HRSV causes year-to-year outbreaks of disease, which also affects the elderly and immunocompromised adults. Furthermore, both hRSV morbidity and epidemics are explained by a consistently high rate of re-infections that take place throughout the patient life. Although significant efforts have been invested worldwide, currently there are no licensed vaccines to prevent hRSV infection. Here, we describe that a recombinant Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine expressing the nucleoprotein (N) of hRSV formulated under current good manufacture practices (cGMP rBCG-N-hRSV) confers protective immunity to the virus in mice. Our results show that a single dose of the GMP rBCG-N-hRSV vaccine retains its capacity to protect mice against a challenge with a disease-causing infection of 1×10 7 plaque-forming units (PFUs) of the hRSV A2 clinical strain 13018-8. Compared to unimmunized infected controls, vaccinated mice displayed reduced weight loss and less infiltration of neutrophils within the airways, as well as reduced viral loads in bronchoalveolar lavages, parameters that are characteristic of hRSV infection in mice. Also, ex vivo re-stimulation of splenic T cells at 28days post-immunization activated a repertoire of T cells secreting IFN-γ and IL-17, which further suggest that the rBCG-N-hRSV vaccine induced a mixed, CD8 + and CD4 + T cell response capable of both restraining viral spread and preventing damage of the lungs. All these features support the notion that rBCG-N-hRSV is a promising candidate vaccine to be used in humans to prevent the disease caused by hRSV in the susceptible population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. BCG status in children with tuberculosis: A multicenter study in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bacille Calmette.Guerin (BCG) vaccine has been in use since 1921, yet childhood TB is still very prevalent in Nigeria. Since BCG efficacy depends in part on appropriate vaccine utilization, this study was designed to investigate the current practice of BCG administration through determination of BCG status.

  2. Increased TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma/IL-2 and decreased TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma production by central memory T cells are associated with protective responses against bovine tuberculosis following BCG vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Fernanda Maggioli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Central memory T cells (Tcm and polyfunctional CD4 T cell responses contribute to vaccine-elicited protection with both human and bovine tuberculosis (TB; however, their combined role in protective immunity to TB is unclear. To address this question, we evaluated polyfunctional cytokine responses by CD4 T cell effector / memory populations from bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG vaccinated and non-vaccinated calves prior to and after aerosol challenge with virulent Mycobacterium bovis. Polyfunctional cytokine expression patterns in the response by Tcm, effector memory, and effector T cell subsets were similar between BCG-vaccinated and M. bovis-infected calves; only differing in magnitude (i.e., infected > vaccinated. BCG vaccination, however, did alter the kinetics of the ensuing response to virulent M. bovis infection. Early after challenge (three weeks post-infection, non-vaccinates had greater antigen-specific IFN-γ/TNF-α and lesser IFN-γ/TNF-α/IL-2 responses by Tcm cells than did vaccinated animals. Importantly, these differences were also associated with mycobacterial burden upon necropsy. Polyfunctional responses to ESAT-6:CFP10 (antigens not synthesized by BCG strains were detected in memory subsets, as well as in effector cells, as early as three weeks after challenge. These findings suggest that cell fate divergence may occur early after antigen priming in the response to bovine TB and that memory and effector T cells may expand concurrently during the initial phase of the immune response. In summary, robust IFN-γ/TNF-α response by Tcm cells is associated with greater mycobacterial burden while IFN-γ/TNF-α/IL-2 response by Tcm cells are indicative of a protective response to bovine TB.

  3. Effect of vaccine dose on the safety and immunogenicity of a candidate TB vaccine, MVA85A, in BCG vaccinated UK adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathan, Ansar A; Minassian, Angela M; Sander, Clare R; Rowland, Rosalind; Porter, David W; Poulton, Ian D; Hill, Adrian V S; Fletcher, Helen A; McShane, Helen

    2012-08-17

    A non-randomised, open-label, Phase I safety and immunogenicity dose-finding study to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the candidate TB vaccine Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara expressing Antigen 85A (MVA85A) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in healthy adult volunteers previously vaccinated with BCG. Healthy BCG-vaccinated volunteers were vaccinated with either 1×10(7) or 1×10(8)PFU of MVA85A. All adverse events were documented and antigen specific T cell responses were measured using an ex vivo IFN-γ ELISPOT assay. Safety and immunogenicity were compared between the 2 dose groups and with a previous trial in which a dose of 5×10(7)PFU MVA85A had been administered. There were no serious adverse events recorded following administration of either 1×10(7) or 1×10(8)PFU of MVA85A. Systemic adverse events were more frequently reported following administration of 1×10(8)PFU of MVA85A when compared to either 5×10(7) or 1×10(7)PFU of MVA85A but were mild or moderate in severity and resolved completely within 7 days of immunisation. Antigen specific T cell responses as measured by the IFN-γ ELISPOT were significantly higher following immunisation in adults receiving 1×10(8)PFU compared to the 5×10(7) and 1×10(7) doses. Additionally, a broader range of Ag85A epitopes are detected following 1×10(8)PFU of MVA85A. A higher dose of 1×10(8)PFU of MVA85A is well-tolerated, increases the frequency of IFN-γ secreting T cells detected following immunisation and broadens the range of Ag85A epitopes detected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cyclic di-AMP-mediated interaction between Mycobacterium tuberculosis ΔcnpB and macrophages implicates a novel strategy for improving BCG vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Yang, Jun; Bai, Guangchun

    2018-01-31

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) has been shown to play an important role in bacterial physiology and pathogen-host interactions. We previously reported that deletion of the sole c-di-AMP phosphodiesterase-encoding gene (cnpB) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) led to significant virulence attenuation. In this study, we found that ΔcnpB of M. bovis BCG (BCG) was unable to secrete c-di-AMP, which differs from Mtb ΔcnpB. We infected bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) with c-di-AMP-associated mutants generated from both Mtb and BCG. Our results showed that upon infection with Mtb ΔcnpB, BMDMs of WT mice secreted a large amount of interferon-β (IFN-β) post-infection similarly as we reported previously. In contrast, the response was less pronounced with BMDMs isolated from cGAS-/- mice and was nearly abolished with BMDMs prepared from STING-/- mice. Deletion of the region of difference 1 (RD1) locus in Mtb ΔcnpB did not alter the c-di-AMP secretion of ΔcnpB but eliminated the IFN-β production in the infected cells. In contrast, neither BCG ΔcnpB nor a recombinant BCG ΔcnpB with a pRD1 cosmid induced a type I interferon response. Interestingly, multiple studies have demonstrated that type I IFN enhances BCG's immunity. Thus, amending BCG based on our findings might improve BCG vaccination. © FEMS 2018. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The patterns of in vitro cell-death and inflammatory cytokines induced by distinct BCG vaccine strains are differentially induced in human mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, C; Hacker, M; Moraes, M; Castello-Branco, L; Silva, F; Antas, P

    2018-01-02

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains among the world's leading cause of mortality. For its control, studies of TB vaccines are needed. Since live-attenuated Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only TB vaccine currently in use, studies on the protective role of BCG are required. In this study, we analyzed host cells purified directly from whole blood of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative volunteers, comprising adult healthy donors (HD) and neonates (umbilical cord bloods, UCB), with the aim to directly compare in vitro immune responses with distinct BCG strains in human mononuclear cells. The Moreau, Pasteur, and Danish BCG strains were used to infect mononuclear cells in vitro for 48 h; bacilli viability and cell-death were subsequently detected by flow cytometry. In addition, cell culture supernatants were used in cytokine detection assays. Overall, the Moreau BCG strain induced higher levels of apoptosis than the Pasteur and Danish BCG strains in both the HD and UCB groups (p-value BCG infection. The Moreau BCG strain, exclusively, induced Th1 cytokines at the highest levels in cells from adults (p-value BCG strains, whereas TGF-β1 levels were reduced significantly (p-value BCG vaccine. As expected, eight out of 22 pro-inflammatory cytokines were secreted at significant levels (p-value BCG-infected cell cultures, in the HD group only. When analyzing these results, we excluded confounding factors related to storage and viability of the BCG strains used. These findings suggest that Moreau BCG is a more potent immunostimulating agent than the Pasteur and Danish BCG strains. Clinical trials will be needed to confirm these findings.

  6. Atopy in children : Association to life style

    OpenAIRE

    Alm, Johan

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has risen; in some countries nearly half the children suffer from some type of hypersensitivity. The reason for this increase is obscure, but one explanation is suggested to be a changing panorama of microbial stimulation early in life. The overall objective of this work was to study the effect of certain life style factors on the development of atopy in children. In the first study the role of early BCG vaccination for development of ...

  7. Characterization of immune response to killed leishmania major promastigotes plus BCG vaccine in Sudanese volunteers: a double-blind placebo controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sati, Iman Nasr Eldin

    1996-12-01

    This work was examined whether intradermal immunization of healthy adult Sudanese volunteers with killed leishmania major (KLM) promastigotes plus BCG would induce antigen-specific T cell responses. Only healthy Sudanese volunteers with negative reactivity to leishmania skin test and with ≤20 mm induration of reactivity to purified protein derivative (PPD) were included in the trial. Group (A) (n=3): received a single dose (0.1ml) at a concentration of 10 mg protein of a whole cell component of KLM promastigotes/ml BCG, group (B) (n=12): received as a single dose of viable attenuated BCG alone (0.1 ml) at a concentration of 1 mg protein/ml diluent, group (C) (n=11): received the vaccine diluent only (Placebo) (o.1 ml). Study subjects were tested for their immunological and clinical responses before intervention, . Following vaccination 65% of group (A) subjects converted in their reactivity to leishmanin skin testing,non of the BCG vaccinated subjects converted in leishmanin skin test and only one subject of group (C) became leishmanin positive. Levels of Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-5 (IL-5) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured by a double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A vaccine was considered as a positive responder in terms of cytokine production when the level of the produced cytokine was equal to the 80th percentile of the levels produced by the volunteers in the placebo group. 92% of the group vaccinated with KLM=BCG had circulating T cells. No significant of IL-5 or Il-10 was reported in any of the volunteers in the three group. Levels of anti l eishmania specific IgG were measured by ELISA in optical densities. Volunteers with mean antibody titre above the cut-off point (mean=3X standard deviation) were considered to have positive scores. Accordingly after vaccination 7.69% one volunteers in group (A) had a positive antibody response corresponding to 0% in the other two groups. No serious side effects were reported

  8. Toll-like receptor 8 agonist nanoparticles mimic immunomodulating effects of the live BCG vaccine and enhance neonatal innate and adaptive immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, David J; Scott, Evan A; Scheid, Annette; Bergelson, Ilana; Joshi, Sweta; Pietrasanta, Carlo; Brightman, Spencer; Sanchez-Schmitz, Guzman; Van Haren, Simon D; Ninković, Jana; Kats, Dina; Guiducci, Cristiana; de Titta, Alexandre; Bonner, Daniel K; Hirosue, Sachiko; Swartz, Melody A; Hubbell, Jeffrey A; Levy, Ofer

    2017-11-01

    Newborns display distinct immune responses, leaving them vulnerable to infections and impairing immunization. Targeting newborn dendritic cells (DCs), which integrate vaccine signals into adaptive immune responses, might enable development of age-specific vaccine formulations to overcome suboptimal immunization. Small-molecule imidazoquinoline Toll-like receptor (TLR) 8 agonists robustly activate newborn DCs but can result in reactogenicity when delivered in soluble form. We used rational engineering and age- and species-specific modeling to construct and characterize polymer nanocarriers encapsulating a TLR8 agonist, allowing direct intracellular release after selective uptake by DCs. Chemically similar but morphologically distinct nanocarriers comprised of amphiphilic block copolymers were engineered for targeted uptake by murine DCs in vivo, and a range of TLR8 agonist-encapsulating polymersome formulations were then synthesized. Novel 96-well in vitro assays using neonatal human monocyte-derived DCs and humanized TLR8 mouse bone marrow-derived DCs enabled benchmarking of the TLR8 agonist-encapsulating polymersome formulations against conventional adjuvants and licensed vaccines, including live attenuated BCG vaccine. Immunogenicity of the TLR8 agonist adjuvanted antigen 85B (Ag85B)/peptide 25-loaded BCG-mimicking nanoparticle formulation was evaluated in vivo by using humanized TLR8 neonatal mice. Although alum-adjuvanted vaccines induced modest costimulatory molecule expression, limited T H -polarizing cytokine production, and significant cell death, BCG induced a robust adult-like maturation profile of neonatal DCs. Remarkably, TLR8 agonist polymersomes induced not only newborn DC maturation profiles similar to those induced by BCG but also stronger IL-12p70 production. On subcutaneous injection to neonatal mice, the TLR8 agonist-adjuvanted Ag85B peptide 25 formulation was comparable with BCG in inducing Ag85B-specific CD4 + T-cell numbers. TLR8 agonist

  9. Dendritic Cell Activity Driven by Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG Producing Human IL-18, in Healthy BCG Vaccinated Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szpakowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains an enormous global burden, despite wide vaccination coverage with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, the only vaccine available against this disease, indicating that BCG-driven immunity is insufficient to protect the human population against tuberculosis. In this study we constructed recombinant BCG producing human IL-18 (rBCGhIL-18 and investigated whether human IL-18 produced by rBCGhIL-18 modulates DC functions and enhances Th1 responses to mycobacterial antigens in humans. We found that the costimulatory CD86 and CD80 molecules were significantly upregulated on rBCGhIL-18-infected DCs, whereas the stimulation of DCs with nonrecombinant BCG was less effective. In contrast, both BCG strains decreased the DC-SIGN expression on human DCs. The rBCGhIL-18 increased IL-23, IL-10, and IP-10 production by DCs to a greater extent than nonrecombinant BCG. In a coculture system of CD4+ T cells and loaded DCs, rBCGhIL-18 favoured strong IFN-γ but also IL-10 production by naive T cells but not by memory T cells. This was much less the case for nonrecombinant BCG. Thus the expression of IL-18 by recombinant BCG increases IL-23, IP-10, and IL-10 expression by human DCs and enhances their ability to induce IFN-γ and IL-10 expression by naive T cells, without affecting the maturation phenotype of the DCs.

  10. Tuberculous spondylitis following BCG vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Miny, H.; Bick, U.; Lengerke, H.J. von; Ritter, J.; Reiser, M.

    1990-01-01

    A case of a rare form of BCG osteomyelitis in the spine is presented. After vaccination, the disease started with a lymphadenitis. Later an abscess extended from the pelvic along the psoas muscles into the retroperitoneum. The soft tissue mass extended paraspinally and epidural involvement was also apparent. The vertebral involvement was detected by CT. The radiological findings are discussed with reference to the literature. (orig.)

  11. Localized Hyperuicbosis following BCG Vaccination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    \\lzgm'an jouma/of Paediatrics 2003;30:93. An eigl1t—month—0ld Turkish boy presented at theiFatih University. Pursaklar outpatient clinic with excessive hair on his left shoulder. The history was that 15 days after receiving BCGT vaccination at ...

  12. Another vaccine, another story: BCG vaccination against tuberculosis in India, 1948 to 1960 Outra vacina, outra história: a vacinação de BCG contra tuberculose na Índia, 1948 a 1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Brimnes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Through an examination of mass BCG vaccination against tuberculosis in India between 1948 and 1960 this article draws attention to the diversity of the history of vaccination. The features of vaccination campaigns often differed from those of the celebrated campaign to eradicate smallpox. Due to differences between smallpox and tuberculosis as well as between the vaccines developed against them, an analysis of BCG mass vaccination against tuberculosis seems particularly well suited for this purpose. Three points of difference are identified. First, in non-Western contexts BCG vaccination procedures were modified to a greater extent than vaccination against smallpox. Second, tuberculosis lacked the drama and urgency of smallpox and BCG vaccination campaigns suffered more from recruitment problems than did the more "heroic" smallpox eradication campaign. Third, the BCG vaccine was contested in medical circles and was much better suited than the vaccine against smallpox as a vehicle for the articulation of concerns about post-colonial modernization.Através da observação da vacinação em massa de BCG contra a tuberculose na Índia durante os anos de 1948 a 1960, este artigo chama a atenção para a diversidade da história da vacinação. As características das campanhas de vacinação geralmente diferem daquelas celebradas nas campanhas para erradicação da varíola. Devido às diferenças entre a varíola e a turberculose, assim como entre as vacinas desenvolvidas para combater essas doenças, uma análise da vacinação em massa de BCG contra a turberculose parece especialmente bem situada para essa proposta. Três pontos de diferença foram identificados. O primeiro é que em contextos não ocidentais os procedimentos da vacinação de BCG foram modificados em uma extensão maior do que a vacinação contra a varíola. Em segundo lugar, a tuberculose não tinha o drama e a urgência da varíola, e as campanhas de vacinação de BCG

  13. Effect of vitamin A supplementation with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status at 6 wk and 4 mo of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter

    2007-01-01

    with higher (9%; 95% CI: 2, 17%) RBP concentrations in children of noneducated mothers but not in children of educated mothers. Overall, RBP concentrations increased between 6 wk and 4 mo of age. The increase correlated inversely with the number of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines received...

  14. Vaccination technique, PPD reaction and BCG scarring in a cohort of children born in Guinea-Bissau 2000-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Sodemann, Morten; Jensen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    =2225) of age. In a subgroup of the children the vaccination technique was monitored by direct observation of post-vaccination wheal and route of administration. Three different types of BCG vaccine supplied by the local Extended Programme on Immunization were used. At 6 months of age the rate of PPD...... reactors (>1mm) after BCG vaccination was 25% and the rate of scarring was 89%. One BCG strain was associated with fewer PPD reactors (OR=0.54 (0.31-0.91)) and BCG scars (OR=0.13 (0.05-0.37)) and larger post-vaccination wheals produced more PPD reactions (OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.02-1.43)) and BCG scars (OR 1......, low birth weight, place of residence, education and civil status of mother. We reason that vaccination technique and BCG strain are important for PPD reaction and scarring in response to BCG vaccination. Considering that these responses are associated with better infant survival, the importance...

  15. The Effect of 50 000 IU Vitamin A with BCG Vaccine at Birth on Growth in the First Year of Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Benn, Christine Stabell; Diness, Birgitte Rode

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin A supplements may interact with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine causing increased female mortality. In a randomised trial of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (VAS), we examined growth during the first year of life in 808 children, pursuing the hypothesis that a negative...

  16. Family history of immigration from a tuberculosis endemic country and low family income are associated with a higher BCG vaccination coverage in Ile-de-France region, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Chauvin, Pierre; Le Strat, Yann; Soler, Marion; Fonteneau, Laure; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel

    2013-11-19

    After withdrawal of multipuncture BCG device from the French market in January 2006, vaccination coverage (VC) with the intradermal device has dropped and since remained sub-optimal in Ile-de-France, the only region of mainland France where BCG is recommended to all children. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify socio-economic factors associated with BCG VC in children of Paris metropolitan area born after January 2006. Two-stage random sampling was used to include 425 children up to 5 years old from Paris and its suburbs. Information was collected through face-to-face interviews and vaccination status confirmed by a vaccination document. Poisson regression analyzed the association between VC and potential determinants. VC of children from families with the lowest incomes (first quartile of family income/consumption unit (CU) (immigration, regardless of family income, are correctly identified as being at high risk of tuberculosis and properly vaccinated with BCG in this area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effect of 50 000 IU Vitamin A with BCG Vaccine at Birth on Growth in the First Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Benn, Christine Stabell; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Martins, Cesario; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter; Bibby, Bo Martin

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin A supplements may interact with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine causing increased female mortality. In a randomised trial of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (VAS), we examined growth during the first year of life in 808 children, pursuing the hypothesis that a negative interaction between VAS and DTP in girls would be reflected in growth. Length and weight were measured at 6 weekly visits and WHO-growth-reference z-scores derived. Neonatal VAS had no effect on anthropometric measures at 12 months, but may interact sex differentially with routine vaccines. While BCG was the most recent vaccine, neonatal VAS benefitted growth (difference in weight-for-length z-score (dWFL: 0.31(95% CI: 0.03–0.59)). While DTP was the most recent vaccine, VAS tended to affect growth adversely in girls (dWFL = −0.21 (−0.48–0.06)). After measles vaccine (MV) there was no overall effect of neonatal VAS. The VAS effect differed significantly between the BCG and DTP windows (P = 0.03), and the difference was borderline significant between the DTP and MV windows for girls (P = 0.09). PMID:21912559

  18. Universal screening for latent and active tuberculosis (TB) in asylum seeking children, Bochum and Hamburg, Germany, September 2015 to November 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Hermelink, Maya; Kobbe, Robin; Methling, Benedikt; Rau, Cornelius; Schulze-Sturm, Ulf; Auer, Isa; Ahrens, Frank; Brinkmann, Folke

    2018-03-01

    BackgroundIn Germany, the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in children has been on the rise since 2009. High numbers of foreign-born asylum seekers have contributed considerably to the disease burden. Therefore, effective screening strategies for latent TB infection (LTBI) and active TB in asylum seeking children are needed. Aim: Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of LTBI and active TB in asylum seeking children up to 15 years of age in two geographic regions in Germany. Methods: Screening for TB was performed in children in asylum seeker reception centres by tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon gamma release assay (IGRA). Children with positive results were evaluated for active TB. Additionally, country of origin, sex, travel time, TB symptoms, TB contact and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination status were registered. Results: Of 968 screened children 66 (6.8%) had TB infection (58 LTBI, 8 active TB). LTBI prevalence was similar in children from high (Afghanistan) and low (Syria) incidence countries (8.7% vs 6.4%). There were no differences regarding sex, age or travel time between infected and non-infected children. Children under the age of 6 years were at higher risk of progression to active TB (19% vs 2% respectively, p=0,07). Most children (7/8) with active TB were asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis. None of the children had been knowingly exposed to TB. Conclusions: Asylum seeking children from high and low incidence countries are both at risk of developing LTBI or active TB. Universal TB screening for all asylum seeking children should be considered.

  19. Investigating media artifacts with children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    The dissertation’s aim is to explore the everyday relevance media artifacts have for young children. It discusses and further develops analytical concepts that are committed to taking the children’s perspectives on possibilities and limitations of such artifacts seriously. These conceptual...... developments are rooted in the author’s participation in a daycare practice in Berlin, Germany. The daycare’s situational approach precisely attempted to draw on the children’s everyday life experiences so as to engage in problem-oriented learning projects, on media artifacts and beyond....

  20. Determinants of BCG scarification among children in rural Guinea-Bissau: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funch, Katarina M; Thysen, Sanne M; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Martins, Cesario L; Aaby, Peter; Benn, Christine S; Fisker, Ane B

    2018-01-02

    Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination may have beneficial non-specific effects on child survival, the effects being stronger for children developing a scar. In a prospective cohort study, we examined determinants for not developing a BCG scar within 6 months of vaccination. Bandim Health Project (BHP) runs a Health and Demographic Surveillance System site in rural Guinea-Bissau. BHP provides BCG at monthly visits. We studied determinants for not developing a BCG scar using binomial regression models to obtain relative risks (RR). From May 2012 until October 2014, BHP nurses vaccinated 2415 infants with BCG. We assessed BCG scar between 6 and 12 months of age for 2156 (89%) of these children and 2115 (98%) had developed a scar. In comparison, among 785 children BCG vaccinated elsewhere, 622 (79%) had a scar, the RR of not having a scar being 10.91 (7.52-15.85) compared with children vaccinated by BHP. Among children vaccinated by BHP, those receiving the Russian BCG strain were more likely not to develop a scar (RR = 2.98 (1.52-5.81)) compared with children receiving Danish BCG strain. Children with no post-injection wheal or a wheal BCG scar development while nutritional status and socioeconomic status were not. Scarring rate may therefore be a better indicator of vaccination programme performance than coverage.

  1. [Active search for leprosy and other skin diseases in school children from Agua de Dios, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Gerzaín; González, Rosalba; Gonzalez, Deysy; Granados, Carolina; Pinto, Rafael; Herrera, Hilda; Gutiérrez, Luisa F; Hernández, Elkin; López, Fernando; Gómez, Yenny

    2007-01-01

    Actively searching for leprosy, other skin diseases and BCG vaccination scars amongst school children from Agua de Dios, the municipality having the highest prevalence of leprosy in Colombia. A clinical examination of the children was carried out by nurses, interns, general practitioners and experts on leprosy. Skin smear tests and skin biopsies were performed when the clinical findings suggested leprosy. Anti-phenolic glycolipid antibodies in blood were determined in special cases. 86 % of the 2 844 school children were examined; 833 had skin diseases and 16 % of these required evaluation by specialists. Four new cases of paucibacillary leprosy, two indeterminate and two primary polyneuritic cases were found. Pediculosis capitis, pityriasis alba, tinea versicolor, hypopigmented nevus, insect bites and miliaria were frequently detected. BCG vaccination scars were absent in 387 children; following several logistical problems, they were vaccinated. Four children had signs of childhood abuse. An 11-year-old girl presented hypopigmented mycosis fungoides. All diseases and conditions found were treated. The community received information regarding the results, emphasising the importance of an early diagnosis of leprosy. The incidence of leprosy found (16/10,000) was 123 times higher than the rest of the country's incidence. It is advisable to continue clinical examinations in Agua de Dios and research into risk factors for acquiring leprosy.

  2. Tuberculin skin reactivity after neonatal BCG vaccination in preterm infants in Minas Gerais, Brazil, 2001-2002 Reactividad cutánea a la tuberculina tras la vacunación con BCG de neonatos prematuros en Minas Gerais, Brasil, 2001-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Camargos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The efficacy of BCG vaccination in preterm babies is unknown, and available data on conversion rates to tuberculin in this age group are scarce and controversial. This study assessed the tuberculin response in preterm infants after BCG vaccination. METHODS: This randomized cohort study was carried out at the Neonatal Department, University Hospital, Federal University of Minas Gerais in Brazil during 2001 and 2002. The BCG vaccine was administered at birth to 65 full-term (control and 40 preterm newborns. All of them were tested with 5 tuberculin units of purified protein derivative-S approximately 3 months after vaccination. RESULTS: A typical BCG scar was verified in 96.9% of the control group and in 90.0% of the preterm infants (P = 0.19. Indurations > 5 mm in diameter were recorded in 87.7% of the full-term and 67.5% of the preterm infants (P = 0.02. Indurations > 10 mm were recorded in 70.8% of the full-term and 42.5% of the preterm infants (P = 0.007. For indurations > 5 mm the upper and the lower limits of the 95% confidence interval for the difference between proportions were 8.5% to 31.8%, and for indurations > 10 mm these limits were 18.0% to 38.4%. No adverse reactions were observed in the study population. CONCLUSION: BCG vaccination could be recommended for preterm infants upon discharge from the neonatal unit to reduce morbidity and mortality in infants at risk for tuberculous infection, and to increase BCG vaccination coverage rates, especially in countries with high prevalence rates of tuberculosis.OBJETIVOS: Se desconoce la eficacia de la vacunación con Bacilo de Calmette-Guérin (BCG en neonatos prematuros, y los datos que existen acerca de la proporción de casos de conversión tuberculínica en este grupo de edad son pocos y cuestionables. En este estudio se evaluó la respuesta a la prueba de tuberculina de neonatos prematuros tras la vacunación con BCG. MÉTODOS: Este estudio de cohorte aleatorizado se llev

  3. [Children exposed to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: How should we manage? Analysis of 46 child contacts and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catho, G; Sénéchal, A; Ronnaux-Baron, A-S; Valour, F; Perpoint, T; Bouaziz, A; Dumitriescu, O; Reix, P; Pedone, C; Ader, F

    2015-12-01

    Tuberculosis-related morbidity and mortality remain important. Emergence and diffusion of multidrug-resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a global public health concern. Cases of MDR-TB in children are a sentinel event indicating the spread of a mycobacterial strain within a community. Latent TB precedes MDR-TB and screening and follow-up of contact individuals are key points of TB infection control. We performed the case-investigation of 20 adult cases of MDR-TB managed in our institution. Forty-six pediatric contact individuals were identified. A high proportion of these children were lost to follow-up (80% at 12 months), showing that monitoring this reservoir population with migrant history is challenging. Five (11%) children presented a secondary infection: one child was diagnosed with active TB infection (positive tuberculin skin test associated with abnormalities on chest computer tomography [CT] scan). Four children were diagnosed with latent TB infection (isolated positive tuberculin skin test with normal CT scan). Two of these children received a treatment adjusted to the strain of the index case. In the setting of emerging MDR-TB, tuberculin skin test may be likely replaced by specific interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA), independent of prior BCG vaccination. In addition, chest CT scan is preferred to chest X-ray to detect TB lesions. The management of latent TB infection is controversial: immediate treatment with second-line anti-TB drugs adapted to the index case strain or, consistently with WHO guidelines, a simple follow-up with subsequent treatment in case of active TB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of Preoperative Fasting Times in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgun, Eda; Yavuz, Meryem; Eroğlu, Birsen; Islamoğlu, Ayşe

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate preoperative fasting times of children. A prospective and descriptive design was used. The study was carried out in the pediatric surgery departments of a University Faculty of Medicine Hospital, between January 1 and May 31, 2012. The sample included 332 pediatric patients having surgery with general anesthesia and their family. Data were collected via patient and family interview using a 28-item questionnaire developed by the researchers. 29.2% of the sample was between the age of 1 and 3 years, of which 68.1% were male. 82.5% had day surgery. 94.9% of families were informed about the operation and 97.6% about nutrition before the operation. The children were fed an average of 10.51 hours before the operation (n = 203) with clear liquids, 6.27 hours (n = 52) with breast milk, 9.9 hours (n = 107) with baby food or cow's milk, 11.22 hours (n = 100) with toast and other, and 12.25 hours (n = 106) with daily food. About 65.6% of children between the years 0 and 3 (n = 151) declared being hungry when they were going to surgery, and 58.9% said that they were thirsty. Of the children older than 3 years (n = 181), 55.2% were hungry and 58.0% were thirsty. Results indicate that patients' preoperative fasting times were longer than recommended by current guidelines. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reaction of the BCG Scar in the Acute Phase of Kawasaki Disease in Mexican Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-García, Luis Martín; Castillo-Moguel, Ariel; Vázquez-Rivera, Mirella; Cravioto, Patricia; Fernando, Galván

    2017-10-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute self-limited systemic vasculitis that primarily affects children BCG) inoculation site has been reported as a common finding in patients with KD where BCG vaccination is mandatory. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of reactivation of the BCG in Mexican children diagnosed with KD. A retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with KD from August 1, 1995, to August 31, 2015, at our Institution was performed. The clinical profile, laboratory results, treatment used and coronary artery abnormalities in the BCG reactive and the BCG nonreactive groups were analyzed and compared. We included 399 patients with KD. Ninety-seven (24.3%) had BCG reaction at the inoculation site. The BCG(+) group was younger than the BCG(-) group (P BCG(+) group compared with 65 (21.52%) in the BCG(-) group without statistical significance. The BCG+ group developed coronary artery aneurysms in 37 cases and the BCG(-) group developed coronary artery aneurysms in 111 cases without statistical significance. Multivariate analysis showed that younger age at diagnosis was the only variable associated with a reaction at the BCG inoculation site in patients with KD. In Mexico, a country with a National BCG Vaccination Program and a low incidence of KD, reaction at the BCG inoculation site could be a useful diagnostic sign of KD.

  6. Communication skills in blind children: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, D M; Stojanovik, V

    2007-01-01

    There are anecdotal reports that blind children sometimes use language inappropriately, but there has been no recent systematic investigation of the communication skills of children with congenital blindness. The aim of the present study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of the communication skills of a group of children with congenital blindness. The parents of eight congenitally blind children completed the Children's Communication Checklist-2. The checklist ratings showed that the communication profiles of a large proportion of the group warranted clinical investigation or were indicative of a communication disorder. The results from this preliminary investigation support the need for a larger study on the communication skills of children with congenital blindness.

  7. Qualitative Investigation of Young Children's Music Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulston, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study examined young children's music preferences through group conversations with children, interviews with parents, and non-participant observation of classroom settings in daycare and elementary classrooms. Data were analyzed inductively to generate themes, and revealed that (1) children expressed distinct preferences for an…

  8. Integração das atividades de vacinação pelo BCG intradérmico nos programas gerais de imunização das unidades sanitárias Integration of intradermic BCG vaccination in general public health immunization programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Brólio

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available A imunização pelo BCG constitui um recurso operacional de grande alcance nos países em desenvolvimento, onde é elevada a incidência da tuberculose. Os conhecimentos adquiridos nos últimos cinco anos, em nosso meio, permitem elaborar programas para a aplicação do BCG, por via intradérmica, em extensão útil epidemiologicamente, sem o teste tuberculínico prévio. É analisada a experiência da integração da vacinação pelo BCG intradérmico no programa geral de imunização do Centro de Saúde "Geraldo de Paula Souza", da Faculdade de Saúde Pública da USP. As suas conclusões são favoráveis à viabilidade do método, permitindo ampla cobertura de imunização anti-tuberculose da população, desde os primeiros meses de vida.Immunization by BCG is of great effect in developing countries where the incidence of tuberculosis is high. The knowledge that has been acquired in our environment in the last five years has made possible the organization of programmes for BCG intradermic immunization, to a useful epidemiological extent, without a prior tuberculin test. The practice of the integration of intradermic BCG vaccination in the general immunization programmes of the "Geraldo de Paula Souza" Health Unit of S. Paulo University School of Public Health was analysed and the conclusion was favourable as to the viability of the method, which allows a large-scale anti-tuberculosis immunization of the population right from the very first months of life.

  9. Investigating young children's learning of mass measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, Jill; McDonough, Andrea; Ferguson, Sarah

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports results of a design experiment regarding young children's concepts of mass measurement. The research built on an earlier study in which a framework of "growth points" in early mathematics learning and a related, task-based, one-to-one interview to assess children's understanding of the measurement of mass were developed. Prompted by the results and recommendations from the earlier study, five lessons were developed that offered rich learning experiences regarding concepts of mass. The 119 Year 1 and 2 children participating in the study were interviewed using the same protocol before and after the teaching period. The assessment data showed that the majority of these children moved from using nonstandard units to using standard units and instruments for measuring mass. The findings from this study challenge the traditional approach of using informal units for an extended period before the introduction of standard units.

  10. Meningitis tuberculosa en menores de cinco años en la Argentina Tuberculous meningitis in children under 5 years of age in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Darnaud

    2006-04-01

    variables registered in cases of TB meningitis in children less than 5 years old in Argentina, from 1999 to 2001 and to determine the real number of TB meningitis cases in our country. Fifteen cases of TB meningitis out of 32 (46.8% were studied through epidemic records. The average age was 14 months. Six children presented BCG scars but in only one child it was proved that he had been vaccinated at birth; 11/13 (92.3% were at the second stage of illness, the bacteriological investigation was positive in 8/11 (72.7% and in (46.8% chest radiography revealed abnormal findings. The tuberculin reaction was negative in all tested cases. This study showed that the diagnosis was made at an advanced stage of disease. None of these patients was cured without sequels and a high death rate (46% was observed. In order to control this epidemic situation, it is necessary to increase case finding and directly observed treatment of smear positive pulmonary TB cases, as well as BCG vaccination given at birth.

  11. Adverse reactions to the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in new-born infants-an evaluation of the Danish strain 1331 SSI in a randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Birk, Nina Marie; Kjærgaard, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    or no intervention. Follow-up until 13 months of age. SETTING: Pediatric and maternity wards at three Danish university hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: All women planning to give birth at the three study sites (n=16,521) during the recruitment period were invited to participate in the study. Four thousand one hundred...... cases were treated conservatively and recovered. Six of 10 (60%) families of children experiencing suppurative lymphadenitis compared to 117/2071 (6%) of those with no lymphadenitis indicated that the vaccine had more adverse effects than expected (p-value ... vaccination was associated with only mild morbidity and no mortality. A higher incidence of suppurative lymphadenitis than expected was observed. All children were treated conservatively without sequelae or complications. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number NCT01694108 at www.clinicaltrials.gov....

  12. An Investigation into Submaximal Endurance in Children with Motor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the submaximal endurance levels of children with motor difficulties, using the six-minute walk test (6MWT). A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted. Forty-eight children between ages seven and ten years were enrolled. They came from similar socio-economic backgrounds and attended ...

  13. Interferon-γ release assays for diagnosis of tuberculosis infection and disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Jeffrey R

    2014-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important problem among children in the United States and throughout the world. Although diagnosis and treatment of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (also referred to as latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI] or TB infection) remain the lynchpins of TB prevention, there is no diagnostic reference standard for LTBI. The tuberculin skin test (TST) has many limitations, including difficulty in administration and interpretation, the need for a return visit by the patient, and false-positive results caused by significant cross-reaction with Mycobacterium bovis-bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines and many nontuberculous mycobacteria. Interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs) are blood tests that measure ex vivo T-lymphocyte release of interferon-γ after stimulation by antigens specific for M tuberculosis. Because these antigens are not found on M bovis-BCG or most nontuberculous mycobacteria, IGRAs are more specific tests than the TST, yielding fewer false-positive results. However, IGRAs have little advantage over the TST in sensitivity, and both methods have reduced sensitivity in immunocompromised children, including children with severe TB disease. Both methods have a higher positive predictive value when applied to children with risk factors for LTBI. Unfortunately, neither method distinguishes between TB infection and TB disease. The objective of this technical report is to review what IGRAs are most useful for: (1) increasing test specificity in children who have received a BCG vaccine and may have a false-positive TST result; (2) using with the TST to increase sensitivity for finding LTBI in patients at high risk of developing progression from LTBI to disease; and (3) helping to diagnose TB disease. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Children as consumers: investigating child diary expenditure data

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Farrell; Michael A. Shields

    2007-01-01

    We investigate expenditure behaviour of school-aged children using child diary information contained in the British Family Expenditure Survey. The estimates from an Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) for child expenditure suggest that drinks, sweets, books, and toys are `normal' goods for children, but clothes, travel, leisure and vice products are `luxury' items with income elasticities greater than one. Being a lone-parent child and having a working mother are important factors in determinin...

  15. Children's recantation of adult wrongdoing: An experimental investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Lindsay C; Mugno, Allison P

    2016-05-01

    Child maltreatment cases often hinge on a child's word versus a defendant's word, making children's disclosures crucially important. There is considerable debate concerning why children recant allegations, and it is imperative to examine recantation experimentally. The purpose of this laboratory analogue investigation was to test (a) how often children recant true allegations of an adult's wrongdoing after disclosing and (b) whether children's age and caregiver supportiveness predict recantation. During an interactive event, 6- to 9-year-olds witnessed an experimenter break a puppet and were asked to keep the transgression a secret. Children were then interviewed to elicit a disclosure of the transgression. Mothers were randomly assigned to react supportively or unsupportively to this disclosure, and children were interviewed again. We coded children's recantations (explicit denials of the broken puppet after disclosing) and changes in their forthcomingness (shifts from denial or claims of lack of knowledge/memory to disclosure and vice versa) in free recall and in response to focused questions about the transgression. Overall, 23.3% of the children recanted their prior disclosures (46% and 0% in the unsupportive and supportive conditions, respectively). No age differences in recantation rates emerged, but 8- and 9-year-olds were more likely than 6- and 7-year-olds to maintain their recantation throughout Interview 2. Children whose mothers reacted supportively to disclosure became more forthcoming in Interview 2, and those whose mothers reacted unsupportively became less forthcoming. Results advance theoretical understanding of how children disclose negative experiences, including sociomotivational influences on their reports, and have practical implications for the legal system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Surgical management of BCG vaccine-induced regional axillary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The age of the patient and mode of presentation, imaging findings, and results of tuberculin skin testing (Mantoux test) ... Primary surgical treatment (incisional drainage or biopsy) is therefore not considered an ideal form of management in BCG lymphadenitis because of the high fistulisation and poor wound healing, ...

  17. Expressions of shame in investigative interviews with Australian Aboriginal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Gemma; Brubacher, Sonja P; Powell, Martine B

    2016-01-01

    This study inspected a sample of 70 interview transcripts with Australian Aboriginal children to gain a sense of how frequently verbal shame responses were occurring in investigative interviews regarding alleged sexual abuse. Transcripts were examined to determine how children articulated shame, how interviewers reacted to these responses, and how shame related to children's accounts. Examination of frequencies revealed that verbal shame responses occurred in just over one-quarter of the interviews. One-way analyses of variance indicated that children who expressed shame within the interview spoke the same amount as children who did not express shame, however, they required more interviewer prompts before a disclosure was made. Interviews where children expressed shame also included a greater number of interviewer reminders compared to interviews without shame responses. Results emphasize the importance of interviewer awareness of shame, and also point to the value of reassurance, patience, and persistence with non-leading narrative prompting when interviewing children who express shame during discussions of sexual abuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Management of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin osteomyelitis/osteitis in immunocompetent children-A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Li; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Lee, Pin-Hui; Huang, Angela Song-En; Huang, Fu-Yuan; Chi, Hsin; Huang, Daniel Tsung-Ning; Chan, Pei-Chun

    2015-08-26

    Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) osteomyelitis/osteitis in immunocompetent children is a rare but serious complication of BCG immunization. Rationale for its treatment is unclear. Due to the rarity of this complication, no randomized control trials has ever been conducted to evaluate methods of intervention. As such, we searched the literature for any reported BCG vaccination-related osteomyelitis/osteitis among immunecompetent children published before April 15, 2014. We summarized the data from different affected regions of the body by recording the number of reported cases, while noting outcomes and their medical and/or surgical interventions. From 34 eligible studies gleaned from a screening of 804 articles, a total of 331 cases were enrolled. Involvement of the lower limbs was present in 55.6%, followed by the axial skeleton (26.0%), the upper limbs (15.4%), and multiple bones (3.0%). Of the 64 patients having records of detailed chemotherapy regimens, 45 patients (70%) received two or fewer drugs. Among the 80 patients with detailed surgical records, 50 (62.5%) received surgical procedures for diagnostic purposes. While there were uneventful outcomes for those receiving diagnostic procedures, 7 of the 30 (23.3%) patients receiving surgical interventions had major complications (p=0.002, Fisher's exact test). The overall prognosis was good with a 97.6% cure rate. Nevertheless, eight patients (2.4%) suffered major complications. The rationale for treatment of BCG osteomyelitis/osteitis in immunocompetent children is highly subjective. However, patients receiving diagnostic procedures instead of surgical interventions may avoid major complications. Because only a few of the publications had detailed treatment information, further studies are needed to identify proper treatments, while infant BCG vaccination is still in use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Challenges in the Estimation of the Annual Risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Children Aged Less Than 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, P Y; Glynn, Judith R; Mzembe, T; Mulawa, D; Chiumya, R; Crampin, Amelia C; Kranzer, Katharina; Fielding, Katherine L

    2017-10-15

    Accurate estimates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in young children provide a critical indicator of ongoing community transmission of M. tuberculosis. Cross-reactions due to infection with environmental mycobacteria and/or bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination compromise the estimates derived from population-level tuberculin skin-test surveys using traditional cutoff methods. Newer statistical approaches are prone to failure of model convergence, especially in settings where the prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection is low and environmental sensitization is high. We conducted a tuberculin skin-test survey in 5,119 preschool children in the general population and among household contacts of tuberculosis cases in 2012-2014 in a district in northern Malawi where sensitization to environmental mycobacteria is common and almost all children are BCG-vaccinated. We compared different proposed methods of estimating M. tuberculosis prevalence, including a method described by Rust and Thomas more than 40 years ago. With the different methods, estimated prevalence in the general population was 0.7%-11.5% at ages <2 years and 0.8%-3.3% at ages 2-4 years. The Rust and Thomas method was the only method to give a lower estimate in the younger age group (0.7% vs 0.8%), suggesting that it was the only method that adjusted appropriately for the marked effect of BCG-attributable induration in the very young. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  20. Prevelence of latent tuberculosis and associated risk factors in children under 5 years of age in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubashir Zafar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As infected children represent a large proportion of the pool from which tuberculosis (TB cases will arise and its associated risk factors that influence TB infection are basic cause for burden of TB. Aim: This study was to determine the prevalence of latent TB and associated risk factors in children less than 5 year of age in Karachi, Pakistan. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study and it was conducted in tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Materials and Methods: In this study, children who were living in contact with individuals who had proven smear-positive pulmonary TB cases were investigated. A tuberculin skin test (TST was performed on each child. TST sizes ≥5 and 10 mm, respectively, were considered positive. Statistical Analysis: A random effects logistic regression model, which takes into account the clustering of contacts within households, was used to assess the relationship between the tuberculin response of the contact and risk factors. Results are reported as unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. The likelihood ratio test was used to assess the overall significance of risk factors, tests for trend, and tests for interaction. Results: The distribution of TST responses followed a bimodal pattern, with 135 (35% children presenting a palpable induration. The risk of positive TST response in the child increased with the geographic proximity of the child to the individual with TB within the household and with the degree of activities shared with the individual with TB. Nutritional status and presence of a bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG scar were not independent risk factors for TST positivity in this population. On multivariate analysis, the effect of geographic proximity to the individual with TB, household size, and duration of cough in the index case persisted for TST responses ≥5 mm. Conclusions: Positive TST in a child reflects most probably TB infection rather than previous BCG

  1. Features of General Reactive Potential of the Body in Infants with BCG lymphadenitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Bobrovitskaia

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions. When using BCG vaccine of Russian production, there is far less significant overload of blood flow by products of intoxication and inflammation, more pronounced body’s ability to respond to antigenic stimulus generalization and no risk of infection, especially in infants, compared with Danish BCG vaccine. For vaccination of infants against tuberculosis, it is advisable to use more refined, with high immunogenicity and less reactogenic BCG vaccine of Russian production. Despite the presence of complications when using BCG vaccine, protection of the body from the development of generalized forms of tuberculosis in young children is possible by vaccination in the neonatal period.

  2. The investigation of urinary tract infections in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carty, H.; Rangr, P.

    2002-01-01

    This article outlines the role and methods used in the investigation of urinary tract infections in children. Each modality, whether it has been used in the past or begin used currently or in the future, has been discussed, together with its advantages and pitfalls. There are no hard and fast rules in the investigation of urinary tract infections. It really depends on the clinical scenario and the child. This article will hopefully provide a basis of understanding the reasons behind each investigation and their appropriate use in the child depending on their age and clinical history. (author)

  3. Expanding the Hygiene Hypothesis: Early Exposure to Infectious Agents Predicts Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity to Candida among Children in Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wander, Katherine; O'Connor, Kathleen; Shell-Duncan, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Background Multiple lines of evidence suggest that infections in early life prevent the development of pathological immune responses to allergens and autoantigens (the hygiene hypothesis). Early infections may also affect later immune responses to pathogen antigen. Methods To evaluate an association between early infections and immune responses to pathogen antigen, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to Candida albicans was evaluated among 283 2- to 7-year-old children in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. A questionnaire and physical examination were used to characterize variables reflecting early exposure to infectious agents (family size, house construction materials, BCG vaccination, hospitalization history). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between early exposure to infectious agents and DTH to C. albicans. Results Triceps skinfold thickness (OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.22) and age (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.55) were positively associated with DTH to C. albicans. Adjusted for age and sex, large family size (OR: 2.81; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.61), BCG vaccination scar (OR: 3.10; 95% CI: 1.10, 8.71), and hospitalization during infancy with an infectious disease (OR: 4.67; 95% CI: 1.00, 21.74) were positively associated with DTH to C. albicans. Conclusions Early life infections were positively associated with later DTH to C. albicans. This result supports an expansion of the hygiene hypothesis to explain not only pathological immune responses to allergens, but also appropriate immune responses to pathogens. Immune system development may be responsive to early infections as an adaptive means to tailor reactivity to the local infectious disease ecology. PMID:22616000

  4. [Investigation on nutritional intakes for hospitalized children with blood disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zi-Liang; Wu, Yun-Tang; Sun, Zhong; Zhu, Xiao-Fan; Li, Rui; Li, Hong-Qiang; Qi, Yu-Mei; Song, Ji-Chang; Han, Zhong-Chao

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the diet and nutritional status of hospitalized children with blood disease in order to provide nutritional guidelines. The patients' daily dietary intakes, including breakfast, lunch, dinner and additional meals, were recorded in detail for seven consecutive days. The intake amount of various nutrients was calculated using the dietary database. The majority of children with blood disease showed inadequate intakes of calories [mean 1825.81 kCal/d, 73.62% of the recommended intake (RNI)] and protein (mean 67.68 g/d, 81.34% of RNI). Intakes of vitamin E and riboflavin were adequate, but intakes of vitamin A, thiamine and vitamin C (66.67%, 77.78% and 69.89% of RNI, respectively) were inadequate. Iron and selenium intakes were adequate, but calcium and zinc intakes (41.11% and 56.21% of RNI, respectively) were grossly inadequate. Hospitalized children with blood disease had decreased dietary intakes of calories, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, calcium and zinc. The dietary pattern and nutritional intake need to be improved.

  5. Molecular investigations of β-thalassemic children in Erbil governorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Ahmad N.; Al-Attar, Mustafa S.

    2017-09-01

    The present work studies the molecular investigation of 40 thalassemic carriers using polymerase chain reaction. Forty thalassemic carriers who were registered and treated at Erbil thalassemic center and twenty apparently healthy children have been included in the present study. Ages of both groups ranged between 1-18 years. Four primers used to detect four different beta thalassemia mutations they were codon 8/9, codon 8, codon 41/42 and IVS-1-5. The two most common mutations detected among thalassemia group were Cd8/9 with 8 cases (20%) and Cd-8 with 6 cases (15%) followed by codon 41/42 with 4 cases (10%) which investigated and detected for the first time in Erbil governorate through the present study and finally IVS-1-5 with 3 cases (7.5%), while no any cases detected among control group.

  6. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine- induced lupus vulgaris in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najem, Nabeel M; Zadeh, Valid Bagher; Al-Abdulrazzaq, Adel H; Al-Otaibi, Sultan R; Kadyan, S; Joneja, Munish

    2009-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV) is a rare form of cutaneous mycobacterial infection in children. Most cases follow hematogenous or lymphatic seeding, and more rarely from exposure to bacillus Calmette- Guérin (BCG) vaccine. We report a child that received BCG vaccination and developed LV 2 months later.

  7. Investigation of the Home Reading Patterns of Families with Children with Hearing Impairment: ICEM Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Umit

    2012-01-01

    Parents play a critical role in the literacy development of their children. The current case study explores the reading patterns that parents have with their children with hearing impairment. First, the home reading patterns of parents with their children were investigated. Then, the home reading patterns preferred by children were addressed along…

  8. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the current evidence on the duration of protection by bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination against tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, I; Pimpin, L; Ariti, C; Beynon, R; Mangtani, P; Sterne, J A C; Fine, P E M; Smith, P G; Lipman, M; Elliman, D; Watson, J M; Drumright, L N; Whiting, P F; Vynnycky, E; Rodrigues, L C

    2013-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the duration of protection by bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) may exceed previous estimates with potential implications for estimating clinical and cost-efficacy. To estimate the protection and duration of protection provided by BCG vaccination against tuberculosis, explore how this protection changes with time since vaccination, and examine the reasons behind the variation in protection and the rate of waning of protection. Electronic databases including MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Cochrane Databases, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Web of Knowledge, Biosciences Information Service (BIOSIS), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACs), MEDCARIB Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) were searched from inception to May 2009. Index to Theses, System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe (SIGLE), Centre for Agricultural Bioscience International (CABI) Abstracts, Scopus, Article First, Academic Complete, Africa-Wide Information, Google Scholar, Global Health, British National Bibliography for Report Literature, and clinical trial registration websites were searched from inception to October 2009. Electronic databases searches, screening of identified studies, data extraction and analysis were undertaken. Meta-analysis was used to present numerical and graphical summaries of clinical efficacy and efficacy by time since vaccination. Evidence of heterogeneity was assessed using the tau-squared statistic. Meta-regression allowed the investigation of observed heterogeneity. Factors investigated included BCG strain, latitude, stringency of pre-BCG vaccination tuberculin testing, age at vaccination, site of disease, study design and vulnerability to biases. Rate of waning of protection was estimated using the ratio of the measure of efficacy after 10 years compared with the efficacy in the first 10

  9. Immunization coverage among children in Al-Taizyah district, Taiz Governorate, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Ahmed Al-Rabeei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At least 2 million people die every year from diseases preventable by vaccines recommended by the World Health Organization. Objective: To assess the routine immunization coverage among children aged 12-23 month and to determine the reasons for unvaccinated. Methods: We conducted a community-based survey in Al-Taizyah district, Taiz governorate, Yemen. Information about vaccination status and related barriers was collected for 420 children from 1st March to 31st March 2012. Results: 49.8% of the children had vaccination cards. About 69.5% of the children were fully vaccinated by cards and by history, 15.5% were partially vaccinated and 15% not vaccinated. As a regards to crude vaccination coverage, 82.9% of children were received BCG vaccine. OPV1 vaccine was 82.6%. Pentavalent1 was 82.6%. Measles 1 represented for 71.7% and vitamin A1 was 46.4%. 91% was valid doses for OPV1 and 93% for pentavalent1. Only 76% of measles1 dose was valid. The high scores14% of drop-out rate was recorded between BCG and Measles. The main reasons for partially vaccinated and unvaccinated of children were the lack of information 61.7%. Conclusion: There is low vaccination coverage among children aged 12-23 months. There is a need to raise the awareness of community about vaccination and EPI services in Al-Taizyah district.

  10. An investigation into prospective memory in children with developmental dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Azizuddin eKhan; Azizuddin eKhan

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia hinders reading and writing acquisition of around 5-10 % of the children all over the world. However, little is known about role of prospective memory among dyslexics. Prospective memory is realization of delayed intention. Realization of delayed intention requires self initiated process. The present study explored the role of memory (prospective and retrospective memory), meta-memory and attention among dyslexic’s children. One hundred and fifteen children (51 dyslexic...

  11. An investigation into prospective memory in children with developmental dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Azizuddin

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia hinders reading and writing acquisition of around 5–10% of the children all over the world. However, little is known about role of prospective memory among dyslexics. Prospective memory is realization of delayed intention. Realization of delayed intention requires self initiated process. The present study explored the role of memory (prospective and retrospective memory), meta-memory and attention among dyslexic's children. One hundred and fifteen children (51 dyslexics...

  12. Investigating shadows: a pedagogical intervention project with primary school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noversa, Silvana; Abreu, Cátia; Varela, Paulo; Costa, Manuel F. M.

    2014-07-01

    This communication results from a pedagogical intervention project, carried out at a primary school in the district of Braga - Portugal. The intervention took place in a class of the 3rd year, composed of 16 students, and it incorporated the practice of inquiry-based science teaching addressing the theme "Light Experiments", which is part of the "Environmental Studies" curricular area. Various class activities were planned and implemented concerning some of the factors that influence the shadow of an object, in order to find answers to the following three questions: a) will 3rd year students, aged 7/8 years, be able to construct and execute an investigation strategy that involves manipulating and controlling variables? b) what are the main difficulties experienced by students in the designing and execution of such a strategy? c) how will students, in interaction with the teacher and with their peers, gradually design and execute their investigation strategy in order to respond to the problem formulated? The project adopted an action research methodology. A careful record was kept of the events most relevant to the questions under study in each class. This data was used to prepare the class diaries - descriptive and reflective narratives prepared based on recorded audio and field notes made during participant observation in the context of the classroom. A content analysis of the diaries has identified a few elements that provide answers to the research questions raised. In order to plan and implement a research project with children in the 7/8 years old range require a high level of scaffolding to allow students to gradually build a coherent strategy to tackle the research problem. Teacher's role is crucial. The teacher, by questioning and inducing reasoning and discussion, promotes encourages and regulates the cognitive activity of students. Some level of autonomy should be given to the students in large group collaborative work.

  13. Investigating whether children's transition from pre-operational stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pretest-posttest quasiexperimental design with random assignment of children to experimental and control groups were employed to examine possible ... There was no difference between the male and female children at the pre-operational stage in their characteristic way of thinking before the intervention strategy.

  14. Timeliness of childhood vaccine uptake among children attending a tertiary health service facility-based immunisation clinic in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laryea, Dennis Odai; Abbeyquaye Parbie, Emmanuel; Frimpong, Ebenezer

    2014-01-29

    Childhood immunisation is a cost-effective activity in health. Immunisation of children has contributed to reducing child morbidity and mortality. In the last two decades, global deaths from vaccine-preventable illnesses have decreased significantly as a result of immunisation. Similar trends have been observed in Ghana following the introduction of the Expanded Programme on Immunisation. The administration of vaccines is based on the period of highest susceptibility among others. Ghana has long used the proportion of children receiving vaccines and the trends in vaccine preventable illness incidence as performance indicators for immunisation. The addition of timeliness of vaccine uptake as an additional performance indicator has been recommended. This study evaluated the timeliness of vaccine uptake among children immunised at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana. The study was conducted at the Maternal and Child Health clinic of the hospital between February and March 2012. A representative sample of 259 respondents was selected by simple random sampling. Data collection was by a structured questionnaire and included the examination of Child Health records booklet. Data was entered into a Microsoft Office Access database and analysed using Epi Info Version 3.5.1 2008. The majority of mothers attended antenatal clinics during pregnancy. An overwhelming majority of babies (98.8%) were delivered in a hospital. About 85% of babies were less than 12 months of age. Mean time taken to reach the clinic was 30 minutes. Vaccine uptake was generally timely for initial vaccines. The proportion of children receiving the vaccines later increased with latter vaccines. Overall, 87.3% of babies received vaccines on time with only 5.3% receiving vaccines beyond 28 days of the scheduled date. Children receiving immunisations services in the same facility as they were born were more likely to receive the BCG vaccine on time. Vaccine uptake is mostly timely among

  15. Using Pupillometry to Investigate Sentence Comprehension in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Youssef, George J.; Clark, Gillian M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In this study pupillometry was used to investigate the allocation of attentional resources associated with sentence comprehension in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Eighteen children with SLI (age: M = 6.4 years) and 18 typically developing (TD) children (age: M = 6.3 years) participated in the study.…

  16. Investigating gaze of children with ASD in naturalistic settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basilio Noris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual behavior is known to be atypical in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. Monitor-based eye-tracking studies have measured several of these atypicalities in individuals with Autism. While atypical behaviors are known to be accentuated during natural interactions, few studies have been made on gaze behavior in natural interactions. In this study we focused on i whether the findings done in laboratory settings are also visible in a naturalistic interaction; ii whether new atypical elements appear when studying visual behavior across the whole field of view. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten children with ASD and ten typically developing children participated in a dyadic interaction with an experimenter administering items from the Early Social Communication Scale (ESCS. The children wore a novel head-mounted eye-tracker, measuring gaze direction and presence of faces across the child's field of view. The analysis of gaze episodes to faces revealed that children with ASD looked significantly less and for shorter lapses of time at the experimenter. The analysis of gaze patterns across the child's field of view revealed that children with ASD looked downwards and made more extensive use of their lateral field of view when exploring the environment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data gathered in naturalistic settings confirm findings previously obtained only in monitor-based studies. Moreover, the study allowed to observe a generalized strategy of lateral gaze in children with ASD when they were looking at the objects in their environment.

  17. Investigating Gaze of Children with ASD in Naturalistic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noris, Basilio; Nadel, Jacqueline; Barker, Mandy; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Billard, Aude

    2012-01-01

    Background Visual behavior is known to be atypical in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Monitor-based eye-tracking studies have measured several of these atypicalities in individuals with Autism. While atypical behaviors are known to be accentuated during natural interactions, few studies have been made on gaze behavior in natural interactions. In this study we focused on i) whether the findings done in laboratory settings are also visible in a naturalistic interaction; ii) whether new atypical elements appear when studying visual behavior across the whole field of view. Methodology/Principal Findings Ten children with ASD and ten typically developing children participated in a dyadic interaction with an experimenter administering items from the Early Social Communication Scale (ESCS). The children wore a novel head-mounted eye-tracker, measuring gaze direction and presence of faces across the child's field of view. The analysis of gaze episodes to faces revealed that children with ASD looked significantly less and for shorter lapses of time at the experimenter. The analysis of gaze patterns across the child's field of view revealed that children with ASD looked downwards and made more extensive use of their lateral field of view when exploring the environment. Conclusions/Significance The data gathered in naturalistic settings confirm findings previously obtained only in monitor-based studies. Moreover, the study allowed to observe a generalized strategy of lateral gaze in children with ASD when they were looking at the objects in their environment. PMID:23028494

  18. Gender Stereotypes of Children's Toys: Investigating the Perspectives of Adults Who Have and Do Not Have Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekee, Kristy; Brown, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Often certain types of toys are considered more appropriate either for boys or for girls to play with. Therapists often use toys to engage children in intervention activities to promote skill development. This study investigated the gender stereotype perspectives of children's toys held by adults who were and were not parents. Fifty-two…

  19. IL-12Rβ1 deficiency in two of fifty children with severe tuberculosis from Iran, Morocco, and Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In the last decade, autosomal recessive IL-12Rβ1 deficiency has been diagnosed in four children with severe tuberculosis from three unrelated families from Morocco, Spain, and Turkey, providing proof-of-principle that tuberculosis in otherwise healthy children may result from single-gene inborn errors of immunity. We aimed to estimate the fraction of children developing severe tuberculosis due to IL-12Rβ1 deficiency in areas endemic for tuberculosis and where parental consanguinity is common. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched for IL12RB1 mutations in a series of 50 children from Iran, Morocco, and Turkey. All children had established severe pulmonary and/or disseminated tuberculosis requiring hospitalization and were otherwise normally resistant to weakly virulent BCG vaccines and environmental mycobacteria. In one child from Iran and another from Morocco, homozygosity for loss-of-function IL12RB1 alleles was documented, resulting in complete IL-12Rβ1 deficiency. Despite the small sample studied, our findings suggest that IL-12Rβ1 deficiency is not a very rare cause of pediatric tuberculosis in these countries, where it should be considered in selected children with severe disease. SIGNIFICANCE: This finding may have important medical implications, as recombinant IFN-γ is an effective treatment for mycobacterial infections in IL-12Rβ1-deficient patients. It also provides additional support for the view that severe tuberculosis in childhood may result from a collection of single-gene inborn errors of immunity.

  20. Malnutrition and poor oral health status are major risks among primary school children at Lasbela, Balochistan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustufa, Muhammad Ayaz; Jamali, Abdul Karim; Sameen, Ifra; Burfat, Fateh Muhammad; Baloch, Mir Yousaf; Baloch, Abdul Hameed; Baloch, Ghulam Rasool; Lashari, Shazia Kulsoom; Ayaz, Sobiya Mohiuddin; Baloch, Muhammad Younus

    2017-05-19

    This survey was focusing on health and oral hygiene status of primary school children at Lasbela district considering the comparatively less developed and socio demographically deprived part of the Country. A cross sectional survey was conducted to determine the health status of primary school children in seven tehseels of district Lasbela, Balochistan after applying proportionate sampling technique from March 2015 to July 2015. Field teams visited assigned schools to screen children and collect health related data on predesigned and pre coded proforma. Out of 200 schools, 196 schools found opened, while 2% of schools (04) remained closed. A total of 6363 students were clinically screened. About 45% of the school children had normal body mass index (BMI) and rest were falling in different categories of malnutrition. More than 19% had ear, nose and throat (ENT) problems and around 19% presented with clinical anemia. Less than 50% of children had scar of BCG vaccination and 4% informed about use of gutka/supari chewing (smokeless tobacco use). In conclusion, we estimated high prevalence of malnutrition, poor oral health including smokeless tobacco use, and low BCG coverage among primary school children at Lasbela. Current scenario suggests immediate and contextually focused interventions to confine existing public health risks and avoid future burden of disease.

  1. A Meta-Analysis of Cross Sectional Studies Investigating Language in Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Powell, Martine; Timms, Lydia; Snow, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this review article, meta-analysis was used to summarize research investigating language skills in maltreated children. Method: A systematic search of published studies was undertaken. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they investigated language skills in groups comprising maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Studies were…

  2. An investigation into prospective memory in children with developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Azizuddin

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia hinders reading and writing acquisition of around 5-10% of the children all over the world. However, little is known about role of prospective memory among dyslexics. Prospective memory is realization of delayed intention. Realization of delayed intention requires self initiated process. The present study explored the role of memory (prospective and retrospective memory), meta-memory and attention among dyslexic's children. One hundred and fifteen children (51 dyslexics and 64 normal controls) participated in the study. Prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire, everyday attention questionnaire and meta-memory were administered on children. Analysis of variance was used to analyses the data. All the main effects were significant. Some interactions were also found to be significant. Results suggest that dyslexic's performance on memory (prospective and retrospective memory) was worse than normal control. Meta-memory influences both dyslexics and normal control on prospective and retrospective memory. However, meta-memory affected dyslexics much more than normal control group. Similarly, significant differential effects were observed for simple, difficult and mixed attentional condition among between dyslexics and normal control. Dyslexic's performance was deteriorated as compared to normal control group. The findings of the study are discussed in the light of the existing literature.

  3. Investigating Children's Multiplicative Thinking: Implications for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Chris; Hurrell, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Multiplicative thinking is a "big idea" of mathematics that underpins much of the mathematics learned beyond the early primary school years. This article reports on a recent study that utilised an interview tool and a written quiz to gather data about children's multiplicative thinking. Our research has so far revealed that many primary…

  4. An investigation into prospective memory in children with developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizuddin eKhan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyslexia hinders reading and writing acquisition of around 5-10 % of the children all over the world. However, little is known about role of prospective memory among dyslexics. Prospective memory is realization of delayed intention. Realization of delayed intention requires self initiated process. The present study explored the role of memory (prospective and retrospective memory, meta-memory and attention among dyslexic’s children. One hundred and fifteen children (51 dyslexics and 64 normal controls participated in the study. Prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire, everyday attention questionnaire and meta-memory were administered on children. Analysis of variance was used to analyses the data. All the main effects were significant. Some interactions were also found to be significant. Results suggest that dyslexic’s performance on memory (prospective and retrospective memory was worse than normal control. Meta-memory influences both dyslexics and normal control on prospective and retrospective memory. However, meta-memory affected dyslexics much more than normal control group. Similarly, significant differential effects were observed for simple, difficult and mixed attentional condition among between dyslexics and normal control. Dyslexic’s performance was deteriorated as compared to normal control group. The findings of the study are discussed in the light of the existing literature.Keywords: Meta-memory, Phoneme, Phonological awareness,and Visuo-spatial sktechpad

  5. Investigation of Environmental Problem Solving Skills of Preschool Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulutas, Aysegül; Köksalan, Bahadir

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine problem-solving skills of preschool age children on environment as well as factors affecting this skill. For this purpose, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together in the study and the research was designed in the screening model. This study is a descriptive type research since it…

  6. Investigating Children's Conceptions of the Brain: First Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoszeck, Amauri Betini; Bartoszeck, Flavio Kulevicz

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports data, part of a cross-sectional study about the use of pupil's drawings as a means of probing the development of 195 Brazilian pre-school children (4 to 6 year-olds) and 681 primary school pupils 1st Grade through 4th Grade (7 to 10 years of age) conceptions of the human brain. The aims of the present study is to analyze how the…

  7. An investigation of prospective memory in children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, K A; Price, K J

    2001-09-01

    Prospective memory, defined as the ability to follow through on intended behavior, is believed to be subserved by a number of neuroanatomical substrates, but particularly dependent, at least in part, on the frontal lobes. Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) traditionally have difficulty on tasks dependent on frontal lobe structures. The present study attempted to determine whether children with ADHD are impaired in prospective memory function. Two studies are described that use a new measure of time-based prospective memory, the CyberCruiser (Kerns, 2000), to compare children with ADHD to a control group consisting of participants who were matched in respect to age, gender, and IQ. The results document prospective memory deficits in ADHD. Prospective memory performance correlated significantly with clinical measures of ADHD as assessed by the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (Conners, 1990) Hyperactivity Index, but was unrelated to intellectual ability. Though psychometric measures of attention correlated with prospective memory performance, they did not account for the differences in prospective memory that were observed between the ADHD and control groups.

  8. A longitudinal investigation of nutrition and dietary patterns in children of mothers with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Abigail; Naumann, Ulrike; Northstone, Kate; Schmidt, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2013-07-01

    To investigate dietary patterns and nutritional intake in children of mothers with eating disorders. Mothers (N = 9423) from a longitudinal general population birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, completed Food Frequency Questionnaires on their children at 3, 4, 7, and 9 years of age. Macronutrient intake was estimated, and dietary patterns were obtained using principal components analysis. Linear regression and mixed-effects models were used to assess dietary patterns and nutritional intake among children of women with lifetime anorexia nervosa (AN, n = 140), bulimia nervosa (BN, n = 170), or AN+BN (n = 71), compared with children of women without eating disorders (unexposed women, n = 9037). Children in the maternal AN and BN groups had higher scores on the "health conscious/vegetarian" dietary pattern compared with unexposed children. Less adherence to the "traditional" dietary pattern was observed in children of exposed mothers, with more pronounced differences in early childhood. Children of women with AN and BN had higher intake of energy and children of women with BN had higher intake of carbohydrates and starch and lower intake of fat, compared with children in the unexposed group. Maternal eating disorders are associated with altered offspring dietary patterns and macronutrient intake. Longitudinal changes in patterns of diet in children of women with eating disorders may increase the risk of weight gain or disordered eating later in life. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigating of Memory - Colours of Intellectually Disabled Children and Virtual Game Addict Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sik Lányi, Cecília

    We describe an investigation of memory colours. For this investigation Flash test software was developed. 75 observers used this test software in 4 groups: average elementary school children (aged: 8-9 years), intellectually disabled children (age: 9-15), virtual game addict university students (average age: 20) and university students who play with VR games rarely or never (average age: 20). In this pilot test we investigated the difference of memory colours of these 4 groups.

  10. The effect of drawing on children's experiences of investigations following alleged child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Carmit; Barnetz, Zion; Hershkowitz, Irit

    2014-05-01

    The primary aim of the study was to evaluate investigative interviews from the perspectives of the children, comparing children who drew with children who did not. One hundred twenty-five children, alleged victims of sexual abuse, were asked about their investigative experience. The uniqueness of the study is that all of the interviews were conducted according to the NICHD Protocol and that children were randomly assigned into one of the two research conditions (drawing vs. non-drawing). The results clearly demonstrate the advantage that drawing has on the children's experience of the investigation, with children in the drawing group more often reporting feelings of hope and success. This study provides practical guidelines for practitioners by emphasizing the beneficial effects that drawing can have. The study stresses the importance of integrating into forensic investigations interventions that enhance children's testimonies and ensure that the investigation is an empowering experience that generates feelings of trust, self-worth, and justice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigations and findings in children with spina-bifida

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    Klingmueller, V.; Rutz, A.

    1982-06-01

    Physicians from different fields work together in the care of spina-liefide children. A central position occupy the pediatric physician as a primary reference person and the pediatric radiologist. There has to be a free exchange of ideas and thoughts between them. That is why anyone of them has to know the problems of the other. For the radiologist this means, that he or she has to acquire detailed knowledge of the desease symptoms and of the therapeutic possibilities, so that he or she will be able to work on a diagnostic that is suited for the particular patient.

  12. The dead end of domestic violence: spotlight on children's narratives during forensic investigations following domestic homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Carmit

    2014-12-01

    The current study provides an in-depth exploration of the narratives of children who witnessed their father killing their mother. This exploration was conducted using a thematic analysis of the children's forensic interviews based on seven investigative interviews that were conducted with children following the domestic homicide. Investigative interviews were selected for study only for substantiated cases and only if the children disclosed the domestic homicide. All of the investigative interviews were conducted within 24h of the domestic homicide. Thematic analysis revealed the following four key categories: the domestic homicide as the dead end of domestic violence, what I did when daddy killed mommy, that one time that daddy killed mommy, and mommy will feel better and will go back home. The discussion examines the multiple layers of this phenomenon as revealed in the children's narratives and its consequences for professionals within the legal and clinical contexts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fatores de risco para morte por pneumonia em menores de um ano em uma região metropolitana do sudeste do Brasil: um estudo tipo caso-controle Risk factors for death by pneumonia among children under one year of age in a metropolitan area of Southeastern Brazil: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria Leal Niobey

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available Através de um estudo tipo caso-controle, foi comparada uma amostra de óbitos pós-neonatais por pneumonia ocorridos na Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (1986-1987 e controles sadios, moradores na vizinhança. Os fatores de risco investigados foram variáveis relacionadas à história gestacional da mãe e ao nascimento da criança, às condições sociais da família e à utilização de serviços de saúde. Na primeira etapa de análise, através de um modelo de regressão logística univariada, foram estimados os coeficientes de cada variável independente, o risco relativo e seus limites de confiança. O peso ao nascer e a idade do desmame mostraram-se das mais fortemente associadas com a variável dependente. Na segunda etapa, foi feito o ajuste pelo modelo de regressão logística múltipla e somente 4 variáveis permaneceram estatisticamente associadas com a mortalidade: idade do desmame, peso ao nascer, número de moradores da casa e aplicação da vacina BCG. Conclui-se que a mortalidade por pneumonia em menores de um ano está fortemente associada às condições sociais da família, em particular da mãe.In a case-control study, a sample of post-neonatal deaths from pneumonia occurring in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1986-1987 were compared with healthy controls who lived in the same neighborhood. Risk factors investigated were variables related to the mother's pregnancy history and the child's birth, to the family's social condition and to the use of health services. Using the univariate logistic regression model, the coefficients of each independent variable, the relative risk and its confidence limits were first estimated. Birth weight and age of weaning were strongly associated with the dependent variable. After adjustment by means of the multiple logistic regression model, only 4 variables remained statistically associated with mortality: age of weaning, birth weight, over crowding, and BCG

  14. Investigation of language and motor skills in Serbian speaking children with specific language impairment and in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Mile; Vukovic, Irena; Stojanovik, Vesna

    2010-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is usually defined as a developmental language disorder which does not result from a hearing loss, autism, neurological and emotional difficulties, severe social deprivation, low non-verbal abilities. Children affected with SLI typically have difficulties with the acquisition of different aspects of language and by definition, their impairment is specific to language and no other skills are affected. However, there has been a growing body of literature to suggest that children with SLI also have non-linguistic deficits, including impaired motor abilities. The aim of the current study is to investigate language and motor abilities of a group of thirty children with SLI (aged between 4 and 7) in comparison to a group of 30 typically developing children matched for chronological age. The results showed that the group of children with SLI had significantly more difficulties on the language and motor assessments compared to the control group. The SLI group also showed delayed onset in the development of all motor skills under investigation in comparison to the typically developing group. More interestingly, the two groups differed with respect to which language abilities were correlated with motor abilities, however Imitation of Complex Movements was the unique skill which reliably predicted expressive vocabulary in both typically developing children and in children with SLI. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An Investigation of Korean Children's Prejudicial Attitudes toward a National Tragedy in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkang; Chang, Heesun

    2014-01-01

    Prejudice against another nation or culture is often perceived as a major hindrance to world peace. This paper will report on the early emergence of such prejudices, identified in eight-year-old primary school children in Korea. The research, conducted in June 2012, investigated Korean children's reactions to the Japanese tsunami of 2011. A…

  16. Role of Working Memory in Children's Understanding Spoken Narrative: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, James W.; Polunenko, Anzhela; Marinellie, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    The role of phonological short-term memory (PSTM), attentional resource capacity/allocation, and processing speed on children's spoken narrative comprehension was investigated. Sixty-seven children (6-11 years) completed a digit span task (PSTM), concurrent verbal processing and storage (CPS) task (resource capacity/allocation), auditory-visual…

  17. Investigating Speech Perception in Children with Dyslexia: Is There Evidence of a Consistent Deficit in Individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoud-Galusi, Souhila; Hazan, Valerie; Rosen, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The claim that speech perception abilities are impaired in dyslexia was investigated in a group of 62 children with dyslexia and 51 average readers matched in age. Method: To test whether there was robust evidence of speech perception deficits in children with dyslexia, speech perception in noise and quiet was measured using 8 different…

  18. Weight Status in Iranian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Investigation of Underweight, Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memari, Amir Hossein; Kordi, Ramin; Ziaee, Vahid; Mirfazeli, Fatemeh Sadat; Setoodeh, Mohammad S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the weight status of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Iranian pupils and further to investigate the most likely associated factors such as demographics, autism severity and medications. The survey was designed to provide a random sample of 113 children and adolescents (boys =…

  19. Investigation of the Effects of Brain Teasers on Attention Spans of Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Meryem; Hazar, Muhsin; Hazar, Zekihan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of brain teasers on attention spans of preschool children of age six. The study was conducted using an experimental design with a control group and pre-test/post-test. The sample of the study is children of age six selected via random appointment among ones who were enrolled in the Merkez…

  20. An Investigation of the Role of Sequencing in Children's Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouldthorp, Bethanie; Katsipis, Lia; Mueller, Cara

    2018-01-01

    To date, little is known about the high-level language skills and cognitive processes underlying reading comprehension in children. The present study aimed to investigate whether children with high, compared with low, reading comprehension differ in their sequencing skill, which was defined as the ability to identify and recall the temporal order…

  1. Genital herpes in children under 11 years and investigations for sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, Richard; Hughes, Gwenda; Hill, Julia; Debelle, Geoff

    2011-08-01

    The implications for sexual abuse investigation of genital herpes in a child are uncertain because of a lack of good quality research evidence. The incidence, presenting features, history of exposure, indicators of child maltreatment and outcomes of child protection investigations in children with genital herpes are described. Ascertainment of all cases of genital herpes in children herpes simplex type 1, eight were tested for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and only one had a full STI screen. Three cases had other clinical features suggestive of sexual abuse. Six cases were referred for child protection investigation, but no sexual abuse was substantiated. Genital herpes in children under 11 years is rare. Almost a third of children diagnosed with genital herpes did not have appropriate virological investigation and few were screened for other STIs. Around a quarter of cases were referred to child protection agencies for further investigation, which limits any inferences in this study about mode of transmission in children. Sexual abuse guidance should emphasise the need for thorough assessment and investigation in cases of genital herpes in children.

  2. Using fMRI to Investigate Memory in Young Children Born Small for Gestational Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bie, Henrica M A; de Ruiter, Michiel B; Ouwendijk, Mieke; Oostrom, Kim J; Wilke, Marko; Boersma, Maria; Veltman, Dick J; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to infants being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA is associated with differences in brain anatomy and impaired cognition. We investigated learning and memory in children born SGA using neuropsychological testing and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). 18 children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and 34 SGA born children (18 with and 16 without postnatal catch-up growth) participated in this study. All children were between 4 and 7 years old. Cognitive functioning was assessed by IQ and memory testing (Digit/Word Span and Location Learning). A newly developed fMRI picture encoding task was completed by all children in order to assess brain regions involved in memory processes. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated that SGA children had IQ's within the normal range but lower than in AGA and poorer performances across measures of memory. Using fMRI, we observed memory related activity in posterior parahippocampal gyrus as well as the hippocampus proper. Additionally, activation was seen bilaterally in the prefrontal gyrus. Children born SGA showed less activation in the left parahippocampal region compared to AGA. This is the first fMRI study demonstrating different brain activation patterns in 4-7 year old children born SGA, suggesting that intrauterine growth restriction continues to affect neural functioning in children later-on.

  3. Investigating Phonological Awareness in Persian-Speaking Children With Phonological Disorders

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    Shakeri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background In terms of error patterns, children with phonological disorders (PD are a heterogeneous population. These children are at risk for phonological awareness (PA deficits. Objectives This study aimed to investigate phonological awareness in Persian-speaking children with phonological disorders. Patients and Methods Thirty-six children with PD aged 5 - 6 years were selected by a convenience sampling method during 12 months. Children with PD were divided into three groups according to their error patterns. Fourteen normally developing (ND children were selected as the control group. In order to equalize socioeconomic status, ND children were similar to the PD groups based on age, residential area, and mothers’ educational attainments. Language, speech sound production, oro-motor, and PA skills were investigated. Intra-syllabic and phonological awareness (PA were compared to investigate PA skills in the four groups. Relation between percent consonant correct (PCC and PA was also investigated in the four groups. Fourteen children with phonological delay, 12 children with consistent atypical phonological disorders (CAP, and 10 children with inconsistent phonological disorders (ICP formed the PD groups. Results The CAP group showed significant difference with the ND group in alliteration (P = 0.001, rhyme (P = 0.001, identification of words with the same initial phoneme (P = 0.002, and identification of words with the same final phoneme (P = 0.001 [except blending phonemes (P = 0.504]. Though performing more poorly, the delayed group did not show significant difference with ND group (P > 0.05. The ICP and ND groups did not show significant difference in PA except in identifying words with the same final phoneme (P = 0.008. The relation between PCC and PA was observed only in the CAP group (P = 0.021. Conclusions The results suggested that PA skills in children with phonological disorders are affected by error type. We also found the type of

  4. No one likes a copycat: a cross-cultural investigation of children's response to plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Shaw, A; Garduno, E; Olson, K R

    2014-05-01

    Copying other people's ideas is evaluated negatively by American children and adults. The current study investigated the influence of culture on children's evaluations of plagiarism by comparing children from three countries--the United States, Mexico, and China--that differ in terms of their emphasis on the protection of intellectual property and ideas. Children (3- to 6-year-olds) were presented with videos involving two characters drawing pictures and were asked to evaluate the character who drew unique work or the character who copied someone else's drawing. The study showed that 5- and 6-year-olds from all three cultures evaluated copiers negatively compared with unique drawers. These results suggest that children from cultures that place different values on the protection of ideas nevertheless develop similar concerns with plagiarism by 5-year-olds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation on Down's syndrome in the children living in high background radiation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha Yongru

    1989-01-01

    After the survey in 1975 and 1979 of Down's syndrome in the children living in high background radiation area, we made a follow-up investigation in 1985 and 1986. All the obtained data are analysed. 25258 children in high background radiation area were examined and 22 children with Down's syndrome were identified, the morbidity rate being 0.87%. 21837 children in control area were examined and four children with Down's syndrome were identified, the morbidity being 0.18%. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups. It was noted that the occurrence of Down's syndrome was related to the maternal age but there was no evidence suggesting a close relationship between high background radiation and the development of Down's syndrome

  6. A review of the literature on the economics of vaccination against TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hong-Anh T; Vu, Hoa D; Rozenbaum, Mark H; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Postma, Maarten J

    2012-03-01

    The BCG vaccine was introduced in 1921 and remains the only licensed vaccine for the prevention of TB worldwide. Despite its extensive use, the BCG vaccine lacks the ability to fully control the TB-endemic and -pandemic situations. The BCG vaccine is most effective in preventing pediatric TB, in particular, miliary TB and tuberculous meningitis. However, it has a limited effect in preventing pulmonary TB, which occurs more frequently in adults. BCG vaccination has now been implemented in more than 157 countries worldwide. For various countries, the benefits of vaccination are only limited and potentially not cost effective. The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases had set the criteria for discontinuation of BCG vaccination in 1994. This decision, however, was not based on economic considerations. Many developed countries have met the criteria set by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease and stopped universal BCG vaccination. For developing countries, the BCG vaccine is still an effective intervention in protecting young children from TB infection. A lot of effort has been spent on R&D of new TB vaccines, the first of which are expected to be available within 5-7 years from now. Novel TB vaccines are expected to be better and more effective than the current BCG vaccine and should provide a viable strategy in controlling TB morbidity and mortality. In this review, the aim is to explore economic evaluations that have been carried out for vaccination against TB worldwide. In addition to epidemiological evidence, economic evidence can play a crucial role in supporting the governments of countries in making proper public health decisions on BCG vaccination policies, in particular, to implement, continue, or discontinue.

  7. The Architecture of Children's Relationships with Nature: A Phenomenographic Investigation Seen through Drawings and Written Narratives of Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvaitis, Darius; Monhardt, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    How do young children portray and describe their relationships with nature? In what ways do young children's relationships with nature vary by grade level? These two research questions guided this phenomenographic study, which investigated developmental differences in children's relationships with nature. A total of 176 children, aged 6-11, from…

  8. Teaching minority children hygiene: investigating hygiene education in kindergartens and homes of ethnic minority children in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence the learning of hygiene of pre-school ethnic minority children in rural Vietnam. Eight months of ethnographic field studies were conducted among four ethnic minority groups living in highland and lowland communities in northern Vietnam. Data included participant observation in four kindergartens and 20 homes of pre-school children, together with 67 semi-structured interviews with caregivers and five kindergarten staff. Thematic analysis was applied and concepts of social learning provided inputs to the analysis. This study showed that poor living conditions with lack of basic sanitation infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified as potentially important institutions for improving child hygiene education, essential and well-functioning hygiene infrastructures were lacking. Also, hygiene teaching relied on theoretical and non-practice-based learning styles, which did not facilitate hygiene behaviour change in small children. Minority children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt a strong practice-based teaching approach in daily work and in teacher's education. To support highland minority children in particular, teaching styles must take local living conditions and caregiver structures into account

  9. Investigator's Guide to Missing Child Cases. For Law-Enforcement Officers Locating Missing Children. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, John C.

    This booklet provides guidance to law enforcement officers investigating missing children cases, whether through parental kidnappings, abductions by strangers, runaway or "throwaway" cases, and those in which the circumstances are unknown. The guide describes, step-by-step, the investigative process required for each of the four types of missing…

  10. STUDY OF BCG SCAR AND SERUM ADA LEVELS IN INFANTS

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    Harishchandra Venkata Yanamandala

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In developing countries, in both adults and children, tuberculosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. In 1993, it is declared as the first infectious disease by global health emergency.1 According to WHO report globally, there were an estimated 9.27 million ancient cases of TB in 2009. The cases reported were 8.3 million, the children covered an estimated percentage of 11 and it ranged from 3-25 percent.2 BCG vaccination was advocated for prevention of tuberculosis in children. The aim of the study is to estimate serum ADA levels in newborns before BCG vaccination, serum ADA levels in children with and without BCG scar, after receiving BCG vaccination, serum ADA levels in children without BCG vaccination and to find significance of serum ADA levels in BCG vaccinated children by comparing the above groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted at the Department of Paediatrics, Gitam Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Institute, October 2015 to September 2016. Babies who were in postnatal ward and infants of age of 12 weeks attending for BCG vaccination were included in the study. The total numbers of infants studied were 150. RESULTS In our study, out of 120 children included in the study before BCG vaccination comprising group-1, 61% were males and 39% were females. Out of 120 children received BCG vaccination, only 100 came for follow up comprising group-2, of which 67 (67% were males and 33 (33% were females. 15 children who did not receive BCG vaccination at 12 weeks of age were included in group 3 out of which 11 (73.33% were males and 4 (26.67% were females. Mean ADA levels at the age of 12 weeks in group-2 who were vaccinated at birth were 30.89 ± 5.27 U/L compared to mean ADA levels at the age of 12 weeks in group-3, which was 15.47 ± 1.85 U/L. This shows significant rise in mean ADA levels at 12 weeks of age in those who were vaccinated at birth comprising group-2 compared to their mean ADA

  11. Investigation and analysis of etiology of down's syndrome in children of high background radiation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha Yongru

    1985-01-01

    In order to find out what caused the differences in incidences of Down's syndrome between the children in high background radiation area and those in control area, investigation and analysis were carried ou in 5 aspects based on the original data and the information from the previous survey. These are: the incidences of congenital malformations in normal areas, the age distribution of children examined, the maternal age, the dates of birth of afflicted children, and the radiation exposure of mothers. The results suggested that the higher incidence of Down's syndrome in high background area might be related to the materal age. Further studies are needed to arrive at a conclusion

  12. Cytokine profile in children with newly diagnosed tuberculosis

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    O. M. Raznatovska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the most important task of children's phthisiology is to increase the effectiveness of children with tuberculosis treatment, and in the first priority should be given to the first time diagnosed tuberculosis (FTDTB. Examination of the immune system state by cytokine profile in blood serum studying is paid to sufficient attention, as cytokines are the system which regulates the entire complex of organism protective reactions, and immunological dysregulation is the cause of pathological process increasing. There few data of the cytokine profile state studying in children with FTDTB inUkraine in the available literature and various combinations of cytokines comprehensively with other immunological parameters are studied. According to our studies of the blood serum cytokine profile state in adult patients with tuberculosis, the reliable indices of immune system changes are interleukin (IL-2, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10. The aim of the work is to study the indicators of blood serum cytokine profile (IL-2, IL-6, IL-4, IL-10 in children with FTDTB. Materials and methods. The study of the cytokine profile indicators has been performed in 28 children with FTDTB, aged from 1 to 16 years old (an average age was 9.2 ± 1.1 years. The indicators of the cytokine profile were studied by researching the levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-4, IL-10 in blood serum by ELISA technique on the equipment of Sirio S immuno-enzyme reader using “Bender MedSystems GmbH” (Austria kit (pkg/ml. These indicators were evaluated at the beginning of antimycobacterial therapy intensive phase. Results. Despite the fact that according to the data from BCG vaccination, 42.8 % of children suffering from FTDTB had full immunity, the changes of cytokine profile indicators at the beginning of the disease were determined in 96.4 % of cases. The peculiarities of cytokine profile changes in sick children were a significant decrease in the content of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4, increase in

  13. Children and Discipline: Investigating Secondary School Students’ Perception of Discipline through Metaphors

    OpenAIRE

    Sadik, Fatma

    2018-01-01

    This is a descriptive study investigating the perception of children about discipline through metaphors developed by them. A total of 445 students participated in the research and the data was collected with the “Discipline Metaphors Survey (DMS)” developed by the researchers. At the end of the study, 143 metaphors, 94 positive and 49 negative, about discipline were gathered. The participating children mostly perceived discipline as a phenomenon guiding their behavior, maintaining the order, ...

  14. Microbiological investigation for tuberculosis among HIV-infected children in Soweto, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, L; Muchiri, E; Beylis, C N; Meyers, T; Moultrie, H

    2014-06-01

    A paediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinic in an academic hospital in Soweto, South Africa. 1) To describe and compare the clinical, immunological and virological characteristics of HIV-infected children co-treated for tuberculosis (TB), and 2) to compare those investigated microbiologically with those who were not, with a description of the results of the microbiological TB investigation. Retrospective analysis of TB-HIV-infected children aged tuberculosis treatment was initiated in 616/3358 (18%) children during the study period. Microbiological TB investigation results were available for 399/616 (65%), among whom culture-confirmed TB was diagnosed in 49 (12%). Drug susceptibility testing was performed in 29/49 (59%) children: 5/29 (17%) were isoniazid-resistant, and 3 had multidrug-resistant TB. Children aged >8 years and those between 3 and 8 years were more likely to have culture-confirmed TB than those aged 500 cells/mm(3) (aOR 3.95, 95%CI 1.23-12.72). Our study in HIV-infected children showed a high TB case rate, a low rate of definite TB and a high rate of drug-resistant TB based on World Health Organization case definitions. Increased uptake of available TB tests and availability of new diagnostic tests remains a priority in high TB-HIV burden settings.

  15. Estudo sobre a evolução do risco de infecção tuberculosa em área com elevada cobertura por BCG The trend in the risk of tuberculous infection in an area with wide coverage with BCG vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Ribeiro Arantes

    1985-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir da prevalência de infecção tuberculosa em escolares com 7 anos de idade, calculou-se a taxa de redução do risco anual de infecção na cidade de São Paulo (Brasil, entre 1974 e 1982. Nesse período o declínio médio foi de 5% ao ano. Nas 59 escolas municipais pesquisadas não houve correlação entre a cobertura de vacinação BCG e a prevalência de infecção natural em não-vacinados, à idade estudada. A alergia tuberculínica no grupo de crianças vacinadas, que recebeu a vacina em alguma idade anterior entre o 1° e o 6° ano de vida, revelou-se 2,5 vezes mais intensa do que a alergia no grupo de mesma idade (7 anos, não vacinado previamente. Foram feitos comentários quanto à impropriedade do material utilizado com vistas ao cálculo do verdadeiro valor do risco de infecção tuberculosa na área em questão.The estimation of the risk of tuberculous infection from prevalence data obtained at school-age, in 1974 and in 1982, permitted the determination of the relevant trend in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil, between those years. The risk of infection decreased, on average, by 5% annually during the period. There was no evidence of any association between the proportions of vaccinated children and that of infected children among those unvaccinated, in the 59 schools studied. Tuberculin sensitivity in 7 years old school-children, vaccinated with BCG at any age between the 1st and the 6th year of life was 2.5 times more intense than that in unvaccinaetd children of the same age. With regard to the calculation of the true value of the risk of tuberculous infection, commentaries about the unrealiability of the available data were made.

  16. Severe Sepsis in Severely Malnourished Young Bangladeshi Children with Pneumonia: A Retrospective Case Control Study.

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    Mohammod Jobayer Chisti

    Full Text Available In developing countries, there is no published report on predicting factors of severe sepsis in severely acute malnourished (SAM children having pneumonia and impact of fluid resuscitation in such children. Thus, we aimed to identify predicting factors for severe sepsis and assess the outcome of fluid resuscitation of such children.In this retrospective case-control study SAM children aged 0-59 months, admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh from April 2011 through July 2012 with history of cough or difficult breathing and radiologic pneumonia, who were assessed for severe sepsis at admission constituted the study population. We compared the pneumonic SAM children with severe sepsis (cases = 50 with those without severe sepsis (controls = 354. Severe sepsis was defined with objective clinical criteria and managed with fluid resuscitation, in addition to antibiotic and other supportive therapy, following the standard hospital guideline, which is very similar to the WHO guideline.The case-fatality-rate was significantly higher among the cases than the controls (40% vs. 4%; p<0.001. In logistic regression analysis after adjusting for potential confounders, lack of BCG vaccination, drowsiness, abdominal distension, acute kidney injury, and metabolic acidosis at admission remained as independent predicting factors for severe sepsis in pneumonic SAM children (p<0.05 for all comparisons.We noted a much higher case fatality among under-five SAM children with pneumonia and severe sepsis who required fluid resuscitation in addition to standard antibiotic and other supportive therapy compared to those without severe sepsis. Independent risk factors and outcome of the management of severe sepsis in our study children highlight the importance for defining optimal fluid resuscitation therapy aiming at reducing the case fatality in such children.

  17. An investigation of the impact of nocturnal enuresis on children's self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, J; Butler, R J; Redsell, S A; Evans, J H C

    2002-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the relationship between the self-esteem and the self-image of children with nocturnal enuresis and to examine these in relation to various aspects of clinical and demographic variables. Previous studies investigating the self-esteem of bedwetting children have had mixed findings. Some studies report that children with nocturnal enuresis have a lower self-esteem than their non-bedwetting peers, but other studies report that children with nocturnal enuresis perceive themselves similarly to non-bedwetting children. However, what have not been studied to date are the self-perceptions of bedwetting children treated in community clinics. A total of 114 bedwetting children treated in community clinics provided the sample. School nurses conducted a routine first-visit assessment, collected baseline demographic and social information and invited children to complete the Butler Self-Image Profile and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Age and extent of wetting were not significantly related to self-concept measures. Girls had significantly (p = 0.008) higher scores on positive self-image compared with boys. Children with secondary enuresis also scored higher on positive self-image compared with those with primary nocturnal enuresis (p = 0.02). The Butler self-image scores indicated a number of significant links between positive self-image and enuresis variables, whereas the Coopersmith self-esteem scores generally failed to distinguish between the enuresis variables and closely reflected those of the negative self-image scores. These findings suggest that amongst children with nocturnal enuresis, the most vulnerable in terms of self-image are male, those with primary enuresis and those with a greater number of wet nights a week.

  18. The diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in children in XXI century. Is tuberculin skin test still up to date?

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    Teresa Bielecka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis morbidity rates in Poland have been gradually decreasing. Nevertheless, there are approximately 8 thousand cases being registered annually, which includes almost 3 thousand massively infectious patients. In the last 3 years, around 100 cases/year have been reported among children below 14 years of age. Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis should be considered in all patients who present symptoms suggesting tuberculosis, have had recent contact with a person suffering from lung tuberculosis or are planned to undergo an immunosuppressive treatment. HIV infected patients are also supposed to have screening tests for M. tuberculosis infection performed. For over a 100 years tuberculin skin test (TST was the only test capable of confirming tuberculous infection. TST is based on the assessment of skin reaction to intracutaneous injection of tuberculin. Due to cross-reaction to the injected tuberculin in BCG vaccinated individuals, the correct interpretation of the test is difficult. Since 13 years new immunological assays have been available. They are based on detecting interferon gamma (Interferon Gamma Release Assay – IGRA concentration in blood serum, which has previously been incubated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens absent in the BCG strain. In infected individuals interferon gamma is intensively produced by memory cells in reaction to the contact with previously met Mycobacterium antigens. Many trials have proved IGRA’s high sensitivity and, higher than TST, specificity. Recent guidelines promote the usage of IGRAs, even in children.

  19. Value of Fecal Calprotectin as a Biomarker for Juvenile Polyps in Children Investigated With Colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Ingunn; Nemeth, Artur; Lörinc, Ester; Toth, Ervin; Agardh, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The clinical presentation of colonic juvenile polyps with abdominal discomfort and occult rectal bleedings make them difficult to recognize. The aim of this study was to report the clinical features of colonic juvenile polyps in children referred to colonoscopy and evaluate fecal calprotectin (FCP) as a screening biomarker for their diagnosis. The study included a total of 266 children (range 3.1-19.0 years, median age 15.8 years) investigated with ileocolonoscopy; of whom, 239 (89%) were investigated for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). FCPs were analyzed as a marker of colonic inflammation, and levels polyps were detected in 12 (4.5%) children; the remaining 67 (25.2%) had Crohn disease, 57 (21.4%) ulcerative colitis, 5 (1.9%) unclassified IBD, 4 (1.5%) allergic colitis, bleeding source was localized in 6 (2.3%), and 115 (43.2%) had unspecific or normal findings. FCP was available in 203 (76.3%) children before colonoscopy; levels of FCP were higher in children with juvenile polyps (range 28-2287 mg/kg, median 844 mg/kg) compared with those with normal colonoscopies (range children after polypectomy, of whom all had their FCP levels significantly reduced (range 0-281 mg/kg, median 49 mg/kg, P Colonic juvenile polyps are frequently found in pediatric patients presenting with hematochezia and elevated FCP levels. Colonic juvenile polyps are difficult to differentiate from pediatric IBD without a colonoscopy.

  20. Both very low- and very high in vitro cytokine responses were associated with infant death in low-birth-weight children from Guinea Bissau.

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    Andreas Andersen

    Full Text Available The mechanisms behind heterologous immunity and non-specific effects of vaccines on mortality are not well understood. We examined associations between cytokine responses and subsequent mortality in low-birth-weight infants in Guinea-Bissau.A low-birth-weight trial randomized children to Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG at birth or later according to local policy. Blood samples were obtained from a sub-group at age 6 weeks. Interleukin (IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, interferon (IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were measured in whole-blood cell cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, phytohaemagglutinin (PHA, or purified protein derivative (PPD. The outcome was mortality between bleeding and 1 year of age. Non-linear associations between cytokine responses and mortality were examined.Cytokine measurements were available from 390 children. The mortality rate (MR was high (6.8/100 person-years-observation (PYO. Both low and high cytokine responses to LPS and PHA were associated with high mortality (MR up to 25/100 PYO in the lowest 10% and 9.2/100 PYO in the highest 10%. In BCG-vaccinated children, higher IFN-γ responses to PPD were associated with better survival (MR ratio = 0.43 (0.24-0.77.Data presented a rare opportunity to explore associations between cytokine responses and mortality. Both low and high cytokine responses were associated with high mortality; a balanced response to invading pathogens seems preferable.

  1. Both very low- and very high in vitro cytokine responses were associated with infant death in low-birth-weight children from Guinea Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Andreas; Jensen, Kristoffer J; Erikstrup, Christian; Ravn, Henrik; Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Sartono, Erliyani; Aaby, Peter; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Benn, Christine S

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms behind heterologous immunity and non-specific effects of vaccines on mortality are not well understood. We examined associations between cytokine responses and subsequent mortality in low-birth-weight infants in Guinea-Bissau. A low-birth-weight trial randomized children to Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) at birth or later according to local policy. Blood samples were obtained from a sub-group at age 6 weeks. Interleukin (IL)-5, IL-10, IL-13, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured in whole-blood cell cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or purified protein derivative (PPD). The outcome was mortality between bleeding and 1 year of age. Non-linear associations between cytokine responses and mortality were examined. Cytokine measurements were available from 390 children. The mortality rate (MR) was high (6.8/100 person-years-observation (PYO)). Both low and high cytokine responses to LPS and PHA were associated with high mortality (MR up to 25/100 PYO in the lowest 10% and 9.2/100 PYO in the highest 10%). In BCG-vaccinated children, higher IFN-γ responses to PPD were associated with better survival (MR ratio = 0.43 (0.24-0.77)). Data presented a rare opportunity to explore associations between cytokine responses and mortality. Both low and high cytokine responses were associated with high mortality; a balanced response to invading pathogens seems preferable.

  2. [Investigation of children with congenital cleft lip and palate by Eysenck personality questionnaire(Junior)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H Z; Hu, J F

    1998-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To approach the personality of the children suffering from congenital cleft lip and palate. METHODS: The subject were 50 children (aged 7 to 17) with congenital cleft lip and palate,and 50 normal children as control.Both groups were investigated by Eysenck personality questionnaire EPQ(Junior). RESULTS: According to the general quantitative table of EPQ(Junior),the abnormal cases in cleft group were significantly more than those in control(P<0.005),and also were the abnormal cases in the single quantitative or in the multiple quantitative tables of EPQ(Junior)(P<0.005) respectively. CONCLUSION: The poor personality in children with cleft lip and palate is correlated to the cleft condition.Therefore it is necessary to pay attention to the prevention of poor personality while the cleft lip and palate is treated.

  3. Vaccination timeliness and co-administration among Kenyan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Nina B; Wagner, Abram L; Carlson, Bradley F; Boulton, Matthew L

    2018-03-07

    Timely administration of recommended vaccines requires children to have multiple vaccines co-administered in the first year of life. The objectives of this study were to estimate the proportion of timely vaccinations and the proportion of co-administered vaccines, and to assess the relationship between vaccine co-administration and vaccine timeliness in Kenyan children. Using the 2014 Kenyan Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), we calculated the proportion of children who received co-administered and timely vaccine doses. Co-administration was defined as doses administered on the same day with dates recorded on vaccination cards. Vaccines were considered timely if given within four days before to four weeks after the recommended interval for administration. 10,385 children aged 1-4 years in the Kenyan 2014 DHS dataset had vaccination cards which comprised the study sample. Analysis revealed wide a range for receipt of timely doses, from 90.2% for OPV0 to 56.0% for Measles. Co-administration of the 6-week dose was associated with 2.81 times higher odds of a timely Penta dose 1 (95% CI: 2.28, 3.46) and birth-dose co-administration was associated with a substantial increase in timely BCG vaccination: AOR 7.43 (95% CI: 6.31, 8.75). Though vaccine coverage in Kenya was high, timely vaccination was markedly low, with resultant implications for population immunity and potential spread of communicable diseases in unvaccinated infants. Co-administration of vaccines, place of residence, wealth index, and child age were consistently related to the odds of timely vaccine receipt. These relationships reinforce the importance of dedicating resources to programs that educate low socio-economic groups about the importance of vaccine co-administration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of Quality of Life in Mothers of Children with Spinabifida based on Children\\'s Hoffer Ambulatory Criteria

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    Hamid Dalvand

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mothers of children with spinabifida spend more time to care for their children. Doing this care, depending on the child's functional mobility level can probably cause damage to physical and mental health of mothers. This study aimed to determine the quality of life (QOL of mothers of children with spinabifida (SB, according to the Hoffer levels using the SF-36 questionnaire. Materials & Methods: This research was a descriptive- analitical, cross-sectional study. The sample of this study was consisted of mothers of children with SB (2/5– 14 years old, in Tehran. The sample were selected by convenience sampling in the Rehabilitation Outpatient Clinics of University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, that 203 mothers were assessed in one clinic. Primery measures were the Hoffer criteria for grouping and determine the levels of ambulation in children with SB and the outcome measure was SF-36 questionnaire. Data were analyzed using, t test, ANOVA and MANOVA in SPSS (version 18. Results: In this study, there were significant differences in mean scores on the physical component summary (PCS (P<0/01 and Mental component summary (MCS of SF36 (P<0/01 in mothers of children with SB in Hoffer levels. The significant difference in PCS and MCS of SF36, was related to the level I with the other levels of Hoffer criteria, there were no Significant difference in mean score for the PCS and MCS the QOL of mothers for sex and child's age levels (P<0/05. There were a significant differences in mean PCS and MCS a QOL of mothers in different types of SB (P<0/01. This significant difference was related to aculta with meningocele and myelomeningocele (P<0/01. Conclusion: The dimensions of PCS and MCS of SF36 of mother with SB were affected with types of SB and increasing the levels of Hoffer. In conclusion, Mothers of children with SB require paying attention to their QOL during treatment of the child. In addition, the services should be

  5. An Investigation of Control among Parents of Selectively Mute, Anxious, and Non-Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, Shannon C.; Evans, Mary Ann; McHolm, Angela E.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Boyle, Michael; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined parent-child interactions among three groups: selectively mute, anxious, and non-anxious children in different contexts. The relation between parental control (granting autonomy and high power remarks), child factors (i.e., age, anxiety, verbal participation), and parent anxiety was investigated. Parental control varied by…

  6. The world is a scary place? INvestigating Treatments and Assessment for Children after Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diehle, J.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation provides new insights about treatments and assessment for children who experienced traumatic events. We investigated the comparative effectiveness of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) by means of a

  7. Assessing the Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Language Delayed Children: A Clinical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkus, Gila; Tilley, Ciara; Thomas, Catherine; Hockey, Hannah; Kennedy, Anna; Arnold, Tina; Thorburn, Blair; Jones, Katie; Patel, Bhavika; Pimenta, Claire; Shah, Rena; Tweedie, Fiona; O'Brien, Felicity; Leahy, Ruth; Pring, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) is widely used by speech and language therapists to improve the interactions between children with delayed language development and their parents/carers. Despite favourable reports of the therapy from clinicians, little evidence of its effectiveness is available. We investigated the effects of PCIT as…

  8. Using fMRI to Investigate Memory in Young Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bie, Henrica M. A.; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Ouwendijk, Mieke; Oostrom, Kim J.; Wilke, Marko; Boersma, Maria; Veltman, Dick J.; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A.

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to infants being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA is associated with differences in brain anatomy and impaired cognition. We investigated learning and memory in children born SGA using neuropsychological testing and functional Magnetic

  9. Using fMRI to Investigate Memory in Young Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bie, H.M.A.; de Ruiter, M.B.; Ouwendijk, M.; Oostrom, K.J.; Wilke, M.; Boersma, M.; Veltman, D.J.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to infants being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA is associated with differences in brain anatomy and impaired cognition. We investigated learning and memory in children born SGA using neuropsychological testing and functional

  10. An Open Trial Investigation of a Transdiagnostic Group Treatment for Children with Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Emily L.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the feasibility and preliminary outcomes associated with a transdiagnostic emotion-focused group protocol for the treatment of anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms in youth. Twenty-two children (ages 7 to 12; M = 9.79) with a principal anxiety disorder and varying levels of comorbid depressive symptoms were…

  11. Children and Discipline: Investigating Secondary School Students' Perception of Discipline through Metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadik, Fatma

    2018-01-01

    This is a descriptive study investigating the perception of children about discipline through metaphors developed by them. A total of 445 students participated in the research and the data was collected with the "Discipline Metaphors Survey (DMS)" developed by the researchers. At the end of the study, 143 metaphors, 94 positive and 49…

  12. Cost effectiveness of high resolution computed tomography with interferon-gamma release assay for tuberculosis contact investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowada, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis contact investigation is one of the important public health strategies to control tuberculosis worldwide. Recently, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has been reported as a more accurate radiological method with higher sensitivity and specificity than chest X-ray (CXR) to detect active tuberculosis. In this study, we assessed the cost effectiveness of HRCT compared to CXR in combination with QuantiFERON ® -TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) or the tuberculin skin test (TST) for tuberculosis contact investigation. Methods: We constructed Markov models using a societal perspective on the lifetime horizon. The target population was a hypothetical cohort of immunocompetent 20-year-old contacts with smear-positive tuberculosis patients in developed countries. Six strategies; QFT followed by CXR, QFT followed by HRCT, TST followed by CXR, TST followed by HRCT, CXR alone and HRCT alone were modeled. All costs and clinical benefits were discounted at a fixed annual rate of 3%. Results: In the base-case analysis, QFT followed by HRCT strategy yielded the greatest benefit at the lowest cost ($US 6308.65; 27.56045 quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs])[year 2012 values]. Cost-effectiveness was sensitive to BCG vaccination rate. Conclusions: The QFT followed by HRCT strategy yielded the greatest benefits at the lowest cost. HRCT chest imaging, instead of CXR, is recommended as a cost effective addition to the evaluation and management of tuberculosis contacts in public health policy

  13. Cost effectiveness of high resolution computed tomography with interferon-gamma release assay for tuberculosis contact investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowada, Akiko, E-mail: kowadaa@gmail.com [Kojiya Haneda Healthcare Service, Ota City Public Health Office, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Background: Tuberculosis contact investigation is one of the important public health strategies to control tuberculosis worldwide. Recently, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has been reported as a more accurate radiological method with higher sensitivity and specificity than chest X-ray (CXR) to detect active tuberculosis. In this study, we assessed the cost effectiveness of HRCT compared to CXR in combination with QuantiFERON{sup ®}-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) or the tuberculin skin test (TST) for tuberculosis contact investigation. Methods: We constructed Markov models using a societal perspective on the lifetime horizon. The target population was a hypothetical cohort of immunocompetent 20-year-old contacts with smear-positive tuberculosis patients in developed countries. Six strategies; QFT followed by CXR, QFT followed by HRCT, TST followed by CXR, TST followed by HRCT, CXR alone and HRCT alone were modeled. All costs and clinical benefits were discounted at a fixed annual rate of 3%. Results: In the base-case analysis, QFT followed by HRCT strategy yielded the greatest benefit at the lowest cost ($US 6308.65; 27.56045 quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs])[year 2012 values]. Cost-effectiveness was sensitive to BCG vaccination rate. Conclusions: The QFT followed by HRCT strategy yielded the greatest benefits at the lowest cost. HRCT chest imaging, instead of CXR, is recommended as a cost effective addition to the evaluation and management of tuberculosis contacts in public health policy.

  14. An Investigation of Language Impairment in Persian-Speaking Autistic Children

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    Shahram JamaliNesari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities of language and other forms of communication are among the significant characteristics of autistic children. The goal of the present research is to investigate and compare linguistic properties of Persian-speaking autistic children with their normal counterparts. To this aim, 10 autistic children with age 3-6 years were compared with 10 typically developing children matched on non-verbal IQ and gender. In a 30 minutes free-play session, the speech of each child was recorded and then was analyzed for the phonetic, phonological and morpho-syntactic properties. The findings of the present research showed that there was a statistically significant difference between autistic and normal children in consonant deletion, consonant substitution, the use of stress on inappropriate syllable, atypical intonation, incorrect use of grammatical tense, incorrect use of preposition, inappropriate use of plural nouns and the use of complex sentences (p0/05. The results of this research showed that autistic children in compare to normal ones have more problems in phonetic, phonological, morphological and syntactic features of speech. Therefore, appropriate treatment programs are required to tackle these problems.

  15. A syntactic investigation of verbal autistic, mentally retarded, and normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, S; Bartolucci, G

    1977-06-01

    The syndrome of childhood autism is typified by major abnormalities in language development, yet there are few systematic descriptions of autistic children's linguistic systems. We have, therefore, begun a comprehensive investigation of the language of verbal autistic children and concentrate in this paper on comparing the syntax used by 10 verbal autistic children matched for nonlinguistic mental age with a group of mentally retarded subjects and normal controls. Two different means of assessing syntactic development were utilized: Lee's Developmental Sentence analysis and Chomsky's Transformational analysis. The autistic group was found to rank significantly lower than either the mentally retarded or the normal groups in terms of Developmental Sentence Scores. When a transformational grammar was used to describe the language samples of our subjects the autistic children were typified by a higher error rate and lower level of complexity compared to the other two groups. However, the results also indicate that the grammatical system of autistic children is rule-governed and probably not unlike that of young normal or retarded children. In conclusion, it appears that the syntactic abnormalities characteristic of autism are attributable to an extreme delay in language development as well as to an impaired ability to make use of linguistic rules.

  16. Investigating Autism-Related Symptoms in Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome: A Case Study

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    Jeffrey A. Bennett

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS, a rare genetic disorder caused by the lack of expression of paternal genes from chromosome 15q11-13, has been investigated for autism spectrum disorder (ASD symptomatology in various studies. However, previous findings have been variable, and no studies investigating ASD symptomatology in PWS have exclusively studied children. We aimed to characterize social communication functioning and other ASD-related symptoms in children with PWS, and assessed agreement across measures and rates of ASD diagnosis. Measures included the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2 (ADOS-2, the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ, Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2, Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS, and the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales-II (VABS-II. General adaptive and intellectual skills were also assessed. Clinical best estimate (CBE diagnosis was determined by an experienced developmental pediatrician, based on history and review of all available study measures, and taking into account overall developmental level. Participants included 10 children with PWS, aged 3 to 12 years. Three of the 10 children were male and genetic subtypes were two deletion (DEL and eight uniparental disomy (UPD (with a total of 6 female UPD cases. Although 8 of the 10 children exceeded cut-offs on at least one of the ASD assessments, agreement between parent questionnaires (SCQ, SRS-2, SSIS-RS and observational assessment (ADOS-2 was very poor. None of the children were assigned a CBE diagnosis of ASD, with the caveat that the risk may have been lower because of the predominance of girls in the sample. The lack of agreement between the assessments emphasizes the complexity of interpreting ASD symptom measures in children with PWS.

  17. Investigating Autism-Related Symptoms in Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jeffrey A; Hodgetts, Sandra; Mackenzie, Michelle L; Haqq, Andrea M; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2017-02-28

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a rare genetic disorder caused by the lack of expression of paternal genes from chromosome 15q11-13, has been investigated for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology in various studies. However, previous findings have been variable, and no studies investigating ASD symptomatology in PWS have exclusively studied children. We aimed to characterize social communication functioning and other ASD-related symptoms in children with PWS, and assessed agreement across measures and rates of ASD diagnosis. Measures included the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2 (ADOS-2), the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2), Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS), and the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales-II (VABS-II). General adaptive and intellectual skills were also assessed. Clinical best estimate (CBE) diagnosis was determined by an experienced developmental pediatrician, based on history and review of all available study measures, and taking into account overall developmental level. Participants included 10 children with PWS, aged 3 to 12 years. Three of the 10 children were male and genetic subtypes were two deletion (DEL) and eight uniparental disomy (UPD) (with a total of 6 female UPD cases). Although 8 of the 10 children exceeded cut-offs on at least one of the ASD assessments, agreement between parent questionnaires (SCQ, SRS-2, SSIS-RS) and observational assessment (ADOS-2) was very poor. None of the children were assigned a CBE diagnosis of ASD, with the caveat that the risk may have been lower because of the predominance of girls in the sample. The lack of agreement between the assessments emphasizes the complexity of interpreting ASD symptom measures in children with PWS.

  18. [Investigation on immunization program coverage rate and its safety in children with tuberous sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y; Zou, L P; Zhang, M N; Pang, L Y; Wang, Y Y; Ma, S F; Huang, L L

    2017-01-02

    Objective: To investigate the status of immunization of National Immunization Program (NIP) and its adverse reaction rate in children with tuberous sclerosis. Method: Questionnaire survey was adopted to identify the vaccination coverage and its adverse events; 72 cases of children with tuberous sclerosis and 78 normal controls (healthy children completing age-appropriate NIP) admitted to Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital from December 2014 to November 2015 were involved into this study. Result: The age-appropriate NIP coverage rate of tuberous sclerosis was 36%(26/72). The coverage rate of bacillus calmette-guerin (BCG), hepatitis B vaccine 1 st to 3 rd doses (HepB1-3), oral poliovaccine 1 st dose (OPV1), diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus 1 st dose (DPT1), DPT1-3, meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine group A (MPVA), measles amd rubella vaccine/measles vaccine 1 st dose (MRV/MCV1), and Japanese encephalitis vaccine 1 st dose (JEV1) were 100%(72 cases), 75%(51 cases), 97%(66 cases), 91%(62 cases), 82%(56 cases), 66%(45 cases), 69%(42 cases), and 61%(37 cases) respectively. The reasons why the children did not complete the vaccination plan were that parents were concerned about vaccination-induced seizures or seizures had not been controlled. Among 72 children with TSC, the rate of adverse events or suspected adverse events after vaccination was 17% (12 cases), which was higher than the normal control children (2 cases, 3%) (χ 2 =8.799, P children with tuberous sclerosis is low. The high incidence of adverse events may be associated with a fact that there are some nervous system abnormalities in cases with tuberous sclerosis. TSC children vaccination is relatively safe, with no serious adverse events.

  19. Maturation of social attribution skills in typically developing children: an investigation using the social attribution task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Raymond CK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of social attribution skills in children can potentially identify and quantify developmental difficulties related to autism spectrum disorders and related conditions. However, relatively little is known about how these skills develop in typically developing children. Therefore the present study aimed to map the trajectory of social attribution skill acquisition in typically developing children from a young age. Methods In the conventional social attribution task (SAT participants ascribe feelings to moving shapes and describe their interaction in social terms. However, this format requires that participants understand both, that an inanimate shape is symbolic, and that its action is social in nature. This may be challenging for young children, and may be a potential confounder in studies of children with developmental disorders. Therefore we developed a modified SAT (mSAT using animate figures (e.g. animals to simplify the task. We used the SAT and mSAT to examine social attribution skill development in 154 healthy children (76 boys, 78 girls, ranging in age from 6 to 13 years and investigated the relationship between social attribution ability and executive function. Results The mSAT revealed a steady improvement in social attribution skills from the age of 6 years, and a significant advantage for girls compared to boys. In contrast, children under the age of 9 years performed at baseline on the conventional format and there were no gender differences apparent. Performance on neither task correlated with executive function after controlling for age and verbal IQ, suggesting that social attribution ability is independent of cognitive functioning. The present findings indicate that the mSAT is a sensitive measure of social attribution skills from a young age. This should be carefully considered when choosing assessments for young children and those with developmental disorders.

  20. Maturation of social attribution skills in typically developing children: an investigation using the social attribution task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhouyi; Chan, Raymond C K; McAlonan, Grainne M

    2010-02-03

    The assessment of social attribution skills in children can potentially identify and quantify developmental difficulties related to autism spectrum disorders and related conditions. However, relatively little is known about how these skills develop in typically developing children. Therefore the present study aimed to map the trajectory of social attribution skill acquisition in typically developing children from a young age. In the conventional social attribution task (SAT) participants ascribe feelings to moving shapes and describe their interaction in social terms. However, this format requires that participants understand both, that an inanimate shape is symbolic, and that its action is social in nature. This may be challenging for young children, and may be a potential confounder in studies of children with developmental disorders. Therefore we developed a modified SAT (mSAT) using animate figures (e.g. animals) to simplify the task. We used the SAT and mSAT to examine social attribution skill development in 154 healthy children (76 boys, 78 girls), ranging in age from 6 to 13 years and investigated the relationship between social attribution ability and executive function. The mSAT revealed a steady improvement in social attribution skills from the age of 6 years, and a significant advantage for girls compared to boys. In contrast, children under the age of 9 years performed at baseline on the conventional format and there were no gender differences apparent. Performance on neither task correlated with executive function after controlling for age and verbal IQ, suggesting that social attribution ability is independent of cognitive functioning. The present findings indicate that the mSAT is a sensitive measure of social attribution skills from a young age. This should be carefully considered when choosing assessments for young children and those with developmental disorders.

  1. What Do Children Know about the Interior of the Body? A Comparison of Two Methods of Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluca, Paolo

    This research compared two methods used to investigate the knowledge of internal body parts by children ages 4 to 9 years. Subjects were 50 Italian children: 18 preschoolers, 21 first graders, and 11 second or third graders. Children performed two tasks, a Drawing Task in which they drew on the outline of a human figure all the body parts they…

  2. Investigation of Raising Burden of Children with Autism, Physical Disability and Mental Disability in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Nina; Yang, Li; Yu, Yang; Hou, Jiaxun; Li, Jia; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Hairong; Zhang, Ying; Jiao, Zhengang

    2011-01-01

    The family economic burden of raising autistic children, physical disabled children and mental disabled children were evaluated in China. 227 parents of children with autism, children with physical disability, children with mental disability and normal children were interviewed for children's costs, family income and economic assistance, etc. The…

  3. The relation of narcissism and self-esteem to conduct problems in children: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Christopher T; Frick, Paul J; Killian, Amber L

    2003-03-01

    Investigated several possible models to explain the seemingly discrepant relations between self-esteem and conduct problems, as both low self-esteem and exaggerated levels of self-esteem, thought to be captured by narcissism, have been associated with aggressive and antisocial behavior. Our sample consisted of 98 nonreferred children (mean age = 11.9 years; SD = 1.68 years) recruited from public schools to oversample children at risk for severe aggressive and antisocial behavior. Results indicated that certain aspects of narcissism (i.e., those indicating a need to be evaluated well by, and obtain status over, others) were particularly predictive of maladaptive characteristics and outcomes such as low self-esteem, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and conduct problems. In addition, the relation between narcissism and conduct problems was moderated by self-esteem level, such that children with relatively high levels of narcissism and low self-esteem showed the highest rates of conduct-problem symptoms.

  4. Contact Investigation of Children Exposed to Tuberculosis in South East Asia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Triasih

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Screening of children who are household contacts of tuberculosis (TB cases is universally recommended but rarely implemented in TB endemic setting. This paper aims to summarise published data of the prevalence of TB infection and disease among child contacts in South East Asia. Methods. Search strategies were developed to identify all published studies from South East Asia of household contact investigation that included children (0–15 years. Results. Eleven studies were eligible for review. There was heterogeneity across the studies. TB infection was common among child contacts under 15 years of age (24.4–69.2% and was higher than the prevalence of TB disease, which varied from 3.3% to 5.5%. Conclusion. TB infection is common among children that are household contacts of TB cases in South East Asia. Novel approaches to child contact screening and management that improve implementation in South East Asia need to be further evaluated.

  5. Investigating Inhibitory Control in Children with Epilepsy: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Regina L.; Velanova, Katerina; Luna, Beatriz; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Gaillard, William D.; Asato, Miya R.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Deficits in executive function are increasingly noted in children with epilepsy and have been associated with poor academic and psychosocial outcomes. Impaired inhibitory control contributes to executive dysfunction in children with epilepsy; however, its neuroanatomic basis has not yet been investigated. We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to probe the integrity of activation in brain regions underlying inhibitory control in children with epilepsy. Methods This cross-sectional study consisted of 34 children aged 8 to 17 years: 17 with well-controlled epilepsy and 17 age-and sex-matched controls. Participants performed the antisaccade (AS) task, representative of inhibitory control, during fMRI scanning. We compared AS performance during neutral and reward task conditions and evaluated task-related blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation. Results Children with epilepsy demonstrated impaired AS performance compared to controls during both neutral (non-reward) and reward trials, but exhibited significant task improvement during reward trials. Post-hoc analysis revealed that younger patients made more errors than older patients and all controls. fMRI results showed preserved activation in task-relevant regions in patients and controls, with the exception of increased activation in the left posterior cingulate gyrus in patients specifically with generalized epilepsy across neutral and reward trials. Significance Despite impaired inhibitory control, children with epilepsy accessed typical neural pathways as did their peers without epilepsy. Children with epilepsy showed improved behavioral performance in response to the reward condition, suggesting potential benefits of the use of incentives in cognitive remediation. PMID:25223606

  6. Investigating eye movement patterns, language, and social ability in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Steven D; Linnell, Karina J; Heaton, Pamela

    2014-05-01

    Although all intellectually high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display core social and communication deficits, some develop language within a normative timescale and others experience significant delays and subsequent language impairment. Early attention to social stimuli plays an important role in the emergence of language, and reduced attention to faces has been documented in infants later diagnosed with ASD. We investigated the extent to which patterns of attention to social stimuli would differentiate early and late language onset groups. Children with ASD (mean age = 10 years) differing on language onset timing (late/normal) and a typically developing comparison group completed a task in which visual attention to interacting and noninteracting human figures was mapped using eye tracking. Correlations on visual attention data and results from tests measuring current social and language ability were conducted. Patterns of visual attention did not distinguish typically developing children and ASD children with normal language onset. Children with ASD and late language onset showed significantly reduced attention to salient social stimuli. Associations between current language ability and social attention were observed. Delay in language onset is associated with current language skills as well as with specific eye-tracking patterns.

  7. Food packaged with toys: an investigation on potential obesogenic effects in Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Dario; Gulati, Achal; Hochdorn, Alexander; Ballali, Simonetta; Paramesh, Haralappa; Kumar, Malathi; Baldi, Ileana

    2014-09-01

    To investigate, in a large pan Indian sample of school children, whether gadgets (toys) added to food increase food consumption, and if contemporary exposure to TV and/or advertising is a further promoting factor. A total of 1,680 Indian children were first randomized to food exposure with or without toy and then to a five-level exposure to TV viewing and advertising according to a 2 × 5 full factorial ad libitum eating design study. The sample size was computed to detect a difference of 20 Kcal of caloric intake (assuming the same standard deviation of 20 Kcal in both groups) between "food with gadget" (Toy) and "food alone" (No Toy) groups in each level of the exposure to TV and advertising factor, given an alpha error equal to 0.05 and a power of 0.90. Mean caloric intake both in "Toy" and "No Toy" group was around 223 Kcal. When considering exposure to TV and advertising, mean values varied negligibly between 222 and 225 Kcal. According to linear models for the effect of gadget and exposure to TV and/or advertising on children's intake, no significant adjusted associations were found, neither as main effects nor as interactions. Food consumption by children is not influenced by the presence of added toys, even after adjustment for several potential confounding factors. The city where they live and age significantly influences Indian children's caloric intake.

  8. Research Paper: Investigation of Acoustic Characteristics of Speech Motor Control in Children Who Stutter and Children Who Do Not Stutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fakar Gharamaleki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Stuttering is a developmental disorder of speech fluency with unknown causes. One of the proposed theories in this field is deficits in speech motor control that is associated with damaged control, timing, and coordination of the speech muscles. Fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency range, intensity, intensity range, and voice onset time are the most important acoustic components that are often used for indirect evaluation of physiological functions underlying the mechanisms of speech motor control. The purpose of this investigation was to compare some of the acoustic characteristics of speech motor control in children who stutter and children who do not stutter. Materials & Methods This research is a descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional comparative study. A total of 25 Azari-Persian bilingual boys who stutter (stutters group and 23 Azari-Persian bilinguals and 21 Persian monolingual boys who do not stutter (non-stutters group in the age range of 6 to 10 years participated in this study. Children participated in /a/ and /i/ vowels prolongation and carrier phrase repetition tasks for the analysis of some of their acoustic characteristics including fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency range, intensity, intensity range, and voice onset time. The PRAAT software was used for acoustic analysis. SPSS software (version 17, one-way ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for analyzing the data. Results The results indicated that there were no significant differences between the stutters and non-stutters groups (P>0.05 with respect to the acoustic features of speech motor control . Conclusion No significant group differences were observed in all of the dependent variables reported in this study. Thus, the results of this research do not support the notion of aberrant speech motor control in children who stutter.

  9. Investigation of the cognitive variables associated with worry in children with Generalised Anxiety Disorder and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Caroline L; Holmes, Monique C; Farrell, Lara J

    2016-03-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU), negative beliefs about worry (NBW), positive beliefs about worry (PBW), negative problem orientation (NPO) and cognitive avoidance (CA) have been found to be integral in the conceptualisation of Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in adults, yet they have rarely been investigated in children with GAD. This study sought to determine (a) whether IU, NBW, PBW, NPO and CA differ between children diagnosed with GAD and non-anxious children and (b) to examine whether IU, NBW, PBW, NPO and CA differ between parents of children diagnosed with GAD and parents of children without an anxiety disorder. Participants were 50 children (aged 7-12 years), plus one of their parents. The 25 GAD children and 25 non-anxious children were matched on age and gender. Parents and children completed clinical diagnostic interviews, as well as a battery of questionnaires measuring worry, IU, NBW, PBW, NPO and CA. Children with GAD endorsed significantly higher levels of worry, IU, NBW, NPO and CA, but not PBW compared to non-anxious children. Parents of children with GAD did not differ from parents of non-anxious children on any of the variables. The study was limited by it's use of modified adult measures for some variables and a lack of heterogeneity in the sample. The cognitive variables of IU, NBW, NPO and CA may also be important in the conceptualisation and treatment of GAD in children as they are in adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Retrospective study of the investigations of children presenting with lower limbs spasticity in a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnoli, Carlotta; de Sousa, Carlos

    2014-04-01

    This retrospective study was undertaken to identify how children with spasticity entirely or mainly affecting lower limbs are investigated in a single institution, to address the diagnostic yield of these investigations, and to establish an improved diagnostic algorithm. Clinical documents regarding children referred to our institution for the diagnostic investigation of spastic diplegia and receiving their first clinical appointment between the July 1, 2010, and the December 31, 2010, were identified in our electronic database. Clinical correspondence, case-notes, magnetic resonance imaging reports, and other investigation results were reviewed. For the 26 patients (16 males) identified, there was much variability in the investigations offered. In the 53.84% of them, a specific diagnosis was found, including one case of hereditary spastic paraplegia 3A and one of neuroblastoma. Diagnostic rate could be optimized by a more standardized approach to investigations and by rational genetic testing. A comprehensive diagnostic algorithm is proposed for implementation of etiological diagnosis. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Predictors of incompletion of immunization among children residing in the slums of Kathmandu valley, Nepal: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sumina; Shrestha, Monika; Wagle, Rajendra Raj; Bhandari, Gita

    2016-09-13

    Immunization is one of the most effective health interventions averting an estimated 2-3 million deaths every year. In Nepal, as in most low-income countries, infants are immunized with standard WHO recommended vaccines. However, 16.4 % of children did not receive complete immunization by 12 months of age in Nepal in 2011. Studies from different parts of the world showed that incomplete immunization is even higher in slums. The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of incompletion of immunization among children aged 12-23 months living in the slums of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The unmatched case-control study was conducted in 22 randomly selected slums of Kathmandu Valley. The sampling frame was first identified by complete enumeration of entire households of the study area from which 59 incompletely immunized children as cases and 177 completely immunized children as controls were chosen randomly in 1:3 ratio. Data were collected from the primary caretakers of the children. Backward logistic regression with 95 % confidence interval and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) were applied to assess the factors independently associated with incomplete immunization. Twenty-six percent of the children were incompletely vaccinated. The coverage of BCG vaccine was 95.0 % while it was 80.5 % for measles vaccine. The significant predictors of incomplete immunization were the home delivery of a child, the family residing on rent, a primary caretaker with poor knowledge about the schedule of vaccination and negative perception towards vaccinating a sick child, conflicting priorities, and development of abscess following immunization. Reduction of abscess formation rate can be a potential way to improve immunization rates. Community health volunteers should increase their follow-up on children born at home and those living in rent. Health institutions and volunteers should be influential in creating awareness about immunization, its schedule, and post-vaccination side

  12. BCG vaccination status may predict sputum conversion in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeremiah, Kidola; PrayGod, George; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Failure to convert (persistent sputum and/or culture positivity) while on antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment at the end of the second month of anti-TB therapy has been reported to be a predictor of treatment failure. Factors that could be associated with persistent bacillary positivity at the e...

  13. BCG vaccination reduces risk of tuberculosis infection in vaccinated badgers and unvaccinated badger cubs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Carter

    Full Text Available Wildlife is a global source of endemic and emerging infectious diseases. The control of tuberculosis (TB in cattle in Britain and Ireland is hindered by persistent infection in wild badgers (Meles meles. Vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG has been shown to reduce the severity and progression of experimentally induced TB in captive badgers. Analysis of data from a four-year clinical field study, conducted at the social group level, suggested a similar, direct protective effect of BCG in a wild badger population. Here we present new evidence from the same study identifying both a direct beneficial effect of vaccination in individual badgers and an indirect protective effect in unvaccinated cubs. We show that intramuscular injection of BCG reduced by 76% (Odds ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.11-0.52 the risk of free-living vaccinated individuals testing positive to a diagnostic test combination to detect progressive infection. A more sensitive panel of tests for the detection of infection per se identified a reduction of 54% (Odds ratio = 0.46, 95% CI 0.26-0.88 in the risk of a positive result following vaccination. In addition, we show the risk of unvaccinated badger cubs, but not adults, testing positive to an even more sensitive panel of diagnostic tests decreased significantly as the proportion of vaccinated individuals in their social group increased (Odds ratio = 0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.76; P = 0.03. When more than a third of their social group had been vaccinated, the risk to unvaccinated cubs was reduced by 79% (Odds ratio = 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-0.81; P = 0.02.

  14. The Impact of Transcriptomics on the Fight against Tuberculosis : Focus on Biomarkers, BCG Vaccination, and Immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarate-Blades, Carlos Rodrigo; Silva, Celio Lopes; Passos, Geraldo A.

    2011-01-01

    In 1882 Robert Koch identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), a disease as ancient as humanity. Although there has been more than 125 years of scientific effort aimed at understanding the disease, serious problems in TB persist that contribute to the

  15. BCG-vaccination of newborns – a descriptive study about shared decision making and decisional conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo Pihl, Gitte

    for 667 participants and 320 decliners. The overall median decisional conflict score was 17.7, with a median of 15.6 (Interquartile range (IQR) = 18.8, range 0 to 53.1) for participators and 23.4 (Interquartile range (IQR) = 17.2, range 0 to 67.2) for decliners (Mann-Whitney-test: p

  16. Clinical manifestations of leprosy after BCG vaccination: An observational study in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Richardus (Renate); C.R. Butlin (C. Ruth); K. Alam (Khorshed); K. Kundu (Kallyan); A. Geluk (Annemieke); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Although BCG is used as a vaccine against tuberculosis, it also protects against leprosy. Previous evaluation over 18 years of an intervention of two doses BCG for 3536 household contacts of leprosy patients showed that 28 (23%) out of 122 contacts diagnosed with leprosy,

  17. Loss of Lipid Virulence Factors Reduces the Efficacy of the BCG Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Vanessa; Ahn, Sang Kyun; Ng, Mark; Li, Ming; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, is the only vaccine available for tuberculosis (TB) control. BCG comprises a number of substrains that exhibit genetic and biochemical differences. Whether and how these differences affect BCG efficacy remain unknown. Compared to other BCG strains, BCG-Japan, -Moreau, and -Glaxo are defective in the production of phthiocerol dimycocerosates (PDIMs) and phenolic glycolipids (PGLs), two lipid virulence factors. To determine if the loss of PDIMs/PGLs affects BCG efficacy, we constructed a PDIM/PGL-deficient strain of BCG-Pasteur by deleting fadD28, and compared virulence, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy in animal models. SCID mouse infection experiments showed that ∆fadD28 was more attenuated than wild type (WT). The ∆fadD28 and WT strains induced equivalent levels of antigen specific IFN-γ by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells; however, ∆fadD28 was less effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge in both BALB/c mice and guinea pigs. These results indicate that the loss of PIDMs/PGLs reduces the virulence and protective efficacy of BCG. Since the loss of PDIMs/PGLs occurs naturally in a subset of BCG strains, it also suggests that these strains may have been over-attenuated, which compromises their effectiveness. Our finding has important implications for current BCG programs and future vaccine development. PMID:27357109

  18. Immunological Links to Nonspecific Effects of DTwP and BCG Vaccines on Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2011-01-01

    A number of mainly observational studies suggest that many African females below the age of one year die each year from the nonspecific effects of vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus toxoids and killed (whole-cell) Bordetella pertussis (DTwP). In contrast, similar studies suggest that many African...

  19. Necrotizing Ulcer After BCG Vaccination in a Girl With Leukocyte-adhesion Deficiency Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Hidemitsu; Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Nunoi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masaya; Sato, Yuya; Okuya, Mayuko; Fukushima, Keitaro; Katsuyama, Yoshihiko; Arisaka, Osamu

    2018-01-01

    Leukocyte-adhesion deficiency-1 is a recessively inherited disorder associated with recurrent bacterial infections, severe periodontitis, peripheral leukocytosis, and impaired wound healing. We diagnosed moderate-type leukocyte-adhesion deficiency-1 in a 7-year-old girl who developed a necrotizing ulcer after Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination. The patient showed moderate expression of CD18 in neutrophils with a homozygous splice mutation with c.41_c.58+2dup20 of ITGB2 and experienced recurrent severe infections complicated with systemic lupus erythematosus. She received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a matched elder brother with heterozygous mutation of ITGB2, and has since remained free of infection and systemic lupus erythematosus symptoms without immunosuppression therapy.

  20. Neonatal BCG vaccination has no effect on recurrent wheeze in the first year of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Pihl, Gitte Thybo

    2017-01-01

    are not fully understood, but a shift from a TH2 to a TH1 response has been suggested as a possible explanation. Objective: We hypothesized that BCG at birth would reduce the cumulative incidence of RW during the first year of life. Methods: The Danish Calmette Study is a multicenter randomized trial conducted...

  1. Neonatal BCG vaccination has no effect on recurrent wheeze in the first year of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Pihl, Gitte Thybo

    2017-01-01

    are not fully understood, but a shift from a TH2 to a TH1 response has been suggested as a possible explanation. Objective: We hypothesized that BCG at birth would reduce the cumulative incidence of RW during the first year of life. Methods: The Danish Calmette Study is a multicenter randomized trial conducted...... (relative risk, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.89-1.28). Supplementary analyses were made, including an analysis of baseline risk factors for development of RW. Conclusion: Neonatal BCG had no effect on the development of RW before 13 months of age....

  2. A 5-Year Investigation of Children's Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Localized Ependymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu Shengjie; Xiong Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies have the potential to preserve cognitive outcomes in children with ependymoma; however, functional behavior remains uninvestigated. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intelligence quotient (IQ) and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years after irradiation in children diagnosed with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 123 children with intracranial ependymoma. Mean age at irradiation was 4.60 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.85-5.35). Serial neurocognitive evaluations, including an age-appropriate IQ measure and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), were completed before irradiation, 6 months after treatment, and annually for 5 years. A total of 579 neurocognitive evaluations were included in these analyses. Results: Baseline IQ and VABS were below normative means (P<.05), although within the average range. Linear mixed models revealed stable IQ and VABS across the follow-up period, except for the VABS Communication Index, which declined significantly (P=.015). Annual change in IQ (−.04 points) did not correlate with annual change in VABS (−.90 to +.44 points). Clinical factors associated with poorer baseline performance (P<.05) included preirradiation chemotherapy, cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, number and extent of surgical resections, and younger age at treatment. No clinical factors significantly affected the rate of change in scores. Conclusions: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies provided relative sparing of functional outcomes including IQ and adaptive behaviors, even in very young children. Communication skills remained vulnerable and should be the target of preventive and rehabilitative interventions.

  3. Investigating executive functions in children with severe speech and movement disorders using structured tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine eStadskleiv

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions are the basis for goal-directed activity and include planning, monitoring, and inhibition, and language seems to play a role in the development of these functions. There is a tradition of studying executive function in both typical and atypical populations, and the present study investigates executive functions in children with severe speech and motor impairments who are communicating using communication aids with graphic symbols, letters and/or words. There are few neuropsychological studies of children in this group and little is known about their cognitive functioning, including executive functions. It was hypothesized that aided communication would tax executive functions more than speech. 29 children using communication aids and 27 naturally speaking children participated. Structured tasks resembling everyday activities, where the action goals had to be reached through communication with a partner, were used to get information about executive functions. The children a directed the partner to perform actions like building a Lego tower from a model the partner could not see and b gave information about an object without naming it to a person who had to guess what object it was. The executive functions of planning, monitoring and impulse control were coded from the children’s on-task behavior. Both groups solved most of the tasks correctly, indicating that aided communicators are able to use language to direct another person to do a complex set of actions. Planning and lack of impulsivity was positively related to task success in both groups. The aided group completed significantly fewer tasks, spent longer time and showed more variation in performance than the comparison group. The aided communicators scored lower on planning and showed more impulsivity than the comparison group, while both groups showed an equal degree of monitoring of the work progress. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that aided language

  4. Investigating Socioeconomic Position in Dental Caries and Traumatic Dental Injury among Children in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rosa, P; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Edasseri, A; Henderson, M; Nicolau, B

    2017-12-01

    Socioeconomic position (SEP) is inversely associated with most oral health outcomes, but the patterns of association may vary depending on the specific outcome. We estimated associations between SEP and two oral health outcomes, dental caries and traumatic dental injuries (TDI), in Quebec children. We used data from the baseline visit of the QUALITY (QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth) Cohort, an ongoing study in Montreal and Quebec, Canada. The analytical sample included 590 children aged 8-10 years. Data on parents' SEP (household income, education) and children's health behaviours and involvement in sports were obtained through questionnaires and interviews. Oral health outcomes (dental caries and TDI in permanent teeth) were assessed by clinical oral exam. Negative binomial regression was used to model dental caries (DMFS index) and number of teeth with TDI adjusting for selected covariates. The mean (SD) DMFS and number of TDI were 0.61 (1.43) and 0.12 (0.43), respectively. Compared to the upper quartile of income, children in the lower quartile had a DMFS approximately 3 times higher (PRR=2.68, 95% CI: 1.43, 5.04). Adjusting for oral health and nutritional behaviours had no effect. Conversely, children in the highest income quartile had a 3 times higher number of teeth with TDI compared to the lowest quartile (PRR=3.14, 95% CI: 1.22, 8.08). Physical activity did not explain this relationship. Parents' education was not associated with dental caries or TDI. SEP seems to play a different role in the cause of dental caries and TDI. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  5. TREATMENT OF ALLERGIC RHINITIS IN CHILDREN: SELECTION OF ANTIHISTAMINE DRUG AND NECESSITY OF FURTHER INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Karaulov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This literature review contains analysis of research results on treatment of allergic rhinitis in children according to the evidence-based medicine. Oral and intranasal antihistamine drugs along with intranasal steroids are the first-line drugs for treatment of allergic rhinitis, although the latter are more efficient in suppression of nasal stuffiness. First- and second-generation antihistamine agents used nowadays in medical practice are discussed in the article. The advantages of non-sedative 2d-genereation antihistamine drugs, especially so called active metabolites (fexofenadine, cetirizine, levocetirizine, desloratadine are emphasized. The data on loratadine and desloratadine as ones of the most effective drugs in childhood allergic rhinitis are shown in detail. The possible directions for the further investigations in order to provide effective control over allergic inflammation in children resistant to medicinal agents are discussed.

  6. Neonatal anthropometrics and body composition in obese children investigated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Thagaard, Ida Näslund

    2014-01-01

    index (BFMI), and fat free mass index (FFMI) in obese children and the preceding in utero conditions expressed by birth weight, birth length, and birth weight for gestational age. The study cohort consisted of 776 obese Danish children (median age 11.6 years, range 3.6-17.9) with a mean Body Mass Index......UNLABELLED: Epidemiological and animal studies have suggested an effect of the intrauterine milieu upon the development of childhood obesity. This study investigates the relationship between body composition measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry expressed as body fat percent, body fat mass...... obesity treatment to be significantly correlated with both birth weight and birth weight for gestational age. CONCLUSION: These results indicate a prenatal influence upon childhood obesity. Although there are currently no sufficient data to suggest any recommendations to pregnant women, it is possible...

  7. Investigation in uro-nephrology (1): diuretic renal scan in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archambaud, F.; Olivier, P.; Guillet, J.; Wioland, M.; Bonnin, F.

    2002-01-01

    We present the results of a national investigation about the daily practice of diuretic renal scan in children and we compare these results to available international recommendations. Several questions were related to patient preparation, radiopharmaceutical injected activity, image acquisition, diuretic procedure, data processing and renal function quantification, and lastly hard copy output procedure. Diuretic renography is widely performed in children and national daily practice is in agreement with international recommendations about many aspects. However, some aspects should be improved such as hydration, standardisation of furosemide doses and post mobilization and post micturition images acquisition taking on account the effects of gravity and full bladder. Furthermore, a controversy does exist about interpretation of an impaired drainage. (authors)

  8. Malaria investigation and treatment of children admitted to county hospitals in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amboko, Beatrice I; Ayieko, Philip; Ogero, Morris; Julius, Thomas; Irimu, Grace; English, Mike

    2016-10-18

    Up to 90 % of the global burden of malaria morbidity and mortality occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and children under-five bear a disproportionately high malaria burden. Effective inpatient case management can reduce severe malaria mortality and morbidity, but there are few reports of how successfully international and national recommendations are adopted in management of inpatient childhood malaria. A descriptive cross-sectional study of inpatient malaria case management practices was conducted using data collected over 24 months in five hospitals from high malaria risk areas participating in the Clinical Information Network (CIN) in Kenya. This study describes documented clinical features, laboratory investigations and treatment of malaria in children (2-59 months) and adherence to national guidelines. A total of 13,014 children had a malaria diagnosis on admission to the five hospitals between March, 2014 and February, 2016. Their median age was 24 months (IQR 12-36 months). The proportion with a diagnostic test for malaria requested was 11,981 (92.1 %). Of 10,388 patients with malaria test results documented, 8050 (77.5 %) were positive and anti-malarials were prescribed in 6745 (83.8 %). Malaria treatment was prescribed in 1613/2338 (69.0 %) children with a negative malaria result out of which only 52 (3.2 %) had a repeat malaria test done as recommended in national guidelines. Documentation of clinical features was good across all hospitals, but quinine remained the most prescribed malaria drug (47.2 % of positive cases) although a transition to artesunate (46.1 %) was observed. Although documented clinical features suggested approximately half of positive malaria patients were not severe cases artemether-lumefantrine was prescribed on admission in only 3.7 % cases. Despite improvements in inpatient malaria care, high rates of presumptive treatment for test negative children and likely over-use of injectable anti-malarial drugs were observed. Three

  9. Malaria investigation and treatment of children admitted to county hospitals in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice I. Amboko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to 90 % of the global burden of malaria morbidity and mortality occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and children under-five bear a disproportionately high malaria burden. Effective inpatient case management can reduce severe malaria mortality and morbidity, but there are few reports of how successfully international and national recommendations are adopted in management of inpatient childhood malaria. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study of inpatient malaria case management practices was conducted using data collected over 24 months in five hospitals from high malaria risk areas participating in the Clinical Information Network (CIN in Kenya. This study describes documented clinical features, laboratory investigations and treatment of malaria in children (2–59 months and adherence to national guidelines. Results A total of 13,014 children had a malaria diagnosis on admission to the five hospitals between March, 2014 and February, 2016. Their median age was 24 months (IQR 12–36 months. The proportion with a diagnostic test for malaria requested was 11,981 (92.1 %. Of 10,388 patients with malaria test results documented, 8050 (77.5 % were positive and anti-malarials were prescribed in 6745 (83.8 %. Malaria treatment was prescribed in 1613/2338 (69.0 % children with a negative malaria result out of which only 52 (3.2 % had a repeat malaria test done as recommended in national guidelines. Documentation of clinical features was good across all hospitals, but quinine remained the most prescribed malaria drug (47.2 % of positive cases although a transition to artesunate (46.1 % was observed. Although documented clinical features suggested approximately half of positive malaria patients were not severe cases artemether-lumefantrine was prescribed on admission in only 3.7 % cases. Conclusions Despite improvements in inpatient malaria care, high rates of presumptive treatment for test negative children and likely

  10. Investigating executive functions in children with severe speech and movement disorders using structured tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadskleiv, Kristine; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Batorowicz, Beata; van Balkom, Hans; Dahlgren-Sandberg, Annika; Renner, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions are the basis for goal-directed activity and include planning, monitoring, and inhibition, and language seems to play a role in the development of these functions. There is a tradition of studying executive function in both typical and atypical populations, and the present study investigates executive functions in children with severe speech and motor impairments who are communicating using communication aids with graphic symbols, letters, and/or words. There are few neuropsychological studies of children in this group and little is known about their cognitive functioning, including executive functions. It was hypothesized that aided communication would tax executive functions more than speech. Twenty-nine children using communication aids and 27 naturally speaking children participated. Structured tasks resembling everyday activities, where the action goals had to be reached through communication with a partner, were used to get information about executive functions. The children (a) directed the partner to perform actions like building a Lego tower from a model the partner could not see and (b) gave information about an object without naming it to a person who had to guess what object it was. The executive functions of planning, monitoring, and impulse control were coded from the children's on-task behavior. Both groups solved most of the tasks correctly, indicating that aided communicators are able to use language to direct another person to do a complex set of actions. Planning and lack of impulsivity was positively related to task success in both groups. The aided group completed significantly fewer tasks, spent longer time and showed more variation in performance than the comparison group. The aided communicators scored lower on planning and showed more impulsivity than the comparison group, while both groups showed an equal degree of monitoring of the work progress. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that aided language tax

  11. An Experimental Investigation of Antisocial Lie-Telling Among Children With Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Typically Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugno, Allison P; Malloy, Lindsay C; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Pelham, William E; Talwar, Victoria

    2017-10-27

    Children's lie-telling is surprisingly understudied among children with significant behavioral problems. In the present study, experimental paradigms were used to examine antisocial lie-telling among ethnically diverse 5- to 10-year-old children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD; n = 71) and a typically developing (TD) comparison sample (n = 50) recruited from a southeastern state from 2013 to 2014. Children completed two games that measured the prevalence and skill of their lies: (a) for personal gain and (b) to conceal wrongdoing. Children with DBD were more likely to lie for personal gain than TD children. With age, children were more likely to lie to conceal wrongdoing, but the reverse was true regarding lies for personal gain. Results advance knowledge concerning individual differences in children's lie-telling. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. A tuberculin skin test survey among Ghanaian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; van den Hof, Susan; Mensah, Gloria Ivy; Hesse, Adukwei; Bonsu, Christian; Koram, Kwadwo Ansah; Afutu, Felix Kwami; Bonsu, Frank Adae

    2010-01-26

    Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged 6-10 years in 8 out of 10 regions of Ghana between 2004 and 2006. Tuberculin survey was conducted in 179 primary schools from 21 districts in 8 regions. Schools were purposively selected so as to reflect the proportion of affluent private and free tuition public schools as well as the proportion of small and large schools. Of the 24,778 children registered for the survey, 23,600 (95.2%) were tested of which 21,861 (92.6%) were available for reading. The age distribution showed an increase in numbers of children towards older age: 11% of the children were 6 years and 25%, 10 years. Females were 52.5% and males 47.5%. The proportion of girls was higher in all age groups (range 51.4% to 54.0%, p < 0.001). BCG scar was visible in 89.3% of the children. The percentage of children with a BCG scar differed by district and by age. The percentage of children with a BCG scar decreased with increasing age in all districts, reflecting increasing BCG vaccination coverage in Ghana in the last ten years. The risk of tuberculosis infection was low in the northern savannah zones compared to the southern coastal zones. Using a cut-off of 15 mm, the prevalence of infection ranged from 0.0% to 5.4% and the Annual Risks of Tuberculosis Infection 0.0% to 0.6%. There was an increase in the proportion of infected children after the age of 7 years. Children attending low and middle-class schools had a higher risk of infection than children attending upper-class schools. Tuberculosis infection is still a public health problem in Ghana and to monitor the trend, the survey needs to be repeated at 5 years interval.

  13. Moving In and Out of Bilingualism: Investigating Native Language Maintenance and Shift in Mexican-Descent Children. Research Report: 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease-Alvarez, Lucinda

    A study investigated patterns and influences in Mexican-American children's Spanish language maintenance and shift toward English dominance or monolingualism. Subjects were 64 Mexican-descent children, ages 8-9, of varying immigration backgrounds (Mexican-born, U.S.-born of Mexican-born parents, U.S.-born of U.S.-born parents), and their families…

  14. Decontextualized Language Production in Two Languages: An Investigation of Children's Word Definition Skills in Korean and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jennifer Yusun

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors that contribute to bilingual children's decontextualized language production and investigate how schooling experience and bilingualism affect the development of this skill. The word definition skills of seventy Korean-English bilingual children whose first language was Korean, yet who had been schooled in…

  15. An Investigation of Maternal Emotion Socialization Behaviors, Children's Self-Perceptions, and Social Problem-Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Hurside Kubra; Aksoy, Ayse Belgin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aims to investigate maternal emotion socialization, children's self-perception, and social problem-solving skills. In addition, this study describes the association between the levels of children's self-perception and social problem-solving skills. Research Methods: This is a quantitative study adopting a relational…

  16. Investigation of the Relationship between Communication Skills, Social Competence and Emotion Regulation Skills of Preschool Children in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagal, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between communication skills, social competence and emotion regulation skills of preschool children. Children attending public primary schools who were 53 to 80 months old from the middle socio-economic class were chosen randomly from Istanbul City center districts for this study. They were…

  17. Non-Verbal Behavior of Children Who Disclose or Do Not Disclose Child Abuse in Investigative Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Carmit; Hershkowitz, Irit; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lamb, Michael E.; Atabaki, Armita; Spindler, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study focused on children's nonverbal behavior in investigative interviews exploring suspicions of child abuse. The key aims were to determine whether non-verbal behavior in the pre-substantive phases of the interview predicted whether or not children would disclose the alleged abuse later in the interview and to identify…

  18. Perceptions of Children's Television Advertising: An Empirical Investigation of the Beliefs and Attitudes of Consumer, Industry, and Government Respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, James D.

    This paper summarizes the findings of a study investigating the beliefs and attitudes of six key respondent groups regarding issues surrounding television advertising and children. The six groups included in the study are spokesmen for Action for Children's Television (ACT); the presidents and top executive officers of advertising agencies…

  19. A Preliminary Investigation of Associations between Disorders of Behavior and Language in Children with Chronic Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jeanne B.; Ruppert, Elizabeth S.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between language and behavior disorders was investigated. The teacher and parents of 12 children in a special public preschool for children with documented chronic otitis media and language disorders completed the Louisville Behavior Checklist. Most deviant behavior was reported on scales measuring cognitive and social-interactive…

  20. Healthy characters? An investigation of marketing practices in children's food advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Jessica; Kunkel, Dale; Wright, Paul; Duff, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    To determine the nutritional quality of foods advertised with familiar children's characters and health-related messages. Children's programming aired on the most popular broadcast and cable channels during 2011 was sampled to form a composite weekday and weekend day. All food advertisements (ads) included in this programming were content analyzed. Five hundred seventy-seven food ads. Familiar characters promoting products were either trade or licensed characters. A product's nutritional quality was determined using the United States Department of Health and Human Services' categorizations, based on the frequency foods should be consumed. Health cues were present when a food was claimed to be healthy, physical activity was depicted, or the product was associated with fruit. Frequencies and chi square analyses were conducted; P advertising to children, yet marketers do not adhere to recommendations that characters promote strictly healthy foods. Future research is needed to investigate effects and inform policy decisions in this realm. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigation of gastric pepsinogen in middle ear fluid of children with glue ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toros, Sema Zer; Toros, Ahmet Burak; Ozel, Leyla; Çatal, Banu Er; Kiniş, Vefa; Zorlu, Aylin; Habeşoğlu, Tülay Erden; Naiboğlu, Bariş; Egeli, Erol

    2010-11-01

    The presence of pepsinogen in middle ear effusion (MEE) supports the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and otitis media with effusion (OME). Measurement of pepsin/pepsinogen can be considered as a simple and reliable method for assesment of reflux in children. However, further research is needed to establish a definite association between GER and OME before beginning antireflux treatment in the management of MEE. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between GER and chronic OME, and to confirm the presence of gastric enzyme in the MEE of children with OME. This was a prospective study. MEE and blood samples were obtained from 42 children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement. Total pepsinogen concentrations of effusions and serum samples were measured with a commercial ELISA using a human pepsinogen I specific antibody. Albumin levels of effusions and serum samples were also measured with ELISA for comparison with pepsinogen levels. Measurable pepsinogen was present in all MEEs from patients, with levels higher than the serum values. The difference between the levels of pepsinogen measured in MEE and serum was statistically significant (p < 0.01), but albumin levels were higher in serum than in MEE and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01).

  2. Investigating Efficacy of Melatonin and Gabapentin in Reducing Anxiety and Pain of Lumbar Puncture in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Fallah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The lumbar puncture is one of the most important diagnostic and therapeutic procedures within children which child’s non-cooperativeness and procedural sedation are regarded necessary to conduct it. This study aimed to compare efficacy and safety of melatonin and gabapentin in reducing anxiety and pain of lumbar puncture in children. Methods: In a parallel single-blinded randomized clinical trial, sixty children aged 6 months -7 years, were evaluated in Pediatric Ward of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, in Yazd (Iran in 2012. The children were distributedrandomly into two groups (30 children in each group. In group one, they received 0.3 mg/kg/dose of melatonin and theother group received 15 mg/kg/dose of gabapentin. Primary endpoints were success rate in reducing anxiety (anxiety score of≥ four and reducing pain when the needle was inserted to skin for lumbarpuncture (pain score of less than four. The clinicalside effects were investigated as well. Results: Twenty two girls (36.7% and 38 boys (63.3% with mean age of 2.79 ± 1.92 years were evaluated. Anxiety reduction (achieving the anxiety score of ≥ four was obtained in 43.3% in melatonin and in 36.7% in gabapentin groups, respectively and both drugs were equally effective in anxiety reduction (p.value = 0.598.Pain reduction ( achieving the pain score of less than four was obtained in 23.3% in melatonin and in 50% in gabapentin groups, respectively and thus, gabapentin wasproved to be more effective in pain reduction (p.value = 0.032.Mild side effects were observed in 10% of melatonin group and in 16.7% of gabapentin group. No statistically significant differences were seen from viewpoint of safety between the two drugs (p.value=0.448. Conclusion: Melatonin and gabapentin were not effective drugs in anxiety reduction for lumbar puncture of children. However, gabapentin is a safe and effective drug in pain reduction in painful diagnostic therapeutic procedures.

  3. An investigation of children's levels of inquiry in an informal science setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Thomas, Beth Anne

    Elementary school students' understanding of both science content and processes are enhanced by the higher level thinking associated with inquiry-based science investigations. Informal science setting personnel, elementary school teachers, and curriculum specialists charged with designing inquiry-based investigations would be well served by an understanding of the varying influence of certain present factors upon the students' willingness and ability to delve into such higher level inquiries. This study examined young children's use of inquiry-based materials and factors which may influence the level of inquiry they engaged in during informal science activities. An informal science setting was selected as the context for the examination of student inquiry behaviors because of the rich inquiry-based environment present at the site and the benefits previously noted in the research regarding the impact of informal science settings upon the construction of knowledge in science. The study revealed several patterns of behavior among children when they are engaged in inquiry-based activities at informal science exhibits. These repeated behaviors varied in the children's apparent purposeful use of the materials at the exhibits. These levels of inquiry behavior were taxonomically defined as high/medium/low within this study utilizing a researcher-developed tool. Furthermore, in this study adult interventions, questions, or prompting were found to impact the level of inquiry engaged in by the children. This study revealed that higher levels of inquiry were preceded by task directed and physical feature prompts. Moreover, the levels of inquiry behaviors were haltered, even lowered, when preceded by a prompt that focused on a science content or concept question. Results of this study have implications for the enhancement of inquiry-based science activities in elementary schools as well as in informal science settings. These findings have significance for all science educators

  4. Investigation of asthma comorbidity in children with different severities of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogru, Mahmut

    2016-05-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma comorbidity is widely seen. However, the effects of AR on asthma are more likely to be studied in the literature. To investigate the prevalence of asthma in children with AR who are followed-up and to evaluate the effect of asthma on the severity of AR. A total of 509 children with AR who were followed-up in the pediatric allergy-immunology department between January 2012 and December 2013 were enrolled in the study. Asthma and AR are diagnosed by using the Global Initiative for Asthma and the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma, respectively. The patients were categorized into two groups according to the presence of asthma. The two groups were compared according to sociodemographic characteristics, clinical features, and laboratory findings. Skin-prick test results, serum immunoglobulin E levels, and the percentage of eosinophils of the patients were evaluated. A total of 299 of the patients were boys (58.7%) the mean age was 7.2 ± 3.5 years (range, 1.5-18 years). Patients with moderate-severe persistent rhinitis (40.5% of all patients) were the most common rhinitis subgroup. Mild intermittent rhinitis was diagnosed in 17.7%, mild persistent rhinitis in 11.2%, and moderate-severe intermittent rhinitis in 30.6% of the patients. Two hundred seventy-one children with AR (53.2%) also had concomitant asthma. The patients were categorized into two groups: AR-asthma comorbidity group (group I) and AR-only group (group II). There was no significant difference between these two groups when compared with the sex, age, familial atopy, exposure to smoke, and severity of AR (p > 0.05). The duration of illness, immunoglobulin E levels, number of positive sensitivity, sensitivity to house-dust mites, sensitivity to cockroaches, and polysensitization were significantly higher in the AR-asthma comorbidity group (p < 0.05). This study showed that asthma comorbidity had no effect on the severity of AR. However, it was also shown that the

  5. Early diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination associated with higher female mortality and no difference in male mortality in a cohort of low birthweight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin

    2012-01-01

    Studies from low-income countries have suggested that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine provided after Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a negative effect on female survival. The authors examined the effect of DTP in a cohort of low birthweight (LBW) infants.......Studies from low-income countries have suggested that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine provided after Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a negative effect on female survival. The authors examined the effect of DTP in a cohort of low birthweight (LBW) infants....

  6. Post-Bacillus Calmette-Gue´ rin lymphadenitis in Egyptian children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion As antituberculous therapy was found to be ineffective in the management of BCG lymphadenitis, we recommend a careful choice of BCG vaccines to avoid multidrug-resistant strains, early surgical excision of lymph nodes larger than 3 cm and lymphadenopathy complicated with abscess or sinus formation, and ...

  7. Post-Bacillus Calmette-Gue´ rin lymphadenitis in Egyptian children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, we were dealing with a multidrug- resistant strain of the BCG vaccine when compared with other strains that were multidrug sensitive such as BCG-. Bulgaria (SL 222 Sofia), BCG-Connaught, BCG-Denmark. Table 5 The course of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin lymphadenitis in the studied groups during 9 months. N (%).

  8. An Investigation on 3-6-Year-Old Chinese Children's Perception of "Death"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yan; Cao, Yanhua; Han, Min

    2017-01-01

    Because of the taboo in Chinese culture, there is little research on Chinese children's perception of "death". The research on preschoolers' cognition of "death" could deepen our research on children's cognition process, guide children's life education, and improve the psychologic intervention on the children who experience…

  9. Investigating the Effects of Robot-Assisted Therapy among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder using Bio-markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharatharaj, Jaishankar; Huang, Loulin; Al-Jumaily, Ahmed; Elara, Mohan Rajesh; Krägeloh, Chris

    2017-09-01

    Therapeutic pet robots designed to help humans with various medical conditions could play a vital role in physiological, psychological and social-interaction interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this paper, we report our findings from a robot-assisted therapeutic study conducted over seven weeks to investigate the changes in stress levels of children with ASD. For this study, we used the parrot-inspired therapeutic robot, KiliRo, we developed and investigated urinary and salivary samples of participating children to report changes in stress levels before and after interacting with the robot. This is a pioneering human-robot interaction study to investigate the effects of robot-assisted therapy using salivary samples. The results show that the bio-inspired robot-assisted therapy can significantly help reduce the stress levels of children with ASD.

  10. How differentiated do children experience affect? An investigation of the within- and between-person structure of children's affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Anja; Könen, Tanja; Dirk, Judith; Schmiedek, Florian

    2016-05-01

    Research on the structure of children's affect is limited. It is possible that children's perception of their own affect might be less differentiated than that of adults. Support for the 2-factor model of positive and negative affect and the pleasure-arousal model suggests that children in middle childhood can distinguish positive and negative affect as well as valence and arousal. Whether children are able to differentiate further aspects of affect, as proposed by the 3-dimensional model of affect (good-bad mood, alertness-tiredness, calmness-tension), is an unresolved issue. The aim of our study was the comparison of these 3 affect models to establish how differentiated children experience their affect and which model best describes affect in children. We examined affect structures on the between- and within-person level, acknowledging that affect varies across time and that no valid interpretation of either level is feasible if both are confounded. For this purpose, 214 children (age 8-11 years) answered affect items once a day for 5 consecutive days on smartphones. We tested all affect models by means of 2-level confirmatory factor analysis. Although all affect models had an acceptable fit, the 3-dimensional model best described affect in children on both the within- and between-person level. Thus, children in middle childhood can already describe affect in a differentiated way. Also, affect structures were similar on the within- and between-person level. We conclude that in order to acquire a thorough picture of children's affect, measures for children should include items of all 3 affect dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Investigating the autonomic nervous system response to anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Kushki

    Full Text Available Assessment of anxiety symptoms in autism spectrum disorders (ASD is a challenging task due to the symptom overlap between the two conditions as well as the difficulties in communication and awareness of emotions in ASD. This motivates the development of a physiological marker of anxiety in ASD that is independent of language and does not require observation of overt behaviour. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using indicators of autonomic nervous system (ANS activity for this purpose. Specially, the objectives of the study were to 1 examine whether or not anxiety causes significant measurable changes in indicators of ANS in an ASD population, and 2 characterize the pattern of these changes in ASD. We measured three physiological indicators of the autonomic nervous system response (heart rate, electrodermal activity, and skin temperature during a baseline (movie watching and anxiety condition (Stroop task in a sample of typically developing children (n = 17 and children with ASD (n = 12. The anxiety condition caused significant changes in heart rate and electrodermal activity in both groups, however, a differential pattern of response was found between the two groups. In particular, the ASD group showed elevated heart rate during both baseline and anxiety conditions. Elevated and blunted phasic electrodermal activity were found in the ASD group during baseline and anxiety conditions, respectively. Finally, the ASD group did not show the typical decrease in skin temperature in response to anxiety. These results suggest that 1 signals of the autonomic nervous system may be used as indicators of anxiety in children with ASD, and 2 ASD may be associated with an atypical autonomic response to anxiety that is most consistent with sympathetic over-arousal and parasympathetic under-arousal.

  12. Investigating the relationship between phonological awareness and phonological processes in children with speech sound disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navideh Shakeri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Some children with speech sound disorder (SSD have difficulty with phonological awareness skills; therefore, the purpose of this study was to survey the correlation between phonological processes and phonological awareness.Methods: Twenty-one children with speech sound disorder, aged between 5 and 6, participated in this cross-sectional study. They were recruited from speech therapy clinics at the Tehran University of Medical Sciences. They were selected using the convenience sampling method . Language, speech sound, and phonological awareness skills were investigated by the test of language development-third edition (TOLD-3, the Persian diagnostic evaluation articulation and phonology test, and the phonological awareness test. Both Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlations were used to analyze the data.Results: There was a significant correlation between the atypical phonological processes and alliteration awareness (p=0.005, rhyme awareness (p=0.009, blending phonemes (p=0.006, identification of words with the same initial phoneme (p=0.007, and identification of words with the same final phoneme (p=0.007. Analyzing the correlation on the basis of the phoneme and syllable structure separately showed there was a significant correlation between the atypical phoneme structure and alliteration awareness (p=0.001, rhyme awareness (p=0.008, blending phonemes (p=0.029, identification of words with the same initial phoneme (p=0.007, and identification of words with the same final phoneme (p=0.003.Conclusion: Results revealed a relationship between phonological processes and phonological awareness in children with speech sound disorder. Poor phonological awareness was associated with atypical phonological processes especially at the phoneme level.

  13. Investigating the autonomic nervous system response to anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushki, Azadeh; Drumm, Ellen; Pla Mobarak, Michele; Tanel, Nadia; Dupuis, Annie; Chau, Tom; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of anxiety symptoms in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a challenging task due to the symptom overlap between the two conditions as well as the difficulties in communication and awareness of emotions in ASD. This motivates the development of a physiological marker of anxiety in ASD that is independent of language and does not require observation of overt behaviour. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using indicators of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity for this purpose. Specially, the objectives of the study were to 1) examine whether or not anxiety causes significant measurable changes in indicators of ANS in an ASD population, and 2) characterize the pattern of these changes in ASD. We measured three physiological indicators of the autonomic nervous system response (heart rate, electrodermal activity, and skin temperature) during a baseline (movie watching) and anxiety condition (Stroop task) in a sample of typically developing children (n = 17) and children with ASD (n = 12). The anxiety condition caused significant changes in heart rate and electrodermal activity in both groups, however, a differential pattern of response was found between the two groups. In particular, the ASD group showed elevated heart rate during both baseline and anxiety conditions. Elevated and blunted phasic electrodermal activity were found in the ASD group during baseline and anxiety conditions, respectively. Finally, the ASD group did not show the typical decrease in skin temperature in response to anxiety. These results suggest that 1) signals of the autonomic nervous system may be used as indicators of anxiety in children with ASD, and 2) ASD may be associated with an atypical autonomic response to anxiety that is most consistent with sympathetic over-arousal and parasympathetic under-arousal.

  14. Investigating evolutionary constraints on the detection of threatening stimuli in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsido, Andras N; Deak, Anita; Losonci, Adrienn; Stecina, Diana; Arato, Akos; Bernath, Laszlo

    2018-04-01

    Numerous objects and animals could be threatening, and thus, children learn to avoid them early. Spiders and syringes are among the most common targets of fears and phobias of the modern word. However, they are of different origins: while the former is evolutionary relevant, the latter is not. We sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms that make the quick detection of such stimuli possible and enable the impulse to avoid them in the future. The respective categories of threatening and non-threatening targets were similar in shape, while low-level visual features were controlled. Our results showed that children found threatening cues faster, irrespective of the evolutionary age of the cues. However, they detected non-threatening evolutionary targets faster than non-evolutionary ones. We suggest that the underlying mechanism may be different: general feature detection can account for finding evolutionary threatening cues quickly, while specific features detection is more appropriate for modern threatening stimuli. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of parabens in commercial cosmetics for children in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Li, Jie; Tian, Hanmei; Ding, Xiaojing

    2013-01-01

    Parabens are one of the most common preservatives in cosmetics. Because allergenicity and cytotoxicity potential values are major aspects of preservative safety and parabens are xenoestrogens, safety levels of parabens have been restricted in "Hygienic Standard for Cosmetics" (2007 edition) by the Ministry of Public Health of China, and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the simultaneous determination of parabens is recommended. To investigate whether the commonly used parabens in children's cosmetics were at a safety level, 105 cosmetics for children were randomly purchased from the local market in Beijing and analyzed by the proposed HPLC method. The detection rate of methylparaben was the highest and the next was propylparaben. Among the 105 samples, two or more kinds of parabens were detected in 72 samples with concentrations ranging from 0.02% to 0.75%; 18 samples contained one kind of paraben with concentrations ranging from 0.002% to 0.06%. In this study, the contents of parabens in the 105 samples were all below the restricted levels.

  16. Urinary biomarker investigation in children with Fabry disease using tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auray-Blais, Christiane; Blais, Catherine-Marie; Ramaswami, Uma; Boutin, Michel; Germain, Dominique P; Dyack, Sarah; Bodamer, Olaf; Pintos-Morell, Guillem; Clarke, Joe T R; Bichet, Daniel G; Warnock, David G; Echevarria, Lucia; West, Michael L; Lavoie, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder affecting both males and females with tremendous genotypic/phenotypic variability. Concentrations of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), globotriaosylsphingosine (lyso-Gb3)/related analogues were investigated in pediatric and adult Fabry cohorts. The aims of this study were to transfer and validate an HPLC-MS/MS methodology on a UPLC-MS/MS new generation platform, using an HPLC column, for urine analysis of treated and untreated pediatric and adult Fabry patients, to establish correlations between the excretion of Fabry biomarkers with gender, treatment, types of mutations, and to evaluate the biomarker reliability for early detection of pediatric Fabry patients. A UPLC-MS/MS was used for biomarker analysis. Reference values are presented for all biomarkers. Results show that gender strongly influences the excretion of each biomarker in the pediatric Fabry cohort, with females having lower urinary levels of all biomarkers. Urinary distribution of lyso-Gb3/related analogues in treated Fabry males was similar to the untreated and treated Fabry female groups in both children and adult cohorts. Children with the late-onset p.N215S mutation had normal urinary levels of Gb3, and lyso-Gb3 but abnormal levels of related analogues. In this study, Fabry males and most Fabry females would have been diagnosed using the urinary lyso-Gb3/related analogue profile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF THE PREVALANCE AND CAUSES OF AMBLYOPIA IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzeyir ERDEM

    Full Text Available Purpose: Investigation of the causes and risk factors of amblyopia which is the most important cause of legal blindness with a prevalance of 2,5% among people under 45 years old in developed countries. Material and Methods: A screening test was performed to 3-6 years old preschool children and kindergartens in Ankara. The records included age, sex, birth problems, education level of the parents, pre and postnatal problems, family history and visual acuities. Suspected cases were sent to the ophthalmologist for the examination of visual acuity, and duction and version, biomicroscopic, ophthalmoscopic and cycloplegic refractive examinations. Visual acuity of 8/10 or less without any organic cause was accepted as amblyopia. Results: Fifty six of the 202 children were sent to the ophthalmologist because of low vision. Ophthalmologic examination revealed 6 amblyopia cases. The prevalance of amblyopia was 2,97%. Conclusion: Ambliyopia was 3 times more frequent in cases with a positive family history compared with cases without a family history. But this value was statistically insignificant. The most frequent causes of amblyopia were esotropia (50%, hypermetropic amblyopia (33,3%, and deprivation amblyopia (16,6%. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(9.000: 202-212

  18. Investigation of distinctive characteristics of children with specific learning disorder and borderline intellectual functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Ozkan

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borderline intelligence function (BIF and specific learning disorder (SLD are common diagnoses in children who are brought up for learning problems and school failure. Objective The aim of our study was to determine whether there were distinctive aspects of cognitive testing routinely used in evaluating SLD and BIF and investigate emotion regulation skills and minor neurologic symptoms. Method Sixty children (30 SLD and 30 BIF who are currently attending primary school are selected for study. Visual Aural Digit Span Test – Form B, Gessel Figure Drawing Test, Bender Gestalt Visual Motor Perception Test, WISC-R, Emotion Regulation Scale (ERS and Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES was administered. Results There was no statistically significant difference between groups in cognitive tests. The emotional regulation ability measured by the emotional regulation subscale was better in the SLD group than the BIF group (p = 0.014. In the NES, sensory integration (p = 0.008, motor coordination (p = 0.047 and other (p < 0.001 subscales showed higher scores in the BIF group. Discussion It has been shown that cognitive tests don’t have distinguishing features in the evaluation of SLD and BIF. Emotion regulation subscale score of ERS and sensory integration, motor coordination, and total scores of NES can be used in both discrimination of groups.

  19. Early diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination associated with higher female mortality and no difference in male mortality in a cohort of low birthweight children: an observational study within a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Roth, Adam; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida Maria; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Lausch, Karen Rokkedal; Lund, Najaaraq; Rasmussen, Julie; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Whittle, Hilton; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2012-08-01

    Studies from low-income countries have suggested that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine provided after Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a negative effect on female survival. The authors examined the effect of DTP in a cohort of low birthweight (LBW) infants. 2320 LBW newborns were visited at 2, 6 and 12 months of age to assess nutritional and vaccination status. The authors examined survival until the 6-month visit for children who were DTP vaccinated and DTP unvaccinated at the 2-month visit. Two-thirds of the children had received DTP at 2 months and 50 deaths occurred between the 2-month and 6-month visits. DTP vaccinated children had a better anthropometric status for all indices than DTP unvaccinated children. Small mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) was the strongest predictor of mortality. The death rate ratio (DRR) for DTP vaccinated versus DTP unvaccinated children differed significantly for girls (DRR 2.45; 95% CI 0.93 to 6.45) and boys (DRR 0.53; 95% CI 0.23 to 1.20) (p=0.018, homogeneity test). Adjusting for MUAC, the overall effect for DTP vaccinated children was 2.62 (95% CI 1.34 to 5.09); DRR was 5.68 (95% CI 1.83 to 17.7) for girls and 1.29 (95% CI 0.56 to 2.97) for boys (p=0.023, homogeneity test). While anthropometric indices were a strong predictor of mortality among boys, there was little or no association for girls. Surprisingly, even though the children with the best nutritional status were vaccinated early, early DTP vaccination was associated with increased mortality for girls.

  20. Investigating an Intervention Program Linking Writing and Vocabulary Development for Homeless Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sinatra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The presented study investigated the effects of a four-week academic and activity – enriched summer program on vocabulary development and writing achievement of homeless children residing in traditional shelter facilities. When compared to controls the experimental students did not reveal gains in vocabulary and spelling as measured by two norm referenced tests. They did however demonstrate highly significant gains in writing ability based on the New York State standards criteria, reflecting five qualities of writing. On two project-developed instruments designed to measure improvement in book vocabulary and tennis skills, they showed significant increases based on analyses of their pre- and posttest scores. The program closed achievement gaps, fulfilled standards criteria, and may be the first of its kind in the homeless literature whereby students’ writing development was compared to matched controls as vocabulary development occurred based on literary readings.

  1. The investigation of inhalational allergen in 208 asthmatic infants and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yonggang; Zhang Yi; Liu Jian

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the inhalational allergen in 208 asthmatic infants and children with allergen steep puncturing skin. The positive cases were 169(81.25%). There were 18 inhalational allergens in allergen steep. The positive rate of the dust acarus was 78.85%, and the dust was 35.58%, the smoke was 32.69% among the allergens. There was not any positive reaction in other allergens. There were no sexual differences in the positive rate. There was nothing with hypersusceptibility of the individual and the family. The positive rate of the infant was less than the child. There was significant difference of the positive rate in the age group (P < 0.01). The result indicated that dust acarus, air pollution or passive smoke was the quite dangerous factor in the many factors of the asthma. It was very important to strengthen the study of the infant and child prevention and cure

  2. Investigation of Copy Number Variation in Children with Conotruncal Heart Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Marques Rondon Campos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital heart defects (CHD are the most prevalent group of structural abnormalities at birth and one of the main causes of infant morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown a contribution of the copy number variation in the genesis of cardiac malformations. Objectives: Investigate gene copy number variation (CNV in children with conotruncal heart defect. Methods: Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA was performed in 39 patients with conotruncal heart defect. Clinical and laboratory assessments were conducted in all patients. The parents of the probands who presented abnormal findings were also investigated. Results: Gene copy number variation was detected in 7/39 patients: 22q11.2 deletion, 22q11.2 duplication, 15q11.2 duplication, 20p12.2 duplication, 19p deletion, 15q and 8p23.2 duplication with 10p12.31 duplication. The clinical characteristics were consistent with those reported in the literature associated with the encountered microdeletion/microduplication. None of these changes was inherited from the parents. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that the technique of MLPA is useful in the investigation of microdeletions and microduplications in conotruncal congenital heart defects. Early diagnosis of the copy number variation in patients with congenital heart defect assists in the prevention of morbidity and decreased mortality in these patients.

  3. Investigation of Copy Number Variation in Children with Conotruncal Heart Defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Carla Marques Rondon, E-mail: carlamcampos@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, MT (Brazil); Zanardo, Evelin Aline; Dutra, Roberta Lelis [Departamento de Patologia - Laboratório de Citogenômica - LIM 03 - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Patologia - Laboratório de Citogenômica - LIM 03 - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kim, Chong Ae [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most prevalent group of structural abnormalities at birth and one of the main causes of infant morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown a contribution of the copy number variation in the genesis of cardiac malformations. Investigate gene copy number variation (CNV) in children with conotruncal heart defect. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was performed in 39 patients with conotruncal heart defect. Clinical and laboratory assessments were conducted in all patients. The parents of the probands who presented abnormal findings were also investigated. Gene copy number variation was detected in 7/39 patients: 22q11.2 deletion, 22q11.2 duplication, 15q11.2 duplication, 20p12.2 duplication, 19p deletion, 15q and 8p23.2 duplication with 10p12.31 duplication. The clinical characteristics were consistent with those reported in the literature associated with the encountered microdeletion/microduplication. None of these changes was inherited from the parents. Our results demonstrate that the technique of MLPA is useful in the investigation of microdeletions and microduplications in conotruncal congenital heart defects. Early diagnosis of the copy number variation in patients with congenital heart defect assists in the prevention of morbidity and decreased mortality in these patients.

  4. Using Simulations to Investigate the Longitudinal Stability of Alternative Schemes for Classifying and Identifying Children with Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatschneider, Christopher; Wagner, Richard K.; Hart, Sara A.; Tighe, Elizabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    The present study employed data simulation techniques to investigate the 1-year stability of alternative classification schemes for identifying children with reading disabilities. Classification schemes investigated include low performance, unexpected low performance, dual-discrepancy, and a rudimentary form of constellation model of reading…

  5. Courtesy stigma in mothers of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvilitis, J M; Scime, M; Lee, J S

    2002-09-01

    Mothers of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder face an increased risk for depression, anxiety, and social isolation. In addition to stress due to children's behavior, mothers of children with ADHD may also feel stigmatized by their children's diagnosis. Fifty-one mothers participated in a study to assess attitudes toward ADHD. Although mothers of children with ADHD expected that parents of children without ADHD would hold harsh views of the disorder, this was not generally the case. This difference between perception and the actual self-reported views of mothers of children without ADHD supports the idea that mothers feel stigmatized but suggests that increased awareness might help mothers of children with ADHD feel less isolated.

  6. Bacille-Calmette-Guerin vaccination and the development of allergic disease in children: a randomized, prospective, single-blind study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, T. J.; van Aalderen, W. M. C.; Bloksma, N.; Nijkamp, F. P.; van der Laag, J.; van Loveren, H.; Rijkers, G. T.; Kuis, W.; Hoekstra, M. O.

    2008-01-01

    Background The increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases in countries with a so-called western lifestyle may be due to a decrease in exposure to infectious agents in early life. Objective To establish the effect of Bacille-Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination in 6-week-old high-risk infants in a

  7. Social Anxiety Symptoms in Young Children: Investigating the Interplay of Theory of Mind and Expressions of Shyness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonnesi, Cristina; Nikolić, Milica; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M

    2017-07-01

    Children's early onset of social anxiety may be associated with their social understanding, and their ability to express emotions adaptively. We examined whether social anxiety in 48-month-old children (N = 110; 54 boys) was related to: a) a lower level of theory of mind (ToM); b) a lower proclivity to express shyness in a positive way (adaptive); and c) a higher tendency to express shyness in a negative way (non-adaptive). In addition, we investigated to what extent children's level of social anxiety was predicted by the interaction between ToM and expressions of shyness. Children's positive and negative expressions of shyness were observed during a performance task. ToM was measured with a validated battery, and social anxiety was assessed using both parents' reports on questionnaires. Socially anxious children had a lower level of ToM, and displayed more negative and less positive shy expressions. However, children with a lower level of ToM who expressed more positive shyness were less socially anxious. Additional results show that children who displayed shyness only in a negative manner were more socially anxious than children who expressed shyness only in a positive way and children who did not display any shyness. Moreover, children who displayed both positive and negative expressions of shyness were more socially anxious than children who displayed shyness only in a positive way. These findings highlight the importance of ToM development and socio-emotional strategies, and their interaction, on the early development of social anxiety.

  8. Investigation regarding prevention of insufficiency fractures in children with severe cerebral palsy by Light-Emitting Diode (LED) irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Asagai, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Kengo; Ohshiro, Toshio; Ohshiro, Takafumi

    2014-01-01

    Bone metabolism in children with severe fractures was examined, risk factors for fractures were characterized, and effects of LED (light-emitting diode) irradiation on the risk factors for fractures were investigated. Since insufficiency fracture in children with severe cerebral palsy can be caused without obvious external force in daily care, it is sometimes handled as a medical accident and can lead to a lawsuit. It is very important to explain the possibility of an insufficiency fracture t...

  9. A PhonicStick Study : Investigating the Effectiveness of a Phonological Awareness Intervention in Children with Down Syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Gullberg, Jenny; Granholm, Josefin

    2010-01-01

    Phonological awareness is a set of language manipulation skills such as blending, rhyme, alliteration production and detection. There are disagreements among researchers how phonological awareness is connected to literacy learning and also how and if children with Down syndrome acquire phonological awareness. The specific phenotype of Down syndrome shows deficits in both short term memory and language development. It is therefore of great concern to investigate how children with Down syndrome...

  10. Using Narrative to Investigate Language Skills of Children Who Are Deaf and with Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmese, Pistav; Acarlar, Funda

    2016-01-01

    The study group consisted of 30 children with cochlear implants (CI) and 30 children with normal hearing (NH), whose ages were 4 years and 7 years 11 months. Turkish Test of Early Language Development (TEDIL) was used to assess the language skills of the children. Language samples were gathered by using Edmonton Narrative Norms Instrument (ENNI).…

  11. A Longitudinal Investigation of Morpho-Syntax in Children with Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Jennifer; Rvachew, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The intent of this study was to examine the longitudinal morpho-syntactic progression of children with Speech Sound Disorders (SSD) grouped according to Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) scores. Methods: Thirty-seven children separated into four clusters were assessed in their pre-kindergarten and Grade 1 years. Cluster 1 were children with…

  12. Fries or a fruit bag? Investigating the nutritional composition of fast food children's meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Lyndal; Glasson, Colleen; Chapman, Kathy

    2012-02-01

    The impact of children's fast food meals on their daily nutritional requirements has not been assessed in Australia. Analysis of the nutritional composition of children's meals from six fast food chains was conducted. The energy, saturated fat, sugar and sodium content of all children's meals from the chains were assessed against the fast food industry-defined nutrient criteria for healthy meals and children's recommended daily nutritional requirements, as defined by the Nutrient Reference Values and the Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents in Australia. Overall children's fast food meals are high in saturated fat, sugar and sodium. Only 16% and 22% of meals met the industry's nutrient criteria for children aged 4-8 and 9-13 years, respectively. Seventy-two percent of fast food meals exceeded 30% of the daily energy recommendations for 4 year old children, and 90% of meals exceeded 30% of the upper limit for sodium for children aged 4-8. Some meals also exceeded the upper limit for sodium and daily saturated fat recommendations for children aged 4-8 years. Reformulation of children's meals to improve their nutritional composition and revision of the industry's nutrient criteria to align with children's dietary requirements are urgently needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A longitudinal investigation of morpho-syntax in children with Speech Sound Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Jennifer; Rvachew, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The intent of this study was to examine the longitudinal morpho-syntactic progression of children with Speech Sound Disorders (SSD) grouped according to Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) scores. Thirty-seven children separated into four clusters were assessed in their pre-kindergarten and Grade 1 years. Cluster 1 were children with typical development; the other clusters were children with SSD. Cluster 2 had good pre-kindergarten MLU; Clusters 3 and 4 had low MLU scores in pre-kindergarten, and (respectively) good and poor MLU outcomes. Children with SSD in pre-kindergarten had lower Developmental Sentence Scores (DSS) and made fewer attempts at finite embedded clauses than children with typical development. All children with SSD, especially Cluster 4, had difficulty with finite verb morphology. Children with SSD and typical MLU may be weak in some areas of syntax. Children with SSD who have low MLU scores and poor finite verb morphology skills in pre-kindergarten may be at risk for poor expressive language outcomes. However, these results need to be replicated with larger groups. The reader should (1) have a general understanding of findings from studies on morpho-syntax and SSD conducted over the last half century (2) be aware of some potential areas of morpho-syntactic weakness in young children with SSD who nonetheless have typical MLU, and (3) be aware of some potential longitudinal predictors of continued language difficulty in young children with SSD and poor MLU. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Investigation of sleep patterns and sleep disorders in Uigur and Hui children in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzhare, Tajiguli; Xu, Pei-Ru; Tiemuer, Amanguli; Zhang, Ji-Hong

    2011-07-01

    To study the sleep quality and quantity and their influencing factors in Uigur and Hui children in Xinjiang Province. From March to December of 2007, 912 Uigur and 1019 Hui school children (6 to 14 years) were randomly sampled from 6 cities of Xinjing Province. The questionnaire on children's sleep states and sleep environments was filled in by children's parents. The mean sleep time of Uigur and Hui children was 10.1±1.4 hrs. The sleep time in Uigur children was significantly less than that in Hui children (9.7±1.2 hrs vs 10.4±1.5 hrs; PHui children (18.42% vs 28.16%; PHui children in Xinjiang Province. Pediatrician, child health care doctors and parents should pay more attention to children's sleep. The incidence of sleep disorders is different between Uigur and Hui children, suggesting that more research for the prevention and treatment of sleep disorders should be performed in different ethic groups.

  15. Are regional and remote Western Australian children eating for good health? An investigation into fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godrich, Stephanie L; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-12-01

    Issue addressed Little is known about the fruit and vegetable (F&V) habits of regional and remote Western Australian (WA) children beyond quantities consumed. This study aimed to ascertain the proportion of regional and remote WA children who met the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG) for F&V; the types and varieties of F&V consumed; and whether consumption behaviour was associated with remoteness. Methods Caregiver and child dyads (n=256 dyads) completed similar paper-based surveys, 196 of these children completed 24-h dietary records. Statistical analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS (version 23). Results Overall, children were less likely to adhere to vegetables (15.4%) than fruit (65.8%) guidelines. Adherence to the ADG did not significantly differ between regional and remote locations. However, a higher proportion of remote children consumed dried fruit compared with regional children, while significantly more regional children compared with remote children consumed from the 'pome, tropical and stone fruit' group and the 'starchy vegetables', 'red/orange vegetables' and 'dark green leafy vegetables' groups. Conclusions Many regional and remote WA children consumed F&V in suboptimal amounts. Further research should aim to ascertain factors that increase or decrease the likelihood of ADG adherence across regional and remote WA and determine why certain F&V variety groups and types differed in consumption across Remoteness Areas. So what This study provided closer scrutiny of WA children's F&V consumption habits, highlighting the differences in consumption behaviours due to remoteness and identifying specific areas that require further investigation.

  16. The Social Transmission of Attractiveness Stereotypes: An Investigation of Parental Expectations of Children's Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hicken, Marianne White

    1982-01-01

    Eighty-six children fran the Utah State University Child Development Latoratories and Hillcrest Elerrentary School and their parents participated in the study. The study focused on the use of attractiveness stereotyping used by children across four age groups. The study also analyzed the social transmission of attractiveness stereotypes fran parents to their children. The study included two parts: 1) a play-preference measure, and 2) a social attribJtion measure. The stimlli were sketches of ...

  17. A Preliminary Investigation of a Specialized Music Therapy Model for Children with Disabilities Delivered in a Classroom Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Mendelson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Music therapy is gaining popularity as an intervention strategy for children with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD. This study was a pilot investigation of a classroom-based music-based intervention, Voices Together®, for improving communication skills in children with ASD and children with intellectual disabilities. Four local public elementary school special education classrooms, serving 5 children with a classification of autistic disorder and 32 children with intellectual disability without autism, were randomly selected to receive one of two levels of exposure to Voices Together music therapy: “long-term” (15 weeks beginning in January 2015 (Time 1, n=14 or “short-term” (7 weeks beginning 7 weeks later in February (Time 2, n=17. Using observational ratings, investigators reliably scored participants live in terms of their level of verbal responsiveness to prompts during three songs featured each week of the program. Both groups demonstrated increases in verbal responses over time; however, only the long-term group demonstrated significant within-group increases. Preliminary findings suggest that music therapy delivered in a classroom in 45-minute weekly sessions for 15 weeks can promote improvements in verbal responsiveness among individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy of classroom-based music therapy programs.

  18. A Preliminary Investigation of a Specialized Music Therapy Model for Children with Disabilities Delivered in a Classroom Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Jenna; White, Yasmine; Hans, Laura; Adebari, Richard; Schmid, Lorrie; Riggsbee, Jan; Goldsmith, Ali; Ozler, Burcu; Buehne, Kristen; Jones, Sarah; Shapleton, Jennifer; Dawson, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Music therapy is gaining popularity as an intervention strategy for children with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study was a pilot investigation of a classroom-based music-based intervention, Voices Together® , for improving communication skills in children with ASD and children with intellectual disabilities. Four local public elementary school special education classrooms, serving 5 children with a classification of autistic disorder and 32 children with intellectual disability without autism, were randomly selected to receive one of two levels of exposure to Voices Together music therapy: "long-term" (15 weeks beginning in January 2015 (Time 1), n = 14) or "short-term" (7 weeks beginning 7 weeks later in February (Time 2), n = 17). Using observational ratings, investigators reliably scored participants live in terms of their level of verbal responsiveness to prompts during three songs featured each week of the program. Both groups demonstrated increases in verbal responses over time; however, only the long-term group demonstrated significant within-group increases. Preliminary findings suggest that music therapy delivered in a classroom in 45-minute weekly sessions for 15 weeks can promote improvements in verbal responsiveness among individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy of classroom-based music therapy programs.

  19. A qualitative investigation into the levers and barriers to weight loss in children: opinions of obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, J; Dixey, R; Rudolf, M

    2006-11-01

    The alarming increase in the worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity is now recognised as a major public health concern. Failure to isolate and understand the external and internal factors contributing to successful weight loss may well be contributing to the ineffectiveness of current treatment interventions. To identify the physical and psychological levers and barriers to weight loss experienced by obese children using qualitative techniques. 20 participants were randomly selected from a population of clinically obese children (7-15 years old) attending a weight-loss clinic for >3 months. The children expressed their opinions in a series of interviews and focus group sessions. Data were recorded, semitranscribed and analysed using the thematic framework analysis technique and behavioural-change models. Children described the humiliation of social torment and exclusion as the main reasons for wanting to lose weight, although initiation of behavioural change required the active intervention of a role model. The continuation of action was deemed improbable without continual emotional support offered at an individual level. Behavioural sacrifice, delayed parental recognition and previous negative experiences of weight loss were recognised as barriers to action. Participants identified shortcomings in their own physical abilities, the extended time period required to lose weight and external restrictions beyond their control as barriers to maintaining behavioural change. This study identifies the important levers and barriers experienced by obese children in their attempt to lose weight. Dealing with these levers and barriers while acknowledging the complex interplay of social and emotional factors unique to the individual may well promote successful weight control.

  20. [Investigation and analysis of factors that affect the health of children in the plastic recycling and regeneration processing region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juanli; Li, Liping; Lu, Yaogui

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the main influential factors for the health of children in the plastic waste recovery and recycling area. A cross-sectional survey was performed among children aged 9∼17 years from three natural villages engaged in plastic waste recovery and recycling and four control villages engaged in planting. The health status of children was investigated by random household survey using a face-to-face questionnaire, and the main influential factors were analyzed accordingly. The incidence rates of respiratory symptoms (cough and expectoration, nasal congestion, and sore throat) (78.4%, 69/88) and digestive diseases (gastrointestinal disease and liver disease) (14.8%, 13/88) in the waste processing area were significantly higher than those in the control area (64.0%, 71/111; 6.3%, 7/111) (P plastic can be smelt around the residential area.

  1. Etiology and outcomes of acute kidney injury in Chinese children: a prospective multicentre investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Yi, Zhu-Wen; Zhang, Hui; Dang, Xi-Qiang; Wu, Xiao-Chuan; Huang, Ai-Wen

    2013-08-21

    The incidence of AKI appears to have increasing trend. Up to now, prospective, multi-center, large-sample epidemiological study done on pediatric AKI on aspects of epidemiological characteristics, causes and outcomes have not reported. It is necessary to develop prospective, multi-center, large-sample epidemiological study in our country on pediatric AKI. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical features, etiology, and outcomes of acute kidney injury (AKI) in Chinese children. Paediatric patients (≤18 years old) admitted to 27 hospitals (14 children's hospitals and 13 general hospitals) affiliated with the Medical University were investigated. AKI was defined using the 2005 Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. During the study period, 388,736 paediatric patients were admitted. From this total, AKI was diagnosed in 1,257 patients, 43 of whom died. The incidence and mortality of AKI was 0.32% and 3.4% respectively. The mean (± SD) age of patients was 48.4 ± 50.4 months. Among the 1,257 AKI paediatric patients, 632 were less than one year old. Among the AKI paediatric patients, 615 (48.9%) were in stage 1, 277 (22.0%) in stage 2, and 365 (29.0%) in stage 3. The most common causes of AKI were renal causes (57.52%), whereas postrenal (25.69%) and prerenal (14.96%) causes were the least common. The three most common causes of AKI according to individual etiological disease were urolithiasis (22.35%), of which exposure to melamine-contaminated milk accounted for the highest incidence (63.7%); acute glomerulonephritis (10.10%); and severe dehydration (7.48%). A total of 43 AKI patients (3.4%) died during their hospital stay; 15 (34.9%) of the 43 died as a result of sepsis. Primary renal diseases are a major risk factor for paediatric AKI in China. In terms of specific etiological disease, urolithiasis (postrenal disease) was the leading cause of paediatric AKI in 2008, when the disease was linked to exposure to melamine-contaminated milk. Sepsis is the

  2. Children's Understanding of Advertising: An Investigation Using Verbal and Pictorially Cued Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Laura; Auty, Susan; Lewis, Charlie; Berridge, Damon

    2007-01-01

    Conflicting results on children's understanding of advertising may stem from differences in research methods. Most studies are conducted using interviewing techniques, employing only verbal questioning. In the present study, 136 children of two age groups (7 and 10 years) were first asked what advertising was for and, after responding, shown…

  3. Investigation on the music perception skills of Italian children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorpecci, Alessandro; Zagari, Felicia; Mari, Giorgia; Giannantonio, Sara; D'Alatri, Lucia; Di Nardo, Walter; Paludetti, Gaetano

    2012-10-01

    To compare the music perception skills of a group of Italian-speaking children with cochlear implants to those of a group of normal hearing children; to analyze possible correlations between implanted children's musical skills and their demographics, clinical characteristics, phonological perception, and speech recognition and production abilities. 18 implanted children aged 5-12 years and a reference group of 23 normal-hearing subjects with typical language development were enrolled. Both groups received a melody identification test and a song (i.e. original version) identification test. The implanted children also received a test battery aimed at assessing speech recognition, speech production and phoneme discrimination. The implanted children scored significantly worse than the normal hearing subjects in both musical tests. In the cochlear implant group, phoneme discrimination abilities were significantly correlated with both melody and song identification skills, and length of device use was significantly correlated with song identification skills. Experience with device use and phonological perception had a moderate-to-strong correlation to implanted children's music perception abilities. In the light of these findings, it is reasonable to assume that a rehabilitation program specifically aimed at improving phonological perception could help pediatric cochlear implant recipients better understand the basic elements of music; moreover, a training aimed at improving the comprehension of the spectral elements of music could enhance implanted children's phonological skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Empirical Investigation of the Psychosocial Functioning of Children Raised by Grandparents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Oliver W.

    2009-01-01

    Empirical studies describing the functioning of children raised by their grandparents are noticeably limited, yet custodial grandparenting has become a prominent alternate family structure. Grandparents may function better as surrogate parents than abusive parents, nonrelatives, or foster caregivers. Although many children raised by their…

  5. Investigating the Factors Affecting Resiliency in Mothers of Children with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakli, Hatice; Kaner, Sema

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of quantity and quality of social support and problem-focused coping style on mothers' resilience was examined by conducting a structural equation modeling. The sample of the research consisted of 257 mothers of children with intellectual disability, and 234 mothers of typically-developing children. The data were gathered…

  6. Investigating Negotiation of Meaning in EFL Children with Very Low Levels of Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Amparo; Azpilicueta-Martinez, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies hold that interaction has beneficial effects on second language acquisition among adults and children in second language contexts. However, data from children learning English as a foreign language are still unavailable. In order to fill this research niche, this study examines the conversational interactions of 8 pairs of young…

  7. The Force of Gardening: Investigating Children's Learning in a Food Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Monica; Duhn, Iris

    2015-01-01

    School gardens are becoming increasingly recognised as important sites for learning and for bringing children into relationship with food. Despite the well-known educational and health benefits of gardening, children's interactions with the non-human entities and forces within garden surroundings are less understood and examined in the wider…

  8. An Investigation into the Role of Gesture in Enhancing Children's Vocabulary Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of the current study was to explore whether non-linguistic conventions, especially gesture, have a significant impact on children's vocabulary learning. Fifty male and female Iranian children aged between 3 and 6 years of age (mean age?=?3.5) from two classes of a language institute were taught a set of lexical items using two…

  9. The Effects of Sleep Disturbance on School Performance: A Preliminary Investigation of Children Attending Elementary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Laura; Guarnera, Manuela; Mazzone, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disorders in children are common. Sleep plays an important role in children's development and sleep disorders can have a substantial impact on their quality of life. Indeed, sleep is crucial for physical growth, behavior, and emotional development and it is also closely related to cognitive functioning, learning and attention, and therefore…

  10. An Investigation of Children's Peer Trust across Culture: Is the Composition of Peer Trust Universal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Lucy R.; Rotenberg, Ken J.; Petrocchi, Serena; Lecciso, Flavia; Sakai, Atsushi; Maeshiro, Kazumi; Judson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The components of children's trust in same-gender peers (trust beliefs, ascribed trustworthiness, and dyadic reciprocal trust) were examined in samples of 8-11-year-olds from the UK, Italy, and Japan. Trust was assessed by children's ratings of the extent to which same-gender classmates kept promises and kept secrets. Social relations analyses…

  11. An Investigation into Risks Awareness and E-Safety Needs of Children on the Internet: A Study of Devon, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annansingh, Fenio; Veli, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate children interaction in cyberspace and their use of Web 2.0 technologies. It sought their perception of internet risks as well as their knowledge and experience with electronic safety (e-safety) measures. It also considered parents', teachers' and other stakeholders' perception of internet risks, e-safety…

  12. Investigating the Place and Meaning of "Physical Education" to Preschool Children: Methodological Lessons from a Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvilly, Nollaig

    2015-01-01

    Preschool physical education has not been extensively researched. Furthermore, research in physical activity and physical education rarely seeks young children's perspectives. The current paper focuses on one aspect of a post-structural study concerned with investigating the place and meaning of "physical education" to practitioners and…

  13. Investigating Use of a Parent Report Tool to Measure Vocabulary Development in Deaf Greek-Speaking Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktapoti, Maria; Okalidou, Areti; Kyriafinis, George; Petinou, Kakia; Vital, Victor; Herman, Rosalind

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There are very few measures of language development in spoken Greek that can be used with young deaf children. This study investigated the use of Cyprus Lexical List (CYLEX), a receptive and expressive vocabulary assessment based on parent report that has recently been adapted to Standard Greek, to measure the vocabulary development of…

  14. An Investigation of Comorbid Psychological Disorders, Sleep Problems, Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Epilepsy in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, Arlene; Leader, Geraldine; Healy, Olive

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated comorbidity in eighty-nine children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Ireland. Comorbidity is the presence of one or more disorders in addition to a primary disorder. The prevalence of comorbid psychological disorders, behaviours associated with comorbid psychopathology, epilepsy, gastrointestinal…

  15. Investigating the Quality of Time Kindergarten Children Spend with Television, Computer, Books, and Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ÇAKMAK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to understand the place of four stimuli in lives of children attending early childhood; television, computer, books and toys. In the present study, data obtained from children’s drawing and interviews was analyzed. Fifty-one children between the age of 5 and 6 participated in the study. They were attending three private kindergartens. First, the children were asked to draw themselves with a television, computer, books and toys. Then, they were interviewed to learn about their use of television, computer, books and toys. Following, the pictures and interview transcripts were analyzed and coding categories were determined via content analysis. The findings indicate that children mention watching cartoons most; and they draw themselves as playing with popular cartoon characters. Children have positive feelings towards all of the stimuli; however, they used more powerful and detailed explanations of their feelings towards books and toys

  16. [Investigation of molar-incisor hypomineralization among children from 6 to 11 years in Lucheng district, Wenzhou city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Li, Jun

    2012-10-01

    To investigate and analyze the prevalence and severity of molar-incisor hypomineralization(MIH) among children from 6 to 11 years old in Lucheng district of Wenzhou city. Children aged 6 to 11 years (n=988) with all four-first permanent molars erupted were evaluated according to the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) criteria. Examiners recorded the severity and position of each tooth diagnosed with MIH. SPSS 13.0 software package was used for analyze. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine the differences in the defect severity among different ages and the difference in the prevalence of MIH between the upper and lower molars or between the upper and lower incisors. Spearman test was used to test the association of the MIH-defect severity with the age of children. Molar-incisor hypomineralization was present in 25.5% of the 988 children, and the majority of the defects presented were mild. There were significant differences among the six age groups with the severity of MIH (P0.05). The severity of MIH increased along with the aging of children (rp=0.534). Despite the high prevalence of MIH, the severity of the defects was mild. The results indicate a positive association between the severity of MIH and the age of children.

  17. Caregiver reports of serious injuries in children who remain at home after a child protective services investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U; Leslie, Laurel K; Hurlburt, Michael S; Zhang, Jinjin; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2012-02-01

    The study objectives were to examine serious injuries requiring medical attention among children who remain at home after a child welfare/child protective services (CPS) maltreatment investigation in the US and to determine whether child/caregiver characteristics and ongoing CPS involvement are related to injuries requiring medical attention. Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being, we analyzed data on the subsample of children who remained at home (N = 3,440). A multivariate logistic regression model included child characteristics, chronic illness and disability in the child, level of CPS involvement, subsequent foster care placement, caregiver characteristics, and caregiver/family psychological variables. Injuries requiring medical attention were identified in 10.6% of the in-home population over a 15-month period, with no differences in rates by age. Children with a chronic medical condition (OR = 2.07; 95% CI, 1.20-3.58) and children with depressed caregivers (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 1.45-3.58) were more likely to have an injury that required medical care. Older caregivers (>54 years) were less likely (OR = 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.69) to have a child with an injury requiring care. Injuries were not related to further involvement with CPS after the initial maltreatment investigation. Children with chronic medical conditions who remained in their biological homes or whose caregivers were depressed were likely to experience an injury requiring medical attention. Older caregivers were less likely to report a child injury. Extending existing health policies for foster children to children who remain at home following referral to CPS may encourage more comprehensive injury prevention for this population.

  18. The development of cognitive empathy and concern in preschool children: A behavioral neuroscience investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decety, Jean; Meidenbauer, Kimberly L; Cowell, Jason M

    2018-05-01

    This developmental neuroscience study examined the electrophysiological responses (EEG and ERPs) associated with perspective taking and empathic concern in preschool children, as well as their relation to parental empathy dispositions and children's own prosocial behavior. Consistent with a body of previous studies using stimuli depicting somatic pain in both children and adults, larger early (~200 ms) ERPs were identified when perceiving painful versus neutral stimuli. In the slow wave window (~800 ms), a significant interaction of empathy condition and stimulus type was driven by a greater difference between painful and neutral images in the empathic concern condition. Across early development, children exhibited enhanced N2 to pain when engaging in empathic concern. Greater pain-elicited N2 responses in the cognitive empathy condition also related to parent dispositional empathy. Children's own prosocial behavior was predicted by several individual differences in neural function, including larger early LPP responses during cognitive empathy and greater differentiation in late LPP and slow wave responses to empathic concern versus affective perspective taking. Left frontal activation (greater alpha suppression) while engaging in affective perspective taking was also related to higher levels of parent cognitive empathy. Together, this multilevel analysis demonstrates the important distinction between facets of empathy in children; the value of examining neurobehavioral processes in development. It provides provoking links between children's neural functioning and parental dispositions in early development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Social values and preschool behavioral adjustment: A comparative investigation of Latino and European American preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Paul S; Pula, Kacy; Downs, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    The present article explored relationships between social values (cooperative, individualistic, and competitive) and the behavioral adjustment of Latino and European American preschoolers within the preschool setting. Of interest was whether relationships between social values and behavioral adjustment differed as a function of cultural background. Assessments of social values and teacher reports of child behavioral adjustment were obtained for 254 preschoolers from collectivist (Spanish-speaking Latino Americans), individualist (English-speaking European Americans), and mixed cultural backgrounds (English-Speaking Latino Americans). Cooperative values were more prevalent among collectivist background children, but did not predict behavioral adjustment. Individualistic values did not differ across groups, but predicted better behavioral adjustment for individualist children. Competitive values did not differ across groups, but predicted positive behavioral adjustment for collectivist children and negative behavioral adjustment for individualist children. These findings suggest that a competitive social orientation constitutes a resilience factor for children from collectivist cultural backgrounds and a risk factor for children from individualist cultural backgrounds, and that a cooperative social orientation is undervalued within school settings. Discussion focuses on facilitating the behavioral adjustment of children by raising teacher awareness of collectivist social values and, selectively, fostering or encouraging competitive social values. In sum, the results support the notion that the functionality and meaning of social values differ across social and cultural contexts. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Investigating quality of life and self-stigma in Hong Kong children with specific learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yi; Chan, Yim Yuk; Cheng, Sui Lam; Chow, Man Yin; Tsang, Yau Wai; Lee, Clara; Lin, Chung-Ying

    2017-09-01

    Children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD) are likely to develop self-stigma and have a poor quality of life (QoL) because of their poor academic performance. Although both self-stigma and poor QoL issues are likely to be found in low academic achievers without SpLD, children with SpLD have worse situation because their diagnosis of SpLD suggests that their learning struggles are biological and permanent. Specifically, students' perception of own capabilities may be affected more by the diagnosis of SpLD than their own actual performance. We examined the self-stigma and QoL of children with SpLD in Hong Kong, a region with an academics-focused culture. Children with SpLD (n=49,M age ±SD=9.55±1.21; SpLD group) and typically developing children (n=32,M age ±SD=9.81±1.40; TD group) completed a Kid-KINDL to measure QoL and a Modified Self-Stigma Scale to measure self-stigma. All parents completed a parallel Kid-KINDL to measure QoL of their children. Compared with the TD group, the SpLD group had a higher level of self-stigma (p=0.027) and lower QoL (child-reported Kid-KINDL: p=0.001; parent-reported Kid-KINDL: plearning process of children with SpLD may be designed to overcome self-stigma and to improve QoL. In addition, the program may involve parents of the children with SpLD or other people (e.g., the peer of the children with SpLD) for improving their understanding and perceptions of SpLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The treatment of H.pylori infected adults and children in Volgograd: pharmaco-epidemilological investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnitskaya O.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article represents results of pharmacoepidemiological research of H.pylori eradication treatment of adults and children in Volgograd. The aim was to determine H. pylori pharmacotherapy stereotypes and compare with international experts' recommendations. Material and Methods. There were analyzed CRFs of 94 adults and 132 children with H.pylori associated diseases in Volgograd region. Results. There were identified mistakes of treatment regimes and eradication control principles. Conclusion. The treatment of H.pylori infected adults and children in Volgograd does not match to international experts' recommendations.

  2. Investigating Contingency Risk Factors of Brain Tumor in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nazemi

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: According to research results, several preventable and predictable factors are linked to pediatric brain tumors. Therefore, children prone to brain tumors are recommended to be examined and screened for these risk factors.

  3. Factors influencing the food choices of Irish children and adolescents : a qualitative investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Heary, Caroline; Nixon, Elizabeth; Kelly, Colette

    2010-01-01

    Food choices established during childhood and adolescence tend to persist into adulthood with consequences for long-term health. Yet, to date, relatively little research has examined factors that influence the food choices of children and adolescents from their perspectives. In this article, previous research is extended by examining developmental differences between children's and adolescents' perceptions of factors influencing their food choices. Focus group discussi...

  4. A longitudinal investigation of parenting stress in caregivers of children with retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Victoria W; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Lu; Russell, Kathryn M; Brennan, Rachel; Wilson, Matthew W; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Phipps, Sean

    2017-04-01

    Retinoblastoma is typically diagnosed in young children and may present unique parenting challenges. Qualitative research suggests that parents experience distress related to the initial diagnosis and treatment that subsequently resolves. The objectives were to systematically assess parenting stress over time in parents of young children with retinoblastoma and to examine associations between parenting stress and child outcomes. Parents of children with retinoblastoma completed the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) during serial psychological assessments scheduled based on the child's age (6 months to 5 years). Caregivers of 92 patients (85.9% mothers) completed the assessments. Child outcomes included developmental functioning and parent-reported adaptive functioning. At baseline and age 5, all subscales on the PSI were within normal limits, and most were significantly below normative means (i.e., demonstrating low levels of stress). All domains remained relatively stable over time. Associations between parenting stress and child outcomes were much stronger at age 5 than at baseline. Child-directed parenting stress was a small but significant contributor to declines in child functioning over time. Parents of children with retinoblastoma report normal levels of parenting stress while their children are young. However, baseline parenting stress appears to contribute to changes in child functioning over time. Future studies should assess illness-related aspects of adjustment to further understand the parenting experience of young children with cancer and/or having a visually impaired child. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Investigation of Auditory Brain Stem Responses (ABRs In Children with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Monadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was comparing ABR in normal and down children. Materials & Methods: This study was performed between 1388 to 1391 at Akhavan rehabilitation center of University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences Tehran and Babol Amir Kola hospital. Forty five 3-6 year-old boy with Down’s syndrome and forty five normal children were selected from available population. After case history, otoscopy and basic hearing tests, ABR test was performed. In ABR absolute latencies, interpeak latencies and amplitude ratio of V/I were analyzed. For analyzing data, parametric independent t test was selected. Results: Latencies and inter-peak latencies of I-III, I-V (P-value<0.001, III-V (P-value=0.01 and V/I amplitude ratio (P-value<0.001 were shorter than normal. Children with Down syndrome had significantly higher threshold than normal children (P-value<0.001. Conclusion: Peripheral auditory system development is delayed and brainstem function in children with Down’s syndrome is abnormal. Early diagnosis of hearing impairments and intervention in these children is very important because it affects communication skills.

  6. The children and sunscreen study: a crossover trial investigating children's sunscreen application thickness and the influence of age and dispenser type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Abbey; Neale, Rachel E; Kimlin, Michael G; Jones, Lee; Janda, Monika

    2012-05-01

    To measure the thickness at which primary schoolchildren apply sunscreen on school day mornings and to compare it with the thickness (2.00 mg/cm(2)) at which sunscreen is tested during product development, as well as to investigate how application thickness was influenced by age of the child (school grades 1-7) and by dispenser type (500-mL pump, 125-mL squeeze bottle, or 50-mL roll-on). A crossover quasiexperimental study design comparing 3 sunscreen dispenser types. Children aged 5 to 12 years from public primary schools (grades 1-7) in Queensland, Australia. Children (n=87) and their parents randomly recruited from the enrollment lists of 7 primary schools. Each child provided up to 3 observations (n=258). Children applied sunscreen during 3 consecutive school weeks (Monday through Friday) for the first application of the day using a different dispenser each week. Thickness of sunscreen application (in milligrams per square centimeter). The dispensers were weighed before and after use to calculate the weight of sunscreen applied. This was divided by the coverage area of application (in square centimeters), which was calculated by multiplying the children's body surface area by the percentage of the body covered with sunscreen. Children applied their sunscreen at a median thickness of 0.48 mg/cm(2). Children applied significantly more sunscreen when using the pump (0.75 mg/cm(2)) and the squeeze bottle (0.57 mg/cm(2)) compared with the roll-on (0.22 mg/cm(2)) (Pdispensers seem to facilitate thicker application than others.

  7. Investigating the Grammatical and Pragmatic Origins of Wh-Questions in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manya Jyotishi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Compared to typically developing children, children with autism (ASD show delayed production of wh-questions. It is currently controversial the degree to which such deficits derive from social-pragmatic requirements and/or because these are complex grammatical structures. The current study employed the intermodal preferential looking (IPL paradigm, which reduces social-pragmatic demands. The IPL paradigm can help distinguish these proposals, as successful comprehension promotes the “pragmatics-origins” argument whereas comprehension difficulties would implicate a “grammatical-origins” argument. Additionally, we tested both the linguistic and social explanations by assessing the contributions of children's early grammatical knowledge (i.e., SVO word order and their social-pragmatic scores on the Vineland to their later wh-question comprehension. Fourteen children with ASD and 17 TD children, matched on language level, were visited in their homes at 4-month intervals. Comprehension of wh-questions and SVO word order were tested via IPL: the wh-question video showed a costumed horse and bird serving as agents or patients of familiar transitive actions. During the test trials, they were displayed side by side with directing audios (e.g., “What did the horse tickle?”, “What hugged the bird?”, “Where is the horse/bird?”. Children's eye movements were coded offline; the DV was their percent looking to the named item during test. To show comprehension, children should look longer at the named item during a where-question than during a subject-wh or object-wh question. Results indicated that TD children comprehended both subject and object wh-questions at 32 months of age. Comprehension of object-wh questions emerged chronologically later in children with ASD compared to their TD peers, but at similar levels of language. Moreover, performance on word order and social-pragmatic scores independently predicted both groups' later

  8. An Investigation of Spatial Hearing in Children with Normal Hearing and with Cochlear Implants and the Impact of Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misurelli, Sara M.

    The ability to analyze an "auditory scene"---that is, to selectively attend to a target source while simultaneously segregating and ignoring distracting information---is one of the most important and complex skills utilized by normal hearing (NH) adults. The NH adult auditory system and brain work rather well to segregate auditory sources in adverse environments. However, for some children and individuals with hearing loss, selectively attending to one source in noisy environments can be extremely challenging. In a normal auditory system, information arriving at each ear is integrated, and thus these binaural cues aid in speech understanding in noise. A growing number of individuals who are deaf now receive cochlear implants (CIs), which supply hearing through electrical stimulation to the auditory nerve. In particular, bilateral cochlear implants (BICIs) are now becoming more prevalent, especially in children. However, because CI sound processing lacks both fine structure cues and coordination between stimulation at the two ears, binaural cues may either be absent or inconsistent. For children with NH and with BiCIs, this difficulty in segregating sources is of particular concern because their learning and development commonly occurs within the context of complex auditory environments. This dissertation intends to explore and understand the ability of children with NH and with BiCIs to function in everyday noisy environments. The goals of this work are to (1) Investigate source segregation abilities in children with NH and with BiCIs; (2) Examine the effect of target-interferer similarity and the benefits of source segregation for children with NH and with BiCIs; (3) Investigate measures of executive function that may predict performance in complex and realistic auditory tasks of source segregation for listeners with NH; and (4) Examine source segregation abilities in NH listeners, from school-age to adults.

  9. The impact of a change in bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine policy on tuberculosis incidence in children in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Hassan; Kibel, Maurice; Hawkridge, Tony; Schaaf, H Simon; Hanekom, Willem A; Iloni, Karen; Michaels, Desiré; Workman, Lesley; Verver, Suzanne; Geiter, Lawrence; Hussey, Gregory D

    2006-12-01

    A decision by the South African National Department of Health to change the route of administration and strain of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine was implemented in Cape Town, South Africa, between July and December 2000. This provided an opportunity to compare the incidence of tuberculosis and proportion with disseminated disease in children less than 2 years old before and after the changeover from percutaneous (PC) Tokyo 172 BCG to intradermal (ID) 1331 Danish BCG immunization. Clinical records of all tuberculosis patients aged less than 2 years at diagnosis and born between January 1, 1999, and June 30, 2000 (PC cohort) and between January 1, 2001, and June 30, 2002 (ID cohort) were collected. All cases were reviewed for likelihood of TB, its severity and disease dissemination. The number of reported patients with tuberculosis in the PC cohort was 1369 and in the ID cohort 1397, giving incidence rates of 866 (95% confidence interval [CI], 821-913) and 858 (95% CI, 814-904) per 100,000 person-years, respectively. The proportion who had disseminated disease (meningitis and/or miliary spread) was significantly lower in the ID cohort (4.7%) than in the PC cohort (8.6%) (relative risk, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.40-0.72). Those not vaccinated had a significantly higher proportion of disseminated disease cases (29.2%) than the PC and ID groups combined (6.6%) (relative risk, 4.4; 95% CI, 2.7-6.7). A program using Danish 1331 BCG given intradermally did not prevent more tuberculosis cases in children overall as compared with a program using Tokyo 172 BCG given percutaneously but reduced the proportion with disseminated disease.

  10. Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis by score system in children and adolescents: a trial in a reference center in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemax Couto Sant'Anna

    Full Text Available Since 2002, the Brazilian Ministry of Health has recommended a score system for tuberculosis diagnosis of children and adolescents that does not need bacteriological positivity, because most cases in this age group have few bacteria. An observational, transversal study was carried out at the outpatient health care service of the reference medical service in Salvador, Bahia, including 164 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, with ages ranging between 1 and 15 years of age, who were treated from 1990 to 2001. The gold standard used to establish the diagnosis was clinical, radiological, epidemiological and based on follow-up data. The score system for diagnosis purposes was tested retrospectively. The median age and the average age of the 164 patients were 6 and 6.62 years (SD ± 4.33, respectively. About 65% of the sample reported a history of close contact with a tuberculous adult. The BCG vaccine coverage was 70.7% (116/164. It was found that 26% (43/164 of the patients had severe malnutrition. Out of this group, 26/43 (60.47% were < 5mm reactive to the tuberculin test. On the other hand, out of the 91 patients with tuberculin test < 5mm, 29% (26/ 91 had severe malnutrition. The use of the score gave the following distribution: a TB very likely in 81.7% (134/164 of the patients; b possible TB in 15.9% (26/164 and TB unlikely in 2.4% (4/164. Among patients who had been vaccinated more than 2 years before, there was a 9 times higher risk of finding a tuberculin test above 10 mm in individuals with probable TB in comparison with the patients with possible or unlikely TB.

  11. An electrophysiological investigation of non-symbolic magnitude processing: numerical distance effects in children with and without mathematical learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Angela; Wissmann, Jacqueline; Tamm, Sascha; De Smedt, Bert; Schneider, Michael; Stern, Elsbeth; Verschaffel, Lieven; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to probe electrophysiological effects of non-symbolic numerical processing in 20 children with mathematical learning disabilities (mean age = 99.2 months) compared to a group of 20 typically developing matched controls (mean age = 98.4 months). EEG data were obtained while children were tested with a standard non-symbolic numerical comparison paradigm that allowed us to investigate the effects of numerical distance manipulations for different set sizes, i.e., the classical subitizing, counting and estimation ranges. Effects of numerical distance manipulations on event-related potential (ERP) amplitudes as well as activation patterns of underlying current sources were analyzed. In typically developing children, the amplitudes of a late parietal positive-going ERP component showed systematic numerical distance effects that did not depend on set size. For the group of children with mathematical learning disabilities, ERP distance effects were found only for stimuli within the subitizing range. Current source density analysis of distance-related group effects suggested that areas in right inferior parietal regions are involved in the generation of the parietal ERP amplitude differences. Our results suggest that right inferior parietal regions are recruited differentially by controls compared to children with mathematical learning disabilities in response to non-symbolic numerical magnitude processing tasks, but only for stimuli with set sizes that exceed the subitizing range. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of Relationships in the Children's Team in the Process of Sports Gaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila N. Voloshina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the children's readiness (in the age of 5-7 years old to interact with peers and adults in the elementary sports and gaming activities. The study was carried out within the framework of the pilot program of the Russian Academy of Education, based on the pre-school educational institutions in the city of Belgorod. To study the relationship in the children's team we used observation, sociometric technique, and diagnostic game situation. The analysis of results obtained showed the presence of problems of readiness to interact with peers and the formation of a communicative component of social experience in children in the age of 5-7 years old. Namely: insufficient level of children's independence, limited ideas about the possibility of using the sports and gaming activities in their own experience, low level of social and normative behavior. The results of the study confirmed the data previously presented in the publications on the growth in the number of preschool children not capable to interpersonal interaction.

  13. Investigation of CT scan frequency in children based on RIS in a hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yinping; Chen Junbo; Xiao Guobing; Sun Quanfu; Niu Haowei; Fu Yinghua

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the frequency distribution of CT examinations in children. Method: A wide range of information was collected through the radiology information system (RIS), including ID, sex, birth date, examination time, the examined part of body and other relevant ones related to children who underwent CT examinations between Jan 1, 2012 and Dec 31, 2012. The SAS software was used for data processing and statistical analysis. Results: A total of 1 542 children underwent 1 670 examinations, of which 67% were male. Head CT examination was the most frequent,accounting for 71.9% of all CT examinations, and followed by the abdomen/pelvis examinations. The number of examinations of children undergoing the repetitive examination accounted for 6.4%; 51.7% of the examinations was for trauma. The positive rate of CT examination was 51%, dependent upon the age and examined body parts to some extent. The younger patients had lower positive rate, and the positive rate of head CT examination was lower than those in other parts. Conclusions: To reduce the possible cancer risk to be induced by the ionizing radiation from CT, justification of CT examination should be considered for children. (authors)

  14. Serologic Investigations in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk

    2009-01-01

    Patients and methods. The study comprised 95 children at the ages of 2 to 18 years. The diagnosis of IBD was established on the basis of Porto criteria. Tests of blood serum were performed in all children: IgA and IgG ASCA, p-ANCA, c-ANCA using ELISA method. Results. IgE-dependent FA was found in 32.5% children with UC and in 21% with CD. We did not observe any relation between the occurrence of FA and the frequency and ASCA titre. p-ANCA were significantly more frequent in the group of children with UC. The occurrence of ASCA antibodies was observed in 73.7% of children with CD, 17.5% with UC and almost 30% with allergic colitis. Conclusions. Patients with CD and the presence of ASCA revealed a significantly more frequent localization of lesions within the small bowel and a tendency towards older age. We observed a connection between the occurrence of antibodies and the examined mutations of gene NOD2/CARD15.

  15. [An epidemiological investigation of deciduous dental caries among 5375 preschool children aged between 3 to 6 years in Shenyang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rui-bo; Zhang, Xiao-fang; Zhang, Ying; Pan, Lin; Tao, Wei

    2006-12-01

    To investigate the status of dental caries of deciduous teeth among preschool children in Shenyang city. According to the criteria recommended by the World Health Organization and The Second National Oral Health Investigation, the deciduous caries of 5375 preschool children aged from 3 to 6 years were clinically examined. The mean dmft and the prevalence of dental caries for each age group were calculated. The results were analyzed using SPSS11.0 software package for t test (to compare the difference between the two sample groups), one way ANOVA (to compare the differences among three and more sample groups) and chi2 test (to compare the rate of each group). The prevalence of dental caries was 71.29%. The mean dmft score was 3.88. The prevalence of dental caries and mean dmft increased gradually as the children were growing up (P caries of the upper teeth was significantly more common than that of the lower teeth (P caries were minor in degree of severity, and mostly lie in the occlusal and proximal surface. The filling rate was 10.82%.As the age increase, the filling rate increased, too. Deciduous dental caries of preschool children was an important problem in Shenyang city, and the filling rate was very low. Necessary methods for early prevention of dental caries must be taken into consideration. Supported by Scientific Research Fund for College and University from Liaoning Provincial Education Bureau (Grant No. 20201316).

  16. An investigation of maximal hand grip strength related to body mass index in healthy Czech children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Šteffl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hand grip strength is one of the most important markers in muscle strength assessment for many reasons. However, its maximal value in kilograms is highly dependent on body size, which may misrepresent results, especially among children. Therefore, correction by body mass index (BMI can be used as a suitable approach for its objectification. The aims of this study were to create reference values for the grip to BMI ratio and for hand grip strength for children in the Czech Republic. 554 children of both genders, aged from 4 to 14 years, were included in the current study. Reference values were approximated by Tukey’s Hinges percentiles calculation method. The percentile charts were created using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS method.

  17. [Investigation of pinworm infection among kindergarten children in Jurong City, Jiangsu Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng-Gong; Li, Shui-Ming

    2013-10-01

    In order to understand pinworm infection of kindergarten children in Jurong City, Jiangsu Province, a total of 1 088 children were sampled for the survey from September 2011 to October 2012. The cellophane tape swab technique was used to examine pinworm eggs. The infection rate of pinworm was 1.1% (12/1 088). The rate in boys and girls was 1.3% (7/551) and 0.9% (5/537), respectively. Higher infection rate was in the senior class (1.4%, 5/370), and no significant difference was found with gender, as well as among different classes (P > 0.05). Evidently, pinworm prevalence is at a low level in the kindergarten children of Jurong.

  18. Experiences and needs of parents of critically injured children during the acute hospital phase: A qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kim; Young, Alexandra; Mitchell, Rebecca; Van, Connie; Curtis, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Physical injury is a leading cause of death and disability among children worldwide and the largest cause of paediatric hospital admission. Parents of critically injured children are at increased risk of developing mental and emotional distress in the aftermath of child injury. In the Australian context, there is limited evidence on parent experiences of child injury and hospitalisation, and minimal understanding of their support needs. The aim of this investigation was to explore parents' experiences of having a critically injured child during the acute hospitalisation phase of injury, and to determine their support needs during this time. This multi-centre study forms part of a larger longitudinal mixed methods study investigating the experiences, unmet needs and well-being of parents of critically injured children over the two-year period following injury. This paper describes parents' experiences of having a child 0-13 years hospitalised with critical injury in one of four Australian paediatric hospitals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with forty parents and transcribed verbatim. The data were managed using NVIVO 10 software and thematically analysed. Forty parents (26 mothers and 14 fathers) of 30 children (14 girls and 16 boys aged 1-13 years) from three Australian States participated. The majority of children were Australian born. Three main themes with sub-themes were identified: navigating the crisis of child injury; coming to terms with the complexity of child injury; and finding ways to meet the family's needs. There is a need for targeted psychological care provision for parents of critically injured children in the acute hospital phase, including psychological first aid and addressing parental blame attribution. Parents and children would benefit from the implementation of anticipatory guidance frameworks informed by a family-centred social ecological approach to prepare them for the trauma journey and for discharge. This approach could

  19. An investigation of classroom situational dimensions of emotional and behavioral adjustment and cognitive and social outcomes for Head Start children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J; Fantuzzo, John W; McDermott, Paul A

    2008-01-01

    This study used a developmental-ecological approach to investigate the relationship across the school year between early problems in preschool classroom situations and a comprehensive set of readiness competencies for urban low-income children. Study 1 identified 3 reliable and unique underlying classroom situational dimensions where behavior problems occurred: structured learning, peer interaction, and teacher interaction situations. Boys and younger children evidenced more problematic behavior across all situations. Study 2 investigated the relationship between early problems in the situations and readiness outcomes. Early situational difficulties uniquely and differentially predicted lower peer social and classroom learning outcomes. In combination, both the type of behavior problem (what) and the situational problem (where) explained greater variance in the prediction of readiness outcomes, contributing to a more comprehensive understanding of developmental trajectories. Copyright (c) 2008 APA.

  20. Prospective Investigation of Video Game Use in Children and Subsequent Conduct Disorder and Depression Using Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Etchells

    Full Text Available There is increasing public and scientific concern regarding the long-term behavioural effects of video game use in children, but currently little consensus as to the nature of any such relationships. We investigated the relationship between video game use in children, degree of violence in games, and measures of depression and a 6-level banded measure of conduct disorder. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used. A 3-level measure of game use at age 8/9 years was developed, taking into account degree of violence based on game genre. Associations with conduct disorder and depression, measured at age 15, were investigated using ordinal logistic regression, adjusted for a number of potential confounders. Shoot-em-up games were associated with conduct disorder bands, and with a binary measure of conduct disorder, although the strength of evidence for these associations was weak. A sensitivity analysis comparing those who play competitive games to those who play shoot-em-ups found weak evidence supporting the hypothesis that it is violence rather than competitiveness that is associated with conduct disorder. However this analysis was underpowered, and we cannot rule out the possibility that increasing levels of competition in games may be just as likely to account for the observed associations as violent content. Overall game exposure as indicated by number of games in a household was not related to conduct disorder, nor was any association found between shoot-em-up video game use and depression.

  1. Prospective Investigation of Video Game Use in Children and Subsequent Conduct Disorder and Depression Using Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchells, Peter J; Gage, Suzanne H; Rutherford, Adam D; Munafò, Marcus R

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing public and scientific concern regarding the long-term behavioural effects of video game use in children, but currently little consensus as to the nature of any such relationships. We investigated the relationship between video game use in children, degree of violence in games, and measures of depression and a 6-level banded measure of conduct disorder. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used. A 3-level measure of game use at age 8/9 years was developed, taking into account degree of violence based on game genre. Associations with conduct disorder and depression, measured at age 15, were investigated using ordinal logistic regression, adjusted for a number of potential confounders. Shoot-em-up games were associated with conduct disorder bands, and with a binary measure of conduct disorder, although the strength of evidence for these associations was weak. A sensitivity analysis comparing those who play competitive games to those who play shoot-em-ups found weak evidence supporting the hypothesis that it is violence rather than competitiveness that is associated with conduct disorder. However this analysis was underpowered, and we cannot rule out the possibility that increasing levels of competition in games may be just as likely to account for the observed associations as violent content. Overall game exposure as indicated by number of games in a household was not related to conduct disorder, nor was any association found between shoot-em-up video game use and depression.

  2. Prospective Investigation of Video Game Use in Children and Subsequent Conduct Disorder and Depression Using Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Adam D.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing public and scientific concern regarding the long-term behavioural effects of video game use in children, but currently little consensus as to the nature of any such relationships. We investigated the relationship between video game use in children, degree of violence in games, and measures of depression and a 6-level banded measure of conduct disorder. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used. A 3-level measure of game use at age 8/9 years was developed, taking into account degree of violence based on game genre. Associations with conduct disorder and depression, measured at age 15, were investigated using ordinal logistic regression, adjusted for a number of potential confounders. Shoot-em-up games were associated with conduct disorder bands, and with a binary measure of conduct disorder, although the strength of evidence for these associations was weak. A sensitivity analysis comparing those who play competitive games to those who play shoot-em-ups found weak evidence supporting the hypothesis that it is violence rather than competitiveness that is associated with conduct disorder. However this analysis was underpowered, and we cannot rule out the possibility that increasing levels of competition in games may be just as likely to account for the observed associations as violent content. Overall game exposure as indicated by number of games in a household was not related to conduct disorder, nor was any association found between shoot-em-up video game use and depression. PMID:26820149

  3. An investigation to validate the grammar and phonology screening (GAPS test to identify children with specific language impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather K J van der Lely

    Full Text Available The extraordinarily high incidence of grammatical language impairments in developmental disorders suggests that this uniquely human cognitive function is "fragile". Yet our understanding of the neurobiology of grammatical impairments is limited. Furthermore, there is no "gold-standard" to identify grammatical impairments and routine screening is not undertaken. An accurate screening test to identify grammatical abilities would serve the research, health and education communities, further our understanding of developmental disorders, and identify children who need remediation, many of whom are currently un-diagnosed. A potential realistic screening tool that could be widely administered is the Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS test--a 10 minute test that can be administered by professionals and non-professionals alike. Here we provide a further step in evaluating the validity and accuracy (sensitivity and specificity of the GAPS test in identifying children who have Specific Language Impairment (SLI.We tested three groups of children; two groups aged 3;6-6:6, a typically developing (n = 30 group, and a group diagnosed with SLI: (n = 11 (Young (Y-SLI, and a further group aged 6;9-8;11 with SLI (Older (O-SLI (n = 10 who were above the test age norms. We employed a battery of language assessments including the GAPS test to assess the children's language abilities. For Y-SLI children, analyses revealed a sensitivity and specificity at the 5(th and 10(th percentile of 1.00 and 0.98, respectively, and for O-SLI children at the 10(th and 15(th percentile .83 and .90, respectively.The findings reveal that the GAPS is highly accurate in identifying impaired vs. non-impaired children up to 6;8 years, and has moderate-to-high accuracy up to 9 years. The results indicate that GAPS is a realistic tool for the early identification of grammatical abilities and impairment in young children. A larger investigation is warranted in children with SLI

  4. An Investigation to Validate the Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS) Test to Identify Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lely, Heather K. J.; Payne, Elisabeth; McClelland, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    investigation is warranted in children with SLI and other developmental disorders. PMID:21829461

  5. Diet, Environments, and Gut Microbiota. A Preliminary Investigation in Children Living in Rural and Urban Burkina Faso and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta De Filippo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet is one of the main factors that affects the composition of gut microbiota. When people move from a rural environment to urban areas, and experience improved socio-economic conditions, they are often exposed to a “globalized” Western type diet. Here, we present preliminary observations on the metagenomic scale of microbial changes in small groups of African children belonging to the same ethnicity and living in different environments, compared to children living on the urban area of Florence (Italy. We analyzed dietary habits and, by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, gut microbiota profiles from fecal samples of children living in a rural village of Burkina Faso (n = 11, of two groups of children living in different urban settings (Nanoro town, n = 8; Ouagadougou, the capital city, n = 5 and of a group of Italian children (n = 13. We observed that when foods of animal origin, those rich in fat and simple sugars are introduced into a traditional African diet, composed of cereals, legumes and vegetables, the gut microbiota profiles changes. Microbiota of rural children retain a geographically unique bacterial reservoir (Prevotella, Treponema, and Succinivibrio, assigned to ferment fiber and polysaccharides from vegetables. Independently of geography and ethnicity, in children living in urban areas these bacterial genera were progressively outcompeted by bacteria more suited to the metabolism of animal protein, fat and sugar rich foods, similarly to Italian children, as resulted by PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States, a predictive functional profiling of microbial communities using 16S rRNA marker gene. Consequently, we observed a progressive reduction of SCFAs measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, in urban populations, especially in Italian children, respect to rural ones. Our results even if in a limited number of individuals point out that dietary habit modifications

  6. Do Female Child Molesters Implicitly Associate Children and Sex? A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Theresa A.; Rose, Marianne R.; Williams, Sian E.

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies using the Implicit Association Test have shown successfully that male child molesters hold cognitive associations between children and sexual concepts. The results of such studies appear to indicate that male child molesters hold core cognitive associations that play some part in facilitating and/or maintaining sexual advances…

  7. An investigation on the effect of emotional management problems on children's anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Afshari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s research on emotion regulation reveals its importance on many mental and physical heath related issues. One of the problems to deregulation of emotions is anxiety disorders subject. The aim of this research is to identify the relationship between emotional management problems including emotional inhibition, emotional deregulation and emotional coping on children’s anxiety symptoms, where it includes separation anxiety, social anxiety, panic disorder, school phobia and generalized anxiety symptoms. The sample was consisted of 307 primary students including boy and girl aged between 9-13 years old in city of Isfahan selected by simple random sampling. The instruments were Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders (SCARED, child Sadness Management Scale (CSMS and child Anger Management Scale (CAMS. The results shows that problems of children in management of anger and sadness consist of anger and sadness inhibition; anger and sadness deregulation predicts anxiety symptoms in children (p<0.0001. However, emotional coping could not predict children's anxiety symptoms, significantly. In addition, deregulation and inhibition of sadness and anger predicts anxiety in children.

  8. Investigating Validity Evidence of the Satisfaction with Life Scale Adapted for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadermann, Anne M.; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces the Satisfaction with Life Scale adapted for Children (SWLS-C) and presents psychometric findings regarding its validation. The SWLS-C was adapted from the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener et al. 1985), which is one of the most commonly used measures to assess satisfaction with life in adults. Three subject matter…

  9. Factors influencing the food choices of Irish children and adolescents: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Heary, Caroline; Nixon, Elizabeth; Kelly, Colette

    2010-09-01

    Food choices established during childhood and adolescence tend to persist into adulthood with consequences for long-term health. Yet, to date, relatively little research has examined factors that influence the food choices of children and adolescents from their perspectives. In this article, previous research is extended by examining developmental differences between children's and adolescents' perceptions of factors influencing their food choices. Focus group discussions were conducted with 29 young people from three age groups (9-10, 13-14 and 16-18 years). An inductive thematic analysis identified three key factors as influencing food choices. These factors included intra-individual factors: the link between food preferences and awareness of healthy eating; intra-familial factors: the role of the home food environment; and extra-familial factors: eating away from the home. Findings indicate that there were developmental differences between children's and adolescents' perceptions of factors influencing food choice. Among adolescents, parental control began to diminish and adolescents exercised increased autonomy over their food choices compared with children. To develop effective nutrition interventions, it is important to gather child and adolescent input regarding factors perceived as influencing their food choices.

  10. Clinical and Individual Variables in Children's Dental Fear: A School-Based Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Ethieli Rodrigues da; Goettems, Marília Leão; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Azevedo, Marina Sousa

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of dental fear and associated factors in schoolchildren aged 8 to 12 years old, in Pelotas, southern Brazil. Schoolchildren enrolled in 20 public and private schools were selected using a multi-stage sample design. Sociodemographic characteristics, children's dental visit and oral hygiene habits were assessed by questionnaires. The Dental Anxiety Question was used to measure dental fear prevalence. Children's clinical examination evaluated presence of dental caries (DMFT/dmft index) and gingival bleeding. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression with robust variance (prevalence ratio; 95% confidence interval). One thousand two hundred and two children were included. Dental fear prevalence was 24.6%. After the adjustment, girls [PR=1.71 (CI 95%: 1.31-2.22)], children from poorer families [PR=1.96 (CI 95%: 1.36-2.83)], those who had decayed teeth (D/d index>0)[PR=1.32 (CI 95%: 1.01-1.72), and who had never been at the dentist [PR=1.85 (CI 95%: 1.42-2.41) remained significantly associated with dental fear. The prevalence of dental fear indicates that it is a common problem among schoolchildren. Early dental care and dental caries prevention are important factors to prevent dental fear.

  11. Investigating Sentence Processing and Language Segmentation in Explaining Children's Performance on a Sentence-Span Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Misra, Maya; Miller, Carol; Poll, Gerard H.; Park, Ji Sook

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children with poor language abilities tend to perform poorly on verbal working memory tasks. This result has been interpreted as evidence that limitations in working memory capacity may interfere with the development of a mature linguistic system. However, it is possible that language abilities, such as the efficiency of sentence…

  12. An Investigation of the Predictive Validity of the Slosson Intelligence Test with Learning Disabled Kindergarten Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Dale D.

    1979-01-01

    The Slosson Intelligence Test (SIT) scores of 98 high-risk kindergarten children were correlated with their scores on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI). It was concluded that the predictive validity of the SIT was very low. (Author/CTM)

  13. Using Lexical Profiling Tools to Investigate Children's Written Vocabulary in Grade 3: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessingh, Hetty; Elgie, Susan; Kover, Pat

    2015-01-01

    Research in the study of students' writing concludes that vocabulary use is a key variable in determining the holistic quality of the writing. In the present study, 77 writing samples from a mixed group of Grade 3 children were analyzed for features of linguistic diversity using public domain vocabulary-profiling software. The writing was also…

  14. Gifted & Green: Sustainability/Environmental Science Investigations That Promote Gifted Children's Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Stephen T.; Helfer, Jason A.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental studies provide an ideal opportunity for gifted children of any age to build critical and creative-thinking skills while also building skills in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) areas. Exploring issues related to sustainability and environmental concerns permits gifted learners to identify problems, develop…

  15. Emerging Musical Literacy: Investigating Young Children's Music Cognition and Musical Problem-Solving through Invented Notations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Joan

    A qualitative study was conducted in the winter of 2000 with children enrolled in a Clef Club, the fourth level of an early childhood music program sponsored by the Eastman School's Community Education Division (Rochester, NY). Eleven participants, ages 4.7 to 6.6, enrolled in 3 sections of the 10-week program taught by the researcher. Classroom…

  16. A Neo-Piagetian Investigation of the Serial Position Effect in Children's Motor Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Richard F.; Thomas, Jerry R.

    1978-01-01

    Children's serial motor skill acquisition was studied within a neo-Piagetian framework. High and low M-processors (a designation of a child's ability to produce problem solutions) performed on a curvilinear repositioning task. A primacy-recency effect was evidenced for both groups on the age-related task, while a recency effect occurred for only…

  17. Multiple Creativities? Investigating Domain-Specificity of Creativity in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ki-Soon; Marvin, Christine

    2002-01-01

    A study examined domain specificity and domain generality of creativity in 109 second-graders. Children exhibited a range of creative abilities across different domains, rather than a uniform creative ability in diverse domains. Divergent thinking measures did not predict creative performance in at least two of three domains assessed in the study.…

  18. An Investigation of the Development of Selected Topological Properties in the Representational Space of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. Larry

    A test was designed to measure whether or not the child's conceptualization of space would demand that two topological properties of figures (connectedness, and openness and closedness) remain invariant when the figures were subjected to transformations. Ninety children, 30 from each of ages four, six, and eight, were tested. Six items were given…

  19. Age-related changes in error processing in young children: A school-based investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie K. Grammer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth in executive functioning (EF skills play a role children's academic success, and the transition to elementary school is an important time for the development of these abilities. Despite this, evidence concerning the development of the ERP components linked to EF, including the error-related negativity (ERN and the error positivity (Pe, over this period is inconclusive. Data were recorded in a school setting from 3- to 7-year-old children (N = 96, mean age = 5 years 11 months as they performed a Go/No-Go task. Results revealed the presence of the ERN and Pe on error relative to correct trials at all age levels. Older children showed increased response inhibition as evidenced by faster, more accurate responses. Although developmental changes in the ERN were not identified, the Pe increased with age. In addition, girls made fewer mistakes and showed elevated Pe amplitudes relative to boys. Based on a representative school-based sample, findings indicate that the ERN is present in children as young as 3, and that development can be seen in the Pe between ages 3 and 7. Results varied as a function of gender, providing insight into the range of factors associated with developmental changes in the complex relations between behavioral and electrophysiological measures of error processing.

  20. Age-related changes in error processing in young children: a school-based investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, Jennie K; Carrasco, Melisa; Gehring, William J; Morrison, Frederick J

    2014-07-01

    Growth in executive functioning (EF) skills play a role children's academic success, and the transition to elementary school is an important time for the development of these abilities. Despite this, evidence concerning the development of the ERP components linked to EF, including the error-related negativity (ERN) and the error positivity (Pe), over this period is inconclusive. Data were recorded in a school setting from 3- to 7-year-old children (N=96, mean age=5 years 11 months) as they performed a Go/No-Go task. Results revealed the presence of the ERN and Pe on error relative to correct trials at all age levels. Older children showed increased response inhibition as evidenced by faster, more accurate responses. Although developmental changes in the ERN were not identified, the Pe increased with age. In addition, girls made fewer mistakes and showed elevated Pe amplitudes relative to boys. Based on a representative school-based sample, findings indicate that the ERN is present in children as young as 3, and that development can be seen in the Pe between ages 3 and 7. Results varied as a function of gender, providing insight into the range of factors associated with developmental changes in the complex relations between behavioral and electrophysiological measures of error processing. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Gender Differences in the Reading of E-Books: Investigating Children's Attitudes, Reading Behaviors and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueh-Min; Liang, Tsung-Ho; Chiu, Chiung-Hui

    2013-01-01

    As indicated by some studies, the problem of "falling behind" often exists when using computer-assisted learning with children, and gender may be a factor in this. While digital contents presented on various e-readers are promising replacements for paper-and-ink books, the question arises as to whether this emerging technology will have…

  2. The participation of children in Dutch child protection investigations: A case file analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Helen; Grietens, Hans; López López, Mónica; Knorth, Erik J.; Witte, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives - In scientific research there is growing attention for the importance of children’s participation in decision-making in the child protection system (CPS). In the Dutch Youth Act (2015), the importance of participation of children is highlighted as well. However, research in different

  3. Adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy in Indonesian children: A quantitative and qualitative investigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutherford, M.E.; Ruslami, R.; Maharani, W.; Yulita, I.; Lovell, S.; Crevel, R. van; Alisjahbana, B.; Hill, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It is recommended that young child contacts of sputum smear positive tuberculosis cases receive isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) but reported adherence is low and risk factors for poor adherence in children are largely unknown. METHODS: We prospectively determined rates of

  4. "Spiritual Friends": An Investigation of Children's Spirituality in the Context of British Urban Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkinshaw, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This article argues relational consciousness of Self and Other is influenced by multiple significant relationships--what are termed "Spiritual Friends". The research on which this article is based explores the spirituality of children within the context of British urban secondary education, and identifies significant relationships in…

  5. Investigating and Learning from Toddler Play in a Children's Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Karen; Elpidoforou, Marina-Eleni

    2018-01-01

    The play needs of under threes is an under-researched area. In this study, 100 parents and carers were surveyed regarding their visit to a children's museum with a child under three. Using a play taxonomy and observation schedule devised for the study, 50 toddlers were also observed playing with the museum exhibits. The findings showed that whilst…

  6. An Investigation of the Additive Benefits of Parent Dialogic Reading Techniques in Older Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switalski, Sarah O'Neill

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the additive benefit of parent dialogic reading techniques in older, high-risk preschool children using multiple baseline design across participants, a single subject research design, as was as well as pre-test and post-test measures. Five preschoolers age-eligible to begin kindergarten the following school year participated.…

  7. [Investigation and comparison of behaviours of adults and children in swimming pools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, M; Bodina, A; Bonali, D; Bascucci, B; Pellino, P; Castaldi, S

    2011-01-01

    The swimmers health's protection must be achieved through the implementation of structures that respect safety standards, the best management of the structures and the users'compliance with rules that minimize the potential risks to health, now clearly identified by the World Health Organization in specific guidelines and by the national and regional legislation. An anonymous questionnaire has been used in order to detect the level of knowledge of hygienic risks and the behaviour of costumers (adults and children) of swimming pool. Comparing the answers, statistically significant differences in the behaviours of adults and children were found in order to protect their own and others' health. In particular children do shower and go through footbath before entering the swimming pool more than adults (respectively 89.2% versus 77.4% and 89.2% versus 79.4%). No differences in the behaviours of the two groups were found in the use of dedicated footwear and caps. Children are predisposed to follow the rules because they are more loyal to duty, while adults comply with the rules only when it is clear the advantage to protect their health. This paper underline the importance of health education programs that can help people to understand the importance of adopting certain behaviours in order to prevent risks and promote health for the benefit of all.

  8. An event-related potential investigation of spatial attention orientation in children trained with mental abacus calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Sun, Yanchao

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term mental abacus calculation training (MACT) on children's spatial attention orientation. Fifteen children with intensive MACT (MACT group) and 15 children without MACT (non-MACT group) were selected. The two groups of children were matched in age, sex, handedness, and academic grade. The participants were tested with a Posner spatial cueing task while their neural activities were recorded with a 32-channel electroencephalogram system. The participants' behavior scores (reaction time and accuracy) as well as early components of event-related potential (ERP) during the tests were statistically analyzed. The behavioral scores showed no significant difference between the two groups of children, although the MACT group tended to have a shorter reaction time. The early ERP components showed that under valid cueing condition, the MACT group had significantly higher P1 amplitude [F(1, 28)=5.06, P<0.05, effective size=0.72] and lower N1 amplitude [F(1, 28)=6.05, P<0.05, effective size=0.82] in the occipital region compared with the non-MACT group. In the centrofrontal brain region, the MACT group had lower N1 amplitude [F(1, 28)=4.89, P<0.05, effect size=0.70] and longer N1 latency [F(1, 28)=6.26, P<0.05, effect size=0.80] than the non-MACT group. In particular, the MACT group also showed a higher centrofrontal P2 amplitude in the right hemisphere [F(1, 28)=4.82, P<0.05, effect size 0.81] compared with the left hemisphere and the middle location. MACT enhances the children's spatial attention orientation, which can be detected in the early components of ERP.

  9. A longitudinal study investigating neural processing of speech envelope modulation rates in children with (a family risk for) dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Astrid; Vanvooren, Sophie; Vanderauwera, Jolijn; Ghesquière, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that a fundamental deficit in the synchronization of neural oscillations to temporal information in speech may underlie phonological processing problems in dyslexia. Since previous studies were performed cross-sectionally in school-aged children or adults, developmental aspects of neural auditory processing in relation to reading acquisition and dyslexia remain to be investigated. The present longitudinal study followed 68 children during development from pre-reader (5 years old) to beginning reader (7 years old) and more advanced reader (9 years old). Thirty-six children had a family risk for dyslexia and 14 children eventually developed dyslexia. EEG recordings of auditory steady-state responses to 4 and 20 Hz modulations, corresponding to syllable and phoneme rates, were collected at each point in time. Our results demonstrate an increase in neural synchronization to phoneme-rate modulations around the onset of reading acquisition. This effect was negatively correlated with later reading and phonological skills, indicating that children who exhibit the largest increase in neural synchronization to phoneme rates, develop the poorest reading and phonological skills. Accordingly, neural synchronization to phoneme-rate modulations was found to be significantly higher in beginning and more advanced readers with dyslexia. We found no developmental effects regarding neural synchronization to syllable rates, nor any effects of a family risk for dyslexia. Altogether, our findings suggest that the onset of reading instruction coincides with an increase in neural responsiveness to phoneme-rate modulations, and that the extent of this increase is related to (the outcome of) reading development. Hereby, dyslexic children persistently demonstrate atypically high neural synchronization to phoneme rates from the beginning of reading acquisition onwards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Making sense of children's sexual behavior in child care: An analysis of adult responses in special investigation reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Karin A

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates how adults respond to sexual behavior among children in child care. Culturally, childhood sexuality is variously understood as natural curiosity, a sign of sexual abuse, or a symptom of a sex-offender in the making. Given these competing cultural meanings, how are sexual-like behaviors by children managed by the adults who care for them? An analysis of qualitative data from Special Investigation Reports by childcare licensing consultants in the state of Michigan is used to examine how parents, child care providers, and child care licensing consultants manage and respond to sexual behavior between children in the context of child care. How sexual behavior is responded to depends primarily on who is doing the responding - parent, childcare provider, or state licensing consultant - rather than what type of behavior is being responded to. Parents respond to a wide range of behaviors between children as if they are incidents of sexual abuse. Childcare providers respond to many of those same incidents as misbehavior. Licensing consultants understand these incidents as violation of rules of supervision, but they were also the only group to ever ask if children's sexual behavior was potentially a sign of a child having been sexually abused in another setting. Providers and parents need more education about what kinds of sexual behavior to be concerned about and what kind to understand as common. More education that sexuality that is "rare" and persistent could be a sign of sexual abuse is needed by all parties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An investigation into the prevalence of dog bites to primary school children in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesiyun Abiodun

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate the prevalence of dog bites to primary school children between the ages of 8–12 years using a semi-structured interview process. With the increase in the pet population and popularity of dangerous breeds of dog and a high stray dog population combined with a dearth of information on the risk of dog attacks to children in Trinidad, a semi-structured interview process was used to determine risk factors associated with dog attacks. Methods A questionnaire survey of 1109 primary school children between the ages of 8–12 years was conducted in Trinidad from November 2002 to September 2003. The survey was conducted to determine the risk factors such as age, gender, size of dog and relationship of dog and victim, in dog bite incidents. The chi-square statistic and odds ratios were used to estimate risk factors for a bite incident. Results Twenty-eight percent of children were bitten at least once by a dog. Gender (male and owning a dog were statistically significant risk factors (p = 0.003 and 0.008 respectively, χ2 df, 95% confidence. Most attacks occurred outside of the home (58.0% followed by the victims' home (42.0% and were by a dog known but not owned (54.6% by the victim. Many victims (33.0% were bitten without having any interaction with the dog and the majority (61.9% of victims did not receive professional medical assistance. Overall, the lower leg or foot was most often injured (39.3%. Conclusion A public educational campaign is needed on responsible pet ownership. In addition, children must be taught effective ways of avoiding attacks or reducing injury in the event of a dog attack. The Dangerous dogs Act 2000 must be proclaimed in parliament by the Government of Trinidad and Tobago to exert more pressure on pet owners to safeguard the public from the menace of dog attacks.

  12. Investigation of parenting attitudes of parents whose children are at preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Alabay

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine parental attitudes of parents with children between 48-72 months old, depending upon different variables while they are raising their children. Out of quantitative research patterns, descriptive survey model was used in the research. As data collecting tool, Parental Attitude Scale (PAS, developed by Demir and Şendil (2008 and which consists of 46 items in total and determines democratic, authoritative, overprotective, and permissive attitudes of parents in raising children was used. The sample of the research was composed of 422 parents who were selected in accordance with random sampling method and residing in İstanbul Province, Pendik District. Within context of the research, gender of parents, educational background, average income, family structure, number of children, whether or not they joined a seminar on pediatric development, the amount of time they spend with their child and the gender of the child were determined as independent variables and it was examined, based on these independent variables, whether there is a significant difference in parental attitude points which are dependent variables. In the analysis of data obtained from the research, it was concluded that non-employed parents are relatively more protective than employed parents, the fact that parents joined a seminar on pediatric development decreased the authoritative and overprotective attitude average points and parents adopted a more authoritative manner towards boys compared to girls. Also, in line with research findings, a significant difference was detected on parental attitude scale sub-dimension points depending on the independent variables of parents’ ages, educational background, income level and number of children.

  13. A 5-Year Investigation of Children's Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Localized Ependymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu Shengjie; Xiong Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies have the potential to preserve cognitive outcomes in children with ependymoma; however, functional behavior remains uninvestigated. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intelligence quotient (IQ) and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years after irradiation in children diagnosed with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 123 children with intracranial ependymoma. Mean age at irradiation was 4.60 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.85-5.35). Serial neurocognitive evaluations, including an age-appropriate IQ measure and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), were completed before irradiation, 6 months after treatment, and annually for 5 years. A total of 579 neurocognitive evaluations were included in these analyses. Results: Baseline IQ and VABS were below normative means (P<.05), although within the average range. Linear mixed models revealed stable IQ and VABS across the follow-up period, except for the VABS Communication Index, which declined significantly (P=.015). Annual change in IQ (-.04 points) did not correlate with annual change in VABS (-.90 to +.44 points). Clinical factors associated with poorer baseline performance (P<.05) included preirradiation chemotherapy, cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, number and extent of surgical resections, and younger age at treatment. No clinical factors significantly affected the rate of change in scores. Conclusions: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies provided relative sparing of functional outcomes including IQ and adaptive behaviors, even in very young children. Communication skills remained vulnerable and should be the target of preventive and rehabilitative interventions.

  14. Exploring story grammar structure in the book reading interactions of African American mothers and their preschool children: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Yvette R; Rothstein, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to identify the book reading behaviors and book reading styles of middle class African American mothers engaged in a shared book reading activity with their preschool children. To this end, the mothers and their children were videotaped reading one of three books, Julius, Grandfather and I, or Somewhere in Africa. Both maternal and child behaviors were coded for the frequency of occurrence of story grammar elements contained in their stories and maternal behaviors were also coded for their use of narrative eliciting strategies. In addition, mothers were queried about the quality and quantity of book reading/story telling interactions in the home environment. The results suggest that there is a great deal of individual variation in how mothers use the story grammar elements and narrative eliciting strategies to engage their children in a shared book reading activity. Findings are discussed in terms of suggestions for additional research and practical applications are offered on ways to optimally engage African American preschool children and African American families from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds in shared book reading interactions.

  15. Using a dual-task protocol to investigate motor and cognitive performance in healthy children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabri, Tracy L; Wilson, Katherine E; Holland, Nicole; Hickling, Andrea; Murphy, James; Fait, Philippe; Reed, Nick

    2017-05-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (or concussion) is a prevalent yet understudied health concern in children and youth. This injury can cause dysfunction in both motor and cognitive domains; however, most literature focuses on single-task neuropsychological tests which only assess cognition. Although dual-task research on concussed children and youth is needed as many daily activities require both motor and cognitive domains, we must first investigate whether performing simultaneous motor and cognitive tasks of varied complexity impact these domains in healthy children and youth. Data collected from 106 healthy children and youth (5-18 years) created a normative dataset. Participants performed motor (postural stability) and cognitive (visual attention) tasks under single- and dual-task conditions. The cognitive task difficulty remained constant while the motor task had four conditions of increasing difficulty. The relationship between the number of correct responses (cognitive performance) and sway index (motor performance) was determined using two repeated measures ANOVAs (pchildren and youth following concussion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Children's Emotionality Moderates the Association Between Maternal Responsiveness and Allostatic Load: Investigation Into Differential Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N; Evans, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    While emotionality is often thought of as a risk factor, differential susceptibility theory argues that emotionality reflects susceptibility to both positive and negative environmental influences. The present study explored whether emotional children might be more susceptible to the effects of both high and low maternal responsiveness on allostatic load, a physiological indicator of chronic stress. Participants were 226 mother and child dyads. Mothers reported on children's emotionality at child age 9. Maternal responsiveness was measured at age 13 using self-reports and behavioral observation. Allostatic load was measured at age 13 and 17 using neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and metabolic biomarkers. Emotionality was associated with higher allostatic load if self-reported responsiveness was low, but with lower allostatic load, when self-reported responsiveness was high. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. The CyberCruiser: an investigation of development of prospective memory in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, K A

    2000-01-01

    Prospective memory can be defined as the timely execution of a previously formed intention, and is critical in daily life because of its inherent involvement in goal-directed behavior. Cognitive systems involved in prospective memory have been hypothesized as involving the frontal cortex, and in adults, associated with working memory and executive functions. This study introduces a new computerized measure of prospective memory designed for children. In this study prospective memory is examined in a driving game task called the CyberCruiser. In a sample of 80 children ages 6-12 years, variables from this task demonstrated a significant age effect and were significantly correlated with other well known measures of executive function, even after controlling for chronological age. Performance on this task also demonstrated the anticipated pattern of strategic monitoring that has been demonstrated in other studies of prospective memory.

  18. HSE investigation of leukaemia and other cancers in the children of male workers at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report presents two findings of the U.K. Health and Safety Executive study group responsible for examining the conclusions of the Gardner Report that ''the raised incidence of leukaemia particularly, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, among children near Sellafield was associated with paternal employment and recorded external dose of whole body penetrating radiation during work at the plant before conception''. The HSE report is divided into three:- the Case-only study and the Radiation Dose study, concerned with the 11 case fathers who had worked at Sellafield. The third part, the Case-control study, is an epidemiological study which seeks to identify all cancer cases diagnosed before the age of 25, where the children concerned had been born in West Cumbria to fathers who were Sellafield employees. The search included the whole country from January 1980 to September 1989. (UK)

  19. TREATMENT OF ALLERGIC RHINITIS IN CHILDREN: SELECTION OF ANTIHISTAMINE DRUG AND NECESSITY OF FURTHER INVESTIGATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Karaulov

    2013-01-01

    This literature review contains analysis of research results on treatment of allergic rhinitis in children according to the evidence-based medicine. Oral and intranasal antihistamine drugs along with intranasal steroids are the first-line drugs for treatment of allergic rhinitis, although the latter are more efficient in suppression of nasal stuffiness. First- and second-generation antihistamine agents used nowadays in medical practice are discussed in the article. The advantages of non-sedat...

  20. Investigating the origins of political views: biases in explanation predict conservative attitudes in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussak, Larisa J; Cimpian, Andrei

    2017-07-18

    We tested the hypothesis that political attitudes are influenced by an information-processing factor - namely, a bias in the content of everyday explanations. Because many societal phenomena are enormously complex, people's understanding of them often relies on heuristic shortcuts. For instance, when generating explanations for such phenomena (e.g., why does this group have low status?), people often rely on facts that they can retrieve easily from memory - facts that are skewed toward inherent or intrinsic features (e.g., this group is unintelligent). We hypothesized that this bias in the content of heuristic explanations leads to a tendency to (1) view socioeconomic stratification as acceptable and (2) prefer current societal arrangements to alternative ones, two hallmarks of conservative ideology. Moreover, since the inherence bias in explanation is present across development, we expected it to shape children's proto-political judgments as well. Three studies with adults and 4- to 8-year-old children (N = 784) provided support for these predictions: Not only did individual differences in reliance on inherent explanations uniquely predict endorsement of conservative views (particularly the stratification-supporting component; Study 1), but manipulations of this explanatory bias also had downstream consequences for political attitudes in both children and adults (Studies 2 and 3). This work contributes to our understanding of the origins of political attitudes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The language of mathematics: investigating the ways language counts for children's mathematical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Rose K; Lesaux, Nonie K

    2013-06-01

    This longitudinal study examined how language ability relates to mathematical development in a linguistically and ethnically diverse sample of children from 6 to 9 years of age. Study participants were 75 native English speakers and 92 language minority learners followed from first to fourth grades. Autoregression in a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework was used to evaluate the relation between children's language ability and gains in different domains of mathematical cognition (i.e., arithmetic, data analysis/probability, algebra, and geometry). The results showed that language ability predicts gains in data analysis/probability and geometry, but not in arithmetic or algebra, after controlling for visual-spatial working memory, reading ability, and sex. The effect of language on gains in mathematical cognition did not differ between language minority learners and native English speakers. These findings suggest that language influences how children make meaning of mathematics but is not involved in complex arithmetical procedures whether presented with Arabic symbols as in arithmetic or with abstract symbols as in algebraic reasoning. The findings further indicate that early language experiences are important for later mathematical development regardless of language background, denoting the need for intensive and targeted language opportunities for language minority and native English learners to develop mathematical concepts and representations. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Investigating the relationship between environmental factors and respiratory health outcomes in school children using the forced oscillation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeyen, Jonathon; Callan, Anna C; Blake, David; Wheeler, Amanda J; Franklin, Peter; Hall, Graham L; Shackleton, Claire; Sly, Peter D; Hinwood, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The environmental factors which may affect children's respiratory health are complex, and the influence and significance of factors such as traffic, industry and presence of vegetation is still being determined. We undertook a cross-sectional study of 360 school children aged 5-12 years who lived on the outskirts of a heavy industrial area in Western Australia to investigate the effect of a range of environmental factors on respiratory health using the forced oscillation technique (FOT), a non-invasive method that allows for the assessment of the resistive and reactive properties of the respiratory system. Based on home address, proximity calculations were used to estimate children's exposure to air pollution from traffic and industry and to characterise surrounding green space. Indoor factors were determined using a housing questionnaire. Of the outdoor measures, the length of major roads within a 50m buffer was associated with increased airway resistance (Rrs 8 ). There were no associations between distance to industry and FOT measures. For the indoor environment the presence of wood heating and gas heating in the first year of life was associated with better lung function. The significance of both indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution and effect modifiers such as green space and heating require further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigating the neurodevelopmental mediators of aggression in children with a history of child maltreatment:An exploratory field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileo, J F; Brewer, W; Northam, E; Yucel, M; Anderson, V

    2017-08-01

    Maltreatment of children is a chronic community problem that increases the risk of future aggression. Despite several decades of research highlighting this relationship, few studies have explored the potential neuropsychological deficits that are likely to mediate it. This exploratory study aimed to examine how child maltreatment may be associated with aggression via impairment in the developing prefrontal-limbic-autonomic pathways that are implicated in neuropsychological models of aggression. Furthermore, it aimed to investigate the relationship between child maltreatment and both reactive and proactive aggression subtypes. To investigate this non-invasively in an at-risk population, children with a documented protective care history (n = 20) and a community control group (n = 30), aged between 6 and 12 years, were compared on measures of cardiovascular functioning, affect regulation and cognitive functioning aligned with this neuropsychological model. Whilst no group differences were found on cardiovascular functioning (i.e., resting heart rate, heart rate reactivity, heart rate variability), the protective care group performed significantly worse on measures of affect regulation and cognitive functioning (i.e., global intelligence, executive functioning, smell identification and social cognition). The relationship between child maltreatment and aggression was mediated by executive dysfunction and affect dysregulation but not global IQ, social cognition or olfactory identification. The results suggest that interventions targeting aggression in maltreated children will benefit from clinical assessment and psychological strategies that address the executive dysfunction and affect dysregulation that has been associated with this clinical outcome.

  4. Investigation of H19/RsaI Polymorphism in Children With Low Birth Weight in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Paula; Souza, Paulo; Angelo, Hildson Dornelas; Santos, Igor; Martins, Danyelly; Lima Filho, Jose; Maia, Maria Mascena

    2015-04-01

    H19 is a strong candidate gene for influencing birth weight variation and is exclusively imprinted maternally. In an attempt to understand the relationship of this gene polymorphism with low birth weight children, we investigated association of H19/RsaI polymorphism with low birth weight and normal birth weight in children and their mothers. The aim of our study was to establish the association between H19 gene polymorphism and LW in children born in Pernambuco, state of Brazil. It were selected 89 children, 40 low birth weight (LW) and 49 normal birth weight (NW) and 71 mothers (40 mothers of newborns NW and 31 mothers of newborns LW) attended at Dom Malan Hospital, Petrolina, Pernambuco - Brazil. Peripheral blood samples were collected from patients and genomic DNA was extracted and detected by electrophoresis agarose gel, stained by Blue Green Loading Dye. DNA PCR amplification was done using the primers H1 (sense) and H3 (antisense). PCR products were digested with RsaI and electrophoresed on agarose gel stained by ethidium bromide. Statistical analyses were performed using the program BioEstat version 5.0. The RsaI polymorphism in the H19 gene showed that genotype frequencies did not differ statistically between low birth weight (AA = 12.5%, AB = 45%, BB = 42.5%) and control (AA = 8.6% AB = 36.73%, BB= 55.10% groups) and the allele frequencies were not significantly different (P = 0.2897). We also did not observe any association between maternal H19 allele polymorphism and low birth weight newborns (P =0.7799) or normal birth weight children (P = 0.8976). The small size of sample may be the explanation for these results; future studies with more patients are needed to confirm the effect of H19/RsaI polymorphism on birth weight of LW newborns.

  5. Depression and blood pressure in high-risk children and adolescents: an investigation using two longitudinal cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerton, Gemma; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; Thapar, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between blood pressure and depressive disorder in children and adolescents at high risk for depression. Design Multisample longitudinal design including a prospective longitudinal three-wave high-risk study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression and an on-going birth cohort for replication. Setting Community-based studies. Participants High-risk sample includes 281 families where children were aged 9–17 years at baseline and 10–19 years at the final data point. Replication cohort includes 4830 families where children were aged 11–14 years at baseline and 14–17 years at follow-up and a high-risk subsample of 612 offspring with mothers that had reported recurrent depression. Main outcome measures The new-onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, fourth edition defined depressive disorder in the offspring using established research diagnostic assessments—the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment in the high-risk sample and the Development and Wellbeing Assessment in the replication sample. Results Blood pressure was standardised for age and gender to create SD scores and child's weight was statistically controlled in all analyses. In the high-risk sample, lower systolic blood pressure at wave 1 significantly predicted new-onset depressive disorder in children (OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.96; p=0.029) but diastolic blood pressure did not. Depressive disorder at wave 1 did not predict systolic blood pressure at wave 3. A significant association between lower systolic blood pressure and future depression was also found in the replication cohort in the second subset of high-risk children whose mothers had experienced recurrent depression in the past. Conclusions Lower systolic blood pressure predicts new-onset depressive disorder in the offspring of parents with depression. Further studies are needed to investigate how this association arises. PMID:24071459

  6. THE EMPIRICAL METHOD OF INVESTIGATING THE CHILDHOOD SUBCULTURE: GROUP OF CHILDREN BEHAVIOR OBSERVATION IN THE GUESTHOUSE POOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Yelena N. Suvorkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with one of the empirical research methods investigating the childhood sub-culture. The method is called observation. The author marked general theoretical position, recommendations on its implementation. Based on observations of the group of children behavior in the guesthouse pool it is found out that such category, as honesty is very important in the organization of the order, taking into account that the subculture of childhood is an open, self-organizing system. In the pool, the children come up with a wide variety of games. The adjacent areas are also involved. The author identified two borders, taking place for the child: a clear (fixed border is the side of the pool and unclear border as the transitional designation of states, qualities (dangerous – safe.

  7. An investigation of the smoking behaviours of parents before, during and after the birth of their children in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Chi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many studies have investigated the negative effects of parental smoking on children and Taiwan has started campaigns to promote smoke-free homes, little is known about the smoking behaviours of Taiwanese parents during the childbearing period. To help fill the gap, this study investigated Taiwanese parents' smoking behaviours before, during and after the birth of their children, particularly focusing on smoking cessation during pregnancy and relapse after childbirth. Methods We used data from the Survey of Health Status of Women and Children, conducted by Taiwan's National Health Research Institutes in 2000. After excluding survey respondents with missing information about their smoking behaviours, our sample consisted of 3,109 women who were married at the time of interview and had at least one childbearing experience between March 1, 1995 and February 28, 1999. Data on parental smoking behaviour in the six months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and in the first year after childbirth were extracted from the survey and analysed by descriptive statistics as well as logistic regression. Results Four percent of the mothers and sixty percent of the fathers smoked before the conception of their first child. The educational attainment and occupation of the parents were associated with their smoking status before the first pregnancy in the family. Over 80% of smoking mothers did not quit during pregnancy, and almost all of the smoking fathers continued tobacco use while their partners were pregnant. Over two thirds of the women who stopped smoking during their pregnancies relapsed soon after childbirth. Very few smoking men stopped tobacco use while their partners were pregnant, and over a half of those who quit started to smoke again soon after their children were born. Conclusion Among Taiwanese women who had childbearing experiences in the late 1990s, few smoked. Of those who smoked, few quit during pregnancy. Most

  8. Salt, fruit and vegetable consumption and blood pressure development: a longitudinal investigation in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lijie; Krupp, Danika; Remer, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Low salt intake and high fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) have been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP) in adults. Longitudinal data on the independent effect of both FVI and salt intake on BP in healthy normotensive children are not available yet. In the present study, we aimed to characterise the concomitant influence of salt intake and FVI on BP development throughout childhood and adolescence. We examined 435 healthy subjects, for whom at least three repeated measurements of BP had been taken and who had provided 24 h urine samples and 3 d weighed dietary records between 4 and 18 years of age. BP was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer (Mercuro 300, WelchAllyn) and salt intake was determined based on 24 h Na excretion. The intra-individual change in salt intake was almost significantly associated with the change in systolic BP (SBP, P= 0·06) and marginally (P= 0·09) with that in diastolic BP (DBP) in puberty, but not in pre-puberty. A 1 g/d increase in salt intake was associated with a 0·2 mmHg increase in SBP. In pre-puberty, but not in puberty, differences in FVI between children predicted between-person variations in SBP and DBP (P= 0·03). Corresponding findings were obtained for 24 h K excretion (a urinary indicator for FVI). A 100 g/d lower FVI was related to a 0·4 mmHg higher BP value. In conclusion, in healthy children and adolescents with BP in the low-normal range, both salt intake and FVI may already start to influence BP, although at a small magnitude. The potential importance of establishing healthy eating habits in childhood for later BP development emphasises the role of higher FVI and lower salt intake in the prevention of hypertension in the long run.

  9. Epidemiological investigation of caries prevalence in first grade school children in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weusmann, Jens; Mahmoodi, Benjamin; Azaripour, Adriano; Kordsmeyer, Kristian; Walter, Christian; Willershausen, Brita

    2015-10-02

    The annual examination of first graders' oral health as stipulated by law aimed to reach every child in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) in their first year of school. We intended to evaluate the first graders' oral health based on the examination data for 2013/2014. Instructed examiners measured the d3mft(deciduous)/D3MFT(permanent) index according to World Health Organization criteria in 25,020 predominantly 6-7 year-old first-grade school children. Only caries affecting dentin was diagnosed; no radiography or fiber-transillumination was used. Out of the d3mft value, the "Significant Caries Index" (SiC) was calculated. This index identifies the dmft score of the third of the population with the highest caries experience. Descriptive analysis was performed. Out of the the examined children, 60.9% were caries free. Mean d3mft score was 1.28 ± 2.27 while the mean SiC was 3.73 ± 2.51. A distinctly higher d3mft was found in the decidous molars compared to the front teeth. Boys were significantly more caries-experienced than girls (p < 0.001). The results of this study confirm the lasting trend towards decreasing caries prevalence in children starting school found in previous cross-sectional studies. This trend was observed in the high-risk group (obtained by SiC) as well as in the entire study population. Particular attention in caries prophylaxis should be paid to the primary molars.

  10. A preliminary investigation of the IQs of 7-13 year-old children from an area with coal burning-related fluoride poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, X.C.; Wang, R.Y.; Cheng, C.F.; Wei, W.S.; Tang, L.M.; Wang, Q.S.; Tang, D.X.; Liu, G.W.; He, G.D.; Li, S.L.

    2008-04-15

    The Chinese Binet IQ Test was used to investigate the IQs of 7-13 year old children suffering from dental fluorosis, living and attending school in an area with coal burning-related fluoride poisoning. The average IQ of these children was found to be markedly lower than in the control area, and the number of children classified as having low intelligence was significantly higher. For both groups, IQ and serum fluoride show a negative correlation (r = -0.205).

  11. Oral bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine against tuberculosis: why not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Monteiro-Maia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine is the only licensed vaccine for human use against tuberculosis (TB. Although controversy exists about its efficacy, the BCG vaccine is able to protect newborns and children against disseminated forms of TB, but fails to protect adults against active forms of TB. In the last few years, interest in the mucosal delivery route for the vaccine has been increasing owing to its increased capacity to induce protective immune responses both in the mucosal and the systemic immune compartments. Here, we show the importance of this route of vaccination in newly developed vaccines, especially for vaccines against TB.

  12. Physical education, obesity, and academic achievement: a 2-year longitudinal investigation of Australian elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Richard D; Cunningham, Ross B; Fitzgerald, Robert; Olive, Lisa S; Prosser, Laurence; Jiang, Xiaoli; Telford, Rohan M

    2012-02-01

    We determined whether physical education (PE) taught by specialists contributed to academic development and prevention of obesity in elementary school children. Our 2-year longitudinal study involved 620 boys and girls initially in grade 3 in Australia, all receiving 150 minutes per week of PE. One group (specialist-taught PE; n = 312) included 90 minutes per week of PE from visiting specialists; the other (common-practice PE; n = 308) received all PE from generalist classroom teachers. Measurements included percentage of body fat (measured by dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry) and writing, numeracy, and reading proficiency (by government tests). Compared with common-practice PE, specialist-taught PE was associated with a smaller increase in age-related percentage of body fat (P = .02). Specialist-taught PE was also associated with greater improvements in numeracy (P increases in percentage of body fat and enhanced numeracy development among elementary school children receiving PE from specialists provides support for the role of PE in both preventive medicine and academic development.

  13. Investigating factors associated with functional constipation of primary school children in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Moon Fai; Chan, Yuk Ling

    2010-12-01

    To examine what factors were associated with functional constipation amongst primary school students. Constipation in school-age children has also been brought to the attention of health care researchers because this requires long-term therapy. The prognosis of functional constipation is vague because it has many causative factors. In fact, the focus on constipation in the health care system is always placed on medical management, rather than prevention. A descriptive survey. The survey was conducted on March 2008 at one primary school in Hong Kong; 383 children who are studying in primary 3-5 aged from 8-10 completed a questionnaire. Three main outcome variables were employed in the study: demographic, constipation assessment scale and dietary and environmental factors. There were 7.3% students with functional constipation. Students who were age ∼10 (pstudents and their parents to cope with functional constipation, greater familiarity with its prevalence and the characteristics of its contributory factors is needed. It is hoped that this could providing a better understanding and awareness of this issue and that it will encourage setting up strategies to decrease the morbidity and diminish the negative consequences of functional constipation for primary school students. Nurses can act as advocators for primary school students, parents and school teachers in understanding and preventing functional constipation. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Palmar dermatoglyphics in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia--a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukelo, Mario Joseph; Kanchan, Tanuj; Rau, A T K; Unnikrishnan, B; Bukelo, Maria Frances; Krishna, Vinay Narasimha

    2011-04-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant disease of as yet an unknown origin. Researchers in the past have studied the association between dermatoglyphic features in the hand and congenital diseases and diseases with genetic influences. The present research is intended to study the association between acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and palmar dermatoglyphic characteristics to assess the value of dermatoglyphics as a screening tool to detect leukemia in high risk groups. Case-control study conducted at the department of Pediatrics, KMC Attavara, a tertiary care teaching hospital of Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore (Manipal University), India during 2006. Twenty-four children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia were included in the study. The dermatoglyhic features (ab- ridge count, atd, tda and dat angles) of their palm prints were compared with the age and sex matched controls. The present research indicates an association between dermatoglyphic features and ALL. The mean ab-ridge count, and the mean atd - angle were observed to be higher in cases while the mean tda - angle was found to be lower in cases than controls. The findings of the present research are suggestive of a possible trend and an association of dermatoglyphic features with children suffering from ALL. Similar studies can be useful in rare forensic case work where the association of dermatoglyphic features with certain diseases is to be explored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Interventional management of spine eosinophilic granuloma in children: preliminary investigation of its clinical value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yu; Wu Chungen; Gu Yifeng; Cheng Yongde

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of interventional management in treating spine eosinophilic granuloma in children. Methods: Interventional therapies, including per cutaneous biopsy and percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP), were carried out in three child patients with five pathologically-proved eosinophilic granuloma lesions, which were localized in the vertebrae. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Visual analogue pain scale (VAS) and Oswesty disability index (ODI) were assessed before and after operation. Results: A total of four operations were successfully carried out in all of three patients. The mean VAS score reduced from 7 before treatment of 1 after treatment. The mean ODI decreased from preoperative 52.5% to postoperative 10.5%. During procedures no significant complications occurred except for cement leakage in some cases. Pain relief and daily activity were remarkably improved after treatment. All patients were followed up for 3 months to 5 years. Conclusion: For the treatment of spine eosinophilic granuloma in children, interventional techniques are mini-invasive, safe and effective therapeutic methods. (authors)

  16. The social functioning of siblings of children with cancer: a multi-informant investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderfer, Melissa A; Stanley, Caroline; Conroy, Rowena; Long, Kristin A; Fairclough, Diane L; Kazak, Anne E; Noll, Robert B

    2015-04-01

    This study examined social functioning among siblings of children with cancer. A case-control design was applied to school- and home-based data from multiple informants (peers, teachers, mothers, and self). Social reputation and peer acceptance within the classroom was compared for 87 siblings (aged 8-16 years) and 256 demographically matched peers. Self-perceptions of peer relationships and parent-reported social competence were examined among 67 siblings and 67 matched comparisons. Peer reports (N = 1,633) indicated no differences between siblings and comparisons for social reputation, number of friendships, reciprocated friendships, or peer acceptance. Self-reported prosocial behavior and teacher-reported likability were higher for siblings than comparisons. Self-reported loneliness, friendship quality, and perceived social support did not differ between groups. Mothers reported less involvement in activities and poorer school performance for siblings than comparisons. Peer relationships of siblings of children with cancer are similar to classmates, though they experience small decrements in activity participation and school performance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Pattern Of Childhood Tuberculosis In Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... signed against medical advice or defaulted from follow-up. Conclusion: Tuberculosis remains one of the major causes of mortality in Nigerian children, and it is, therefore, pertinent improving our socio-economic status, and diligently pursuing BCG vaccination of all children at stipulated periods. Sahel Medical Journal Vol.

  18. The Civil Registry of Children Born of Surrogacy Pregnancy: An Investigation Based on Recent Spain Supreme Court Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cristina de Carvalho Rettore

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In foreign law, there has been intense debates concerning civil registry of children born of surrogacy pregnancy, when such birth disrespects the country’s norms. Thus, based on the analysis of recent Spain Supreme Court judgments – that is, through a juridical-comparative investigation, using primary and secondary sources –, and considering that although Brazil lacks an express federal law about the issue, a Resolution of the Federal Counsel of Medicine establishing parameters is being generally applied, the paper aims to answer whether or not Brazilian registry should be facilitated for births (demonstrated as not uncommon that disregard such parameters.

  19. Investigating the Substantive Aspect of Construct Validity for the Satisfaction with Life Scale Adapted for Children: A Focus on Cognitive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadermann, Anne M.; Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the substantive aspect of construct validity of the Satisfaction with Life Scale adapted for Children (SWLS-C; Gadermann et al. in Soc Indic Res 96:229-247, "2010"). Specifically, the study examined the cognitive processes of children when responding to the items of the SWLS-C to find out how they…

  20. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Investigating the Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation in Children Aged 8-10 Years from a Mainstream School Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, A.; Woodward, A.; Jackson, S.; Wang, Y.; Crawford, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increased interest in the effects of omega-3 supplementation on childrens' learning and behaviour, there are a lack of controlled studies of this kind that have utilised a typically developing population. This study investigated the effects of omega-3 supplementation in 450 children aged 8-10 years old from a mainstream school…

  1. Investigation of resectability degree for adenoidal surgery in OSA children with the method of computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changlong; Han, Demin; Zhou, Bing; Zhang, Luo; Li, Yunchuan; Zang, HongRui; Li, LiFeng

    2017-01-01

    From aspect of fluid dynamics, expanding patients' nasopharyngeal coronal-sectional area to 48.3-54.7% of normal area will bring the airflow velocity back to normal in adenoidal hypertrophy children. It might provide a suggestion for adenoidectomy range selection and whether total resection is necessary. To evaluate the nasopharyngeal airflow characteristics in pediatric OSA patients with adenoidal hypertrophy, and to explore the proper resection range for adenoidectomy Method: Nine OSA patients and four normal children were recruited. The CT scans of their upper airway were collected and used to construct three dimensional models for fluid dynamics analysis. Using computational fluid dynamics, indices such as velocity, pressure, and coronal-sectional area were calculated. Compared with the normal, the OSA children showed three characteristics in nasopharyngeal: the airflow velocity was significantly higher (p  0.05). In a study of the relationship between velocity and coronal-sectional area, this study investigates different coronal-sectional areas from 30-300 mm 2 . It was found that, when patients' nasopharyngeal coronal-sectional area was expanded over 155-170 mm 2 , namely 48.3-54.7% of normal area, airflow velocity in nasopharyngeal showed no difference than normal.

  2. Polyfunctional cytokine production by central memory T cells from cattle in response to Mycobacterium bovis infection and BCG vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyfunctional T cells simultaneously produce IFN-gamma, IL-2 and TNF-alpha and play relevant roles in several chronic infections, including TB. Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle elicits ex vivo polyfunctional T cell responses. Vaccine-elicited IFN-gamma Tcm (CD4 plus CD45RO plus CCR7 plus) re...

  3. BCG vaccination status may predict sputum conversion in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: a new consideration for an old vaccine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeremiah, Kidola; Praygod, George Amani; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Failure to convert (persistent sputum and/or culture positivity) while on antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment at the end of the second month of anti-TB therapy has been reported to be a predictor of treatment failure. Factors that could be associated with persistent bacillary positivity at the end...... of the second month after initiation of anti-TB treatment were assessed....

  4. BCG Vaccination Protects against Experimental Viral Infection in Humans through the Induction of Cytokines Associated with Trained Immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arts, Rob J W; Moorlag, Simone J C F M; Novakovic, Boris

    2018-01-01

    -wide epigenetic reprograming of monocytes and protected against experimental infection with an attenuated yellow fever virus vaccine strain. Epigenetic reprogramming was accompanied by functional changes indicative of trained immunity. Reduction of viremia was highly correlated with the upregulation of IL-1β...

  5. Multi-stage subunit vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis: an alternative to the BCG vaccine or a BCG-prime boost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Farzad; Derakhshan, Mohammad; Yousefi-Avarvand, Arshid; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Soleimanpour, Saman

    2018-01-01

    More than two billion people are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Most tuberculosis (TB)-subunit vaccines currently in various stages of clinical trials are designed for prevention of active TB, but not to prevent reactivation of latent TB-infection. Thus, there is an urgent need for an effective multi-stage vaccine based on early-expressed and latently-expressed antigens that prevents both acute and latent infections. Areas covered: Here, we reviewed the published pre-clinical and clinical studies of multi-stage subunit vaccines against TB, and the protective capacities of the vaccines were compared with BCG, either alone or in combination with different vaccine delivery systems/adjuvants. The results revealed that multi-stage subunit vaccines induced a wide variety of immune-responses to all forms of TB, including CD8 + T-cell-mediated cytolytic and IFN-γ responses comparable to those induced by the BCG. They could potentially be used as a booster vaccine to improve the efficacy of the BCG. Expert commentary: Multi-stage TB-vaccines could boost BCG-primed immunity, decrease bacterial loads and provide efficient protection against progressive TB-infection, especially in the latent phase. These types of vaccines administered before and after TB-infection can act as pre-exposure, post-exposure and even therapeutic vaccines. In the near future, these vaccines could provide a new generation of prime-vaccines or BCG prime-boosters.

  6. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth and antibody responses to childhood vaccines. A randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Birk, Nina Marie; Smits, Gaby

    2017-01-01

    and all pneumococcal serotypes, when BCG was given after the first day of life. Girls had significantly higher antibody levels for Haemophilus influenza type b and pneumococcus than boys. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Three routine vaccinations with DiTeKiPol/Act-Hib and Prevenar 13 induced sero...

  7. BCG vaccination status may predict sputum conversion in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: a new consideration for an old vaccine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeremiah, Kidola; Praygod, George Amani; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Failure to convert (persistent sputum and/or culture positivity) while on antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment at the end of the second month of anti-TB therapy has been reported to be a predictor of treatment failure. Factors that could be associated with persistent bacillary positivity at the e...

  8. The effect of zinc supplementation during pregnancy on immune response to Hib and BCG vaccines in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osendarp, S.J.M.; Fuchs, G.J.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Mahmud, H.; Tofail, F.; Black, R.E.; Prabhakar, H.; Santosham, M.

    2006-01-01

    An essential role for zinc in development of the fetal immune system has been documented. However, the effect of antenatal zinc supplementation on infants' postnatal immune response to vaccinations is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation during

  9. "Lay epidemiology": an important factor in Danish parents' decision of whether to allow their child to receive a BCG vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo Pihl, Gitte; Johannessen, Helle; Ammentorp, Jette

    2017-01-01

    Forældre anvender lægmandsepidemiologi i et forsøg på at foretage en individuel risikovurdering for deres barn, når de skal opveje fordele og ulemper ved en vaccine. Holdninger og overbevisninger om årsager til sygdom og bivirkninger i forældrenes familie og netværk har betydning for deres...

  10. A Pilot Investigation of Speech Sound Disorder Intervention Delivered by Telehealth to School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Grogan-Johnson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a school-based telehealth service delivery model and reports outcomes made by school-age students with speech sound disorders in a rural Ohio school district. Speech therapy using computer-based speech sound intervention materials was provided either by live interactive videoconferencing (telehealth, or conventional side-by-side intervention.  Progress was measured using pre- and post-intervention scores on the Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation-2 (Goldman & Fristoe, 2002. Students in both service delivery models made significant improvements in speech sound production, with students in the telehealth condition demonstrating greater mastery of their Individual Education Plan (IEP goals. Live interactive videoconferencing thus appears to be a viable method for delivering intervention for speech sound disorders to children in a rural, public school setting. Keywords:  Telehealth, telerehabilitation, videoconferencing, speech sound disorder, speech therapy, speech-language pathology; E-Helper

  11. Exploring Partner Intimacy Among Couples Raising Children on the Autism Spectrum: A Grounded Theory Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jake; Piercy, Fred P

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we explored how couples raising children with autism spectrum disorder negotiate intimacy, including what contextual and temporal factors influence these processes. We conducted conjoint interviews with 12 couples, employing grounded theory methodology to collect and analyze the data. Our results indicated that fostering intimacy in these couples' relationships involves partners working together to make key cognitive and relational shifts. Couples are aided or hindered in making these shifts by the degree to which they experience various contextual and environmental factors as resources or roadblocks. We also found that intimacy is not a fixed point at which couples one day arrive, but is an iterative process taking place over time and requiring work to develop and maintain. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  12. An Investigation into the Role of Coping in Preventing Depression associated with Perfectionism in Preadolescent Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silja M Dry

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between self oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism and maladaptive and adaptive coping strategies and their collective impact on depression symptoms were examined in the context of a randomised controlled universal trial of the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills intervention. 541 children aged 8 to 12 completed a battery of self reports, of which responses for measures of depression symptoms, perfectionism and coping strategies were examined for the purposes of this study. Structural equation modelling tested whether coping mediated the effects of perfectionism on depression indicated that socially prescribed perfectionism had both a direct and indirect relationship with depression symptoms through a moderate association with maladaptive coping. Implications for prevention of depression were discussed and recommendations for future research were proposed.

  13. Investigating the neural correlates of voice versus speech-sound directed information in pre-school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Maria Raschle

    Full Text Available Studies in sleeping newborns and infants propose that the superior temporal sulcus is involved in speech processing soon after birth. Speech processing also implicitly requires the analysis of the human voice, which conveys both linguistic and extra-linguistic information. However, due to technical and practical challenges when neuroimaging young children, evidence of neural correlates of speech and/or voice processing in toddlers and young children remains scarce. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 20 typically developing preschool children (average age  = 5.8 y; range 5.2-6.8 y to investigate brain activation during judgments about vocal identity versus the initial speech sound of spoken object words. FMRI results reveal common brain regions responsible for voice-specific and speech-sound specific processing of spoken object words including bilateral primary and secondary language areas of the brain. Contrasting voice-specific with speech-sound specific processing predominantly activates the anterior part of the right-hemispheric superior temporal sulcus. Furthermore, the right STS is functionally correlated with left-hemispheric temporal and right-hemispheric prefrontal regions. This finding underlines the importance of the right superior temporal sulcus as a temporal voice area and indicates that this brain region is specialized, and functions similarly to adults by the age of five. We thus extend previous knowledge of voice-specific regions and their functional connections to the young brain which may further our understanding of the neuronal mechanism of speech-specific processing in children with developmental disorders, such as autism or specific language impairments.

  14. Investigating the Effects of Vestibular Stimulation on Balance Performance in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Clinical Trial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Hosseini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Centre of pressure displacement is an indicator of postural control. Children with cerebral palsy have poor postural control. One common intervention to enhance their balance is vestibular stimulation. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of vestibular stimulation on COP parameters in children with cerebral palsy (3-10 years old. Methods: This study was a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial. Twenty children with cerebral palsy received vestibular stimulation, two sessions per week with a course of twelve sessions, based on vestibular stimulation protocol including anteroposterior, lateral, ascending–descending movements and spinning. One cerebral palsy group experienced current and conventional occupational therapy while the other received a period of vestibular stimulation during treatment. Force plate outcome measures were center of pressure displacement parameters as well as velocity, area, displacement in X and Y axes. Results: According to Mann-Whitney U test, means in post-tests in two groups with both conditions of eyes open and closed were significant in velocity parameter (eyes open P=0.036; eyes closed P=0.021 while Area parameter, COP displacement in X axis (Rang fore after, COP displacement in Y axis (Rang side way were not significant (P>0.05. Wilcoxon Test showed significant difference in the velocity parameter; eyes open (P=0.012 and eyes closed (P=0.018. Conclusion: Children who received vestibular stimulation are able to change and control COP displacement faster (according to changes in velocity parameters. So we suggest rehabilitation team members especially occupational therapist to apply vestibular stimulation during their treatment.

  15. Investigating the neural correlates of voice versus speech-sound directed information in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschle, Nora Maria; Smith, Sara Ashley; Zuk, Jennifer; Dauvermann, Maria Regina; Figuccio, Michael Joseph; Gaab, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Studies in sleeping newborns and infants propose that the superior temporal sulcus is involved in speech processing soon after birth. Speech processing also implicitly requires the analysis of the human voice, which conveys both linguistic and extra-linguistic information. However, due to technical and practical challenges when neuroimaging young children, evidence of neural correlates of speech and/or voice processing in toddlers and young children remains scarce. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 20 typically developing preschool children (average age  = 5.8 y; range 5.2-6.8 y) to investigate brain activation during judgments about vocal identity versus the initial speech sound of spoken object words. FMRI results reveal common brain regions responsible for voice-specific and speech-sound specific processing of spoken object words including bilateral primary and secondary language areas of the brain. Contrasting voice-specific with speech-sound specific processing predominantly activates the anterior part of the right-hemispheric superior temporal sulcus. Furthermore, the right STS is functionally correlated with left-hemispheric temporal and right-hemispheric prefrontal regions. This finding underlines the importance of the right superior temporal sulcus as a temporal voice area and indicates that this brain region is specialized, and functions similarly to adults by the age of five. We thus extend previous knowledge of voice-specific regions and their functional connections to the young brain which may further our understanding of the neuronal mechanism of speech-specific processing in children with developmental disorders, such as autism or specific language impairments.

  16. Investigate the Child's Scientific Activities on Practical Child's Activity Books for the Kindergarten's Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldarabah, Intisar Turki; Al-Mouhtadi, Reham

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the extent to which the interactive international curriculum is included in the "Child's Scientific Activities" issued by the Ministry of Education in Jordan, for the kindergarten stage according to the global criterion (NRC). In order to answer the study questions, an instrument was developed to…

  17. Investigation fo Helicobacter Pylori prevalance in children with vitamine B12 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ishak abdurrahman isik

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Although vitamin B 12 levels of HP positive patients were lower than that of HP negative patients this differance was not statistically significant. Hereafter new studies with high number of patients will be helpful to investigate relation between HP infection and vitamin B 12 deficiency. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(4.000: 221-225

  18. Asociación entre tuberculosis infantil grave e inmunización previa con BCG en un hospital de referencia nacional, Perú 1990-2000 Association between severe tuberculosis in children and previous BCG immunization in a national referral Hospital, Peru 1990-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Llanos-Tejada

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la asociación entre la inmunización con BCG y tuberculosis grave (TB. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, se incluyó fichas de pacientes atendidos en el servicio de neumología del Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño de Perú, entre los años 1990-2000. Se revisaron un total de 2106 casos de TB entre los que había 259 casos graves (TB miliar o meningoencefalitis por TB. Del total, 497 casos no tenían antecedente de inmunización con BCG; 202 tenían TB grave y 295 TB no grave (OR= 0,05; IC 95%= 0,03-0,07. En conclusión, los niños con diagnóstico de TB y que han sido inmunizados con BCG, tienen 94% menos riesgo de desarrollar TB grave, en comparación a los niños con diagnóstico no inmunizados con BCG.The objective of the study was to determine the association between BCG immunization and severe tuberculosis (TB. We performed a retrospective study, including medical records from patients of the pneumology department at the National Children’s Institute in Peru, between the years 1990-2000. A total of 2106 TB cases were reviewed, from them 259 patients were severe (miliary TB or meningoencephalitic TB. From all, 497 cases did not have history of BCG vaccination, 202 had severe TB and 295 non-severe TB (OR = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.03 to 0.07. In conclusion, children diagnosed with TB and who have been immunized with BCG, has 94% lower risk of developing severe TB, compared to children with TB non-immunized with BCG.

  19. Multiple birth families with children with special needs: a qualitative investigation of mothers' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, Christie E; Davis, Peter G; Umstad, Mark P; Fisher, Jane R W

    2012-08-01

    Multiple birth remains prevalent, with prematurity and subsequent disability being common complications. However, little is known of the experiences of mothers living with the combined circumstances of multiple birth, prematurity, and special needs. This paper reports an exploratory study using the qualitative technique of thematic analysis, to describe and interpret the experiences of 10 mothers of prematurely born multiple birth children with diverse special needs. Mothers were shocked to learn they were carrying multiple fetuses, including those who underwent in vitro fertilization with dual embryo transfer. Most experienced protracted concern over one or more babies' survival during pregnancy, and prescribed bed rest was frequently associated with increased anxiety and other adverse psychological effects. Some experienced disenfranchised grief, such as those grieving the opportunity to bear a single child. The contrast with experiences of mothers of healthy, term singletons caused considerable distress. Feelings of detachment and unreality were common in the immediate postpartum period, possibly due to transient depersonalization. Having more than one newborn created practical and psychological problems during the neonatal period, particularly when infants were separated due to differences in medical status. The extent to which hospitals accommodated the multiple birth relationship varied and significantly affected mothers' postnatal experiences. Mothers often felt guilty, particularly regarding inequality of care and attention they were able to provide to each child. This was especially problematic for multiples discordant for special needs status. The presence of one normally developing child complicated adjustment to the other's difficulties, and several experienced chronic sorrow. Serious maternal mental health difficulties were common but not universal. Available formal supports were generally perceived as inadequate, addressing some, but not all, of the

  20. Children with pertussis inform the investigation of other pertussis cases among contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Laura C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of reported pertussis has increased in the last two decades. However, many cases of pertussis may be underreported or not diagnosed. The World Health Organization estimates that pertussis causes 200.000 – 400.000 deaths each year, most deaths are in infants and in developing countries. Infants with pertussis can indicate an undetected source cases in the community. Methods At a University Hospital in Brazil individuals that had frequent contacts with a child with confirmed pertussis (the index case and had recent history of cough were enrolled into the study. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from every contact that had cough within the last 21 days. Cases confirmation followed the guidelines of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention – Atlanta, U.S.A. Results Pertussis diagnosis was confirmed in 51 children, (considered the index cases. Among the index cases, 72.5% (37/51 were under 6 months of age; culture for Bordetella pertussis was positive in 78.4% (40/51. Pertussis was confirmed in 39% (107/276 of the contacts of 51 index cases. Among these contacts identified as a pertussis case, 40.2% (43/107 were between 6 months and 111/2 years of age and 59.8% (64/107 were older than 111/2 years of age. Pertussis was confirmed by culture in 11.2% (12/107 of them and by epidemiologic linkage in 88.8% (95/107. Each index case allowed identifying two new cases of pertussis. Conclusion Public health authorities should consider implementing early recognition of pertussis index cases and searching for pertussis cases among the contacts. Treatment of the cases and prophylaxis of the contacts is fundamental to control outbreaks in the community.

  1. MR spectroscopy of liver in overweight children and adolescents: Investigation of 1H T2 relaxation times at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Bille, Dorthe S.; Thisted, Ebbe; Holm, Jens-Christian; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to investigate T 2 relaxation values and to optimize hepatic fat quantification using proton MR spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) at 3 T in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Subjects: The study included 123 consecutive children and adolescents with a body mass index above the 97th percentile according to age and sex. 1 H MR spectroscopy was performed at 3.0 T using point resolved spectroscopy sequence with series TE. T 2 relaxation values and hepatic fat content corrected for the T 2 relaxation effects were calculated. Results: T 2 values for water ranged from 22 ms to 42 ms (mean value 28 ms) and T 2 values for fat ranged from 36 ms to 99 ms (mean value 64 ms). Poor correlation was observed: (1) between T 2 relaxation times of fat and T 2 relaxation times of water (correlation coefficient r = 0.038, P = 0.79); (2) between T 2 relaxation times of fat and fat content (r = 0.057, P = 0.69); (3) between T 2 relaxation times of water and fat content (r = 0.160, P = 0.26). Correlation between fat peak content and the T 2 corrected fat content decreased with increasing echo time TE: r = 0.97 for TE = 45, r = 0.93 for TE = 75, r = 0.89 for TE = 105, P 1 H MRS at 3 T is an effective technique for measuring hepatic fat content in overweight and obese children and adolescents. It is necessary to measure T 2 relaxation values and to correct the spectra for the T 2 relaxation effects in order to obtain an accurate estimate of the hepatic fat content.

  2. Significant rise of the prevalence and clinical features of childhood asthma in Qingdao China: cluster sampling investigation of 10,082 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rongjun; Guan, Renzheng; Liu, Xiaomei; Zhao, Baochun; Guan, Jie; Lu, Ling

    2014-09-26

    Recent investigations suggested that the trend of childhood asthma has been stabilizing or even reversing in some countries. The observation provides contrast to our experience. Thus, the study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical features of asthma in children aged 0-14 years in Qingdao China, determine the changes of childhood asthma in China, and discover evidence that can allow better diagnosis and treatment of childhood asthma. A cluster sampling method was used. We randomly extracted the investigation clusters from schools, kindergartens, and communities in Qingdao. Subsequently, we interviewed the members of the clusters using a questionnaire from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) to find children with asthmatic symptoms. After determination by the doctors, more details on the asthmatic children were obtained by asking questions from the National Epidemiology Study of Asthma and Allergies in China questionnaire to obtain more details. We intended to survey 10,800 children. However, the actual number of children was 10,082. The prevalence of asthma in Qingdao children aged 0-14 years was 3.69%. The prevalence among male children was higher than in female (χ2 = 24.53,P attack when they were less than three years old. Moreover, 71.2% once suffered respiratory tract infections. For 95.7% of asthmatic children, the asthma attack was first manifested as cough. Asthmatic children who used inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) only accounted for 46%. The prevalence of asthma in children aged 0-14 years in Qingdao China increased significantly based on data obtained ten years ago (2000). Respiratory tract infections were the most important precursors of asthma attack. The attack was most commonly manifested as cough. The treatment, especially the use of ICS, was more rational. However, a certain difference was found, which has yet to be contrasted with the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) project.

  3. The evacuation of British children during World War II: a preliminary investigation into the long-term psychological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, D; Davies, S; Steele, H

    2003-09-01

    The authors used attachment theory to hypothesize about the possible long-term psychological effects of evacuation during World War II, focusing on children who were evacuated unaccompanied by their parents. The study aimed to establish whether this experience had long-term effects on psychological well-being, and to investigate mediating and moderating factors. The study utilized a retrospective non-randomized design, comparing 169 former evacuees with 43 people who were children during the war but not evacuated. No differences between the groups were found in terms of demographic variables or exposure to war-related events. All participants completed a range of standardized self-report questionnaires. Findings indicated that former evacuees were more likely to have insecure attachment styles and lower levels of present psychological well-being. Satisfaction with, but not quantity of, current social support was found to mediate the relationship between attachment style and present psychological well-being. Conclusions are limited due to the method of measurement of attachment style, non-randomized design and method of recruitment. Nevertheless, findings offer an indication that the experience of evacuation is associated with long-term psychological vulnerability through its relationship with insecure attachment.

  4. A systematic review of high quality randomized controlled trials investigating motor skill programmes for children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Nick; Magallón, Sara; Hill, Liam Jb; Andrews, Elizabeth; Ahern, Sara M; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2017-07-01

    To identify effective motor training interventions for children with developmental coordination disorder from research graded as high quality (using objective criteria) for the purpose of informing evidence-based clinical practice. We followed the guidance for conducting systematic reviews issued by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Six OvidSP electronic databases (AMED, All EBM reviews (including Cochrane), Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, PsychARTICLES Full Text, PsycINFO) were searched systematically. We aimed to retain only randomized control trials and systematic reviews of randomized control trials, defined as the highest level of evidence by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. We searched reference lists of retained articles to identify further appropriate articles. Two reviewers critically appraised and categorized articles by effect size (including confidence intervals), inclusion of power calculations and quality using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Only studies scoring seven or more on the PEDro scale (classed by the PEDro as high reliability) were retained. No systematic reviews met our criteria for inclusion from 846 articles yielded by the systematic search. Nine randomized control trials investigating 15 interventions to improve motor skills met our inclusion criteria for 'high quality'. Nevertheless, not all included studies were adequately powered for determining an effect. Large effect sizes associated with 95 % confidence intervals suggest that 'Neuromotor Task Training', 'Task-oriented Motor Training' and 'Motor Imagery + Task Practice Training' are the most effective reported interventions for improving motor skills in children with developmental coordination disorder.

  5. A Study Related to the Investigation of Multiple Intelligence Profiles of Gifted and Talented Children across Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze DOLU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the dominant intelligences of individuals from their early ages will be beneficial for them and the society in terms of improving their talents. When this situation is considered for gifted and talented children, we believe that there is a need for detailed analysis for Turkey beginning from the early years of children. Hence, in this study, it is aimed to investigate the multiple intelligence domains of Turkish gifted and talented students studying in science and art centres (SACs across the country via a survey research. This paper presents the results gained from 12 SACs. Those SACs were selected according to the socio-economic development index (SEDI of Turkey as declared by Ministry of Development (MD which considered the country to consist of 6 regions. Two SACs from each of those six regions were included in the study. Thus, the sample consisted of 390 middle school 5th grade students. A Likert type multiple intelligence test which included 80 items related to eight domains of multiple intelligence was utilized as data collection instrument (Demirel, Başbay & Erdem, 2006: 155. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics tests were conducted in order to analyze the study data. The results indicated various differences among multiple intelligence scores of the participants.

  6. Epidemiological and investigative study of premature graying of hair in higher secondary and pre-university school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Ramesh M; Sharma, Rashmi; Pinto, Anita C; Dandekeri, Sukumar; Martis, Jacintha

    2013-01-01

    Hair pigmentation is one of the most conspicuous phenotypes in humans ranging from black, brown, and blonde to red. Premature graying of hair occurs more commonly without any underlying pathology but is said to be inherited in autosomal dominant pattern. Premature graying has been shown to be associated with a few of the autoimmune disorders. A role for environmental factors and nutritional deficiencies has also been postulated. However, to date the exact etiology of premature graying has not been established. The objective of our study was to conduct an epidemiological and investigative study of premature graying of hair in higher secondary and pre-university school children of the semi-urban area. A total of 35 cases and controls were investigated for various parameter such as Hemoglobin, total iron binding capacity, serum ferritin (S. Ferritin), serum calcium (S. Ca), serum iron (S. Iron), vitamin B12, and vitamin D3 after taking informed consent. Epidemiological and investigations correlation was established using the Chi-square and Mann Whitney test and P graying of hair. There was significant high number of vitamin D3 deficient and insufficient among the cases compared to the controls. According to our study S. Ca, S. Ferritin, vitamin D3 may play a role in premature graying of hair in our society.

  7. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination at birth and in vitro cytokine responses to non-specific stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, T N; Birk, N M; Blok, B A

    2018-01-01

    mean concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 (24 h stimulation) and IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-17, IL-22 (96 h stimulation) in response to in vitro stimulation with RPMI, LPS, PHA, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Candida albicans and BCG were compared among BCG vaccinated children and controls. BCG...

  8. Non-specific Effects of Vaccines and Stunting: Timing May Be Essential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, M.L.T.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Netea, M.G.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND - Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination possesses effects on health beyond its target disease, the so called “non-specific effects”. We evaluate these effects, as well as the effect of timing of BCG and other vaccinations, on stunting in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) children under

  9. Non-specific Effects of Vaccines and Stunting: Timing May Be Essential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, M.L.; Smits, J.; Netea, M.G.; Ven, A. van der

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination possesses effects on health beyond its target disease, the so called "non-specific effects". We evaluate these effects, as well as the effect of timing of BCG and other vaccinations, on stunting in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) children under five.

  10. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the Mantoux test reaction pattern in healthy BCG vaccinated Primary School Children aged .... the parents and guardians at a Parent Teachers. Association Meeting organized by the school heads following a directive from the Local Government. Education Authority. ..... Current issues in tuberculosis.

  11. The immunological effect of revaccination with Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine at 19 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas; Roth, Adam; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov

    2013-01-01

    Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination has important non-specific immune effects. In a randomized trial in Guinea-Bissau, BCG revaccination was associated with significantly increased survival in children who received diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP)-booster vaccine before enrolment and in c...

  12. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-04-06

    Apr 6, 2013 ... BM, Rodrigues A, Lisse IM,. Stensballe L, Diness BR, Lausch. KR, Lund N, Biering-Sorensen S,. Whittle H, Benn CS. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to. Low Birth Weight children: bene- ficial non-specific effects in the neonatal period. JID. 2011;204:245 – 52. 15. Santiago EM, Lawson E, Gillen-.

  13. BCG protects against tuberculosis irrespective of HIV status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Range, Nyagosya; PrayGod, George

    2013-01-01

    While BCG vaccine protects against severe tuberculosis (TB) in children, its effect against adult TB is questionable. Furthermore, it is not known if HIV co-infection modifies the effect of BCG. Among 352 pairs of Tanzanian TB cases and matched controls, the BCG scar was associated with a reduced...

  14. SAJS SAJS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgery should there- fore be confined to the unusual event of real doubt about the underlying diagnosis and the treatment of suppurative complications. .... Kumar R, Dwivedi A, Kumar P, Kohli N. Tuberculous meningitis in BCG vaccinated and unvaccinated children. J Neurol Neuro- surg Psychiatry 2006; 76: 1550-1554.

  15. Clinical association between teeth malocclusions, wrong posture and ocular convergence disorders: an epidemiological investigation on primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestrini-Biavati Armando

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the various systems in the body are inter-connected to form a single structural unit, a pathological condition in one area can also affect other areas. There are many known correlations between the visual and motor system. The importance of visual function, particularly the paracentral peripheral field of view, in motor coordination, ambulation and the maintenance of balance has been amply demonstrated. In line with current medical principles, which are moving towards a more holistic view of the human body, this study aims to investigate, in an interdisciplinary manner, the incidence of dental malocclusions together with posture and eye convergence disorders. Methods Six hundred and five children attending at the 3rd, 4th and 5th years of seven Genoa primary schools were examined. Each child underwent the following examinations: (i dental/occlusal; (ii orthoptic; and (iii postural. Occlusal data concerned the presence of cross-bite, midline deviation with a mandibular shift, bad habits and deep or open bite. Postural assessment involved frontal and lateral inspection, investigation during trunk flexion and ambulation, and note of any asymmetry in the lower limbs. The recorded orthoptic data included those pertaining to ocular dominance, a cover test, convergence and the Brock string test. Results A prevalence of cases with an unphysiological gait was found in patients with overjet (14.70% or overbite (14.87%, while the percentage of patients with normal occlusion that showed an unphysiological gait was 13.08%. Also, about 93.8%–94.2% of children showed normal legs without dysmetry, with no difference in respect to the type of occlusion. Subjects with an open bite or deep bite showed a slightly different distribution of right or left dominant eyes. Conclusion About 13% of children showed a pathological gait and, among them, vertical anomalies of occlusion (deep bite or open bite were prevalent with respect to the other

  16. Clinical association between teeth malocclusions, wrong posture and ocular convergence disorders: an epidemiological investigation on primary school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background As the various systems in the body are inter-connected to form a single structural unit, a pathological condition in one area can also affect other areas. There are many known correlations between the visual and motor system. The importance of visual function, particularly the paracentral peripheral field of view, in motor coordination, ambulation and the maintenance of balance has been amply demonstrated. In line with current medical principles, which are moving towards a more holistic view of the human body, this study aims to investigate, in an interdisciplinary manner, the incidence of dental malocclusions together with posture and eye convergence disorders. Methods Six hundred and five children attending at the 3rd, 4th and 5th years of seven Genoa primary schools were examined. Each child underwent the following examinations: (i) dental/occlusal; (ii) orthoptic; and (iii) postural. Occlusal data concerned the presence of cross-bite, midline deviation with a mandibular shift, bad habits and deep or open bite. Postural assessment involved frontal and lateral inspection, investigation during trunk flexion and ambulation, and note of any asymmetry in the lower limbs. The recorded orthoptic data included those pertaining to ocular dominance, a cover test, convergence and the Brock string test. Results A prevalence of cases with an unphysiological gait was found in patients with overjet (14.70%) or overbite (14.87%), while the percentage of patients with normal occlusion that showed an unphysiological gait was 13.08%. Also, about 93.8%–94.2% of children showed normal legs without dysmetry, with no difference in respect to the type of occlusion. Subjects with an open bite or deep bite showed a slightly different distribution of right or left dominant eyes. Conclusion About 13% of children showed a pathological gait and, among them, vertical anomalies of occlusion (deep bite or open bite) were prevalent with respect to the other occlusal defects. The

  17. Investigation of the Effect of Story-Based Social Skills Training Program on the Social Skill Development of 5-6 Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Story-Based Social Skills Training Program on the social skill development of 5-6 year-old children. In the study, the pre-test/post-test and retention test experimental design with a control group was used. 5-6 year-old 60 (30 experimental, 30 control) preschool children participated in the…

  18. A pilot study investigating the effects of a single dose of a flavonoid-rich blueberry drink on memory in 8-10 year old children

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, Adrian; Williams, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence from animal and adult human subjects has demonstrated potential benefits to cognition from flavonoid supplementation. This study aimed to investigate whether these cognitive benefits extended to a sample of school-aged children. Using a cross-over design, with a wash out of at least seven days between drinks, fourteen 8-10 year old children consumed either a flavonoid-rich blueberry drink or matched vehicle. Two hours after consumption, subjects completed a battery of five cog...

  19. Investigating the Relationship between Anxiety of School-age Children Undergoing Surgery and Parental State-trait Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Heshmati Nabavi; Malihe Shoja; Monir Ramezani; Azadeh Saki; Marjan Joodi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Surgery is a stressful experience for children, and preoperative anxiety in children could be affected by the level of parental anxiety. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between anxiety in school-age children before surgery and parental state-trait anxiety. Method: This descriptive study was performed on 81 children within the age group of 6-12 years admitted for elective surgical operation and 128 parents in Doctor Sheikh Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, 2016....

  20. Tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON® assay in young children investigated for tuberculosis in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moyo, S.; Isaacs, F.; Gelderbloem, S.; Verver, S.; Hawkridge, A. J.; Hatherill, M.; Tameris, M.; Geldenhuys, H.; Workman, L.; Pai, M.; Hussey, G.; Hanekom, W. A.; Mahomed, H.

    2011-01-01

    Although the literature on interferon-gamma release assays on tuberculosis (TB) in children has increased, data pertaining to young children remain relatively limited. To compare results from the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube assay (QFT) in children aged <3 years