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Sample records for bcg-vaccinated children investigated

  1. Tuberculous Meningitis in BCG-Vaccinated Children

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    M Movahhedi

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that BCG vaccination is fully effective in preventing Tuberculous Meningitis and military Tuberculous, although it does not develop complete immunity for Tuberculous infection of lungs and other organs. A series of 3 children with Tuberculous Meningitis who had positive history of BCG vaccination as newborns and distinct BCG scar show that Tuberculous Meningitis may be caught despite successful BCG vaccination.

  2. Asthmatic Children And Immunological Effects Of BCG Vaccine Key words: Asthmatic children, BCG vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A TH2 screwed immune response is known to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of allergy, so, preventing the differentiation of TH cells. The TH2 cells are appeared as a logical therapeutic approach to atopic asthma. The purpose of TH1 study was to determine the possible role of BCG vaccine on asthma and whether a TH1 type immune response elicited by BCG immunization could suppress the allergic sensitization in childhood asthma. Seventy asthmatic patients (50 atopic and 20 non-atopic) and fifty healthy individuals were subjected to TH1 study. Tuberculin test was performed for all groups then subjects with positive tuberculin test were excluded. The BCG vaccine was given for all groups with assessment of TH1 and TH2 cytokine response by measuring total IgE, IL-4 (for TH2 response) and INF-γ (for TH1 response). Significant reduction in IgE and IL-4, and elevation in INF-γ were determined in group I (atopic asthma) following BCG vaccination. There was non-significant change observed in IgE and IL-4 levels of group II while significant reduction in IL-4 and significant increase in INF-γ was observed after BCG vaccine

  3. Tuberculin reactivity of children vaccinated at different age with BCG vaccines in preschool period

    OpenAIRE

    Sučilienė, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Object of dissertation: The influence of different BCG vaccination schedules on the tuberculin reactivity, BCG scarring, specific serology and allergy. 509 children were included in this research, all of them received BCG vaccination with standard or half dosage as newborns or 3-months old. 3 months after BCG vaccination and at one, two, and six years of age they were tested with tuberculin, and examined for BCG scarring. Anti-tuberculosis antibodies were detected in sera and children were ev...

  4. Invitro immune responses in children following BCG vaccination

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    Vijayalakshmi V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is still no consensus on the efficacy of BCG vaccine in the prevention of tuberculosis. This study therefore addressed the question of the magnitude of immunity afforded by BCG, by studying the effector mechanisms of protection in children. The main objectives were to assess the degree of immunity conferred by BCG vaccine in children and to identify the most immunogenic antigen(s of BCG by conducting in-vitro studies. Materials and methods: Children in the age-group of 1 to 10 years, were categorized: (A normal, and vaccinated with BCG during the first year, n=45, (B normal, without scar and with no evident history of vaccination, n=31: and (C children admitted in the hospital with a confirmed diagnosis of tuberculosis, n=31. Fractions of BCG were obtained by lysis, sonication, separation by gel chromatography, HPLC and confirmed by SDS-PAGE. In lymphoproliferative assays PBMC were cultured and stimulated with either Concanavalin-A or Tuberculin or the fractions of BCG. Stimulation indices (SI in lymphoproliferation, CD4/CD8 cells, levels of Interferon-γ (IFN- γ in the culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. Results: The vaccinated children displayed significantly high (P< 0.05 mean values of SI in LTT, CD4/CD8 cell ratio against the unfractionated, 67kDa fraction and BCG-CF Ags. While 100% of the vaccinated children had positive lymphoproliferation indices to BCG-CF, only 8.3% of the unvaccinated children were positive. Conclusion: Some of the components of BCG induced a strong Thl cell response in children. These immunogenic antigens were present in the whole cell lysate. The use of BCG vaccine for tuberculosis is worthwhile till a new vaccine is developed.

  5. Mantoux test results and BCG vaccination status in TB-exposed children

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    Fadilah Harahap; Ridwan M. Daulay; Muhammad Ali; Wisman Dalimunthe; Rini Savitri Daulay

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) infection is highly prevalent in Indonesia. The source of transmission of TB to a child is usually via an adult with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. The Mantoux test is a diagnostic tool for tuberculosis infection. The BCG vaccine has been used for the prevention of TB, but its efficacy is still debated. Objective To assess for an association between Mantoux test results and BCG vaccination in children who had contact with adult pulmonary tuberculosi...

  6. The Current Status of BCG Vaccination in Young Children in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyejon; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Kim, Deok Ryun; FLOYD, Sian; Oh, Sue Yeon; Lee, Jin Bum; Kim, Hee Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Delivery of Bacille Calmette-Guréin (BCG) Tokyo vaccine, with the multipuncture device, has been much preferred over BCG Pasteur, with the intradermal method, possibly due to the easier manner of administration, a desire to avoid any trouble with scars, as well as side effects and higher profits to providers in South Korea. Methods To determine BCG scar status in 0~6 year old children vaccinated with two BCG vaccines (Pasteur BCG vaccine with intradermal method and BCG Tokyo vaccin...

  7. Is tuberculin testing before BCG vaccination necessary for children over three months of age?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessy, B

    2008-03-01

    In July 2007 Irish national policy changed such that children aged 3 months to 6 years no longer routinely require tuberculin (Mantoux) skin testing prior to BCG vaccination. Previous to that a tuberculin test was required in all children in this age group pre vaccination. While the previous policy was in place this study was conducted to assess the value of this test. The observation that children are frightened by the test (an injection into the skin) prompted the study. The author conducted a retrospective study of the results of 1,854 tuberculin tests performed as a prerequisite to BCG vaccination and found that only 0.7% of children had a positive test result (induration > 5mm). None of 107 children < 6 years of age tested positive. Those > 12 years were more likely to test positive than younger children (1.09% vs 0.4% respectively, p < 0.05). This study suggests that testing young children before BCG vaccination has a low yield of positive results and adds little to the detection of latent or active TB.

  8. Persistence of the immune response induced by BCG vaccination

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    Blitz Rose

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although BCG vaccination is recommended in most countries of the world, little is known of the persistence of BCG-induced immune responses. As novel TB vaccines may be given to boost the immunity induced by neonatal BCG vaccination, evidence concerning the persistence of the BCG vaccine-induced response would help inform decisions about when such boosting would be most effective. Methods A randomised control study of UK adolescents was carried out to investigate persistence of BCG immune responses. Adolescents were tested for interferon-gamma (IFN-γ response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (M.tb PPD in a whole blood assay before, 3 months, 12 months (n = 148 and 3 years (n = 19 after receiving teenage BCG vaccination or 14 years after receiving infant BCG vaccination (n = 16. Results A gradual reduction in magnitude of response was evident from 3 months to 1 year and from 1 year to 3 years following teenage vaccination, but responses 3 years after vaccination were still on average 6 times higher than before vaccination among vaccinees. Some individuals (11/86; 13% failed to make a detectable antigen-specific response three months after vaccination, or lost the response after 1 (11/86; 13% or 3 (3/19; 16% years. IFN-γ response to Ag85 was measured in a subgroup of adolescents and appeared to be better maintained with no decline from 3 to 12 months. A smaller group of adolescents were tested 14 years after receiving infant BCG vaccination and 13/16 (81% made a detectable IFN-γ response to M.tb PPD 14 years after infant vaccination as compared to 6/16 (38% matched unvaccinated controls (p = 0.012; teenagers vaccinated in infancy were 19 times more likely to make an IFN-γ response of > 500 pg/ml than unvaccinated teenagers. Conclusion BCG vaccination in infancy and adolescence induces immunological memory to mycobacterial antigens that is still present and measurable for at least 14 years in the

  9. Assessment of immunological markers and booster effects of Ag85B peptides, Ag85B, and BCG in blood of BCG vaccinated children: a preliminary report

    OpenAIRE

    Husain, Aliabbas A.; Daginawala, Hatim F.; Singh, Lokendra; Kashyap, Rajpal S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the present study, the protective immunological markers in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccinated and unvaccinated children were evaluated after vaccination. Further, PBMCs of children with low protective levels were boosted with BCG, Ag85B, and Ag85B peptides to study their booster effects to increase waning BCG induced immunity. Materials and Methods Fifty children from 1 month to 18 years of age were randomized for the s...

  10. Susceptibility of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccine Strains to Antituberculous Antibiotics▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ritz, Nicole; Tebruegge, Marc; Connell, Tom G.; Sievers, Aina; Robins-Browne, Roy; Curtis, Nigel

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis BCG is one of the most commonly administered vaccines. Complications, including disseminated BCG disease, are rare but increasingly reported in immunodeficient children. There is growing recognition of the importance of differences between BCG vaccine strains. We determined the susceptibilities of five genetically distinct BCG vaccine strains to 12 antituberculous drugs.

  11. Impact of the BCG vaccination policy on tuberculous meningitis in children under 6 years in metropolitan France between 2000 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bui, T; Lévy-Bruhl, D; Che, D; Antoine, D; Jarlier, V; Robert, J

    2015-01-01

    In France, Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccination by multipuncture device was withdrawn in 2006. In 2007, universal mandatory BCG vaccination was replaced by vaccination of high-risk children. To evaluate the impact of these changes on tuberculous meningitis (TBM) epidemiology, data on culture-positive and culture-negative (or unknown microbiological result) TBM in ≤5 years olds were collected from 2000–2011. Ten culture-positive and 17 culture-negative TBM cases were identified, with an annual incidence rate ranging from 0.16 to 0.66 cases per 10 million inhabitants. The average annual numbers of TBM cases were 2.7 and 1.8 from 2000–2005 and 2006–2011, respectively. In Ile-de-France where all children are considered at risk, the overall incidence rates were 1.14 and 0.29 per million for the two periods. In other regions where only at-risk children are vaccinated since 2007, rates were 0.30 and 0.47, respectively. None of these differences were significant. Annual incidence rates for each one year age group cohort were comparable before and after changes. Childhood TBM remains rare in France. No increase in incidence was observed after changes in BCG vaccination strategy. Ongoing surveillance should be maintained, as a slight increase in TBM in the coming years remains possible, in the context of suboptimal vaccination coverage of high-risk children. PMID:25811645

  12. Tuberculosis contact investigation with a new, specific blood test in a low-incidence population containing a high proportion of BCG-vaccinated persons

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    Meywald-Walter K

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BCG-vaccination can confound tuberculin skin test (TST reactions in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection. Methods We compared the TST with a Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific whole blood interferon-gamma assay (QuantiFERON®-TB-Gold In Tube; QFT-G during ongoing investigations among close contacts of sputum smear positive source cases in Hamburg, Germany. Results During a 6-month period, 309 contacts (mean age 28.5 ± 10.5 years from a total of 15 source cases underwent both TST and QFT-G testing. Of those, 157 (50.8% had received BCG vaccination and 84 (27.2% had migrated to Germany from a total of 25 different high prevalence countries (i.e. >20 cases/100,000. For the TST, the positive response rate was 44.3% (137/309, whilst only 31 (10% showed a positive QFT-G result. The overall agreement between the TST and the QFT-G was low (κ = 0.2, with 95% CI 0.14.-0.23, and positive TST reactions were closely associated with prior BCG vaccination (OR 24.7; 95% CI 11.7–52.5. In contrast, there was good agreement between TST and QFT-G in non-vaccinated persons (κ = 0.58, with 95% CI 0.4–0.68, increasing to 0.68 (95% CI 0.46–0.81, if a 10-mm cut off for the TST was used instead of the standard 5 mm recommended in Germany. Conclusion The QFT-G assay was unaffected by BCG vaccination status, unlike the TST. In close contacts who were BCG-vaccinated, the QFT-G assay appeared to be a more specific indicator of latent tuberculosis infection than the TST, and similarly sensitive in unvaccinated contacts. In BCG-vaccinated close contacts, measurement of IFN-gamma responses of lymphocytes stimulated with M. tuberculosis-specific antigen should be recommended as a basis for the decision on whether to perform subsequent chest X-ray examinations or to start treatment for latent tuberculosis infection.

  13. Evaluation of the Immune Response to Interferon Gamma Release Assay and Tuberculin Skin Test Among BCG Vaccinated Children in East of Egypt: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshir, Mohamed Refaat; Zidan, Alaa Ebrahim; El-Saadny, Hosam Fathi; Ramadan, Raghdaa Abdelaziz; Karam, Nehad Ahmed; Amin, Ezzat Kamel; Mohamed, Marwa Zakaria; Abdelsamad, Nahla Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) vaccination is used routinely in most of countries, especially developing one. The efficacy of the BCG vaccination generally decreases with time. The tuberculin skin test (TST) is a most popular diagnostic test for suspicion of tuberculosis (TB) in children till now, but it has many false positives. The interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) is more specific than TST for detection of childhood TB, as it is more specific to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.Evaluate the interferon gamma response and TST reaction in BCG vaccinated children in east of Egypt.150 children were included in the study aged 1 month to 12 years; the collected data from the children included, full history taking, clinical examination, examination for the presence or absence of BCG scar under direct light. All the children had performed TST, IGRA.TST was done for all studied group reveal 51.3% with size of reaction <5 mm, 39.3% with size of reaction = 5 to 9 mm while 9.3% with size of reaction ≥10 mm. Mean size of reaction was 4.07 mm. Interferon gamma release assay was done for all studied group reveal 5 children (3.3%) with positive test. There was significant difference between the size of TST reaction and age (P < 0.01) with old children were more frequent to show positive reaction. Also, children with age range 1 month to 1 year were frequently have negative IGRA test, while children with age range 4 years to 12 years were frequently have positive test (P < 0.01). There was moderate agreement between IGRA and TST results (Kappa [κ] = 0.475). With high agreement between IGRA and TST results in children with absent BCG scar (κ = 1000).Therefore, Interferon gamma release assays have higher specificity and lower cross-reactions with BCG vaccination and nontuberculous Mycobacteraie than TST. PMID:27124042

  14. BCG vaccine in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Joung, Sun Myung; Ryoo, Sungweon

    2013-01-01

    The anti-tuberculosis Bacille de Calmette et Guérin (BCG) vaccine was developed between 1905 and 1921 at Pasteur Institutes of Lille in France, and was adopted by many countries. BCG strains comprise natural mutants of major virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and that BCG sub-strains differ markedly in virulence levels. The tuberculosis became endemic in Korea after the Korean War (1950s). The BCG strain, which was donated by Pasteur Institutes, was brought to Korea in 1955, and ...

  15. Effectiveness of BCG Vaccination in Prevention of Childhood Tuberculosis: A Prospective Study from Kishanganj, Bihar

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    Kashif Shahnawaz, Goutam Sarkar, Palash Das, Mausumi Basu, Biman Roy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: BCG vaccine has shown consistently high efficacy against childhood tubercular meningitis and miliary tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases. It is considered to be a safe vaccine with a low incidence of adverse effects. Efficacy of BCG vaccine found in different clinical trials is variable in different geography. Objectives: Study was done to assess the efficacy of BCG vac-cine. Materials and Methods: All the children who were less than three years of age and were previously BCG vaccinated and not-vaccinated, were included in this study. A total of sixty (60 vaccinated children and sixty non-vaccinated children were selected. These children were followed up prospectively for 24 months, at the end of which, it was seen whether they developed tuberculosis or not. Results: Out of these 60 children in both the cases and control groups, total number of BCG vaccinated children who developed TB were 4 (i.e. 6.6% and total number of Non-BCG vaccinated children who developed TB were 12 (i.e. 20%. Thus, the efficacy of BCG vaccine calculated in our study was 67%. Conclusion: Most studies in different parts of the world have shown that the efficacy of BCG vaccine varies from zero to eigh-ty percent. This study favors the efficacy of BCG vaccine. This vaccination strategy will be favorable for our children. Creation of awareness among the parents and family members for an early administration of BCG vaccine after child birth can be recom-mended.

  16. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG.......Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  17. Safety and Immunogenicity of Boosting BCG Vaccinated Subjects with BCG: Comparison with Boosting with a New TB Vaccine, MVA85A

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, KT; Pathan, AA; Sander, CR; Fletcher, HA; Poulton, I; Alder, NC; Hill, AV; Mcshane, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate the safety and immunogenicity of a booster BCG vaccination delivered intradermally in healthy, BCG vaccinated subjects and to compare with a previous clinical trial where BCG vaccinated subjects were boosted with a new TB vaccine, MVA85A. DESIGN Phase I open label observational trial, in the UK. Healthy, HIV-negative, BCG vaccinated adults were recruited and vaccinated with BCG. The primary outcome was safety; the secondary outcome was cellular immune responses ...

  18. Tuberculin skin reactivity four years after neonatal BCG vaccination.

    OpenAIRE

    Ormerod, L P; Garnett, J M

    1992-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty one of 279 (93.5%) children known to be tuberculin positive shortly after receiving their neonatal BCG vaccination were still tuberculin positive at age 4 years. The results confirm the continuing effectiveness of neonatal BCG at 4 years.

  19. Vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates: two by two factorial randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Napirna, Bitiguida Mutna; Roth, Adam; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Lausch, Karen Rokkedal; Ravn, Henrik; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Whittle, Hilton; Aaby, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates. Design Randomised, placebo controlled, two by two factorial trial. Setting Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. Participants 1717 low birthweight neonates born at the national hospital. Intervention Neonates who weighed less than 2.5 kg were randomly assigned to 25 000 IU vitamin A or placebo, as well as to early BCG vaccine or the usual late BCG vaccine, and were followed until age 12...

  20. Effectiveness of BCG Vaccination in Prevention of Childhood Tuberculosis: A Prospective Study from Kishanganj, Bihar

    OpenAIRE

    Kashif Shahnawaz, Goutam Sarkar, Palash Das, Mausumi Basu, Biman Roy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: BCG vaccine has shown consistently high efficacy against childhood tubercular meningitis and miliary tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases. It is considered to be a safe vaccine with a low incidence of adverse effects. Efficacy of BCG vaccine found in different clinical trials is variable in different geography. Objectives: Study was done to assess the efficacy of BCG vac-cine. Materials and Methods: All the children who were less than three years of age and were...

  1. [Comparative study of two dried intradermal BCG vaccines (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillastre, C; Guerin, N; Danusantoso, H; Sardadi, S

    1979-01-01

    Two BCG vaccines prepared from the same strain were studied clinically in Indonesia and in France. The concentration in culturable particles was comparable. Observed differences in the Mantoux results are discussed. The French results, based on use in a temperate climate by a specialized team, on well nourished children, appear better than the Indonesian findings. Further steps should be undertaken to improve results in Indonesia. PMID:539694

  2. Disseminated tuberculoid lesions in infants following BCG vaccination.

    OpenAIRE

    Trevenen, C. L.; Pagtakhan, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    The records of 830 consecutive autopsies at Children's Hospital, Winnipeg revealed that 26 of the 36 infants (34 Canadian Indian, 1 Inuit and 1 Caucasian) given BCG vaccine shortly after birth had tuberculoid granulomas in various sites, including the vaccination site, regional lymph nodes, liver, spleen, lung, bone marrow and salivary gland. Mycobacterium bovis, BCG type, was identified in three of the four cases in which isolation was attempted. The principal causes of death had been sudden...

  3. Delaying BCG Vaccination Until 8 Weeks of Age Results in Robust BCG-Specific T-Cell Responses in HIV-Exposed Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Tchakoute, Christophe Toukam; Hesseling, Anneke C.; Kidzeru, Elvis B.; Gamieldien, Hoyam; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Jones, Christine E.; Gray, Clive M.; Sodora, Donald L.; Jaspan, Heather B.

    2014-01-01

    Background. BCG vaccination prevents disseminated tuberculosis in children, but it is contraindicated for persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection because it can result in severe disease in this population. In tuberculosis-endemic regions, BCG vaccine is administered soon after birth, before in utero and peripartum HIV infection is excluded. We therefore assessed the immunogenicity of BCG vaccine in HIV-exposed infants who received BCG at birth or at 8 weeks of age.

  4. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    TheraCys® BCG ... TICE® BCG ... WHY is this medicine prescribed?BCG vaccine provides immunity or protection against tuberculosis (TB). The vaccine may be given to persons at high risk of developing TB. ...

  5. Manipulation of BCG vaccine: a double-edged sword.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V K; Srivastava, R; Srivastava, B S

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), an attenuated vaccine derived from M. bovis, is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). Despite its protection against TB in children, the protective efficacy in pulmonary TB is variable in adolescents and adults. In spite of the current knowledge of molecular biology, immunology and cell biology, infectious diseases such as TB and HIV/AIDS are still challenges for the scientific community. Genetic manipulation facilitates the construction of recombinant BCG (rBCG) vaccine that can be used as a highly immunogenic vaccine against TB with an improved safety profile, but, still, the manipulation of BCG vaccine to improve efficacy should be carefully considered, as it can bring in both favourable and unfavourable effects. The purpose of this review is not to comprehensively review the interaction between microorganisms and host cells in order to use rBCG expressing M. tuberculosis (Mtb) immunodominant antigens that are available in the public domain, but, rather, to also discuss the limitations of rBCG vaccine, expressing heterologous antigens, during manipulation that pave the way for a promising new vaccine approach. PMID:26810060

  6. Tuberculosis: looking beyond BCG vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Abu S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an infectious disease of international importance and ranks among the top 10 causes of death in the World. About one-third of the world′s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Every year, approximately eight million people develop active disease and two million die of TB. The currently used BCG vaccines have shown variable protective efficacies against TB in different parts of the world. Moreover, being a live vaccine, BCG can be pathogenic in immunocompromised recipients. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new vaccines against TB. The comparative genome analysis has revealed the existence of several M. tuberculosis-specific regions that are deleted in BCG. The work carried out to determine the immunological reactivity of proteins encoded by genes located in these regions revealed several major antigens of M. tuberculosis, including the 6 kDa early secreted antigen target (ESAT6. Immunization with ESAT6 and its peptide (aa51-70 protects mice challenged with M. tuberculosis. The protective efficacy of immunization further improves when ESAT6 is recombinantly fused with M. tuberculosis antigen 85B. In addition, ESAT6 delivered as a DNA vaccine is also protective in mice. Whether these vaccines would be safe or not cannot be speculated. The answer regarding the safety and efficacy of these vaccines has to await human trials in different parts of the world.

  7. Evaluation of BCG Vaccine in Excessive Dermal Reactivity Test

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Neeraj; Kasana, Harit; Sikarwar, Gunjan; Pathania, Lavanyam; Tewari, Shalini; Kiran, Manjula; Soni, G. R.; Singh, Surinder

    2015-01-01

    BCG vaccine has been in use globally to control the tuberculosis since the year 1921 and there has been significant achievement to curtail the disease. The important tests as per pharmacopoeial requirements including count of viable units (CVU) and excessive dermal reactivity (EDR) are required to be performed for ensuring the quality of BCG vaccine. In order to see the trend analysis of EDR of BCG vaccine used in India, a study has been carried out using 35 batches of BCG vaccine manufacture...

  8. BCG coverage and barriers to BCG vaccination in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Sanne Marie; Byberg, Stine; Pedersen, Marie; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ravn, Henrik; Martins, Cesario; Benn, Christine Stabell; Aaby, Peter; Fisker, Ane Bærent

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BCG vaccination is recommended at birth in low-income countries, but vaccination is often delayed. Often 20-dose vials of BCG are not opened unless at least ten children are present for vaccination ("restricted vial-opening policy"). BCG coverage is usually reported as 12-month coverage......, not disclosing the delay in vaccination. Several studies show that BCG at birth lowers neonatal mortality. We assessed BCG coverage at different ages and explored reasons for delay in BCG vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) runs a health and demographic...... visits in selected intervention regions. Factors associated with delayed BCG vaccination were evaluated using logistic regression models. Coverage between intervention and control regions were evaluated in log-binomial regression models providing prevalence ratios. RESULTS: Among 3951 children born in...

  9. Oral Polio Vaccine Influences the Immune Response to BCG Vaccination. A Natural Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartono, E.; Lisse, I.M.; Terveer, E.M.; van de Sande, P.J.M.; Whittle, H.; Fisker, Bent; Roth, A.; Aaby, Peter; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2010-01-01

    Background: Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did...... not receive OPV at birth, but only BCG. We investigated the effect of OPV given simultaneously with BCG at birth on the immune response to BCG vaccine. Methods and Findings: We compared the in vitro and the in vivo response to PPD in the infants who received OPV and BCG with that of infants who...... with OPV. Worryingly, the results indicate that the common practice in low-income countries of administering OPV together with BCG at birth may down-regulate the response to BCG vaccine...

  10. How do parents make their decision about letting their child get a BCG vaccination?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo Pihl, Gitte; Ammentorp, Jette; Schmidt Jensen, Jane;

    interpretation of cases of illness and atopic diseases in their personal network and family to evaluate risk for their child to develop atopic diseases or get hospitalised. This lay epidemiologi forms the basis for their decision. Davison C, Frankel S, Davey Smith G. Inheriting heart trouble: the relevance of......Introduction: In a large prospective randomised clinical trial in Denmark we are testing the hypothesis that compared to non-BCG-vaccinated infants, infants who are BCG vaccinated at birth experience less hospitalisations, use less antibiotics, and develop less atopic disease in early childhood. My...... focus for this project is parents decision making and risk evaluation. I want to investigate how parents make their decision about letting their child get a BCG vaccination and how they evaluate the risk of side effects. Method: Before the clinical trial was started, we conducted 5 focus groups with...

  11. Genome sequencing and analysis of BCG vaccine strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine against tuberculosis (TB has been available for more than 75 years, one third of the world's population is still infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and approximately 2 million people die of TB every year. To reduce this immense TB burden, a clearer understanding of the functional genes underlying the action of BCG and the development of new vaccines are urgently needed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Comparative genomic analysis of 19 M. tuberculosis complex strains showed that BCG strains underwent repeated human manipulation, had higher region of deletion rates than those of natural M. tuberculosis strains, and lost several essential components such as T-cell epitopes. A total of 188 BCG strain T-cell epitopes were lost to various degrees. The non-virulent BCG Tokyo strain, which has the largest number of T-cell epitopes (359, lost 124. Here we propose that BCG strain protection variability results from different epitopes. This study is the first to present BCG as a model organism for genetics research. BCG strains have a very well-documented history and now detailed genome information. Genome comparison revealed the selection process of BCG strains under human manipulation (1908-1966. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed the cause of BCG vaccine strain protection variability at the genome level and supported the hypothesis that the restoration of lost BCG Tokyo epitopes is a useful future vaccine development strategy. Furthermore, these detailed BCG vaccine genome investigation results will be useful in microbial genetics, microbial engineering and other research fields.

  12. Targeted BCG Vaccination Against Severe Tuberculosis in Low-prevalence Settings Epidemiologic and Economic Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Korthals Altes; F. Dijkstra; A. Lugnèr; F. Cobelens; J. Wallinga

    2009-01-01

    Background: BCG vaccine protects against the severe forms of tuberculosis (TB) in children. Several low-prevalence countries are reviewing their policy, usually shifting from universal vaccination to vaccination of infants in high-risk groups only. We combined an epidemiologic analysis with a cost-e

  13. Oral Polio Vaccine Influences the Immune Response to BCG Vaccination. A Natural Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Sartono, Erliyani; Lisse, Ida M.; Terveer, Elisabeth M.; van de Sande, Paula J. M.; Whittle, Hilton; Fisker, Ane B; ROTH, ADAM; Aaby, Peter; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Benn, Christine S

    2010-01-01

    Background: Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did not receive OPV at birth, but only BCG. We investigated the effect of OPV given simultaneously with BCG at birth on the immune response to BCG vaccine. Methods and Findings: We compared the in vitro ...

  14. Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Mycobacterium bovis and BCG Vaccine Strains

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Ge

    2013-09-01

    BCG is the only licensed human vaccine currently available against TB. Derived from a virulent strain of M. bovis, the vaccine was thought to have struck a balance between reduced virulence and preserved immunogenicity. Nowadays, BCG vaccine strains used in different countries and vaccination programs show clear variations in their genomes and immune protective properties. The aim of this study was to characterize the proteomic profile on Mycobacterium bovis and five BCG strains Pasteur, Tokyo, Danish, Phipps and Birkhaug by Tandem Mass Tag® (TMT®)-labeling quantitative proteomic approach. In total, 420 proteins were identified and 377 of them were quantitated for their relative abundance. We reported the number and relationship of differential expressed proteins in BCG strains compared to M. bovis and investigated their functions by bioinformatics analysis. Several interesting up-regulated and down-regulated protein targets were found. The identified proteins and their quantitative expression profiles provide a basis for further understanding of the cellular biology of M. bovis and BCG vaccine strains, and hopefully would assist in the design of better anti-TB vaccine and drugs.

  15. Lack of a Negative Effect of BCG-Vaccination on Child Psychomotor Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Birk, Nina Marie;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the non-specific effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on psychomotor development. DESIGN: This is a pre-specified secondary outcome from a randomised, clinical trial. SETTING: Maternity units and paediatric wards at three university hospitals in...... MEASURES: Psychomotor development measured using Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) completed by the parents at 12 months. Additionally, parents of premature children (gestational age < 37 weeks) completed an ASQ at 6 and 22 months. Developmental assessment was available for 3453/4262 (81%). RESULTS: The...... -7.8 points (-20.6 to 5.0, p = 0.23), d = -0.23 (-0.62 to 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: A negative non-specific effect of BCG vaccination at birth on psychomotor development was excluded in term children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01694108....

  16. Lactoferrin Augmentation of the BCG Vaccine Leads to Increased Pulmonary Integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Actor, Jeffrey K.; Shen-An Hwang; Kruzel, Marian L.; Welsh, Kerry J.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of vaccination to prevent tuberculosis disease (TB) is to offer long-term protection to the individual and the community. In addition, the success of any protective TB vaccine should include the ability to limit cavitary formation and disease progression. The current BCG vaccine protects against disseminated TB disease in children by promoting development of antigenic-specific responses. However, its efficacy is limited in preventing postprimary pulmonary disease in adults that is re...

  17. Variation of growth in the production of the BCG vaccine and the association with the immune response. An observational study within a randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Aamand, Susanne Havn;

    2015-01-01

    delayed BCG, the manufacturer of the BCG vaccine experienced a period with relatively slow growth rate of the BCG. We investigated the association between growth rate of BCG when manufacturing the vaccine and its capability to induce immune responses in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: 1633 neonates were......INTRODUCTION: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has beneficial non-specific effects on overall survival. After BCG vaccination, positive PPD response and scar formation are associated with increased survival. During a trial randomising low-birth-weight neonates to BCG at birth or the usual...... production of BCG vaccine may influence important immunological effects of the vaccine. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00625482)....

  18. Effectiveness of BCG vaccination to aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Tsukasa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis (TB still increases in the number of new cases, which is estimated to approach 10 million in 2010. The number of aged people has been growing all over the world. Ageing is one of risk factors in tuberculosis because of decreased immune responses in aged people. Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG is a sole vaccine currently used for TB, however, the efficacy of BCG in adults is still a matter of debate. Emerging the multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB make us to see the importance of vaccination against TB in new light. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of BCG vaccination in aged mice. Results The Th1 responses, interferon-γ production and interleukin 2, in BCG inoculated aged mice (24-month-old were comparable to those of young mice (4- to 6-week-old. The protection activity of BCG in aged mice against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was also the same as young mice. Conclusion These findings suggest that vaccination in aged generation is still effective for protection against tuberculosis.

  19. Prova tuberculínica, BCG oral e infecção tuberculosa em crianças menores de 5 anos Tuberculin test, oral BCG vaccine, and tuberculosis infection among children under five years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialda Höfling de Pádua Dias

    1978-12-01

    vaccination and positivation to the tuberculin test in the two age groups was studied, thus obtaining information about the previous oral BCG vaccination. Likewise, in 575 children under one year of age and 1113 children one to four years of age, a positive relationship between the previous oral administration of BCG and the positivation to the tuberculin test was found. In analyzing the relationship between the number of doses of previous oral BCG administration and the results of the tuberculin test by the Goodman method, it was found that the proportion of children who had taken three or more doses of BCG by oral administration and showed strong reaction to the tuberculin test is significantly greater than that observed for the non-reactors, a fact which does not hold true for the one to four age group. For the children who had taken one or two doses there was no significant statistical difference.

  20. [A case diagnosed with chronic granulomatous disease after disseminated infection following BCG vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibalta, Güler; Seringeç, Murat; Öncül, Oral

    2015-07-01

    BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine is a widely used vaccine with the recommendation of World Health Organization to protect children against miliary tuberculosis (TB) and TB meningitis. Severe side effects related to this vaccine mostly manifest in the presence of underlying immunosuppressive disease. In this report, an infant case with unknown chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) who developed disseminated BCG infection after administration of BCG vaccine, was presented. High fever, left axillary lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly have developed in a 3-month 28-day female infant, without a known health problem, following BCG vaccination. The acid-fast bacilli (ARB) was isolated from the material of excised lymph node cultivated in Löwenstein-Jensen medium, and the isolate was identified as Mycobacterium bovis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA was detected in the axillary lymph node sample by polymerase chain reaction. Anti-tuberculous treatment included 20 mg/kg of rifampicin+10 mg/kg of isoniazid+15 mg/kg of ethambutol+30 mg/kg of streptomycin was started. The patient was then further evaluated for immunodeficiency and on the basis of the results of dihydroamine and LAD (lymphocyte adhesion defect) tests, diagnosed as autosomal recessive CGD. Based on the anamnesis, there was no known immunodeficiency history both in the case during neonatal period and her family members. Interferon-gamma therapy, which is recommended for the patients with CGD living in endemic areas, was initiated. Our patient's fever dropped at the 15th day of anti-tuberculosis treatment, and she was discharged on the 35th day and continued to receive treatment at home. The patient was followed up at outpatient clinic and had no additional complaints; her hepatosplenomegaly was back to normal at the third month. As a result, since BCG vaccine is contraindicated in CGD carriers, newborns with a family history of CGD should be immunologically examined and BCG vaccine should be

  1. Valor preditivo do teste tuberculínico padronizado em crianças vacinadas com BCG The predictive value of the standard tuberculin test in BCG-vaccinated children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Ribeiro Arantes

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available A aplicabilidade do teste tuberculínico em crianças menores de 5 anos vacinadas com BCG é assunto controvertido. Visando contribuir para esclarecê-lo foi analisado o valor preditivo positivo do teste tuberculínico padronizado em população sob elevada cobertura vacinal e baixa prevalência de infecção tuberculosa. A partir da proporção de reatores fortes em lactentes e escolares vacinados e não vacinados, foram calculadas a razão de declínio da alergia tuberculínica nos vacinados e a razão de crescimento nos não vacinados, o que possibilitou a estimativa dos respectivos valores nas idades intermediárias. A expectativa de falsos-positivos (FP foi então calculada por diferença. Conhecidas a sensibilidade e a especificidade do teste (E=1-FP, a cobertura BCG e a prevalência de infecção, os valores preditivos (para a infecção tuberculosa foram: 1,52%, 4,22%, 8,26%, 14,86% e 23,00%, do primeiro ao quinto ano de vida. Nessas condições, a probabilidade de uma reação forte ser devida ao BCG é grande, especialmente nos dois primeiros anos, o que reduz a aplicabilidade clínica e epidemiológica do teste.The applicability of tuberculin test in children under five years of age, BCG-vaccinated during their first year of life, is a controversial matter. With a view to clarifying the subject the predictive positive value of the test in a region of high BCG coverage and low prevalence of tuberculous infection was analysed. From the proportion of strong reactors among infants and school-age children, vaccinated and not unvaccinated, the declining rate of BCG induced allergy and the increment rate of naturally acquired tuberculin sensitivity between the first and the seventh years of life were calculated. Those calculations allowed for the estimation of the respective values for the intermediate ages. The numbers of false positives to be expected were calculated by difference. Knowing the sensibility and the especificity (1 - FP of

  2. Assessment of tuberculosis infection during treatment with biologic agents in a BCG-vaccinated pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atikan, Basak Yildiz; Cavusoglu, Cengiz; Dortkardesler, Merve; Sozeri, Betul

    2016-02-01

    Biologic therapies, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) blockers, are commonly used to treat rheumatological diseases in childhood. Screening patients for tuberculosis (TB) is highly recommended before starting therapy with TNF-α blockers. Despite appropriate screening, TB still remains a problem in patients receiving anti-TNF therapy in countries where TB is not endemic. TB in anti-TNF-treated patients is often diagnosed late due to altered presentation, and this delay results in high morbidity and mortality with a high proportion of extrapulmonary and disseminated disease. The aim of this study is to show the course of TB disease in children who are on biologic therapy, in an era where many of the children are BCG-vaccinated and TB is intermediately endemic. We recruited 71 patients with several types of inflammatory diseases. Six of them had a positive test result during TB screening and began taking isoniazid (INH) prophylactically. During the 3 years of follow-up, none of these patients developed TB disease. Biologic agents can be safely used in a BCG-vaccinated pediatric population, as long as patients are closely monitored to ensure that any cases of TB will be detected early. PMID:25515621

  3. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of BCG Vaccine Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Huajun; Pan, Yuanlong; Liu, Haican; Du, Pengcheng; Wan, Li; LIU Jun; Zhu, Baoli; Zhao, Guoping; Chen, Chen; Wan, Kanglin

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) has been available for more than 75 years, one third of the world's population is still infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and approximately 2 million people die of TB every year. To reduce this immense TB burden, a clearer understanding of the functional genes underlying the action of BCG and the development of new vaccines are urgently needed. Methods and Findings Comparative genomic analysis of 1...

  4. The establishment of sub-strain specific WHO Reference Reagents for BCG vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Dagg, Belinda; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Ho, Mei M.

    2014-01-01

    As the latest addition to the sub-strain specific WHO Reference Reagents of BCG vaccine, an international collaborative study was completed to evaluate the suitability of a candidate BCG Moreau-RJ sub-strain as a WHO Reference Reagent of BCG vaccine. This follows the recent replacement of the WHO 1st International Reference Preparation for BCG vaccine, by three sub-strain specific WHO Reference Reagents of BCG vaccine (Danish 1331, Tokyo 172-1 and Russian BCG-I) in order to complete the cover...

  5. BCG vaccination scar associated with better childhood survival in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Gustafson, Per; Nhaga, Alexandro;

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a non-specific beneficial effect on infant survival and that a BCG scar may be associated with lower child mortality. No study has previously examined the influence of BCG vaccination on cause of death.......Recent studies have suggested that Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a non-specific beneficial effect on infant survival and that a BCG scar may be associated with lower child mortality. No study has previously examined the influence of BCG vaccination on cause of death....

  6. Uptake of newly introduced universal BCG vaccination in newborns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Braima, O

    2012-01-31

    Universal neonatal BCG vaccination was discontinued in Cork in 1972. Following an outbreak of TB in 2 creches in the HSE South, a universal BCG vaccination program was re-introduced in October 2008. The aim of this study was to determine the vaccination process (in-hospital and community) and the in-hospital uptake of the vaccine. Following informed parental consent, babies of birth weight > 2.5 Kg were eligible for in-hospital vaccination if they were not: febrile, jaundiced on phototherapy, on antibiotics and if not born to HIV- positive mothers. Parents of babies not vaccinated in-hospital were asked to book an appointment in either of the 2 Cork community clinics. The immunisation nurse collected data on BCG vaccination, prospectively. This study examined vaccination uptakes in-hospital and community over a 6 month period (October 2008 to March 2009). There were 4018 deliveries during the study period. In-hospital consent was declined in only 16 babies (<1%) while the in-hospital vaccination uptake was 80% of total liv births. Although 635 newborns were admitted to the NICU, only 46 (8%) were vaccinated while in the NICU. At least 48% of planned community vaccination has been achieved to date. In conclusion, in-hospital consent was almost universal and vaccination uptake was satisfactory. NICU exclusion criteria accounted for a significant proportion of non-vaccination in-hospital. These criteria need to be readdressed considering that all premature babies are given other routine newborn vaccines at 2 months of age, regardless of weight.

  7. Uptake of newly introduced universal BCG vaccination in newborns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Braima, O

    2010-06-01

    Universal neonatal BCG vaccination was discontinued in Cork in 1972. Following an outbreak of TB in 2 creches in the HSE South, a universal BCG vaccination program was re-introduced in October 2008. The aim of this study was to determine the vaccination process (in-hospital and community) and the in-hospital uptake of the vaccine. Following informed parental consent, babies of birth weight > 2.5 Kg were eligible for in-hospital vaccination if they were not: febrile, jaundiced on phototherapy, on antibiotics and if not born to HIV- positive mothers. Parents of babies not vaccinated in-hospital were asked to book an appointment in either of the 2 Cork community clinics. The immunisation nurse collected data on BCG vaccination, prospectively. This study examined vaccination uptakes in-hospital and community over a 6 month period (October 2008 to March 2009). There were 4018 deliveries during the study period. In-hospital consent was declined in only 16 babies (<1%) while the in-hospital vaccination uptake was 80% of total liv births. Although 635 newborns were admitted to the NICU, only 46 (8%) were vaccinated while in the NICU. At least 48% of planned community vaccination has been achieved to date. In conclusion, in-hospital consent was almost universal and vaccination uptake was satisfactory. NICU exclusion criteria accounted for a significant proportion of non-vaccination in-hospital. These criteria need to be readdressed considering that all premature babies are given other routine newborn vaccines at 2 months of age, regardless of weight.

  8. Osteíte por BCG Osteitis after BCG vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Fukunishi Yamada

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de um menino de 1 ano e 9 meses que apresentou lesão osteolítica na região proximal do úmero direito. Com base na história clínica e em achados histológicos, os autores suspeitaram de osteíte pósvacina BCG. Após o início do tratamento antituberculose, os sintomas desapareceram e o paciente apresentou melhora radiológica. Os autores descrevem esta entidade incomum na prática pediátrica e alertam para possíveis complicações da vacina BCG.The authors report the case of a 21-month-old boy with an osteolytic lesion in the proximal region of the right humerus. Based on the clinical history and histological findings, the authors suspected osteitis following BCG vaccination. Symptoms remitted after antituberculosis therapy was initiated, and the patient presented radiological improvement. The authors describe this uncommon entity in pediatric practice and call attention to possible complications of BCG vaccination.

  9. Protective efficacy of BCG vaccine against leprosy in southern Malaŵi.

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, D. M.; Nguyen-Van-Tam, J. S.; Smith, S J

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a matched case-control study to determine the efficacy of BCG vaccine in preventing the occurrence of leprosy in southern Malaŵi, a previously unstudied area. The BCG immunization rate amongst 145 individuals with leprosy was 44.8%, compared to 62.5% in 290 matched controls. The protective efficacy of BCG vaccine against leprosy in this region was estimated to be 63.6%; smallpox immunization had no effect. These findings support the view that BCG vaccine should be conside...

  10. Presence of mycobacterial L-forms in human blood: Challenge of BCG vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Nadya; Slavchev, Georgi; Michailova, Lilia

    2015-01-01

    Possible persistence of bacteria in human blood as cell wall deficient forms (L-forms) represents a top research priority for microbiologists. Application of live BCG vaccine and L-form transformation of vaccine strain may display a new intriguing aspect concerning the opportunity for occurrence of unpredictable colonization inside the human body by unusual microbial life forms. L-form cultures were isolated from 141 blood samples of people previously vaccinated with BCG, none with a history of exposure to tuberculosis. Innovative methodology to access the unusual L-form elements derived from human blood was developed. The methodology outlines the path of transformation of non- cultivable L-form element to cultivable bacteria and their adaptation for growth in vitro. All isolates showed typical L-forms growth features ("fried eggs" colonies and biofilm). Electron microscopy revealed morphology evidencing peculiar characteristics of bacterial L-form population (cell wall deficient polymorphic elements of variable shape and size). Regular detection of acid fast bacteria in smears of isolated blood L-form cultures, led us to start their identification by using specific Mycobactrium spp. genetic tests. Forty five of 97 genetically tested blood cultures provided specific positive signals for mycobacteria, confirmed by at least one of the 3 specific assays (16S rRNA PCR; IS6110 Real Time PCR and spoligotyping). In conclusion, the obtained genetic evidence suggests that these L-forms are of mycobacterial origin. As the investigated people had been vaccinated with BCG, we can assume that the identified mycobacterial L-forms may be produced by persisting live BCG vaccine. PMID:25874947

  11. Adverse effects of BCG vaccine 1173 P2 in Iran: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaan, Saied; Yazdanpanah, Bahador; Moukhah, Rasool; Hozouri, Hamid Reza; Rostami, Manouchehr; Khorashadizadeh, Mohsen; Zerehsaz, Javad; Mahabadi, Ramin Pirhajati; Saadi, Arya; Khanahmad, Hossein; Pooya, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Although in the last two decades the World Health Organization (WHO) has introduced tuberculosis as “a threat to global”, the vaccination with the Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the only way for the prevention of this fatal infectious disease. Despite of the efficacy of BCG vaccine especially against infants’ meningitis, it has still some limitations due to a variety of adverse effects. Many studies have evaluated the side effects of different strains of BCG vaccines in different countries. In Iran, some studies have been done so far to evaluate the adverse effects of 1173 P2 strain which is used for BCG vaccination. Each of these studies have used different standardization and sampling methods. This review will survey all studies that have been published about adverse effects of 1173 P2 strain of BCG vaccine in Iran using data mining methods.

  12. The BCG World Atlas: A Database of Global BCG Vaccination Policies and Practices

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Madhu Pai and colleagues introduce the BCG World Atlas, an open access, user friendly Web site for TB clinicians to discern global BCG vaccination policies and practices and improve the care of their patients.

  13. Vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth may affect atopy in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiraly, N; Benn, Christine Stabell; Biering-Sørensen, S; Rodrigues, A; Jensen, K J; Ravn, H; Allen, K J; Aaby, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that immunogenic interventions such as vaccines and micronutrients may affect atopic sensitization and atopic disease. We aimed to determine whether neonatal BCG vaccination, vitamin A supplementation and other vaccinations affect atopy in childhood....

  14. Comparison of immune responses of mice immunized with five different Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Lagranderie, M R; Balazuc, A M; Deriaud, E; Leclerc, C D; Gheorghiu, M

    1996-01-01

    Among the various parameters which may contribute to Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination efficiency, the choice of the vaccine strain may play an important role. In the present study, we therefore compared the immunogenicity of five different BCG strains that are commonly used for BCG vaccine production (Glaxo 1077, Japanese 172, Pasteur 1173P2, Prague, and Russian strains). The comparison of the growth capacity of these BCG strains in BALB/c and C3H mice demonstrated that a great difference ...

  15. BCG Vaccination Induces Robust CD4+ T Cell Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex-Specific Lipopeptides in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Eva; Spohr, Christina; Battenfeld, Sibylle; De Paepe, Diane; Holzhauser, Thomas; Balks, Elisabeth; Homolka, Susanne; Reiling, Norbert; Gilleron, Martine; Bastian, Max

    2016-03-15

    A new class of highly antigenic, MHC-II-restricted mycobacterial lipopeptides that are recognized by CD4-positive T lymphocytes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected humans has recently been described. To investigate the relevance of this novel class of mycobacterial Ags in the context of experimental bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, Ag-specific T cell responses to mycobacterial lipid and lipopeptide-enriched Ag preparations were analyzed in immunized guinea pigs. Lipid and lipopeptide preparations as well as complex Ag mixtures, such as tuberculin, mycobacterial lysates, and culture supernatants, all induced a similar level of T cell proliferation. The hypothesis that lipopeptide-specific T cells dominate the early BCG-induced T cell response was corroborated in restimulation assays by the observation that Ag-expanded T cells specifically responded to the lipopeptide preparation. A comparative analysis of the responses to Ag preparations from different mycobacterial species revealed that the antigenic lipopeptides are specific for strains of the M. tuberculosis complex. Their intriguing conservation in pathogenic tuberculous bacteria and the fact that these highly immunogenic Ags seem to be actively released during in vitro culture and intracellular infection prompt the urgent question about their role in the fine-tuned interplay between the pathogen and its mammalian host, in particular with regard to BCG vaccination strategies. PMID:26889044

  16. BCG lymphadenopathy detected in a BCG-vaccinated infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Barouni

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale vaccination with BCG, the live attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, is being adopted around the world, although sporadic complications have occurred after the procedure. Lymphadenopathy is not uncommon especially in babies under one year (0.73% of vaccinated infants, but the swelling subsides within 2 months in most cases, with no medical or surgical treatment. Brazil adopted BCG vaccination program earlier in the seventies and by 1995 more than 96% of the infant population received this immunization. We report here the occurrence of lymphadenopathy in a two-year-old child vaccinated with the Brazilian BCG strain. The diagnosis was made using a lymph node biopsy and intestinal aspirates that yielded a positive mycobacterial culture. The isolate was resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and thiophen-2-carbonic acid hydrazide, sensitive to streptomycin, ethambutol, and p-nitrobenzoic acid, and reacted positively to cyclo-serine and negatively to niacin. The pncA gene involved in bacterial activation of pyrazinamide contains in M. bovis a point mutation that renders pyrazinamidase unable to catalyze drug activation. Therefore, this polymorphism is a good option for developing methods to differentiate M. bovis and M. tuberculosis. Taking advantage of this difference we further analyzed the isolates by single-stranded conformation polymorphism electrophoresis of DNA following PCR of the pncA gene. The isolate identity was confirmed by RFLP electrophoretic analysis of the amplified fragment following Eco065I digestion, which selectively cleaves M. tuberculosis DNA. From this result it is proposed that RFLP of pncA gene represents an alternative for differential diagnosis of M. bovis.

  17. Chest wall granuloma associated with BCG vaccination presenting as hot abscess in an immunocompetent infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Seung; Seo, Kyung Jin; Kim, Jae Jun

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus-Calmette-Gue´rin (BCG) vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine to prevent tuberculosis by cell mediated immune response and is routinely administered early after birth. Although it is considered to be a very safe vaccine, sometimes a variety of complications may develop. Herein we describe a clinically unusual case of chest wall granuloma considered to be induced by BCG, presenting as hot abscess, and developed 7 months after BCG vaccination in an immunocompetent infant. The diagnosis was made based on the history, histopathology and virological studies. We suggest, although very rare, a BCG disease should be considered as a differential diagnosis in case of chest wall abscess, even if this is presenting as a hot abscess and even in immunocompetent infants if their age is related to BCG vaccination complications. PMID:25887440

  18. Lack of a Negative Effect of BCG-Vaccination on Child Psychomotor Development: Results from the Danish Calmette Study - A Randomised Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Foss, Kim Thestrup; Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Pihl, Gitte Thybo; Andersen, Andreas; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Pryds, Ole; Greisen, Gorm

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the non-specific effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on psychomotor development. Design This is a pre-specified secondary outcome from a randomised, clinical trial. Setting Maternity units and paediatric wards at three university hospitals in Denmark. Participants Children born at gestational age (GA) 32 weeks and above. All women planning to give birth at the three sites were invited during the recruitment period. Out of 4262 randomised children, 144 were premature (GA BCG and 2133 randomised (73 premature) to the control group. Interventions BCG vaccination 0.05 ml was given intradermally in the upper left arm at the hospital within seven days of birth. Children in the control group did not receive any intervention. Parents were not blinded to allocation. Main outcome measures Psychomotor development measured using Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) completed by the parents at 12 months. Additionally, parents of premature children (gestational age BCG vs. control, 95% confidence interval; -3.7 to 2.4), p = 0.67, corresponding to an effect size of Cohen’s d = -0.015 (-0.082 to 0.052). The mean difference in ASQ score for premature children at 22 months was -7.8 points (-20.6 to 5.0, p = 0.23), d = -0.23 (-0.62 to 0.15). Conclusions A negative non-specific effect of BCG vaccination at birth on psychomotor development was excluded in term children. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01694108 PMID:27123570

  19. Neonatal BCG vaccination is associated with enhanced T-helper 1 immune responses to heterologous infant vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. Libraty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG vaccination has been reported to have beneficial effects beyond preventing infantile tuberculous meningitis and miliary disease. We hypothesized that BCG vaccine given at birth would enhance T-helper 1 (Th1 immune responses to the first vaccines given later in infancy. We conducted a nested case-control study of neonatal BCG vaccination and its heterologous Th1 immune effects in 2–3 months old infants. BCG vaccination at birth was associated with an increased frequency of interferon-γ (IFN-γ producing spot-forming cells (SFC to tetanus toxoid 2–3 months later. The frequency of IFN-γ producing SFC to polioviruses 1–3 also trended higher among infants who received BCG vaccination at birth. The frequency of IFN-γ+/tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α+CD45RO+CD4+ T-cells upon stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA/Ionomycin was higher in 2–3 months old infants who received BCG vaccination at birth compared to those who did not. The circulating frequency of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3+ CD45RO+ regulatory CD4+ T-cells also trended lower in these infants. Neonatal BCG vaccination is associated with heterologous Th1 immune effects 2–3 months later.

  20. Comparison of IFN-gamma responses to mycobacterial antigens as markers of response to BCG vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Rosemary E; Fine, Paul E M; Floyd, Sian; Stenson, Sally; Stanley, Carolynne; Branson, Keith; Britton, Warwick J; Huygen, Kris; Singh, Mahavir; Black, Gillian; Dockrell, Hazel M

    2008-01-01

    An increase in interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production to Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (Mtb PPD), as measured in the cultured diluted whole blood assay, is one indicator of a protective immune response to BCG vaccine. We have explored the potential for this assay to be improved by measuring IFN-gamma responses to more defined antigens of M. tuberculosis (short-term and mid-term culture filtrates, ESAT-6, 38 kDa), Mycobacterium bovis (MPB70), M. bovis BCG (Antigen 85) and Mycobacterium leprae (35 kDa), in UK teenagers before and 1 year after BCG vaccination (or no vaccination as controls). There was a significant increase in response to the culture filtrates post-vaccination, but this was no greater than that to Mtb PPD. Many teenagers responded to the purified antigens, in particular to Antigen 85, prior to vaccination, and BCG vaccination could only augment this pre-existing response to a limited extent; prior exposure to environmental mycobacteria can thus induce cross-reactive responses to antigens which complicate interpretation of in vitro assays of vaccine response. In contrast, ESAT-6 was recognised by only one teenager prior to vaccination, and, as expected, responses were not boosted by BCG. We therefore conclude that Mtb PPD is the antigen preparation of choice for assessing the immunogenicity of BCG vaccination. PMID:18277396

  1. Evolution of M. bovis BCG Vaccine: Is Niacin Production Still a Valid Biomarker?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarman Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BCG vaccine is usually considered to be safe though rarely serious complications have also been reported, often incriminating contamination of the seed strain with pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In such circumstances, it becomes prudent to rule out the contamination of the vaccine seed. M. bovis BCG can be confirmed by the absence of nitrate reductase, negative niacin test, and resistance to pyrazinamide and cycloserine. Recently in India, some stocks were found to be niacin positive which led to a national controversy and closer of a vaccine production plant. This prompted us to write this review and the comparative biochemical and genotypic studies were carried out on the these contentious vaccine stocks at the Indian vaccine plant and other seeds and it was found that some BCG vaccine strains and even some strains of M. bovis with eugenic-growth characteristics mainly old laboratory strains may give a positive niacin reaction. Most probably, the repeated subcultures lead to undefined changes at the genetic level in these seed strains. These changing biological characteristics envisage reevaluation of biochemical characters of existing BCG vaccine seeds and framing of newer guidelines for manufacturing, production, safety, and effectiveness of BCG vaccine.

  2. Evolution of M. bovis BCG Vaccine: Is Niacin Production Still a Valid Biomarker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarman; Kumar, Manoj; Singh, Pragati

    2015-01-01

    BCG vaccine is usually considered to be safe though rarely serious complications have also been reported, often incriminating contamination of the seed strain with pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In such circumstances, it becomes prudent to rule out the contamination of the vaccine seed. M. bovis BCG can be confirmed by the absence of nitrate reductase, negative niacin test, and resistance to pyrazinamide and cycloserine. Recently in India, some stocks were found to be niacin positive which led to a national controversy and closer of a vaccine production plant. This prompted us to write this review and the comparative biochemical and genotypic studies were carried out on the these contentious vaccine stocks at the Indian vaccine plant and other seeds and it was found that some BCG vaccine strains and even some strains of M. bovis with eugenic-growth characteristics mainly old laboratory strains may give a positive niacin reaction. Most probably, the repeated subcultures lead to undefined changes at the genetic level in these seed strains. These changing biological characteristics envisage reevaluation of biochemical characters of existing BCG vaccine seeds and framing of newer guidelines for manufacturing, production, safety, and effectiveness of BCG vaccine. PMID:25694828

  3. Non-specific immunity of BCG vaccine: A perspective of BCG immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeha Talat Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BCG is a widely used vaccine worldwide for neonates including Pakistan. BCG has more than 90% coverage through the EPI program which was introduced in 1965 in Pakistan. BCG has limited efficacy against the transmissible form of pulmonary tuberculosis in high TB endemic countries. However, BCG vaccination continues in these countries because BCG confers protection against the disseminated form of TB in children. BCG has also shown some protection against leprosy and certain forms of cancers. One reason for such nonspecific protection may be that BCG activates APCs via PAMPS that interacts with TLRs (2, 4 & 8, which initiate the inflammatory cascade thereby recruiting inflammatory cells to the site of infection and providing maturation signals for neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells. Such activation may be crucial for restricting the infection at the initial site. Furthermore, activation of the pro-inflammatory cascade also results in expression of adhesion molecules, co-stimulatory molecules as well as MHC class II molecule. MHC class II molecules engage CD4+ cells via the TCR receptor while the adhesion and costimulatory molecules bind to their respective receptors on CD4+ T cells for additional high affinity binding for T cell activation. Although activation of the innate arm may not provide subsequent memory, activation of T cells may introduce a certain level of memory response and therefore, may form a rational basis for BCG immunotherapy. This review, therefore, focuses on the immune activation related to both the innate and adaptive arm of the immune response that has been reported and further explores the utility of BCG immunotherapy related to non TB conditions.

  4. Protective effect of bacillus Calmette Guιrin (BCG vaccine in the prevention of leprosy: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zodpey Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the role of bacillus Calmette Guιrin (BCG vaccine in the prevention of leprosy was hypothesized as early as 1939, its level of protective effect remained controversial. Aim: As a meta-analysis systematically combines the results from different studies, we summarize the protective effect of BCG vaccine in prevention of leprosy using meta-analytic procedures. Methods: Our search strategy included a computerized literature search, snowballing technique to identify potential studies, review of previously compiled lists of BCG studies and articles, contacting experts on BCG vaccination and manual search to locate articles in non-indexed journals. The present meta-analysis included 22 studies (6 trials, 2 cohort studies and 14 case-control studies on the role of BCG vaccine in the prevention of leprosy. The random effects model as described by DerSimonian and Laird was used to summarize the effect measures. For each summarization, a Chi-square test of heterogeneity was estimated. To strengthen the viewpoint further additional information from the studies which were not included in meta-analysis, was also utilized. Results: The summary protective effects calculated from trials, cohort studies and case-control studies were 43 (27-55, 62 (53-69 and 58 (47-67% respectively, which were statistically significant. These estimates confirmed the protective association between BCG vaccination and leprosy. Review of 29 studies focusing on the role of BCG vaccination in the prevention of leprosy revealed that not a single study reported a negative protective effect. Thirteen (44.8% studies demonstrated greater than or equal to 50% efficacy/effectiveness. Conclusion: There is sufficient and convincing evidence of the protective effect of BCG vaccine against leprosy, as reflected from the meta-analysis and overall review of 29 studies of BCG vaccination and leprosy.

  5. Immunogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigens in Mycobacterium bovis BCG-Vaccinated and M. bovis-Infected Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, A. S.; Skeiky, Y A; Al-Attiyah, R.; Alderson, M. R.; Hewinson, R. G.; Vordermeier, H M

    2006-01-01

    The development of novel vaccine strategies supplementing Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG) constitutes an urgent research challenge. To identify potential subunit vaccine candidates, we have tested a series of eight recently identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in M. bovis-infected and BCG-vaccinated cattle. These antigens were characterized on the basis of their ability to induce in vitro gamma interferon responses in infected or BCG-vaccinated calves. We were able to establish a hier...

  6. Evolution of M. bovis BCG Vaccine: Is Niacin Production Still a Valid Biomarker?

    OpenAIRE

    Sarman Singh; Manoj Kumar; Pragati Singh

    2015-01-01

    BCG vaccine is usually considered to be safe though rarely serious complications have also been reported, often incriminating contamination of the seed strain with pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In such circumstances, it becomes prudent to rule out the contamination of the vaccine seed. M. bovis BCG can be confirmed by the absence of nitrate reductase, negative niacin test, and resistance to pyrazinamide and cycloserine. Recently in India, some stocks were found to be niacin positive ...

  7. Stimulation of alveolar macrophages by BCG vaccine enhances the process of lung fibrosis induced by bleomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyczewska, E; Chyczewski, L; Bańkowski, E; Sułkowski, S; Nikliński, J

    1993-01-01

    It was found that the BCG vaccine injected subcutaneously to the rats enhances the process of lung fibrosis induced by bleomycin. Pretreatment of rats with this vaccine results in accumulation of activated macrophages in lung interstitium and in the bronchoalveolar spaces. It may be suggested that the activated macrophages release various cytokines which may stimulate the proliferation of fibroblasts and biosynthesis of extracellular matrix components. PMID:7505240

  8. Novel genome polymorphisms in BCG vaccine strains and impact on efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Gao George; Alexander David C; Yu Xuping; Wu Zuowei; Tran Vanessa; Leung Andrea S; Zhu Baoli; Liu Jun

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis currently used as a vaccine against tuberculosis. Global distribution and propagation of BCG has contributed to the in vitro evolution of the vaccine strain and is thought to partially account for the different outcomes of BCG vaccine trials. Previous efforts by several molecular techniques effectively identified large sequence polymorphisms among BCG daughter strains, but lacked the resolution to identify s...

  9. Presence of mycobacterial L-forms in human blood: Challenge of BCG vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Markova, Nadya; Slavchev, Georgi; Michailova, Lilia

    2015-01-01

    Possible persistence of bacteria in human blood as cell wall deficient forms (L-forms) represents a top research priority for microbiologists. Application of live BCG vaccine and L-form transformation of vaccine strain may display a new intriguing aspect concerning the opportunity for occurrence of unpredictable colonization inside the human body by unusual microbial life forms. L-form cultures were isolated from 141 blood samples of people previously vaccinated with BCG, none with a history ...

  10. BCG vaccine-induced neuroprotection in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Jing; Lacan, Goran; Dang, Hoa; Hsieh, Terry; Middleton, Blake; Wasserfall, Clive; Tian, Jide; Melega, William P; Kaufman, Daniel L

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing interest in using vaccination with CNS antigens to induce autoreactive T cell responses that home to damaged areas in the CNS and ameliorate neurodegenerative disease. Neuroprotective vaccine studies have focused on administering oligodendrocyte antigens or Copaxone® in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Theoretical considerations, however, suggest that vaccination with a neuronal antigen may induce more robust neuroprotective immune responses. We assessed the neuroprotective potential of vaccines containing tyrosine hydroxylase (a neuronal protein involved in dopamine synthesis) or Copaxone® in CFA in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Surprisingly, we observed that the main beneficial factor in these vaccines was the CFA. Since the major immunogenic component in CFA is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which closely related to the bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) that is used in human vaccines, we tested BCG vaccination in the MPTP mouse model. We observed that BCG vaccination partially preserved markers of striatal dopamine system integrity and prevented an increase in activated microglia in the substantia nigra of MPTP-treated mice. These results support a new neuroprotective vaccine paradigm in which general (nonself-reactive) immune stimulation in the periphery can limit potentially deleterious microglial responses to a neuronal insult and exert a neurorestorative effect in the CNS. Accordingly, BCG vaccination may provide a new strategy to augment current treatments for a wide range of neuropathological conditions. PMID:21304945

  11. Various ultrasonographic manifestations of Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) lymphadenitis in infants after BCG vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the various ultrasonographic manifestations of BCG lymphadenitis complicated by BCG vaccination in infants. Among a total of 59 patients of BCG lymphadenitis, we retrospectively evaluated the ultrasonographic findings of five patients (seven involved areas), who were operated and confirmed by histopathology. Three cases were male and two were female and the age range is from 3 months to 9 months (mean: 5.5 months). Among five cases two had only a single lesion and three had multiple lesions, and two of those had multiple lesions at 2 separate locations. All five cases had ipsilateral supraclavicular lesions with same BCG vaccination site and two also had ipsilaeteral axillary lesions. Ultrasonography showed enlarged lymph nodes and heterogeneous hypoechoic changes suggesting internal necrosis or suppurative changes in three cases, but 1 had cystic necrotic change with fluid-fluid level and another had conglomerated mass with intermingled hyper and hypoechoic areas, which were initially suspected to be a tumorous conditions but revealed conglomerated lymph nodes on follow-up ultrasonography and MRI. BCG lymphadenitis is usually located adjacent to a BCG vaccination site, but ultrasonography can show single or multiple lymph node enlargement and various manifestations from homogeneous lymphadenitis to cystic abscess changes and even a mass-like appearance, demonstrating that the evaluation of ultrasonography should be done very carefully.

  12. Effect of vitamin A supplementation with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status at 6 wk and 4 mo of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth on subsequent vitamin A status has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 50,000 IU vitamin A administered with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status in both sexes. DESIGN: Within a randomized...... placebo-controlled trial of VAS, we obtained blood from 614 children at 6 wk of age and from 369 mother-infant pairs at 4 mo of age. We assessed vitamin A status on the basis of serum retinol-binding protein (RBP) and measured serum C-reactive protein to monitor for concurrent infections. RESULTS: RBP...... interval (P = 0.009), particularly in girls (P for interaction = 0.01) and in vitamin A recipients (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, VAS at birth had no effect on vitamin A status. However VAS may temporarily improve vitamin A status in the subgroup of children of noneducated mothers. In vitamin A...

  13. Variation of growth in the production of the BCG vaccine and the association with the immune response. An observational study within a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biering-Sorensen, S.; Jensen, K.J.; Aamand, S.H.; Blok, B.; Andersen, A.; Monteiro, I.; Netea, M.G.; Aaby, P.; Benn, C.S.; Haslov, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine has beneficial non-specific effects on overall survival. After BCG vaccination, positive PPD response and scar formation are associated with increased survival. During a trial randomising low-birth-weight neonates to BCG at birth or the usual delay

  14. Tuberculous meningitis in children: a review of clinical, laboratory, epidemiological, and therapeutic aspects and of the usefulness of BCG vaccination Meningitis tuberculosa en niños: una revisión de aspectos clínicos, de laboratorio, epidemiológicos y terapéuticos y de la utilidad de la vacunación con BCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José William Cornejo Ochoa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Tuberculous meningitis is the most frequent extrapulmonary form of tuberculosis in underdeveloped countries, among them Colombia. It is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In this article a review is presented of the following aspects of the disease: clinical, epidemiological, therapeutic, prophylactic by means of BCG vaccination, laboratory diagnosis, and tomographic findings.

    La tuberculosis meníngea (MTB es la enfermedad tuberculosa extrapulmonar más frecuente en los países del tercer mundo, incluida Colombia, y tiene tasas altas de morbilidad y mortalidad. En este artículo se presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre los siguientes aspectos de la enfermedad: clínicos, epidemiológicos, de laboratorio, tomográficos, terapéuticos y de prevención con la vacuna BCG.

  15. WHO Informal Consultation on standardization and evaluation of BCG vaccines Geneva, Switzerland 22-23 September 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Mei M; Southern, James; Kang, Hye-Na; Knezevic, Ivana

    2010-10-01

    The current World Health Organization Requirements for BCG vaccine are in need of revision to address the diversity of sub-strains used for production, potential improvements of quality control assays for lot release, and the establishment of sub-strain specific Reference Reagents. A consultation meeting was organized to discuss issues regarding the standardization and evaluation of BCG vaccines in the forum of regulators, BCG vaccine manufacturers, developers of selected new live tuberculosis (TB) vaccines and researchers. The development of new recombinant BCG and live attenuated TB vaccines and the characterisation of different BCG sub-strains using state-of-the-art technologies were also reviewed. The objective of the meeting was to revise and update the current recommendations focused on the scope, terminology, manufacturing issues, and the incorporation of new reference reagents and new quality control tests. PMID:20692219

  16. Effect of BCG vaccination on the frequency of 90Sr-induced osteosarcoma development in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using BCG vaccinated white rats of no breed the frequency of the development of induced osteosarcomas has been determined. It is shown that BCG injection of 5 mg per animal leads to changes in the frequency of the development of neoplasms and their multiplicity only in males which have been vaccinated 20 days before sup(90)Sr injection. The BCG dose increase up to 10 mg per animal in case of injection 10 days prior to sup(90)Sr administering has been accompanied by the suppression of the tumoral process independently of sex of experimental animals

  17. Assessment of immune response to repeat stimulation with BCG vaccine using in vitro PBMC model

    OpenAIRE

    Kashyap, Rajpal S; Husain, Aliabbas A.; Morey, Shweta H; Panchbhai, Milind S.; Deshpande, Poonam S; Purohit, Hemant J.; Taori, Girdhar M.; Daginawala, Hatim F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most prevalent cause of death due to a single pathogen. Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) is the only vaccine available for clinical use that protects against miliary TB; however, this vaccine has shown variable levels of efficacy against pulmonary TB. In India, a single dose of BCG vaccine is given and there are few countries where repeated doses of BCG are given. The incidence of TB in India is very high inspite of primary vaccination in neonatal peri...

  18. The immunological effects of oral polio vaccine provided with BCG vaccine at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Lund, Najaaraq; Andersen, Andreas; Eriksen, Helle Brander; Barbosa, Amarildo Gomes; Kantsø, Bjørn; Aaby, Peter; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccines may have non-specific effects. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau suggested that oral polio vaccine at birth (OPV0) provided with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine was associated with down-regulation of the immune response to BCG vaccine 6 weeks later. Based on the...... BCG alone at birth, and subsequently randomised to have a blood sample taken at 2, 4 or 6 weeks post-randomisation. Excreted levels of cytokines (IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ) were measured from whole blood in vitro stimulations with a panel of recall vaccine antigens (BCG, PPD, OPV), mitogen...... previous finding, we wanted to test our a priori hypothesis that OPV would dampen the immune response to BCG, and secondarily to test immune responses to other antigens. METHODS: The study was conducted at the Bandim Health Project in Guinea-Bissau in 2009-2010. Infants were randomised to OPV0+BCG versus...

  19. Frequency of positive tuberculin skin test in bcg-vaccinated asymptomatic adults in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the frequency of positive tuberculin skin test (TST) in BCG-vaccinated asymptomatic healthy Pakistani adults. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Military Hospital, Rawalpindi in 2008 over six months. Patients and Methods: One hundred and thirty six individuals fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria of study were recruited after consent. They were subjected to TST (Mantoux test) and results were interpreted after 72 hours of injection. Test was recorded as positive if the indurated area was > 10 mm, and strongly positive if > 15 mm. Results: All participants were male with the mean age of 26.35+-6.164 years. The overall frequency of positive TST was 41.2%. Out of these, 9.6% were strongly positive. Conclusion: In healthy, BCG-vaccinated adult Pakistani population, TST is found to be positive in high frequency, and even induration of more than 15 mm was seen in significant number. In view of low specificity, TST should not be relied upon for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB). (author)

  20. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Rabie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Paradoxical deterioration due to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS occurs in up to 21% of children initiating antiretroviral therapy. Mycobacterial diseases are the most common, with BCG-vaccine adenitis predominating in infants and M. tuberculosis (TB in older children. The difficulty of diagnosing TB in HIV-infected children and the increasing risk of drug-resistant TB complicate the diagnosis and management of both paradoxical IRIS and post-antiretroviral therapy TB. History and clinical assessment remain key strategies in the management of these infants and children. There are no prospective studies investigating diagnostic criteria and therapeutic strategies in children.

  1. Pharmaceutical characterization of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine used for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, M J

    1993-06-01

    Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, developed in the 1920s as a treatment and prophylactic for tuberculosis, has proved to be a nonspecific stimulant of the immune system and is now the major form of clinical immunotherapy approved for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer in the United States. However, methods for the production and physical characterization of the vaccine have not been significantly developed since Calmette and Guérin first devised their process for attenuating the organism in 1908. When reconstituted with sterile water immediately before use, the vaccine consists of a suspension of cellular fragments and aggregates and a mixture of dead and living cells. The dose is determined by the number of colony-forming units that develop when the vaccine is allowed to grow in a nutrient medium. This measurement of dose and viability is misleading because each cellular aggregate may consist of several hundred individual cells, but only one need be living to give rise to a single visible colony. Viability should therefore be measured on the basis of residual ATP levels. In this report, the mode of action of BCG vaccine against bladder cancer is reviewed, and attention is drawn to some factors that may need to be controlled during manufacturing and subsequent quality assurance procedures. The morphology of the various parts of the complex pleomorphic life cycle of this Mycobacterium species has been investigated, and the vaccine has been physically evaluated to provide a characterization by contemporary methodologies, including measurement of ATP content and particle size distribution of the dispersed mycobacterial aggregates. PMID:8331524

  2. High-sensitive and rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by IFN-γ release assay among HIV-infected individuals in BCG-vaccinated area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Weimin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An accurate test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is urgently needed in immunosuppressed populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic power of enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT-based IFN-γ release assay in detecting active and latent tuberculosis in HIV-infected population in bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG-vaccinated area. A total of 100 HIV-infected individuals including 32 active tuberculosis patients were recruited. An ELISPOT-based IFN-γ release assay, T-SPOT.TB, was used to evaluate the M. tuberculosis ESAT-6 and CFP-10 specific IFN-γ response. Tuberculin skin test (TST was performed for all recruited subjects. Results The subjects were divided into group HIV+ATB (HIV-infected individuals with active tuberculosis, n = 32, group HIV+LTB (HIV-infected individuals with positive results of T-SPOT.TB assay, n = 46 and group HIV only (HIV-infected individuals with negative results of T-SPOT.TB assay and without evidence of tuberculosis infection, n = 22. In group HIV+ATB and HIV+LTB, T-SPOT.TB positive rate in subjects with TST P 85% in patients with TB treatment for less than 1 month and CD4+ T cells ≥200/μl, while for patients treated for more than 3 months and CD4+ T cells Conclusion ELISPOT-based IFN-γ release assay is more sensitive and rapid for the diagnosis of TB infection in Chinese HIV-infected individuals with history of BCG vaccination, and could be an effective tool for guiding preventive treatment with isoniazid in latently infected people and for TB control in China.

  3. Local skin reaction following an accidental injection from a BCG vaccine in a healthcare worker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundan Mittal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to blood-borne pathogens from sharp injuriescontinue to pose a significant risk to healthcare workers(HCW. The number of sharps injuries sustained by HCW is stillunclear, primarily due to under-reporting of events.Healthcare professionals are at risk of sustaining such injuriesfrom hollow-bore needles. Sharps injuries are associated withrisk of infection with blood-borne pathogens such as humanimmunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV hepatitisC virus (HCV and other live organisms. Here we are reportinga case of an adverse reaction in a HCW due to an accidentalsharps injury by a needle used to administer the BacillusCalmittee Gurien (BCG vaccine.

  4. Heterologous Immunological Effects of Early BCG Vaccination in Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Larsen, Nanna; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie;

    2015-01-01

    -Bissau of early BCG vs the usual postponed BCG, a subgroup was bled 4 weeks after randomization. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured from whole-blood assays stimulated with innate agonists to Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2......BACKGROUND:  Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) seems to have beneficial nonspecific effects; early BCG vaccination of low-birth-weight (LBW) newborns reduces neonatal mortality by >40% due to prevention of primarily septicemia and pneumonia. METHODS:  Within a randomized trial in LBW infants in Guinea...... stimulation, particularly of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. CONCLUSION:  Four weeks after immunization, BCG-vaccinated infants have a significantly increased production of cytokines upon heterologous challenge, particularly T helper cell type 1 polarizing and typically monocyte-derived pro...

  5. Lactoferrin enhanced efficacy of the BCG vaccine to generate host protective responses against challenge with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Shen-An; Wilk, Katarzyna M.; Budnicka, Monika; Olsen, Margaret; Bangale, Yogesh A.; Hunter, Robert L.; Kruzel, Marian L.; Actor, Jeffrey K.

    2007-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is a disease with world wide consequences, affecting nearly a third of the world’s population. The established vaccine for TB, an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis Calmette Guerin (BCG), has existed since 1921. Lactoferrin, an iron binding protein found in mucosal secretions and granules of neutrophils was hypothesized to be an ideal adjuvant to enhance the efficacy of the BCG vaccine, specifically because of previous repor...

  6. Quality control of BCG vaccine by WHO: a review of factors that may influence vaccine effectiveness and safety.

    OpenAIRE

    Milstien, J. B.; J. J. Gibson

    1990-01-01

    WHO oversees the quality control of BCG vaccine via a system that includes regular testing of products by in vitro methods and clinical trials. Three parent strains of BCG (Glaxo-1077, Tokyo-172, and Pasteur-1173P2) account for over 90% of the vaccines currently in use worldwide. Important characteristics of the vaccine preparations are summarized here, along with their physical-chemical properties. In instances where diagnostic criteria for tuberculosis are stringent, there is no evidence th...

  7. Assessment of safety and interferon gamma responses of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine in goat kids and milking goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de Val, Bernat; Vidal, Enric; López-Soria, Sergio; Marco, Alberto; Cervera, Zoraida; Martín, Maite; Mercader, Irene; Singh, Mahavir; Raeber, Alex; Domingo, Mariano

    2016-02-10

    Vaccination of domestic animals has emerged as an alternative long-term strategy for the control of tuberculosis (TB). A trial under field conditions was conducted in a TB-free goat herd to assess the safety of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine. Eleven kids and 10 milking goats were vaccinated with BCG. Bacterial shedding and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) responses were monitored throughout the study. Comprehensive pathological examination and mycobacterial culture of target tissues were performed. BCG vaccine strain was only isolated from the draining lymph node of the injection site of a kid euthanized at week 8 post-vaccination. The remaining animals were euthanized at week 24. Six out of 20 showed small granulomas at the injection site. BCG shedding was not detected in either faeces or in milk throughout the study. All vaccinated kids showed BCG-induced IFN-γ responses at week 8 post-vaccination. BCG vaccination of goats showed no lack of biological safety for the animals, environment and public health, and local adverse reactions were negligible. PMID:26795364

  8. Variable Virulence and Efficacy of BCG Vaccine Strains in Mice and Correlation With Genome Polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Ru, Huan-Wei; Chen, Fu-Zeng; Jin, Chun-Yan; Sun, Rui-Feng; Fan, Xiao-Yong; Guo, Ming; Mai, Jun-Tao; Xu, Wen-Xi; Lin, Qing-Xia; Liu, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, is the only vaccine available for tuberculosis (TB) control. However, BCG is not an ideal vaccine and has two major limitations: BCG exhibits highly variable effectiveness against the development of TB both in pediatric and adult populations and can cause disseminated BCG disease in immunocompromised individuals. BCG comprises a number of substrains that are genetically distinct. Whether and how these genetic differences affect BCG efficacy remains largely unknown. In this study, we performed comparative analyses of the virulence and efficacy of 13 BCG strains, representing different genetic lineages, in SCID and BALB/c mice. Our results show that BCG strains of the DU2 group IV (BCG-Phipps, BCG-Frappier, BCG-Pasteur, and BCG-Tice) exhibit the highest levels of virulence, and BCG strains of the DU2 group II (BCG-Sweden, BCG-Birkhaug) are among the least virulent group. These distinct levels of virulence may be explained by strain-specific duplications and deletions of genomic DNA. There appears to be a general trend that more virulent BCG strains are also more effective in protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge. Our findings have important implications for current BCG vaccine programs and for future TB vaccine development. PMID:26643797

  9. Neonatal BCG vaccination of mice improves neurogenesis and behavior in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junhua; Qi, Fangfang; Gu, Huaiyu; Zou, Juntao; Yang, Yang; Yuan, Qunfang; Yao, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is administered to neonates worldwide, but it is still unknown whether this neonatal vaccination affects brain development during early postnatal life, despite the close association of the immune system with the brain. Newborn C57BL/6 mice were injected subcutaneously with BCG or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and their mood status and spatial cognition were observed at four and eight weeks (w) old. The mice were also subjected to tests at 2 and 6 w to examine BCG's effects on neurogenesis, the hippocampal microglia phenotype and number, and the expression of hippocampal neuroimmune molecules and peripheral cytokines. The BCG-injected mice showed better behavioral performances at 4 w. We observed elevated neurogenesis, M2 microglial activation and a neurotrophic profile of neuroimmune molecules [more interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and less tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1β] in the hippocampus of the 2-w-old BCG-mice. In the periphery, BCG induced a T helper (Th)-1 serum response. At the individual level, there were positive correlations between the serum IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio and the levels of neurotrophins and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that neonatal BCG vaccination improved neurogenesis and mouse behavior in early life by affecting the neuroimmune milieu in the brain, which may be associated with a systemic Th1 bias. PMID:26536170

  10. Early BCG vaccine to low-birth-weight infants and the effects on growth in the first year of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Andersen, Andreas; Ravn, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: Two-thousand three hundred forty-three LBW infants were randomly allocated 1:1 to "early BCG" (intervention group) or "late BCG" (current practice). Furthermore, a subgroup (N = 1717) were included in a two-by-two randomised trial in which they were additionally randomised 1:1 to vitamin A...... but not among boys (interaction between "early BCG" and sex: weight p = 0.03 and MUAC p = 0.04). This beneficial effect among girls was particularly seen among the largest infants weighing 2.0 kg or more at inclusion. CONCLUSION: Though BCG vaccination is not recommended to be given to LBW infants at...

  11. A Modified Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG Vaccine with Reduced Activity of Antioxidants and Glutamine Synthetase Exhibits Enhanced Protection of Mice despite Diminished in Vivo Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Kernodle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early attempts to improve BCG have focused on increasing the expression of prominent antigens and adding recombinant toxins or cytokines to influence antigen presentation. One such modified BCG vaccine candidate has been withdrawn from human clinical trials due to adverse effects. BCG was derived from virulent Mycobacterium bovis and retains much of its capacity for suppressing host immune responses. Accordingly, we have used a different strategy for improving BCG based on reducing its immune suppressive capacity. We made four modifications to BCG Tice to produce 4dBCG and compared it to the parent vaccine in C57Bl/6 mice. The modifications included elimination of the oxidative stress sigma factor SigH, elimination of the SecA2 secretion channel, and reductions in the activity of iron co-factored superoxide dismutase and glutamine synthetase. After IV inoculation of 4dBCG, 95% of vaccine bacilli were eradicated from the spleens of mice within 60 days whereas the titer of BCG Tice was not significantly reduced. Subcutaneous vaccination with 4dBCG produced greater protection than vaccination with BCG against dissemination of an aerosolized challenge of M. tuberculosis to the spleen at 8 weeks post-challenge. At this time, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice also exhibited altered lung histopathology compared to BCG-vaccinated mice and control mice with less well-developed lymphohistiocytic nodules in the lung parenchyma. At 26 weeks post-challenge, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice but not BCG-vaccinated mice had significantly fewer challenge bacilli in the lungs than control mice. In conclusion, despite reduced persistence in mice a modified BCG vaccine with diminished antioxidants and glutamine synthetase is superior to the parent vaccine in conferring protection against M. tuberculosis. The targeting of multiple immune suppressive factors produced by BCG is a promising strategy for simultaneously improving vaccine safety and effectiveness.

  12. A novel recombinant BCG vaccine encoding eimeria tenella rhomboid and chicken IL-2 induces protective immunity against coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuyue; Chen, Lifeng; Li, Jianhua; Zheng, Jun; Cai, Ning; Gong, Pengtao; Li, Shuhong; Li, He; Zhang, Xichen

    2014-06-01

    A novel recombinant Bacille Calmette-Guerin (rBCG) vaccine co-expressed Eimeria tenella rhomboid and cytokine chicken IL-2 (chIL-2) was constructed, and its efficacy against E. tenella challenge was observed. The rhomboid gene of E. tenella and chIL-2 gene were subcloned into integrative expression vector pMV361, producing vaccines rBCG pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2. Animal experiment via intranasal and subcutaneous route in chickens was carried out to evaluate the immune efficacy of the vaccines. The results indicated that these rBCG vaccines could obviously alleviate cacal lesions and oocyst output. Intranasal immunization with pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2 elicited better protective immunity against E. tenella than subcutaneous immunization. Splenocytes from chickens immunized with either rBCG pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2 had increased CD4(+) and CD8(+) cell production. Our data indicate recombinant BCG is able to impart partial protection against E. tenella challenge and co-expression of cytokine with antigen was an effective strategy to improve vaccine immunity. PMID:25031464

  13. Successive Intramuscular Boosting with IFN-Alpha Protects Mycobacterium bovis BCG-Vaccinated Mice against M. lepraemurium Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Guerrero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy caused by Mycobacterium leprae primarily affects the skin and peripheral nerves. As a human infectious disease, it is still a significant health and economic burden on developing countries. Although multidrug therapy is reducing the number of active cases to approximately 0.5 million, the number of cases per year is not declining. Therefore, alternative host-directed strategies should be addressed to improve treatment efficacy and outcome. In this work, using murine leprosy as a model, a very similar granulomatous skin lesion to human leprosy, we have found that successive IFN-alpha boosting protects BCG-vaccinated mice against M. lepraemurium infection. No difference in the seric isotype and all IgG subclasses measured, neither in the TH1 nor in the TH2 type cytokine production, was seen. However, an enhanced iNOS/NO production in BCG-vaccinated/i.m. IFN-alpha boosted mice was observed. The data provided in this study suggest a promising use for IFN-alpha boosting as a new prophylactic alternative to be explored in human leprosy by targeting host innate cell response.

  14. Múltiplas doses de vacina BCG podem proteger contra asma? Can multiple doses of BCG vaccine protect against asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Sarinho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a vacinação com uma única dose de BCG intradérmica com a vacinação com múltiplas doses, uma das quais pela técnica de multipuntura, em relação ao efeito protetor contra o aparecimento posterior de asma. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo com 2.311 pessoas vacinadas com BCG. Os indivíduos foram classificados de acordo com o número de doses de vacina BCG recebidas (uma dose, duas doses e três ou mais doses. O tempo mínimo de acompanhamento para verificar se houve algum efeito protetor da vacina BCG em relação ao diagnóstico de asma foi de 10 anos. RESULTADOS: A amostra incluiu 1.317 pessoas (56,99% que receberam apenas uma dose do BCG, 644 (27,87% que receberam duas doses e 350 (15,14% com três ou mais doses. O número de pacientes diagnosticados com asma entre aqueles que receberam uma dose de BCG, duas doses e três ou mais doses foi, respectivamente, 216 (16,40%, 107 (16,61% e 50 (14,28%. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos. CONCLUSÕES: Na amostra estudada, não foi observada uma redução na prevalência de diagnóstico de asma com a revacinação ou com o uso de múltiplas doses da vacina BCG.OBJECTIVE: To compare BCG vaccination involving a single intradermal dose and that involving multiple doses, one given with the multiple puncture technique, in terms of the protective effect against the subsequent onset of asthma. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study involving 2,311 individuals having received the BCG vaccine. The patients were classified according to the number of doses of BCG vaccine administered (one; two; or three or more. The minimum follow-up period in order to determine whether there was any protective effect of BCG vaccination regarding the diagnosis of asthma was 10 years. RESULTS: The sample included 1,317 individuals (56.99% who had received only one BCG dose, 644 (27.87% who had received two doses, and 350 (15.14% who had received three or more doses. The number

  15. Effect of 50 000 IU vitamin A given with BCG vaccine on mortality in infants in Guinea-Bissau: randomised placebo controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, B.R.; Roth, A.; Nante, E.; Fisker, A.B.; Lisse, I.M.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Whittle, H.; Rodrigues, A.; Aaby, P.; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2008-01-01

    .84 (0.55 to 1.27) compared with 1.39 (0.90 to 2.14) in girls (P for interaction=0.10). An explorative analysis revealed a strong interaction between vitamin A and season of administration. Conclusions Vitamin A supplementation given with BCG vaccine at birth had no significant benefit in this African...

  16. Immunological efficacy of Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccina-tion in Egyptian children:case series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malak Shaheen; Ashraf Madkour

    2008-01-01

    Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)vaccine is one of the most widely used vaccines in children.In Egypt,it is a part of the national compulsory childhood immunization program.The most controversial aspect of BCG is the variable efficacy found in different studies.This study was to evaluate the efficacy status of the available BCG vaccine in Egypt within the last 10 years (BCG-Copenhagen).The pilot cross sectional study included 597 Egyptian children randomly selected.Their ages ranged from 6 months to 10 years old (mean_5 years,medi-an:3 years).All were assessed for history of BCG vaccine intake (primary at infancy and /or secondary at school age)and examined for the presence BCG scar.A group of the vaccinated children (62 children with BCG scar and 69 children without BCG scar)were further assessed with tuberculin skin test (TST).Preva-lence of BCG vaccine intake in the studied children was 86.9% (519 /597).Efficacy in term of BCG scar af-ter vaccination was 66.6% (346 /519).However,efficacy in term of post BCG vaccination tuberculin sensiti-zation was only 3.8% (5 /131).BCG vaccination program in Egypt seems to be widely prevalent;however, the immunological efficacy of the available strain is questionable.

  17. Epidemiological significance of the local reaction to direct BCG vaccination as assessed from a study in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavganc, J; Hanák, R; ten Dam, H G

    1969-01-01

    Direct BCG vaccination has considerable operational advantages over the classical method of vaccinating only persons who do not react to tuberculin. In the present study it is shown that the direct method as applied in Mongolia does not cause any untoward reactions in persons who react to tuberculin and therefore can be considered a rational public health procedure.By reason of the repeated follow-up examinations, it was possible to obtain a clear picture of the development of the local BCG reactions and to test the hypothesis that these reactions may give information on pre-existing tuberculin sensitivity. It appeared impossible to deduce with any accuracy from either the local induration or the tissue destruction at the site of vaccination whether a person had tuberculin sensitivity before vaccination or not, and the results obtained with 2 different vaccines were inconsistent. It is therefore concluded that the local BCG reaction has no epidemiological significance in this respect. PMID:5309085

  18. Changes in the resistance of mice to enteral infection and prolonged irradiation induced by live BCG vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the live BCG vaccine on the antiinfection resistance to heterologic stimulus and on the radioresistance at the prolonged irradiation is studied. In the latter case mice have been induced intradermally 0.1 mg. of BCG and in 15 days they have been irradiated by 137Cs γ rays in the 1600 R dose, with 1 R/min. rate. It is concluded that under the influence of vacination by live BCG microbacteria there can occur on a certain stage of the development of immunologic process the natural resistance weakening of the body expressed in our experiments in the decrease of resistance to heterologic infection and prolonged γ ray irradiation effect in two weeks after vaccine induction

  19. A new recombinant BCG vaccine induces specific Th17 and Th1 effector cells with higher protective efficacy against tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Adeliane Castro; Costa-Júnior, Abadio de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Fábio Muniz; Nogueira, Sarah Veloso; Rosa, Joseane Damaceno; Resende, Danilo Pires; Kipnis, André; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that is a major public health problem. The vaccine used for TB prevention is Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), which provides variable efficacy in protecting against pulmonary TB among adults. Consequently, several groups have pursued the development of a new vaccine with a superior protective capacity to that of BCG. Here we constructed a new recombinant BCG (rBCG) vaccine expressing a fusion protein (CMX) composed of immune dominant epitopes from Ag85C, MPT51, and HspX and evaluated its immunogenicity and protection in a murine model of infection. The stability of the vaccine in vivo was maintained for up to 20 days post-vaccination. rBCG-CMX was efficiently phagocytized by peritoneal macrophages and induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Following mouse immunization, this vaccine induced a specific immune response in cells from lungs and spleen to the fusion protein and to each of the component recombinant proteins by themselves. Vaccinated mice presented higher amounts of Th1, Th17, and polyfunctional specific T cells. rBCG-CMX vaccination reduced the extension of lung lesions caused by challenge with Mtb as well as the lung bacterial load. In addition, when this vaccine was used in a prime-boost strategy together with rCMX, the lung bacterial load was lower than the result observed by BCG vaccination. This study describes the creation of a new promising vaccine for TB that we hope will be used in further studies to address its safety before proceeding to clinical trials. PMID:25398087

  20. Improving the Immunogenicity of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccine by Non-Genetic Bacterial Surface Decoration Using the Avidin-Biotin System

    OpenAIRE

    Ting-Yu Angela Liao; Alice Lau; Sunil Joseph; Vesa Hytönen; Zakaria Hmama

    2015-01-01

    Current strategies to improve the current BCG vaccine attempt to over-express genes encoding specific M. tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens and/or regulators of antigen presentation function, which indeed have the potential to reshape BCG in many ways. However, these approaches often face serious difficulties, in particular the efficiency and stability of gene expression via nucleic acid complementation and safety concerns associated with the introduction of exogenous DNA. As an alternative, we deve...

  1. Failure of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccine: Some Species of Environmental Mycobacteria Block Multiplication of BCG and Induction of Protective Immunity to Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, L.; cunha, jf; olsen, aw; Chilima, B.; Hirsch, P; Appelberg, R; Andersen, P.

    2002-01-01

    The efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine against pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) varies enormously in different populations. The prevailing hypothesis attributes this variation to interactions between the vaccine and mycobacteria common in the environment, but the precise mechanism has so far not been clarified. Our study demonstrates that prior exposure to live environmental mycobacteria can result in a broad immune response that is recalled rapidly after BCG va...

  2. The influence of BCG vaccine strain on mycobacteria-specific and non-specific immune responses in a prospective cohort of infants in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Elizabeth J.; Webb, Emily L.; Mawa, Patrice A.; Kizza, Moses; Lyadda, Nancy; Nampijja, Margaret; Elliott, Alison M

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, BCG vaccination varies in efficacy and has some non-specific protective effects. Previous studies comparing BCG strains have been small-scale, with few or no immunological outcomes and have compared TB-specific responses only. We aimed to evaluate both specific and non-specific immune responses to different strains of BCG within a large infant cohort and to evaluate further the relationship between BCG strain, scarring and cytokine responses. Methods Infants from the Ente...

  3. A Modified Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccine with Reduced Activity of Antioxidants and Glutamine Synthetase Exhibits Enhanced Protection of Mice despite Diminished in Vivo Persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Kernodle, Douglas S.; Cynamon, Michael H.; Gates, Hiriam O.; Alexandria D. Allen; Miriam Braunstein; Kyi-Toe Tham; Shoen, Carolyn M.; Michelle S. DeStefano; Hager, Cynthia C.

    2013-01-01

    Early attempts to improve BCG have focused on increasing the expression of prominent antigens and adding recombinant toxins or cytokines to influence antigen presentation. One such modified BCG vaccine candidate has been withdrawn from human clinical trials due to adverse effects. BCG was derived from virulent Mycobacterium bovis and retains much of its capacity for suppressing host immune responses. Accordingly, we have used a different strategy for improving BCG based on reducing its immune...

  4. Theoretical and methodological aspects of BCG vaccine from the discovery of Calmette and Guérin to molecular biology. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugosi, L

    1992-10-01

    The BCG vaccine has been used to prevent tuberculosis since 1921 and applied for immunostimulation in neoplasia since the 1960s. Both the preventive and immunostimulation effects have been evaluated and communicated with contradictory, positive and negative conclusions. For an objective evaluation and interpretation of the protective efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency of the BCG vaccination it must be considered that: (1) several BCG substrains have been developed in manufacturing laboratories that differ in the residual virulence which determines immunogenicity and reactogenicity; (2) various liquid and freeze-dried BCG vaccine production methods are used, resulting in different BCG viable units per dose; (3) quantitative bioassay methods are not yet being used for statistical quality control of the vaccine; (4) BCG products are applied in various demographical, epidemiological and socioeconomic conditions with different vaccination policies; (5) inadequate biostatistical models are often used to analyse efficacy, effectiveness and adverse reactions. The same conditions influence the precise evaluation of BCG immunostimulation in neoplasia. Recombinant DNA technology will modify production methods, and explain at the molecular level the mechanism of the protective effects BCG confers in tuberculosis and immunostimulation in neoplasia. High level laboratory techniques and biostatistical methods, based on probability logic and inductive inference, ensure appropriate experimental designs and the exact analysis of laboratory data and the results of vaccination policies. They will lead to the evaluation of the protective effect of BCG in order to reduce the BCG contradictions. PMID:1493232

  5. Vacina BCG contra tuberculose: efeito protetor e políticas de vacinação BCG vaccine against tuberculosis: its protective effect and vaccination policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Pereira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A vacina BCG é utilizada desde 1921, embora ainda apresente controvérsias e aspectos não esclarecidos. O objetivo do artigo foi analisar aspectos relacionados ao efeito protetor da primeira e segunda doses da vacina BCG e as políticas de vacinação adotadas. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada revisão sistemática da literatura publicada em inglês e espanhol, abrangendo o período compreendido entre 1948 e 2006, na base PubMed. Os principais descritores utilizados foram BCG vaccine, BCG efficacy, BCG e tuberculosis. Os estudos foram agrupados por tipo de desenho, apresentando-se separadamente os principais resultados de ensaios clínicos, estudos de caso-controle e metanálises. RESULTADOS: O efeito protetor da primeira dose da vacina BCG contra a tuberculose na forma miliar ou na meningite é elevado. No entanto, os resultados são discordantes em relação à forma pulmonar, variando de ausência de efeito a níveis próximos a 80%. Estão sendo conduzidas pesquisas sobre novas vacinas candidatas a substituir a BCG ou serem utilizadas como reforço. CONCLUSÕES: Há evidências de que a segunda dose da BCG não aumenta o seu efeito protetor. Apesar de seus limites e da expectativa futura de nova vacina para tuberculose, a vacina BCG mantém-se como importante instrumento no controle dos efeitos danosos da doença, sobretudo em países com taxas de incidência médias e elevadas.OBJECTIVE: The BCG vaccine has been in use since 1921, but still arouses controversy and uncertainties. The objective was to analyze the protective effect of the BCG vaccine in its first and second doses and the accompanying vaccination policies. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature in both English and Spanish was carried out, covering the period 1948 to 2006, using the PubMed database. The main search terms used included BCG vaccine, BCG efficacy, BCG and tuberculosis. The studies were grouped by design, with the main results from the clinic tests, case

  6. Construction, Expression and Identification of a Recombinant BCG Vaccine Encoding Human Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Heat Shock Protein 65

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴五星; 梁靓; 高红; 黄海浪; 陈智浩; 程继忠; 皇甫永穆

    2004-01-01

    Heat shock protein 65 (HSP65) is one of the most important protective immunogens against the tuberculosis infection. The signal sequence of antigen 85B and the whole HSP65 DNA sequence of human Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) were amplified from BCG genome and plasmid pCMV-MTHSP65 respectively by polymerase chain reactions (PCR). These two sequences were cloned into the plasmid pBCG-2100 under the control of the promoter of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) from human M. tuberculosis, yielding the prokaryotic shuttle expression plasmid pBCG-SP-HSP65. Results of restriction endonuclease analysis, PCR detection and DNA sequencing analysis showed that the two cloned DNA sequences were consistent with those previously reported, and the direction of their inserting into the recombinant was correct and the reading frame had been maintained. The recombinants were electroporated into BCG to construct the recombinant BCG vaccine and induced by heating. The induced expression detected by SDS-PAGE showed that the content of 65 kD protein expressed in recombinant BCG was 35.69 % in total bacterial protein and 74.09 % in the cell lysate supernatants, suggesting that the recombinant HSP65 gene could express in BCG with high efficiency and the expressed proteins were mainly soluble. Western-blot showed that the secretive recombinant proteins could specifically combine with antibody against M.tuberculosis HSP65, indicating that the recombinant proteins possess the biological activity of HSP65.

  7. Current status of new tuberculosis vaccine in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yu; Zhao, Aihua; Cohen, Chad; Kang, Wanli; Lu, Jie; Wang, Guozhi; Zhao, Yanlin; Zheng, Suhua

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric tuberculosis contributes significantly to the burden of TB disease worldwide. In order to achieve the goal of eliminating TB by 2050, an effective TB vaccine is urgently needed to prevent TB transmission in children. BCG vaccination can protect children from the severe types of TB such as TB meningitis and miliary TB, while its efficacy against pediatric pulmonary TB ranged from no protection to very high protection. In recent decades, multiple new vaccine candidates have been developed, and shown encouraging safety and immunogenicity in the preclinical experiments. However, the limited data on protective efficacy in infants evaluated by clinical trials has been disappointing, an example being MVA85A. To date, no vaccine has been shown to be clinically safer and more effective than the presently licensed BCG vaccine. Hence, before a new vaccine is developed with more promising efficacy, we must reconsider how to better use the current BCG vaccine to maximize its effectiveness in children. PMID:27002369

  8. DIFFERENT CHARACTERISTICS OF INFECTION WITH MYCOBACTERIA IN GRANULOMA CELLS FROM MICE WITH LATENT TUBERCULOSIS INFECTION AND IN BONE MARROW AND PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES AFTER BCG VACCINE APPLICATION IN VITRO

    OpenAIRE

    E. G. Ufimtseva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the content of BCG-mycobacteria in granulomas obtained from various organs of BALB/c mice with latent tuberculosis after in vivo exposure to BCG vaccine and in mouse bone marrow and peritoneal macrophages after BCG infection in vitro. The granuloma cells obtained from mice through 20 days, one and two months after their BCG-infecting in vivo were differed with respect to both the number of granulomas with macrophages containing the defined numbers of BCG-my...

  9. Oral Polio Vaccine Influences the Immune Response to BCG Vaccination. A Natural Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartono, E.; Lisse, I.M.; Terveer, E.M.; van de Sande, P.J.M.; Whittle, H.; Fisker, Bent; Roth, A.; Aaby, Peter; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2010-01-01

    BCG scar (0.95 (0.91-1.00), p = 0.057)). Among children with a scar, OPV was associated with reduced scar size, the regression coefficient being -0.24 (-0.43-0.05), p = 0.012. Conclusions: This study is the first to address the consequences for the immune response to BCG of simultaneous administration...

  10. Enhanced effect of BCG vaccine against pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice with lung Th17 response to mycobacterial heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Masayuki; Shinjo, Kikuko; Umemura, Masayuki; Shigeno, Satoko; Harakuni, Tetsuya; Arakawa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Goro

    2015-12-01

    Although the BCG vaccine can prevent tuberculosis (TB) in infants, its ability to prevent adult pulmonary TB is reportedly limited. Therefore, development of a novel effective vaccine against pulmonary TB has become an international research priority. We have previously reported that intranasal vaccination of mice with a mycobacterial heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA) plus mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT) enhances production of IFN-γ and anti-HBHA antibody and suppresses extrapulmonary bacterial dissemination after intranasal infection with BCG. In the present study, the effects of intranasal HBHA + CT vaccine on murine pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection were examined. Intranasal HBHA + CT vaccination alone failed to reduce the bacterial burden in the infected lung. However, a combination vaccine consisting of s.c. BCG priming and an intranasal HBHA + CT booster significantly enhanced protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection on day 14 compared with BCG vaccine alone. Further, it was found that intranasal HBHA + CT vaccine enhanced not only IFN-γ but also IL-17A production by HBHA-specific T cells in the lung after pulmonary Mtb infection. Therefore, this combination vaccine may be a good candidate for a new vaccine strategy against pulmonary TB. PMID:26577130

  11. Pulmonary but Not Subcutaneous Delivery of BCG Vaccine Confers Protection to Tuberculosis-Susceptible Mice by an Interleukin 17-Dependent Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilo, Nacho; Alvarez-Arguedas, Samuel; Uranga, Santiago; Marinova, Dessislava; Monzón, Marta; Badiola, Juan; Martin, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Some of the most promising novel tuberculosis vaccine strategies currently under development are based on respiratory vaccination, mimicking the natural route of infection. In this work, we have compared pulmonary and subcutaneous delivery of BCG vaccine in the tuberculosis-susceptible DBA/2 mouse strain, a model in which parenterally administered BCG vaccine does not protect against tuberculosis. Our data show that intranasally but not subcutaneously administered BCG confers robust protection against pulmonary tuberculosis challenge. In addition, our results indicate that pulmonary vaccination triggers a Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific mucosal immune response orchestrated by interleukin 17A (IL-17A). Thus, IL-17A neutralization in vivo reduces protection and abrogates M. tuberculosis-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) secretion to respiratory airways and lung expression of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor induced following intranasal vaccination. Together, our results demonstrate that pulmonary delivery of BCG can overcome the lack of protection observed when BCG is given parenterally, suggesting that respiratory tuberculosis vaccines could have an advantage in tuberculosis-endemic countries, where intradermally administered BCG has inefficient effectiveness against pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:26494773

  12. The effect of tuberculin skin test and BCG vaccination on the expansion of PPD-specific IFN-gamma producing cells ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Martin O C; Brookes, Roger H; Hill, Philip C; Owiafe, Patrick K; Ibanga, Hannah B; Donkor, Simon; Awine, Timothy; McShane, Helen; Adegbola, Richard A

    2007-12-17

    Understanding the immunogenicity of BCG in a population where it has failed will facilitate the design of new TB vaccines. We assessed the immunogenicity of M. bovis BCG over 12 months by ELISPOT assay. Forty-one adolescents and young Gambian male adults received a tuberculin skin test (TST) which was followed one week later by BCG vaccination, but the 23 control subjects received neither of these. TST alone significantly induced PPD-specific IFN-gamma producing cells. Twenty-three percent of subjects did not respond to BCG, which was associated with higher pre-existing ex vivo response to PPD. Paradoxically, amongst BCG responders there was a correlation between pre-existing response and subsequent response to BCG. We conclude that BCG is immunogenic, but this effector response is short-lived and can be limited in higher pre-existing anti-mycobacterial immunity, suggesting a possible threshold beyond which BCG immunogenicity is inhibited. PMID:18023944

  13. Improving the Immunogenicity of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccine by Non-Genetic Bacterial Surface Decoration Using the Avidin-Biotin System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Yu Angela Liao

    Full Text Available Current strategies to improve the current BCG vaccine attempt to over-express genes encoding specific M. tuberculosis (Mtb antigens and/or regulators of antigen presentation function, which indeed have the potential to reshape BCG in many ways. However, these approaches often face serious difficulties, in particular the efficiency and stability of gene expression via nucleic acid complementation and safety concerns associated with the introduction of exogenous DNA. As an alternative, we developed a novel non-genetic approach for rapid and efficient display of exogenous proteins on bacterial cell surface. The technology involves expression of proteins of interest in fusion with a mutant version of monomeric avidin that has the feature of reversible binding to biotin. Fusion proteins are then used to decorate the surface of biotinylated BCG. Surface coating of BCG with recombinant proteins was highly reproducible and stable. It also resisted to the freeze-drying shock routinely used in manufacturing conventional BCG. Modifications of BCG surface did not affect its growth in culture media neither its survival within the host cell. Macrophages phagocytized coated BCG bacteria, which efficiently delivered their surface cargo of avidin fusion proteins to MHC class I and class II antigen presentation compartments. Thereafter, chimeric proteins corresponding to a surrogate antigen derived from ovalbumin and the Mtb specific ESAT6 antigen were generated and tested for immunogenicity in vaccinated mice. We found that BCG displaying ovalbumin antigen induces an immune response with a magnitude similar to that induced by BCG genetically expressing the same surrogate antigen. We also found that BCG decorated with Mtb specific antigen ESAT6 successfully induces the expansion of specific T cell responses. This novel technology, therefore, represents a practical and effective alternative to DNA-based gene expression for upgrading the current BCG vaccine.

  14. Improving the Immunogenicity of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccine by Non-Genetic Bacterial Surface Decoration Using the Avidin-Biotin System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ting-Yu Angela; Lau, Alice; Joseph, Sunil; Hytönen, Vesa; Hmama, Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Current strategies to improve the current BCG vaccine attempt to over-express genes encoding specific M. tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens and/or regulators of antigen presentation function, which indeed have the potential to reshape BCG in many ways. However, these approaches often face serious difficulties, in particular the efficiency and stability of gene expression via nucleic acid complementation and safety concerns associated with the introduction of exogenous DNA. As an alternative, we developed a novel non-genetic approach for rapid and efficient display of exogenous proteins on bacterial cell surface. The technology involves expression of proteins of interest in fusion with a mutant version of monomeric avidin that has the feature of reversible binding to biotin. Fusion proteins are then used to decorate the surface of biotinylated BCG. Surface coating of BCG with recombinant proteins was highly reproducible and stable. It also resisted to the freeze-drying shock routinely used in manufacturing conventional BCG. Modifications of BCG surface did not affect its growth in culture media neither its survival within the host cell. Macrophages phagocytized coated BCG bacteria, which efficiently delivered their surface cargo of avidin fusion proteins to MHC class I and class II antigen presentation compartments. Thereafter, chimeric proteins corresponding to a surrogate antigen derived from ovalbumin and the Mtb specific ESAT6 antigen were generated and tested for immunogenicity in vaccinated mice. We found that BCG displaying ovalbumin antigen induces an immune response with a magnitude similar to that induced by BCG genetically expressing the same surrogate antigen. We also found that BCG decorated with Mtb specific antigen ESAT6 successfully induces the expansion of specific T cell responses. This novel technology, therefore, represents a practical and effective alternative to DNA-based gene expression for upgrading the current BCG vaccine. PMID:26716832

  15. The 3H-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of different tissues of the guinea pip after BCG-vaccination and the radiation insultus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioprotective effects of BCG vaccines have been examined. The 3H-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of different tissues of the guinea-pig after solitary whole-body irradiation by the doses of 160, 400, and 700 R have been used as a parameter for radiation injuries and radioprotection. The specific activity of DNA has been detected by means of liquid scintillation counting and by indirect photomeric determination of the amount at 7 h p.r. It has been revealed that independent of the chosen irradiation dose, there was no significant difference in the rate of DNA synthesis in the duodenal, testicular, bone marrow, liver, and lymphatic ganglion tissues of animals vaccinated 30 days before irradiation insultus and the rate of DNA synthesis in normal animals. Based on medical evidence, effect principles which can be observed on other antigenous radioprotective substances can be excluded this time. The dose effect curve has qualitatively the same features as the curves of cell cultures and synchronized cell systems in mammals. Furthermore, the process of DNA synthesis was observed for 56 days. During this observation period there was no significant difference to be seen in the rate of duodenal, testicular, bone marrow, and liver tissues in vaccinated and in normal animals. Only in lymphatic tissues the synthesis rate of vaccinated animals has shown a significantly more decreasing tendency than that of normal animals. A relation concerning radioprotective substances containing SH-groups and 'short-term' protectors (endotoxines) could be excluded because of medical evidence. It is suggested to carry out further tests with parameters affecting the RES in order to comprehend radioprotection after BCG vaccination. (orig./MG)

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPD-induced immune biomarkers measurable in vitro following BCG vaccination of UK adolescents by multiplex bead array and intracellular cytokine staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worth Andrew

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vaccine efficacy reported following Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG administration to UK adolescents is 77% and defining the cellular immune response in this group can inform us as to the nature of effective immunity against tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to identify which cytokines and lymphocyte populations characterise the peripheral blood cellular immune response following BCG vaccination. Results Diluted blood from before and after vaccination was stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative for 6 days, after which soluble biomarkers in supernatants were assayed by multiplex bead array. Ten out of twenty biomarkers measured were significantly increased (p Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative stimulation of PBMC samples from the 12 month group revealed that IFNγ expression was detectable in CD4 and CD8 T-cells and natural killer cells. Polyfunctional flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that cells expressing IFNγ alone formed the majority in each subpopulation of cells. Only in CD4 T-cells and NK cells were there a notable proportion of responding cells of a different phenotype and these were single positive, TNFα producers. No significant expression of the cytokines IL-2, IL-17 or IL-10 was seen in any population of cells. Conclusions The broad array of biomarker responses detected by multiplex bead array suggests that BCG vaccination is capable, in this setting, of inducing a complex immune phenotype. Although polyfunctional T-cells have been proposed to play a role in protective immunity, they were not present in vaccinated adolescents who, based on earlier epidemiological studies, should have developed protection against pulmonary tuberculosis. This may be due to the later sampling time point available for testing or on the kinetics of the assays used.

  17. Investigating Children's Mathematics Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohi; Autry, Mary Murray; Fox, Jill; Williams, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 244 children (average age: 61 months) and their parents from the Dallas and Fort Worth (DFW) metroplex area in Texas were surveyed to investigate children's mathematics readiness. This study was conducted as part of a project funded by a local child care council, composed of business, civic, and education leaders in the community. The…

  18. Identification of biomarkers for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease in BCG-vaccinated young children in Southern India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhanasekaran, S; Jenum, S; Stavrum, R; Ritz, Christian; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Kenneth, J; Vaz, M; Grewal, H M S; Doherty, T M

    2013-01-01

    .05) was upregulated in latent TB compared with that in controls. Using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (lasso) model, RAB33A alone discriminated between TB disease and latent TB (area under the curve (AUC) 77.5%), whereas a combination of RAB33A, CXCL10, SEC14L1, FOXP3 and TNFRSF1A was...

  19. A Comprehensive Survey of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) across Mycobacterium bovis Strains and M. bovis BCG Vaccine Strains Refines the Genealogy and Defines a Minimal Set of SNPs That Separate Virulent M. bovis Strains and M. bovis BCG Strains▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Pelayo, M. Carmen; Uplekar, Swapna; Keniry, Andrew; Mendoza Lopez, Pablo; Garnier, Thierry; Nunez Garcia, Javier; Boschiroli, Laura; Zhou, Xiangmei; Parkhill, Julian; Smith, Noel; Hewinson, R Glyn; Cole, Stewart T.; Gordon, Stephen V.

    2009-01-01

    To further unravel the mechanisms responsible for attenuation of the tuberculosis vaccine Mycobacterium bovis BCG, comparative genomics was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that differed between sequenced strains of Mycobacterium bovis and M. bovis BCG. SNPs were assayed in M. bovis isolates from France and the United Kingdom and from different BCG vaccines in order to identify those that arose during the attenuation process which gave rise to BCG. Informative data sets...

  20. Genomic expression catalogue of a global collection of BCG vaccine strains show evidence for highly diverged metabolic and cell-wall adaptations

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Abdallah M.

    2015-10-21

    Although Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines against tuberculosis have been available for more than 90 years, their effectiveness has been hindered by variable protective efficacy and a lack of lasting memory responses. One factor contributing to this variability may be the diversity of the BCG strains that are used around the world, in part from genomic changes accumulated during vaccine production and their resulting differences in gene expression. We have compared the genomes and transcriptomes of a global collection of fourteen of the most widely used BCG strains at single base-pair resolution. We have also used quantitative proteomics to identify key differences in expression of proteins across five representative BCG strains of the four tandem duplication (DU) groups. We provide a comprehensive map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), copy number variation and insertions and deletions (indels) across fourteen BCG strains. Genome-wide SNP characterization allowed the construction of a new and robust phylogenic genealogy of BCG strains. Transcriptional and proteomic profiling revealed a metabolic remodeling in BCG strains that may be reflected by altered immunogenicity and possibly vaccine efficacy. Together, these integrated-omic data represent the most comprehensive catalogue of genetic variation across a global collection of BCG strains.

  1. Distribution of 35S-labelled BCG after application to the camera oculi anterior of BCG vaccinated and non-vaccinated rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After application of 35S-labelled BCG to the camera oculi anterior of the rabbit, the escape pathways of germs and their quantitative and qualitative distribution in eyes and blood has been studied in BCG-vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals while varying the amount of germs applied. As criteria, 35S concentration and the amount of 35S in ocular sections and in the blood which can be identified by means of distributing germs under the chosen conditions, have been detected. After only 10 minutes, elimination of germs is to be seen, continuing for a period longer than the 2 hours of post-injection period observed. Relatively high 35S concentrations indicate a long-term storage in the iris and in the ciliary body. The flow continues regularly but restrained via choroid and sclera into the blood. Flow velocity depends only within specific limits on the amount of germs injected into the anterior chamber. Under study conditions the flow mode via N.opticus and via lymphs is rather unimportant. The rest of the germs are distributed in the organism via blood vessels. A comparison of 35S concentration in sections of both eyes shows germ enrichment in tissues with sufficient blood supply, particularly in the choroid. Differences in germ distribution in vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals are not to be seen in the 35S distribution pattern. Neither higher nor lower germ doses indicate a stronger retention in the ocular sections of vaccinated animals. The necessity to complete this study by applying germ doses smaller than 1 mg (humidity weight) is stated pointing out technical difficulties involved while applying a test model. (orig.)

  2. Strategies to eradicate minimal residual disease in small cell lung cancer: high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, and BEC2 plus BCG vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, L M; Grant, S C; Miller, V A; Ng, K K; Kris, M G

    1999-10-01

    In the last 25 years, treatment for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has improved with advances in chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Standard chemotherapy regimens can yield 80% to 90% response rates and some cures when combined with thoracic irradiation in limited-stage patients. Nonetheless, small cell lung cancer has a high relapse rate due to drug resistance; this has resulted in poor survival for most patients. Attacking this problem requires a unique approach to eliminate resistant disease remaining after induction therapy. This review will focus on three potential strategies: high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, and BEC2 plus BCG vaccination. PMID:10566613

  3. Natural variation in immune responses to neonatal Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG Vaccination in a Cohort of Gambian infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Finan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a need for new vaccines for tuberculosis (TB that protect against adult pulmonary disease in regions where BCG is not effective. However, BCG could remain integral to TB control programmes because neonatal BCG protects against disseminated forms of childhood TB and many new vaccines rely on BCG to prime immunity or are recombinant strains of BCG. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma is required for immunity to mycobacteria and used as a marker of immunity when new vaccines are tested. Although BCG is widely given to neonates IFN-gamma responses to BCG in this age group are poorly described. Characterisation of IFN-gamma responses to BCG is required for interpretation of vaccine immunogenicity study data where BCG is part of the vaccination strategy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 236 healthy Gambian babies were vaccinated with M. bovis BCG at birth. IFN-gamma, interleukin (IL-5 and IL-13 responses to purified protein derivative (PPD, killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (KMTB, M. tuberculosis short term culture filtrate (STCF and M. bovis BCG antigen 85 complex (Ag85 were measured in a whole blood assay two months after vaccination. Cytokine responses varied up to 10 log-fold within this population. The majority of infants (89-98% depending on the antigen made IFN-gamma responses and there was significant correlation between IFN-gamma responses to the different mycobacterial antigens (Spearman's coefficient ranged from 0.340 to 0.675, p = 10(-6-10(-22. IL-13 and IL-5 responses were generally low and there were more non-responders (33-75% for these cytokines. Nonetheless, significant correlations were observed for IL-13 and IL-5 responses to different mycobacterial antigens CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cytokine responses to mycobacterial antigens in BCG-vaccinated infants are heterogeneous and there is significant inter-individual variation. Further studies in large populations of infants are required to identify the factors that determine

  4. Characterization of immune response to killed leishmania major promastigotes plus BCG vaccine in Sudanese volunteers: a double-blind placebo controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was examined whether intradermal immunization of healthy adult Sudanese volunteers with killed leishmania major (KLM) promastigotes plus BCG would induce antigen-specific T cell responses. Only healthy Sudanese volunteers with negative reactivity to leishmania skin test and with ≤20 mm induration of reactivity to purified protein derivative (PPD) were included in the trial. Group (A) (n=3): received a single dose (0.1ml) at a concentration of 10 mg protein of a whole cell component of KLM promastigotes/ml BCG, group (B) (n=12): received as a single dose of viable attenuated BCG alone (0.1 ml) at a concentration of 1 mg protein/ml diluent, group (C) (n=11): received the vaccine diluent only (Placebo) (o.1 ml). Study subjects were tested for their immunological and clinical responses before intervention, . Following vaccination 65% of group (A) subjects converted in their reactivity to leishmanin skin testing,non of the BCG vaccinated subjects converted in leishmanin skin test and only one subject of group (C) became leishmanin positive. Levels of Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-5 (IL-5) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured by a double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A vaccine was considered as a positive responder in terms of cytokine production when the level of the produced cytokine was equal to the 80th percentile of the levels produced by the volunteers in the placebo group. 92% of the group vaccinated with KLM=BCG had circulating T cells. No significant of IL-5 or Il-10 was reported in any of the volunteers in the three group. Levels of antileishmania specific IgG were measured by ELISA in optical densities. Volunteers with mean antibody titre above the cut-off point (mean=3X standard deviation) were considered to have positive scores. Accordingly after vaccination 7.69% one volunteers in group (A) had a positive antibody response corresponding to 0% in the other two groups. No serious side effects were reported

  5. Tuberculous spondylitis following BCG vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of a rare form of BCG osteomyelitis in the spine is presented. After vaccination, the disease started with a lymphadenitis. Later an abscess extended from the pelvic along the psoas muscles into the retroperitoneum. The soft tissue mass extended paraspinally and epidural involvement was also apparent. The vertebral involvement was detected by CT. The radiological findings are discussed with reference to the literature. (orig.)

  6. Another vaccine, another story: BCG vaccination against tuberculosis in India, 1948 to 1960 Outra vacina, outra história: a vacinação de BCG contra tuberculose na Índia, 1948 a 1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Brimnes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Through an examination of mass BCG vaccination against tuberculosis in India between 1948 and 1960 this article draws attention to the diversity of the history of vaccination. The features of vaccination campaigns often differed from those of the celebrated campaign to eradicate smallpox. Due to differences between smallpox and tuberculosis as well as between the vaccines developed against them, an analysis of BCG mass vaccination against tuberculosis seems particularly well suited for this purpose. Three points of difference are identified. First, in non-Western contexts BCG vaccination procedures were modified to a greater extent than vaccination against smallpox. Second, tuberculosis lacked the drama and urgency of smallpox and BCG vaccination campaigns suffered more from recruitment problems than did the more "heroic" smallpox eradication campaign. Third, the BCG vaccine was contested in medical circles and was much better suited than the vaccine against smallpox as a vehicle for the articulation of concerns about post-colonial modernization.Através da observação da vacinação em massa de BCG contra a tuberculose na Índia durante os anos de 1948 a 1960, este artigo chama a atenção para a diversidade da história da vacinação. As características das campanhas de vacinação geralmente diferem daquelas celebradas nas campanhas para erradicação da varíola. Devido às diferenças entre a varíola e a turberculose, assim como entre as vacinas desenvolvidas para combater essas doenças, uma análise da vacinação em massa de BCG contra a turberculose parece especialmente bem situada para essa proposta. Três pontos de diferença foram identificados. O primeiro é que em contextos não ocidentais os procedimentos da vacinação de BCG foram modificados em uma extensão maior do que a vacinação contra a varíola. Em segundo lugar, a tuberculose não tinha o drama e a urgência da varíola, e as campanhas de vacinação de BCG

  7. Is there a correlation between the size of the BCG scar and renal scar of urinary tract infections in children?

    OpenAIRE

    Salih Kavukçu; Demet Alaygut; Belde Kasap; Alper Soylu; Gamze Çapakaya; Mehmet Türkmen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Pyelonephritis cause cellular death, and developmentof scars in kidneys. The aim of this study is todemonstrate a correlation (if any) between renal scar, andsize of the scar induced by BCG vaccine in children whohad experienced urinary tract infections. In case of detectionof any correlation, BCG scar formation can be usedas a determinative marker of renal scars, which developfollowing urinary tract infection.Methods: Patients with a history of urinary tract infectionat least 4 mo...

  8. Vaccination technique, PPD reaction and BCG scarring in a cohort of children born in Guinea-Bissau 2000-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Sodemann, Morten; Jensen, Henrik; Poulsen, Anja; Gustafson, Per; Gomes, Justino; Djana, Queba; Jakobsen, Marianne; Garly, May-Lill; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The rates of positive tuberculin skin test (TST) reactions and BCG scarring after BCG vaccination vary between studies and populations. Tuberculin reactivity and BCG scarring may be related to better child survival in low-income countries. We therefore studied determinants for TST reaction and......=2225) of age. In a subgroup of the children the vaccination technique was monitored by direct observation of post-vaccination wheal and route of administration. Three different types of BCG vaccine supplied by the local Extended Programme on Immunization were used. At 6 months of age the rate of PPD...... reactors (>1mm) after BCG vaccination was 25% and the rate of scarring was 89%. One BCG strain was associated with fewer PPD reactors (OR=0.54 (0.31-0.91)) and BCG scars (OR=0.13 (0.05-0.37)) and larger post-vaccination wheals produced more PPD reactions (OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.02-1.43)) and BCG scars (OR 1...

  9. Assessment of different formulations of oral Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in rodent models for immunogenicity and protection against aerosol challenge with M. bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Simon; Cross, Martin L; Smith, Alan; Court, Pinar; Vipond, Julia; Nadian, Allan; Hewinson, R Glyn; Batchelor, Hannah K; Perrie, Yvonne; Williams, Ann; Aldwell, Frank E; Chambers, Mark A

    2008-10-29

    vehicles for an oral BCG vaccine in badgers. PMID:18789366

  10. Adenovirus type 35-vectored tuberculosis vaccine has an acceptable safety and tolerability profile in healthy, BCG-vaccinated, QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold (+) Kenyan adults without evidence of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Douglas S; Owira, Victorine; Polhemus, Mark; Otieno, Lucas; Andagalu, Ben; Ogutu, Bernhards; Waitumbi, John; Hawkridge, Anthony; Shepherd, Barbara; Pau, Maria Grazia; Sadoff, Jerald; Douoguih, Macaya; McClain, J Bruce

    2016-05-01

    In a Phase 1 trial, we evaluated the safety of AERAS-402, an adenovirus 35-vectored TB vaccine candidate expressing 3 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) immunodominant antigens, in subjects with and without latent Mtb infection. HIV-negative, BCG-vaccinated Kenyan adults without evidence of tuberculosis, 10 QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-G)(-) and 10 QFT-G(+), were randomized 4:1 to receive AERAS-402 or placebo as two doses, on Days 0 and 56, with follow up to Day 182. There were no deaths, serious adverse events or withdrawals. For 1 AERAS-402 QFT-G(-) and 1 AERAS-402 QFT-G(+) subject, there were 3 self-limiting severe AEs of injection site pain: 1 after the first vaccination and 1 after each vaccination, respectively. Two additional severe AEs considered vaccine-related were reported after the first vaccination in AERAS-402 QFT-G(+) subjects: elevated blood creatine phosphokinase and neutropenia, the latter slowly improving but remaining abnormal until study end. AERAS-402 was not detected in urine or throat cultures for any subject. In intracellular cytokine staining studies, curtailed by technical issues, we saw modest CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to Mtb Ag85A/b peptide pools among both QFT-G(-) and (+) subjects, with trends in the CD4+ T cells suggestive of boosting after the second vaccine dose, slightly more so in QFT-G(+) subjects. CD4+ and CD8+ responses to Mtb antigen TB10.4 were minimal. Increases in Adenovirus 35 neutralizing antibodies from screening to end of study, seen in 50% of AERAS-402 recipients, were mostly minimal. This small study confirms acceptable safety and tolerability profiles for AERAS-402, in line with other Phase 1 studies of AERAS-402, now to include QFT-G(+) subjects. PMID:27026148

  11. Asthma, atopy and tuberculin responses in Chinese schoolchildren in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, G; Hui, D.; Tam, C; Chan, H; Fok, T; Chan-Yeung, M.; Lai, C

    2001-01-01

    [Headnote] Background-The prevalence rates of asthma and other atopic disorders have increased steadily in many developed countries over the past few decades. Recent epidemiological and animal studies have suggested that BCG vaccination might be beneficial in reducing the subsequent development of atopy. This study investigates the relationship between asthma, allergic symptoms, atopy, and tuberculin response in Chinese school-- children who received BCG vaccination at birth. Methods...

  12. Investigating media artifacts with children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    The dissertation’s aim is to explore the everyday relevance media artifacts have for young children. It discusses and further develops analytical concepts that are committed to taking the children’s perspectives on possibilities and limitations of such artifacts seriously. These conceptual...... developments are rooted in the author’s participation in a daycare practice in Berlin, Germany. The daycare’s situational approach precisely attempted to draw on the children’s everyday life experiences so as to engage in problem-oriented learning projects, on media artifacts and beyond....

  13. Endocrinal investigations on Sudanese malnourished children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malnutrition showed a high incidence among Sudanese children under five years of age. It affects directly the endocrine system of such children. In this the thyroid gland selected as a very important endocrine organ to be studied in 49 malnourished children under five years. Other 20 well- nourished children were selected to act as a control subjects . Both study and control groups were match for age and sex. The patients were seen and assessed for the disease in different hospital in Khartoum by consultant pediatrician. Thyroid function (thyroxineT4 and Triiodothyronine) was tested with a sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. Some other biochemical parameters (hemoglobin Hb % total protein) were also investigated for the two groups (Patients and control) to confirm malnutrition. The means of the investigated parameters of the patients were compared with those of control group. The results showed 20 % of the malnourished children was complained of sever hypothyroidism (T4<25μmol/I) and (T3<0.3μmol/I) considering the normal range (55-142μmol/I) and (0.8-3μmol/I) respectively. The difference was highly significant together. The patients group showed low level in the two parameters, which indicate malnutrition. The the thyroid function in the malnourished children was severely affected by malnutrition, and such a test is strongly recommended to be a routine investigation for malnourished children. ( Author)

  14. Scientific Investigations of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valanides, Nicos; Papageorgiou, Maria; Angeli, Charoula

    2014-01-01

    The study provides evidence concerning elementary school children's ability to conduct a scientific investigation. Two hundred and fifty sixth-grade students and 248 fourth-grade students were administered a test, and based on their performance, they were classified into high-ability and low-ability students. The sample of this study was…

  15. Scientific Investigations of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valanides, Nicos; Papageorgiou, Maria; Angeli, Charoula

    2013-04-01

    The study provides evidence concerning elementary school children's ability to conduct a scientific investigation. Two hundred and fifty sixth-grade students and 248 fourth-grade students were administered a test, and based on their performance, they were classified into high-ability and low-ability students. The sample of this study was randomly selected and included 80 students, 40 fourth-grade and 40 sixth-grade students of low and high abilities. Students were specifically instructed to investigate the functioning of a device, to think aloud prior and after any experiment with the device, and to keep a record of their experimental results. The results showed that students were inclined to mainly collect evidence from the experimental space and failed to control variables during their investigation. The majority of the students had difficulties with effectively organizing collected data and failed to coordinate hypotheses with evidence. The significant interaction effect that was found between grade level and ability in terms of students' investigation ability indicates that the existing gap between high- and low-ability students becomes bigger as students become older. Undoubtedly, ongoing research efforts for identifying patterns of children's cognitive development will be most valuable as they can have important implications for the design of teaching scenarios and inquiry-based science activities conducive to accelerating students' cognitive growth and scientific investigation abilities.

  16. Investigation on children's social adaptive capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ya-ping; WANG Bao-yan; CHEN Yun-qi; WANG Ai-rong; ZHANG Rong; NIU Xiao-lin

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To understand the present conditions of Children's social adaptive capacity. Methods:social viability and its influence factors were investigated on 628 Children in 7 kindergartens of 4 cities in China. Results: The general trend of development of Child's social adaptive capacity was fairly good. The relevance ratio on the edge level was 0.3%. Of them 16.4% and 7% were excellent and extraordinary intelligence respectively. The family environment had played a very important role in child's social adaptive capacity. Conclusion: The research revealed that in the respect of training a child's social adaptive ability, the initiative of each family should be brought into full play and we should surmount the negative influence, and solve the contradiction between releasing one's control and taking care of everything, and arouse the conscious activity of the child, and ensure the unity and balance between the child's own body and the living environment.

  17. The relative risk and protective factors screening of children patients with asthma after capillry bronchiolitis%毛细支气管炎后患儿发生哮喘的相关危险及保护因素筛查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚方彪; 孙碧霞; 汪玲娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To screen the relative risk and protective factors of children patients with asthma after capillary bronchiolitis.Methods The clinical and follow-up data of 220 children patients with capillary bronchiolitis were collected.Sex,treatment method,immunization vaccination,idiosyncrasy,feeding way,family history were investigated and analyzed.The risk factrs of asthma were screened.Results Univariate analysis showed that the incidence of asthma between different genders had no significant difference (P >0.05).The asthma incidence in patients with BCG vaccination on time and large-dose immunoglobulin treatment were lower than those in patients without BCG vaccination on time and large-dose immunoglobulin treatnent (P< 0.01 ).The asthma incidence in patients with idiosyncrasy,family history was significantly higher than that in patients without idiosyncrasy,family history( P < 0.05 ).The asthma incidence in patients with obesity was higher than that in other children (P < 0.05).The asthma incidence in patients with more than 4 months breast feeding was lower than that in patients with other feeding ways (P < 0.05 ).Multi-factors regression analysis showed that family history,obesity,idiosyncrasy were the risk factors of asthua,and large-dose immunoglobulin treatment,BCG vaccination on time,breast feeding > 4 months were the protective factors.Conclusions Family history,idiosyncrasy,obesity are the risk factors of asthma in children patients with capillary bronchiolitis,and should be focused on olservation.Immunoglobulin treatment and procedural BCG vaccination are the protective factors to reduce the asthma incidence.They are worthy of application especially in children with risk factors.%目的 对毛细支气管炎后患儿发生哮喘的危险因素进行筛查.方法 收集毛细支气管炎患儿220例的临床及随访资料,对性别、治疗方法、免疫接种、特异性体质、喂养方式、哮喘家族史等进行调查统计,筛选

  18. An Investigation of Creativity Among Children Attending Preschools

    OpenAIRE

    Zuhal Gizir Ergen; Aysel Köksal Akyol

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate creativity among children attending preschools in terms of several variables. The study was conducted with 72 female and 63 male 5-year-old (60-72 months) children selected from independent preschools related to the Turkish Ministry of National Education in Ankara. The “General Information Form” was administered to children in order to collect basic information about children and their parents. To determine creativity among children, the “Torrence C...

  19. Intonation Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovik, Vesna; Setter, Jane; van Ewijk, Lizet

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated expressive and receptive intonation abilities in children with Williams syndrome (WS) and the relation of these abilities to other linguistic abilities. Method: Fourteen children with WS, 14 typically developing children matched to the WS group for receptive language (LA), and 15 typically developing children…

  20. Investigation of thyroid of Lithuanian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The territory of Lithuania was divided into 3 regions according to the level of the contamination with radioactive materials (including 131J) after Chernobyl accident. Children born in 1985-1986 were examined in 3 counties: Kupishkis, Zarasai and Visaginas. The counties are located in a region with relatively lowest contamination with radioactive materials. Medium equivalent dose by 3 years old children thyroid was 0.001 Sv in those regions. The palpation, ultrasound and determination of TTH, FT4 and antibodies to Tg were used for the evaluation. There were examined 372 children in Kupishkis. The thyroid changes were found in 177 cases (47.5%), medium TTH - 1.3±0.09 pmol/l, FT4 - 8.5±0.28. 146 children were examined in Zarasai. In 90 (61.5%) cases were found changes in thyroid, medium FT4 - 12.8±0.45 and TTH 2.02±0.15. In Visaginas were examined 299 children. The thyroid changes were found in 144 (38.13%) cases. Medium FT4 - 11.8±0.37, TTH - 2.11±0.11. The frequency of children pathology in Lithuania is a very high. Functional parameters (TTH and FT4) were within normal range, no correlation was found between hormonal parameters and thyroid size. Detection of iodine excretion with urine are necessary in further study. (author)

  1. Response to immunization in children born to renal transplant recipients using immunosuppressive drugs during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinelli, Maria Isabel Saraiva; Ono, Erika; Viana, Patrícia Oliveira; Spina, Fernanda Garcia; Weckx, Lily Yin; dos Santos, Amélia Miyashiro Nunes; de Moraes-Pinto, Maria Isabel

    2016-01-20

    The use of immunosuppressive drugs can impair vaccination responses. When used during pregnancy, they may interfere with the development of the fetus's immune system. However, little is known regarding their influence on infant's response to vaccinations. Twenty-seven children born to renal transplant mothers (Tx) taking immunosuppressive drugs and 31 healthy children had the humoral immune response and reactogenicity to tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and 7 pneumococcal serotypes evaluated. The evolution of BCG vaccine scar was also registered. Antibodies were measured by ELISA. Lymphocyte immunophenotyping was performed on cord blood and at 7-8 months of age. Among Tx neonates, 82.4% had low B lymphocyte numbers at birth, and 29.4% had also low numbers of other lymphocyte subpopulations. Nevertheless, all children developed protective antibodies with similar antibody concentrations to the control group. Vaccine reactogenicity was similar in both groups and BCG healing was uneventful. PMID:26707214

  2. Investigating Young Children's Talk about the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Donna J.; Henward, Allison S.

    2013-01-01

    This study was an investigation into the ways in which two classes of six- and seven-year-old children in Hawaii talked about the media. The children were shown video clips from a variety of media and asked to respond both orally and in writing. The qualitative data gathered in this study were researcher notes, video and audio-taped focus group…

  3. Children's Sense of Agency in Preschool: A Sociocultural Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilppö, Jaakko; Lipponen, Lasse; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Rainio, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This socioculturally informed study investigated children's sense of agency in relation to their everyday life in preschool. The empirical data comprised focus groups reflection situations wherein Finnish preschool children (n. 19, aged 6-7) reflected on their everyday life with the help of photographs and drawings they made. Building on a…

  4. An Investigation of School Violence through Turkish Children's Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtal, Filiz; Artut, Kazim

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates Turkish children's perception of violence in school as represented through drawings and narratives. In all, 66 students (12 to 13 years old) from the middle socioeconomic class participated. To elicit children's perception of violence, they were asked to draw a picture of a violent incident they had heard, experienced, or…

  5. An Investigation of Creativity Among Children Attending Preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Gizir Ergen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate creativity among children attending preschools in terms of several variables. The study was conducted with 72 female and 63 male 5-year-old (60-72 months children selected from independent preschools related to the Turkish Ministry of National Education in Ankara. The “General Information Form” was administered to children in order to collect basic information about children and their parents. To determine creativity among children, the “Torrence Creative Thinking Test” developed by Torrence in 1966 and translated into Turkish by Aslan (1999 was used. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis H tests were used to analyze data. As a result of the study, gender and father’s educational level do not affect creativity scores of the children, yet duration of preschool attendance and mother’s educational level statistically have a significant effect on their creativity scores (p<.05.

  6. [Association between severe tuberculosis in children and previous BCG immunization in a national referral hospital, Peru 1990-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos-Tejada, Félix; del Castillo, Hernán

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the association between BCG immunization and severe tuberculosis (TB). We performed a retrospective study, including medical records from patients of the pneumology department at the National Children's Institute in Peru, between the years 1990-2000. A total of 2106 TB cases were reviewed, from them 259 patients were severe (miliary TB or meningoencephalitic TB). From all, 497 cases did not have history of BCG vaccination, 202 had severe TB and 295 non-severe TB (OR = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.03 to 0.07). In conclusion, children diagnosed with TB and who have been immunized with BCG, has 94% lower risk of developing severe TB, compared to children with TB non-immunized with BCG. PMID:22510912

  7. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunisation at birth and morbidity among Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Kjærgaard, Jesper; Pihl, Gitte Thybo; Birk, Nina Marie; Benn, Christine Stabell; Greisen, Gorm; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Pryds, Ole; Ravn, Henrik; Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Aaby, Peter; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2015-01-01

    days of life, infants were randomly assigned to intra-dermal vaccination with BCG or no intervention. At 3 and 13 months of age structured telephone interviews and clinical examinations of the children were conducted. In a subgroup of children blood samples were drawn and stool samples collected at age...... more than 93% adherence to clinical follow-up at 3 and 13 months, this randomised clinical trial has the potential to create evidence regarding non-specific effects of BCG vaccination in a high-income setting.......BACKGROUND: Studies from low-income countries report positive non-specific effects of early Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunisation on childhood health and survival. Neonatal immunisation with BCG may prime the immune system and offer partial protection against other infectious and possibly...

  8. Analysis of field investigative interviews of children conducted by specially trained police investigators

    OpenAIRE

    Myklebust, Trond

    2009-01-01

    The research of field investigative interviews of children (FIIC) are mainly studiesof individual factors by the children and interviewers, largely driven by a concern for non-contamination of the childrens` memory of the alleged offence in the interaction between the child and the interviewer. During the course of the present research, 100 videotaped FIIC, conducted by special trained interviewers, have been analysed and include some of the most prominent variables that are considered vital ...

  9. Emotion understanding in clinically anxious children: A preliminary investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Patrick Karl; Pons, Francisco; Harris, Paul L.; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the...... present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8-12, 8 girls/boys) was assessed for emotion understanding...... (Test of Emotion Comprehension), anxiety (Screening for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised and Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale) and attachment security (Security Scale). Children who reported more overall anxiety also...

  10. Children as consumers: investigating child diary expenditure data

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Farrell; Shields, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate expenditure behaviour of school-aged children using child diary information contained in the British Family Expenditure Survey. The estimates from an Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) for child expenditure suggest that drinks, sweets, books, and toys are `normal' goods for children, but clothes, travel, leisure and vice products are `luxury' items with income elasticities greater than one. Being a lone-parent child and having a working mother are important factors in determinin...

  11. Children's recantation of adult wrongdoing: An experimental investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Lindsay C; Mugno, Allison P

    2016-05-01

    Child maltreatment cases often hinge on a child's word versus a defendant's word, making children's disclosures crucially important. There is considerable debate concerning why children recant allegations, and it is imperative to examine recantation experimentally. The purpose of this laboratory analogue investigation was to test (a) how often children recant true allegations of an adult's wrongdoing after disclosing and (b) whether children's age and caregiver supportiveness predict recantation. During an interactive event, 6- to 9-year-olds witnessed an experimenter break a puppet and were asked to keep the transgression a secret. Children were then interviewed to elicit a disclosure of the transgression. Mothers were randomly assigned to react supportively or unsupportively to this disclosure, and children were interviewed again. We coded children's recantations (explicit denials of the broken puppet after disclosing) and changes in their forthcomingness (shifts from denial or claims of lack of knowledge/memory to disclosure and vice versa) in free recall and in response to focused questions about the transgression. Overall, 23.3% of the children recanted their prior disclosures (46% and 0% in the unsupportive and supportive conditions, respectively). No age differences in recantation rates emerged, but 8- and 9-year-olds were more likely than 6- and 7-year-olds to maintain their recantation throughout Interview 2. Children whose mothers reacted supportively to disclosure became more forthcoming in Interview 2, and those whose mothers reacted unsupportively became less forthcoming. Results advance theoretical understanding of how children disclose negative experiences, including sociomotivational influences on their reports, and have practical implications for the legal system. PMID:26771375

  12. Both very low- and very high in vitro cytokine responses were associated with infant death in low-birth-weight children from Guinea Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas; Jensen, Kristoffer J; Erikstrup, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    children to Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) at birth or later according to local policy. Blood samples were obtained from a sub-group at age 6 weeks. Interleukin (IL)-5, IL-10, IL-13, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured in whole-blood cell cultures stimulated with...... lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or purified protein derivative (PPD). The outcome was mortality between bleeding and 1 year of age. Non-linear associations between cytokine responses and mortality were examined. RESULTS: Cytokine measurements were available from 390 children. The mortality rate...... (MR) was high (6.8/100 person-years-observation (PYO)). Both low and high cytokine responses to LPS and PHA were associated with high mortality (MR up to 25/100 PYO in the lowest 10% and 9.2/100 PYO in the highest 10%). In BCG-vaccinated children, higher IFN-γ responses to PPD were associated with...

  13. Expressions of shame in investigative interviews with Australian Aboriginal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Gemma; Brubacher, Sonja P; Powell, Martine B

    2016-01-01

    This study inspected a sample of 70 interview transcripts with Australian Aboriginal children to gain a sense of how frequently verbal shame responses were occurring in investigative interviews regarding alleged sexual abuse. Transcripts were examined to determine how children articulated shame, how interviewers reacted to these responses, and how shame related to children's accounts. Examination of frequencies revealed that verbal shame responses occurred in just over one-quarter of the interviews. One-way analyses of variance indicated that children who expressed shame within the interview spoke the same amount as children who did not express shame, however, they required more interviewer prompts before a disclosure was made. Interviews where children expressed shame also included a greater number of interviewer reminders compared to interviews without shame responses. Results emphasize the importance of interviewer awareness of shame, and also point to the value of reassurance, patience, and persistence with non-leading narrative prompting when interviewing children who express shame during discussions of sexual abuse. PMID:26654863

  14. The Study On Construction, Immunogenicity and Protection Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis of mpt64-recombinant BCG Vaccine%mpt64-卡介苗重组疫苗的构建、免疫原性及抗结核作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙颖; 张灵霞; 吴雪琼; 董恩军

    2011-01-01

    It was aimed to construct mpt64-recombinant BCG vaccine to find an improved vaccine to replace BCG and to prevent TB effectively. The gene of MPT64 was amplified by PCR and recombined with shuttle plasmids pYUB295. The recombinant shuttle plasmid was identified by PCR, enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing and then transformed into BCG by electroporation. The antigen-specific antibody levels of mouse immunized with recombinant BCG were evaluated by ELISA and multiplication of mouse lymph-cell was detected by MTS. The protection against M. tuberculosis of recombinant BCG vaccines was tested by their prevention and treatment experiments. PCR, enzyme digestion, DNA sequencing and SDS-PAGE results showed: The mpt64-recombinant BCG was constructed successfully and can express extrinsic MPT64 gene. The immunity experiment showed :extrinsic gene can be expressed in BCG and can stimulate B cell to produce antibody,the antibody level reached the peak after 45 days; The lymph-cells of each group proliferated when stimulated by different antigen,all stimulation index reached 2. The stimulation index of each group had no obviously difference. The prevention experiment of recombinant BCG against M. tuberculosis was indicated: mpt64-recombinant BCG and BCG can extend mean time to death and reduce death rate in 2 month of those mouse, the protection effect of mpt64-recombinant BCG had no difference with BCG. It could be concluded that the mpt64-ecombinant BCG was constructed successfully. The protection effect of mpt64-recombinant BCG had no difference with BCG.%通过基因工程重组技术将结核分枝杆菌保护性抗原MPT64的编码基因与穿梭质粒载体pYUB295重组,采用电穿孔技术将重组质粒导入到卡介苗中,应用聚合酶链反应(PCR)扩增、聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(PAGE)对mpt64-卡介苗重组疫苗鉴定:成功地构建了MPT64基因pYUB295重组质粒,MPT64蛋白在卡介苗中能分泌表达.卡介苗重组疫苗免

  15. Prevelence of latent tuberculosis and associated risk factors in children under 5 years of age in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubashir Zafar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As infected children represent a large proportion of the pool from which tuberculosis (TB cases will arise and its associated risk factors that influence TB infection are basic cause for burden of TB. Aim: This study was to determine the prevalence of latent TB and associated risk factors in children less than 5 year of age in Karachi, Pakistan. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study and it was conducted in tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Materials and Methods: In this study, children who were living in contact with individuals who had proven smear-positive pulmonary TB cases were investigated. A tuberculin skin test (TST was performed on each child. TST sizes ≥5 and 10 mm, respectively, were considered positive. Statistical Analysis: A random effects logistic regression model, which takes into account the clustering of contacts within households, was used to assess the relationship between the tuberculin response of the contact and risk factors. Results are reported as unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. The likelihood ratio test was used to assess the overall significance of risk factors, tests for trend, and tests for interaction. Results: The distribution of TST responses followed a bimodal pattern, with 135 (35% children presenting a palpable induration. The risk of positive TST response in the child increased with the geographic proximity of the child to the individual with TB within the household and with the degree of activities shared with the individual with TB. Nutritional status and presence of a bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG scar were not independent risk factors for TST positivity in this population. On multivariate analysis, the effect of geographic proximity to the individual with TB, household size, and duration of cough in the index case persisted for TST responses ≥5 mm. Conclusions: Positive TST in a child reflects most probably TB infection rather than previous BCG

  16. Identification of immunological biomarkers which may differentiate latent tuberculosis from exposure to environmental nontuberculous mycobacteria in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yun-Gyoung; Crampin, Amelia C; Chisambo, Christina; Kanyika, James; Houben, Rein; Ndhlovu, Richard; Mzembe, Themba; Lalor, Maeve K; Saul, Jacky; Branson, Keith; Stanley, Carolynne; Ngwira, Bagrey; French, Neil; Ottenhoff, Tom H; Dockrell, Hazel M; Gorak-Stolinska, Patricia

    2014-02-01

    A positive gamma interferon (IFN-γ) response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis early secretory antigenic target-6 (ESAT-6)/culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10) has been taken to indicate latent tuberculosis (TB) infection, but it may also be due to exposure to environmental nontuberculous mycobacteria in which ESAT-6 homologues are present. We assessed the immune responses to M. tuberculosis ESAT-6 and cross-reactive responses to ESAT-6 homologues of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium kansasii. Archived culture supernatant samples from children at 3 years post-BCG vaccination were tested for cytokine/chemokine responses to M. tuberculosis antigens. Furthermore, the IFN-γ responses to M. tuberculosis antigens were followed up for 40 children at 8 years post-BCG vaccination, and 15 TB patients were recruited as a control group for the M. tuberculosis ESAT-6 response in Malawi. IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) on supernatants from diluted whole-blood assays, IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays, QuantiFERON TB Gold-In Tube tests, and multiplex bead assays were performed. More than 45% of the responders to M. tuberculosis ESAT-6 showed IFN-γ responses to M. avium and M. kansasii ESAT-6. In response to M. tuberculosis ESAT-6/CFP-10, interleukin 5 (IL-5), IL-9, IL-13, and IL-17 differentiated the stronger IFN-γ responders to M. tuberculosis ESAT-6 from those who preferentially responded to M. kansasii and M. avium ESAT-6. A cytokine/chemokine signature of IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, and IL-17 was identified as a putative immunological biosignature to differentiate latent TB infection from exposure to M. avium and M. kansasii in Malawian children, indicating that this signature might be particularly informative in areas where both TB and exposure to environmental nontuberculous mycobacteria are endemic. PMID:24285818

  17. BCG Vaccination as a Prevention Strategy, Threats and Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirvani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Context Tuberculosis is still one of the deadliest communicable diseases. Objectives Nine million people worldwide developed TB in 2013, and 1.5 million people died from it, 360000 of which were HIV positive. Although the disease is controllable by means of diagnostic and treatment measures, the death toll from the disease is still high, and efforts to combat it must be accelerated. Data Sources Data compiled from 202 countries in the Global Tuberculosis Report 2014 showed that TB is present in all regions of the world. Study Selection Higher numbers of tuberculosis cases were diagnosed in 2013 in comparison with previous reports, indicating that diagnoses and reports of new cases may be improved by stringent data collection. Data Extraction A special note to the 2014 report highlighted the progress of drug resistant TB during the last two decades. Results Worldwide, a proportion of new cases with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB were reported at 3.5% in 2013 without a significant change compared with recent years. Interestingly, higher levels of resistance and poor treatment outcomes are of major concern in some parts of the world. Due to this concern, special attention is focused on prevention rather than treatment. On the other hand, the effectiveness of an existing vaccine (BCG is increasingly questionable. Conclusions It has the potential to cause disseminated infection, and an increasing number of immunocompromised patients prone to disease and the suboptimal preventive potency of this vaccine suggest the need for a global attempt to review its benefits and disadvantages.

  18. SIMULTANEOUS SMALLPOX AND B.C.G. VACCINATION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Kumara Rai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaksinasi cacar dan BCG mulai diberikan secara simultan di Jawa dan Bali pada bulan April 1972 vaksinasi cacar diberikan pada lengan kiri dan BCG pada lengan kanan. Secara berangsur-angsur prograi ini kemudian diperluas kedaerah luar Jawa-Bali, sehingga pada akhir tahun 1973 sudah mencakup seluruh Indonesia. Tenaga yang digunakan adalah para juru cacar yang sudah ada dalam rangka proyek pembasmian penyakit cacar yang dimulai tahun 1968, dan terdapat hampir disemua kecamatan diseluru Indonesia. Ide untuk menggabungkan kedua jenis vaksinasi ini yang kebetulan mempunyai target sam (anak2 0 - 14 thn  timbul setelah penderita cacar tidak dilaporkan lagi dibulan September 1971 (ternyata kemudian letusan cacar terakhir adalah dibulan Desember 1971. Sampai saat itu vaksina BCG dilakukan oleh petugas Puskesmas dan tenaga part timer. Ternyata target tidak pernah tercapa hal ini mungkin disebabkan oleh terbatasnya waktu yang tersedia untuk melakukan vaksinasi BCC sehingga para tenaga part timer tsb. hanya mampu mencakup daerah disekitar Puskesmas dan sekolah dasar. Sebelumnya telah diadakan dua trial; yang pertama diadakan di Bandung untuk melihat at tidaknya saling pengaruh mempengaruhi antara kedua jenis vaksin cacar dan BCG bila diberikan pat saat yang bersamaan, sedangkain trial kedua dilakukan untuk menilai kemampuan juru cacar dala melaksanakan vaksinasi BCG serta kesukaran! yang dijumpai dilapangan (masing2 didua kabupaten (Jawa Tengah, Timur dan Yogyakarta. Disamping keuntungan yang diperoleh dari penggabungan kedua jenis vaksinasi ini yakni penghematan tenaga, biaya dan waktu, dijumpai juga beberapa kesukaran antara lain pengumpulan anak2, supply vaksin BCG yang tidak teratur dll. Walaupun demikian, di Jawa dan Bali hasil vaksinasi BCG antara April 1972 sampai dengan April 1973 menunjukkan kenaikan out-put leb dari 4 kali lipat bila dibandingkan dengan out-put sebelum penggabungan, meskipun out-put prin vaksinasi cacar mempunyai tendensi menurun. Disini hanya akan dibahas pelaksanaan vaksinasi cacar dan BCG secara simultan di Jawa dan Bali, mengingat pelaksanaannya yang sudah memasuki tahun kedua.

  19. Trained immunity: consequences for the heterologous effects of BCG vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinnijenhuis, J.; Crevel, R. van; Netea, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence from epidemiologic and immunologic studies have shown that in addition to target disease-specific effects, vaccines have heterologous effects towards unrelated pathogens. Like some other vaccines, bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has shown in observational studies and randomi

  20. The investigation of urinary tract infections in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article outlines the role and methods used in the investigation of urinary tract infections in children. Each modality, whether it has been used in the past or begin used currently or in the future, has been discussed, together with its advantages and pitfalls. There are no hard and fast rules in the investigation of urinary tract infections. It really depends on the clinical scenario and the child. This article will hopefully provide a basis of understanding the reasons behind each investigation and their appropriate use in the child depending on their age and clinical history. (author)

  1. Oral medicines for children in the European paediatric investigation plans

    OpenAIRE

    van Riet-Nales, Diana A; Römkens, Erwin G A W; Saint-Raymond, Agnes; Kozarewicz, Piotr; Schobben, Alfred F A M; Egberts, Toine C G; Rademaker, Carin M. A.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pharmaceutical industry is no longer allowed to develop new medicines for use in adults only, as the 2007 Paediatric Regulation requires children to be considered also. The plans for such paediatric development called Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs) are subject to agreement by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and its Paediatric Committee (PDCO). The aim of this study was to evaluate the key characteristics of oral paediatric medicines in the PIPs and the changes impleme...

  2. Immunization coverage among children in Al-Taizyah district, Taiz Governorate, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Ahmed Al-Rabeei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At least 2 million people die every year from diseases preventable by vaccines recommended by the World Health Organization. Objective: To assess the routine immunization coverage among children aged 12-23 month and to determine the reasons for unvaccinated. Methods: We conducted a community-based survey in Al-Taizyah district, Taiz governorate, Yemen. Information about vaccination status and related barriers was collected for 420 children from 1st March to 31st March 2012. Results: 49.8% of the children had vaccination cards. About 69.5% of the children were fully vaccinated by cards and by history, 15.5% were partially vaccinated and 15% not vaccinated. As a regards to crude vaccination coverage, 82.9% of children were received BCG vaccine. OPV1 vaccine was 82.6%. Pentavalent1 was 82.6%. Measles 1 represented for 71.7% and vitamin A1 was 46.4%. 91% was valid doses for OPV1 and 93% for pentavalent1. Only 76% of measles1 dose was valid. The high scores14% of drop-out rate was recorded between BCG and Measles. The main reasons for partially vaccinated and unvaccinated of children were the lack of information 61.7%. Conclusion: There is low vaccination coverage among children aged 12-23 months. There is a need to raise the awareness of community about vaccination and EPI services in Al-Taizyah district.

  3. Oral medicines for children in the European paediatric investigation plans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana A van Riet-Nales

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pharmaceutical industry is no longer allowed to develop new medicines for use in adults only, as the 2007 Paediatric Regulation requires children to be considered also. The plans for such paediatric development called Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs are subject to agreement by the European Medicines Agency (EMA and its Paediatric Committee (PDCO. The aim of this study was to evaluate the key characteristics of oral paediatric medicines in the PIPs and the changes implemented as a result of the EMA/PDCO review. METHODS: All PIPs agreed by 31 December 2011 were identified through a proprietary EMA-database. PIPs were included if they contained an agreed proposal to develop an oral medicine for children 0 to 11 years. Information on the therapeutic area (EMA classification system; target age range (as defined by industry and pharmaceutical characteristics (active substance, dosage form(s as listed in the PIP, strength of each dosage form, excipients in each strength of each dosage form was extracted from the EMA website or the EMA/PDCO assessment reports. RESULTS: A hundred and fifty PIPs were included corresponding to 16 therapeutic areas and 220 oral dosage forms in 431 strengths/compositions. Eighty-two PIPs (37% included tablets, 44 (20% liquids and 35 (16% dosage forms with a specific composition/strength that were stored as a solid but swallowed as a liquid e.g. dispersible tablets. The EMA/PDCO review resulted in an increase of 13 (207 to 220 oral paediatric dosage forms and 44 (387 to 431 dosage forms with a specific composition/strength. For many PIPs, the target age range was widened and the excipient composition and usability aspects modified. CONCLUSION: The EMA/PDCO review realized an increase in the number of requirements for the development of oral dosage forms and a larger increase in the number of dosage forms with a specific composition/strength, both targeting younger children. Changes to their pharmaceutical

  4. An investigation into prospective memory in children with developmental dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Azizuddin eKhan

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia hinders reading and writing acquisition of around 5-10 % of the children all over the world. However, little is known about role of prospective memory among dyslexics. Prospective memory is realization of delayed intention. Realization of delayed intention requires self initiated process. The present study explored the role of memory (prospective and retrospective memory), meta-memory and attention among dyslexic’s children. One hundred and fifteen children (51 dyslexic...

  5. An investigation into prospective memory in children with developmental dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Azizuddin

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia hinders reading and writing acquisition of around 5–10% of the children all over the world. However, little is known about role of prospective memory among dyslexics. Prospective memory is realization of delayed intention. Realization of delayed intention requires self initiated process. The present study explored the role of memory (prospective and retrospective memory), meta-memory and attention among dyslexic's children. One hundred and fifteen children (51 dyslexics...

  6. Investigation of MONE Preschool Program for 36-72 Months Old Children (2006) According to Children Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batur Musaoglu, Ebru; Haktanir, Gelengul

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey, the preschoolers are being schooled under the guidelines of MONE (Ministry of National Education) Preschool Program for 36-72 Months Old Children (2006). The aim of this research is to investigate how children's rights are involved in this program. In this qualitative research based on document analysis, program book and Teacher Guide…

  7. Role of routine investigations in children presenting with their first febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, N; Smales, O R

    1977-01-01

    To assess the role of routine investigations in children presenting with their first febrile convulsion, the results of investigations carried out in 328 children over a 2-year period were reviewed. Lumber puncture was performed in 96% of cases and resulted in the detection of 4 cases of unsuspected meningitis, one of which was bacterial. 2 children had normal lumbar punctures on admission but developed meningococcal meningitis within 48 hours. Sugar, calcium, urea, and electrolyte estimations, and blood counts were commonly performed but were unhelpful. We suggest that lumbar puncture in those children presenting with their first febrile convulsion under the age of 18 months is the only useful routine investigation. PMID:848997

  8. The evaluation of the clinical and laboratory characteristics of children with pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velat Şen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pulmonary tuberculosis is an important health problem in pediatric patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical signs and treatment results of the children with pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods:Hospital records of 85 children with pulmonary tuberculosis which were diagnosis in Dicle University Medical Faculty, Pediatric Pulmonology Department, between the period of January 2008 and December 2013,were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of 85 patients, 51.7% were girls with a mean age of 9.84±4.66 years (6 months-18 years.Ratio of patients that aged less than 5 years was 22.3%. The most prominent complaints were cough (81.2%, fever (55.2%, inappetence (47.1%, night sweats (38.8%, and weight lost (32.9 %. Sixty five of the patients (76.4 % had a history of contact with adult patients with tuberculosis. BCG vaccine scarring was present in 70.6% of patients. Tuberculin skin test reactivity was present in 75.3%. Hilar lympadenomegaly (58.8%, primary focuscalsification (37.6%, and parenchymal infiltration (32.9% were the most common radiographic findings. Conclusion: Pulmonary tuberculous is not a rare entity and remains an important infectious disease in children in our country. Early diagnosis and treatment of children with pulmonary uberculosis is important to protect late symptoms and to prevent contamination of healthy people.

  9. Investigating the Activities of Children toward a Smart Storytelling Toy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Nuri; Aydin, Cansu Cigdem; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces StoryTech, a smart storytelling toy that features a virtual space, which includes computer-based graphics and characters, and a real space, which includes plush toys, background cards, and a communication interface. When children put real objects on the receiver panel, the computer program shows related backgrounds and…

  10. Investigating of Memory - Colours of Intellectually Disabled Children and Virtual Game Addict Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sik Lányi, Cecília

    We describe an investigation of memory colours. For this investigation Flash test software was developed. 75 observers used this test software in 4 groups: average elementary school children (aged: 8-9 years), intellectually disabled children (age: 9-15), virtual game addict university students (average age: 20) and university students who play with VR games rarely or never (average age: 20). In this pilot test we investigated the difference of memory colours of these 4 groups.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF URINARY CONTINANCE AGES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN AND ENURETIC CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin BILBAN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to determine the age of urinary continance of primary school students who had no enuresis problem and had secondary enuresis. Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was carried out on four primary schools of Meram district which were selected by using simple random sample method. Totally, 1399 students who had no enuresis and had secondary enuresis were included to the study. The age of urinary continance of the students and presence of diurnal, nocturnal and continual enuresis in the secondary enuresis group were investigated. Results: The mean urinary continance age of the students was 22.0 ± 7.1 months. Urinary continance age of the male students was 1.2 months bigger than the female students. The prevalance of secondary enuresis was found as 5.6 %. The frequency of secondary enuresis in male students was 2.1 fold higher than in female ones. Of the 87 students with secondary enuresis, 18.4% was diurnal, 60.9 % was nocturnal and 20.7 % was continual enuresis. Conclusion: Toilet education should be given to children by their parents starting before 22 months of age, which was obtained as urinary continance age of primary school students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(1.000: 41-49

  12. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2016-01-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed. PMID:26835531

  13. Weight Status in Iranian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Investigation of Underweight, Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memari, Amir Hossein; Kordi, Ramin; Ziaee, Vahid; Mirfazeli, Fatemeh Sadat; Setoodeh, Mohammad S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the weight status of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Iranian pupils and further to investigate the most likely associated factors such as demographics, autism severity and medications. The survey was designed to provide a random sample of 113 children and adolescents (boys =…

  14. Investigating Speech Perception in Children with Dyslexia: Is There Evidence of a Consistent Deficit in Individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoud-Galusi, Souhila; Hazan, Valerie; Rosen, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The claim that speech perception abilities are impaired in dyslexia was investigated in a group of 62 children with dyslexia and 51 average readers matched in age. Method: To test whether there was robust evidence of speech perception deficits in children with dyslexia, speech perception in noise and quiet was measured using 8 different…

  15. Sleep Disturbance in Children with Rett Syndrome: A Qualitative Investigation of the Parental Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Allyson; Kerr, Alison M.; Espie, Colin A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems in children with intellectual disability can be precipitated and maintained by intrinsic and external factors. The present study comprised a qualitative investigation of the experiences of parents of children with Rett syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder where sleep disturbance is common. Method: Audio-taped…

  16. An Investigation of Korean Children's Prejudicial Attitudes toward a National Tragedy in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkang; Chang, Heesun

    2014-01-01

    Prejudice against another nation or culture is often perceived as a major hindrance to world peace. This paper will report on the early emergence of such prejudices, identified in eight-year-old primary school children in Korea. The research, conducted in June 2012, investigated Korean children's reactions to the Japanese tsunami of 2011. A…

  17. Investigations and findings in children with spina-bifida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physicians from different fields work together in the care of spina-liefide children. A central position occupy the pediatric physician as a primary reference person and the pediatric radiologist. There has to be a free exchange of ideas and thoughts between them. That is why anyone of them has to know the problems of the other. For the radiologist this means, that he or she has to acquire detailed knowledge of the desease symptoms and of the therapeutic possibilities, so that he or she will be able to work on a diagnostic that is suited for the particular patient. (orig.)

  18. Investigations and findings in children with spina-bifida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingmueller, V.; Rutz, A.

    1982-06-01

    Physicians from different fields work together in the care of spina-liefide children. A central position occupy the pediatric physician as a primary reference person and the pediatric radiologist. There has to be a free exchange of ideas and thoughts between them. That is why anyone of them has to know the problems of the other. For the radiologist this means, that he or she has to acquire detailed knowledge of the desease symptoms and of the therapeutic possibilities, so that he or she will be able to work on a diagnostic that is suited for the particular patient.

  19. Investigating the Shape Bias in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Emily R. Potrzeba; Deborah eFein; Letitia eNaigles

    2015-01-01

    Young typically developing (TD) children have been observed to utilize word learning strategies such as the noun bias and shape bias; these improve their efficiency in acquiring and categorizing novel terms. Children using the shape bias extend object labels to new objects of the same shape; thus, the shape bias prompts the categorization of object words based on the global characteristic of shape over local, discrete details. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently atten...

  20. Heaf test results after neonatal BCG.

    OpenAIRE

    Crawshaw, P. A.; Thomson, A H

    1988-01-01

    Heaf testing was carried out on 98 preschool Asian children who had received a BCG vaccination. A strongly positive Heaf reaction (grade 3) occurred in only two children. Heaf testing can still be used in tuberculosis screening after neonatal BCG.

  1. Fatores de risco para morte por pneumonia em menores de um ano em uma região metropolitana do sudeste do Brasil: um estudo tipo caso-controle Risk factors for death by pneumonia among children under one year of age in a metropolitan area of Southeastern Brazil: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria Leal Niobey

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available Através de um estudo tipo caso-controle, foi comparada uma amostra de óbitos pós-neonatais por pneumonia ocorridos na Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (1986-1987 e controles sadios, moradores na vizinhança. Os fatores de risco investigados foram variáveis relacionadas à história gestacional da mãe e ao nascimento da criança, às condições sociais da família e à utilização de serviços de saúde. Na primeira etapa de análise, através de um modelo de regressão logística univariada, foram estimados os coeficientes de cada variável independente, o risco relativo e seus limites de confiança. O peso ao nascer e a idade do desmame mostraram-se das mais fortemente associadas com a variável dependente. Na segunda etapa, foi feito o ajuste pelo modelo de regressão logística múltipla e somente 4 variáveis permaneceram estatisticamente associadas com a mortalidade: idade do desmame, peso ao nascer, número de moradores da casa e aplicação da vacina BCG. Conclui-se que a mortalidade por pneumonia em menores de um ano está fortemente associada às condições sociais da família, em particular da mãe.In a case-control study, a sample of post-neonatal deaths from pneumonia occurring in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1986-1987 were compared with healthy controls who lived in the same neighborhood. Risk factors investigated were variables related to the mother's pregnancy history and the child's birth, to the family's social condition and to the use of health services. Using the univariate logistic regression model, the coefficients of each independent variable, the relative risk and its confidence limits were first estimated. Birth weight and age of weaning were strongly associated with the dependent variable. After adjustment by means of the multiple logistic regression model, only 4 variables remained statistically associated with mortality: age of weaning, birth weight, over crowding, and BCG

  2. Investigation on Down's syndrome in the children living in high background radiation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the survey in 1975 and 1979 of Down's syndrome in the children living in high background radiation area, we made a follow-up investigation in 1985 and 1986. All the obtained data are analysed. 25258 children in high background radiation area were examined and 22 children with Down's syndrome were identified, the morbidity rate being 0.87%. 21837 children in control area were examined and four children with Down's syndrome were identified, the morbidity being 0.18%. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups. It was noted that the occurrence of Down's syndrome was related to the maternal age but there was no evidence suggesting a close relationship between high background radiation and the development of Down's syndrome

  3. 与涂阳肺结核患者密切接触的0~14岁儿童筛查情况分析%Screening situation analysis on children aged 0 to 14 in close contact to patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余明杰; 朱伟治; 许楠; 梁定宇; 陈运彬; 李艳珍

    2014-01-01

    ) vaccination had a 20 times high incidence than those with BCG vaccination history,the difference was statistically significant (x 2=104.6,P < 0.05).Floating population of children had a high incidence of TB than that of those local household population,the difference was statistically significant (x2=8.45,P < 0.05).There was a four times higher incidence of in children with history of BCG vaccination as observation group than those in the control group,but the difference was not statistically significant (x2=2.41,P > 0.05).Children without history of BCG vaccination in the observation group had higher incidence than those in the control group,but the difference was not statistically significant (x2=2.88,P > 0.05).Children aged 7 to 14 years were higher prevalence group,but the observation group and the control group were not statistically significant in age difference illness (x 2=0.000,P > 0.05).No difference between the two groups of children age was found.The prevalence of the observation group was higher than that of the control group,the difference was statistically significant (x 2=4.261,P < 0.05).The patients were mainly found in children with close family contact,there was no patients found in those without close family contact,but it did not show statistical significant difference between close family contact and nonfamily contact in the prevalence (x 2=0.578,P > 0.05).Conclusion Children with close contacts should be early screened,in order to timely prevent and control the smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients,to reduce the spread of communities and families and promote the BCG vaccination education,to strengthen and increase the common sense of tuberculosis prevention and treatment knowledge,which is helpful for TB control.

  4. Investigation and analysis of etiology of down's syndrome in children of high background radiation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to find out what caused the differences in incidences of Down's syndrome between the children in high background radiation area and those in control area, investigation and analysis were carried ou in 5 aspects based on the original data and the information from the previous survey. These are: the incidences of congenital malformations in normal areas, the age distribution of children examined, the maternal age, the dates of birth of afflicted children, and the radiation exposure of mothers. The results suggested that the higher incidence of Down's syndrome in high background area might be related to the materal age. Further studies are needed to arrive at a conclusion

  5. Investigating the incorporation of precision teaching assessment methods within a structured approach for children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Beeson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the incorporation of a 'structured approach' to teaching children with autism, with precision teaching assessment methods. The rationale for the research focused on the limited evidence base regarding educational approaches for children with autism (Jones, 2002), and the growing need to provide appropriate educational provision for this group (Ali & Frederickson, 2006). One of the more widely used approaches in the UK is 'Treatment and Education of ...

  6. An investigation into primary children's feelings about physical disability: some implications for special educational needs provision

    OpenAIRE

    Flockton, Susan E. M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the feelings of primary aged children towards physical disability and to consider the implications of the findings for those involved in the integration of disabled pupils into mainstream schools. The study involved pupils from two schools. One of these had disabled children on roll, while the other had no pupils with obvious disabilities. The pupils were from two age groups. Consideration was given to differences between these age groups,...

  7. Severe Sepsis in Severely Malnourished Young Bangladeshi Children with Pneumonia: A Retrospective Case Control Study.

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    Mohammod Jobayer Chisti

    Full Text Available In developing countries, there is no published report on predicting factors of severe sepsis in severely acute malnourished (SAM children having pneumonia and impact of fluid resuscitation in such children. Thus, we aimed to identify predicting factors for severe sepsis and assess the outcome of fluid resuscitation of such children.In this retrospective case-control study SAM children aged 0-59 months, admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh from April 2011 through July 2012 with history of cough or difficult breathing and radiologic pneumonia, who were assessed for severe sepsis at admission constituted the study population. We compared the pneumonic SAM children with severe sepsis (cases = 50 with those without severe sepsis (controls = 354. Severe sepsis was defined with objective clinical criteria and managed with fluid resuscitation, in addition to antibiotic and other supportive therapy, following the standard hospital guideline, which is very similar to the WHO guideline.The case-fatality-rate was significantly higher among the cases than the controls (40% vs. 4%; p<0.001. In logistic regression analysis after adjusting for potential confounders, lack of BCG vaccination, drowsiness, abdominal distension, acute kidney injury, and metabolic acidosis at admission remained as independent predicting factors for severe sepsis in pneumonic SAM children (p<0.05 for all comparisons.We noted a much higher case fatality among under-five SAM children with pneumonia and severe sepsis who required fluid resuscitation in addition to standard antibiotic and other supportive therapy compared to those without severe sepsis. Independent risk factors and outcome of the management of severe sepsis in our study children highlight the importance for defining optimal fluid resuscitation therapy aiming at reducing the case fatality in such children.

  8. Food selectivity in children with and without an autism spectrum disorder: investigation of diagnosis and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighley, Jennifer S; Matson, Johnny L; Rieske, Robert D; Adams, Hilary L

    2013-10-01

    Feeding problems are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), with food selectivity being the most frequently reported. Selectivity based on type and/or texture of food is of concern in those with ASD. Variations in symptom presentation of food selectivity in children with different autism spectrum diagnoses across childhood have not often been investigated. Parent-report of food selectivity was examined in 525 children age 2-18 years diagnosed with autistic disorder, PDD-NOS, Asperger's disorder, atypical development, and typical development using information garnered from the Autism Spectrum Disorder-Comorbidity for Children (ASD-CC), a tool to assess emotional issues and comorbid psychopathology. Individuals with an ASD were reported to have significantly more food selectivity than both the atypically developing group and the typically developing group. In addition, the ASD groups, when looked at together, showed a decrease in food selectivity across childhood with significant decrease in the Asperger's disorder group. PMID:23948127

  9. Clinical profile of abdominal tuberculosis in children

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    Ira Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A retrospective study was conducted in children, suffering from abdominal TB, attending Pediatric TB clinic from 2007 to 2009. Materials And Methods: Age-wise distribution and type of abdominal TB were analyzed with clinical features. Results : Out of 285 children with TB, 32 (11.2% had abdominal tuberculosis. Male: Female ratio was 2.1:1. 7 (21.9% children were 10 years of age. The most common clinical features were fever in 24 (75%, pain in abdomen in 17 (53.1%, loss of weight in 15 (46.9%, raised ESR in 14 (43.8%, and loss of appetite in 13 (40.6% children. TB contact was present in 10 (31.2%, and 7 (21.9% children had tuberculosis in the past. 28 (87.5% children had received BCG vaccine, and 17 (53.1% had a positive Mantoux test. Extra-abdominal tuberculosis was found in 17 patients (53.1%. Duration of fever was more in children less than 5 years of age (127 ± 66 days than that in children between 5 -10 years (37 ± 30 days and in > 10 years of age (73 ± 66 days, which is statistically significant (P = 0.0228. Lymph node TB (17 patients, 53.1% was found to be the commonest, followed by intestinal (10 patients, 31.2% and peritoneal TB (4 patients, 12.5%. 18 (56.2% of the total patients had recovered, 7 (21.9% of all patients failed first line therapy and had to be started on second line drugs, of which 4 (12.5% were proven to have drug-resistant TB. Conclusion : Abdominal TB is seen in 11.2% of children affected with TB, of which over 53% will have extra-abdominal manifestations. Common clinical and laboratory features include fever, pain in abdomen, loss of weight, loss of appetite, and raised ESR. The duration of fever is more in children of younger age group. Lymph node TB is the most common type of abdominal TB. Drug-resistant TB is seen in at least 12.5% of the patients.

  10. Mental Health Problems in Young Children Investigated by U.S. Child Welfare Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Heneghan, Amy; Zhang, Jinjin; Rolls-Reutz, Jennifer; Fisher, Emily; Landsverk, John; Stein, Ruth E. K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence/predictors of mental health (MH) problems and services use in 12- to 36-month-old children who had been investigated for maltreatment. Method: Data came from the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW II), a longitudinal study of youth ages 0 to 17.5 years referred to U.S. child…

  11. Meta-Analysis of Studies Investigating the Effects of Father Absence on Children's Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, Stephanie A.

    A meta-analysis was conducted of 137 studies investigating the effects of father absence due to employment, military service, death, divorce, separation, or desertion on children's cognitive performance as assessed by scores on standardized intelligence, scholastic aptitude, and academic achievement tests and school grades. Aggregation of the…

  12. Assessing the Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Language Delayed Children: A Clinical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkus, Gila; Tilley, Ciara; Thomas, Catherine; Hockey, Hannah; Kennedy, Anna; Arnold, Tina; Thorburn, Blair; Jones, Katie; Patel, Bhavika; Pimenta, Claire; Shah, Rena; Tweedie, Fiona; O'Brien, Felicity; Leahy, Ruth; Pring, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) is widely used by speech and language therapists to improve the interactions between children with delayed language development and their parents/carers. Despite favourable reports of the therapy from clinicians, little evidence of its effectiveness is available. We investigated the effects of PCIT as…

  13. Vocabulary Recycling in Children's Authentic Reading Materials: A Corpus-Based Investigation of Narrow Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Dee

    2008-01-01

    Fourteen collections of children's reading materials were used to investigate the claim that collections of authentic texts with a common theme, or written by one author, afford readers with more repeated exposures to new words than unrelated materials. The collections, distinguished by relative thematic tightness, authorship (1 vs. 4 authors),…

  14. Family Socialization and Children's School Outcomes: An Investigation of a Parenting Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjoribanks, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the relationships between the characteristics of a parenting model and children's school outcomes. Utilizes interviews to identify and define parenting styles. Discovers that parenting styles affect academic achievement and school attitudes but do little to influence the relationship between intellectual ability and school outcomes.…

  15. An Investigation of Control among Parents of Selectively Mute, Anxious, and Non-Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, Shannon C.; Evans, Mary Ann; McHolm, Angela E.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Boyle, Michael; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined parent-child interactions among three groups: selectively mute, anxious, and non-anxious children in different contexts. The relation between parental control (granting autonomy and high power remarks), child factors (i.e., age, anxiety, verbal participation), and parent anxiety was investigated. Parental control varied by…

  16. Estudo sobre a evolução do risco de infecção tuberculosa em área com elevada cobertura por BCG The trend in the risk of tuberculous infection in an area with wide coverage with BCG vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Ribeiro Arantes

    1985-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir da prevalência de infecção tuberculosa em escolares com 7 anos de idade, calculou-se a taxa de redução do risco anual de infecção na cidade de São Paulo (Brasil, entre 1974 e 1982. Nesse período o declínio médio foi de 5% ao ano. Nas 59 escolas municipais pesquisadas não houve correlação entre a cobertura de vacinação BCG e a prevalência de infecção natural em não-vacinados, à idade estudada. A alergia tuberculínica no grupo de crianças vacinadas, que recebeu a vacina em alguma idade anterior entre o 1° e o 6° ano de vida, revelou-se 2,5 vezes mais intensa do que a alergia no grupo de mesma idade (7 anos, não vacinado previamente. Foram feitos comentários quanto à impropriedade do material utilizado com vistas ao cálculo do verdadeiro valor do risco de infecção tuberculosa na área em questão.The estimation of the risk of tuberculous infection from prevalence data obtained at school-age, in 1974 and in 1982, permitted the determination of the relevant trend in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil, between those years. The risk of infection decreased, on average, by 5% annually during the period. There was no evidence of any association between the proportions of vaccinated children and that of infected children among those unvaccinated, in the 59 schools studied. Tuberculin sensitivity in 7 years old school-children, vaccinated with BCG at any age between the 1st and the 6th year of life was 2.5 times more intense than that in unvaccinaetd children of the same age. With regard to the calculation of the true value of the risk of tuberculous infection, commentaries about the unrealiability of the available data were made.

  17. Maturation of social attribution skills in typically developing children: an investigation using the social attribution task

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    Chan Raymond CK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of social attribution skills in children can potentially identify and quantify developmental difficulties related to autism spectrum disorders and related conditions. However, relatively little is known about how these skills develop in typically developing children. Therefore the present study aimed to map the trajectory of social attribution skill acquisition in typically developing children from a young age. Methods In the conventional social attribution task (SAT participants ascribe feelings to moving shapes and describe their interaction in social terms. However, this format requires that participants understand both, that an inanimate shape is symbolic, and that its action is social in nature. This may be challenging for young children, and may be a potential confounder in studies of children with developmental disorders. Therefore we developed a modified SAT (mSAT using animate figures (e.g. animals to simplify the task. We used the SAT and mSAT to examine social attribution skill development in 154 healthy children (76 boys, 78 girls, ranging in age from 6 to 13 years and investigated the relationship between social attribution ability and executive function. Results The mSAT revealed a steady improvement in social attribution skills from the age of 6 years, and a significant advantage for girls compared to boys. In contrast, children under the age of 9 years performed at baseline on the conventional format and there were no gender differences apparent. Performance on neither task correlated with executive function after controlling for age and verbal IQ, suggesting that social attribution ability is independent of cognitive functioning. The present findings indicate that the mSAT is a sensitive measure of social attribution skills from a young age. This should be carefully considered when choosing assessments for young children and those with developmental disorders.

  18. Cross-sectional investigation of visual impairing diseases in Shanghai blind children school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jian-feng; ZOU Hai-dong; HE Xian-gui; LU Li-na; ZHAO Rong; XU Hong-mei; LIANG Qing-feng

    2012-01-01

    Background The control of blindness in children is a high priority within the VISION 2020 initiative.To determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children from Shanghai Blind Children School (SBCS) can provide useful information on childhood blindness in Shanghai.Methods A cross-sectional investigation of students in SBCS was conducted in May 2010.The World Health Organization/Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) eye examination record system for children with low vision and blindness was used.The results were further compared with the findings of two previous investigation studies conducted in 1986 and 2004,respectively in SBCS.Results Of the 146 children observed,80 children (54.8%) were blind (best corrected best visual acuity less than 0.05),27 children (18.5%) had severe visual impairment (best corrected visual acuity less than 0.1 but better than or equal to 0.05),and 34 children (23.3%) had moderate visual impairment (best corrected visual acuity less than 0.3 but better than or equal to 0.1).The major affected anatomic sites in the 107 children with severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL) were retina (47.7%),whole globe (16.8%),optic nerve (13.1%) and lens (9.3%).The leading causes of SVI/BL were retinopathy of prematurity (ROP,25.2%),followed by retinal dystrophy (15.9%),optic nerve atrophy (9.3%) and microphthalmos (9.3%).The two leading etiologic categories of SVI/BL were perinatal/neonatal (36.4%) and congenital/hereditary groups (29.0%).The leading cause of moderate visual impairment was aphakia after cataract surgery (congenital cataract,44.1%).Compared with the findings in two previous investigations in SBCS,the proportion of ROP in visual impairing diseases increased,while the proportion of disorders of the lens (cataract and aphakia)significantly decreased.Conclusions The leading cause of childhood blindness in SBCS nowadays is ROP.It is projected that without improvement in perinatal medical

  19. A preliminary investigation of schematic beliefs and unusual experiences in children

    OpenAIRE

    Noone, D.; Ames, C.; Hassanali, N.; Browning, S; Bracegirdle, K; Corrigall, R.; Laurens, K R; Hirsch, C R; Kuipers, E; Maddox, L; Fowler, D; Jolley, S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In cognitive models of adult psychosis, schematic beliefs about the self and others are important vulnerability and maintaining factors, and are therefore targets for psychological interventions. Schematic beliefs have not previously been investigated in children with distressing unusual, or psychotic-like, experiences (UEDs). The aim of this study was firstly to investigate whether a measure of schematic beliefs, originally designed for adults with psychosis, was suitable for chi...

  20. Sexual Abuse against Children. Preliminary Findings of the Investigation Conducted in May 2008, by Gallup Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN M. RĂDULESCU

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse against minors has become in the last decades an important social issue for specialists in several countries, including Romania. Although sexual victimization rates in various countries appear to have declined beginning with 1993,there is still a greater probability for children and teenagers to suffer from sexual aggression rather than adults. Despite the increased preoccupation with the issue of sexual abuse against children and the new knowledge acquired in this field, several aspects have been left unsolved, among which that of the accuracy of data collected and underrepresented statistics. This study is a preliminary analysis of the main findings of the investigation conducted in May 2008, by the Gallup Institute, at the request of the Institute of Sociology of the Romanian Academy and whose object was, among others, sexual abuse against children in Romania.

  1. Contact Investigation of Children Exposed to Tuberculosis in South East Asia: A Systematic Review

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    Rina Triasih

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Screening of children who are household contacts of tuberculosis (TB cases is universally recommended but rarely implemented in TB endemic setting. This paper aims to summarise published data of the prevalence of TB infection and disease among child contacts in South East Asia. Methods. Search strategies were developed to identify all published studies from South East Asia of household contact investigation that included children (0–15 years. Results. Eleven studies were eligible for review. There was heterogeneity across the studies. TB infection was common among child contacts under 15 years of age (24.4–69.2% and was higher than the prevalence of TB disease, which varied from 3.3% to 5.5%. Conclusion. TB infection is common among children that are household contacts of TB cases in South East Asia. Novel approaches to child contact screening and management that improve implementation in South East Asia need to be further evaluated.

  2. "Photoanthropometric Investigation of Facial Structures in Iranian Children with Down Syndrome and Normal Controls"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DD Farhud

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The photoanthropometric method was used to study the facial features in 136 Iranian children with Down syndrome, aged 4 to 14 years. Nineteen parameters were investigated and compared to an age related control group of 100 normal Iranian children. The obtained measurements were related to reference values in the same faces. The normal range was defined by age related index values between the 20th and 80th percentile in the collective of normal Iranian children. Five parameters were considered as characteristic facial traits of Iranian children with Down syndrome by index values outside these percentiles in ≥ 50% of the studied collective: low midface; narrow and upslanted palpebral fissures ; short, and anteriorly rotated ears. Twelve parameters were considered as additional facial traits by index values outside these percentiles in ≥ 30% < 50% of the studied collective: broad inner canthal distance; prominent nose root; short nose back; everted nasal base; long nasolabial distance; forwards inclined integumental upper lip; narrow mouth fissure; high and prominent chin; high-set, narrow ears and narrow conchae. These results contribute to an objective definition of facial traits in children with Down syndrome in a homogeneous ethnic population.

  3. Prevalence, Trajectories, and Risk Factors for Depression among Caregivers of Young Children Involved in Child Maltreatment Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Cecilia; Cross, Theodore P.; Ringeisen, Heather; Christ, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines depression among caregivers of young children involved in investigations of child maltreatment, in terms of 12-month prevalence of depression across 5 to 6 years. Data were from the "National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being," a national probability study of 5,501 children investigated for maltreatment. The study…

  4. Diffuse Hyperpigmented Subcutaneous Nodules as a Primary Manifestation of Disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Disease in Young Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiei Tabatabaei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction There are increasing reports of serious adverse events of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG vaccination in infants with unrecognized primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs in our country. Among these adverse events skin manifestations occur less frequently and are less noticed. Case Presentation We report on an 11-months-old boy with prolonged fever and diffuse hyperpigmented subcutaneous nodules. Due to lymphopenia, oral thrush and severe adverse reaction to BCG vaccination, the possibility of primary immunodeficiency was considered for him and immunological investigations were done. Conclusions Subcutaneous nodules in the absence of a local reaction at the site of BCG vaccination may be the sole manifestation of disseminated BCG disease.

  5. The world is a scary place? INvestigating Treatments and Assessment for Children after Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Diehle, J.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation provides new insights about treatments and assessment for children who experienced traumatic events. We investigated the comparative effectiveness of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) by means of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). The results of this trial suggest that both treatments are effective and efficient. We did not find statistically significant between-group differences. The preparation o...

  6. A qualitative investigation into the experiences of children who have a parent with a mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Backer, Clare

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigated the experiences of children who have a parent with a mental illness, using qualitative methods. It is divided into three separate sections, the first two written as standalone journal papers. Paper 1 is a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies exploring children‟s experiences of having a parent with a mental illness. The review used specific databases, a search of qualitative journals and a general internet search to identify relevant studies, and the ...

  7. An investigation of the association between traffic exposure and the diagnosis of asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordian, Mary Ellen; Haneuse, Sebastien; Wakefield, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether proximity to traffic at residence location is associated with being diagnosed with asthma as a young child. A survey of parents of children (aged 5-7) in kindergarten and first-grade in 13 schools was completed in Anchorage, Alaska, and Geographical Information System (GIS) mapping was used to obtain an exposure measure based on traffic density within 100 m of the cross streets closest to the child's residence. Using the range of observed exposure values, a score of low, medium or high traffic exposure was assigned to each child. After controlling for individual level confounders, relative to the low referent group, relative risks (95% confidence intervals) of 1.40 (0.77, 2.55) and 2.83 (1.23,6.51) were obtained in the medium and high exposure groups, respectively. For the null hypothesis of no difference in risk, a significance level of 0.056 was obtained, which suggests that further investigation would be worthwhile. Children without a family history of asthma were more likely to have an asthma diagnosis if they resided in a high traffic area than children who had one or more parents with asthma. The relative risk for children without a family history of asthma is 2.43 (1.12, 5.28) for medium exposure and 5.43 (2.08, 13.74) for high exposure. For children with a family history of asthma, the relative risk is 0.66 (0.25, 1.74) for medium exposure and 0.67 (0.12, 3.69) for high exposure. The P-value for the overall "exposure-effect" (i.e. both main effects AND interaction terms) is 0.0097. PMID:16007113

  8. A 5-Year Investigation of Children's Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Localized Ependymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies have the potential to preserve cognitive outcomes in children with ependymoma; however, functional behavior remains uninvestigated. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intelligence quotient (IQ) and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years after irradiation in children diagnosed with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 123 children with intracranial ependymoma. Mean age at irradiation was 4.60 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.85-5.35). Serial neurocognitive evaluations, including an age-appropriate IQ measure and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), were completed before irradiation, 6 months after treatment, and annually for 5 years. A total of 579 neurocognitive evaluations were included in these analyses. Results: Baseline IQ and VABS were below normative means (P<.05), although within the average range. Linear mixed models revealed stable IQ and VABS across the follow-up period, except for the VABS Communication Index, which declined significantly (P=.015). Annual change in IQ (−.04 points) did not correlate with annual change in VABS (−.90 to +.44 points). Clinical factors associated with poorer baseline performance (P<.05) included preirradiation chemotherapy, cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, number and extent of surgical resections, and younger age at treatment. No clinical factors significantly affected the rate of change in scores. Conclusions: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies provided relative sparing of functional outcomes including IQ and adaptive behaviors, even in very young children. Communication skills remained vulnerable and should be the target of preventive and rehabilitative interventions.

  9. A research model for investigating the effects of artificial food colorings on children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Ronald E; Brown, Ronald T; Cutter, Gary R; Dupaul, George J; Clydesdale, Fergus M

    2011-06-01

    The United Kingdom and European Union recently restricted the use of artificial food colorings (AFCs) to improve the health of children. These decisions provide an interesting case study of the role of scientific evidence in the assessment of food additives and risk to children's health and formulation of food policy. Although there continues to be uncertainty concerning the link between AFCs and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), policy decisions have been made that have far-reaching implications. In addition, publicity surrounding the policy changes may shape public perceptions concerning effective management of ADHD. We believe that the balance of existing evidence neither refutes nor supports the link between AFCs and ADHD, which highlights the need for carefully designed studies to further investigate the link between AFCs and ADHD. In this article we describe a model for such studies. In developing our model, we drew from current investigative standards in ADHD research, such as those used in the landmark Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD. These standards encompass methodologic considerations including sample selection, outcome assessment, and data analyses. It is our hope that this model research methodology may prove valuable in addressing design considerations in future studies of AFCs and ADHD with the goal of producing reliable data that will enable policy-makers to better formulate effective, evidence-based food-policy decisions. PMID:21576306

  10. Investigating executive functions in children with severe speech and movement disorders using structured tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine eStadskleiv

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions are the basis for goal-directed activity and include planning, monitoring, and inhibition, and language seems to play a role in the development of these functions. There is a tradition of studying executive function in both typical and atypical populations, and the present study investigates executive functions in children with severe speech and motor impairments who are communicating using communication aids with graphic symbols, letters and/or words. There are few neuropsychological studies of children in this group and little is known about their cognitive functioning, including executive functions. It was hypothesized that aided communication would tax executive functions more than speech. 29 children using communication aids and 27 naturally speaking children participated. Structured tasks resembling everyday activities, where the action goals had to be reached through communication with a partner, were used to get information about executive functions. The children a directed the partner to perform actions like building a Lego tower from a model the partner could not see and b gave information about an object without naming it to a person who had to guess what object it was. The executive functions of planning, monitoring and impulse control were coded from the children’s on-task behavior. Both groups solved most of the tasks correctly, indicating that aided communicators are able to use language to direct another person to do a complex set of actions. Planning and lack of impulsivity was positively related to task success in both groups. The aided group completed significantly fewer tasks, spent longer time and showed more variation in performance than the comparison group. The aided communicators scored lower on planning and showed more impulsivity than the comparison group, while both groups showed an equal degree of monitoring of the work progress. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that aided language

  11. Neonatal anthropometrics and body composition in obese children investigated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Thagaard, Ida Näslund;

    2014-01-01

    index (BFMI), and fat free mass index (FFMI) in obese children and the preceding in utero conditions expressed by birth weight, birth length, and birth weight for gestational age. The study cohort consisted of 776 obese Danish children (median age 11.6 years, range 3.6-17.9) with a mean Body Mass Index......UNLABELLED: Epidemiological and animal studies have suggested an effect of the intrauterine milieu upon the development of childhood obesity. This study investigates the relationship between body composition measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry expressed as body fat percent, body fat mass...... obesity treatment to be significantly correlated with both birth weight and birth weight for gestational age. CONCLUSION: These results indicate a prenatal influence upon childhood obesity. Although there are currently no sufficient data to suggest any recommendations to pregnant women, it is possible...

  12. Perceptions of Children's Television Advertising: An Empirical Investigation of the Beliefs and Attitudes of Consumer, Industry, and Government Respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, James D.

    This paper summarizes the findings of a study investigating the beliefs and attitudes of six key respondent groups regarding issues surrounding television advertising and children. The six groups included in the study are spokesmen for Action for Children's Television (ACT); the presidents and top executive officers of advertising agencies…

  13. Decontextualized Language Production in Two Languages: An Investigation of Children's Word Definition Skills in Korean and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jennifer Yusun

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors that contribute to bilingual children's decontextualized language production and investigate how schooling experience and bilingualism affect the development of this skill. The word definition skills of seventy Korean-English bilingual children whose first language was Korean, yet who had been schooled in…

  14. An Investigation of Social Behaviors of Primary School Children in Terms of Their Grade, Learning Disability and Intelligence Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukay Yuksel, Muge

    2013-01-01

    In this study, to what extent 7-9-year old primary school children's' social behaviors at school vary depending on their grade, gender and learning disability was investigated. In addition, the predictive value of the intelligence scores of children with normal development and with learning disability was explored for their negative and…

  15. Diagnosis of tuberculosis based on the two specific antigens ESAT-6 and CFP10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Pinxteren, L A; Ravn, P; Agger, E M; Pollock, J; Andersen, P

    2000-01-01

    Tests based on tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) cannot distinguish between tuberculosis infection, Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination, or exposure to environmental mycobacteria. The present study investigated the diagnostic potential of two Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens...

  16. Cost effectiveness of high resolution computed tomography with interferon-gamma release assay for tuberculosis contact investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Tuberculosis contact investigation is one of the important public health strategies to control tuberculosis worldwide. Recently, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has been reported as a more accurate radiological method with higher sensitivity and specificity than chest X-ray (CXR) to detect active tuberculosis. In this study, we assessed the cost effectiveness of HRCT compared to CXR in combination with QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) or the tuberculin skin test (TST) for tuberculosis contact investigation. Methods: We constructed Markov models using a societal perspective on the lifetime horizon. The target population was a hypothetical cohort of immunocompetent 20-year-old contacts with smear-positive tuberculosis patients in developed countries. Six strategies; QFT followed by CXR, QFT followed by HRCT, TST followed by CXR, TST followed by HRCT, CXR alone and HRCT alone were modeled. All costs and clinical benefits were discounted at a fixed annual rate of 3%. Results: In the base-case analysis, QFT followed by HRCT strategy yielded the greatest benefit at the lowest cost ($US 6308.65; 27.56045 quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs])[year 2012 values]. Cost-effectiveness was sensitive to BCG vaccination rate. Conclusions: The QFT followed by HRCT strategy yielded the greatest benefits at the lowest cost. HRCT chest imaging, instead of CXR, is recommended as a cost effective addition to the evaluation and management of tuberculosis contacts in public health policy

  17. Cost effectiveness of high resolution computed tomography with interferon-gamma release assay for tuberculosis contact investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowada, Akiko, E-mail: kowadaa@gmail.com [Kojiya Haneda Healthcare Service, Ota City Public Health Office, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Background: Tuberculosis contact investigation is one of the important public health strategies to control tuberculosis worldwide. Recently, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has been reported as a more accurate radiological method with higher sensitivity and specificity than chest X-ray (CXR) to detect active tuberculosis. In this study, we assessed the cost effectiveness of HRCT compared to CXR in combination with QuantiFERON{sup ®}-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) or the tuberculin skin test (TST) for tuberculosis contact investigation. Methods: We constructed Markov models using a societal perspective on the lifetime horizon. The target population was a hypothetical cohort of immunocompetent 20-year-old contacts with smear-positive tuberculosis patients in developed countries. Six strategies; QFT followed by CXR, QFT followed by HRCT, TST followed by CXR, TST followed by HRCT, CXR alone and HRCT alone were modeled. All costs and clinical benefits were discounted at a fixed annual rate of 3%. Results: In the base-case analysis, QFT followed by HRCT strategy yielded the greatest benefit at the lowest cost ($US 6308.65; 27.56045 quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs])[year 2012 values]. Cost-effectiveness was sensitive to BCG vaccination rate. Conclusions: The QFT followed by HRCT strategy yielded the greatest benefits at the lowest cost. HRCT chest imaging, instead of CXR, is recommended as a cost effective addition to the evaluation and management of tuberculosis contacts in public health policy.

  18. Investigation and Evaluation of Children's Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-01-01

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents' occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant. PMID:27240393

  19. Investigating Efficacy of Melatonin and Gabapentin in Reducing Anxiety and Pain of Lumbar Puncture in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Fallah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The lumbar puncture is one of the most important diagnostic and therapeutic procedures within children which child’s non-cooperativeness and procedural sedation are regarded necessary to conduct it. This study aimed to compare efficacy and safety of melatonin and gabapentin in reducing anxiety and pain of lumbar puncture in children. Methods: In a parallel single-blinded randomized clinical trial, sixty children aged 6 months -7 years, were evaluated in Pediatric Ward of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, in Yazd (Iran in 2012. The children were distributedrandomly into two groups (30 children in each group. In group one, they received 0.3 mg/kg/dose of melatonin and theother group received 15 mg/kg/dose of gabapentin. Primary endpoints were success rate in reducing anxiety (anxiety score of≥ four and reducing pain when the needle was inserted to skin for lumbarpuncture (pain score of less than four. The clinicalside effects were investigated as well. Results: Twenty two girls (36.7% and 38 boys (63.3% with mean age of 2.79 ± 1.92 years were evaluated. Anxiety reduction (achieving the anxiety score of ≥ four was obtained in 43.3% in melatonin and in 36.7% in gabapentin groups, respectively and both drugs were equally effective in anxiety reduction (p.value = 0.598.Pain reduction ( achieving the pain score of less than four was obtained in 23.3% in melatonin and in 50% in gabapentin groups, respectively and thus, gabapentin wasproved to be more effective in pain reduction (p.value = 0.032.Mild side effects were observed in 10% of melatonin group and in 16.7% of gabapentin group. No statistically significant differences were seen from viewpoint of safety between the two drugs (p.value=0.448. Conclusion: Melatonin and gabapentin were not effective drugs in anxiety reduction for lumbar puncture of children. However, gabapentin is a safe and effective drug in pain reduction in painful diagnostic therapeutic procedures.

  20. Prospective Investigation of Video Game Use in Children and Subsequent Conduct Disorder and Depression Using Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    OpenAIRE

    Etchells, Peter J.; Gage, Suzanne H.; Rutherford, Adam D.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing public and scientific concern regarding the long-term behavioural effects of video game use in children, but currently little consensus as to the nature of any such relationships. We investigated the relationship between video game use in children, degree of violence in games, and measures of depression and a 6-level banded measure of conduct disorder. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used. A 3-level measure of game use at age 8/9 years wa...

  1. Ultrasound investigation central hemodynamics as a method of assessment effective analgesia in children

    OpenAIRE

    Dmytriieva, K. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Dmytriieva K. Y. Ultrasound investigation central hemodynamics as a method of assessment effective analgesia in children. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(6):207-212. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.55301 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/3571   The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 755 (23.12.2015). 755 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 239...

  2. An investigation of the smoking behaviours of parents before, during and after the birth of their children in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Wen Chi; Chen Likwang; Shih Shu-Fang; Yang Wei-Chih; Shih Yaw-Tang

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Although many studies have investigated the negative effects of parental smoking on children and Taiwan has started campaigns to promote smoke-free homes, little is known about the smoking behaviours of Taiwanese parents during the childbearing period. To help fill the gap, this study investigated Taiwanese parents' smoking behaviours before, during and after the birth of their children, particularly focusing on smoking cessation during pregnancy and relapse after childbir...

  3. BCG vaccination status may predict sputum conversion in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeremiah, Kidola; PrayGod, George; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel;

    2010-01-01

    Failure to convert (persistent sputum and/or culture positivity) while on antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment at the end of the second month of anti-TB therapy has been reported to be a predictor of treatment failure. Factors that could be associated with persistent bacillary positivity at the e...

  4. Whole-Genome Sequences of Four Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccine Strains ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Yuanlong; Yang, Xi; Duan, Jia; Lu, Na; Leung, Andrea S.; Tran, Vanessa; Hu, Yongfei; Wu, Na; Liu, Di; Wang, Zhiming; Yu, Xuping; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wan, Kanglin; LIU Jun

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only vaccine available against tuberculosis (TB). A number of BCG strains are in use, and they exhibit biochemical and genetic differences. We report the genome sequences of four BCG strains representing different lineages, which will help to design more effective TB vaccines.

  5. T-cell activation is an immune correlate of risk in BCG vaccinated infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Helen A; Snowden, Margaret A; Landry, Bernard; Rida, Wasima; Satti, Iman; Harris, Stephanie A; Matsumiya, Magali; Tanner, Rachel; O'Shea, Matthew K; Dheenadhayalan, Veerabadran; Bogardus, Leah; Stockdale, Lisa; Marsay, Leanne; Chomka, Agnieszka; Harrington-Kandt, Rachel; Manjaly-Thomas, Zita-Rose; Naranbhai, Vivek; Stylianou, Elena; Darboe, Fatoumatta; Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Nemes, Elisa; Hatheril, Mark; Hussey, Gregory; Mahomed, Hassan; Tameris, Michele; McClain, J Bruce; Evans, Thomas G; Hanekom, Willem A; Scriba, Thomas J; McShane, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Vaccines to protect against tuberculosis (TB) are urgently needed. We performed a case-control analysis to identify immune correlates of TB disease risk in Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunized infants from the MVA85A efficacy trial. Among 53 TB case infants and 205 matched controls, the frequency of activated HLA-DR(+) CD4(+) T cells associates with increased TB disease risk (OR=1.828, 95% CI=1.25-2.68, P=0.002, FDR=0.04, conditional logistic regression). In an independent study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected adolescents, activated HLA-DR(+) CD4(+) T cells also associate with increased TB disease risk (OR=1.387, 95% CI=1.068-1.801, P=0.014, conditional logistic regression). In infants, BCG-specific T cells secreting IFN-γ associate with reduced risk of TB (OR=0.502, 95% CI=0.29-0.86, P=0.013, FDR=0.14). The causes and impact of T-cell activation on disease risk should be considered when designing and testing TB vaccine candidates for these populations. PMID:27068708

  6. Effects of diet and genetics on Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine efficacy in inbred guinea pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, M K; Bartow, R A; Mintzer, C L; McMurray, D. N.

    1987-01-01

    Strain 2 and strain 13 guinea pigs were vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis BCG and placed on low-protein or protein-adequate diets. Five weeks later all animals were infected by the respiratory route with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv organisms. Four weeks postchallenge, guinea pigs were skin tested with purified protein derivative and sacrificed. Protein deficiency resulted in significant reductions in body weight and thymus weight and in an impairment in the ability to control ...

  7. Variable Virulence and Efficacy of BCG Vaccine Strains in Mice and Correlation With Genome Polymorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lu; Ru, Huan-wei; Chen, Fu-zeng; Jin, Chun-yan; Sun, Rui-feng; Fan, Xiao-Yong; Guo, Ming; Mai, Jun-tao; Xu, Wen-xi; Lin, Qing-xia; LIU Jun

    2016-01-01

    Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, is the only vaccine available for tuberculosis (TB) control. However, BCG is not an ideal vaccine and has two major limitations: BCG exhibits highly variable effectiveness against the development of TB both in pediatric and adult populations and can cause disseminated BCG disease in immunocompromised individuals. BCG comprises a number of substrains that are genetically distinct. Whether and how these genetic differen...

  8. Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccines Exhibit Defects in Alanine and Serine Catabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jeffrey M.; Alexander, David C.; Behr, Marcel A.; LIU Jun

    2003-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis BCG is the only accepted vaccine for the prevention of tuberculosis (TB) in humans. BCG is a live vaccine, and induction of immunity to TB requires productive infection of the host by BCG. However, BCG is not a satisfactory vaccine, because it fails to protect against pulmonary TB in adults. In this study, we found that BCG strains cannot utilize many naturally occurring amino acids as the sole nitrogen source for growth. This defect is caused, at least partially, by the l...

  9. BCG vaccine for immunotherapy in warts: is it really safe in a tuberculosis endemic area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daulatabad, Deepashree; Pandhi, Deepika; Singal, Archana

    2016-05-01

    Management of recurrent and or recalcitrant warts can be a therapeutic challenge and in such cases invoking body's own immunity may help to overcome the present episode and also prevent recurrences. Bacilli Calmette Geurin (BCG) immunotherapy has long been considered to be an effective and safe modality in such cases. We present a series of seven cases treated with BCG immunotherapy wherein a single dose of BCG caused regression of wart in 85.7% patients and complete resolution was evident in 28.6% patients. However, the development of adverse effects precluded any further dosages in four of seven (57.1%) patients. This raises serious concern on the safety of this therapeutic modality, especially in a population endemic to tuberculosis. PMID:26809285

  10. Immunological Links to Nonspecific Effects of DTwP and BCG Vaccines on Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2011-01-01

    A number of mainly observational studies suggest that many African females below the age of one year die each year from the nonspecific effects of vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus toxoids and killed (whole-cell) Bordetella pertussis (DTwP). In contrast, similar studies suggest that many African...

  11. BCG vaccination reduces risk of tuberculosis infection in vaccinated badgers and unvaccinated badger cubs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Carter

    Full Text Available Wildlife is a global source of endemic and emerging infectious diseases. The control of tuberculosis (TB in cattle in Britain and Ireland is hindered by persistent infection in wild badgers (Meles meles. Vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG has been shown to reduce the severity and progression of experimentally induced TB in captive badgers. Analysis of data from a four-year clinical field study, conducted at the social group level, suggested a similar, direct protective effect of BCG in a wild badger population. Here we present new evidence from the same study identifying both a direct beneficial effect of vaccination in individual badgers and an indirect protective effect in unvaccinated cubs. We show that intramuscular injection of BCG reduced by 76% (Odds ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.11-0.52 the risk of free-living vaccinated individuals testing positive to a diagnostic test combination to detect progressive infection. A more sensitive panel of tests for the detection of infection per se identified a reduction of 54% (Odds ratio = 0.46, 95% CI 0.26-0.88 in the risk of a positive result following vaccination. In addition, we show the risk of unvaccinated badger cubs, but not adults, testing positive to an even more sensitive panel of diagnostic tests decreased significantly as the proportion of vaccinated individuals in their social group increased (Odds ratio = 0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.76; P = 0.03. When more than a third of their social group had been vaccinated, the risk to unvaccinated cubs was reduced by 79% (Odds ratio = 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-0.81; P = 0.02.

  12. "PRESUMED SYSTEMIC BACILLE CALMETTE-GUÉRIN DISEASE AFTER BCG VACCINATION: REPORT OF A CLINICAL CASE "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tabatabaie

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available BCG (bacille Calmette–Guérin vaccine is administered worldwide to prevent severe forms of tuberculosis. It is considered to be safe; however, occasional complications are seen. The most serious complication is BCGosis. We report a case of BCGosis with granulomatous hepatitis and acid-fast bacilli in liver and spleen. We treated the patient with antituberculosis drugs without any response to treatment.

  13. How differentiated do children experience affect? An investigation of the within- and between-person structure of children's affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Anja; Könen, Tanja; Dirk, Judith; Schmiedek, Florian

    2016-05-01

    Research on the structure of children's affect is limited. It is possible that children's perception of their own affect might be less differentiated than that of adults. Support for the 2-factor model of positive and negative affect and the pleasure-arousal model suggests that children in middle childhood can distinguish positive and negative affect as well as valence and arousal. Whether children are able to differentiate further aspects of affect, as proposed by the 3-dimensional model of affect (good-bad mood, alertness-tiredness, calmness-tension), is an unresolved issue. The aim of our study was the comparison of these 3 affect models to establish how differentiated children experience their affect and which model best describes affect in children. We examined affect structures on the between- and within-person level, acknowledging that affect varies across time and that no valid interpretation of either level is feasible if both are confounded. For this purpose, 214 children (age 8-11 years) answered affect items once a day for 5 consecutive days on smartphones. We tested all affect models by means of 2-level confirmatory factor analysis. Although all affect models had an acceptable fit, the 3-dimensional model best described affect in children on both the within- and between-person level. Thus, children in middle childhood can already describe affect in a differentiated way. Also, affect structures were similar on the within- and between-person level. We conclude that in order to acquire a thorough picture of children's affect, measures for children should include items of all 3 affect dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26280488

  14. Investigating Contemporary Iranian Urban Parks on Mental Vitality for Children (Case Study: Teheran Water and Fire Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Salehabadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine factors that make urban park more vital for children. The next generation of nations will come from healthy children being spared of the negative effects of industry turmoil. Children wandering in the cities are searching loop to find a link with nature. If we establish a relationship with nature and living conditions of children are provided in a way that nature has done, it acts as an antidote to prevent many social effects. So with regard to the further development of cities, urban parks and green spaces improve mental and physical health of the children. On the other hand, with a look at the existing green spaces and parks in Iranian cities, we realize that these places do not enjoy, at the children`s view, the level of freshness and vitality and simply impose certain activities to children and the only use is for leisure.The present study investigates water and Fire Park in Tehran as a case study to find the challenge and the reasons for the lack of vitality in these areas. The research method is descriptive-analytical statistical data were collected.through questionnaire the results of the analysis of questionnaire data suggests the fact that two factors of entertaining and varied and flexible and creative activities for children are weakening factors of the vitality levels in these samples.

  15. An Investigation of the Fantasy Predisposition and Fantasy Style of Children with Imaginary Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouldin, Paula

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the author tested whether children with imaginary companions (ICs) have a different fantasy life than do children without ICs. To measure the fantasy life of the 74 children aged 3.2 to 8.7 years, the author modified the Children's Fantasy Interview (E. Rosenfeld, L. R. Huesmann, L. D. Eron, & J. V. Torney-Purta, 1982) to make it…

  16. Investigating children's spiritual experiences through the Health and Physical Education (HPE) learning area in Australian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Timothy

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore spirituality within the Health and Physical Education (HPE) learning area, through investigating children's experiences within three Brisbane Catholic Education primary schools (Queensland, Australia). There are seven dimensions of wellness: physical, intellectual, emotional, social, spiritual, environmental, and occupational, which are all strongly connected (Robbins et al. in A wellness way of life, 9th edition, McGraw Hill, USA, 2011). It is logical that HPE, which promotes students to adopt lifelong health and well-being, offers opportunities for spirituality to be experienced and warrants investigation. Data gathered in this qualitative research suggest that regular quality inclusive HPE lessons increased students' potential for spiritual experiences. PMID:24306452

  17. When the Streets Speak: Investigating Music, Memory, and Identity in the Lives of Abidjanese Street Children

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Ty-Juana

    2016-01-01

    Africa currently has tens of millions of street children roaming its city streets, making it one of the leading regions in the world for children who have made the streets their home. Because of the exponential increase in street children over the past decade, the topic of street children has gained uncharted momentum in the world of academia. Until recently, academics have perpetuated the myth of street children as passive helpless beings. However, after fourteen months of observation and re...

  18. Investigation of physical performance parameters of children aged 12-14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Özşaker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the physical performance parameters and to determine the profiles of children aged 12-14 years and attending the secondary stage of public schools in Izmir province. The study included a total of 650 voluntary students (323 girls, and 327 boys attending the 6th, 7th and 8th classes. Physical parameters of students were evaluated with tests selected from Fitnessgram, American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD and Eurofit Test Battery (Muscle Strength: hand grip strength, standing long jump; Muscle Resistance: pull-up; Flexibility: sit and reach test; Cardiovascular Endurance:1 mile running test (1609 m endurance running; Speed: 30 m sprint.Statistical analysis of data was made by Two-Way Variance Analysis in SPSS 15.0 packet software, and Further Bonferroni analysis was used for age. As a result of the study, performance parameters of children aged 12-14 years were determined to be lower than those reported by similar studies made on the same age group. Among the reasons, there are lack of physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, inadequate physical education and sport class and the reflections of education system.

  19. Investigation of physical performance parameters of children aged 12-14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Özşaker

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the physical performance parameters and to determine the profiles of children aged 12-14 years and attending the secondary stage of public schools in Izmir province. The study included a total of 650 voluntary students (323 girls, and 327 boys attending the 6th, 7th and 8th classes. Physical parameters of students were evaluated with tests selected from Fitnessgram, American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD and Eurofit Test Battery (Muscle Strength: hand grip strength, standing long jump; Muscle Resistance: pull-up; Flexibility: sit and reach test; Cardiovascular Endurance:1 mile running test (1609 m endurance running; Speed: 30 m sprint.Statistical analysis of data was made by Two-Way Variance Analysis in SPSS 15.0 packet software, and Further Bonferroni analysis was used for age.As a result of the study, performance parameters of children aged 12-14 years were determined to be lower than those reported by similar studies made on the same age group. Among the reasons, there are lack of physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, inadequate physical education and sport class and the reflections of education system.

  20. Comparative functional investigations of the lungs in children suffering from mucoviscidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    22 children suffering from mucoviscidosis - 15 boys and 7 girls-, aged between 1 and 12 years, were examined twice in a period of 8 months. In nearly all children older than 5 years, vital capacity, one-second values, resistance, intrathoracic gas volume, and strength of the hands could be determined. The thorax was X-rayed in ap and lateral radiation direction, and the pictures were analyzed by two experts (Schuster and Lorenz) according to the score set up by Chrispin and Norman. Using a 10Ci 137Cs source, 8 measuring volumes of a few cm3 each were investigated densitometrically (principle: measurement of Compton backscattering) during inhalation and exhalation, thus obtaining a picture of their role in ventilation. From unpublished data material, standard values of lung density were determined in dependence of age, sex, and measuring volume. Variations were high, especially in the youngest age group. The densitometric findings were correlated with other results (score of anamnetic findings, strength of the two hands, vital capacities, IGV, resistance of the respiratory tract, one-second value, Chrispin-Norman score). A correlation at 1% level was found between one-second value (sample: 6; coefficient of correlation: 0.8624) and densitometry as well as between the score of the anamnetic findings (sample: 22; coefficient of correlation: -0.5681) and densitometry. There were no significant correlations in the rest of the cases. Radiation exposure is low. (orig./AJ) 891 AJ/orig.- 892 MKO

  1. Early Detection, Referral, Investigation, and Diagnosis of Children with Growth Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Martin O; Backeljauw, Philippe F; Calzada, Raúl; Cianfarani, Stefano; Dunkel, Leo; Koledova, Ekaterina; Wit, Jan M; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis is a key objective in clinical medicine, and early detection of pathological short stature has tangible benefits for growth prognosis and the well-being of the child. Despite late diagnosis being common in growth disorders, programmes of height screening in primary care are not universal in developed countries and may be random or non-existent. A notable exception is automated growth monitoring in Finland, where an algorithm to detect abnormal growth is integrated into children's electronic health records, resulting in increased diagnoses of pathological short stature. Evidence-based anthropometric criteria for referral of short stature to secondary or tertiary care are now published, due largely to excellent studies in the Netherlands. Following referral of the short child, the protocol for laboratory investigations remains somewhat controversial because in healthy children their diagnostic yield can be too low for cost-effectiveness. However, outside of tertiary academic paediatric endocrinology centres, baseline screening tests are considered worthwhile and may speed up diagnosis and treatment. Finally, auxological cut-offs cannot replace good clinical practice, and the understanding that early and effective management depends on commitment to a diagnosis and individualisation of therapy in the short child cannot be overemphasised. PMID:27055026

  2. Investigation regarding prevention of insufficiency fractures in children with severe cerebral palsy by Light-Emitting Diode (LED) irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Asagai, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Kengo; Ohshiro, Toshio; Ohshiro, Takafumi

    2014-01-01

    Bone metabolism in children with severe fractures was examined, risk factors for fractures were characterized, and effects of LED (light-emitting diode) irradiation on the risk factors for fractures were investigated. Since insufficiency fracture in children with severe cerebral palsy can be caused without obvious external force in daily care, it is sometimes handled as a medical accident and can lead to a lawsuit. It is very important to explain the possibility of an insufficiency fracture t...

  3. Caregiver Reports of Serious Injuries in Children Who Remain at Home After a Child Protective Services Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Leslie, Laurel K.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Zhang, Jinjin; Horwitz, Sarah Mccue

    2012-01-01

    The study objectives were to examine serious injuries requiring medical attention among children who remain at home after a child welfare/child protective services (CPS) maltreatment investigation in the US and to determine whether child/caregiver characteristics and ongoing CPS involvement are related to injuries requiring medical attention. Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being, we analyzed data on the subsample of children who remained at home (N = 3,440). A multivar...

  4. Using Simulations to Investigate the Longitudinal Stability of Alternative Schemes for Classifying and Identifying Children with Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatschneider, Christopher; Wagner, Richard K.; Hart, Sara A.; Tighe, Elizabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    The present study employed data simulation techniques to investigate the 1-year stability of alternative classification schemes for identifying children with reading disabilities. Classification schemes investigated include low performance, unexpected low performance, dual-discrepancy, and a rudimentary form of constellation model of reading…

  5. The investigation of inhalational allergen in 208 asthmatic infants and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to investigate the inhalational allergen in 208 asthmatic infants and children with allergen steep puncturing skin. The positive cases were 169(81.25%). There were 18 inhalational allergens in allergen steep. The positive rate of the dust acarus was 78.85%, and the dust was 35.58%, the smoke was 32.69% among the allergens. There was not any positive reaction in other allergens. There were no sexual differences in the positive rate. There was nothing with hypersusceptibility of the individual and the family. The positive rate of the infant was less than the child. There was significant difference of the positive rate in the age group (P < 0.01). The result indicated that dust acarus, air pollution or passive smoke was the quite dangerous factor in the many factors of the asthma. It was very important to strengthen the study of the infant and child prevention and cure

  6. Multiple Intelligences and how Children Learn: An Investigation in one Preschool Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Sonia R.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain understanding of how children learn when they are engaged in child initiated, teacher guided activities. Specifically, children's learning processes were documented and interpreted based on how they use their multiple intelligences. Multiple Intelligences refers to Howard Gardner's model of multiple intelligences and his view of how children have many cognitive strengths. Ethnographic methodologies were used to observe, document, and interpret children'...

  7. Psychological complaints reported by sexually abused children during criminal investigations: Istanbul example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğangün, Burak; Gönültaş, Burak M; Uzun-Oğuz, Esin; Oral, Gökhan; Öztürk, Meral

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims at describing the psychological complaints reported, as a part of the criminal investigation process, by the victims of sexual abuse as a part of the criminal investigation process, without attempting at reaching a medical diagnosis; and it discusses the relation of these reports with variables such as victim's gender, age and relation to the offender, type and duration of abuse, and parental marital status of the victim. Data is obtained from the statements of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) victims under the age of 15, as taken by Istanbul Juvenile Justice Department between the years 2009 and 2012. The sample consists of 175 cases with a total of 202 victim statements. Through the use of content analysis, the main and sub-categories of themes of the statements were determined. By means of the evaluation of the psychological condition of victims, we evaluated them in two categories: psychological complaints including self-harm and risk taking behaviors and psychological complaints with no self-harm and risk taking behaviors. The statistical analyses yield significant relations between the psychological complaints and children's parental marital status. Analysis of initial statements of sexual abuse victims is important as it may greatly contribute to professionals diagnosing and treating psychological complaints of these victims. It is essential that victims of sexual abuse should receive immediate psychological support starting with the criminal investigation process. PMID:27149176

  8. Investigation of Copy Number Variation in Children with Conotruncal Heart Defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Carla Marques Rondon, E-mail: carlamcampos@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, MT (Brazil); Zanardo, Evelin Aline; Dutra, Roberta Lelis [Departamento de Patologia - Laboratório de Citogenômica - LIM 03 - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Patologia - Laboratório de Citogenômica - LIM 03 - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kim, Chong Ae [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most prevalent group of structural abnormalities at birth and one of the main causes of infant morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown a contribution of the copy number variation in the genesis of cardiac malformations. Investigate gene copy number variation (CNV) in children with conotruncal heart defect. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was performed in 39 patients with conotruncal heart defect. Clinical and laboratory assessments were conducted in all patients. The parents of the probands who presented abnormal findings were also investigated. Gene copy number variation was detected in 7/39 patients: 22q11.2 deletion, 22q11.2 duplication, 15q11.2 duplication, 20p12.2 duplication, 19p deletion, 15q and 8p23.2 duplication with 10p12.31 duplication. The clinical characteristics were consistent with those reported in the literature associated with the encountered microdeletion/microduplication. None of these changes was inherited from the parents. Our results demonstrate that the technique of MLPA is useful in the investigation of microdeletions and microduplications in conotruncal congenital heart defects. Early diagnosis of the copy number variation in patients with congenital heart defect assists in the prevention of morbidity and decreased mortality in these patients.

  9. Investigation of Copy Number Variation in Children with Conotruncal Heart Defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most prevalent group of structural abnormalities at birth and one of the main causes of infant morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown a contribution of the copy number variation in the genesis of cardiac malformations. Investigate gene copy number variation (CNV) in children with conotruncal heart defect. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was performed in 39 patients with conotruncal heart defect. Clinical and laboratory assessments were conducted in all patients. The parents of the probands who presented abnormal findings were also investigated. Gene copy number variation was detected in 7/39 patients: 22q11.2 deletion, 22q11.2 duplication, 15q11.2 duplication, 20p12.2 duplication, 19p deletion, 15q and 8p23.2 duplication with 10p12.31 duplication. The clinical characteristics were consistent with those reported in the literature associated with the encountered microdeletion/microduplication. None of these changes was inherited from the parents. Our results demonstrate that the technique of MLPA is useful in the investigation of microdeletions and microduplications in conotruncal congenital heart defects. Early diagnosis of the copy number variation in patients with congenital heart defect assists in the prevention of morbidity and decreased mortality in these patients

  10. Investigation of Copy Number Variation in Children with Conotruncal Heart Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Marques Rondon Campos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital heart defects (CHD are the most prevalent group of structural abnormalities at birth and one of the main causes of infant morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown a contribution of the copy number variation in the genesis of cardiac malformations. Objectives: Investigate gene copy number variation (CNV in children with conotruncal heart defect. Methods: Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA was performed in 39 patients with conotruncal heart defect. Clinical and laboratory assessments were conducted in all patients. The parents of the probands who presented abnormal findings were also investigated. Results: Gene copy number variation was detected in 7/39 patients: 22q11.2 deletion, 22q11.2 duplication, 15q11.2 duplication, 20p12.2 duplication, 19p deletion, 15q and 8p23.2 duplication with 10p12.31 duplication. The clinical characteristics were consistent with those reported in the literature associated with the encountered microdeletion/microduplication. None of these changes was inherited from the parents. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that the technique of MLPA is useful in the investigation of microdeletions and microduplications in conotruncal congenital heart defects. Early diagnosis of the copy number variation in patients with congenital heart defect assists in the prevention of morbidity and decreased mortality in these patients.

  11. Searching for Signs of Intelligent Life: An Investigation of Young Children's Beliefs about Robot Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Debra; Crowley, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Children's worlds are increasingly populated by intelligent technologies. This has raised a number of questions about the ways in which technology can change children's ideas about important concepts, like what it means to be alive or smart. In this study, we examined the impact of experience with intelligent technologies on children's ideas about…

  12. Investigating the Role of Traditional Children's Games in Teaching Ten Universal Values in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aypay, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Children are constantly stimulated in different developmental areas through playing games with other children or adults. Play can provide a context wherein children achieve deep learning through the integration of intellectual, physical, moral, and spiritual values and commit themselves to learning, developing, and…

  13. A Longitudinal Investigation of Morpho-Syntax in Children with Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Jennifer; Rvachew, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The intent of this study was to examine the longitudinal morpho-syntactic progression of children with Speech Sound Disorders (SSD) grouped according to Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) scores. Methods: Thirty-seven children separated into four clusters were assessed in their pre-kindergarten and Grade 1 years. Cluster 1 were children with…

  14. Why do East Asian children perform so well in PISA? An investigation of Western-born children of East Asian descent

    OpenAIRE

    John Jerrim

    2014-01-01

    A small group of high-performing East Asian economies dominate the top of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) rankings. This has caught the attention of Western policymakers, who want to know why East Asian children obtain such high PISA scores, and what can be done to replicate their success. In this paper I investigate whether children of East Asian descent, who were born and raised in a Western country (Australia), also score highly on the PISA test. I then explore wh...

  15. A Study of Children's Conceptions of Social Behavior (An Investigation of Interpersonal Reaction Development in Young Children). Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, James A.; Wright, Mary U.

    This study attempted to discover the characteristics of the developmental process whereby children follow a sequential pattern in their understanding of social relationships. A questionnaire was administered describing several simple dyadic situations in terms of one person helping or hurting another. The respondents were to indicate whether the…

  16. An investigation of nonverbal imitation and language in children with specific language delay

    OpenAIRE

    Dohmen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with specific deficits in language do not form a homogeneous group, but present with varied profiles of language skills and deficits. Research in children with language problems has focussed on deficits in the acquisition of lexical forms and syntactic structures of language, but our understanding of children's deficits with the meaning of language remains limited. Sociocognitive abilities are necessary for discovering the meaning of language, and it has been hypothesised that some c...

  17. The Social Transmission of Attractiveness Stereotypes: An Investigation of Parental Expectations of Children's Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hicken, Marianne White

    1982-01-01

    Eighty-six children fran the Utah State University Child Development Latoratories and Hillcrest Elerrentary School and their parents participated in the study. The study focused on the use of attractiveness stereotyping used by children across four age groups. The study also analyzed the social transmission of attractiveness stereotypes fran parents to their children. The study included two parts: 1) a play-preference measure, and 2) a social attribJtion measure. The stimlli were sketches of ...

  18. Maturation of social attribution skills in typically developing children: An investigation using the social attribution task

    OpenAIRE

    Chan Raymond CK; Hu Zhouyi; McAlonan Grainne M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The assessment of social attribution skills in children can potentially identify and quantify developmental difficulties related to autism spectrum disorders and related conditions. However, relatively little is known about how these skills develop in typically developing children. Therefore the present study aimed to map the trajectory of social attribution skill acquisition in typically developing children from a young age. Methods In the conventional social attribution ...

  19. The Application of Computer Musculoskeletal Modeling and Simulation to Investigate Compressive Tibiofemoral Force and Muscle Functions in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to utilize musculoskeletal modelling and simulation to investigate the compressive tibiofemoral force and individual muscle function in obese children. We generated a 3D muscle-driven simulation of eight obese and eight normal-weight boys walking at their self-selected speed. The compressive tibiofemoral force and individual muscle contribution to the support and progression accelerations of center of mass (COM were computed for each participant based on the subject-specific model. The simulated results were verified by comparing them to the experimental kinematics and EMG data. We found a linear relationship between the average self-selected speed and the normalized peak compressive tibiofemoral force (R2=0.611. The activity of the quadriceps contributed the most to the peak compressive tibiofemoral force during the stance phase. Obese children and nonobese children use similar muscles to support and accelerate the body COM, but nonobese children had significantly greater contributions of individual muscles. The obese children may therefore adopt a compensation strategy to avoid increasing joint loads and muscle requirements during walking. The absolute compressive tibiofemoral force and muscle forces were still greater in obese children. The long-term biomechanical adaptations of the musculoskeletal system to accommodate the excess body weight during walking are a concern.

  20. MRI or not to MRI! Should brain MRI be a routine investigation in children with autistic spectrum disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeglam, Adel M; Al-Ogab, Marwa F; Al-Shaftery, Thouraya

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the routine usage of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of brain and estimate the prevalence of brain abnormalities in children presenting to the Neurodevelopment Clinic of Al-Khadra Hospital (NDC-KH), Tripoli, Libya with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). The records of all children with ASD presented to NDC-KH over 4-year period (from January 2009 to December 2012) were reviewed. All MRIs were acquired with a 1.5-T Philips (3-D T1, T2, FLAIR coronal and axial sequences). MRIs were reported to be normal, abnormal or no significant abnormalities by a consultant neuroradiologist. One thousand and seventy-five children were included in the study. Seven hundred and eighty-two children (72.7 %) had an MRI brain of whom 555 (71 %) were boys. 26 children (24 males and 2 females) (3.3 %) demonstrated MRI abnormalities (8 leukodystrophic changes, 4 periventricular leukomalacia, 3 brain atrophy, 2 tuberous sclerosis, 2 vascular changes, 1 pineoblastoma, 1 cerebellar angioma, 1 cerebellar hypoplasia, 3 agenesis of corpus callosum, 1 neuro-epithelial cyst). An unexpectedly high rate of MRI abnormalities was found in the first large series of clinical MRI investigations in children with autism. These results could contribute to further research into the pathogenesis of autistic spectrum disorder. PMID:25344829

  1. Is there a correlation between the size of the BCG scar and renal scar of urinary tract infections in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Kavukçu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pyelonephritis cause cellular death, and developmentof scars in kidneys. The aim of this study is todemonstrate a correlation (if any between renal scar, andsize of the scar induced by BCG vaccine in children whohad experienced urinary tract infections. In case of detectionof any correlation, BCG scar formation can be usedas a determinative marker of renal scars, which developfollowing urinary tract infection.Methods: Patients with a history of urinary tract infectionat least 4 months old who had undergone 99mTcDMSAscanning were included in this study. Vertical and horizontaldiameters of BCG scars of the patients in the studygroup were measured. For statistical analysis the greatestdiameter was taken into consideration, and the patientswere divided into 2 subgroups based on the greatest diameterof their BCG scars (Subgroups 1, ≤5 mm, and 2,>5 mm. The patients were also evaluated in 2 groupsas those with (Group 1 or without (Group 2 scars. Bothgroups were compared with subgroups with the largestscar diameters of ≤ 5mm or >5 mmResults: Study population included 108 (82 girls patients.DMSA detected scars in a total of 51 patients.Mean ages of the patients with and without scars were notdifferent (p=0.414. No significant difference was found insize of the BCG scars between renal scar positive andnegative groups (p>0.05.Conclusion: No correlation was found between developmentof renal scar and the size of BCG scar in childrenafter urinary tract infection. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (1:8-12Key words: BCG scar, renal scar, urinary tract infection,children

  2. Investigating the Place and Meaning of "Physical Education" to Preschool Children: Methodological Lessons from a Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvilly, Nollaig

    2015-01-01

    Preschool physical education has not been extensively researched. Furthermore, research in physical activity and physical education rarely seeks young children's perspectives. The current paper focuses on one aspect of a post-structural study concerned with investigating the place and meaning of "physical education" to practitioners…

  3. A study of children's conceptions of school rules by investigating their judgements of transgressions in the absence of rules

    OpenAIRE

    Thornberg, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated 202 elementary school childrens judgements and reasoning about transgressions when school rules regulating these transgressions have been removed in hypothetical school situations. As expected, moral transgressions were judged as more wrong and less accepted than structuring, protecting and etiquette transgressions. In turn, etiquette transgressions were judged as less wrong and more accepted than moral, structuring and protecting transgressions. Structuring transgress...

  4. An Investigation into Risks Awareness and E-Safety Needs of Children on the Internet: A Study of Devon, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annansingh, Fenio; Veli, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate children interaction in cyberspace and their use of Web 2.0 technologies. It sought their perception of internet risks as well as their knowledge and experience with electronic safety (e-safety) measures. It also considered parents', teachers' and other stakeholders' perception of internet risks, e-safety…

  5. An Investigation of Comorbid Psychological Disorders, Sleep Problems, Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Epilepsy in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, Arlene; Leader, Geraldine; Healy, Olive

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated comorbidity in eighty-nine children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Ireland. Comorbidity is the presence of one or more disorders in addition to a primary disorder. The prevalence of comorbid psychological disorders, behaviours associated with comorbid psychopathology, epilepsy, gastrointestinal…

  6. Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Disease due to IL-12Rβ1 Deficiency in Three Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouh azam SARRAFZADEH

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD is a rare inheritance syndrome, characterized by a disseminated infection with mycobacterium in children following BCG vaccination at birth. Regarding the vaccination program in Iran, it may consider as a public health problem. The pathogenesis of MSMD is dependent on either insufficient production of IFN-gamma (γ or inadequate response to it. Here, we want to introduce three cases including two siblings and one girl from two unrelated families with severe mycobacterial infections referred to Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute (IAARI, from 2013 to 2015; their MSMD was confirmed by both cytokine assessment and genetic analysis. Regarding the clinical features of the patients, cell proliferation against a mitogen and BCG antigen was ordered in a lymphocyte transformation test (LTT setting. ELISA was performed for the measurement of IL-12p70 and IFN- γ in whole blood samples activated by BCG + recombinant human IFN-γ and BCG + recombinant human IL-12, respectively. In contrast to mitogen, the antigen-dependent proliferation activity of the patients’ leukocytes was significantly lower than that in normal range. We identified a homozygous mutation in IL12RB1 gene for two kindred who had a homozygous mutation affecting an essential splice site. For the third patient, a novel frameshift deletion in IL12RB1 gene was found. The genetic study results confirmed the impaired function of stimulated lymphocytes to release IFN-γ following stimulation with BCG+IL-12 while the response to rhIFN-γ for IL-12p70 production was relatively intact. Our findings show that cellular and molecular assessments are needed for precise identification of immunodeficiency disorders especially those without clear-cut diagnostic criteria. Keywords: Mendelian, IL-12Rβ1 Deficiency, Interfron-gamma, Interleukin 12, Mycobacterium

  7. Quality Early Childhood Education for Disadvantaged Children: An Investigation in the MCD Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Neelima

    2016-01-01

    Schools run by Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) play a pivotal role in providing early childhood education to young children belonging to marginalized sections of Delhi. However, literature review reveals that low learning outcomes are common among children attending these schools. Low levels of learning are often associated with poor quality…

  8. Asking Children to Ask: An Experimental Investigation of the Pragmatics of Relayed Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanz, Christine

    1983-01-01

    Examines children's errors in interpreting 'ask' as 'tell' in the framework of pragmatic development. Results indicate that if the children do not know the information, they relay the question, i.e., 'ask.' If they do know the answer, they supply it, i.e., 'tell.' (EKN)

  9. The Force of Gardening: Investigating Children's Learning in a Food Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Monica; Duhn, Iris

    2015-01-01

    School gardens are becoming increasingly recognised as important sites for learning and for bringing children into relationship with food. Despite the well-known educational and health benefits of gardening, children's interactions with the non-human entities and forces within garden surroundings are less understood and examined in the wider…

  10. Investigating Negotiation of Meaning in EFL Children with Very Low Levels of Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Amparo; Azpilicueta-Martinez, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies hold that interaction has beneficial effects on second language acquisition among adults and children in second language contexts. However, data from children learning English as a foreign language are still unavailable. In order to fill this research niche, this study examines the conversational interactions of 8 pairs of young…

  11. Investigating the Impact of the Premier League Reading Stars Programme on Children's Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabion, Clémence

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of the Premier League Reading Stars (PLRS) programme in 2013 has established that the intervention is having a positive impact on the attainment of participating children in reading and writing: Three out of four children made at least six months' progress in just ten weeks. One child in three made a year's progress or more. The…

  12. Investigating the Factors Affecting Resiliency in Mothers of Children with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakli, Hatice; Kaner, Sema

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of quantity and quality of social support and problem-focused coping style on mothers' resilience was examined by conducting a structural equation modeling. The sample of the research consisted of 257 mothers of children with intellectual disability, and 234 mothers of typically-developing children. The data were gathered…

  13. The Effects of Sleep Disturbance on School Performance: A Preliminary Investigation of Children Attending Elementary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Laura; Guarnera, Manuela; Mazzone, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disorders in children are common. Sleep plays an important role in children's development and sleep disorders can have a substantial impact on their quality of life. Indeed, sleep is crucial for physical growth, behavior, and emotional development and it is also closely related to cognitive functioning, learning and attention, and…

  14. A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Hope in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Diane; Hastings, Sarah; Gariglietti, Kelli; Callahan, Barbara; Gingerich, Karen; Diamond, Kandi

    Most young children are exuberant and enthusiastic about their futures, believing they can do almost anything. But many eventually lose hope. Efforts to understand at what developmental point children lose hope is the focus of this paper. Students in grades 1 through 12 (N=990) who attend Catholic and public schools were administered the…

  15. Cognitive vulnerabilities and development of suicidal thinking in children of depressed mothers: A longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsypes, Aliona; Gibb, Brandon E

    2016-05-30

    Although children of depressed parents are at heightened risk for suicidal ideation, little is known about specific risk factors. This study focused on the relation between a broad range of cognitive vulnerabilities proposed by the leading cognitive theories and the development of suicidal ideation in children. Participants were 209 mothers (aged 24-55) and their 8-14 year old children. Children of depressed mothers who had previously experienced suicidal ideation themselves reported higher levels of brooding rumination than children of depressed mothers who had not experienced suicidal ideation as well as children of never depressed mothers who had not experienced suicidal ideation. Further, among children of depressed mothers with no prior history of suicidal ideation, higher levels of hopelessness and lower global self-worth predicted first onset of suicidal ideation over a 2-year follow-up. Importantly, these results were maintained even after taking the occurrence of major depressive disorder in children during the follow-up into account. The findings highlight specific cognitive vulnerabilities that could be targeted in early suicide prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:27137968

  16. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for sexual concerns of maltreated children: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian; Timmer, Susan G; Urquiza, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    The current study examines whether an evidence-based treatment for externalizing behavior problems may reduce sexual concerns among children with maltreatment histories. An archival analysis identified 44 children between the ages of 3 and 8 exhibiting externalizing problems and co-morbid sexual concerns who were treated using Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). A second group of children receiving PCIT for externalizing behaviors without sexual concerns was included for comparison purposes (n=143). Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Tests indicated significant improvement among the group with sexual concerns, with 63.6% of children no longer displaying clinically significant sexual concerns at post-treatment. In addition, these children showed a decline in general externalizing problems comparable to that observed among the group of children receiving PCIT and not displaying sexual concerns. Lastly, logistic regression analyses showed that pre-treatment posttraumatic stress scores did not moderate improvement of sexual concerns, suggesting that posttraumatic stress-related sexual concerns may improve from PCIT treatment. These findings suggest that evidence-based parent training interventions, specifically PCIT, may successfully reduce sexual concerns among children who experienced maltreatment. PMID:27155807

  17. Resiliency training in Indian children: a pilot investigation of the Penn Resiliency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Aruna; Cycil, Chandrika

    2014-04-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP) in an urban Indian setting. The PRP is a program to prevent depression in early adolescence and has proved successful in changing children's attributional style of life events. While the program has been successful in preventing symptoms of depression in Western populations, the current study explored whether this program could be effective with an Indian sample. The aim of the current study was twofold; first, to study the attributional style of early adolescents in India and identify negative effects (if any) and second, to gain insights in using the PRP as a tool to change explanatory styles in Indian children. A total of 58 children participated in the study (Intervention group n = 29 and Control group n = 29). An Analysis of Covariance comparing post-test scores on Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ) while controlling for baseline scores indicated that children in the intervention group exhibited a significant reduction in pessimistic explanatory style and an increase in optimistic orientation compared to children in the control group. This indicates that the program was effective in changing negative attribution styles among upper-class Indian school children. Future work may look into the longer impact of the program as well as further considerations into adapting the program for a middle class population. PMID:24739766

  18. An Investigation of Spatial Hearing in Children with Normal Hearing and with Cochlear Implants and the Impact of Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misurelli, Sara M.

    The ability to analyze an "auditory scene"---that is, to selectively attend to a target source while simultaneously segregating and ignoring distracting information---is one of the most important and complex skills utilized by normal hearing (NH) adults. The NH adult auditory system and brain work rather well to segregate auditory sources in adverse environments. However, for some children and individuals with hearing loss, selectively attending to one source in noisy environments can be extremely challenging. In a normal auditory system, information arriving at each ear is integrated, and thus these binaural cues aid in speech understanding in noise. A growing number of individuals who are deaf now receive cochlear implants (CIs), which supply hearing through electrical stimulation to the auditory nerve. In particular, bilateral cochlear implants (BICIs) are now becoming more prevalent, especially in children. However, because CI sound processing lacks both fine structure cues and coordination between stimulation at the two ears, binaural cues may either be absent or inconsistent. For children with NH and with BiCIs, this difficulty in segregating sources is of particular concern because their learning and development commonly occurs within the context of complex auditory environments. This dissertation intends to explore and understand the ability of children with NH and with BiCIs to function in everyday noisy environments. The goals of this work are to (1) Investigate source segregation abilities in children with NH and with BiCIs; (2) Examine the effect of target-interferer similarity and the benefits of source segregation for children with NH and with BiCIs; (3) Investigate measures of executive function that may predict performance in complex and realistic auditory tasks of source segregation for listeners with NH; and (4) Examine source segregation abilities in NH listeners, from school-age to adults.

  19. Postmortem Computed Tomography Imaging in the Investigation of Nontraumatic Death in Infants and Children

    OpenAIRE

    Yukihiro Noda; Ken Yoshimura; Shoji Tsuji; Atsushi Ohashi; Hirohide Kawasaki; Kazunari Kaneko; Shigeki Ikeda; Hiroaki Kurokawa; Noboru Tanigawa

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the accuracy of postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) for the assessment of causes in nontraumatic deaths in children. Study Design. We enrolled cases of nontraumatic deaths of infants and children who underwent PMCT at a single center. The presumed cause of death determined by PMCT was prospectively compared with the clinical and pathological diagnoses of deaths. Results. Thirty-eight cases were enrolled for analysis. Among them, seven cases also underwent conventiona...

  20. Investigating negotiation of meaning in EFL children with very low levels of proficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Lázaro Ibarrola, María Amparo; Azpilicueta-Martínez, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies hold that interaction has beneficial effects on second language acquisition among adults and children in second language contexts. However, data from children learning English as a foreign language are still unavailable. In order to fill this research niche, this study examines the conversational interactions of 8 pairs of young (ages 7-8) learners of English as a foreign language while playing a game in the classroom. The objective is to document which conversati...

  1. Factors influencing the food choices of Irish children and adolescents : a qualitative investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Heary, Caroline; Nixon, Elizabeth; Kelly, Colette

    2010-01-01

    Food choices established during childhood and adolescence tend to persist into adulthood with consequences for long-term health. Yet, to date, relatively little research has examined factors that influence the food choices of children and adolescents from their perspectives. In this article, previous research is extended by examining developmental differences between children's and adolescents' perceptions of factors influencing their food choices. Focus group discussi...

  2. Prospective Investigation of Video Game Use in Children and Subsequent Conduct Disorder and Depression Using Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Adam D.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing public and scientific concern regarding the long-term behavioural effects of video game use in children, but currently little consensus as to the nature of any such relationships. We investigated the relationship between video game use in children, degree of violence in games, and measures of depression and a 6-level banded measure of conduct disorder. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used. A 3-level measure of game use at age 8/9 years was developed, taking into account degree of violence based on game genre. Associations with conduct disorder and depression, measured at age 15, were investigated using ordinal logistic regression, adjusted for a number of potential confounders. Shoot-em-up games were associated with conduct disorder bands, and with a binary measure of conduct disorder, although the strength of evidence for these associations was weak. A sensitivity analysis comparing those who play competitive games to those who play shoot-em-ups found weak evidence supporting the hypothesis that it is violence rather than competitiveness that is associated with conduct disorder. However this analysis was underpowered, and we cannot rule out the possibility that increasing levels of competition in games may be just as likely to account for the observed associations as violent content. Overall game exposure as indicated by number of games in a household was not related to conduct disorder, nor was any association found between shoot-em-up video game use and depression. PMID:26820149

  3. Prospective Investigation of Video Game Use in Children and Subsequent Conduct Disorder and Depression Using Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchells, Peter J; Gage, Suzanne H; Rutherford, Adam D; Munafò, Marcus R

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing public and scientific concern regarding the long-term behavioural effects of video game use in children, but currently little consensus as to the nature of any such relationships. We investigated the relationship between video game use in children, degree of violence in games, and measures of depression and a 6-level banded measure of conduct disorder. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used. A 3-level measure of game use at age 8/9 years was developed, taking into account degree of violence based on game genre. Associations with conduct disorder and depression, measured at age 15, were investigated using ordinal logistic regression, adjusted for a number of potential confounders. Shoot-em-up games were associated with conduct disorder bands, and with a binary measure of conduct disorder, although the strength of evidence for these associations was weak. A sensitivity analysis comparing those who play competitive games to those who play shoot-em-ups found weak evidence supporting the hypothesis that it is violence rather than competitiveness that is associated with conduct disorder. However this analysis was underpowered, and we cannot rule out the possibility that increasing levels of competition in games may be just as likely to account for the observed associations as violent content. Overall game exposure as indicated by number of games in a household was not related to conduct disorder, nor was any association found between shoot-em-up video game use and depression. PMID:26820149

  4. Prospective Investigation of Video Game Use in Children and Subsequent Conduct Disorder and Depression Using Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Etchells

    Full Text Available There is increasing public and scientific concern regarding the long-term behavioural effects of video game use in children, but currently little consensus as to the nature of any such relationships. We investigated the relationship between video game use in children, degree of violence in games, and measures of depression and a 6-level banded measure of conduct disorder. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used. A 3-level measure of game use at age 8/9 years was developed, taking into account degree of violence based on game genre. Associations with conduct disorder and depression, measured at age 15, were investigated using ordinal logistic regression, adjusted for a number of potential confounders. Shoot-em-up games were associated with conduct disorder bands, and with a binary measure of conduct disorder, although the strength of evidence for these associations was weak. A sensitivity analysis comparing those who play competitive games to those who play shoot-em-ups found weak evidence supporting the hypothesis that it is violence rather than competitiveness that is associated with conduct disorder. However this analysis was underpowered, and we cannot rule out the possibility that increasing levels of competition in games may be just as likely to account for the observed associations as violent content. Overall game exposure as indicated by number of games in a household was not related to conduct disorder, nor was any association found between shoot-em-up video game use and depression.

  5. Early diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination associated with higher female mortality and no difference in male mortality in a cohort of low birthweight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin;

    2012-01-01

    Studies from low-income countries have suggested that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine provided after Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a negative effect on female survival. The authors examined the effect of DTP in a cohort of low birthweight (LBW) infants....

  6. An investigation to validate the grammar and phonology screening (GAPS test to identify children with specific language impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather K J van der Lely

    larger investigation is warranted in children with SLI and other developmental disorders.

  7. Investigation of CT scan frequency in children based on RIS in a hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To ascertain the frequency distribution of CT examinations in children. Method: A wide range of information was collected through the radiology information system (RIS), including ID, sex, birth date, examination time, the examined part of body and other relevant ones related to children who underwent CT examinations between Jan 1, 2012 and Dec 31, 2012. The SAS software was used for data processing and statistical analysis. Results: A total of 1 542 children underwent 1 670 examinations, of which 67% were male. Head CT examination was the most frequent,accounting for 71.9% of all CT examinations, and followed by the abdomen/pelvis examinations. The number of examinations of children undergoing the repetitive examination accounted for 6.4%; 51.7% of the examinations was for trauma. The positive rate of CT examination was 51%, dependent upon the age and examined body parts to some extent. The younger patients had lower positive rate, and the positive rate of head CT examination was lower than those in other parts. Conclusions: To reduce the possible cancer risk to be induced by the ionizing radiation from CT, justification of CT examination should be considered for children. (authors)

  8. Serologic Investigations in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk

    2009-01-01

    Patients and methods. The study comprised 95 children at the ages of 2 to 18 years. The diagnosis of IBD was established on the basis of Porto criteria. Tests of blood serum were performed in all children: IgA and IgG ASCA, p-ANCA, c-ANCA using ELISA method. Results. IgE-dependent FA was found in 32.5% children with UC and in 21% with CD. We did not observe any relation between the occurrence of FA and the frequency and ASCA titre. p-ANCA were significantly more frequent in the group of children with UC. The occurrence of ASCA antibodies was observed in 73.7% of children with CD, 17.5% with UC and almost 30% with allergic colitis. Conclusions. Patients with CD and the presence of ASCA revealed a significantly more frequent localization of lesions within the small bowel and a tendency towards older age. We observed a connection between the occurrence of antibodies and the examined mutations of gene NOD2/CARD15.

  9. Resiliency Training in Indian Children: A Pilot Investigation of the Penn Resiliency Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Sankaranarayanan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effectiveness of the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP in an urban Indian setting. The PRP is a program to prevent depression in early adolescence and has proved successful in changing children’s attributional style of life events. While the program has been successful in preventing symptoms of depression in Western populations, the current study explored whether this program could be effective with an Indian sample. The aim of the current study was twofold; first, to study the attributional style of early adolescents in India and identify negative effects (if any and second, to gain insights in using the PRP as a tool to change explanatory styles in Indian children. A total of 58 children participated in the study (Intervention group n = 29 and Control group n = 29. An Analysis of Covariance comparing post-test scores on Children’s Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ while controlling for baseline scores indicated that children in the intervention group exhibited a significant reduction in pessimistic explanatory style and an increase in optimistic orientation compared to children in the control group. This indicates that the program was effective in changing negative attribution styles among upper-class Indian school children. Future work may look into the longer impact of the program as well as further considerations into adapting the program for a middle class population.

  10. Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis by score system in children and adolescents: a trial in a reference center in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemax Couto Sant'Anna

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 2002, the Brazilian Ministry of Health has recommended a score system for tuberculosis diagnosis of children and adolescents that does not need bacteriological positivity, because most cases in this age group have few bacteria. An observational, transversal study was carried out at the outpatient health care service of the reference medical service in Salvador, Bahia, including 164 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, with ages ranging between 1 and 15 years of age, who were treated from 1990 to 2001. The gold standard used to establish the diagnosis was clinical, radiological, epidemiological and based on follow-up data. The score system for diagnosis purposes was tested retrospectively. The median age and the average age of the 164 patients were 6 and 6.62 years (SD ± 4.33, respectively. About 65% of the sample reported a history of close contact with a tuberculous adult. The BCG vaccine coverage was 70.7% (116/164. It was found that 26% (43/164 of the patients had severe malnutrition. Out of this group, 26/43 (60.47% were < 5mm reactive to the tuberculin test. On the other hand, out of the 91 patients with tuberculin test < 5mm, 29% (26/ 91 had severe malnutrition. The use of the score gave the following distribution: a TB very likely in 81.7% (134/164 of the patients; b possible TB in 15.9% (26/164 and TB unlikely in 2.4% (4/164. Among patients who had been vaccinated more than 2 years before, there was a 9 times higher risk of finding a tuberculin test above 10 mm in individuals with probable TB in comparison with the patients with possible or unlikely TB.

  11. Teaching without Teaching? The Role of the Early Childhood Educator Co-constructing Long Term Investigations with Children

    OpenAIRE

    Beltran-Sellitti, Elaine de Fatima

    2015-01-01

    There has been much interest in emergent curriculum in early education in the last twenty years, partly due to the inspirations of collaborative pedagogical work between children and teachers of the municipal preschools of Reggio Emilia, Italy. In the absence of research denoting the tensions inherent in the complex role of the teacher co-constructing curriculum in a long term project, this narrative inquiry case study investigates the decision making process and implementation of experiences...

  12. Supporting children's acquisition of language and literacy: an investigation into the work of classroom assistants in mainstream primary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Mersh, Irene E.

    2001-01-01

    This small-scale ethnographic study reports on an investigation into the ways in which classroom assistants support the development of children’s language and literacy in a limited number of mainstream primary schools. The purpose of the study was to gain an understanding of the ways in which assistants support children, the influence of school policies on their work and how, or if, their own language and literacy practices affected their work. The study was carried out between 1997- 2000, a ...

  13. [Investigation of anti-Leishmania seroprevalence by different serologic assays in children inhabiting in the northwestern part of Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Nihal; Bör, Ozcan; Dinleyici, Ener Cağri; Töz, Seray Ozensoy; Ozbel, Yusuf

    2008-01-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum in Mediterranean region is still an important public health problem in those countries including Turkey. The asymptomatic presentation of the infection in most of the cases leads to difficulties in the diagnosis and prevention of the spread of infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in children inhabiting in the northwestern part of Turkey. A total of 572 healthy children (260 girls, 312 boys) aged between 1-17 years old (mean age: 8.1 years) inhabiting in Eskisehir, Bilecik, Kutahya and Afyon provinces and their counties were included to the study with the informed consent obtained from their families. All serum samples were screened by a commercial ELISA (Leishmania Ab Panel, Cypress Diagnostics, Belgium), two in-house ELISA (with whole antigens and rK39 antigen) tests and an in-house indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The sera yielding a positive result by commercial ELISA, have been re-evaluated with rK39 dipstick test. Of 572 children, 5.2% (n = 30) were found positive with commercial ELISA, 3.8% (n = 22) with IFAT, 4.7% (n = 27) with in-house whole ELISA, and 3.6% (n = 21) with in-house rK39 ELISA. Of 30 commercial ELISA positive sera, 19 (63.3%) gave positive result also by dipstick test. This difference was attributed to the use of multiple antigens belonging to different Leishmania species in commercial ELISA test. The number of children who were seropositive with all of the tests were 15 (2.6%) and with at least three of the tests were 24 (4.2%). Most (76.7%) of the 30 seropositive children with commercial ELISA were found to be inhabiting in Iscehisar town of Afyon province (n = 16) and Sogut town of Bilecik province (n = 7) where canine VL was also endemic. Our results also indicated that 93.3% (28/30) of seropositive children were living in the rural parts of the study region. Thirty seropositive children were followed

  14. Changes in Socio-Emotional and Behavioral Functioning After Attending a Camp for Children with Tourette Syndrome: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Cyd K; LaMotte, Julia; Gutierrez-Colina, Ana M; Kardon, Patricia; Blount, Ronald L

    2016-08-01

    Children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome are at risk for social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties that may negatively influence feelings of self-competence and attitudes toward having this diagnosis. Attending a camp for children with Tourette syndrome may facilitate improvements in overall socio-emotional and behavioral functioning and self-perception. The current study obtained data from 37 campers (76 % male, 24 % female) and 47 caregivers of campers to investigate changes in children's emotional and behavioral functioning, self-perception (i.e., social and general), attitudes towards having Tourette syndrome, and how different they felt from peers after attending a 1-week summer camp for youth with Tourette syndrome using a pre-post design. Results indicated that campers endorsed a significantly improved sense of social self-competence and more favorable attitudes toward having Tourette syndrome post-camp. Campers also tended to endorse feeling less different than peers at camp versus peers in general. Caregivers endorsed significantly less severe symptoms associated with Tourette syndrome for campers after attending camp. No pre-to-post-camp changes were observed for campers' levels of anxiety or obsessive-compulsive symptoms. These preliminary findings suggest that attending camp or having other opportunities to interact with similar peers may promote better perceptions of social self-competence, more favorable attitudes toward having Tourette syndrome, and a stronger sense of affiliation with peers for children with Tourette syndrome. PMID:26589437

  15. A 5-Year Investigation of Children's Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Localized Ependymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu Shengjie; Xiong Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies have the potential to preserve cognitive outcomes in children with ependymoma; however, functional behavior remains uninvestigated. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intelligence quotient (IQ) and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years after irradiation in children diagnosed with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 123 children with intracranial ependymoma. Mean age at irradiation was 4.60 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.85-5.35). Serial neurocognitive evaluations, including an age-appropriate IQ measure and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), were completed before irradiation, 6 months after treatment, and annually for 5 years. A total of 579 neurocognitive evaluations were included in these analyses. Results: Baseline IQ and VABS were below normative means (P<.05), although within the average range. Linear mixed models revealed stable IQ and VABS across the follow-up period, except for the VABS Communication Index, which declined significantly (P=.015). Annual change in IQ (-.04 points) did not correlate with annual change in VABS (-.90 to +.44 points). Clinical factors associated with poorer baseline performance (P<.05) included preirradiation chemotherapy, cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, number and extent of surgical resections, and younger age at treatment. No clinical factors significantly affected the rate of change in scores. Conclusions: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies provided relative sparing of functional outcomes including IQ and adaptive behaviors, even in very young children. Communication skills remained vulnerable and should be the target of preventive and rehabilitative interventions.

  16. Selecting Chicano Children's Literature in a Bilingual Classroom: Investigating Issues of Cultural Authenticity and Avoiding Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamillo, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Before the Civil Rights movement, the lack of accurate representations of people of color was evident. Children's literature did not present accurate depictions of Mexican-Americans in the text. Sarapes, sombreros and fiestas were typical symbols used to identify Mexican culture and traditions. The Civil Rights Movement sparked a change for…

  17. Emerging Musical Literacy: Investigating Young Children's Music Cognition and Musical Problem-Solving through Invented Notations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Joan

    A qualitative study was conducted in the winter of 2000 with children enrolled in a Clef Club, the fourth level of an early childhood music program sponsored by the Eastman School's Community Education Division (Rochester, NY). Eleven participants, ages 4.7 to 6.6, enrolled in 3 sections of the 10-week program taught by the researcher. Classroom…

  18. Age-related changes in error processing in young children: A school-based investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie K. Grammer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth in executive functioning (EF skills play a role children's academic success, and the transition to elementary school is an important time for the development of these abilities. Despite this, evidence concerning the development of the ERP components linked to EF, including the error-related negativity (ERN and the error positivity (Pe, over this period is inconclusive. Data were recorded in a school setting from 3- to 7-year-old children (N = 96, mean age = 5 years 11 months as they performed a Go/No-Go task. Results revealed the presence of the ERN and Pe on error relative to correct trials at all age levels. Older children showed increased response inhibition as evidenced by faster, more accurate responses. Although developmental changes in the ERN were not identified, the Pe increased with age. In addition, girls made fewer mistakes and showed elevated Pe amplitudes relative to boys. Based on a representative school-based sample, findings indicate that the ERN is present in children as young as 3, and that development can be seen in the Pe between ages 3 and 7. Results varied as a function of gender, providing insight into the range of factors associated with developmental changes in the complex relations between behavioral and electrophysiological measures of error processing.

  19. Investigating the Measurement Properties of the Social Responsiveness Scale in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Szatmari, Peter; Georgiades, Stelios; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Smith, Isabel M.; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Thompson, Ann; Bennett, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement properties of the Social Responsiveness Scale in an accelerated longitudinal sample of 4-year-old preschool children with the complementary approaches of categorical confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis. Measurement models based on the literature and other hypothesized measurement…

  20. Engaging Families in Dance: An Investigation of Moving Parents and Children Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Edward C.; Reedy, Patricia; Ng, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a relationship-based dance program, "Moving Parents and Children Together," and summarizes a 3-year study of teacher practice and parent-child interactions. Our work focuses on "relational engagement" in dance, which entails a person's basic motivation to connect plus a psychological investment in…

  1. An Investigation of the Additive Benefits of Parent Dialogic Reading Techniques in Older Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switalski, Sarah O'Neill

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the additive benefit of parent dialogic reading techniques in older, high-risk preschool children using multiple baseline design across participants, a single subject research design, as was as well as pre-test and post-test measures. Five preschoolers age-eligible to begin kindergarten the following school year participated.…

  2. Generalization of Social Anxiety to Sport: An Investigation of Elementary Aged Hispanic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Barlas, Mitchell E.; Dent, Heather C.; Masia, Carrie L.

    2002-01-01

    Used the Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised and additional questions to examine the relationship of social anxiety to sport anxiety and avoidance in a sample of urban Hispanic American fifth and sixth graders. Found that, for girls, fear of negative evaluation and social avoidance of general and new situations were associated with sport…

  3. How Children Determine the Size of 3D Structures: Investigating Factors Influencing Strategy Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, Marina; Ganley, Colleen M.; Casey, Beth M.; Dulaney, Alana; Tillinger, Miriam; Anderson, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This study explores changes in students' strategies as they solve different types of volume problems. Fifth graders were presented with pictures showing 3D objects and a unit cube; they determined how many cubes made up the object and explained their responses. We examined whether children transferred strategies across problem types, varying in…

  4. An investigation on the effect of emotional management problems on children's anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Afshari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s research on emotion regulation reveals its importance on many mental and physical heath related issues. One of the problems to deregulation of emotions is anxiety disorders subject. The aim of this research is to identify the relationship between emotional management problems including emotional inhibition, emotional deregulation and emotional coping on children’s anxiety symptoms, where it includes separation anxiety, social anxiety, panic disorder, school phobia and generalized anxiety symptoms. The sample was consisted of 307 primary students including boy and girl aged between 9-13 years old in city of Isfahan selected by simple random sampling. The instruments were Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders (SCARED, child Sadness Management Scale (CSMS and child Anger Management Scale (CAMS. The results shows that problems of children in management of anger and sadness consist of anger and sadness inhibition; anger and sadness deregulation predicts anxiety symptoms in children (p<0.0001. However, emotional coping could not predict children's anxiety symptoms, significantly. In addition, deregulation and inhibition of sadness and anger predicts anxiety in children.

  5. Informing Children about Their Sibling's Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Initial Investigation into Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kyoko; Uchiyama, Tokio; Endo, Fumio

    2011-01-01

    The manner in which typically developing (TD) children were informed about their sibling's diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) was examined in Japan. Seventy-seven parents, each with a child with ASD and a TD child, participated in a questionnaire survey. From the data obtained, it was revealed that parents informed 66.7% (72/108) TD…

  6. Investigation of the self-reported health and health-related behaviours of Victorian mothers of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Lalor, Aislinn; Farnworth, Louise; Pallant, Julie F; Knightbridge, Elizabeth; McLelland, Gayle

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle may influence many health-related issues currently facing Australian women. The extent to which women with school-aged children attend to their own health is unknown and the associations between health behaviours and health status requires investigation. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of health behaviours (alcohol consumption, health-promoting activities) and their impact on self-reported health (weight, sleep quality, mental health) among mothers of school-aged children in Victoria. Mail-out survey design (n=263) including the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) and Health Promoting Activities Scale was used to explore issues. The results indicated that substantial numbers of mothers reported moderate to extreme DASS scores: depression (n=45, 17%); anxiety (n=41, 15.6%); stress (n=57, 21.7%). The majority participated in physical activity less often than daily. High rates of daily alcohol use (20%) and poor sleep quality were reported. Nearly one-half (n=114, 46%) of the sample were overweight or obese and also reported poorer mental health than other women in the sample (P<0.001). Significant associations were detected between maternal weight, mental health and participation in health-promoting activities. The findings indicate that there is a need for increased health education and services for women with school-aged children. Direct services and population-based health promotion strategies may be required to address healthy lifestyle issues and educate mothers about the possible health legacy of poor health behaviours. PMID:24134959

  7. Inflammatory bowel disease in children--clinical, endoscopic, radiologic and histopathologic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, J K; Yeon, K M; Chi, J G

    1992-09-01

    This paper reviews our five years' clinical experience (1987 to 1991) of 22 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There were 12 patients with Crohn's disease and 10 patients with ulcerative colitis. The mean age at diagnosis was 8.7 years (2 to 14 years). Clinical impressions before referral were chronic diarrhea in 11, irritable bowel syndrome in 5, colon polyp in 4, lymphoma in 3, intestinal tuberculosis in 2, amoebic colitis in 2, ulcerative colitis in 2 children and other diseases. The mean interval from the onset of symptoms to the diagnosis of IBD was 18 months. Diagnosis of Crohn's disease was delayed for more than 13 months in 8 (67%), whereas that of ulcerative colitis was delayed for more than 13 months in 4 (40%). Diarrhea (50%), abdominal pain (36%) and rectal bleeding (36%) were the three most frequent presenting complaints of IBD. Moderately severe abdominal pain was a more common chief complaint in Crohn's disease (58%) than in ulcerative colitis (10%). Hematochezia (90% vs 17%) and moderately severe diarrhea (90% vs 75%) were more common gastrointestinal manifestations in ulcerative colitis than in Crohn's disease. The associated extraintestinal manifestations were oral ulcer in 7, arthralgia in 11 and arthritis in 4, skin lesions in 2, eye lesions in 2 and growth failure in 9 patients. Of 12 children with Crohn's disease, granuloma was found in 5, aphthous ulcerations in 8, cobble stone appearance in 8, skip area or asymmetric lesions in 6, transmural involvement in 7, and perianal fistula in 3. Among 10 children with ulcerative Colitis, there were crypt abscess in 8, granularity or friability in 10 and rectosigmoid ulcerations with purulent exudate in 8 children. The main sites of involvement in children with Crohn's disease were both the small and large bowels in 7 (58%), small bowel only in 2 (16%), and colon only in 3 (25%). Terminal ileum involvement was seen in 75% of Crohn's disease cases. The main sites of involvement in children

  8. Children's Emotionality Moderates the Association Between Maternal Responsiveness and Allostatic Load: Investigation Into Differential Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N; Evans, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    While emotionality is often thought of as a risk factor, differential susceptibility theory argues that emotionality reflects susceptibility to both positive and negative environmental influences. The present study explored whether emotional children might be more susceptible to the effects of both high and low maternal responsiveness on allostatic load, a physiological indicator of chronic stress. Participants were 226 mother and child dyads. Mothers reported on children's emotionality at child age 9. Maternal responsiveness was measured at age 13 using self-reports and behavioral observation. Allostatic load was measured at age 13 and 17 using neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and metabolic biomarkers. Emotionality was associated with higher allostatic load if self-reported responsiveness was low, but with lower allostatic load, when self-reported responsiveness was high. PMID:25639147

  9. An investigation of the smoking behaviours of parents before, during and after the birth of their children in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Chi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many studies have investigated the negative effects of parental smoking on children and Taiwan has started campaigns to promote smoke-free homes, little is known about the smoking behaviours of Taiwanese parents during the childbearing period. To help fill the gap, this study investigated Taiwanese parents' smoking behaviours before, during and after the birth of their children, particularly focusing on smoking cessation during pregnancy and relapse after childbirth. Methods We used data from the Survey of Health Status of Women and Children, conducted by Taiwan's National Health Research Institutes in 2000. After excluding survey respondents with missing information about their smoking behaviours, our sample consisted of 3,109 women who were married at the time of interview and had at least one childbearing experience between March 1, 1995 and February 28, 1999. Data on parental smoking behaviour in the six months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and in the first year after childbirth were extracted from the survey and analysed by descriptive statistics as well as logistic regression. Results Four percent of the mothers and sixty percent of the fathers smoked before the conception of their first child. The educational attainment and occupation of the parents were associated with their smoking status before the first pregnancy in the family. Over 80% of smoking mothers did not quit during pregnancy, and almost all of the smoking fathers continued tobacco use while their partners were pregnant. Over two thirds of the women who stopped smoking during their pregnancies relapsed soon after childbirth. Very few smoking men stopped tobacco use while their partners were pregnant, and over a half of those who quit started to smoke again soon after their children were born. Conclusion Among Taiwanese women who had childbearing experiences in the late 1990s, few smoked. Of those who smoked, few quit during pregnancy. Most

  10. Altering Positive/Negative Interaction Ratios in Relationships of Mothers and Young Children: A Preliminary Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Andrew B.

    2010-01-01

    Based on classic marital research of John Gottman, a popular notion exists that interpersonal relationships thrive when the number of positive interactions outweighs negative interactions by a ratio of five to one. Though many have given similar advice for parents and caregivers, Gottman's findings and methodology may not generalize to relationships of parents and young children. Were similar ratio findings to be validated for parent-child relationships, explicit ratio advice may be incorpora...

  11. Investigating the opportunities of using mobile learning by young children in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kraleva, Radoslava; Stoimenovski, Aleksandar; Kostadinova, Dafina; Kralev, Velin

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of literature related to the use of mobile devices in teaching young children. For this purpose, the most popular mobile operating systems in Bulgaria are considered and the functionality of the existing mobile applications with Bulgarian interface is discussed. The results of a survey of parents' views regarding the mobile devices as a learning tool are presented and the ensuing conclusions are provided.

  12. Investigation of Early Symptom Presentation in Children Under Age Three with Risk for Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, Elizabeth Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Given the rise in frequency of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses and the importance of early diagnosis for access to intervention services, there has been a push for early identification. Several early markers of ASD have been identified, however, these markers have largely been established in baby siblings of children with ASD, and the extent of generalization to a non-sibling population is unknown. Additionally, diagnostic stability at young ages is somewhat variable, pointing to a n...

  13. Inflammatory bowel disease in children--clinical, endoscopic, radiologic and histopathologic investigation.

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, J. K.; Yeon, K. M.; Chi, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews our five years' clinical experience (1987 to 1991) of 22 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There were 12 patients with Crohn's disease and 10 patients with ulcerative colitis. The mean age at diagnosis was 8.7 years (2 to 14 years). Clinical impressions before referral were chronic diarrhea in 11, irritable bowel syndrome in 5, colon polyp in 4, lymphoma in 3, intestinal tuberculosis in 2, amoebic colitis in 2, ulcerative colitis in 2 children and other diseas...

  14. Radiation exposure of children and young adults during X-ray investigations - experience and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After discussing the existing regulations for radiation protection of patients in the field of pediatric X-ray diagnostics in the GDR the use of the effective dose equivalent HE and the medium dose equivalent HM for the determination of radiation exposure to children is shortly discussed. Using computer tomography images to determine the position and size of organs of children, and the data from measured depth dose distributions, the exposure related to the entrance dose caused by frequent X-ray examinations was calculated. Measurements of entrance doses at 3 pediatric hospitals for all examination types and the determination of the frequency of X-ray radiographies at 10 hospitals and 10 smaller diagnostic departments were used to calculate the per caput and the collective dose equivalents in the different age groups. Altogether the per caput dose equivalent of the children amounts to approximately 30% of the corresponding value for adults. As a conclusion, the following measures for the further reduction of radiation exposure are proposed: (1) technical measures like fixation of patients, shielding of organs, quality assurance, (2) elaboration of legal regulations, e.g. of a decree on the performance of pediatric X-ray examinations, and (3) training and continued education. Only by these means an appropriate indication (justification) and an efficient reduction of radiation exposure (optimization) can be achieved. (author)

  15. Adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy in Indonesian children: A quantitative and qualitative investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutherford Merrin E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is recommended that young child contacts of sputum smear positive tuberculosis cases receive isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT but reported adherence is low and risk factors for poor adherence in children are largely unknown. Methods We prospectively determined rates of IPT adherence in children Results Eighty-two children eligible for IPT were included, 61 (74.4% of which had poor adherence. High transport costs (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-10.2 and medication costs (OR 20.0, 95% CI 2.7-414.5 were significantly associated with poor adherence in univariate analysis. Access, medication barriers, disease and health service experience and caregiver TB and IPT knowledge and beliefs were found to be important determinants of adherence in qualitative analysis. Conclusion Adherence to IPT in this setting in Indonesia is extremely low and may result from a combination of financial, knowledge, health service and medication related barriers. Successful reduction of childhood TB urgently requires evidence-based interventions that address poor adherence to IPT.

  16. Investigating the Effectiveness of an Arts-Based and Mindfulness-Based Group Program for the Improvement of Resilience in Children in Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coholic, Diana; Eys, Mark; Lougheed, Sean

    2012-01-01

    We discuss preliminary findings from a study that investigated the effectiveness of a Holistic Arts-Based Group Program (HAP) for the development of resilience in children in need. The HAP teaches mindfulness using arts-based methods, and aims to teach children how to understand their feelings and develop their strengths. We assessed the…

  17. The sooner the better?: An investigation into the role of age of onset and its relation with transfer and exposure in bilingual Frisian-Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Blom; E. Bosma

    2016-01-01

    In this study, age of onset (AoO) was investigated in five- and six-year-old bilingual Frisian-Dutch children. AoO to Dutch ranged between zero and four and had a positive effect on Dutch receptive vocabulary size, but hardly influenced the children's accurate use of Dutch inflection. The influence

  18. Hospital- and Laboratory-Based Investigations of Hospitalized Children with Central Nervous System-Related Symptoms To Assess Japanese Encephalitis Virus Etiology in Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kabilan, Lalitha; Ramesh, S; Srinivasan, S; Thenmozhi, V.; S. Muthukumaravel; Rajendran, R

    2004-01-01

    A collaborative investigation of hospitalized encephalitic children in south India, between July 2002 and February 2003, has indicated that Japanese encephalitis was confirmed in 27.3% of these children. In developing countries, assessment of actual Japanese encephalitis disease burden requires strengthening of diagnostic laboratory capacities at hospitals.

  19. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Investigating the Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation in Children Aged 8-10 Years from a Mainstream School Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, A.; Woodward, A.; Jackson, S.; Wang, Y.; Crawford, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increased interest in the effects of omega-3 supplementation on childrens' learning and behaviour, there are a lack of controlled studies of this kind that have utilised a typically developing population. This study investigated the effects of omega-3 supplementation in 450 children aged 8-10 years old from a mainstream school…

  20. Cat in the Hat or Cat in the Cap? An Investigation of the Developmental Trajectories of Phonological Awareness for Korean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated trajectories of Korean children's growth in the awareness of four phonological units--"syllable," "body," "rime" and "phoneme"--over time, by following a sample of 215 children over a period of 15 months, beginning at their first year of preschool and collecting four waves of data. Much of the existing research suggests…

  1. INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS ACTIVITIES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION LEVELS OF CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Erkan; Eylem; Ekrem Levent

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine whether regular application of physical education and sports activities was effective on psychological adaptation levels of children or not. The research group was constituted of 80 students in the range of 10-11 years old who take education in Ankara Keçioren Hacı Sabancı Secondary School. The research was designed as a test-module with pretest-posttest control group. Physical education and sports activities were performed with application group as 2...

  2. Investigation of the Aggression Levels of Children According to Socio-Demographic Characteristics Participated Regular Exercises and Not Participated

    OpenAIRE

    ALP, Mahmut; ERASLAN, Meriç; Atay, Emrah; Özmutlu, İlker

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the levels of aggression according to the socio-demographic characteristics of children who do regularly sports and not to do. 125 athletes, 140 sedentary, a total of 265 students participated in the study from three primary schools in the province of Isparta. To determine the level of aggression, "Aggression Scale" was used which developed by Şahin (2005). Data analysis was made in SPSS 15 software. Evaluation of data was performed by Mann-Whitney ...

  3. Investigating the neural correlates of voice versus speech-sound directed information in pre-school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Maria Raschle

    Full Text Available Studies in sleeping newborns and infants propose that the superior temporal sulcus is involved in speech processing soon after birth. Speech processing also implicitly requires the analysis of the human voice, which conveys both linguistic and extra-linguistic information. However, due to technical and practical challenges when neuroimaging young children, evidence of neural correlates of speech and/or voice processing in toddlers and young children remains scarce. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 20 typically developing preschool children (average age  = 5.8 y; range 5.2-6.8 y to investigate brain activation during judgments about vocal identity versus the initial speech sound of spoken object words. FMRI results reveal common brain regions responsible for voice-specific and speech-sound specific processing of spoken object words including bilateral primary and secondary language areas of the brain. Contrasting voice-specific with speech-sound specific processing predominantly activates the anterior part of the right-hemispheric superior temporal sulcus. Furthermore, the right STS is functionally correlated with left-hemispheric temporal and right-hemispheric prefrontal regions. This finding underlines the importance of the right superior temporal sulcus as a temporal voice area and indicates that this brain region is specialized, and functions similarly to adults by the age of five. We thus extend previous knowledge of voice-specific regions and their functional connections to the young brain which may further our understanding of the neuronal mechanism of speech-specific processing in children with developmental disorders, such as autism or specific language impairments.

  4. Investigating the neural correlates of voice versus speech-sound directed information in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschle, Nora Maria; Smith, Sara Ashley; Zuk, Jennifer; Dauvermann, Maria Regina; Figuccio, Michael Joseph; Gaab, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Studies in sleeping newborns and infants propose that the superior temporal sulcus is involved in speech processing soon after birth. Speech processing also implicitly requires the analysis of the human voice, which conveys both linguistic and extra-linguistic information. However, due to technical and practical challenges when neuroimaging young children, evidence of neural correlates of speech and/or voice processing in toddlers and young children remains scarce. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 20 typically developing preschool children (average age  = 5.8 y; range 5.2-6.8 y) to investigate brain activation during judgments about vocal identity versus the initial speech sound of spoken object words. FMRI results reveal common brain regions responsible for voice-specific and speech-sound specific processing of spoken object words including bilateral primary and secondary language areas of the brain. Contrasting voice-specific with speech-sound specific processing predominantly activates the anterior part of the right-hemispheric superior temporal sulcus. Furthermore, the right STS is functionally correlated with left-hemispheric temporal and right-hemispheric prefrontal regions. This finding underlines the importance of the right superior temporal sulcus as a temporal voice area and indicates that this brain region is specialized, and functions similarly to adults by the age of five. We thus extend previous knowledge of voice-specific regions and their functional connections to the young brain which may further our understanding of the neuronal mechanism of speech-specific processing in children with developmental disorders, such as autism or specific language impairments. PMID:25532132

  5. Interventional management of spine eosinophilic granuloma in children: preliminary investigation of its clinical value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of interventional management in treating spine eosinophilic granuloma in children. Methods: Interventional therapies, including per cutaneous biopsy and percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP), were carried out in three child patients with five pathologically-proved eosinophilic granuloma lesions, which were localized in the vertebrae. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Visual analogue pain scale (VAS) and Oswesty disability index (ODI) were assessed before and after operation. Results: A total of four operations were successfully carried out in all of three patients. The mean VAS score reduced from 7 before treatment of 1 after treatment. The mean ODI decreased from preoperative 52.5% to postoperative 10.5%. During procedures no significant complications occurred except for cement leakage in some cases. Pain relief and daily activity were remarkably improved after treatment. All patients were followed up for 3 months to 5 years. Conclusion: For the treatment of spine eosinophilic granuloma in children, interventional techniques are mini-invasive, safe and effective therapeutic methods. (authors)

  6. A Structured Forensic Interview Protocol Improves the Quality and Informativeness of Investigative Interviews with Children: A Review of Research Using the NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Michael; Orbach, Yael; Hershkowitz, Irit; Esplin, Phillip W.; Horowitz, Dvora

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To show how the results of research on children's memory, communicative skills, social knowledge, and social tendencies can be translated into guidelines that improve the quality of forensic interviews of children. Method: We review studies designed to evaluate children's capacities as witnesses, explain the development of the…

  7. A Pilot Investigation of Speech Sound Disorder Intervention Delivered by Telehealth to School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Grogan-Johnson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a school-based telehealth service delivery model and reports outcomes made by school-age students with speech sound disorders in a rural Ohio school district. Speech therapy using computer-based speech sound intervention materials was provided either by live interactive videoconferencing (telehealth, or conventional side-by-side intervention.  Progress was measured using pre- and post-intervention scores on the Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation-2 (Goldman & Fristoe, 2002. Students in both service delivery models made significant improvements in speech sound production, with students in the telehealth condition demonstrating greater mastery of their Individual Education Plan (IEP goals. Live interactive videoconferencing thus appears to be a viable method for delivering intervention for speech sound disorders to children in a rural, public school setting. Keywords:  Telehealth, telerehabilitation, videoconferencing, speech sound disorder, speech therapy, speech-language pathology; E-Helper

  8. An Investigation into the Role of Coping in Preventing Depression associated with Perfectionism in Preadolescent Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silja M Dry

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between self oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism and maladaptive and adaptive coping strategies and their collective impact on depression symptoms were examined in the context of a randomised controlled universal trial of the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills intervention. 541 children aged 8 to 12 completed a battery of self reports, of which responses for measures of depression symptoms, perfectionism and coping strategies were examined for the purposes of this study. Structural equation modelling tested whether coping mediated the effects of perfectionism on depression indicated that socially prescribed perfectionism had both a direct and indirect relationship with depression symptoms through a moderate association with maladaptive coping. Implications for prevention of depression were discussed and recommendations for future research were proposed.

  9. An Investigation into the Role of Coping in Preventing Depression Associated with Perfectionism in Preadolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Silja M; Kane, Robert Thomas; Rooney, Rosanna M

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) and maladaptive and adaptive coping strategies and their collective impact on depression symptoms were examined in the context of a randomized controlled universal trial of the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program. Five hundred and forty-one children aged 8-12 completed a battery of self-reports, of which responses for measures of depression symptoms, perfectionism, and coping strategies were examined for the purposes of this study. Structural equation modeling tested whether coping mediated the effects of perfectionism on depression. Results indicated that SPP had both a direct and an indirect relationship with depression symptoms through a moderate association with maladaptive coping. Implications for prevention of depression were discussed and recommendations for future research were proposed. PMID:26301212

  10. Integrating across episodes: Investigating the long-term accessibility of self-derived knowledge in 4-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Nicole L; Stewart, Rebekah A; Bauer, Patricia J

    2016-05-01

    Semantic memory, defined as our store of knowledge about the world, provides representational support for all of our higher order cognitive functions. As such, it is crucial that the contents of semantic memory remain accessible over time. Although memory for knowledge learned through direct observation has been investigated previously, we know very little about the retention of knowledge derived through integration of information acquired across separate learning episodes. The current research investigated cross-episode integration in 4-year-old children. Participants were presented with novel facts via distinct story episodes and tested for knowledge extension through cross-episode integration as well as for retention of the information over a 1-week delay. In Experiment 1, children retained the self-derived knowledge over the delay, although performance was primarily evidenced in a forced-choice format. In Experiment 2, we sought to facilitate the accessibility and robustness of self-derived knowledge by providing a verbal reminder after the delay. The accessibility of self-derived knowledge increased irrespective of whether participants successfully demonstrated knowledge of the integration facts during the first visit. The results suggest that knowledge extended through integration remains accessible after delays even in a population where this learning process is less robust. The findings also demonstrate the facilitative effect of reminders on the accessibility and further extension of knowledge over extended time periods. PMID:26774259

  11. Children's Protective Services and Law Enforcement: Fostering Partnerships in Investigations of Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Bernie Sue; Dannenfelser, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Although collaboration in child abuse investigations has been emphasized since 1974, barriers, including role conflicts and organizational differences, have often been reported. This study describes the process of collaboration based on the perceptions of investigators working with a Child Advocacy Center. Telephone interviews were conducted with…

  12. An investigation into current issues in the treatment of men who sexually abuse children

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Jamie, S.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis provides a broad and diverse investigation into the field of psychological treatment for child molesters. A range of methods including a systematic review, a single case study and a primary phenomenological investigation were used to explore issues in the field. Following an introduction in Chapter 1, Chapter 2 reviews the effectiveness of psychological treatment for reducing recidivism in child molesters. The results indicate that recidivism among treated and untreated child mole...

  13. MR spectroscopy of liver in overweight children and adolescents: Investigation of 1H T2 relaxation times at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The objective was to investigate T2 relaxation values and to optimize hepatic fat quantification using proton MR spectroscopy (1H MRS) at 3 T in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Subjects: The study included 123 consecutive children and adolescents with a body mass index above the 97th percentile according to age and sex. 1H MR spectroscopy was performed at 3.0 T using point resolved spectroscopy sequence with series TE. T2 relaxation values and hepatic fat content corrected for the T2 relaxation effects were calculated. Results: T2 values for water ranged from 22 ms to 42 ms (mean value 28 ms) and T2 values for fat ranged from 36 ms to 99 ms (mean value 64 ms). Poor correlation was observed: (1) between T2 relaxation times of fat and T2 relaxation times of water (correlation coefficient r = 0.038, P = 0.79); (2) between T2 relaxation times of fat and fat content (r = 0.057, P = 0.69); (3) between T2 relaxation times of water and fat content (r = 0.160, P = 0.26). Correlation between fat peak content and the T2 corrected fat content decreased with increasing echo time TE: r = 0.97 for TE = 45, r = 0.93 for TE = 75, r = 0.89 for TE = 105, P 1H MRS at 3 T is an effective technique for measuring hepatic fat content in overweight and obese children and adolescents. It is necessary to measure T2 relaxation values and to correct the spectra for the T2 relaxation effects in order to obtain an accurate estimate of the hepatic fat content.

  14. Oral bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine against tuberculosis: why not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Monteiro-Maia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine is the only licensed vaccine for human use against tuberculosis (TB. Although controversy exists about its efficacy, the BCG vaccine is able to protect newborns and children against disseminated forms of TB, but fails to protect adults against active forms of TB. In the last few years, interest in the mucosal delivery route for the vaccine has been increasing owing to its increased capacity to induce protective immune responses both in the mucosal and the systemic immune compartments. Here, we show the importance of this route of vaccination in newly developed vaccines, especially for vaccines against TB.

  15. Oral bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine against tuberculosis: why not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro-Maia, Renata; Pinho, Rosa Teixeira de

    2014-09-01

    The bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is the only licensed vaccine for human use against tuberculosis (TB). Although controversy exists about its efficacy, the BCG vaccine is able to protect newborns and children against disseminated forms of TB, but fails to protect adults against active forms of TB. In the last few years, interest in the mucosal delivery route for the vaccine has been increasing owing to its increased capacity to induce protective immune responses both in the mucosal and the systemic immune compartments. Here, we show the importance of this route of vaccination in newly developed vaccines, especially for vaccines against TB. PMID:25317714

  16. A Study Related to the Investigation of Multiple Intelligence Profiles of Gifted and Talented Children across Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze DOLU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the dominant intelligences of individuals from their early ages will be beneficial for them and the society in terms of improving their talents. When this situation is considered for gifted and talented children, we believe that there is a need for detailed analysis for Turkey beginning from the early years of children. Hence, in this study, it is aimed to investigate the multiple intelligence domains of Turkish gifted and talented students studying in science and art centres (SACs across the country via a survey research. This paper presents the results gained from 12 SACs. Those SACs were selected according to the socio-economic development index (SEDI of Turkey as declared by Ministry of Development (MD which considered the country to consist of 6 regions. Two SACs from each of those six regions were included in the study. Thus, the sample consisted of 390 middle school 5th grade students. A Likert type multiple intelligence test which included 80 items related to eight domains of multiple intelligence was utilized as data collection instrument (Demirel, Başbay & Erdem, 2006: 155. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics tests were conducted in order to analyze the study data. The results indicated various differences among multiple intelligence scores of the participants.

  17. Investigate the Child's Scientific Activities on Practical Child's Activity Books for the Kindergarten's Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldarabah, Intisar Turki; Al-Mouhtadi, Reham

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the extent to which the interactive international curriculum is included in the "Child's Scientific Activities" issued by the Ministry of Education in Jordan, for the kindergarten stage according to the global criterion (NRC). In order to answer the study questions, an instrument was developed to…

  18. An oral Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine for wildlife produced in the absence of animal-derived reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Martin L; Lambeth, Matthew R; Aldwell, Frank E

    2009-09-01

    Cultures of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, comprising predominantly single-cell bacilli, were prepared in broth without animal-derived reagents. When formulated into a vegetable-derived lipid matrix, the vaccine was stable in vitro and was immunogenic in vivo upon feeding it to mice. This formulation could be useful for oral vaccination of wildlife against tuberculosis, where concern over transmissible prions may preclude the field use of vaccines containing animal products. PMID:19571109

  19. An Oral Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccine for Wildlife Produced in the Absence of Animal-Derived Reagents▿

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Martin L; Lambeth, Matthew R.; Aldwell, Frank E.

    2009-01-01

    Cultures of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, comprising predominantly single-cell bacilli, were prepared in broth without animal-derived reagents. When formulated into a vegetable-derived lipid matrix, the vaccine was stable in vitro and was immunogenic in vivo upon feeding it to mice. This formulation could be useful for oral vaccination of wildlife against tuberculosis, where concern over transmissible prions may preclude the field use of vaccines containing animal products.

  20. The effect of zinc supplementation during pregnancy on immune response to Hib and BCG vaccines in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osendarp, S.J.M.; Fuchs, G.J.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Mahmud, H.; Tofail, F.; Black, R.E.; Prabhakar, H.; Santosham, M.

    2006-01-01

    An essential role for zinc in development of the fetal immune system has been documented. However, the effect of antenatal zinc supplementation on infants' postnatal immune response to vaccinations is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation during preg

  1. Pathological role of interleukin 17 in mice subjected to repeated BCG vaccination after infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, António G.; Fraga, Alexandra G.; Fountain, Jeffrey J.; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Torrado, Egídio; Saraiva, Margarida; Pereira, Daniela Maria Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Infection usually leads to the development of acquired immune responses associated with clearance or control of the infecting organism. However, if not adequately regulated, immune-mediated pathology can result. Tuberculosis is a worldwide threat, and development of an effective vaccine requires that the protective immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) be dissected from the pathological immune response. This distinction is particularly important if new vaccines are to be deliver...

  2. BCG vaccination status may predict sputum conversion in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: a new consideration for an old vaccine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeremiah, Kidola; Praygod, George Amani; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Range, Nyagosya; Andersen, Åse Bengård; Grewal, Harleen M S; Friis, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Failure to convert (persistent sputum and/or culture positivity) while on antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment at the end of the second month of anti-TB therapy has been reported to be a predictor of treatment failure. Factors that could be associated with persistent bacillary positivity at the e...

  3. Long-Lasting Effects of BCG Vaccination on Both Heterologous Th1/Th17 Responses and Innate Trained Immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinnijenhuis, Johanneke; Quintin, Jessica; Preijers, Frank; Benn, Christine Stabell; Joosten, Leo A B; Jacobs, Cor; van Loenhout, Joke; Xavier, Ramnik J; Aaby, Peter; van der Meer, Jos W M; van Crevel, Reinout; Netea, Mihai G

    2013-01-01

    We have recently shown that BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccination in healthy volunteers induces epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes, leading to increased cytokine production in response to nonrelated pathogens for up to 3 months after vaccination. This phenomenon was named 'trained immunity......'. In the present study we assessed whether BCG was able to induce long-lasting effects on both trained immunity and heterologous T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 immune responses 1 year after vaccination. The production of TNFα and IL-1β to mycobacteria or unrelated pathogens was higher after 2 weeks and 3...... months postvaccination, but these effects were less pronounced 1 year after vaccination. However, monocytes recovered 1 year after vaccination had an increased expression of pattern recognition receptors such as CD14, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and mannose receptor, and this correlated with an increase...

  4. Asociación entre tuberculosis infantil grave e inmunización previa con BCG en un hospital de referencia nacional, Perú 1990-2000 Association between severe tuberculosis in children and previous BCG immunization in a national referral Hospital, Peru 1990-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Llanos-Tejada

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la asociación entre la inmunización con BCG y tuberculosis grave (TB. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, se incluyó fichas de pacientes atendidos en el servicio de neumología del Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño de Perú, entre los años 1990-2000. Se revisaron un total de 2106 casos de TB entre los que había 259 casos graves (TB miliar o meningoencefalitis por TB. Del total, 497 casos no tenían antecedente de inmunización con BCG; 202 tenían TB grave y 295 TB no grave (OR= 0,05; IC 95%= 0,03-0,07. En conclusión, los niños con diagnóstico de TB y que han sido inmunizados con BCG, tienen 94% menos riesgo de desarrollar TB grave, en comparación a los niños con diagnóstico no inmunizados con BCG.The objective of the study was to determine the association between BCG immunization and severe tuberculosis (TB. We performed a retrospective study, including medical records from patients of the pneumology department at the National Children’s Institute in Peru, between the years 1990-2000. A total of 2106 TB cases were reviewed, from them 259 patients were severe (miliary TB or meningoencephalitic TB. From all, 497 cases did not have history of BCG vaccination, 202 had severe TB and 295 non-severe TB (OR = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.03 to 0.07. In conclusion, children diagnosed with TB and who have been immunized with BCG, has 94% lower risk of developing severe TB, compared to children with TB non-immunized with BCG.

  5. A One-Message Question in a Structured Interview: Investigating Psychological Needs of Children and Adolescents with Eating Disorders Directed toward Their Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Kumi; Okada, Ayumi; Okabe,Nobuyuki; Onishi, Masaru; Morishima,Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological needs of children and adolescents with eating disorders (ED) directed toward their mothers. Patients with ED have low self-assertion and various abnormal eating behaviors. Therefore, mothers face difficulty in understanding their children's psychological needs, and the mother-child relationship is sometimes strained. We developed a One-Message Question (OMQ)-structured interview. The OMQ was easy to answer, and it helped the patie...

  6. Clinical association between teeth malocclusions, wrong posture and ocular convergence disorders: an epidemiological investigation on primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestrini-Biavati Armando

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the various systems in the body are inter-connected to form a single structural unit, a pathological condition in one area can also affect other areas. There are many known correlations between the visual and motor system. The importance of visual function, particularly the paracentral peripheral field of view, in motor coordination, ambulation and the maintenance of balance has been amply demonstrated. In line with current medical principles, which are moving towards a more holistic view of the human body, this study aims to investigate, in an interdisciplinary manner, the incidence of dental malocclusions together with posture and eye convergence disorders. Methods Six hundred and five children attending at the 3rd, 4th and 5th years of seven Genoa primary schools were examined. Each child underwent the following examinations: (i dental/occlusal; (ii orthoptic; and (iii postural. Occlusal data concerned the presence of cross-bite, midline deviation with a mandibular shift, bad habits and deep or open bite. Postural assessment involved frontal and lateral inspection, investigation during trunk flexion and ambulation, and note of any asymmetry in the lower limbs. The recorded orthoptic data included those pertaining to ocular dominance, a cover test, convergence and the Brock string test. Results A prevalence of cases with an unphysiological gait was found in patients with overjet (14.70% or overbite (14.87%, while the percentage of patients with normal occlusion that showed an unphysiological gait was 13.08%. Also, about 93.8%–94.2% of children showed normal legs without dysmetry, with no difference in respect to the type of occlusion. Subjects with an open bite or deep bite showed a slightly different distribution of right or left dominant eyes. Conclusion About 13% of children showed a pathological gait and, among them, vertical anomalies of occlusion (deep bite or open bite were prevalent with respect to the other

  7. Heart Rate Profiles of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder in Response to Physical Play: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Wadsworth, Danielle W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the heart rate response of children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exposed to outdoor free play sessions during preschool was examined. Participants (n = 7; four children with ASD and three children who show typical development) wore Actiheart heart rate monitors during 6 school days. Using a single-subject design,…

  8. An Investigation of Emotional Skills of Six-Year-Old Children Attending Nursery School According to Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmusoglu-Saltali, Neslihan; Arslan, Emel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is for the emotional skills of six-year-old children attending nursery school according to some variables. The participants were 306 (135 girls and 171 boys) six-year-old children attending nursery school. Data were collected from Assessment of Children's Emotional Skills and personal information form. In order to analyze…

  9. Social Support Networks of African-American Children Attending Head Start: A Longitudinal Investigation of Structural and Supportive Network Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Boston, Ada L.; Kazura, Kerry L.; O'Neal, Colleen

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the stability and coherence of African-American children's social support networks. Participants included a total of 106 3- to 4-year-old children attending Head Start centers located in the southeast. Children completed a social network interview in two consecutive years at the Head Start centers. These interviews tapped…

  10. Children's Places

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Using a cross-cultural approach the book investigates children's places in different societies. "Children's Places" examines the ways in which children and adults, from their different vantage-points in society, negotiate proper places of children in both social and spatial terms. It looks at some...... of the recognised constructions of children, as well as examining contexts for them, from schools and kindergartens to inner cities and war-zones. The result gives insight into the notions of inclusion and exclusion, the placement and displacement of children within generational ranks and orders, and...... the kinds of places that children create for themselves....

  11. Investigation of Current Situation of Learning Motivation, Social Anxiety and Loneliness of the Left-behind Children in Rural Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Biyun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the situation of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children. Method: Selecting three rural primary schools in Xian’an District of Xianning City to investigate left-behind situation, learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of pupils in Grades 4 to 6 in rural primary school in Xian’an District by the use of the MAAT-I-A which is revised by Zhou Bucheng, the Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC and the Children’s Loneliness Scale (CLS. Results: (1 The learning motivation of the left-behind children in rural primary school is in a slightly higher medium level. Social anxiety is significantly higher than normal level in Chinese city, and the level of loneliness of about 1/5 of the left-behind children is relatively high. (2 The score of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children in the level of knowledge learning has significant grade differences, without significant gender differences. (3 The level of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children is slightly higher than that of non-left-behind children, but both differences are not significant.

  12. Investigations on the effect of air pollutions on human beings. Epidemiological experiments at adults and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgner, R. (Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Medizinisches Inst. fuer Umwelthygiene); Eikmann, T.; Einbrodt, J. (Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Hygiene, Abt. Hygiene und Arbeitsmedizin); Islam, M.S.; Ulmer, W.T. (Berufsgenossenschaftliche Krankenanstalten Bergmannsheil, Bochum (Germany, F.R.)); Koch, E.; Prinz, B. (Landesanstalt fuer Immissionsschutz des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, Essen (Germany, F.R.)); Schlipkoeter, H.W. (Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Medizinisches Inst. fuer Umwelthygiene; Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Hygiene)

    1980-09-01

    For the air pollution control act of the middle of the Ruhr area (1980 until 1984) in 1979, under collaboration of four institutes, in an extended study epidemiological investigations in the form of a cadastre on men and women (age-classes 1914, 1915, 1916, totally abt. 3000) and boys and girls (age-class 1969, totally abt. 2.400) in the load area, as well as in one higher and one lower charged area of comparison, was executed. Target variables were diseases of the respiratory tracts, pulmonary function parameters and parameters of the internal pollution load. The results show that it cannot be excluded, that the air pollutions in the load areas may have an irritating influence on the organs of the respiratory system. Of special importance is the result, that in the tested persons the medium blood-lead concentration and the COHb-content varies with the immission load, and that also the phenol-output in the urine points out that corresponding air pollutions, especially benzene, have an influence on it.

  13. Investigation on Mental Health of Left-behind Children%留守儿童心理健康状况调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 余益兵

    2012-01-01

    以安徽省3个县的乡村小学的547名四至六年级小学生为被试,采用问卷法对留守儿童心理健康做调查研究,与非留守儿童进行对比。研究结果为:(1)留守儿童孤独感显著高于非留守儿童;(2)留守儿童的社会焦虑显著高于非留守儿童;(3)留守儿童的抑郁程度显著高于非留守儿童。由此可见,留守儿童的心理健康迫切需要得到社会各界的密切关注。%In this study, we had selected 547 rural primary school students from grade four to grade six as subjects at three counties in Anhui province, using the method of questionnaire to investigate left-behind children's mental health, and the investigation results had been compared with unleft-behind children. Results: (1) left-behind children's loneliness is significantly higher than that of unleft-behind children; (2) the left-behind children's social anxiety is significantly higher than that of unleft-behind children; (3) the degree of depression is significantly higher than that of unleft-behind children. Consequently, the left-behind children's mental health needs urgently close attention of social public.

  14. An investigation of the concept of balance in children ages 6--9: Logic and protologic identifiable in making mobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Seon

    This research was conducted to explore children's construction of protologic (foreshadowing of operations) in the context of experience with balance mobiles in a constructivist setting and to explore the usefulness of making mobiles in promoting children's development of the concept of balance. The statement of the problem is (a) Can constructivist principles of cognitive development be used to understand children's progress in the course of educational activities involving balance? If so, how? What does the progressive construction of notions about balance look like in children's behaviors? and (b) Does children's understanding of balance improve after experimenting with making mobiles? The participants in this study were 10 first grade children and 12 third grade children from a public elementary laboratory school located in Cedar Falls, Iowa. The pretest and posttest used a primary balance scale and a beam balance. Making mobiles was used as the intervention. The research of Piaget, Kamii, and Parrat-Dayan (1974/1980) and Inhelder and Piaget (1955/1958) were used as the basic framework for the pretest and posttest. All interviews and the dialogues during the tests and making mobiles were video-ecorded and transcribed for analysis. Evidence of compensation and reversibility, coherence, coordination, and contradiction were assessed in children's reasoning during intervention activities using operational definitions developed by Jean Piaget. Before the intervention, all children had an idea that weight impacts balance, 13 out of 22 children had the idea that distance from the fulcrum impacts balance, and 6 out of 22 children considered weight and distance at the same time. After the intervention, all children maintained the idea that weight is related to balance but more children, 16 out of 22, had the idea that distance is related to balance; and 6 children among the 16 children considered weight and distance at the same time. Through the three intervention

  15. Preventative Behavioral Parent Training: A Preliminary Investigation of Strategies for Preventing At-Risk Children from Developing Later Conduct Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Malmberg, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    Children exhibiting conduct problems comprise the largest source of referrals to children's mental health services in this county. Significant research has been conducted in an attempt to identify specific risk factors that result in increased vulnerability of a child developing conduct problems. Knowledge of these factors increases our ability to identify young children who are at greater risk for developing conduct problems. The treatment for conduct problems that possesses the greatest amo...

  16. An Investigation into the Relationship between Parents' Child-rearing Styles and Domestic Violence against Children in Ahvaz City

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Yaghoubidoust; Halimeh Enayat

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Domestic violence against children is a global issue which devastates family bonds and threatens individuals' health in mental, physical as well as sexual aspects (Sajadifar 2002:11). There are a lot of factors involving in domestic violence against children. It seems that the parents' child-rearing style is an important factor that plays a pivotal role in decrease or increase of violence against children. Child-rearing style can act as a predicator of social and mental devel...

  17. BCG protects against tuberculosis irrespective of HIV status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Range, Nyagosya; Praygod, George Amani;

    2013-01-01

    While BCG vaccine protects against severe tuberculosis (TB) in children, its effect against adult TB is questionable. Furthermore, it is not known if HIV co-infection modifies the effect of BCG. Among 352 pairs of Tanzanian TB cases and matched controls, the BCG scar was associated with a reduced...

  18. The immunological effect of revaccination with Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine at 19 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas; Roth, Adam; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov;

    2013-01-01

    Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination has important non-specific immune effects. In a randomized trial in Guinea-Bissau, BCG revaccination was associated with significantly increased survival in children who received diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP)-booster vaccine before enrolment and in...

  19. Ny test til diagnostik af tuberkulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Rose, Michala Vaaben; Søborg, Bolette; Andersen, Ase Bengård

    2009-01-01

    The performance of two commercially-available Interferon Gamma Release Assays, QuantiFERON-TB-Gold and T-SPOT-TB, is reviewed. The tests can indirectly detect M. tuberculosis infection based on T-cell recognition of specific proteins which are not present in the BCG vaccine M. avium, or most other...... environmental mycobacteria.The sensitivity (76-88%) of the IGRAs is not optimal for a diagnostic test for active tuberculosis. However, the specificity is high (92-97%), and the IGRAs may play an important role in the investigation for active tuberculosis and screening for latent tuberculosis infection in BCG...... vaccinated populations and immunosuppressed patients. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Sep-7...

  20. Clinical evaluation of MPT-64 and MPT-59, two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for skin test reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcke, J T; Jensen, B N; Ravn, P; Andersen, A B; Hasløv, K

    1996-01-01

    a small scale clinical investigation, skin reactions to these antigens were compared to reactions to tuberculin PPD RT23 in 1) patients with active tuberculosis, 2) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects with close contact with tuberculous patients, and 3) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects without contact...... tuberculosis and one healthy bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccinated subject without patient contact) reacted to MPT-64. The studies of cell proliferation and induction of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) following stimulation with tuberculin PPD and MPT-64 supported this profile of reactivity. CONCLUSION: None of the...

  1. Adaptive Behaviors in High-Functioning Taiwanese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Investigation of the Mediating Roles of Symptom Severity and Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chen-Lin; Lung, For-Wey; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship among cognitive level, autistic severity and adaptive function in a Taiwanese sample of 94 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (mean full scale intelligent quotients FSIQ = 84.8). Parents and teachers both completed the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II and the Social Responsiveness…

  2. The sooner the better? An investigation into the role of age of onset and its relation with transfer and exposure in bilingual Frisian-Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.B.T.; Bosma, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, age of onset (AoO) was investigated in five- and six-yearold bilingual Frisian–Dutch children. AoO to Dutch ranged between zero and four and had a positive effect on Dutch receptive vocabulary size, but hardly influenced the children’s accurate use of Dutch inflection. The influence o

  3. Face-to-Face and Online: An Investigation of Children's and Adolescents' Bullying Behavior through the Lens of Moral Emotions and Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Lauryn; Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Talwar, Victoria; Shariff, Shaheen

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the influence of type of aggression (cyberbullying or traditional bullying) and participant role (bystander or perpetrator) on children and adolescents' self-attribution of moral emotions and judgments, while examining the influence of chronological age. Participants (N = 122, 8-16 years) evaluated vignettes and were…

  4. An Exploratory Study Investigating the Viability of a Communication and Feedback Intervention for School Children at Risk of Exclusion: Analysis of Staff Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechten, Frances; Tweed, Alison E.

    2014-01-01

    Every day nearly 900 children will be excluded from UK schools for disruptive behaviour and almost one-third of this population has a diagnosed mental health disorder. Exclusion from school is the endpoint of most schools' sanction-based behaviour management policies. This exploratory study investigated staff opinions for using a…

  5. Personal FM Systems for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and/or Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): An Initial Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Erin C.; Mathews, Lauren; Mehta, Smita; Hill, Margaret; Munoz, Ashley; Bishop, Rachel; Moloney, Molly

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this initial investigation was to examine the potential benefit of a frequency modulation (FM) system for 11 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or both disorders through measures of speech recognition performance in noise, observed classroom behavior, and…

  6. Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GB-CBT) Group Program for Children Who Have Experienced Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misurell, Justin R.; Springer, Craig; Tryon, Warren W.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary investigation examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral therapy group program for elementary school-aged children who have experienced sexual abuse. Treatment aimed to improve: (a) internalizing symptoms, (b) externalizing behaviors, (c) sexually inappropriate behaviors, (d) social skills deficits, (e) self-esteem…

  7. "I Can Read Further and There's More Meaning While I Read": An Exploratory Study Investigating the Impact of a Rhythm-Based Music Intervention on Children's Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Marion

    2014-01-01

    A substantial proportion of children underachieve in reading (Brooks & Tough, 2006; Doubek & Cooper, 2007; Tymms & Merrill, 2007). This paper builds on the existing evidence base for the link between reading and rhythm, presenting findings of an investigation into a rhythm-based music intervention. Following participation in the…

  8. An Investigation of the Intentional Communication and Symbolic Play Skills of Children with Down Syndrome and Cerebral Palsy in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joginder Singh, Susheel; Iacono, Teresa; Gray, Kylie M.

    2014-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) and cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk of remaining pre-symbolic in their communication and play for prolonged periods. The aim of this study was to explore the early communication and play of children with DS and with CP who communicated at the pre-symbolic stage, and to determine the association between these…

  9. A Randomized Controlled Design Investigating the Effects of Classroom-Based Physical Activity on Children's Fluid Intelligence and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Alicia L.; Ahn, Soyeon; Erwin, Heather; Davis, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    Existing literature shows promising effects of physical activity on children's cognitive outcomes. This study assessed via a randomized, controlled design whether additional curricular physical activity during the school day resulted in gains for children's fluid intelligence and standardized achievement outcomes. Participants were children…

  10. Examining Teacher Knowledge and Attitudes about School Issues for Children with Epilepsy: A Mixed-Method Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Amy Loomis

    2009-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common diseases to affect the human nervous system, affecting approximately 0.5% of school-age children (Leppik, 2001; Kaleyias et al., 2005). Epilepsy has the potential to profoundly impact a child's adjustment to school. A large body of literature documents that children with epilepsy are at an increased risk for…

  11. An Investigation of Four Hypotheses Concerning the Order by Which 4-Year-Old Children Learn the Alphabet Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M.; Pence, Khara; Bowles, Ryan B.; Wiggins, Alice

    2006-01-01

    This study tested four complementary hypotheses to characterize intrinsic and extrinsic influences on the order with which preschool children learn the names of individual alphabet letters. The hypotheses included: (a) "own-name advantage," which states that children learn those letters earlier which occur in their own names, (b) the "letter-order…

  12. Investigating Children's Interactions around Digital Texts in Classrooms: How Are These Framed and What Counts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that, in informing our understanding of the possibilities and challenges associated with new technologies in educational contexts, we need to explore what counts to children when using digital texts in classrooms, and what children think counts for their teachers. It suggests that such insights can be gained by investigating…

  13. Meaning, Value and Engagement in the Arts: Findings from a Participatory Investigation of Young Australian Children's Perceptions of the Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Margaret S.; Everett, Michele C.; Smigiel, Heather M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a 2-year Australian study that explored children's perceptions of the meaning and value of the arts, and accounts of their engagement in arts activities in school and youth arts settings. The research also aimed to develop data generation methods sensitive to the ways children communicate and make meaning. The 570…

  14. Individual Differences in Auditory Sentence Comprehension in Children: An Exploratory Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Jason D.; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Glover, Gary H.; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore changes in activation of the cortical network that serves auditory sentence comprehension in children in response to increasing demands of complex sentences. A further goal is to study how individual differences in children's receptive language abilities are associated with such changes in cortical…

  15. Pelotas as seen through the eyes of its street children. : An empirical investigation of the child-friendliness of a midsize Brazilian city

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtikunnas, Katri

    2009-01-01

    Lehtikunnas, Katri Johanna (2009). Pelotas as seen through the eyes of its street children. An empirical investigation of the child-friendliness of a midsize Brazilian city. Human Geography, advanced level, master thesis for master exam in Human Geography, 30 ECTS credits. Supervisor: Maria Nordström Language: English   The aim of this study was to understand the lives of the street children in Pelotas in Southern Brazil. Utilizing multi-method approach I have outlined normal days of these ch...

  16. Investigation of Current Situation of Learning Motivation, Social Anxiety and Loneliness of the Left-behind Children in Rural Primary School

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Biyun; Xu Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To understand the situation of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children. Method: Selecting three rural primary schools in Xian’an District of Xianning City to investigate left-behind situation, learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of pupils in Grades 4 to 6 in rural primary school in Xian’an District by the use of the MAAT-I-A which is revised by Zhou Bucheng, the Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC) and the Children’s Lonelin...

  17. Investigating early semantic priming : Event-related potentials as a window into the organization of word meaning in children at age 24 months.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aim: Only at the onset of the second year are children able to form stable word-object associations and this point marks the beginning of a protracted period of semantic language development of which we know relatively little. The present event-related potential study aims to establish whether the language-related N400 component can be employed as an index of semantic priming in children at age 24 months. If so, the N400 component could potentially be of great value in investig...

  18. Annual risk of tuberculous infection using different methods in communities with a high prevalence of TB and HIV in Zambia and South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwame Shanaube

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARTI is a key epidemiological indicator of the extent of transmission in a community. Several methods have been suggested to estimate the prevalence of tuberculous infection using tuberculin skin test data. This paper explores the implications of using different methods to estimate prevalence of infection and ARTI. The effect of BCG vaccination on these estimates is also investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tuberculin surveys among school children in 16 communities in Zambia and 8 in South Africa (SA were performed in 2005, as part of baseline data collection and for randomisation purposes of the ZAMSTAR study. Infection prevalence and ARTI estimates were calculated using five methods: different cut-offs with or without adjustments for sensitivity, the mirror method, and mixture analysis. A total of 49,835 children were registered for the surveys, of which 25,048 (50% had skin tests done and 22,563 (90% of those tested were read. Infection prevalence was higher in the combined SA than Zambian communities. The mirror method resulted in the least difference of 7.8%, whereas that estimated by the cut-off methods varied from 12.2% to 17.3%. The ARTI in the Zambian and SA communities was between 0.8% and 2.8% and 2.5% and 4.2% respectively, depending on the method used. In the SA communities, the ARTI was higher among the younger children. BCG vaccination had little effect on these estimates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ARTI estimates are dependent on the calculation method used. All methods agreed that there were substantial differences in infection prevalence across the communities, with higher rates in SA. Although TB notification rates have increased over the past decades, the difference in cumulative exposure between younger and older children is less dramatic and a rise in risk of infection in parallel with the estimated incidence of active tuberculosis cannot be excluded.

  19. Exploratory Study Investigating the Opinions of Russian-Speaking Parents on Maintaining their Children's Use of the Russian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Kraftsoff

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored why and how Russian speaking parents in an Irish context maintained the Russian language in their school-age children. Using a self-administered unstandardised questionnaire, the opinions of 16 Russian-speaking parents, reporting on 24 children, were surveyed. Of this sample, five parents were then interviewed using focus group methodology. The main findings revealed that Russian-speaking parents living in Ireland strongly supported Russian language maintenance in their families and wanted their children to be as fluent as possible in the Russian language. The reasons for the support of Russian language were: cultural preservation, general knowledge of languages in addition to English, and communication with the homeland. Methods employed to maintain the Russian language included conversing with children through Russian, reading and watching Russian TV/DVD. Although most parents spoke only Russian to their children, just three children were considered by their parents to have sufficient language skills to interact through Russian in Russian speaking countries. Interestingly, 15 children were thought to have adequate skills in Russian to speak with those outside their immediate family when in Ireland. Congruent with other studies of bilingualism, development of English, or the secondary, majority language, was also important to parents, as they lived in a dominant English-speaking society.

  20. The sooner the better? An investigation into the role of age of onset and its relation with transfer and exposure in bilingual Frisian-Dutch children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Elma; Bosma, Evelyn

    2016-05-01

    In this study, age of onset (AoO) was investigated in five- and six-year-old bilingual Frisian-Dutch children. AoO to Dutch ranged between zero and four and had a positive effect on Dutch receptive vocabulary size, but hardly influenced the children's accurate use of Dutch inflection. The influence of AoO on vocabulary was more prominent than the influence of exposure. Regarding inflection, the reverse was found. Accuracy at using Frisian inflection emerged as a significant predictor; this transfer effect was modulated by lexical overlap between the two languages. This study shows that 'the sooner the better' does not necessarily hold for language development. In fact, for the correct use of inflection, it does not matter whether children start at age zero or four. For rapidly learning words in a new language it may be helpful to first build a substantial vocabulary in the first language before learning a new language. PMID:26915635

  1. Investigating within-day and longitudinal effects of maternal stress on children's physical activity, dietary intake, and body composition: Protocol for the MATCH study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve F; Liao, Yue; Dzubur, Eldin; Leventhal, Adam M; Huh, Jimi; Gruenewald, Tara; Margolin, Gayla; Koprowski, Carol; Tate, Eleanor; Intille, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    Parental stress is an understudied factor that may compromise parenting practices related to children's dietary intake, physical activity, and obesity. However, studies examining these associations have been subject to methodological limitations, including cross-sectional designs, retrospective measures, a lack of stress biomarkers, and the tendency to overlook momentary etiologic processes occurring within each day. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the MATCH (Mothers And Their Children's Health) study, a longitudinal investigation using novel real-time data capture strategies to examine within-day associations of maternal stress with children's physical activity and dietary intake, and how these effects contribute to children's obesity risk. In the MATCH study, 200 mothers and their 8 to 12 year-old children are participating in 6 semi-annual assessment waves across 3 years. At each wave, measures for mother-child dyads include: (a) real-time Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) of self-reported daily psychosocial stressors (e.g., work at a job, family demands), feeling stressed, perceived stress, parenting practices, dietary intake, and physical activity with time and location stamps; (b) diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, accelerometer-monitored physical activity, and 24-hour dietary recalls; (c) retrospective questionnaires of sociodemographic, cultural, family, and neighborhood covariates; and (d) height, weight, and waist circumference. Putative within-day and longitudinal effects of maternal stress on children's dietary intake, physical activity, and body composition will be tested through multilevel modeling and latent growth curve models, respectively. The results will inform interventions that help mothers reduce the negative effects of stress on weight-related parenting practices and children's obesity risk. PMID:25987483

  2. Investigating Oral Microbiome Profiles in Children with Cleft Lip and Palate for Prognosis of Alveolar Bone Grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Luwei; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Jiuxiang; Ma, Lian; Zhou, Zhibo; He, Xuesong; Jia, Yilin; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sought to investigate the oral microbiota structure of children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and explore the pre-operative oral bacterial composition related to the prognosis of alveolar bone grafting. In total, 28 patients (19 boys, 9 girls) with CLP who were scheduled to undergo alveolar bone grafting for the first time were recruited. According to the clinical examination of operative sites at the third month after the operation, the individuals were divided into a non-inflammation group (n = 15) and an inflammation group (n = 13). In all, 56 unstimulated saliva samples were collected before and after the operation. The v3-v4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform. Based on the beta diversity of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the inflammation and non-inflammation samples, the microbial variation in the oral cavity differed significantly between the two groups before and after the operation (P < 0.05). Analysis of the relative abundances of pre-operative OTUs revealed 26 OTUs with a relative abundance higher than 0.01%, reflecting a significant difference of the relative abundance between groups (P < 0.05). According to a principal component analysis of the pre-operative samples, the inflammation-related OTUs included Tannerella sp., Porphyromonas sp., Gemella sp., Moraxella sp., Prevotella nigrescens, and Prevotella intermedia, most of which were enriched in the inflammation group and showed a significant positive correlation. A cross-validated random forest model based on the 26 different OTUs before the operation was able to fit the post-operative status of grafted sites and yielded a good classification result. The sensitivity and specificity of this classified model were 76.9% and 86.7%, respectively. These findings show that the oral microbiota profile before alveolar bone grafting may be related to the risk of post-operative inflammation at grafted sites. PMID

  3. Investigating Oral Microbiome Profiles in Children with Cleft Lip and Palate for Prognosis of Alveolar Bone Grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Luwei; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Jiuxiang; Ma, Lian; Zhou, Zhibo; He, Xuesong; Jia, Yilin; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sought to investigate the oral microbiota structure of children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and explore the pre-operative oral bacterial composition related to the prognosis of alveolar bone grafting. In total, 28 patients (19 boys, 9 girls) with CLP who were scheduled to undergo alveolar bone grafting for the first time were recruited. According to the clinical examination of operative sites at the third month after the operation, the individuals were divided into a non-inflammation group (n = 15) and an inflammation group (n = 13). In all, 56 unstimulated saliva samples were collected before and after the operation. The v3-v4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform. Based on the beta diversity of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the inflammation and non-inflammation samples, the microbial variation in the oral cavity differed significantly between the two groups before and after the operation (P < 0.05). Analysis of the relative abundances of pre-operative OTUs revealed 26 OTUs with a relative abundance higher than 0.01%, reflecting a significant difference of the relative abundance between groups (P < 0.05). According to a principal component analysis of the pre-operative samples, the inflammation-related OTUs included Tannerella sp., Porphyromonas sp., Gemella sp., Moraxella sp., Prevotella nigrescens, and Prevotella intermedia, most of which were enriched in the inflammation group and showed a significant positive correlation. A cross-validated random forest model based on the 26 different OTUs before the operation was able to fit the post-operative status of grafted sites and yielded a good classification result. The sensitivity and specificity of this classified model were 76.9% and 86.7%, respectively. These findings show that the oral microbiota profile before alveolar bone grafting may be related to the risk of post-operative inflammation at grafted sites. PMID

  4. (In)visible Witnesses: Investigating gendered representations of scientists, technologists, engineers and mathematicians on UK children's television

    OpenAIRE

    Whitelegg, Elizabeth; Holliman, Richard; Carr, Jennifer; Scanlon, Eileen; Hodgson, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    How do the images that children see on TV influence their interest in science, technology, engineering or mathematics? This report provides details of the (In)visible Witnesses research project, led by members of the Open University's Centre for Research in Education and Educational Technology, that looked at how frequently images of scientists, technologists, engineers and mathematicians are are shown on children's television, how scientists, technologists, engineers and mathematicians are r...

  5. 438 An Investigation of Food Choice Behaviour of Food Allergic and Non-food Allergic Children

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Isolde; Mackenzie, Heather; Venter, Carina; Dean, Taraneh

    2012-01-01

    Background Childrens food choice behaviour is influenced by a number of family and social factors. About 20% to 30% of the population modifies their diet for a suspected adverse reaction to food. Since avoidance is the mainstay of managing food allergy, it can be assumed to significantly affect food choices. It is therefore important to understand if and to what extent food allergy influences the way parents and children make their food choice decisions. Methods The research project has utili...

  6. Pyrethroid Pesticide Metabolite in Urine and Microelements in Hair of Children Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Valentina F; Nasuti, Cinzia; Piangerelli, Marco; Correia-Sá, Luísa; Ghezzo, Alessandro; Marini, Marina; Abruzzo, Provvidenza M; Visconti, Paola; Giustozzi, Marcello; Rossi, Gerardo; Gabbianelli, Rosita

    2016-04-01

    The number of children affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is dramatically increasing as well as the studies aimed at understanding the risk factors associated with the development of ASD. Since the etiology of ASD is partly genetic and partly environmental, factors (i.e., heavy metals, pesticides) as well as lifestyle seem to have a key role in the development of the disease. ASD and Control (CTR) children, aged 5-12 years, were compared. Gas chromatography coupled with trap mass detector was used to measure the level of 3-PBA, the main pyrethroid metabolite in urine in a group of ASD patients, while optical emission spectrometry analysis was employed to estimate the level of metals and microelements in hair in a different group of ASD children. The presence of 3-PBA in urine seems to be independent of age in ASD children, while a positive correlation between 3-PBA and age was observed in the control group of the same age range. Urine concentration of 3-BPA in ASD children had higher values than in the control group, which were marginally significant (p = 0.054). Mg results were significantly decreased in ASD with respect to controls, while V, S, Zn, and Ca/Mg were marginally increased, without reaching statistical significance. Results of Principal Component (PC) analysis of metals and microelements in hair were not associated with either age or health status. In conclusion, 3-PBA in urine and Mg in hair were changed in ASD children relative to control ones. PMID:27482573

  7. Pyrethroid Pesticide Metabolite in Urine and Microelements in Hair of Children Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Valentina F.; Nasuti, Cinzia; Piangerelli, Marco; Correia-Sá, Luísa; Ghezzo, Alessandro; Marini, Marina; Abruzzo, Provvidenza M.; Visconti, Paola; Giustozzi, Marcello; Rossi, Gerardo; Gabbianelli, Rosita

    2016-01-01

    The number of children affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is dramatically increasing as well as the studies aimed at understanding the risk factors associated with the development of ASD. Since the etiology of ASD is partly genetic and partly environmental, factors (i.e., heavy metals, pesticides) as well as lifestyle seem to have a key role in the development of the disease. ASD and Control (CTR) children, aged 5–12 years, were compared. Gas chromatography coupled with trap mass detector was used to measure the level of 3-PBA, the main pyrethroid metabolite in urine in a group of ASD patients, while optical emission spectrometry analysis was employed to estimate the level of metals and microelements in hair in a different group of ASD children. The presence of 3-PBA in urine seems to be independent of age in ASD children, while a positive correlation between 3-PBA and age was observed in the control group of the same age range. Urine concentration of 3-BPA in ASD children had higher values than in the control group, which were marginally significant (p = 0.054). Mg results were significantly decreased in ASD with respect to controls, while V, S, Zn, and Ca/Mg were marginally increased, without reaching statistical significance. Results of Principal Component (PC) analysis of metals and microelements in hair were not associated with either age or health status. In conclusion, 3-PBA in urine and Mg in hair were changed in ASD children relative to control ones.

  8. Uptake of Isoniazid Preventive Therapy among Under-Five Children: TB Contact Investigation as an Entry Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Yared; Gebre, Nigussie; Daba, Shallo; Gashu, Zewdu; Habte, Dereje; Hiruy, Nebiyu; Negash, Solomon; Melkieneh, Kassahun; Jerene, Degu; K Haile, Yared; Kassie, Yewulsew; Melese, Muluken; G Suarez, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    A child's risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) can be reduced by nearly 60% with administration of 6 months course of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). However, uptake of IPT by national TB programs is low, and IPT delivery is a challenge in many resource-limited high TB-burden settings. Routinely collected program data was analyzed to determine the coverage and outcome of implementation of IPT for eligible under-five year old children in 28 health facilities in two regions of Ethiopia. A total of 504 index smear-positive pulmonary TB (SS+) cases were reported between October 2013 and June 2014 in the 28 health facilities. There were 282 under-five children registered as household contacts of these SS+ TB index cases, accounting for 17.9% of all household contacts. Of these, 237 (84%) were screened for TB symptoms, and presumptive TB was identified in 16 (6.8%) children. TB was confirmed in 5 children, producing an overall yield of 2.11% (95% confidence interval, 0.76-4.08%). Of 221 children eligible for IPT, 64.3% (142) received IPT, 80.3% (114) of whom successfully completed six months of therapy. No child developed active TB while on IPT. Contact screening is a good entry point for delivery of IPT to at risk children and should be routine practice as recommended by the WHO despite the implementation challenges. PMID:27196627

  9. Uptake of Isoniazid Preventive Therapy among Under-Five Children: TB Contact Investigation as an Entry Point.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yared Tadesse

    Full Text Available A child's risk of developing tuberculosis (TB can be reduced by nearly 60% with administration of 6 months course of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT. However, uptake of IPT by national TB programs is low, and IPT delivery is a challenge in many resource-limited high TB-burden settings. Routinely collected program data was analyzed to determine the coverage and outcome of implementation of IPT for eligible under-five year old children in 28 health facilities in two regions of Ethiopia. A total of 504 index smear-positive pulmonary TB (SS+ cases were reported between October 2013 and June 2014 in the 28 health facilities. There were 282 under-five children registered as household contacts of these SS+ TB index cases, accounting for 17.9% of all household contacts. Of these, 237 (84% were screened for TB symptoms, and presumptive TB was identified in 16 (6.8% children. TB was confirmed in 5 children, producing an overall yield of 2.11% (95% confidence interval, 0.76-4.08%. Of 221 children eligible for IPT, 64.3% (142 received IPT, 80.3% (114 of whom successfully completed six months of therapy. No child developed active TB while on IPT. Contact screening is a good entry point for delivery of IPT to at risk children and should be routine practice as recommended by the WHO despite the implementation challenges.

  10. Uptake of Isoniazid Preventive Therapy among Under-Five Children: TB Contact Investigation as an Entry Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebre, Nigussie; Daba, Shallo; Gashu, Zewdu; Habte, Dereje; Hiruy, Nebiyu; Negash, Solomon; Melkieneh, Kassahun; Jerene, Degu; K. Haile, Yared; Kassie, Yewulsew; Melese, Muluken; G. Suarez, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    A child’s risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) can be reduced by nearly 60% with administration of 6 months course of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). However, uptake of IPT by national TB programs is low, and IPT delivery is a challenge in many resource-limited high TB-burden settings. Routinely collected program data was analyzed to determine the coverage and outcome of implementation of IPT for eligible under-five year old children in 28 health facilities in two regions of Ethiopia. A total of 504 index smear-positive pulmonary TB (SS+) cases were reported between October 2013 and June 2014 in the 28 health facilities. There were 282 under-five children registered as household contacts of these SS+ TB index cases, accounting for 17.9% of all household contacts. Of these, 237 (84%) were screened for TB symptoms, and presumptive TB was identified in 16 (6.8%) children. TB was confirmed in 5 children, producing an overall yield of 2.11% (95% confidence interval, 0.76–4.08%). Of 221 children eligible for IPT, 64.3% (142) received IPT, 80.3% (114) of whom successfully completed six months of therapy. No child developed active TB while on IPT. Contact screening is a good entry point for delivery of IPT to at risk children and should be routine practice as recommended by the WHO despite the implementation challenges. PMID:27196627

  11. Investigation of the alteration of gray matter volume in children with mental retardation with the optimal voxel-based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To detect brain structural difference between children with unexplained mental retardation and children with typically normal development. Methods: The high-resolution magnetic MR imaging were obtained from 21 children with unexplained mental retardation and 30 age-matched control children without intellectual disabilities. Voxel-based morphometry analysis with an optimization of spatial segmentation and normalization procedures were applied to compare differences of gray matter volume between the two groups. The total and regional gray matter volume were compared between the two groups with independent t test. Meanwhile, correlation was conducted to analyze the relationship between the total gray matter volume and intelligence quotient (IQ) with partial correlation test. Results: The total gray matter volume was significantly increased in the mental retardation children (1.012±0.079) × 106 mm3] in relative to the controls [(0.956±0.059)×106 mm3, t=-2.80, P0.05). Conclusions: VBM would detect the gray matter abnormalities that were not founded in routine MR scanning. The increase of gray matter volume in the frontal-thalamus network might indicate the delayed maturation of the brain development. This might be one of the causations of' mental retardation in children. (authors)

  12. An Investigation into the Relationship between Parents' Child-rearing Styles and Domestic Violence against Children in Ahvaz City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Yaghoubidoust

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Domestic violence against children is a global issue which devastates family bonds and threatens individuals' health in mental, physical as well as sexual aspects (Sajadifar 2002:11. There are a lot of factors involving in domestic violence against children. It seems that the parents' child-rearing style is an important factor that plays a pivotal role in decrease or increase of violence against children. Child-rearing style can act as a predicator of social and mental development, academic performance, welfare and even the potentiality of children's problematic behaviors in the future. Child-rearing style can be both the facilitator and inhibitor of antisocial behavior, like domestic violence against adolescent and children. Those studies that talk about antisocial behavior as a result of offensive child-rearing styles have mainly emphasized autocratic parents (Adams, Mount & Mayer 1998. Many studies have indicated that unstable and unorganized child-rearing style is more likely to increase in domestic violence against children. On the other hand, other studies talk about those child-rearing styles which reduce violence against children, emphasizing stable and controlled punishments, in proportion to improper behavior committed by children, which may decrease violence against them (Denton & Kaspf 1994, Krunkuych & Gyrdan 1987. Therefore, with regard to this issue and the importance of the role that parenting styles play in child-rearing, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between parents' child-rearing styles and domestic violence against children in Ahvaz city. Material and Method This is a survey study and research population is consisted of all male and female students of high schools and their parents in Ahvaz, out of which 384 subjects were selected by using Cochran’s formula and through multistage cluster sampling method. By using SPSS software, the questionnaire was processed at two levels of descriptive

  13. 235例肺外结核性创面患者流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigation of 235 patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis wounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常娜; 贾赤宇; 刘真; 张亚洁; 李文婷; 田甜

    2015-01-01

    目的 初步探讨肺外结核性创面流行病学特点和规律,为临床研究提供可靠数据.方法 对笔者单位2010年1月-2012年12月收治的肺外结核性创面患者的性别、年龄、民族、家庭背景、卡介苗接种情况、原发病灶、外伤史这几项资料进行回顾性分析,总结其规律及特点. 结果 5 863例肺外结核病患者中,235例出现结核性创面,占4.0%.其中男139例、女96例,男女之比为1.4∶1.0.年龄1~87(37±18)岁,其中大于15岁且小于或等于30岁青壮年患者构成比最大(100例,42.6%).多数患者为汉族;仅有11例患者为少数民族,占4.7%.患者中163例来自农村,占69.4%;72例来自城镇,占30.6%.卡介苗接种率为13.6%(32例).原发病灶中,以周围淋巴结结核为主,共112例,占47.7%,其中又以颈部淋巴结结核为主(99例,88.4%).21例(男19例、女2例)患者近期有车祸等外伤史. 结论 结核性创面有一定的发病率,并非罕见,以农村地区青壮年人群多发,患者的卡介苗接种率较低,颈部淋巴结结核为主要原发病灶.%Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and patterns of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis wounds in order to provide reliable data for further clinical research.Methods Records of patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis wounds hospitalized from January 2010 to December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed,including gender,age,nationality,family background,Bacille CalmetteGuerin (BCG) vaccination,primary lesion,and history of injury.Results Tuberculosis wounds were found in 235 patients among 5 863 patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis,accounting for 4.0%.Among the patients with tuberculosis wounds,there were 139 male and 96 female,and the ratio of male to female was 1.4∶ 1.0.The age of patients ranged from 1 to 87 (37 ± 18) years old,and the highest incidence occurred in patients older than 15 and younger than or equal to 30 years old (100 cases

  14. Promoting social communication through music therapy in children with autism spectrum disorder:Multidimensional investigation: Systematic review, RCT study protocol, treatment guide, feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Geretsegger, Monika

    2015-01-01

    In this book, a PhD study is presented that investigates if and how music therapy may help to promote social communication in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).The study examined several dimensions of this complex field, and includes four articles: (i) a systematic review (Cochrane review) synthesising research evidence on overall effects of music therapy for individuals with ASD; (ii) a study protocol specifying the design of TIME-A, a randomised controlled trial (RCT) examining e...

  15. Pyrethroid Pesticide Metabolite in Urine and Microelements in Hair of Children Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina F. Domingues

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of children affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD is dramatically increasing as well as the studies aimed at understanding the risk factors associated with the development of ASD. Since the etiology of ASD is partly genetic and partly environmental, factors (i.e., heavy metals, pesticides as well as lifestyle seem to have a key role in the development of the disease. ASD and Control (CTR children, aged 5–12 years, were compared. Gas chromatography coupled with trap mass detector was used to measure the level of 3-PBA, the main pyrethroid metabolite in urine in a group of ASD patients, while optical emission spectrometry analysis was employed to estimate the level of metals and microelements in hair in a different group of ASD children. The presence of 3-PBA in urine seems to be independent of age in ASD children, while a positive correlation between 3-PBA and age was observed in the control group of the same age range. Urine concentration of 3-BPA in ASD children had higher values than in the control group, which were marginally significant (p = 0.054. Mg results were significantly decreased in ASD with respect to controls, while V, S, Zn, and Ca/Mg were marginally increased, without reaching statistical significance. Results of Principal Component (PC analysis of metals and microelements in hair were not associated with either age or health status. In conclusion, 3-PBA in urine and Mg in hair were changed in ASD children relative to control ones.

  16. A community based field research project investigating anaemia amongst young children living in rural Karnataka, India: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Jim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting. Methods and design A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory. Discussion Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and

  17. Children Engaged in Active Sports ( 8-17 Years ) Who Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions That Exhibitions Investigation by Several Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Özer MERDAN

    2014-01-01

    This research in the interpersonal relationships of children (8 -17 years) engaged in active sports exhibitions examining the distortions in terms of several variables, it aims to reveal the reflection of sport. It is a descriptive study. The research sample was active in the province of Antalya 132 children who attend sports clubs constitute. Research for the group 'Hamamcı' and 'Büyüköztürk' developed by "Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale" is used. The minimum point obtained from th...

  18. Predictors of quality of life: A quantitative investigation of the stress-coping model in children with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Koopman Hendrik M; Boersma Sandra N; Peeters Yvette

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Aim of this study is to further explore predictors of health related quality of life in children with asthma using factors derived from to the extended stress-coping model. While the stress-coping model has often been used as a frame of reference in studying health related quality of life in chronic illness, few have actually tested the model in children with asthma. Method In this survey study data were obtained by means of self-report questionnaires from seventy-eight ch...

  19. Perceptions of Television Advertising Directed at Children: An Investigation of the Views of an Entire Community, April and May, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Frank N.; And Others

    A survey of 900 residents of Gainesville, Florida, conducted in April and May 1974 assessed their opinions on a number of statements regarding advertising and programing on children's television shows. Of the 14 statements used, 6 were worded so that the television advertiser might be regarded as a "good guy" or his "commercial as hero." The other…

  20. Muscle fat content and abdominal adipose tissue distribution investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in obese children and youths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonvig, Cilius E; Bille, Dorthe S; Chabanova, Elizaveta;

    2012-01-01

    The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in children and youths are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20) with a body mass index (BMI) >90(th) percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle...

  1. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Family-Centred Positive Behaviour Support of Young Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Szu-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Positive Behaviour Intervention and Support (PBIS) is an evidence-based approach that has been proven to be effective in remediating problem behaviours in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the family-centred PBIS approach when involving Taiwanese families in the treatment of off-task and non-compliant…

  2. The Effects of Interpolated Reinforcement on Resistance to Extinction in Children Diagnosed with Autism: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbee, Thomas S.; Carr, James E.; Patel, Meeta R.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated use of the interpolation of reinforcement effect, which combines intermittent (INT) and continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedules, with four young children with autism using a free-operant preparation. Results suggest that responding may be less resistant to extinction following interpolated CRF reinforcement than following INT…

  3. Gender Differences in the Reading of E-Books: Investigating Children's Attitudes, Reading Behaviors and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueh-Min; Liang, Tsung-Ho; Chiu, Chiung-Hui

    2013-01-01

    As indicated by some studies, the problem of "falling behind" often exists when using computer-assisted learning with children, and gender may be a factor in this. While digital contents presented on various e-readers are promising replacements for paper-and-ink books, the question arises as to whether this emerging technology will have…

  4. An Investigation into the Skill Set of Speech-Language Pathologists Working with Profoundly Deaf Children: A Study in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyvoda, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the skill sets possessed by speech-language pathologists working with profoundly deaf children in three types of settings (state-funded "4201" schools for the deaf, Board of Cooperative Educational Services programs, and local school districts) throughout New York State. The phenomenological method of inquiry was…

  5. Sociometric-Status-Group Classification of Mainstreamed Children Who Have Moderate Learning Difficulties: An Investigation of Personal and Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Norah L.; Furnham, Adrian F.

    1998-01-01

    Study examines the classes of variables identified in D. L. MacMillan and G. M. Morrison's (1984) multicomponent model for research on sociometric status in special education. Results are discussed with reference to social-exchange theory, as an integrative basis for research on children's sociometric status. Implications for mainstreaming…

  6. Selectivity in social and asocial learning: investigating the prevalence, effect and development of young children's learning preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Emma; Turner, Cameron; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain

    2016-03-19

    Culture evolution requires both modification and faithful replication of behaviour, thus it is essential to understand how individuals choose between social and asocial learning. In a quasi-experimental design, 3- and 5-year-olds (176), and adults (52) were presented individually with two novel artificial fruits, and told of the apparatus' relative difficulty (easy versus hard). Participants were asked if they wanted to attempt the task themselves or watch an experimenter attempt it first; and then had their preference either met or violated. A significant proportion of children and adults (74%) chose to learn socially. For children, this request was efficient, as observing a demonstration made them significantly quicker at the task than learning asocially. However, for 5-year-olds, children who selected asocial learning were also found to be highly efficient at the task, showing that by 5 years children are selective in choosing a learning strategy that is effective for them. Adults further evidenced this trend, and also showed selectivity based on task difficulty. This is the first study to examine the rates, performance outcomes and developmental trajectory of preferences in asocial and social learning, ultimately informing our understanding of innovation. PMID:26926279

  7. Afrikaans-speaking parents' perceptions of the rights of their children with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities: A descriptive investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Alta; Bornman, Juan; Dada, Shakila

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to describe the perceptions of Afrikaans-speaking parents regarding the human rights, as defined by the United Nation's Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), of their children, aged between 8.0 and 14.11 (years/months), with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities. The underlying premise is that the CRC defines the rights of children, whereas the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Child and Youth version (ICF-CY) can provide the framework for documenting a deprivation of rights and the conditions under which those rights can be realized. Forty-seven Afrikaans-speaking parents completed a custom-designed survey. The results of the closed-ended questions indicated that most parents felt that their children had rights and that these rights were met. A theme analysis performed on the open-ended questions revealed that parents were mostly concerned about their children's rights pertaining to school education and safety. These rights were discussed in terms of the CRC articles and linked to environmental codes of the ICF-CY. Finally, the limitations and implications of the study are discussed and recommendations are made. PMID:25713007

  8. Investigating Parental Acceptability of the Incredible Years Self-Administered Parent Training Program for Children Presenting Externalizing Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Latoya S.; Carlson, John S.

    2010-01-01

    This study takes an in-depth look at parental acceptability (i.e., the ability to meet parent needs) of an intervention that has shown strong empirical support for treating and preventing childhood conduct disorder. The authors obtained acceptability data from 30 parents of children ages 5 to 12 years presenting externalizing behavior problems…

  9. An Investigation on Loneliness Feeling of 1250 Children%1250名儿童孤独感现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴佳芮; 邓冰

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解儿童主观孤独感的实际状况,为有针对的进行心理健康干预和促进儿童心理健康提供依据.方法:利用随机整群抽样的方法抽取了1 250名3~5年级在校儿童进行儿童孤独量表问卷调查,获得儿童孤独感情况以及性别、年级、父母有无职业等相关信息.结果:9~12岁儿童孤独量表总分为25.65±9.79,不同性别、不同年级的儿童孤独量表总分有统计学差异(P<0.01);父母是否有固定工作也会造成儿童的孤独感(P<0.01).结论:有13.84%的儿童所体验到的主观孤独感较高,应引起学校、家长、社会的重视.%Objective: To realize current situation of loneliness feeling in children, and so as to provide reliable basis for mental health intervention and promotion of children's mentalhealth. Methods: A questionnaire was conducted among 1250 students of grade 3 to grade 5 in 2 primary schools, by u-sing cluster sampling methods, and Childrens Loneliness Scale. Basic information including loneliness feeling, gender, study grades, parents'employment situation were obtained. Results: The total score of Children's Longliness Scale of children aged 9 to 12 was 25.65 ±9.79; There were significant differences between male and female students, and among students of different grades (P <0.01); Parents' employment situation had significant influence on children's loneliness feeling (P <0.01 ) . Conclusions: About 13. 84% of the children felt strong loneliness, which should cause attention on this problem from school, parents, and the society.

  10. Integrated Source Case Investigation for Tuberculosis (TB and HIV in the Caregivers and Household Contacts of Hospitalised Young Children Diagnosed with TB in South Africa: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay G Lala

    Full Text Available Contact tracing, to identify source cases with untreated tuberculosis (TB, is rarely performed in high disease burden settings when the index case is a young child with TB. As TB is strongly associated with HIV infection in these settings, we used source case investigation to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed TB and HIV in the caregivers and household contacts of hospitalised young children diagnosed with TB in South Africa.Caregivers and household contacts of 576 young children (age ≤7 years with TB diagnosed between May 2010 and August 2012 were screened for TB and HIV. The primary outcome was the detection of laboratory-confirmed, newly-diagnosed TB disease and/or HIV-infection in close contacts.Of 576 caregivers, 301 (52·3% self-reported HIV-positivity. Newly-diagnosed HIV infection was detected in 63 (22·9% of the remaining 275 caregivers who self-reported an unknown or negative HIV status. Screening identified 133 (23·1% caregivers eligible for immediate anti-retroviral therapy (ART. Newly-diagnosed TB disease was detected in 23 (4·0% caregivers. In non-caregiver household contacts (n = 1341, the prevalence of newly-diagnosed HIV infection and TB disease was 10·0% and 3·2% respectively. On average, screening contacts of every nine children with TB resulted in the identification of one case of newly-diagnosed TB disease, three cases of newly diagnosed HIV-infection, and three HIV-infected persons eligible for ART.In high burden countries, source case investigation yields high rates of previously undiagnosed HIV and TB infection in the close contacts of hospitalised young children diagnosed with TB. Furthermore, integrated screening identifies many individuals who are eligible for immediate ART. Similar studies, with costing analyses, should be undertaken in other high burden settings-integrated source case investigation for TB and HIV should be routinely undertaken if our findings are confirmed.

  11. 广东三地流浪儿童自我意识现状调查%Self-concept Investigation of Street Children in 3 Cities of Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪琴; 叶绮华; 张书维; 范敏珍

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To understand self-concept situation of street children and provide reference for a better psychological intervention on them. [ Methods ] Selected 154 street children of normal intelligence aged from 11 to 16 without disability in Guangzhou,Zhongshan, and Shenzhen of Guangdong province as subjects for the experimental group. According to the sex ratio of street children,246 Guangzhou students aged from 11 to 16 were selected as the control group. Investigated two group both via Piers-Harris Children's Self-concept Scale (PHCSS). [ Results ] Guangdong province street children's self-concept level was lower than the national norm (P <0.001 ). In total score, behavior, gregariousness, happiness and satisfaction, anxiety factors of PHCSS street children scored lower than the current group of school students (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). The street children's scores of intelligence and behaving in school , Body figure and attribute, anxiety, gregariousness factors of PHCSS in the age group of 14-16 were higher than which in 11-13 age (P < 0.01 or ≤ 0.001). The level of self-concept of street children was different because of their different education degrees. [ Conclusion ] In the process of rescue to the street children, various methods for the characteristics of children's self-concept about different age, gender and educational level should be used to promote the development of their self-concept,thereby enhancing the mental health of street children.%[目的]了解流浪儿童自我意识发展状况,为更好地对流浪儿童进行心理干预提供参考.[方法]以广东省广州、中山和深圳三地154名11~16岁智力正常、无残疾的流浪儿童为实验组,同时按照流浪儿童的性别比例采用分层取样法选取246位11~16岁的广州市在校学生作为对照组,选用Piers-Harris儿童自我意识量表进行调查.[结果]流浪儿童自我意识水平均低于常模组(P<0.001),

  12. Investigating the genetic and environmental bases of biases in threat recognition and avoidance in children with anxiety problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Jennifer Y F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adults with anxiety show biased categorization and avoidance of threats. Such biases may emerge through complex interplay between genetics and environments, occurring early in life. Research on threat biases in children has focuses on a restricted range of biases, with insufficient focus on genetic and environmental origins. Here, we explore differences between children with and without anxiety problems in under-studied areas of threat bias. We focused both on associations with anxious phenotype and the underlying gene-environmental correlates for two specific processes: the categorisation of threat faces and avoidance learning. Method Two-hundred and fifty 10-year old MZ and DZ twin pairs (500 individuals completed tasks assessing accuracy in the labelling of threatening facial expressions and in the acquisition of avoidant responses to a card associated with a masked threatening face. To assess whether participants met criteria for an anxiety disorder, parents of twins completed a self-guided computerized version of the Development and Well-being Assessment (DAWBA. Comparison of MZ and DZ twin correlations using model-fitting were used to compute estimates of genetic, shared and non-shared environmental effects. Results Of the 500 twins assessed, 25 (5% met diagnostic criteria for a current anxiety disorder. Children with anxiety disorders were more accurate in their ability to recognize disgust faces than those without anxiety disorders, but were commensurate on identifying other threatening face emotions (angry, fearful, sad. Children with anxiety disorders but also more strongly avoided selecting a conditioned stimulus than non-anxious children. While recognition of socially threatening faces was moderately heritable, avoidant responses were heavily influenced by the non-shared environment. Conclusion These data add to other findings on threat biases in anxious children. Specifically, we found biases in the labelling of

  13. [Unexpectedly high proportion of preschool children immune to hepatitis A virus. Contact tracing investigation shows the need for vaccination prior to traveling abroad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Hanna; Nasta, Federico; Svensson, Ingrid; Widerström, Micael

    Hepatitis A (HAV) is a low incidence infectious disease in Sweden, and a majority of cases in this country are acquired abroad, although domestic cases are not uncommon in the day care setting. We investigated an outbreak of hepatitis A in two day care centres and found that a large proportion (23%) of the 113 unvaccinated preschool children were immune to HAV. This observation indicates that there may have been sub-clinical cases of HAV at the two centres. The results of our study underscore the importance of HAV vaccination in preschool children prior to travel to areas where this disease is common. The findings also highlight the need for up-to-date national seroepidemiological data on HAV immunity in different age groups in Sweden. Studies aimed at obtaining such information could also provide a basis for deciding whether targeted vaccination strategies against HAV are needed in the day care setting. PMID:25462320

  14. Investigation of Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Deaths Among US Children Aged <2 Years, 2004-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prill, Mila M; Iwane, Marika K; Little, Delmar; Gerber, Susan I

    2016-09-01

    We validated the respiratory syncytial virus-coded deaths of children aged death data and medical records. There were 48 deaths in 4 states, and hospital records for 32 of them were available; 26 of those 32 (81%) had a laboratory finding of respiratory syncytial virus, and 21 of those 26 (81%) had a potential high-risk condition, most commonly preterm birth (35%). PMID:27534673

  15. Caring in nursing: Investigating the meaning of caring from the perspective of Chinese children living with leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Han; Jun-E. Liu; Xiao-Lei Zheng; Yue-Hong Ma; Qian Xiao; Yan-Ming Ding

    2014-01-01

    Background: Effective communication between nurse and patient is paramount in establishing the relationship on which patient care is based and influences the quality of nursing care leading to improved health outcomes for patients. It is necessary for nurses to understand children's perspectives of nurse–patient communication in order to choose appropriate communication skills to promote effective communication and a sweet relationship. Purpose: To explore the communication status of child...

  16. The effect of sports activities in children and adolescents on the calcaneus - an investigation with quantitative ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters speed of sound (SOS) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) on the calcaneus are different between athletic children and a reference population. Patients and Methods: From a college of physical education, 177 children and adolescents (121 boys and 56 girls, age range from 11 to 18 years) were included in this study. QUS was performed on the calcaneus using the Sahara trademark device (Hologic, USA). SOS and BUA were estimated. Regional reference values of 3299 children were used to determine significant differences between athletes and reference population. The influence of activity level, age, height, and weight was estimated using correlation analysis. Results: Sportsmen showed significant (p<0.05) higher values of the QUS parameters (SOS 1581.1 m/s; BUA 69.7 dB/MHz) compared to the reference data (SOS 1563.9 m/s; BUA 64.2 dB/MHz). Significant correlation was observed between BUA and the level of activity, age, weight, and height (p<0.01) and between SOS and weight and height (p<0.05). In the group of soccer players and athletes, significant correlation was found between BUA vs. age and BUA vs. weight (p<0.05). Furthermore, significant correlation was observed between BUA vs. age and weight in Judokas and Wrestlers. For the level of activity, a significant correlation to BUA was only found in the group of Judokas and Wrestlers (p<0.01). Conclusion: An increase in quantitative ultrasound parameters on the calcaneus occurs in children and adolescents with increased physical activity. (orig.)

  17. A neuroimaging investigation of the association between aerobic fitness, hippocampal volume, and memory performance in preadolescent children

    OpenAIRE

    Chaddock, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I.; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Kim, Jennifer S; Voss, Michelle W.; VanPatter, Matt; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Konkel, Alex; Hillman, Charles H.; Cohen, Neal J.; Arthur F Kramer

    2010-01-01

    Because children are becoming overweight, unhealthy, and unfit, understanding the neurocognitive benefits of an active lifestyle in childhood has important public health and educational implications. Animal research has indicated that aerobic exercise is related to increased cell proliferation and survival in the hippocampus as well as enhanced hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Recent evidence extends this relationship to elderly humans by suggesting that high aerobic fitness levels ...

  18. The Persian version of phonological test of diagnostic evaluation articulation and phonology for Persian speaking children and investigating its validity and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talieh Zarifian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Speech and language pathologists (SLP often refer to phonological data as part of their assessment protocols in evaluating the communication skills of children. The aim of this study was to develop the Persian version of the phonological test in evaluating and diagnosing communication skills in Persian speaking children and to evaluate its validity and reliability.Methods: The Persian phonological test (PPT was conducted on 387 monolingual Persian speaking boys and girls (3-6 years of age who were selected from 12 nurseries in the northwest region of Tehran. Content validity ratio (CVR and content validity index (CVI were assessed by speechtherapists and linguists. Correlation between speech and language pathologists experts' opinions and Persian phonological test results in children with and without phonological disorders was evaluated to investigate the Persian phonological test validity. In addition, the Persian phonological test test-retest reliability was investigated.Results: Both content validity ratio and content validity index were found to be acceptable (CVR≥94.71 and CVI=97.35. The PPT validity was confirmed by finding a good correlation between s peech and language pathologists experts' opinions and Persian phonological test results ( r Kappa =0.73 and r Spearman =0.76. The percent of agreement between transcription and analyzing error patterns in test-retest (ranging from 86.27%-100% and score-rescore (ranging from 94.28%-100% showed that Persian phonological test had a very high reliability.Conclusion: The results of this study show that the Persian phonological test seems to be a suitable tool in evaluating phonological skills of Persian speaking children in clinical settings and research projects.

  19. Comparison of MR angiography and conventional angiography in the investigation of intracranial arteriovenous malformations and aneurysms in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is an attractive alternative to conventional catheter angiography (CCA) in children, especially for the detection of intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) or aneurysms in the out-of-hours setting, because it has fewer risks and complications. To compare MRA with CCA for the detection of intracranial AVMs, aneurysms and arterial anatomy in children. Retrospective blinded review of MRAs and CCAs by two independent paediatric radiologists, in a group of 19 children already diagnosed with AVMs, aneurysms and subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and who had undergone both imaging techniques. Abnormalities were identified on MRA in 15 of 19 patients and by CCA in 11 of 19 patients. MRA showed one aneurysm, nine AVMs, three haemorrhages and two indeterminate lesions. CCA showed nine AVMs and two indeterminate lesions. The two modalities showed excellent correlation in the detection of AVMs in nine patients. Vascular supply to the AVMs correlated well in four cases. There was complete disagreement in the determination of vessel supply in one case, and in two cases CCA showed additional vessel supply compared to MRA, while in two further cases MRA showed an additional vessel supply compared to CCA. CCA was superior to MRA in demonstrating arterial anatomy, except with regard to the anterior and posterior communicating arteries where MRA was superior. The high sensitivity of MRA in the detection of AVMs when compared to CCA and the low incidence of aneurysms support the use of MRA as the initial imaging modality when intracranial haemorrhage is diagnosed on CT, especially in the out-of-hours setting. (orig.)

  20. Investigating the role of social-affective attachment processes in cradling bias: the absence of cradling bias in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Lea-Ann; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Solms, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that leftward cradling bias may facilitate mother-infant relationships, as it preferentially locates the infant in the mother's left hemi-space, which is specialized for several social-affective processes. If leftward cradling bias is mediated by social-affective attachment processes, it should be reduced in humans who are deficient in such processes. Individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) constitute a population with known deficits in social and emotional relating. A pilot study confirmed reduced bias in this group, and in the present study, we elaborated methods to assess also the impact of higher cognitive processes on cradling bias. Direct systematic observation was used to investigate the occurrence of cradling bias in ASD, non-ASD intellectually disabled children and typically developing children. Ninety-three participants aged 5-15 years cradled a life-like doll on four separate occasions. Intelligence and executive functions were assessed. Regression analyses revealed that ASD diagnosis was the only significant predictor of atypical cradling preference. While intellectually disabled and typically developing children clearly preferred to cradle to the left, no preference was evident in the ASD group. Results support the hypothesis that leftward cradling bias is associated with basic social-affective capacities. PMID:25131653

  1. We're Creative on a Friday Afternoon: Investigating Children's Perceptions of their Experience of Design & Technology in Relation to Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Clare; Lunt, Julie

    2011-10-01

    In the last 15 years there has been an increased emphasis in both educational research and curriculum development upon investigating children's perspectives of their experience of learning. Children naturally have very particular and important insights to offer in helping us to develop our understanding of teaching and learning. However, research into children's perceptions in the field of primary Design & Technology education is still at a very early stage (Lunt in International handbook of research and development in technology education, Sense Publishers, Utrecht, 2009a). For example, in three reviews of educational research in Design & Technology (Kimbell in A guide to educational research, The Woburn Publishers, London, 1996; Eggleston in Teaching and learning design and technology: a guide to recent research and its applications, Continuum, London, 2000; Harris and Wilson in Designs on the curriculum? A review of the literature on the impact of design and technology in schools, Department for Education and Skills, London, 2003) there are only passing references made to eliciting and considering pupils' views and, in the studies where it does occur, it is used as a supplementary method of data collection rather than as a focus of research. The work which exists is small-scale and the majority of studies relate to secondary-aged pupils. The research that we have recently undertaken has tried to redress this gap. It has focused on primary children's (aged 9-11 years) perceptions of Design & Technology in general (Benson and Lunt in PATT 18 international conference on design and technology educational research: teaching and learning technological literacy in the classroom, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, 2007) and latterly creativity in Design & Technology. It has been claimed by many that Design & Technology is a `creative' subject which develops children's creative abilities. This is a bold claim and one that needs careful consideration. This paper sets out a

  2. Inflammatory Cytokines, Endothelial Function, and Chronic Allograft Vasculopathy in Children: An Investigation of the Donor and Recipient Vasculature After Heart Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, M; Simmonds, J; Shah, V; Brogan, P; Klein, N; Deanfield, J; Burch, M

    2016-05-01

    Chronic allograft vasculopathy (CAV) limits the lifespan of pediatric heart transplant recipients. We investigated blood markers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and damage to both the native and transplanted vasculature in children after heart transplantation. Serum samples were taken from pediatric heart transplant recipients for markers of inflammation and endothelial activation. The systemic vasculature was investigated using brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation and carotid artery intima-medial hyperplasia. CAV was investigated using intravascular ultrasound. Mean intima-media thickness (mIMT) > 0.5 mm was used to define significant CAV. Forty-eight children (25 male) aged 8-18 years were enrolled in the study. Patients were a median (interquartile range) 4.1 (2.2-8.7) years after transplant. Patients had increased levels of circulating IL6 (3.86 [2.84-4.95] vs. 1.66 [1.22-2.63] p 0.5 mm. This suggests that subclinical inflammation is present and that natural anticoagulant/thrombomodulin activity is important after transplant. PMID:26614396

  3. A One-Message Question in a Structured Interview: Investigating Psychological Needs of Children and Adolescents with Eating Disorders Directed toward Their Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe,Kumi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological needs of children and adolescents with eating disorders (ED directed toward their mothers. Patients with ED have low self-assertion and various abnormal eating behaviors. Therefore, mothers face difficulty in understanding their children's psychological needs, and the mother-child relationship is sometimes strained. We developed a One-Message Question (OMQ-structured interview. The OMQ was easy to answer, and it helped the patients with ED. We examined the relationship between psychological needs and illness phase of the children and adolescents, and we discuss the viability of implementing the OMQ in clinical settings. The subjects were 23 patients and their parents. Their parents were just asked about the patients' background. The mean age of the patients was 15.8 years, and the average age of ED onset was 13.5 years. The EDs were anorexia nervosa (n=20 and bulimia nervosa (n=3. The phases of patients' illness were identified as anorexic (n=5, bulimic (n=7, chronic (n=3, and stable (n=8. All subjects provided specific responses to the OMQ-structured interview. Data analyses revealed the following seven categories of patients' psychological needs directed toward their mothers:attachment, cooperation in meeting their goals, longing for love, changing attitude toward family members, respect for self-reliance, expression of apology, and expression of appreciation. These findings suggested that the OMQ-structured interview may prove useful for mothers to understand their children's psychological needs and may encourage positive interactions as a foundation for future recovery.

  4. Muscle fat content and abdominal adipose tissue distribution investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in obese children and youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilius E. Fonvig

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in youth are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20 with a body mass index (BMI >90th percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle fat content (MFC was measured in the psoas muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The patients were assigned to two groups: MFC <5% or ³5%. Visceral adipose tissue volume (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume (SAT were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Blood samples were obtained from 119 patients, and liver enzyme concentrations and other variables were measured. The data were analysed to detect any associations between MFC and BMI standard deviation scores, VAT and SAT, blood values, and physical activity levels. The mean BMI standard deviation score (SDS was 3.04 (range 1.32-5.02. The mean MFC was 8.9% (range 0.8-46.7, and 118 (74.2% of 159 patients had an MFC ³5%. Children with a high MFC had a higher BMI SDS (P=0.03 and had a higher VAT, but not SAT or SAT/VAT ratio. Both intramyocellular lipid (IMCL and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL content were elevated in patients with an MFC ³5%. Blood values and physical activity levels did not differ between the two groups. Severely obese children and adolescents tend to have a high MFC, which is associated with elevated VAT and IMCL and EMCL content. An increased MFC may be associated with impaired metabolic processes, which may predispose young people to obesity-related complications.

  5. Children with Disabilities in the Child Protective Services System: An Analog Study of Investigation and Case Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manders, Jeanette E.; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The study used a series of vignettes to investigate how the presence of three disabilities (cerebral palsy, intellectual disabilities, emotional/behavioral disabilities) affects the processes and outcomes of child abuse investigations at two levels of child injury severity (moderate, severe). Method: Seventy-five CPS case workers…

  6. Investigating the Visual-Motor Integration Skills of 60-72-Month-Old Children at High and Low Socio-Economic Status as Regard the Age Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Zülfiye Gül; Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to define whether age creates any differences in the visual-motor integration skills of 60-72 months old children at low and high socio-economic status. The study was conducted on a total of 148 children consisting of 78 children representing low socio-economic status and 70 children representing high socio-economic status in the…

  7. The investigation to protect children's education or first aid%四川保教人员儿童急救知识调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王威

    2014-01-01

    Through questionnaire survey and interviews collected from 499 protection for children's education or first aid knowledge people personnel 16 areas in sichuan children first aid knowledge situation investigation, the result shows that:1.Sichuan protection for children's education or first aid knowledge for the correct answer by an average of 51.6%;2. Accident first aid for children in sichuan protection education personnel confidence enugh, 72.8%of surveyed workers there is confidence in children need emergency first aid;3. First aid knowledge situation between different people (the public garden and private garden, age, working years, educational background, professional, and presence of compiling) there was no significant difference, but for some specific problems, different subjects masters have obvious difference;4. Sichuan protect most education personnel trained in first aid, but in the majority with garden in this training, the unification of the lack of high-level design.%通过问卷调查法和访谈法在四川16个地区抽取499名保教人员进行儿童急救知识掌握情况调查,结果显示:1、四川保教人员对儿童急救知识平均回答正确率为51.6%,儿童急救知识掌握情况有待改善;2、四川保教人员对儿童实施意外急救的自信充足,72.8%的被调查人员在儿童需要急救时有信心进行急救:3、急救知识掌握情况在不同人员之间(公办园与民办园、年龄、工作年限、学历、专业、有无编制)无显著差异,但对某些特定问题,不同调查对象掌握情况有明显差异。4、四川保教人员大部分接受过急救知识的培训,但以园本培训居多,缺乏高层的统一设计。

  8. Investigating the effect of a robotic presence compared to a virtual robot in teaching angles and turn measurements to children

    OpenAIRE

    Utgaard, Nicklas Sørlie

    2014-01-01

    In the later years robotics has seen a huge increase within domestic use, and have now become an affordable tool in the daily life of most people. The goal of this project was to investigate the differences between a physical and virtual robot in terms of increased content knowledge, learning motivation, and interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). To investigate this we conducted an experiment at Trondheim’m International School (THIS), using a quasi-experime...

  9. Investigation on the Effect of the Children's Health Popular Science Bag%儿童保健科普袋入户效果调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆菊; 高萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To reappraise the health education form of taking children's health science bag home under the new situation.Methods We investigated some vil ages that can insist wel on taking science bag home and made a sampling survey of 0~3-year-old children's parents,in the understood situation of health care knowledge and the working index in health care work of children.At the same time compared with vil ages that do not car y out this work mostly.Results The results showed that parents in the taking-bags-home vil ages are obviously bet er than those control vil ages on children's health knowledge understanding of the situation and the infant mortality rate,the children's height,the prevalence of anemia and rickets.Conclusion Taking children's health science bag home is in satisfactory ef ect.In the new situation it is stil a practical good form of economic on scientific nursing,health education in our city rural area.children'weight in rural areas is higher than taking-bags-home vil ages which maybe imply the problems of obesity and overweight.The purpose of this study need us make further examine.%目的为了在新形势下对儿童保健科普袋入户这一健康教育形式重新进行评估。方法我们在科普袋入户坚持比较好的村抽样对0~3岁儿童的家长就有关保健知识的了解情况和常用儿童保健工作指标进行了调查。同时以基本上未开展这项工作的村作对照。结果结果显示儿童家长对儿童保健知识了解的情况和婴儿死亡率、儿童身高、佝偻病及贫血患病情况入户村都明显好于对照村。但儿童体重超均值一项对照村高于入户村。结论儿童保健科普袋入户效果满意,在新形势下依然是我市农村地区科学育儿、健康教育的经济、实用的好形式。对照村儿童体重超均值一项高于入户村,可能隐含着儿童的肥胖、超重问题,有待我们今后进一步研究探讨。

  10. 1 048名3~12岁儿童适应行为及相关因素的调查%An Investigation on Adaptive Behaviors and Related Factors in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘航英; 郑淑芹; 吕维; 吴洪剑; 徐志敏; 王壮业

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To investigate adaptive behaviors and related factors in children. Methods: 1 048 children, aged 3 to 12, were administered the Adaptive Behavioral Scale (ABS) of Children, as well as being observed for significant related factors. Results: Overall mean score on the ABS for all subjects in the sample was within normal range. 17 children(1.62%) were diagnosed as adaptive deficient, and there was significant positive correlation between scores on the ABS and parental education levels. Scores of boys were higher when compared to girls. Conclusion: An incidence of 1.62% was diagnosed as deficient in adaptive behaviors among children in our study. Parental education was identified as an important contributing factor.

  11. 小儿厌食症相关因素调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of Related Factors in Children with Anorexia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 马彩霞

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze the related factors of 120 children with anorexia. Methods A total of February 2015 to 2016 2 months in our hospital were diagnosed and accept treatment of 120 cases of anorexia in children with design as the observation group and 120 cases of no anorexia children set up as the control group. The clinical data of the two groups of children, physical examination and relevant auxiliary examination means, to induce children complicated with anorexia related factors of comprehensive analysis. Results The occurrence of infantile anorexia with a variety of fac-tors, choice of feeding, complementary use of time, interest in food and food choices, parents of nutrition attention factors such as the degree of influence is most prominent. There were significant differences between the observation group and the control group in the above related factors, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion In the life of parents according to the pathogenic factors to take targeted preventive measures, can effectively prevent the occurrence of anorexia, investigate the effect of the relevant factors in children with anorexia for the control of anorexia has important sig-nificance.%目的:探讨分析120例小儿厌食症的相关因素。方法选取2015年1月-2016年1月在该院确诊并接受治疗的120例厌食症患儿设为观察组和120例无厌食症患儿设为对照组,通过对两组患儿的临床资料、体格检查以及相关辅助检查手段,对于诱发小儿并发厌食症的相关因素进行全面分析。结果小儿厌食症的发生与多种因素密切相关,喂养方式的选择、辅食的使用时间、对食物的兴趣和对食物的选择、家长对营养重视程度等因素的影响最为突出。观察组在以上相关因素上与对照组存在明显差异,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论在生活中家长根据致病因素采取针对性预防措施,可以有效

  12. Investigation of the Relationship between Retinol Binding Protein 4 and Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance in Iranian Obese 5-17 Year Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Saki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 has recently been reported to be associated with insulin resistance (IR and the metabolic syndrome by a number of researchers in various populations. However, controversies are present among different studies, which might be due to the differences between various ethnic, age, and sex groups. This study aimed to determine whether RBP4 can be assumed as a marker of IR and the metabolic syndrome in the Iranian obese children.Methods: In the present longitudinal cross-sectional study, 100 5-17 years old obese children were recruited from January 1, 2011 to February 1, 2012. The patients’ information including the demographic variables, health status and behavior, and daily physical activity were collected. Moreover, serum RBP4 was measured and correlated with the homeostasis model assessment of IR index (HOMA-IR, components of the metabolic syndrome, and lipoprotein metabolism.Findings: The results revealed a positively significant correlation between RBP4 and the HOMA-IR index (P=0.02. Partial Spearman test also revealed a significant correlation between RBP4 plasma concentrations and the components of the metabolic syndrome, including waist circumference, systolic (but not diastolic blood-pressure, and fasting blood sugar (P<0.05. However, no significant correlation was observed between RBP4 and HDL (P=0.3 as well as triglycerides concentration (P=0.1. Moreover, plasma RBP4 level gradually increased with the increasing number of the metabolic syndrome components.Conclusion: Regarding the results of the present study and previous investigations, RBP4 seems to be a suggestible predictive marker for both insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in Iranian obese children; however, further studies are needed to be conducted among different ethnicities and age groups in order to determine the predictive value of this correlation

  13. Investigate the reasonableand healthy eating habit for children by investigating the development and health condition of children under 14 years old%调查儿童生长发育和健康状况探讨儿童合理健康的饮食生活习惯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢桂芳; 李佩玲; 姜艳; 钟诗婷; 李艳萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate development and health condition of children under 14 years old, in order to explore reasonable and healthy eating habits for children .Methods We supplied free medical examination for children under 14 years in Shilong , input examination results into an Excellspreadsheet database and datas were analyzed using descriptive method .Using the grey system theory to predict the develop trend of children cacotrophy.Results The medical examination results indicated that micronutrient deficiencies (82%), malnutrition ( 37%) , urological problems ( 44%) were existed in children under 14 years old in Shilong . Conclusions Extensive health education and lectures on children and appropriate norms and healthy eating habits based on their own problems were the best ways to promote growing development and health condition for children.%目的:了解我镇14岁以下独生子女的生长发育和健康状况,探讨儿童合理健康的饮食生活习惯。方法对石龙镇14岁以下的儿童进行免费的体检,对检查结果建立Excel表格数据库并进行描述性研究,并用灰色系统理论对儿童营养不良的发病趋势进行预测。结果石龙镇14岁以下独生子女的微量元素缺乏(82%)、营养不良(37%)、泌尿外科问题(44%)较严重。结论广泛开展儿童健康教育和知识讲座、针对儿童自身问题制定相应的饮食规范和健康生活习惯是提高儿童生长发育和健康水平的主要方法。

  14. 三门峡市学龄前儿童身高体重调查%Investigation on Growth and Development of Preschool Children in Sanmenxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解三门峡市幼儿园儿童生长发育状况,提出改进意见. 方法 采用全国统一的测量方法,测量2所幼儿园826名儿童(男410名,女416名)的身高和体重.使用SPSS16.0进行分析,运用2009年我国7岁以下儿童生长发育参照标准计算Z评分,与2002年中国居民营养与健康调查结果比较. 结果 营养不良率、生长迟缓率、消瘦率及超重率按照国家标准计算所得结果均低于全国城市平均水平,肥胖发生率与2002年全国水平相当. 结论 本次调查儿童体格发育总体上优于我国2009年标准,生长发育状况良好.%Objective To investigate the physical development of children in Sanmenxia, and to put forward some suggestions for the improvement. Methods The body weight and height of 826 preschool children (410 boys and 416 girls) aged 3 to 7 years in the 2 kindergartens of Sanmenxia City were measured by the national unified measurement method. The China Child Growth Standard was used to compute the Z- scores with SPSS16.0 software, and then the Z-scores were compared with the results of 2002 national nutrition survey. Results The rates of malnutrition, stunting, underweight and overweight which counted by the national standards were all lower than the average levels of the whole country, but the rate of obesity was similar to that of the whole country. Conclusions In general, the growth and development of the surveyed children are better than 2009 national growth standards, and the growth and development status of these children are good.

  15. IFN-γ release assay: a diagnostic assistance tool of tuberculin skin test in pediatric tuberculosis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lin; SHEN A-dong; YAN Hui-min; HU Ying-hui; JIAO Wei-wei; GU Yi; XIAO Jing; LI Hui-min; JIAO An-xia; GUO Ya-jie

    2010-01-01

    Background Prompt diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection is an essential step in tuberculosis control and elimination. However, it is often difficult to accurately diagnose pediatric tuberculosis (TB). The tuberculin test (TST) may have a low specificity because of cross-reactivity with antigens present in Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and other mycobacteria, especially in China with a predominantly BCG-vaccinated population.Early-secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10), stand out as suitable antigens that induce an interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) secreting, T-cell-mediated immune response to infection. While,considered the higher costs and complexity of the IFN-γ release assay (TSPOT), we aimed to evaluate the TSPOT and TST test in the clinical diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis and to establish a diagnostic process suitable for China.Methods The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were evaluated in total seventy four children with active tuberculosis and fifty one nontuberculous children with other disease, and then the results were compared with TST.Logistic regression models were used to identify variables that were associated with positive results for each assay. The independent variables included sex, age, birth place, vaccination history, close contract with an active TB patient.Results The sensitivity of TSPOT was higher than TST in active TB children with or without BCG vaccination, as well as in children with culture-confirmed TB. But the difference was not significant statistically. Combining results of the TSPOT and TST improved the sensitivity to 94.6%. Agreement of the TST and TSPOT was low (77.0%, k=0.203) in active TB patients. The difference in specificity between TSPOT and TST test was statistically significant (94.1% vs.70.6%, P=0.006). Specificity of the two tests in patients without prior BCG vaccination history was similar (80.0% vs.60.0%). The concordance

  16. Antisaccades elicited by visual and acoustic cues – an investigation of children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Goepel, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Impulsivity and with it deficient inhibition control is one of the core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) – one of the most prevalent chronic psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. One possibility to investigate inhibitory mechanisms is the antisaccade task – a task, in which a subject is required to suppress a saccade towards a suddenly appearing cue (prosaccade) and to generate a voluntary saccade of equal size towards the opposite direction instead. A...

  17. The Investigation and Analysis of 1284 Children with Bad Oral Habits%1284例儿童口腔不良习惯调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠

    2013-01-01

      目的:调查惠州地区儿童口腔不良习惯现状及其不同牙龄阶段的儿童的分布情况,为口腔卫生健康教育和防治提供合理临床依据.方法:通过发放问卷的形式在本地调查8种主要常见的口腔不良习惯的发生率和错颌畸形的发生率,并分析这些不良习惯与错颌畸形发生的关系.结果:被调查群体中27.72%的儿童有口腔不良习惯;女童口腔不良习惯明显高于男童(P<0.05);替牙期儿童的口腔不良习惯发生率明显高于乳牙组和恒牙组(P<0.05);错颌畸形在本调查群体中的发生率为41.43%,有口腔不良习惯的儿童群体错颌畸形发生率明显高于无口腔不良习惯的儿童(P<0.05).结论:口腔不良习惯在儿童中并不少见,并且和错颌畸形的发生有一定关系.女童生长发育较早可能是其口腔不良习惯发生率高于男童的原因之一;加强相关健康教育,尤其是在替牙期彻底去除这些不良习惯有利于儿童健康成长.%Objective:To investigate the situation of bad oral habits among Chinese children,and provide reasonable and scientific evidence for oral health education,prevention and cure.Methods:Acquire and col ect the data of eight usual bad oral habits and malocclusion by standardized interview questionnaire,and find the relationship between malocclusion and bad oral habits.Results:About 27.72% investigated children have bad oral habits,the occurring proportion of bad oral habits of female is significant higher than men's(P<0.05);the occurring proportion of bad oral habits in teeth-changing period group is both significant higher than temporary teeth period group and permanent teeth period group(P<0.05);incidence rate of malocclusion is 41.43%,and the difference of malocclusion incidence rate between bad oral habits group and negative group is significant.Conclusion:Bad oral habits are usual in children population,and it has certain relationship with

  18. 当前社会对自闭症儿童认知的调查研究%Current Social Investigation of Cognitive on Autistic Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中华; 史亚群

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism( Childhood Autism),also known as autism,is a disease occuring in early childhood,with pervasive developmental disorder,which is caused by gene and brain lesion syndrome. In China,Dr. Tao Guo-tai in Nan-jing brain hospital children’s mental health research center,reported four cases of autism in the professional literature in 1982,and the concept was first introduced in china. With the improvement of economy,society attention to autistic children is increasing. But to what extent,we can make nothing of it. Therefore,the present social cognition of autistic children in Guiyang City is carried out mainly by questionnaire survey,investigation and interviews,hoping to provide some help to the autistic children’s support for society.%儿童自闭症(Childhood Autism),又称儿童孤独症,是一种发生在儿童早期、具有广泛性发育障碍的疾病,是由基因与大脑的病变所引起的综合症。在中国,直到1982年南京脑科医院儿童精神健康研究中心陶国泰医生在专业文献上报道了4例自闭症,首次在我国引入这一概念。随着经济水平的不断提高,社会对自闭症儿童的关注度在日益增高。但是,具体到什么程度,我们是不得而知的。因此,笔者就当前社会对自闭症儿童的认知在贵阳市展开了以问卷调查为主,访谈为辅的调查,希望能为社会对自闭症儿童的支持力度提供一定的帮助。

  19. 白血病患儿家庭充权现状调查%Investigation on family empowerment among parents of children with leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴媚斯; 周芬; 管萍; 张冰花; 陆红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine family empowerment among parents of children with leukemia, and to analyze the relationship between family empowerment, parents' self-efficacy and mental disorders. Methods A total of 125 parents of children with leukemia were investigated by using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) , the General Self-efficacy Scale, the Self-rating Anxiety Scale, and the Self-rating Depression Scale. Results Three items with highest scores belonged to the subscales of 'family empowerment' and 'service system empowerment', while 3 items with lowest scores were in the subscale of 'community/political-empowerment'. The total FES score was correlated with self-efficacy, depression, family income, and length of chemotherapy (P<0. 05, P< 0. 01). Conclusion In order to improve family empowerment of parents of children with leukemia, we should pay attention to community/political aspect, adjust parents negative moods, and improve their self-efficacy.%目的 探讨白血病患儿家庭充权现状及其与家长自我效能、心理不良情绪等影响因素的关系.方法 采用家庭充权量表及其他量表对125名白血病患儿家长进行调查.结果 白血病患儿家庭充权条目平均分最高的3项属于家庭和服务维度,最低的3项属于社区/政策维度.充权总分与照顾者自我效能、抑郁水平、家庭月总收入水平、患儿化疗时间等密切相关(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 提高家庭充权应重视社区/政策层面这一薄弱环节,调整照顾者不良心理情绪,自我效能感也影响其充权水平的提升.

  20. Investigating portable fluorescent microscopy (CyScope® as an alternative rapid diagnostic test for malaria in children and women of child-bearing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa-Figueiredo José

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt and correct diagnosis of malaria is crucial for accurate epidemiological assessment and better case management, and while the gold standard of light microscopy is often available, it requires both expertise and time. Portable fluorescent microscopy using the CyScope® offers a potentially quicker, easier and more field-applicable alternative. This article reports on the strengths, limitations of this methodology and its diagnostic performance in cross-sectional surveys on young children and women of child-bearing age. Methods 552 adults (99% women of child-bearing age and 980 children (99% ≤ 5 years of age from rural and peri-urban regions of Ugandan were examined for malaria using light microscopy (Giemsa-stain, a lateral-flow test (Paracheck-Pf® and the CyScope®. Results from the surveys were used to calculate diagnostic performance (sensitivity and specificity as well as to perform a receiver operating characteristics (ROC analyses, using light microscopy as the gold-standard. Results Fluorescent microscopy (qualitative reads showed reduced specificity (400 parasites/μL blood: sensitivity of 64.2% and specificity of 86.0%. Overall, the diagnostic performance of the CyScope was found inferior to that of Paracheck-Pf®. Discussion Fluorescent microscopy using the CyScope® is certainly a field-applicable and relatively affordable solution for malaria diagnoses especially in areas where electrical supplies may be lacking. While it is unlikely to miss higher parasitaemia, its application in cross-sectional community-based studies leads to many false positives (i.e. small fluorescent bodies of presently unknown origin mistaken as malaria parasites. Without recourse to other technologies, arbitration of these false positives is presently equivocal, which could ultimately lead to over-treatment; something that should be further explored in future investigations if the CyScope® is to be more widely implemented.

  1. 自闭症儿童家庭应对方式和应对策略的调查%Investigation on coping style and coping strategy of parents with autistic children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦秀群; 陈华丽; 彭碧秀

    2010-01-01

    目的 调查自闭症儿童父母的应对方式和应对策略,为提高自闭症儿童父母的身心健康干预提供依据.方法 采用简易应对方式问卷对105名自闭症儿童的父母进行问卷调查.结果 自闭症儿童父母的积极应对方式得分(1.85±0.46)分,低于正常儿童父母(P0.05),白闭症儿童父亲比母亲更多采用积极应对策略.结论 相关部门和医护人员应指导帮助自闭症儿童父母尤其是自闭症儿童母亲更多采取积极应对方式和应对策略.%Objective To investigate the coping style and coping strategy of parents with autistic children, and provide reference basis for parents with autistic children.Methods Parents of 105 children with autism were investigated by adopting the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire.Results Parents of children with autism scored significantly lower than those of healthy children in the domains of positive coping style.But there was no significant difference in positive coping style and negative coping style between mothers and fathers of children with autism.However, fathers of children with autism were more likely to use positive coping strategy.Conclusions Government and medical staff should help and support parents with autistic children, especially mothers, to take positive coping style and coping strategy.

  2. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glioblastoma multiforme - children; Ependymoma - children; Glioma - children; Astrocytoma - children; Medulloblastoma - children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children)

  3. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-related cold thigh abscess as an unusual cause of thigh swelling in infants following BCG vaccine administration: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Shaalan Mohammad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Thigh swelling in an infant can be a symptom of a simple benign condition or a life-threatening condition. We observed a cluster of thigh swelling episodes in infants in which the cause was Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-related cold thigh abscess. We report this unusual case series to raise awareness about this diagnosis. Case presentations We performed a retrospective review of five infants (four boys and one girl who presented with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-related left thigh abscess. The swelling was noticed by the parents at a mean period of three months prior to presentation. The ages at presentation were five, five, eight and nine months for the boys, and six months for the girl. All of the patients were healthy Saudi infants, and received the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine at birth. Clinically, all of the patients were well and did not demonstrate signs of systemic infection. All patients underwent needle aspiration, with subsequent incision and drainage in four of the five cases. The cultures obtained from the abscess fluids were the key to establishing the diagnosis. Only three patients (60% received antituberculosis drugs. Wound healing lasted for a mean period of approximately seven months. Two-year follow-up was unremarkable for all of our patients. Conclusions Technical errors continue to be significant in the development of vaccine-related complications. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-related cold thigh abscess is an extremely rare entity.

  4. A Replication-Limited Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccine against Tuberculosis Designed for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Persons Is Safer and More Efficacious than BCG▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Tullius, Michael V.; Harth, Günter; Masleša-Galić, Saša; Dillon, Barbara J.; Horwitz, Marcus A.

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death in AIDS patients, yet the current tuberculosis vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), is contraindicated for immunocompromised individuals, including human immunodeficiency virus-positive persons, because it can cause disseminated disease; moreover, its efficacy is suboptimal. To address these problems, we have engineered BCG mutants that grow normally in vitro in the presence of a supplement, are preloadable with supplement to ...

  5. INTRAVESICULAR IMMUNOTHERAPY WITH BCG VACCINE AND INTERFERON-αα2B FOR NON-INVASIVE CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY BLADDER: RESULTS OF PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Minich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both bacillus Calmette-Gue’rin (BCG and interferon-alpha (IFN-α are active against urinary bladder cancer. In this studywe evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of combined intravesical BCG plus IFN-α for treating non-invasive bladder cancer.Subjects and methods: A total of 149 patients (mean age 63.2 years were enrolled for the study. The inclusion criteria were histologically verifiednon-invasive transitional cell carcinoma with intermediate and high risks of recurrence and progression. After transurethral tumor resection, all thepatients were randomized in three groups. Group 1 (n=60 was treated with a 6-week course of BCG, 125 mg, starting 14 to 21 days after TUR, Group2 (n=60 patients received 6-week instillations of BCG, 125 mg, plus IFN-α, 6 million units, Group 3 patients (n = 29 had 4-month courses ofintravesical IFN-α, 6 million units, twice daily during 3 consecutive days. A response was assessed by cystoscopy every 3 months after treatment.Results: A median follow-up of 30.9 months revealed recurrences in 26 (43.3% patients in the BCG group, 8 (13.3% patients in the BCG + IFN-αgroup and 18 (62.1% patients in the IFN-α group. Progression to muscle invasion occurred in 12% and 7% in Groups 1 and 3, respectively, withno progression in Group 2 patients. Three-year relapse-free survival was higher in the BCG+IFN group (78.5% versus 62.6 and 40.2% in theBCG and IFN-α groups, respectively. There was no significant difference between the BCG groups in relapse-free survival. Monotherapy withIFN-α showed a significantly lower response rate than did BCG therapies (p = 0.007. Adverse reactions were observed in 25, 116, and 6.9% ofpatients from Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Toxicity-related withdrawal and treatment delay were similar in both BCG groups. Comparison ofthe rate of adverse reactions revealed a significant difference between the BCG + IFN-α and BCG groups (p = 0.025. The respective rates ofmoderate-to-severe adverse reactions caused by treatment were 6.7 and 21.7% in the BCG+IFN-α and BCG groups, respectively (p = 0.013.Conclusions: Full-dose intravesical BCG plus IFN-α appears to be much effective than BCG and IFN-α monotherapies despite that there isno significant difference in this study. IFN-α monotherapy showed the lowest complication rate but a lower response rate than those withBCG therapies (p = 0.007. The co-administration of BCG and IFN-α displayed a significantly less complication rate and severe adversereactions (p = 0.025 and p = 0.013, respectively. Longer follow-up is required to validate these findings. 

  6. Humoral Immune Responses of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vaccination and Experimental Challenge with M. bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring serum antibody production kinetics to multiple mycobacterial antigens can be useful as a diagnostic tool for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection as well as for the characterization of disease progression and efficacy of intervention strategies in several species. In the presen...

  7. Fecal volatile organic compound profiles from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as indicators of Mycobacterium bovis exposure or Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) serve as a reservoir for bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and can be a source of infection in cattle. Vaccination with M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is being considered for management of bovine tuberculosis in deer. Presently, no...

  8. The Ag85B protein of the BCG vaccine facilitates macrophage uptake but is dispensable for protection against aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Kelly A; Counoupas, Claudio; Leotta, Lisa; Eto, Carolina; Bitter, Wilbert; Winter, Nathalie; Triccas, James A

    2016-05-17

    Defining the function and protective capacity of mycobacterial antigens is crucial for progression of tuberculosis (TB) vaccine candidates to clinical trials. The Ag85B protein is expressed by all pathogenic mycobacteria and is a component of multiple TB vaccines under evaluation in humans. In this report we examined the role of the BCG Ag85B protein in host cell interaction and vaccine-induced protection against virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Ag85B was required for macrophage infection in vitro, as BCG deficient in Ag85B expression (BCG:(Δ85B)) was less able to infect RAW 264.7 macrophages compared to parental BCG, while an Ag85B-overexpressing BCG strain (BCG:(oex85B)) demonstrated improved uptake. A similar pattern was observed in vivo after intradermal delivery to mice, with significantly less BCG:(Δ85B) present in CD64(hi)CD11b(hi) macrophages compared to BCG or BCG:(oex85B). After vaccination of mice with BCG:(Δ85B) or parental BCG and subsequent aerosol M. tuberculosis challenge, similar numbers of activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were detected in the lungs of infected mice for both groups, suggesting the reduced macrophage uptake observed by BCG:(Δ85B) did not alter host immunity. Further, vaccination with both BCG:(Δ85B) and parental BCG resulted in a comparable reduction in pulmonary M. tuberculosis load. These data reveal an unappreciated role for Ag85B in the interaction of mycobacteria with host cells and indicates that single protective antigens are dispensable for protective immunity induced by BCG. PMID:27060378

  9. Investigation and analysis on refraction of preschool children in Jiaxing city%嘉兴市学龄前儿童屈光状态调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙琪; 周巧云; 濮清岚; 王小君; 王薇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current situation of refraction in preschool children from urban areas of Jiaxing city,and provide a basis for prevention and treatment of ametropia.Methods A total of 10138 preschool children aged 3-6 years old were selected from 36 kindergartens in Jiaxing city by random cluster sampling method.Suresight hand-held refractometer (WelchA1lyn companies,USA) was used for examination of refraction by professional optometrists operation.Results Among those,1201 respondents were ametropia children (1201/10 138,11.85%).By age (that age ametropia number/total number of the ages):3-4 years old,259 (259/2 424,10.68%); 4-<5,288 (288/2 974=9.68%); 5-<6 236 (236/2 938,8.03%); 6-<7,418 (418/1 802=23.2%).Difference was statistically significant (x2=279.66,P <0.01).Ametropia main status was (ametropia classification/the total number of ametropia):simple hyperopia,403 (403/1 201,33.56%),compound hyperopic astigmatism,342 (342/1 201=28.48%),Mixed astigmatism,309 (309/1 201,25.73%).By gender (the number of gender ametropia/the total number of gender):boys,646 (646/5 542,11.66%); girls,555 (555/ 4 596,12.08%),girls screening abnormal rate was slightly higher than the boys,there was no statistically significant difference (x=0.423,P >0.05).According to the region (the number of regional ametropia/a total number of the region):urban children,758 (758/5 213,14.54%); rural children 443 (443/ 4 925,8.99%),urban and rural children's refractive screening result difference was statistically significant (x2=74.579,P <0.01).Conclusions Preschoolers refraction is one of the important eye care indexes for children,understand each age and refractive status can find existing problems,and for early intervention.%目的 了解嘉兴市学龄前儿童屈光状态及特点,为防治屈光不正提供依据.方法 用随机整群抽样的方法于2013年2~6月在嘉兴市36家幼儿园10138名3~6周岁学龄前儿童,由专职验光

  10. Sleep problems and daily functioning in children with ADHD: An investigation of the role of impairment, ADHD presentations, and psychiatric comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Virring; Lambek, Rikke; Jennum, Poul; Møller, Lene Ruge; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Little systematic information is available regarding how sleep problems influence daytime functioning in children with ADHD, as the role of ADHD presentations and comorbidity is unclear. METHOD: In total, 397 children were assessed with the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, the...... problem profile, but having a comorbid internalizing or autistic disorder lead to higher sleep problem score. CONCLUSION: Sleep problems and impaired daily functioning were more common in children with ADHD, but the overall association between sleep problems and impaired daily functioning was similar in...... Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale, and the ADHD Rating Scale. RESULTS: We found a moderate, positive correlation between sleep problems and impaired functioning in both children with ADHD and in typically developed children. ADHD presentations did not differ significantly with respect to sleep...

  11. Investigation into the relationship between sleep problems, anxiety and challenging behaviour in children and young people with learning disabilities and/or autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rzepecka, Halina

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Children with a learning disability (LD) and/or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are known to suffer from significantly more sleep problems, anxiety and challenging behaviour (CB) than typically developing children, yet little is known about the relationships between these factors in the child LD/ASD population. Aims and Hypotheses: The aim of the current study was to examine the relationships between sleep problems, anxiety and CB in children with LD and/or ASD. It was hypothe...

  12. Investigating the domestication of convergent mobile media and mobile internet by children and teens: preliminary issues and empirical findings on opportunities and risks

    OpenAIRE

    Scifo, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The paper, starting with some preliminary considerations about the new mobile media ecology, in which today's children live, and with some data about the diffusion of mobile internet and smartphones among children, aims to focus on three main points. I first ponder the new opportunities and new risks arising for children from the diffusion of such technologies, and the related usage practices, looking at some preliminary empirical findings, coming from qualitative researches I conducted with ...

  13. Protect your child against tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gauci, Charmaine; Pace, David; Malta. Health Promotion & Disease Prevention Directorate; Malta. Advisory committee on immunisation policy Malta; Malta. Sptar Mater Dei; Malta. Primary Health Directorate

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infection that can affect the lungs, brain, bones, joints and lymph glands and can result in serious disability or even death. The bacteria that cause TB are spread through close contact such as from coughing or sneezing. Babies and children less than 5 years old can be protected against tuberculosis with the Bacille-Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccine.

  14. Doit-on encore recommander le vaccin BCG?

    OpenAIRE

    Collette, Georges; Bourhaba, Maryam; Moutschen, Michel

    2006-01-01

    The BCG vaccine has demonstrated its efficacy to protect young children from severe extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis. Nevertheless, the immunity induced by the vaccine disappears in adults and cannot be boosted by readministration of BCG. Adverse effects of BCG are rare, but potentially dangerous (i.e. disseminated vaccinal infections) and they justify the fact that BCG should not be administered anymore in Western European countries where the incidence of pediatric tuberculous meningitis...

  15. Influence of bovine lactoferrin on expression of presentation molecules on BCG-infected bone marrow derived macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Shen-An; Kruzel, Marian L.; Actor, Jeffrey K.

    2008-01-01

    The current vaccine for tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). BCG has proven to be effective in children, however, efficacy wanes in adulthood. Lactoferrin, a natural protein with immunomodulatory properties, is a potential adjuvant candidate to enhance efficacy of BCG. These studies define bovine lactoferrin as an enhancer of the BCG vaccine, functioning in part by modulating macrophage ab...

  16. Investigation on lactose intolerance in 600 children in Wuxi city%无锡市600例儿童乳糖不耐受情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琼; 王叶红; 徐惠

    2012-01-01

    目的:调查不同年龄腹泻儿童乳糖不耐受的发生情况.方法:采用尿半乳糖测定试剂盒对600例儿童进行乳糖不耐受检测.结果:腹泻小儿乳糖不耐受的发生率与健康小儿差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),随年龄的增长儿童乳糖不耐受的发生率呈下降趋势.在腹泻儿童中,0~1岁儿童乳糖不耐受的发生率均高于1~3、4~6及7~12岁儿童,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:腹泻小儿易出现继发性乳糖不耐受,特别是腹泻婴儿.%Objective: To survey the occurrence of lactose intolerance in children with diarrhea at different age groups. Methods: Urine galactose test kit was used to detect lactose intolerance in 600 children. Results < There was statistically significant difference in the incidence of lactose intolerance between the children with diarrhea and healthy children ( P < 0.01) , the incidence of lactose intolerance in children showed a decreasing trend with age. Among the children with diarrhea, the incidence of lactose intolerance in 0 - 1 - year - old children was statistically significantly higher than those in 1 - 3 - year - old children, 4 - 6 - year - old children, and 7 - 12 - year - old children, there was statistically significant difference (P <0.01) . Conclusion: Secondary lactose intolerance is easily to occur in children with diarrhea, especially in infants with diarrhea.

  17. The Place of Creativity in Pakistani Primary Education System: An Investigation into the Factors Enhancing and Inhibiting Primary School Children's Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Robina

    2011-01-01

    The study presented in this book provides a baseline analysis of the extent to which the primary education system in Pakistan is capable of enhancing or inhibiting children's creativity. It involved 1008 primary schools who participated in a survey, 154 children who took the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, and classroom observation in 16…

  18. The Use of Behavioral Skills Training and in-Situ Training to Teach Children to Solicit Help when Lost: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan-Skadden, Jennifer; Wilder, David A.; Sparling, Jessica; Severtson, Erica; Donaldson, Jeanne; Postma, Nicki; Beavers, Gracie; Neidert, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral skills training (BST) was combined with in-situ training to teach young children to solicit help when they become lost from a caregiver at a store. Three children were taught to approach a cashier, tell the cashier their name, and inform the cashier that they are lost. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate…

  19. Child, Caregiver, and Family Characteristics Associated with Emergency Department Use by Children Who Remain at Home after a Child Protective Services Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Leslie, Laurel K.; Zhang, Jinjin; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine emergency department (ED) use among children involved with child protective services (CPS) in the US but who remain at home, and to determine if ED use is related to child, caregiver and family characteristics as well as receipt of CPS services. Method: We analyzed data on 4,001 children in the National Survey of Child and…

  20. Children's Theories of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…

  1. The use of MR imaging and spectroscopy of the brain in children investigated for developmental delay: What is the most appropriate imaging strategy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, Paul D. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Batty, Ruth; Raghavan, Ashok; Connolly, Daniel J.A. [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Warren, Daniel; Hart, Anthony [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sharrard, Mark [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Paediatrics, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Mordekar, Santosh R. [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Developmental delay is a common problem in paediatric practice and many children with developmental delay are referred for MR imaging. Our study was performed as part of a continuing audit process to optimise our MR protocol and case selection. We performed MR imaging and spectroscopy protocol on 157 children with developmental delay. We analysed the effect of these interventions by looking at the overall detection rate of relevant pathology and in particular subgroups of the children. 71% of the children had normal MR imaging, 10% had non-specific findings and 19% had specific abnormalities on MR imaging. The overall risk of having a specific structural abnormality with isolated developmental was 7.5% but if other neurological symptoms/signs were present the risk was 28%. Two children had abnormal spectroscopic findings, one with tuberous sclerosis and the other with absent brain creatine. Case selection for MR imaging is important in children with developmental delay. The best strategies for selecting children for MR are either; not performing MR with developmental delay in one domain only or performing MR with developmental delay in three or four domains or if there are other neurological features. (orig.)

  2. Internal State Language in the Storybook Narratives of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder: Investigating Relations to Theory of Mind Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siller, Michael; Swanson, Meghan R; Serlin, Gayle; George, Ann

    2014-05-01

    The current study examines narratives elicited using a wordless picture book, focusing on language used to describe the characters' thoughts and emotions (i.e., internal state language, ISL). The sample includes 21 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and 24 typically developing controls, matched on children's gender, IQ, as well as receptive and expressive vocabulary. This research had three major findings. First, despite equivalent performance on standardized language assessments, the volume of children's narratives (i.e., the number of utterances and words, the range of unique verbs and adjectives) was lower in children with ASD than in typically developing controls. Second, after controlling for narrative volume, the narratives of children with ASD were less likely to reference the characters' emotions than was the case for typically developing controls. Finally, our results revealed a specific association between children's use of emotion terms and their performance on a battery of experimental tasks evaluating children's Theory of Mind abilities. Implications for our understanding of narrative deficits in ASD as well as interventions that use narrative as a context for improving social comprehension are discussed. PMID:24748899

  3. The use of MR imaging and spectroscopy of the brain in children investigated for developmental delay: What is the most appropriate imaging strategy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developmental delay is a common problem in paediatric practice and many children with developmental delay are referred for MR imaging. Our study was performed as part of a continuing audit process to optimise our MR protocol and case selection. We performed MR imaging and spectroscopy protocol on 157 children with developmental delay. We analysed the effect of these interventions by looking at the overall detection rate of relevant pathology and in particular subgroups of the children. 71% of the children had normal MR imaging, 10% had non-specific findings and 19% had specific abnormalities on MR imaging. The overall risk of having a specific structural abnormality with isolated developmental was 7.5% but if other neurological symptoms/signs were present the risk was 28%. Two children had abnormal spectroscopic findings, one with tuberous sclerosis and the other with absent brain creatine. Case selection for MR imaging is important in children with developmental delay. The best strategies for selecting children for MR are either; not performing MR with developmental delay in one domain only or performing MR with developmental delay in three or four domains or if there are other neurological features. (orig.)

  4. Investigation and analysis on cognition of mothers to somatotype of children and nutritional status of children%母亲对儿童体形认知与营养状况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任建立; 德艳艳; 刘明清; 于彩霞; 张丽萍; 任静华

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the current situation of cognition of mothers to somatotype of their children and the difference of nutritional status of children, provide a basis for making strategies to promote health of children. Methods: A uniform measuring method was used to measure the body weight and body height of 259 children aged 5 ~ 6 years old from two kindergartens, their nutritional status was e-valuated; meanwhile, the cognitive situations of their mothers to somatotype of children were surveyed by a questionnaire, the coincidence degree of cognition of mothers to somatotype of their children and nutritional status of the population was compared. Results: The detection rates of marasmus and overweight/obesity among the children were 3. 86% and 6. 18% , respectively. There was no significant difference in nutritional status between boys and girls (x2= 1. 806, P > 0. 05) . The total coincidence rate of cognition of mothers to somatotype of their children and screening result of physical examination was 64. 48% , the coincidence degree was not ideal (u =4. 36, P 0.05);母亲对儿童体形认知与体格筛查结果比较总符合率64.48%,一致程度不够理想(u=4.36,P<0.01).结论:沧州市城区5~6岁集体儿童生长发育总体水平良好,但仍存在营养不良和营养过剩舣重问题;母亲对儿童体形的评价存在认知偏差;当前普及科学育儿知识是一项紧迫的、长期的任务.

  5. Investigating Clinical and Radiographical Success Rate of Dental Procedures Performed On Children under General Anesthesia in a Surgical Clinic in Yazd between 2006- 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z bahrololoomi

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Regarding failure rate of amalgam and composite restorations, a definitive treatment plan consisting of SSC, pulp therapy and / or extraction may be preferred for oral rehabilitation of the children under GA.

  6. An Initial Investigation of Baseline Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia as a Moderator of Treatment Outcome for Young Children Born Premature with Externalizing Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Graziano, Paulo A.; JACCARD, James; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; VOHR, BETTY R.; Lester, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the moderating effect of baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) on Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), a behavioral parent-training intervention, for young children born premature. In this pilot randomized controlled trial, 28 young children (mean age of 37.79 months), who were born < 37 weeks gestation and presented with elevated externalizing behavior problems, were randomly assigned to an immediate treatment or waitlist control group. R...

  7. Internal State Language in the Storybook Narratives of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder: Investigating Relations to Theory of Mind Abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Siller, Michael; Swanson, Meghan R.; Serlin, Gayle; George, Ann

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines narratives elicited using a wordless picture book, focusing on language used to describe the characters’ thoughts and emotions (i.e., internal state language, ISL). The sample includes 21 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and 24 typically developing controls, matched on children's gender, IQ, as well as receptive and expressive vocabulary. This research had three major findings. First, despite equivalent performance on standardized language assessments, t...

  8. The Persian version of phonological test of diagnostic evaluation articulation and phonology for Persian speaking children and investigating its validity and reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Talieh Zarifian; Yahya Modarresi; Laya Gholami Tehrani; Mehdi Dastjerdi Kazemi; Mahyar Salavati

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Speech and language pathologists (SLP) often refer to phonological data as part of their assessment protocols in evaluating the communication skills of children. The aim of this study was to develop the Persian version of the phonological test in evaluating and diagnosing communication skills in Persian speaking children and to evaluate its validity and reliability.Methods: The Persian phonological test (PPT) was conducted on 387 monolingual Persian speaking boys and girls...

  9. Children Engaged i n Active Sports ( 8 - 17 Years ) Who Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions That Exh i bitions Investigation b y Several Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Özer MERDAN

    2014-01-01

    This research in the interpersonal relationships of children (8 - 17 years) engaged in active sports exhibitions examining the distortions in terms of several variables, it aims to reveal the reflection of sport. It is a descriptive study. The research samp le was active in the province of Antalya 132 children who attend sports clubs constitute. Research for the group 'Hamamcı' and 'Büyüköztürk' developed by "Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Sca...

  10. An Investigation into the Peer Relationships of the Preschool Hearing-impaired Children Learning in Regular Classes%学龄前随班就读听障儿童同伴关系现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘里里; 杜巧新; 卢晓月; 杨帆; 王段霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the peer relationships of preschool hearing-impaired children learning in regular classes and to analyze their social adaptability. Methods Peer nomination instrument was used to assess the types of social interaction for 18 hearing-impaired children(4 children at age 4,7 children at age 5 and 7 children at age 6)at the beginning, middle and end of the term. Results In all of the three tests, the “general” type is the most as compared to other types of social interaction. The social interaction types of hearing-impaired children changed over time. The peer relationships between the hearing-impaired children in the same class can affect their acceptance by others.The interaction behavior, compliance with rules, authoritative effects will directly influence the acceptance of hearing-impaired children by their classmates. Conclusion From the perspective of peer relationships, most preschool hearing-impaired children learning in regular classes can be accepted by their classmates.%目的了解学龄前随班就读听障儿童在班级中的同伴关系,分析其社会适应状况。方法采用同伴提名法,对18名随班就读听障儿童(小班4名,中班7名,大班7名)在学期初、学期中、学期末进行3次社会交往类型评估。结果3次评估中,听障儿童最多的社会交往类型均为“一般型”,其他交往类型较少;听障儿童的社会交往类型随时间推移呈现一定的变化。班级中听障儿童群体的存在影响了其整体被接纳的程度。“交往技能”的高低、是否遵守“规则规范”、“权威影响”等因素直接影响听障儿童是否被班级同伴所接纳。结论从同伴关系的角度来看,学龄前随班就读听障儿童基本能被班级其他成员接纳。

  11. Infants and children with cow milk allergy/intolerance. Investigation of the uptake of cow milk protein and activation of the complement system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, S; Høst, A; Teisner, B;

    1990-01-01

    Seventeen children with challenge-verified cow milk allergy/intolerance (CMAI), age 3-78 months, median 12 months, were re-challenged with cow milk in increasing doses. All subjects developed symptoms, such as bronchospasm, rhinitis, diarrhoea, erythema or eczema. Blood samples were taken before...... and up to 24 h after the start of the challenge. The cow milk protein beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) was determined in serum with ELISA (lower detection limit 0.3 micrograms/l). BLG was detectable in five children at low levels (below 2 micrograms/l). Analysis of the size distribution of the BLG by size...

  12. 2010年吉林市学龄前儿童营养状况调查%Investigation on nutritional status of preschool children in Jilin city in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凤祥; 张艳杰

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解吉林市3~6岁儿童的营养状况及不良的饮食习惯,为制定干预措施提供依据.方法:选取吉林市不同城区内7所幼儿园3~6岁儿童进行饮食行为调查,调查均通过抚养人同意,采用自拟调查问卷;根据儿童体格检查结果,按照Kaup指数标准对儿童的营养状况进行评价.结果:各年龄段的儿童均存在一定比例的营养不良和超重肥胖;不同营养状态的儿童均有挑食、偏食的习惯,女童挑食偏食情况比男童严重(P<0.01);而且吃零食对正餐也造成一定程度的影响,二者之间存在统计学差异(P<0.01).结论:为促进吉林市学龄前儿童的健康成长,培养儿童良好的饮食行为习惯是改善儿童营养状况的根本性措施.%Objective: To understand the nutritional status and dietary habit of children aged 3 ~6 years old in Jilin city, provide reference for making interventional measures. Methods: The children aged 3-6 years old were selected from seven kindergartens of different districts in Jilin city for dietary behavior investigation which was agreed by their guardians, a self - designed questionnaire was used in the study; then the nutritional status of the children were evaluated according to the result of physical examination and Kaup index. Results: There was a certain percentages of children in all age groups with malnutrition and overweight/ obesity; all the children had the habits of monophagia and particular about their food, especially the girls (P <0. 01) ; eating snacks had a certain impact on the intake of dinner, there was significant difference (P <0. 01) . Conclusion: In order to promote healthy growth of preschool children in Jilin city, developing good dietary behaviors and habits of children is a fundamental measure to improve the nutritional status of children.

  13. 低龄儿童厌学问题的实证性调查及对策分析%Empirical Investigation and Countermeasure Analysis for Young Children with Disgusted with School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾红; 黄文庚; 黎光明; 刘海英

    2013-01-01

    厌学是影响低龄儿童心理发展与教育的重要因素。为了找出影响低龄儿童厌学的根源,对南昌市三所中小学儿童进行问卷调查,共发出调查问卷400份,回收389份,有效问卷353份,平均年龄10.2岁。调查表明,影响低龄儿童厌学的根源性因素包括儿童自身因素、父母教养方式、教师因素和社会因素等方面。在分析这些影响因素的基础上,提出了帮助低龄儿童克服厌学情绪的对策,包括家长要勇于承认自己教育上的失误、教师积极配合家长做好学生工作、学校培养学生的自尊心和自信心、辅导学生的人际关系和为低龄儿童创造良好的社会环境等。%learning is an important factor affecting young children's psychological development and education. In order to find out the effect of root of young children to school, 400 children from three schools in Nanchang City were asked to conduct a questionnaire survey and only 389 were recovered. There were 353 effective questionnaires. Average age of these children is 10.2 years old. Investigation showed that fundamental factors for young children with disgusted with school included self factors of children, parenting style, teachers and social factors and so on. Based on the analysis of these factors, the paper put forward some countermeasures to help young children overcome weariness, including that parents must have the courage to admit their mistakes, the teacher education actively cooperate with the parents to student work, schools to cultivate student's interpersonal relationship counseling students self-esteem and self-confidence, and to create a good social environment for young children and so on.

  14. Investigation of psychological state and its influencing factors in children with epilepsy%癫癎儿童心理状态及影响因素的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金华; 周辉; 徐明; 陆生丽; 洪菲

    2015-01-01

    目的:评估癫癎儿童的心理状态,分析影响癫癎儿童心理状态的可能因素。方法采用儿少心理健康量表(MHS-CA)对113例癫癎儿童和114例正常儿童进行心理状态评定及比较。癫癎组儿童填写患儿一般情况和癫癎病情及治疗情况调查表。正常对照组儿童填写儿童一般情况调查表。分析影响癫癎儿童心理状态的可能因素。结果癫癎儿童在认知、思维、情绪、意志行为、个性特征上的心理健康状态均低于对照组儿童,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。多因素logistic回归分析显示家庭教育方式、家庭关系、癫癎发作频率、癫癎发作持续时间、近6个月EEG癎样放电、抗癫癎药物使用种数为影响癫癎儿童心理状态的危险因素。结论癫癎儿童较正常儿童存在更广泛的心理健康问题。家庭生活环境差、癫癎控制不佳及多种抗癫癎药物应用是影响癫癎儿童心理状态的危险因素;改善家庭生活环境,尽量控制癫癎发作及使用单药治疗有助于改善癫癎患儿心理状态。%Objective To evaluate the psychological state of children with epilepsy and analyze its inlfuencing factors. Methods The Mental Health Scale for Child and Adolescent was used to survey 113 children with epilepsy and 114 normal children to evaluate and compare their psychological state. Questionnaires were used to investigate the general status of all subjects and the disease condition and treatment of children with epilepsy. The possible inlfuencing factors for the psychological state of children with epilepsy were analyzed. Results The mental health status of children with epilepsy was poorer than that of normal children in cognition, thinking, emotion, will-behavior, and personality traits (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that family education, family relations, seizure frequency, seizure duration, EEG epileptiform discharges in the last six

  15. [Commemorative lecture of receiving Imamura Memorial Prize. Studies on prevention and treatment of childhood tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, I

    1999-11-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of 394 patients who were treated for active tuberculosis (TB) at our hospital from 1976 to 1997. We had started early BCG vaccination campaign in Osaka Prefecture from 1995 and the coverage of BCG vaccination in infants rose up to about 90%. From that experience, we studied the current situations and measures on prevention and treatment of childhood tuberculosis. Pulmonary TB in children is successfully treated with 6-month standard short-course chemotherapy using isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide daily for 2 months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin daily for 4 months. Prognosis of childhood tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is poor, early diagnosis and prevention of TBM is important. In order to promote TB control and eliminate childhood TB, especially in infants, the following is necessary; 1) early detection and treatment of adult TB patients, source of infection, 2) prompt and appropriate contact examination and chemoprophylaxis, 3) BCG vaccination during early infancy, 4) protection from MDR-TB are most important. PMID:10599214

  16. Sleeping Beauty and the Story of the Bacille Calmette-Guérin Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Helen A

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis BCG is the only available vaccine for protection against tuberculosis (TB). While BCG protects children from severe disease, it has little impact on pulmonary disease in adults. A recombinant BCG vaccine BCG ΔureC::hly (strain VPM1002) is in advanced clinical trials and shows promise for improved vaccine safety but little change in efficacy in animal models. A second-generation recombinant BCG vaccine with an additional deletion of the nuoG gene (BCG ΔureC::hly ΔnuoG) shows improved efficacy in a mouse model compared to that of VPM1002. BCG was first used in humans in 1921 and, like Sleeping Beauty pricked by the spinning wheel, we have slept for 100 years, showing a reluctance to invest in clinical development or in biomanufacturing capacity for TB vaccines. The advance of recombinant BCGs should awaken us from our sleep and call us to invest in new-generation TB vaccines and to protect the biomanufacture of our current BCG vaccine. PMID:27578760

  17. BCG LYMPHADENITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization (WHO has recommended Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG vaccination as a part of the global expanded program for immunization. Although the BCG vaccine is usually a safe vaccine, a number of complications with lymphadenitis being the most common complication, can occur. AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical presentation and the histomorphological features of BCG adenitis in children. RESULTS: A total of 60 patients with BCG lymphadenitis presented between June 2010 and December 2013. The most common age of presentation was 3 months. In the majority (50 of the cases, the lymphadenitis involved ipsilateral left axillary nodes. Other sites of involvement included the left supraclavicular lymph nodes in 5 (8.3% patients, and both the left axillary and supraclavicular lymph nodes were involved in 5 cases (8.3%. All the patients had history of BCG vaccination prior to the onset of lymphadenitis. CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of BCG lymphadenitis is clinical. Parental education and awareness among paramedical personnel, including general practitioners, is essential so that prompt recognition and management of BCG adenitis can be ensured.

  18. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE DOMAN-DELACATO THEORY OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGY AS IT APPLIES TO TRAINABLE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KERSHNER, JOHN R.

    THIS STUDY USED TWO INTACT CLASSES OF PUBLIC SCHOOL TRAINABLE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN TO STUDY THE EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES DERIVED FROM THE DOMAN-DELACATO THEORY OF PHYSICAL AND INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT. THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP CONSISTED OF SEVEN MALES AND SIX FEMALES FROM AGE 8 TO 18 AND THE CONTROL GROUP CONSISTED OF 10 MALES AND SIX…

  19. Early Learning with Digital Media: A Naturalistic, Ethnographic Investigation of Children's Engagement with and Learning from Television and Digital Technology in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Therese E.

    2012-01-01

    Digital media is a broad concept that includes everything from movies to video games to websites. These media are cultural norms for young people, becoming part of their identity as they use and create content. In this dissertation I discuss the observed diversity of interactions that children from infancy through kindergarten have with digital…

  20. An Investigation of the Impact of Small Group Direct Vocabulary Instruction on the Vocabulary Development of Kindergarten Children Living in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Katie A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which tri-weekly evidence-based vocabulary lessons implemented throughout the regular school day would increase kindergarten students' expressive and receptive vocabulary development, thus decreasing the vocabulary gap exhibited between low-income children and their more advantaged peers…

  1. Evaluation of the Revised Algorithm of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in the Diagnostic Investigation of High-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp-Becker, Inge; Ghahreman, Mardjan; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Peters, Mira; Remschmidt, Helmut; Becker, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) is a semi-structured, standardized assessment designed for use in diagnostic evaluation of individuals with suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The ADOS has been effective in categorizing children who definitely have autism or not, but has lower specificity and sometimes sensitivity for…

  2. A preliminary investigation into the effectiveness of a group-delivered sleep management intervention for parents of children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuttard, Lucy; Beresford, Bryony; Clarke, Sue; Beecham, Jeni; Curtis, Julie

    2015-12-01

    Sleep problems are more prevalent and severe among children with intellectual disabilities and autism compared to typically developing children. Training parents in behavioural approaches to manage sleep problems is advocated. However, delivering such interventions via groups is novel. This article reports the findings from a preliminary evaluation of a group-delivered intervention routinely delivered by a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service Learning Disability team in England. For this purpose, parents (n = 23) of children with intellectual disabilities were recruited. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, Parents' Sense of Competence Scale and parent-set goals captured outcomes at pre-intervention, post-intervention and 3- and 6-month follow-up. Intervention delivery costs were collected. Take-up was high (86%), and no parent dropped out. Statistically significant improvements in night wakings, parent-set goals and parents' sense of efficacy were observed. The estimated mean cost of delivering each intervention was British (GBP) £1570. Findings suggest the intervention is a low-cost, acceptable service warranting further evaluation. PMID:25792540

  3. A Preliminary Investigation of the Prevalence of Corporal Punishment of Children and Selected Co-occurring Behaviours in Households on New Providence, The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adderley, Latanya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the link between violence in homes, focusing on corporal punishment of children as a means of discipline, and other behaviours (including sexual abuse, illegal drug use, domestic violence, hitting of pets which may be a cause for concern. This paper reports the results of a survey of 933 people and 12 case studies. Violence, physical or domestic, occurred in 62% of survey participants’ homes. The survey indicated that in respondents’ homes many children were physically hurt as a means of discipline. Children were spanked in 77% of homes with children, pets were hit in 25% of homes with pets, and domestic violence was found in 23% of homes. These findings suggest that those who use violence in their homes may not understand the wider and longer-term consequences of their actions for both victims and society. Case study participants seemed to view only severe physical violence as abuse. They also appeared reluctant to report abuse to the authorities which can hamper the efforts to curb violence in homes.

  4. Preliminary Investigation Examining the Validity of the Compliance Test and a Brief Behavioral Observation Measure for Identifying Children with Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filcheck, Holly A.; Berry, Traci. A.; McNeil, Cheryl B.

    2004-01-01

    The Compliance Test and classroom behavioral observations have been used by clinicians and researchers to determine the level of disruptive behavior exhibited by children. However, little data have been collected with regard to their validity. In the current study, the Compliance Test and a brief behavioral observation procedure (Revised Edition…

  5. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial to investigate whether home access to electronic games decreases children's physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piek Jan P

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children are reported to have insufficient physical activity (PA placing them at greater risk of poor health outcomes. Participating in sedentary activities such as playing electronic games is widely believed to contribute to less PA. However there is no experimental evidence that playing electronic games reduces PA. There is also no evidence regarding the effect of different types of electronic games (traditional sedentary electronic games versus new active input electronic games on PA. Further, there is a poor understanding about how characteristics of children may moderate the impact of electronic game access on PA and about what leisure activities are displaced when children play electronic games. Given that many children play electronic games, a better understanding of the effect of electronic game use on PA is critical to inform child health policy and intervention. Methods This randomised and controlled trial will examine whether PA is decreased by access to electronic games and whether any effect is dependent on the type of game input or the child's characteristics. Children aged 10–12 years (N = 72, 36 females will be recruited and randomised to a balanced ordering of 'no electronic games', 'traditional' electronic games and 'active' electronic games. Each child will participate in each condition for 8 weeks, and be assessed prior to participation and at the end of each condition. The primary outcome is PA, assessed by Actical accelerometers worn for 7 days on the wrist and hip. Energy expenditure will be assessed by the doubly labelled water technique and motor coordination, adiposity, self-confidence, attitudes to technology and PA and leisure activities will also be assessed. A sample of 72 will provide a power of > 0.9 for detecting a 15 mins difference in PA (sd = 30 mins. Discussion This is the first such trial and will provide critical information to understand whether access to electronic games affects

  6. Whole Blood Interferon-γ Release Assay Is Insufficient for the Diagnosis of Sputum Smear Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Heejin; Shin, Jung Ar; Kim, Hyung Jung; Ahn, Chul Min; CHANG, YOON SOO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the value of an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) for the diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among sputum smear negative PTB suspects in an environment with intermediate burden of PTB and high Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination rate. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed IGRA, medical records, chest PA and CT scan of PTB suspects seen at Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea from Oct. 2007 to Apr. 2013. "Active PTB" was diagnosed wh...

  7. In vitro culture medium influences the vaccine efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis BCG

    OpenAIRE

    Venkataswamy, Manjunatha M.; Goldberg, Michael F.; Baena, Andres; Chan, John; Jacobs, William R.; Porcelli, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    The varied rates of protection induced by Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine against tuberculosis has been attributed to many factors such as genetic variability among BCG strains, rapid clearance of BCG in some populations, and different levels of previous exposure of vaccinated populations to environmental mycobacteria. However, the methods and conditions employed to prepare this vaccine for human usage by various manufacturers have not been investigated as potential factors contributing to th...

  8. Isolation and identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from pediatric patient having Pott′s disease: Case report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dnyaneshwari P. Ghadage

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old young male child was investigated for spinal tuberculosis (TB and Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from the sample. In another case, a 2-year-old male patient with Potts spine, M. tuberculosis was isolated from the pus sample. In both cases, Bacillus Calmette-Guιrin (BCG scar was absent. BCG vaccination may prevent bone TB.

  9. Clinical evaluation of MPT-64 and MPT-59, two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for skin test reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcke, J T; Jensen, B N; Ravn, P;

    1996-01-01

    a small scale clinical investigation, skin reactions to these antigens were compared to reactions to tuberculin PPD RT23 in 1) patients with active tuberculosis, 2) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects with close contact with tuberculous patients, and 3) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects without contact...... with tuberculous patients. Tests for in vitro reactivity to these antigens were carried out in similar groups. RESULTS: All subjects gave positive reaction to tuberculin PPD RT23, whereas approximately half of the subjects in each of the three groups reacted to MPT-59. Two subjects (one patient with...... experimental skin test antigens had properties superior to tuberculin PPD RT23 in humans. The failure of MPT-64 to induce delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in the majority of tuberculosis patients is discussed, in view of the potent reactivity to MPT-64 in tuberculous guinea pigs....

  10. Medicalized social hygiene? Tuberculosis policy in the German Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Donna

    2012-01-01

    This archive-based study investigates tuberculosis policy in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) from the 1940s to the 1960s. The focus is on the sanatorium as the major site of treatment and on BCG vaccination as the major preventive tool. The article tests and accepts the thesis that the GDR's guiding health paradigm is best described by the term "medicalized social hygiene." The article finds that methods of both treatment and prevention were characterized less by radical change and innovation than by tradition and pragmatism at least until the mid-1950s. Thus, "forced institutionalization" of "asocial" patients continued after 1945. Yet the health ministry long hesitated to make BCG vaccination obligatory. The German past, the Cold War context of German-German rivalry, and medical and popular attitudes toward vaccination, TB, and TB patients are considered as possible explanations for the mix of continuity and change in TB policy. PMID:23241911

  11. The effect of neonatal vitamin A supplementation on growth in the first year of life among low-birth-weight infants in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Ravn, Henrik; Camala, Luis; Monteiro, Ivan; Aaby, Peter; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) may amplify the effect of vaccines. We therefore investigated if neonatal VAS given with and without Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine to low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates had an effect on growth in the first year of life. We hypothesised that VAS would...... be particularly beneficial when provided with BCG. METHODS: We conducted a randomised two-by-two factorial trial in Guinea-Bissau; 1,717 LBW neonates were randomly allocated to VAS or placebo at birth as well as early or the usual postponed BCG vaccination. Anthropometric measurements were obtained...... at 2, 6, and 12 months after inclusion. RESULTS: Overall there was no effect of neonatal VAS on growth in the first year of life. By 2 months, VAS tended to have a beneficial effect on weight and head circumference when given with BCG but not when given without BCG (interaction: weight-for-age p = 0...

  12. 农村留守儿童心理健康状况的调查研究%Investigation on the Mental Health of Left-behind Children in Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永娟; 沈汪兵; 刘国雄; 袁媛

    2011-01-01

    本文采用MHT量表对安徽省农村117名儿童进行调查,以考察留守和年级对儿童心理健康的影响,结果发现:(1)3分标准与8分检出标准差异显著,表明双基线健康检出标准有很好的实际作用,低分标准可用于预防筛查,高分标准可用作临床诊断的参考;(2)农村留守儿童的对人焦虑、冲动倾向、孤独感及恐怖倾向检出率明显高于非留守儿童,表明留守儿童心理健康问题较非留守儿童严峻;(3)非留守儿童孤独感显著高于留守儿童;(4)在学习焦虑、对人焦虑、恐怖倾向和身体症状上年级差异显著,并且7年级得分最高,总体呈N趋势变化,表明7年级心理问题最严重;(5)除冲动倾向外,学习焦虑等各因素女生得分均显著高于男生,表明女生心理健康问题相对更明显。%This study adopted Mental Health Test(MHT) to investigate how the two factors of being left-behind and grade influence rural children's mental health.Subjects were 117 left-behind children in rural Anhui.The findings are that 1) significant difference is found in 3-score and 8-score standards respectively;2) detection rate of interpersonal anxiety,impulsive tendency,aggressive tendency and loneliness in left-behind children is significantly higher than children staying with parents;3) children staying with parents has higher loneliness than left-behind children;4) there are significant differences of learning anxiety,interpersonal anxiety,fear tendency and physical symptoms among all grades of left-behind children,and stduents in Grade Seven have the highest anxiety and tendency;5) female left-behind children have higher anverage score in all items except impulsive tendency.Some conclusions can be draw from the findings that dual-baseline standard has excellent practical effect,3-score standard for the prevention and 8-score standard for clinical diagnosis,that left-behind children feel lonelier than

  13. 长春市游泳俱乐部学龄前儿童学习游泳的现状调查%The investigation of the swimming clubs’status quo on the preschool children swimming in Changchun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新强; 战殊

    2015-01-01

    By using the methods of documents,questionnaire and mathematical statistics,this paper investigates and analyzes the the physical quality and the interests preschool children in Changchun,as well as the parents investigate the facilities,safety and sanitation of swimming pools and the coach. This article points out the problem of the preschool children swimming clubs and coach at present, provides countermeasures and development strategy for the problems,in order to provide a reference for the preschool children to learn better swimming skills in Changchun.%采用文献资料法、问卷调查法、数理统计法,对长春市学龄前儿童游泳俱乐部,教练员的现状及家长对俱乐部为满意度进行调查,并针对存在的问题提出相应的改进措施与发展对策,旨在为长春市游泳俱乐部对学龄前儿童更好地开展游泳运动提供参考。

  14. 济南市7~18岁儿童体格发育调查%Investigation on physical development of children aged 7 ~ 18 years in Jinan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冰; 曲敬师; 孙涛

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the rule of physical development of children aged 7-18 in Jinan. [Method] The data of height and weight of children aged 7-18 in Jinan were calculated and compared with the standard data of nine East provinces of China,using screening indicators of overweight and obesity according to the NCHS recomended by WHO. [Result] The data of height and weight of children aged 7~18 in Jinan were higher than the standard of nine Eastern provinces of China,indicated the higher obesity rate of this age group in Jinan. [Conclusion] The overall physical development of children aged 7-18 in Jinan is good. There is a higher incidence of obesity around puberty age group. It is important to strengthen the management of children's physical development for this age group for preventing obesity.%[目的]了解济南市7~18岁儿童体格发育规律,为制定干预措施提供理论依据.[方法]计算济南市7~18岁儿童身高、体重,并与中国华东九省市标准比较;以WHO推荐的NCHS测定值筛选超重、肥胖儿童,计算发生率.[结果]济南市7~18岁儿童身高体重高于中国九省市标准,围青春期肥胖发生率高.[结论]济南市7~18岁儿童体格发育状况良好,围青春期是肥胖高发年龄组,加强此关键期儿童管理.

  15. Investigation on the deep fungal infection in children%儿科患者深部真菌感染的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欠欠; 成俊珍

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨儿童深部真菌感染情况,分析其对常用抗真菌药物的敏感性,为真菌感染的治疗和预防提供依据。方法回顾性分析了2009年3月~2012年12月延安市某医院270例确诊为深部真菌感染住院患儿的临床资料,药敏试验严格按照2006年CLSI M272A2规则及标准进行AmB、FCZ、5-FC、ICZ 4种抗真菌药敏检测。结果真菌感染标本主要来源于咽拭子,白假丝酵母菌的分离率最高(61.1%),其次为光滑假丝酵母菌、热带假丝酵母菌、近平滑假丝酵母菌和克柔假丝酵母菌。药敏实验结果表明,假丝酵母菌对AmB、5-FC的敏感性较高。结论儿科患者中分离的真菌中以假丝酵母菌属最多,并以白假丝酵母菌为主;AmB、5-FC均有较高的抗真菌活性。应加强对临床真菌感染与耐药性情况的监测,以指导临床合理使用抗生素。%Objective To investigate the status of deep fungal infection in children, and analyze its sen⁃sitivity to first-line antibiotics for evidence to treat fungal infection. Methods The clinical data were retrospec⁃tively analyzed in 270 child inpatients with deep fungal infection undergone treatment in a hospital of Yanan area between March 2009 and December 2012. Antifungal susceptibility testing, including amphotericin B (AmB), fluconazole(FCZ), 5-flucytosine(5-FC) and itraconazole(ICZ) was performed in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute(CLSI) document M27-A2. Results The specimens obtained pri⁃marily using the nasopharyngeal swabs were isolated, and the results showed that Candida albicans was the highest(61.1%), followed by Candida glabrata,Candida tropicalis,Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei. Drug sensitive test revealed that Candida albicans was highly sensitive to AmB and 5-FC. Conclusion Deep fungal infection is primarily associated with Candida, especially Candida albicans, and AmB and 5-FC have higher antifungal

  16. Sensorineural hearing loss in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wormald, R

    2010-02-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the aetiology of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in a paediatric population presenting to the National Centre of Medical Genetics. A retrospective chart review from 1998 to 2006. One hundred and twenty nine children were investigated for SNHL. The average age of diagnosis of hearing loss was 36 months. The degree of hearing loss was mild in 8 children, moderate in 33 children, severe in 31 children and profound in 57 children. Eighty-five children (66%) were diagnosed with a hereditary hearing loss, 11 (8%) children had an acquired hearing loss and no cause found in 33 (26%) children. This is the first report of the causes of hearing loss in Irish children. The mean age of diagnosis in our cohort is high and emphasises the need for a neonatal screening programme. There remains a number of children for whom the cause of hearing loss remains unknown.

  17. Pathways of Pb and Mn observed in a 5-year longitudinal investigation in young children and environmental measures from an urban setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We monitored 108 children ≤5 years on a 6-month basis for up to 5 years in a major urban setting. Samples (n ∼ 7000) included blood, urine, handwipes (interior, and after exterior playing), 6-day duplicate diet, drinking water, interior house and day care dust-fall accumulation using petri dishes, exterior dust-fall accumulation, exterior dust sweepings, paint, soil and urban air. The geometric mean blood Pb (PbB) was 2.1 μg/dL and blood Mn (MnB) was 10.0 μg/L. Following a path modelling approach, mixed model analyses for a fully adjusted model showed the strongest associations for PbB were with interior house dust and soil; for MnB there were no significant associations with any predictors. Predictor variables only explained 9% of the variance for Pb and 0.7% for Mn. Relationships between environmental measures and PbB in children are not straightforward; soil and dust sweepings contribute only about 1/5th of the amounts to PbB found in other studies. - Highlights: • 5-year longitudinal study of young children in urban setting. • Samples analysed for Pb and Mn in blood and environmental samples. • Modified structural equation modelling. • Strongest associations for blood Pb with house dust and soil. • Soil and dust contribute very small amounts to blood Pb. - This study provides useful insights about the environmental pathways leading to Pb and Mn exposure in young children

  18. Utilization of a Binational Training Program to Investigate the Prevalence, Correlates, and Etiology of Anemia Among Women and Children in Rural Baja California, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Moor, Molly Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anemia is a public health concern among Mexican women and children, particularly among those of low socioeconomic status and indigenous heritage. Conducting research among vulnerable populations requires a dependable, long-term relationship with community support and engagement. Thus, Viajes Interinstitucional de Integración, Docente, Asistencia y de Investigación [VIIDAI] (Inter-institutional Field Experiences for Integration, Teaching, Medical Service, and Research), a partners...

  19. A Preliminary Investigation of the Prevalence of Corporal Punishment of Children and Selected Co-occurring Behaviours in Households on New Providence, The Bahamas

    OpenAIRE

    Adderley, Latanya; McCants-Miller, Janice; Carroll, Marie C.; Fielding, William J.; Brennen, Shane; Thompson, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the link between violence in homes, focusing on corporal punishment of children as a means of discipline, and other behaviours (including sexual abuse, illegal drug use, domestic violence, hitting of pets) which may be a cause for concern. This paper reports the results of a survey of 933 people and 12 case studies. Violence, physical or domestic, occurred in 62% of survey participants’ homes. The survey indicated that in respondents’ homes many childr...

  20. Investigating the Prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorders According to Sex in a Sample of Iranian Children Referred to Medical-Rehabilitation Centers and Psychiatrics Clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khushabi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: According to significance of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD in children and the increasing rate of its prevalence in referred patients to clinic in recent years and due to absence of any report about the rate of PPD in our country, this study was carried out. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PPD in a sample of Iranian children who referred to medical and rehabilitation centers.Materials & Methods: 248 children who referred to three medical-rehabilitation centers were participated in the research. Accessible sampling with diagnosis of PDD based on DSM-IV criteria was chosen. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods such as percent and frequency distribution. Results: Autistics disorder was most prevalent among pervasive developmental disorders. In this research Autistic disorder (proportion 4/1 to 1, Asperger disorder (proportion 3 to 1 and childhood disintegrative disease were more prevalent in boys than girls. Ret disorders was observed only in girls and pervasive developmental disease (NOS was seen in both sexes. Conclusion: The results showed that pervasive developmental disorders are 4 times more prevalent in boys than girls and the findings of this research were consistent with those of previous studies.