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Sample records for bcci injury correlation

  1. Posterolateral Complex Knee Injuries: Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Surgical Correlation

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    Theodorou, D.J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Theodorou, S.J.; Fithian, D.C.; Garelick, D.H. [Southern California Permanente Medical Group, San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Paxton, L.; Resnick, D. [Midwest Orthopedics, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of injuries of the posterolateral aspect of the knee and to evaluate the diagnostic capabilities of MRI in the assessment of these injuries. Material and Methods: The MRI studies of 14 patients (mean age 33 years) with trauma to the posterolateral aspect of the knee were retrospectively reviewed, and the imaging findings were correlated with those of surgery. Results: In all patients, MRI showed an intact iliotibial (ITB) band. MRI showed injury to the biceps tendon in 11 (79%), the gastrocnemius tendon in (7%), the popliteus tendon in 5 (36%), and the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) in 14 (100%) patients. Tear of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was seen in1 (79%) patients and tear of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in 4 (29%) patients. With routine MRI, visualization of the popliteofibular or fabellofibular ligaments was incomplete. On MRI, the lateral meniscus and the medial meniscus were torn with equal frequency ( n {approx} 4; 29%). Osteochondral defects were seen in 5 (36%) cases and joint effusion in all 14 (100%) cases on MRI. Using surgical findings as the standard for diagnosis, MRI proved 86% accurate in the detection of injury to the ITB band, the biceps tendon (93%),, the gastrocnemius tendon (100%), the popliteus tendon (86%), the LCL (100%), the ACL (79%), the PCL (86%), the lateral meniscus (90%), the medial meniscus (82%), and the osteochondral structures (79%). Surgical correlation confirmed the MRI findings of joint effusion in all cases. Conclusion: MRI is well suited for demonstrating the presence and extent of injuries of the major structures of the posterolateral complex of the knee, allowing characterization of the severity of injury.

  2. Ambulation following spinal cord injury and its correlates

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    Nitin Menon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess walking ability of spinal cord injury (SCI patients and observe its correlation with functional and neurological outcomes. Patients and Methods: The present prospective, observational study was conducted in a tertiary research hospital in India with 66 patients (46 males between January 2012 and December 2013. Mean age was 32.62 ± 11.85 years (range 16-65 years, mean duration of injury was 85.3 ± 97.6 days (range 14-365 days and mean length of stay in the rehabilitation unit was 38.08 ± 21.66 days (range 14-97 days in the study. Walking Index for spinal cord injury (WISCI II was used to assess ambulation of the SCI patients. Functional recovery was assessed using Barthel Index (BI and Spinal Cord Independence Measures (SCIM. Neurological recovery was assessed using ASIA impairment scale (AIS. We tried to correlate ambulatory ability of the patients with functional and neurological recovery. Results: Ambulatory ability of the patients improved significantly using WISCI II (P < 0.001 when admission and discharge scores were compared (1.4 ± 3.5 vs 7.6 ± 6.03. Similarly, functional (BI: 31.7 ± 20.5 vs 58.4 ± 23.7 and SCIM: 29.9 ± 15.1 vs 56.2 ± 20.6 and neurological recovery were found to be very significant (P < 0.001 when admission vs discharge scores were compared. Improvement in WISCI II scores was significantly correlated with improvement in neurological (using AIS scores and functional status (using BI and SCIM scores (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Significant improvement was seen in WISCI II, BI, and SCIM scores after in-patient rehabilitation. Improvement in WISCI II scores also significantly correlated with functional and neurological recovery.

  3. Correlation between muscle electrophysiology and strength after fibular nerve injury.

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    Won, Yu Hui; Kim, Kang-Won; Choi, Jun Tak; Ko, Myoung-Hwan; Park, Sung-Hee; Seo, Jeong-Hwan

    2016-08-01

    Muscle strength measurement is important when evaluating the degree of impairment in patients with nerve injury. However, accurate and objective evaluation may be difficult in patients with severe pain or those who intentionally try to avoid full exertion. We investigated the usefulness of the affected-to-unaffected side electrophysiological parameter ratios as a measure of objective ankle dorsiflexion (ADF) strength in patients with unilateral fibular nerve injury (FNI). ADF strength was measured in patients with FNI via handheld dynamometer and manual muscle test (MMT). Fibular nerve compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude and latency and ADF strength of the affected side were presented as ratios to the corresponding measurements of the unaffected side. We analysed the correlation of the CMAP ratio with the ADF strength ratio using a dynamometer and compared the CMAP ratios according to MMT grade. Fifty-two patients with FNI were enrolled. The mean CMAP latency ratio did not differ between MMT groups (p = 0.573). The CMAP amplitude ratio proportionally increased with the quantified ADF strength ratio via dynamometer increase (ρ = 0.790; p CMAP latency ratio and the quantified ADF strength ratio did not significantly correlate (ρ = 0.052; p = 0.713). The average CMAP amplitude ratio significantly differed between MMT groups (p CMAP amplitude ratio, might be sensitive parameters for ADF power estimation after FNI. PMID:27142447

  4. Gray matter volume and executive functioning correlate with time since injury following mild traumatic brain injury.

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    Killgore, William D S; Singh, Prabhjyot; Kipman, Maia; Pisner, Derek; Fridman, Andrew; Weber, Mareen

    2016-01-26

    Most people who sustain a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) will recover to baseline functioning within a period of several days to weeks. A substantial minority of patients, however, will show persistent symptoms and mild cognitive complaints for much longer. To more clearly delineate how the duration of time since injury (TSI) is associated with neuroplastic cortical volume changes and cognitive recovery, we employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and select neuropsychological measures in a cross-sectional sample of 26 patients with mTBI assessed at either two-weeks, one-month, three-months, six-months, or one-year post injury, and a sample of 12 healthy controls. Longer duration of TSI was associated with larger gray matter volume (GMV) within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and right fusiform gyrus, and better neurocognitive performance on measures of visuospatial design fluency and emotional functioning. In particular, volume within the vmPFC was positively correlated with design fluency and negatively correlated with symptoms of anxiety, whereas GMV of the fusiform gyrus was associated with greater design fluency and sustained visual psychomotor vigilance performance. Moreover, the larger GMV seen among the more chronic individuals was significantly greater than healthy controls, suggesting possible enlargement of these regions with time since injury. These findings are interpreted in light of burgeoning evidence suggesting that cortical regions often exhibit structural changes following experience or practice, and suggest that with greater time since an mTBI, the brain displays compensatory remodeling of cortical regions involved in emotional regulation, which may reduce distractibility during attention demanding visuo-motor tasks. PMID:26711488

  5. Combined common peroneal and tibial nerve injury after knee dislocation: one injury or two? An MRI-clinical correlation.

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    Reddy, Chandan G; Amrami, Kimberly K; Howe, Benjamin M; Spinner, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    OBJECT Knee dislocations are often accompanied by stretch injuries to the common peroneal nerve (CPN). A small subset of these injuries also affect the tibial nerve. The mechanism of this combined pattern could be a single longitudinal stretch injury of the CPN extending to the sciatic bifurcation (and tibial division) or separate injuries of both the CPN and tibial nerve, either at the level of the tibiofemoral joint or distally at the soleal sling and fibular neck. The authors reviewed cases involving patients with knee dislocations with CPN and tibial nerve injuries to determine the localization of the combined injury and correlation between degree of MRI appearance and clinical severity of nerve injury. METHODS Three groups of cases were reviewed. Group 1 consisted of knee dislocations with clinical evidence of nerve injury (n = 28, including 19 cases of complete CPN injury); Group 2 consisted of knee dislocations without clinical evidence of nerve injury (n = 19); and Group 3 consisted of cases of minor knee trauma but without knee dislocation (n = 14). All patients had an MRI study of the knee performed within 3 months of injury. MRI appearance of tibial and common peroneal nerve injury was scored by 2 independent radiologists in 3 zones (Zone I, sciatic bifurcation; Zone II, knee joint; and Zone III, soleal sling and fibular neck) on a severity scale of 1-4. Injury signal was scored as diffuse or focal for each nerve in each of the 3 zones. A clinical score was also calculated based on Medical Research Council scores for strength in the tibial and peroneal nerve distributions, combined with electrophysiological data, when available, and correlated with the MRI injury score. RESULTS Nearly all of the nerve segments visualized in Groups 1 and 2 demonstrated some degree of injury on MRI (95%), compared with 12% of nerve segments in Group 3. MRI nerve injury scores were significantly more severe in Group 1 relative to Group 2 (2.06 vs 1.24, p knee dislocations

  6. Personality Change due to Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and Adolescents: Neurocognitive Correlates

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    Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Bigler, Erin D; Hanten, Gerri; Dennis, Maureen; Schachar, Russell J.; Saunders, Ann E.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Chapman, Sandra B.; Wesley K. Thompson; Yang, Tony T.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2015-01-01

    Personality Change due to traumatic brain injury (PC) in children is an important psychiatric complication of injury and is a form of severe affective dysregulation. The aim of the study was to examine neurocognitive correlates of PC. The sample included children (n=177) aged 5-14 years with traumatic brain injury from consecutive admissions to 5 trauma centers were followed prospectively at baseline and 6 months with semi-structured psychiatric interviews. Injury severity, socioeconomic stat...

  7. Pain Catastrophizing Correlates with Early Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Outcome.

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    Chaput, Geneviève; Lajoie, Susanne P; Naismith, Laura M; Lavigne, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background. Identifying which patients are most likely to be at risk of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a difficult clinical challenge. Objectives. To examine the relationship between pain catastrophizing, defined as the exaggerated negative appraisal of a pain experience, and early MTBI outcome. Methods. This cross-sectional design included 58 patients diagnosed with a MTBI. In addition to medical chart review, postconcussion symptoms were assessed by self-report at 1 month (Time 1) and 8 weeks (Time 2) after MTBI. Pain severity, psychological distress, level of functionality, and pain catastrophizing were measured by self-report at Time 2. Results. The pain catastrophizing subscales of rumination, magnification, and helplessness were significantly correlated with pain severity (r = .31 to .44), number of postconcussion symptoms reported (r = .35 to .45), psychological distress (r = .57 to .67), and level of functionality (r = -.43 to -.29). Pain catastrophizing scores were significantly higher for patients deemed to be at high risk of postconcussion syndrome (6 or more symptoms reported at both Time 1 and Time 2). Conclusions. Higher levels of pain catastrophizing were related to adverse early MTBI outcomes. The early detection of pain catastrophizing may facilitate goal-oriented interventions to prevent or minimize the development of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms. PMID:27445604

  8. Pain Catastrophizing Correlates with Early Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Outcome

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    Geneviève Chaput

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Identifying which patients are most likely to be at risk of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI is a difficult clinical challenge. Objectives. To examine the relationship between pain catastrophizing, defined as the exaggerated negative appraisal of a pain experience, and early MTBI outcome. Methods. This cross-sectional design included 58 patients diagnosed with a MTBI. In addition to medical chart review, postconcussion symptoms were assessed by self-report at 1 month (Time 1 and 8 weeks (Time 2 after MTBI. Pain severity, psychological distress, level of functionality, and pain catastrophizing were measured by self-report at Time 2. Results. The pain catastrophizing subscales of rumination, magnification, and helplessness were significantly correlated with pain severity (r=.31 to .44, number of postconcussion symptoms reported (r=.35 to .45, psychological distress (r=.57 to .67, and level of functionality (r=-.43 to -.29. Pain catastrophizing scores were significantly higher for patients deemed to be at high risk of postconcussion syndrome (6 or more symptoms reported at both Time 1 and Time 2. Conclusions. Higher levels of pain catastrophizing were related to adverse early MTBI outcomes. The early detection of pain catastrophizing may facilitate goal-oriented interventions to prevent or minimize the development of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms.

  9. Correlation between radiological assessment of acute ankle fractures and syndesmotic injury on MRI

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    Owing to the shortcomings of clinical examination and radiographs, injury to the syndesmotic ligaments is often misdiagnosed. When there is no indication requiring that the fractured ankle be operated on, the syndesmosis is not tested intra-operatively, and rupture of this ligamentous complex may be missed. Subsequently the patient is not treated properly leading to chronic complaints such as instability, pain, and swelling. We evaluated three fracture classification methods and radiographic measurements with respect to syndesmotic injury. Prospectively the radiographs of 51 consecutive ankle fractures were classified according to Weber, AO-Mueller, and Lauge-Hansen. Both the fracture type and additional measurements of the tibiofibular clear space (TFCS), tibiofibular overlap (TFO), medial clear space (MCS), and superior clear space (SCS) were used to assess syndesmotic injury. MRI, as standard of reference, was performed to evaluate the integrity of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. The sensitivity and specificity for detection of syndesmotic injury with radiography were compared to MRI. The Weber and AO-Mueller fracture classification system, in combination with additional measurements, detected syndesmotic injury with a sensitivity of 47% and a specificity of 100%, and Lauge-Hansen with both a sensitivity and a specificity of 92%. TFCS and TFO did not correlate with syndesmotic injury, and a widened MCS did not correlate with deltoid ligament injury. Syndesmotic injury as predicted by the Lauge-Hansen fracture classification correlated well with MRI findings. With MRI the extent of syndesmotic injury and therefore fracture stage can be assessed more accurately compared to radiographs. (orig.)

  10. Correlation between radiological assessment of acute ankle fractures and syndesmotic injury on MRI

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    Hermans, J.J. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Wentink, N. [Atrium Medisch Centrum, Department of Surgery, PO Box 4446, Heerlen (Netherlands); Beumer, A.; Moonen, A.F.C.M. [Amphia Ziekenhuis Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, PO Box 90158, Breda (Netherlands); Hop, W.C.J. [Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Biostatistics, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Heijboer, M.P. [Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Orthopaedics, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Ginai, A.Z. [Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    Owing to the shortcomings of clinical examination and radiographs, injury to the syndesmotic ligaments is often misdiagnosed. When there is no indication requiring that the fractured ankle be operated on, the syndesmosis is not tested intra-operatively, and rupture of this ligamentous complex may be missed. Subsequently the patient is not treated properly leading to chronic complaints such as instability, pain, and swelling. We evaluated three fracture classification methods and radiographic measurements with respect to syndesmotic injury. Prospectively the radiographs of 51 consecutive ankle fractures were classified according to Weber, AO-Mueller, and Lauge-Hansen. Both the fracture type and additional measurements of the tibiofibular clear space (TFCS), tibiofibular overlap (TFO), medial clear space (MCS), and superior clear space (SCS) were used to assess syndesmotic injury. MRI, as standard of reference, was performed to evaluate the integrity of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. The sensitivity and specificity for detection of syndesmotic injury with radiography were compared to MRI. The Weber and AO-Mueller fracture classification system, in combination with additional measurements, detected syndesmotic injury with a sensitivity of 47% and a specificity of 100%, and Lauge-Hansen with both a sensitivity and a specificity of 92%. TFCS and TFO did not correlate with syndesmotic injury, and a widened MCS did not correlate with deltoid ligament injury. Syndesmotic injury as predicted by the Lauge-Hansen fracture classification correlated well with MRI findings. With MRI the extent of syndesmotic injury and therefore fracture stage can be assessed more accurately compared to radiographs. (orig.)

  11. Neuroimaging Correlates of Novel Psychiatric Disorders after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Max, Jeffrey E.; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Bigler, Erin D.; Thompson, Wesley K.; MacLeod, Marianne; Vasquez, Ana C.; Merkley, Tricia L.; Hunter, Jill V.; Chu, Zili D.; Yallampalli, Ragini; Hotz, Gillian; Chapman, Sandra B.; Yang, Tony T.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates of novel (new-onset) psychiatric disorders (NPD) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and orthopedic injury (OI). Method: Participants were 7 to 17 years of age at the time of hospitalization for either TBI or OI. The study used a prospective, longitudinal, controlled design with…

  12. Correlating the anatomical site of injury and work-related factors with sick leave duration following minor musculoskeletal injuries.

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    Alshameeri, Zeiad; Mohammed, Mustafa; Malkan, Dilip

    2011-01-01

    Many factors are associated with long sick leaves and therefore, reliance solely on disease-related factors can potentially underestimate sick leave durations. Here, we wanted to assess the association between the injury sites, work-related factors, and the length of sick leaves. Comprehensive medical legal reports of workers with pure minor musculoskeletal injuries were reviewed. 2029 reports of workers were included. 32.8% had sick leaves of less than a week in duration. Lower limb injuries were associated with longer sick leaves only in patients performing strenuous jobs. Public sector workers sustaining an injury at work and performing strenuous jobs were associated with longer sick leaves. Senior workers returned earlier to work, but age and gender were not strongly correlated with long sick leaves. There was a weak but significant association between sick leave duration and the period spent refraining from hobby activities, and almost all patients returned to their work before their hobbies. PMID:21337182

  13. Bronchoscopy-derived correlates of lung injury following inhalational injuries: a prospective observational study.

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    Samuel W Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI is a major factor determining morbidity following burns and inhalational injury. In experimental models, factors potentially contributing to ALI risk include inhalation of toxins directly causing cell damage; inflammation; and infection. However, few studies have been done in humans. METHODS: We carried out a prospective observational study of patients admitted to the NC Jaycees Burn Center who were intubated and on mechanical ventilation for burns and suspected inhalational injury. Subjects were enrolled over an 8-month period and followed till discharge or death. Serial bronchial washings from clinically-indicated bronchoscopies were collected and analyzed for markers of cell injury and inflammation. These markers were compared with clinical markers of ALI. RESULTS: Forty-three consecutive patients were studied, with a spectrum of burn and inhalation injury severity. Visible soot at initial bronchoscopy and gram negative bacteria in the lower respiratory tract were associated with ALI in univariate analyses. Subsequent multivariate analysis also controlled for % body surface area burns, infection, and inhalation severity. Elevated IL-10 and reduced IL-12p70 in bronchial washings were statistically significantly associated with ALI. CONCLUSIONS: Independently of several factors including initial inhalational injury severity, infection, and extent of surface burns, high early levels of IL-10 and low levels of IL-12p70 in the central airways are associated with ALI in patients intubated after acute burn/inhalation injury. Lower airway secretions can be collected serially in critically ill burn/inhalation injury patients and may yield important clues to specific pathophysiologic pathways.

  14. PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONS FOR DIAGNOSING MENISCAL INJURIES: CORRELATION WITH SURGICAL FINDINGS

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    Gobbo, Ricardo da Rocha; Rangel, Victor de Oliveira; Karam, Francisco Consoli; Pires, Luiz Antônio Simões

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A set of five maneuvers for meniscal injuries (McMurray, Apley, Childress and Steinmann 1 and 2) was evaluated and their sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and likelihood were calculated. The same methods were applied to each test individually. Methods: One hundred and fifty-two patients of both sexes who were going to undergo videoarthroscopy on the knee were examined blindly by one of five residents at this hospital, without knowledge of the clinical data and why the patient was going to undergo an operation. This examination was conducted immediately before the videoarthroscopy and its results were recorded in an electronic spreadsheet. The set of maneuvers was considered positive when one was positive. In the individual analysis, it was enough for the test to be positive. Results: The analysis showed that the set of five meniscal tests presented sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 42%, accuracy of 75%, positive likelihood of 1.53 and negative likelihood of 0.26. Individually, the tests presented accuracy of between 48% and 53%. Conclusion: The set of maneuvers for meniscal injuries presented a good accuracy and significant value, especially for ruling out injury. Individually, the tests had less diagnostic value, although the Apley test had better specificity. PMID:27047833

  15. The prevalence and correlates of occupational injuries in small-scale manufacturing enterprises.

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    Nakata, Akinori; Ikeda, Tomoko; Takahashi, Masaya; Haratani, Takashi; Hojou, Minoru; Swanson, Naomi G; Fujioka, Yosei; Araki, Shunichi

    2006-09-01

    Workers involved in small-scale manufacturing businesses are known to comprise a high-risk population for occupational injury. The present study investigated the prevalence and correlates of occupational injury in this population. A self-administered questionnaire that solicited answers about occupational information including injury, demographic characteristics, health conditions and lifestyle factors was collected from a sample of 1,298 workers in 228 small-scale manufacturing enterprises (defined as fewer than 50 workers) aged 16-78 (mean 46) yr in Yashio city, Saitama, Japan (response rate 65.5%). The enterprises were randomly selected from the 2000 edition of the city commercial directory corresponding to the distribution of types of businesses in the city. Occupational injury was assessed by asking subjects, ;Have you ever been injured during your work, including minor scratches and cuts in the previous 1-yr period?' The possible response was either ;yes' or ;no.' The prevalence of study-defined occupational injury among the workers was 35.6% (male 43.0%, female 17.9%). Among job types, manufacturing (44.2%) and driving (43.5%) had high rates of occupational injuries. Similarly, occupational injuries were high in the papermaking (54.5%) and machinery (47.7%) industries. For males, younger age, current or former smoking, insomnia symptoms, and disease(s) currently under treatment were correlated with injury, whereas for females, being unmarried, higher educational status, and insomnia symptoms were the correlating factors. Occupational injury is common among small-scale manufacturing businesses, and is associated with multiple controllable factors. Countermeasures such as prohibiting smoking during work, sleep health education, job safety training for young/inexperienced workers are appropriate methods for eliminating or reducing injuries. PMID:17053303

  16. Correlation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor to cognitive impairment following traumatic brain injury in rats

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    Dezhi Kang; Zhang Guo

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In vitro and in vivo studies have confirmed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can promote survival and differentiation of cholinergic, dopaminergic and motor neurons, and axonal regeneration. BDNF has neuroprotective effects on the nervous system. OBJECTIVE: To explore changes in BDNF expression and cognitive function in rats after brain injury DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The neuropathology experiment was performed at the Second Research Room, Department of Neurosurgery, Fujian Medical University (China) from July 2007 to July 2008. MATERIALS: A total of 72 healthy, male, Sprague Dawley, rats were selected for this study. METHODS: Rat models of mild and moderate traumatic brain injury were created by percussion, according to Feeney's method (n = 24, each group). A bone window was made in rats from the sham operation group (n = 24), but no attack was conducted. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At days 1,2, 4 and 7 following injury, BDNF expression in the rat frontal lobe cortex, hippocampus and basal forebrain was examined by immunohistochemistry (streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method). Changes in rat cognitive function were assessed by the walking test, balance-beam test and memory function detection. RESULTS: Cognitive impairment was aggravated at day 2, and recovered to normal at days 3 and 7 in rats from the mild and moderate traumatic brain injury groups. BDNF expression in the rat frontal lobe cortex, hippocampus and basal forebrain was increased at 1 day, decreased at day 2, and then gradually increased in the mild and moderate traumatic brain injury groups. BDNF expression was greater in rats from the moderate traumatic brain injury group than in the sham operation and mild traumatic brain injury groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: BDNF expression in the rat frontal lobe cortex, hippocampus and basal forebrain is correlated to cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury. BDNF has a protective effect on cognitive function in rats

  17. Correlation between expectations of recovery and injury severity perception in whiplash-associated disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert FERRARI; Deon LOUW

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the correlation between expectations of recovery and whiplash patients' perceptions of injury sevedty using a simplified instrument.Expectations of recovery have been shown to predict rate of recovery from whiplash injury in population-based studies.The perception of having more severe pathology or more ominous diagnostic labels has also been associated with a worse prognosis.Methods:Consecutive patients with whiplashassociated disorder grade 1 or 2,presenting in the acute stage to a primary care centre,were asked "do you think that your injury will…" with response options "get better soon; get better slowly; never get better; don't know." Injury severity perception (ISP) was measured with a numerical rating scale which ranged from 0-10,on which subjects were asked to rate how severe (in terms of damage) they thought their injury was.The anchors were labeled "no damage" (0) and "severe,and maybe permanent damage" (10).The primary outcome measure was the correlation between the subject's ISP score and expectation of recovery.Results:A total of 94 subjects (34 males,60 females,and mean age (40.6+10.0) years,range 19-60 years) were included.The initial responses to expectation of recovery were:get better soon (29/94); get better slowly (22/94); never get better (11/94); don't know (32/94).The mean ISP score was 4.9+1.7(range 2-9 out of 10).There was a high correlation between expectations and ISP scores (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient 0.68).Those who expected to recover soon and those who expected to get better slowly had the lowest ISP scores.Conclusions:The more slowly whiplash patients expect to recover,or the less sure they are of recovery,the more severe their initial perceptions of injury.

  18. CT scan in severe diffuse head injury: physiological and clinical correlations.

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    Teasdale, E; Cardoso, E.; Galbraith, S; Teasdale, G.

    1984-01-01

    CT scan findings, clinical features and intracranial pressure were studied in patients with severe diffuse head injury. Compression of the 3rd ventricle and basal cisterns closely correlated with an intracranial pressure greater than 20 mmHg, with clinical signs of midbrain dysfunctions and worse prognosis. These CT scan findings can indicate whether intracranial pressure monitoring is appropriate.

  19. Correlating learning and memory improvements to long-term potentiation in patients with brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingfu Peng; Qian Yu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Brain injury patients often exhibit learning and memory functional deficits.Long-term potentiation(LTP)is a representative index for studying learning and memory cellular models; the LTP index correlates to neural plasticity. OBJECTIVE:This study was designed to investigate correlations of learning and memory functions to LTP in brain injury patients,and to summarize the research advancements in mechanisms underlying brain functional improvements after rehabilitation intervention. RETRIEVAL STRATEGY:Using the terms "brain injuries,rehabilitation,learning and memory,long-term potentiation",manuscripts that were published from 2000-2007 were retrieved from the PubMed database.At the same time,manuscripts published from 2000-2007 were also retrieved from the Database of Chinese Scientific and Technical Periodicals with the same terms in the Chinese language.A total of 64 manuscripts were obtained and primarily screened.Inclusion criteria:studies on learning and memory,as well as LTP in brain injury patients,and studies focused on the effects of rehabilitation intervention on the two indices; studies that were recently published or in high-impact journals.Exclusion criteria:repetitive studies.LITERATURE EVALUATION:The included manuscripts primarily focused on correlations between learning and memory and LTP,the effects of brain injury on learning and memory,as well as LTP,and the effects of rehabilitation intervention on learning and memory after brain injury.The included 39 manuscripts were clinical,basic experimental,or review studies. DATA SYNTHESIS:Learning and memory closely correlates to LTP.The neurobiological basis of learning and memory is central nervous system plasticity,which involves neural networks,neural circuits,and synaptic connections,in particular,synaptic plasticity.LTP is considered to be an ideal model for studying synaptic plasticity,and it is also a classic model for studying neural plasticity of learning and memory.Brain injury

  20. Personality Change Due to Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and Adolescents: Neurocognitive Correlates.

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    Max, Jeffrey E; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Bigler, Erin D; Hanten, Gerri; Dennis, Maureen; Schachar, Russell J; Saunders, Ann E; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Chapman, Sandra B; Thompson, Wesley K; Yang, Tony T; Levin, Harvey S

    2015-01-01

    Personality change due to traumatic brain injury (PC) in children is an important psychiatric complication of injury and is a form of severe affective dysregulation. This study aimed to examine neurocognitive correlates of PC. The sample included 177 children 5-14 years old with traumatic brain injury who were enrolled from consecutive admissions to five trauma centers. Patients were followed up prospectively at baseline and at 6 months, and they were assessed with semistructured psychiatric interviews. Injury severity, socioeconomic status, and neurocognitive function (measures of attention, processing speed, verbal memory, IQ, verbal working memory, executive function, naming/reading, expressive language, motor speed, and motor inhibition) were assessed with standardized instruments. Unremitted PC was present in 26 (18%) of 141 participants assessed at 6 months postinjury. Attention, processing speed, verbal memory, IQ, and executive function were significantly associated with PC even after socioeconomic status, injury severity, and preinjury attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were controlled. These findings are a first step in characterizing concomitant cognitive impairments associated with PC. The results have implications beyond brain injury to potentially elucidate the neurocognitive symptom complex associated with mood instability regardless of etiology.

  1. Unintentional Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among in-School Adolescents in Malaysia

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    Karl Peltzer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to provide estimates of the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of unintentional injury among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS included 21,699 students (predominantly ≤13 to ≥17 years that were selected by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all secondary school students in Forms 1 to 5. The percentage of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 34.9%, 42.1% of boys and 27.8% of girls. The two major causes of the most serious injury were “fall” (9.9% and motor vehicle accident or being hit by a motor vehicle (5.4%, and the most frequent type of injury sustained was cut, puncture, or stab wound (6.2% and a broken bone or dislocated joint (4.2%. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors (being male and low socioeconomic status, substance use (tobacco and cannabis use, frequent soft drink consumption, attending physical education classes three or more times a week, other risky behavior (truancy, ever having had sex, being bullied, psychological distress, and lack of parental or guardian bonding were associated with annual injury prevalence. Several factors were identified, which could be included in injury prevention promotion programs among secondary school children.

  2. Unintentional Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among in-School Adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2015-11-01

    The study aimed to provide estimates of the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of unintentional injury among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) included 21,699 students (predominantly ≤13 to ≥17 years) that were selected by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all secondary school students in Forms 1 to 5. The percentage of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 34.9%, 42.1% of boys and 27.8% of girls. The two major causes of the most serious injury were "fall" (9.9%) and motor vehicle accident or being hit by a motor vehicle (5.4%), and the most frequent type of injury sustained was cut, puncture, or stab wound (6.2%) and a broken bone or dislocated joint (4.2%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors (being male and low socioeconomic status), substance use (tobacco and cannabis use), frequent soft drink consumption, attending physical education classes three or more times a week, other risky behavior (truancy, ever having had sex, being bullied), psychological distress, and lack of parental or guardian bonding were associated with annual injury prevalence. Several factors were identified, which could be included in injury prevention promotion programs among secondary school children. PMID:26610542

  3. Attachment Style, Social Support, and Coping as Psychosocial Correlates of Happiness in Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lisa; Catalano, Denise; Sung, Connie; Phillips, Brian; Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung; Chan, Fong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the roles of attachment, social support, and coping as psychosocial correlates in predicting happiness in people with spinal cord injuries. Design: Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlation techniques. Participants: 274 individuals with spinal cord injuries. Outcome Measures: Happiness…

  4. Unintentional Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among in-School Adolescents in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Peltzer; Supa Pengpid

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to provide estimates of the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of unintentional injury among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) included 21,699 students (predominantly ≤13 to ≥17 years) that were selected by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all secondary school students in Forms 1 to 5. The percentage of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 34.9%, ...

  5. TRAUMATIC INTRA CRANIAL INJURY - COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY, PER OPERATIVE AND POST MORTEM FIND INGS : A PROGNOSTIC CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naufal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken in department of Radio - D iagnosis, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, in 70 patients who underwent CT scan head for evaluation of head injury. CT findings in traumatic head injury patients were recorded and studied. CT findings were correlated with preoperative and postmortem findings. Sensitivity of CT in detection of various traumatic intracranial lesions and role of CT findings in predicting outcome of head injuries were assessed. The study group consisted of 64 males and 6 females between the ages of 1 to 70. Initial CT findings were evaluated. Those patients who were conservatively managed are followed up for three months, follow up CT findings and mortality was assessed. Those cases subjected to neurosurgical interventions were followed up and surgical & post procedural data are collected. Post - mortem findings in head injury deaths were collected and studied. Present study shows majority of head injuries in economically productive age group (21 - 30 year, in males and as a result of road traffic accidents. Skull fractures were seen in 50 % of cases. CT detection rate for linear fractures is around 90 % and for base of skull is 82 %. Most common CT finding was subarachnoid hemorrhage followed by cerebral contusions. 39 % of cases were managed conservatively and has got favorable out co me . 31 % underwent cerebral decompression procedures in which 85 % had a good post - operative out c ome. Evacuation of extra axial bleed (EDH and SDH was the common procedure undertaken. Extra axial bleed was the cause for 14 % of total mortality. Midline shift of approximately 8 - 10 mm corresponded to 100 ml of extra axial bleed. Present study showed a mortality rate of 32 %. Most common cause of death was multiple intra parenchymal bleeds, in which brain stem bleed was the major cause (44 %. CT detection rate for brain stem injury was around 75 %. Diffuse brain injuries were the cause in 22 % of deaths. CT

  6. Blunt hepatic and splenic trauma in children: correlation of a CT injury severity scale with clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to compare a computed tomography (CT) injury severity scale for hepatic and splenic injury with the following outcome measures: requirement for surgical hemostasis, requirement for blood transfusion and late complications. Sixty-nine children with isolated hepatic injury and 53 with isolated splenic injury were prospectively classified at CT according to extent of parenchymal involvement. Clinical records were reviewed to determine clinical outcome. Ninety-seven children (80%) were managed non-operatively without transfusion. One child with hepatic injury required surgical hemostasis, and 17 (25%) required transfusion of blood. Increasing severity of hepatic injury at CT was associated with progressively greater frequency of transfusion (P = 0.002 by χ2-test). One child with splenic injury underwent surgery and eight (15%) required transfusion of blood. Splenic injury grade at CT did not correlate with frequency (P = 0.41 by χ2-test) or amount (P = 0.35 by factorial analysis of variance) of transfusion. There was one late complication in the nonsurgical group. A majority of children with hepatic and splenic injury were managed non-operatively without requiring blood transfusion. The severity of injury by CT scan did not correlate with need for surgery. Increasing grade of hepatic injury at CT was associated with increasing frequency of blood transfusion. CT staging was not discriminatory in predicting transfusion requirement in splenic injury. (orig.)

  7. Ultrasound findings in injuries of dorsal extensor hood: Correlation with MR and follow-up findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use ultrasound to examine the dorsal hood in nine patients with a clinical suspicion of dorsal hood injuries. Material and methods: Clinical and imaging files from interesting case logbooks of nine patients were reviewed. Ultrasound was performed by one of the three radiologists experienced in musculoskeletal ultrasound. The examinations were also performed in flexion and in flexion with resistance. MR correlation was obtained in six patients. One patient underwent surgery. To obtain anatomical correlation of the normal dorsal hood 2 embalmed hand specimens were dissected. Results: The sagittal bands were easily depicted in the transverse plane on ultrasound images and presented as hypoechoic bands on both sides of the extensor communis tendons. Injuries of the sagittal bands were seen on ultrasound as hypoechoic thickening of the sagittal bands at the side of the extensor tendons. The normal shape of the sagittal bands was also no longer recognizable. Subluxations or dislocations of the extensor tendons were also seen. When the injuries were located in the fibrous slips between the extensor indicis and the extensor communis of the second finger, subluxations with an increased distance between these 2 tendons were seen, especially in flexion, or in flexion with resistance. Conclusion: Ultrasound is a valuable tool for the assessment of the injuries of the dorsal hood and is an easily available method for the diagnosis of the fine soft tissue components of the dorsal hood region.

  8. Correlations of radiological assessment of skeletal maturity and orthopaedic injuries in the standardbred

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to define a correlation between the incidence of orthopaedic injuries and the skeletal maturity, radiologically assessed, in a group of 23 standardbred horses. Starting at 18 months of age, radiograms of calcaneus and distal radial physis were taken at two months intervals, until X-ray evidence of closure. All the physis were blindly graded as: C: open physis; B-: initial evidence of central closure; B: partially closed physis; B+: full closure of the central portion of the physis; A: closed physis. Based on this classification, the horses were grouped as I (immature subject - C, B- and B), or M (mature subject - B+ and A). Orthopaedic injuries were classified as major lesion, if causing prolonged or definitive interruption of training, or minor, if causing brief or no interruption of training. Estimation of injury incidence in the different groups was calculated using the chi-square test (significance level P0.01). The average ages of physis closure (mean +- SD) were 24.1 +- 2.6 months (range 19-28), for the calcaneal physis, and 28.2 +- 2 months (range 26-33), for the distal radial physis, without significant differences between colts and fillies. In our study, according to a previous report, no correlation between X-ray skeletal maturity and incidence of orthopaedic injuries was demonstrated

  9. Correlation of Computed Tomography findings with Glasgow Coma Scale in patients with acute traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    SK Sah; ND Subedi; K. Poudel; Mallik, M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To correlate Computed Tomography (CT) findings with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) in patients with acute traumatic brain injury attending in Chitwan Medical College teaching hospital Chitwan, Nepal. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was performed among 50 patients of acute (less than24 hours) cases of craniocerebral trauma over a period of four months. The patient’s level of consciousness (GCS) was determined and a brain CT scan without contrast media was performed. A s...

  10. The correlation between the imaging characteristics of hamstring injury and time required before returning to sports: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Kjell; Alricsson, Marie; Eckerman, Mattias; Magounakis, Theofilos; Werner, Suzanne

    2016-06-01

    Injuries to the hamstring muscles are common in athletes. Track and field, Australian football, American football and soccer are examples of sports where hamstring injuries are the most common. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between a hamstring injury prognosis and its characteristics of imaging parameters. The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed and CINAHL, and eleven articles were included. Seven out of the 11 articles showed a correlation between the size of the hamstring injury and length of time required before returning to sports. Different authors have reported contrasting results about length of time required before returning to sports due to location of injury within specific muscle. Majority of the articles found hamstring strain correlated to an extended amount of time required before returning to sports. PMID:27419106

  11. A correlative study between prevalence of chondromalacia patellae and sports injury in 4068 students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉; 孔祥清; 程琮; 梁茂华

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of chondromalacia patella among college students and the correlation with sports injury. Methods: 354 students from gymnastic department and 429 from nongymnastic department with knee joint pain were selected. 184 students from gymnastic department and 342 from nongymnastic department were checked randomly by a surgeon. 77 patients (37 males, 40 females) from gymnastic department and 119 patients (62 males, 57 females) from nongymnastic department were diagnosed as chondromalacia patellae. The amount of exercise and the occurrence of sports injury were investigated in each student. All data were analyzed with SPSS 10.0 statistical software. Results: The prevalence of chondromalacia patella was 20.1% in female students and 11.6% in male students from gymnastic department, and 5.61% in female students and 4.92% in male students from nongymnastic department. The amount of exercise and the occurrence of sports injury to the knee joint in students from gymnastic department were greater than those from nongymnastic department. Conclusions: In both female and male students, the prevalence of chondromalacia patella is higher in gymnastic department than nongymnastic department. Sports injury is an important cause of chondromalacia patella.

  12. Correlation of Computed Tomography findings with Glasgow Coma Scale in patients with acute traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Sah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To correlate Computed Tomography (CT findings with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS in patients with acute traumatic brain injury attending in Chitwan Medical College teaching hospital Chitwan, Nepal. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was performed among 50 patients of acute (less than24 hours cases of craniocerebral trauma over a period of four months. The patient’s level of consciousness (GCS was determined and a brain CT scan without contrast media was performed. A sixth generation General Electric (GE CT scan was utilized and 5mm and 10mm sections were obtained for infratentorial and supratentorial parts respectively. RESULT The age range of the patients was 1 to 75 years (mean age 35.6± 21.516 years and male: female ratio was 3.1:1. The most common causes of head injury were road traffic accident (RTA (60%, fall injury (20%, physical assault (12% and pedestrian injuries (8%. The distribution of patients in accordance with consciousness level was found to be 54% with mild TBI (GCS score 12 to 14, 28% with moderate TBI (GCS score 11 to 8 and 18% with severe TBI (GCS score less than 7. The presence of mixed lesions and midline shift regardless of the underlying lesion on CT scan was accompanied by lower GCS. CONCLUSION The presence of mixed lesions and midline shift regardless of the underlying lesion on CT scan were accompanied with lower GCS. Patients having single lesion had more GCS level than mixed level and mid line shift type of injury.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i2.12947 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol.10(2; 4-9

  13. Foetal serum but not urinary β2-microglobulin correlates with histological injury to the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luton, D; Delezoide, A L; Leguy, M C; Gobeaux, C; Vuillard, E; Grangé, G; Guibourdenche, J

    2013-10-01

    In a context of foetal obstructive uropathies, biochemical markers can be helpful to assess the renal function, but most studies to date have focused on their correlation with ultrasound findings and neonatal outcome. Our aim was to evaluate foetal β2-microglobulin as an index of histological injury to the kidney. β2-microglobulin was measured in serum and/or urine from 27 foetuses with bilateral obstructive uropathy, and compared to the findings of kidney examination following the termination of pregnancy. In serum, increased β2-microglobulin levels correlated to a decreased number of glomeruli, a reduction in the blastema and the presence of primitive ducts reflecting renal hypoplasia and dysplasia. However, elevated β2-microglobulin levels in the urine correlated only to a decreased number of glomeruli.

  14. Correlation between physical activity, fitness, and musculoskeletal injuries in police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeel, Ismail; Baker, Beth A; McGrail, Michael P; Flottemesch, Thomas J

    2007-09-01

    In order to explore the correlation between physical activity, fitness, and injury among police officers, a cross section of active-duty members of the Minneapolis Police Department were surveyed about their level of fitness, physical activity, and prevalence of injury and chronic pain within the past year. In the study, officers with the highest self-reported fitness levels were less likely to experience sprains (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.08-0.88), back pain (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.09-0.88), and chronic pain (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.73) than those who considered themselves less fit. Officers who were the most physically active were about a third as likely to report back pain (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.10-0.73) and less than half as likely to report chronic pain (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.19-0.91) as those who engaged in less activity. And officers with a BMI greater than 35 were 3 times more likely to report back pain (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.17-9.66) than those whose BMI fell in the normal range (18-25). Thus, officers who engage in higher levels of physical activity and are more physically fit have a lower prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries and chronic pain.

  15. Study of Imaging Pattern in Bone Marrow Oedema in MRI in Recent Knee Injuries and its Correlation with Type of Knee Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Kulamani; Saha, Pramod; Dodia, Jainesh Valjibhai; Raj, Vinay Rajappa; Bhairagond, Shweta Jagadish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The knee is a major weight bearing joint that provides mobility and stability during physical activity as well as balance while standing. If the knee is exposed to forces beyond its physiologic range, risk of injury to bone or soft tissue structures increases. A thorough understanding of knee injury patterns and their mechanisms may help in achieving more accurate assessment of injuries. Aim To identify imaging pattern in bone marrow oedema and to correlate the pattern of bone marrow oedema retrospectively with type of knee injury from clinical history. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was done on all patients referred to Krishna Hospital, Karad for MRI knee with history of recent (Dashboard injury in eight cases (5.8%), Hyperextension injury in four cases (2.9%), Lateral patellar dislocation in three cases (2.2%). In six cases (4.3%) no pattern of bone marrow contusion could be explained and was categorized as unclassified pattern. Conclusion Pivot shift pattern is most common contusion pattern and the most common type/mode of sports related injury. By analysing bone marrow contusion pattern, type/mode can be determined in most of the cases. By applying a biomechanical approach in MR interpretation, it is possible to detect lesions like ligament rupture and osseous contusion, to predict subtle but it might overlook important abnormalities. PMID:27190914

  16. Urinary β2-Microglobulin Is a Good Indicator of Proximal Tubule Injury: A Correlative Study with Renal Biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. After filtration through glomeruli, β2-microglobulin is reabsorbed in proximal tubules. Increased urinary β2-microglobulin indicates proximal tubule injury and measurement of β2-microglobulin in urine is useful to determine the source of renal injury. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1 has been characterized as a selective proximal tubule injury marker. This study was designed to evaluate the correlation of urinary β2-microglobulin concentration and KIM-1 expression as evidence of proximal tubule injury. Methods. Between 2009 and 2012, 46 patients with urine β2-microglobulin (RenalVysion had follow-up kidney biopsy. Diagnoses included glomerular and tubule-interstitial disease. Immunohistochemical staining for KIM-1 was performed and the intensity was graded from 0 to 3+. Linear regression analysis was applied to correlate the values of urinary β2-microglobulin and KIM-1 staining scores. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Thirty patients had elevated urinary β2-microglobulin. KIM-1 staining was positive in 35 kidney biopsies. There was a significant correlation between urinary β2-microglobulin and KIM-1 staining (P < 0.05. Sensitivity was 86.6%, specificity was 43.7%, positive predictive value was 74.2%, and negative predictive value was 63.6%. Conclusion. Increased urinary β2-microglobulin is significantly correlated with KIM-1 staining in injured proximal tubules. Measurement of urine β2-microglobulin is a sensitive assay for proximal tubule injury.

  17. Urinary β2-Microglobulin Is a Good Indicator of Proximal Tubule Injury: A Correlative Study with Renal Biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xu; Hossain, Deloar; Bostwick, David G; Herrera, Guillermo A; Zhang, Ping L

    2014-01-01

    Objective. After filtration through glomeruli, β2-microglobulin is reabsorbed in proximal tubules. Increased urinary β2-microglobulin indicates proximal tubule injury and measurement of β2-microglobulin in urine is useful to determine the source of renal injury. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) has been characterized as a selective proximal tubule injury marker. This study was designed to evaluate the correlation of urinary β2-microglobulin concentration and KIM-1 expression as evidence of proximal tubule injury. Methods. Between 2009 and 2012, 46 patients with urine β2-microglobulin (RenalVysion) had follow-up kidney biopsy. Diagnoses included glomerular and tubule-interstitial disease. Immunohistochemical staining for KIM-1 was performed and the intensity was graded from 0 to 3+. Linear regression analysis was applied to correlate the values of urinary β2-microglobulin and KIM-1 staining scores. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Thirty patients had elevated urinary β2-microglobulin. KIM-1 staining was positive in 35 kidney biopsies. There was a significant correlation between urinary β2-microglobulin and KIM-1 staining (P < 0.05). Sensitivity was 86.6%, specificity was 43.7%, positive predictive value was 74.2%, and negative predictive value was 63.6%. Conclusion. Increased urinary β2-microglobulin is significantly correlated with KIM-1 staining in injured proximal tubules. Measurement of urine β2-microglobulin is a sensitive assay for proximal tubule injury. PMID:26317034

  18. Correlation Between Euro NCAP Pedestrian Test Results and Injury Severity in Injury Crashes with Pedestrians and Bicyclists in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandroth, Johan; Sternlund, Simon; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes; Rizzi, Matteo; Kullgren, Anders; Ohlin, Maria; Fredriksson, Rikard

    2014-11-01

    Pedestrians and bicyclists account for a significant share of deaths and serious injuries in the road transport system. The protection of pedestrians in car-to-pedestrian crashes has therefore been addressed by friendlier car fronts and since 1997, the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) has assessed the level of protection for most car models available in Europe. In the current study, Euro NCAP pedestrian scoring was compared with real-life injury outcomes in car-to-pedestrian and car-tobicyclist crashes occurring in Sweden. Approximately 1200 injured pedestrians and 2000 injured bicyclists were included in the study. Groups of cars with low, medium and high pedestrian scores were compared with respect to pedestrian injury severity on the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS)-level and risk of permanent medical impairment (RPMI). Significant injury reductions to both pedestrians and bicyclists were found between low and high performing cars. For pedestrians, the reduction of MAIS2+, MAIS3+, RPMI1+ and RPMI10+ ranged from 20-56% and was significant on all levels except for MAIS3+ injuries. Pedestrian head injuries had the highest reduction, 80-90% depending on level of medical impairment. For bicyclist, an injury reduction was only observed between medium and high performing cars. Significant injury reductions were found for all body regions. It was also found that cars fitted with autonomous emergency braking including pedestrian detection might have a 60-70% lower crash involvement than expected. Based on these results, it was recommended that pedestrian protection are implemented on a global scale to provide protection for vulnerable road users worldwide.

  19. Correlation Between Euro NCAP Pedestrian Test Results and Injury Severity in Injury Crashes with Pedestrians and Bicyclists in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandroth, Johan; Sternlund, Simon; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes; Rizzi, Matteo; Kullgren, Anders; Ohlin, Maria; Fredriksson, Rikard

    2014-11-01

    Pedestrians and bicyclists account for a significant share of deaths and serious injuries in the road transport system. The protection of pedestrians in car-to-pedestrian crashes has therefore been addressed by friendlier car fronts and since 1997, the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) has assessed the level of protection for most car models available in Europe. In the current study, Euro NCAP pedestrian scoring was compared with real-life injury outcomes in car-to-pedestrian and car-tobicyclist crashes occurring in Sweden. Approximately 1200 injured pedestrians and 2000 injured bicyclists were included in the study. Groups of cars with low, medium and high pedestrian scores were compared with respect to pedestrian injury severity on the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS)-level and risk of permanent medical impairment (RPMI). Significant injury reductions to both pedestrians and bicyclists were found between low and high performing cars. For pedestrians, the reduction of MAIS2+, MAIS3+, RPMI1+ and RPMI10+ ranged from 20-56% and was significant on all levels except for MAIS3+ injuries. Pedestrian head injuries had the highest reduction, 80-90% depending on level of medical impairment. For bicyclist, an injury reduction was only observed between medium and high performing cars. Significant injury reductions were found for all body regions. It was also found that cars fitted with autonomous emergency braking including pedestrian detection might have a 60-70% lower crash involvement than expected. Based on these results, it was recommended that pedestrian protection are implemented on a global scale to provide protection for vulnerable road users worldwide. PMID:26192956

  20. Multiple thoracic vertebral compression fractures caused by non-accidental injury: case report with radiological-pathological correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twomey, Eilish L.; Iemsawatdikul, Kriengkrai; Stephens, Boyd G.; Gooding, Charles A. [Department of Radiology, University of California at San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, Box 0628, 94143-0628, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2004-08-01

    We report a 21-month-old boy with multiple contiguous thoracic vertebral compression fractures involving eight vertebral bodies, attributable to non-accidental injury. No subluxation was associated, however, there was extensive injury to the upper cervical and lower lumbar regions of the spinal cord. Anterosuperior beaking, thought to represent a previous injury, was evident in a mid-lumbar vertebra. Clinical examination revealed bilateral retinal hemorrhages and retinoschisis. Death occurred as a result of severe brain edema with bilateral subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhages. Radiological-pathological correlation is presented. (orig.)

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of acute crush injury of rabbit sciatic nerve: correlation with histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the relation between the quantitative assessment of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and the correlation with histology and functional recovery by using the rabbit sciatic nerve crush model. In New Zealand, 32 rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups (group A and B); all rabbits underwent crushing injury of their left sciatic nerve. In group A (n = 16), the sciatic nerves were crushed by using microvessel clamps with a strength of 3.61 kg. In group B (n = 16), the sciatic nerves were crushed with a strength of 10.50 kg. Right sciatic nerves were served as controls. Serial MRI of both hind limbs in each rabbit was performed before and at the time point of 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after crushed injury. The MRI protocol included T1-weighted spin-echo (T1WI), 3 dimension turbo spin-echo T2-weighted (3DT2WI), T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images with spectral presaturation with inversion recovery (T2WI/SPIR), balanced fast-field echo (B-FFE) and short-time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. The coronal image of the sciatic nerve was obtained. The nerve and muscle signal ratio (SIR) on each sequence was measured. The function recovery was observed and pathological examination was performed at each time point. A signal intensity increase of the distal segment of crushed sciatic nerves was found on 3DT2WI, T2WI/SP1R, B-FFE, and STIR, but not on T,WI images. Of 32 crushed nerves, 30 nerves showed high signal intensity. The correct diagnostic rate was 93.75% with false negative-positive of 6.25%. The SIR of the crushed sciatic nerve at distal portion was higher than those of the control nerves; there was a statistically significant difference (P 0.05). The SIR between group A and group B was not found statistically significantly different (P > 0.05). The SIR of crushed nerves at distal portion increased at one week after the crush injury, subsequently further increased, and reached a maximum at 2 weeks. The pathological examination revealed myelin

  2. Correlation between neuronal injury and Caspase-3 after focal ischemia in human hippocampus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚基萍; 吴爱萍; 王德生; 王立峰; 李淑霞; 徐凤琳

    2004-01-01

    Background Cerebral ischemia is a significant clinical problem, and cerebral ischemia usually causes neuron injury such as apoptosis in various brain areas, including hippocampus. Cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease (Caspases) are fundamental factors of apoptotic mechanism. Caspase-3 inhibitors show effect in attenuating brain injury after ischemia. But all the results were from animal models in research laboratories. This study aimed at investigating the correlation between the change of ischemic neuronal injury and Caspase-3 post-ischemia in human hippocampus. Methods We selected and systematized 48 post-mortem specimens from 48 patients, who died of cerebral infarction. Morphological change was firstly analyzed by observing hematoxyline/eosin-staining hippocampal sections. The expression of Caspase-3 was investigated using the methods of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method was used to clarify the involvement of Caspase-3 in neuron death. The loss of MAP 2 (MAP-2) was applied to judging the damaged area and degree of neuronal injury caused by ischemia.Results In the CA1 sector of hippocampus, Caspase-3 immunostaining modestly increased at 8 hours [8.05/high-power field (hpf)], dramatically increased at 24 hours (24.85/hpf), decreased somewhat after 72 hours. Caspase-3 mRNA was detectable at 4 hours (6.75/hpf), reached a maximum at 16 hours (17.60/hpf), faded at 72 hours. TUNEL-positive cells were detectable at 24 hours (10.76/hpf), markedly increased at 48-72 hours. The loss of MAP-2 was obviously detected at 4 hours, progressed significantly between 24 and 72 hours; MAP-2 immunoreactivity was barely detectable at 72 hours. Before 72 hours, the Caspase-3 evolution was related with the upregulation of TUNEL and the loss of MAP-2. The positive correlation between Caspase-3 mRNA and TUNEL was significant at the 0.05 level (correlation

  3. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children: Is There a Correlation With Parenting Style and Parental Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-08-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems.Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes.Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries.Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child. PMID:26266395

  4. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children: Is There a Correlation With Parenting Style and Parental Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-08-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems.Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes.Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries.Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child.

  5. Correlation of cell apoptosis with brain edema and elevated intracranial pressure in traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-feng; LIU Wei-guo; SHEN Hong; GONG Jiang-biao; YU Jun; HU Wei-wei; L(U) Shi-ting; ZHENG Xiu-jue; FU Wei-ming

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between brain edema, elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) and cell apoptosis in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: In this study, totally 42 rabbits in 7 groups were studied. Six of the animals were identified as a control group, and the remaining 36 animals were equally divided into 6 TBI groups. TBI models were produced by the modified method of Feeney. After the impact, ICP of each subject was recorded continuously by an ICP monitor until the animal was sacrificed at scheduled time. The apoptotic brain cells were detected by an terminal deoxynucleotide-transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Cerebral water content (CWC) was measured with a drying method and calculated according to the Elliott formula. Then, an analysis was conducted to determine the correlation between the count of apoptotic cells and the clinical pathological changes of the brain. Results: Apoptotic cell count began to increase 2 h after the impact, and reached its maximum about 3 days after the impact. The peak value of CWC and ICP appeared 1 day and 3 days after the impact, respectively. Apoptotic cell count had a positive correlation with CWC and ICP. Conclusions: In TBI, occurrence of brain edema and ICP increase might lead to apoptosis of brain cells. Any therapy which can relieve brain edema and/or decrease ICP would be able to reduce neuron apoptosis, thereby to attenuate the secondary brain damage.

  6. Suicidality, bullying and other conduct and mental health correlates of traumatic brain injury in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ilie

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our knowledge on the adverse correlates of traumatic brain injuries (TBI, including non-hospitalized cases, among adolescents is limited to case studies. We report lifetime TBI and adverse mental health and conduct behaviours associated with TBI among adolescents from a population-based sample in Ontario. METHOD AND FINDINGS: Data were derived from 4,685 surveys administered to adolescents in grades 7 through 12 as part of the 2011 population-based cross-sectional Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS. Lifetime TBI was defined as head injury that resulted in being unconscious for at least 5 minutes or being retained in the hospital for at least one night, and was reported by 19.5% (95%CI:17.3,21.9 of students. When holding constant sex, grade, and complex sample design, students with TBI had significantly greater odds of reporting elevated psychological distress (AOR = 1.52, attempting suicide (AOR = 3.39, seeking counselling through a crisis help-line (AOR = 2.10, and being prescribed medication for anxiety, depression, or both (AOR = 2.45. Moreover, students with TBI had higher odds of being victimized through bullying at school (AOR = 1.70, being cyber-bullied (AOR = 2.05, and being threatened with a weapon at school (AOR = 2.90, compared with students who did not report TBI. Students with TBI also had higher odds of victimizing others and engaging in numerous violent as well as nonviolent conduct behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: Significant associations between TBI and adverse internalizing and externalizing behaviours were found in this large population-based study of adolescents. Those who reported lifetime TBI were at a high risk for experiencing mental and physical health harms in the past year than peers who never had a head injury. Primary physicians should be vigilant and screen for potential mental heath and behavioural harms in adolescent patients with TBI. Efforts to prevent TBI during

  7. Correlation Between MRI and Ultrasonographic Findings in Meniscal Injuries of the Knee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sasani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate ability of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of injuries of the knee menisci including tear, intrasubstance degeneration (ISD and cyst. "nMaterials and Methods: This study included ultrasound examination of knee joints of 100 patients after MR imaging, who were referred by clinicians without informing us about their symptoms and physical examinations. Then ultrasonographic results were correlated with MRI findings. "nResults: The 23 meniscal tear diagnosis made in MR examination in different segments of menisci and 19 (82.6% cases were diagnosed sonographically and the rest were reported as ISD (13% and normal (4.4%. Among the 69 cases in which MR examination interpreted as ISD in different segments, 66.7% were reported as ISD and others were diagnosed as meniscal tear (10% and normal(23% by sonography. There was a significant correlation between ultrasound and MR findings in meniscal tears (82.6% and relatively significant in ISD(66.7%. "nConclusion: Ultrasonographic study of the menisci is an inexpensive, noninvasive, easily available and reliable imaging modality.   

  8. Awake behaving electrophysiological correlates of forelimb hyperreflexia, weakness and disrupted muscular synchronization following cervical spinal cord injury in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzer, Patrick Daniel; Meyers, Eric Christopher; Sloan, Andrew Michael; Maliakkal, Reshma; Ruiz, Andrea; Kilgard, Michael Paul; Robert, LeMoine Rennaker

    2016-07-01

    Spinal cord injury usually occurs at the level of the cervical spine and results in profound impairment of forelimb function. In this study, we recorded awake behaving intramuscular electromyography (EMG) from the biceps and triceps muscles of the impaired forelimb during volitional and reflexive forelimb movements before and after unilateral cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) in rats. C5/C6 hemicontusion reduced volitional forelimb strength by more than 50% despite weekly rehabilitation for one month post-injury. Triceps EMG during volitional strength assessment was reduced by more than 60% following injury, indicating reduced descending drive. Biceps EMG during reflexive withdrawal from a thermal stimulus was increased by 500% following injury, indicating flexor withdrawal hyperreflexia. The reduction in volitional forelimb strength was significantly correlated with volitional and reflexive biceps EMG activity. Our results support the hypothesis that biceps hyperreflexia and descending volitional drive both significantly contribute to forelimb strength deficits after cSCI and provide new insight into dynamic muscular dysfunction after cSCI. The use of multiple automated quantitative measures of forelimb dysfunction in the rodent cSCI model will likely aid the search for effective regenerative, pharmacological, and neuroprosthetic treatments for spinal cord injury. PMID:27033345

  9. Coagulopathy in Traumatic Brain Injury and Its Correlation with Progressive Hemorrhagic Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qiang; Sun, Yi-Rui; Wu, Xing; Yu, Jian; Li, Zhi-Qi; Du, Zhuo-Ying; Wu, Xue-Hai; Zhou, Liang-Fu; Hu, Jin

    2016-07-15

    The association between coagulopathy and either isolated traumatic brain injury (TBI) or progressive hemorrhagic injury (PHI) remains controversial. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether isolated TBI induces pronounced coagulopathy, in comparison with non-TBI or TBI in conjunction with other injuries (TBI + other injuries), and to examine whether there is any evidence of a relationship between coagulopathy and PHI in patients who have experienced TBI. The MEDLINE(®) and Embase databases, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Central), were trawled for relevant studies. Searches covered the period from the inception of each of the databases to June 2015, and were conducted using appropriate combinations of terms and key words based on medical subject headings (MeSH). Studies were included if they compared isolated TBI with a similar severity of injury to other body regions, or compared PHI with non-PHI, with regard to coagulation tests and the prevalence of coagulopathy. We extracted the means and standard deviations (SD) of coagulation test levels, as well as their ranges or the percentage of abnormal coagulation tests, in both cases and controls. A total of 19 studies were included in our systematic review and meta-analysis. Only the mean fibrinogen (FIB) in isolated TBI was found to be significantly higher than in TBI + other injuries (pooled mean difference [MD] 32.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.92-59.25; p = 0.02); in contrast, it was also significantly higher than in non-TBI (pooled MD 15.44; 95% CI 0.28-30.59; p = 0.05). We identified 15 studies that compared coagulopathy between a PHI group and a non-PHI group. The PHI group had a lower platelet count (PLT) value (pooled MD -19.21; 95% CI: -26.99 to -11.44, p international normalized ratio (INR) value (pooled MD 0.07; 95% CI: 0.02-0.13, p = 0.006) than the non-PHI group, but no differences were observed in the mean activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT

  10. Reliability of dynamic sitting balance tests and their correlations with functional mobility for wheelchair users with chronic spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L. Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a reliable and valid tool for measuring the dynamic sitting balance of wheelchair users with spinal cord injury. The balance tests were performed in nine patients with chronic spinal cord injury (average of 17.2 years postinjury between levels C6 and L1, while they were sitting in their wheelchairs and on a standardized stool (unsupported sitting, twice, 7 days apart. Limits of stability (LOS and sequential weight shifting (SWS were designed in this study. The balance tests measured participants' volitional weight shifting in multiple directions within their base of support. Their mobility scores on the Spinal Cord Independence Measure III were correlated with the balance test results. The LOS results showed moderate to excellent test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.673 to 0.990 for both the wheelchair and the unsupported sitting. The SWS results showed moderate to excellent reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.688 to 0.952. The LOS results correlated significantly with the Spinal Cord Independence Measure III mobility scores only in case of unsupported sitting, but the SWS test results showed significant correlations in both sitting conditions. To sum up, the sitting LOS and SWS tests are reliable and valid tools for assessing the dynamic sitting balance control of patients with spinal cord injury.

  11. The early IL-6 and IL-10 response in trauma is correlated with injury severity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, J; Christiansen, M; Tønnesen, E;

    2009-01-01

    in the first 24 h after trauma and to assess the relationship with severity of injury and mortality. METHODS: Prospective, descriptive cohort study in a Level 1 trauma centre, Copenhagen, Denmark. We included 265 consecutive adult trauma patients admitted directly from the accident scene during an 18-month...... period. Serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were measured upon arrival and at 6, 12, and 24 h after admittance using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between Injury Severity Score (ISS) and levels of IL-6 and IL-10. Analysis of variance was used...

  12. Connectomic and surface-based morphometric correlates of acute mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia eDall'Acqua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced integrity of white matter (WM pathways and subtle anomalies in gray matter (GM morphology have been hypothesized as mechanisms in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI. However, findings on structural brain changes in early stages after mTBI are inconsistent and findings related to early symptoms severity are rare.Fifty-one patients were assessed with multimodal neuroimaging and clinical methods exclusively within 7 days following mTBI and compared to 53 controls. Whole-brain connectivity based on diffusion tensor imaging was subjected to network-based statistics, whereas cortical surface area, thickness, and volume based on T1-weighted MRI scans were investigated using surface-based morphometric analysis. Reduced connectivity strength within a subnetwork of 59 edges located predominantly in bilateral frontal lobes was significantly associated with higher levels of self-reported symptoms. In addition, cortical surface area decreases were associated with stronger complaints in five clusters located in bilateral frontal and postcentral cortices, and in the right inferior temporal region. Alterations in WM and GM were localized in similar brain regions and moderately-to-strongly related to each other. Furthermore, the reduction of cortical surface area in the frontal regions was correlated with poorer attentive-executive performance in the mTBI group. Finally, group differences were detected in both the WM and GM, especially when focusing on a subgroup of patients with greater complaints, indicating the importance of classifying mTBI patients according to severity of symptoms. This study provides evidence that mTBI affects not only the integrity of WM networks by means of axonal damage but also the morphology of the cortex during the initial post-injury period. These anomalies might be greater in the acute period than previously believed and the involvement of frontal brain regions was consistently pronounced in both findings. The dysconnected

  13. Illness, Injury, and Correlates of Aerobic Exercise and Walking: A Community Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, C. Richard; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A sample of Californians was surveyed to explore differences in aerobic exercise and walking behavior among healthy subjects and subjects with illness/injury serious enough to limit physical activity. Results indicate different patterns of determinants of exercise within various illness/injury groups. This implies interventions to increase…

  14. Reorganization of Functional Connectivity as a Correlate of Cognitive Recovery in Acquired Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Paul, Nuria; Ordonez, Victoria E.; Demuynck, Olivier; Bajo, Ricardo; Campo, Pablo; Bilbao, Alvaro; Ortiz, Tomas; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestu, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive processes require a functional interaction between specialized multiple, local and remote brain regions. Although these interactions can be strongly altered by an acquired brain injury, brain plasticity allows network reorganization to be principally responsible for recovery. The present work evaluates the impact of brain injury on…

  15. The Moderating Effects of Sex and Age on the Association between Traumatic Brain Injury and Harmful Psychological Correlates among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Ilie; Adlaf, Edward M.; Mann, Robert E.; Angela Boak; Hayley Hamilton; Mark Asbridge; Angela Colantonio; Nigel E Turner; Jürgen Rehm; Cusimano, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although it is well established that sex is a risk factor in acquiring a traumatic brain injury (TBI) among adolescents, it has not been established whether it also moderates the influence of other TBI psychological health correlates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data were derived from a 2011 population-based cross-sectional school survey, which included 9,288 Ontario 7th-12th graders who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Response rate was 62%. Prelimina...

  16. Correlation of brain levels of progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone with neurological recovery after traumatic brain injury in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Ana Belen; Acaz-Fonseca, Estefania; Giatti, Silvia; Caruso, Donatella; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Melcangi, Roberto C; Garcia-Segura, Luis M

    2015-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of disability in humans. Neuroactive steroids, such as progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), are neuroprotective in TBI models. However in order to design potential neuroprotective strategies based on neuroactive steroids it is important to determine whether its brain levels are altered by TBI. In this study we have used a weight-drop model of TBI in young adult female mice to determine the levels of neuroactive steroids in the brain and plasma at 24h, 72 h and 2 weeks after injury. We have also analyzed whether the levels of neuroactive steroids after TBI correlated with the neurological score of the animals. TBI caused neurological deficit detectable at 24 and 72 h, which recovered by 2 weeks after injury. Brain levels of progesterone, tetrahydroprogesterone (THP), isopregnanolone and 17β-estradiol were decreased 24h, 72 h and 2 weeks after TBI. DHEA and brain testosterone levels presented a transient decrease at 24h after lesion. Brain levels of progesterone and DHEA showed a positive correlation with neurological recovery. Plasma analyses showed that progesterone was decreased 72 h after lesion but, in contrast with brain progesterone, its levels did not correlate with neurological deficit. These findings indicate that TBI alters the levels of neuroactive steroids in the brain with independence of its plasma levels and suggest that the pharmacological increase in the brain of the levels of progesterone and DHEA may result in the improvement of neurological recovery after TBI.

  17. The moderating effects of sex and age on the association between traumatic brain injury and harmful psychological correlates among adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ilie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although it is well established that sex is a risk factor in acquiring a traumatic brain injury (TBI among adolescents, it has not been established whether it also moderates the influence of other TBI psychological health correlates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data were derived from a 2011 population-based cross-sectional school survey, which included 9,288 Ontario 7th-12th graders who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Response rate was 62%. Preliminary analyses found no evidence of nonresponse bias in the reporting of TBI. TBI was defined as a hit or blow to the head that resulted in a 5 minutes loss of consciousness or at least one overnight hospitalization due to symptoms associated with it. Reports of lifetime TBI were more common among males than females (23.1%, 95% CI: 20.5, 25.8 vs. 17.1%, 95% CI: 14.7, 19.8. Thirteen correlates were examined and included cigarette smoking, elevated psychological distress, suicide ideation, bully victimization (at school, as well as cyber bullying, bullying others, cannabis use, cannabis dependence and drug use problems, physical injuries, daily smoking, drinking alcohol, binge drinking, use of cannabis, and poor academic performance. Among the outcomes examined, sex moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and cigarette smoking. In addition, sex and age jointly moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and daily smoking, alcohol use and physical injuries. Late adolescent males who reported lifetime TBI, relative to females, displayed elevated daily smoking and injuries, whereas their females counterparts displayed elevated past year drinking. Possible bias related to self-report procedures and the preclusion of causal inferences due to the cross-sectional nature of the data are limitations of this study. CONCLUSIONS: TBI differences in outcomes need to be assessed for potential moderating effects of sex and age. Results have important implications for

  18. Correlates of undefined cause of injury coded mortality data in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kirsten; Chen, Linping; Walker, Susan M

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research was to identify the level of detail regarding the external causes of death in Australia and ascertain problematic areas where data quality improvement efforts may be focused. The 2003 national mortality dataset of 12,591 deaths with an external cause of injury as the underlying cause of death (UCOD) or multiple cause of death (MCOD) based on ICD-10 code assignment from death certificate information was obtained. Logistic regression models were used to examine the precision of coded external cause of injury data. It was found that overall, accidents were the most poorly defined of all intent code blocks with over 30% of accidents being undefined, representing 2,314 deaths in 2003. More undefined codes were identified in MCOD data than for UCOD data. Deaths certified by doctors were more likely to use undefined codes than deaths certified by a coroner or government medical office. To improve the quality of external cause of injuries leading to or associated with death, certifiers need to be made aware of the importance of documenting all information pertaining to the cause of the injury and the intent behind the incident, either through education or more explicit instructions on the death certificate and accompanying instructional materials. It is important that researchers are aware of the validity of the data when they make interpretations as to the underlying causes of fatal injuries and causes of injury associated with deaths.

  19. Correlation of serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin with acute kidney injury in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel ML

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ML Patel,1 Rekha Sachan,2 Radheyshyam Gangwar,3 Pushpalata Sachan,4 SM Natu51Department of Medicine, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India; 3Department of Critical Care, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India; 4Department of Physiology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India; 5Department of Pathology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaAbstract: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP remain one of the largest single causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, accounting for 16.1% of maternal deaths in developed countries. The aim of the study was to evaluate acute kidney injury (AKI in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and to examine the correlation of serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL with acute kidney injury. This prospective case control study was carried out over a period of 1 year. After written, informed consent and ethical clearance, 149 cases of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were screened, and seven were lost to follow-up. Acute kidney injury was detected in 88 cases and acute renal failure in 30 cases of HDP. Thirty-one healthy pregnant nonhypertensive women were enrolled as controls. Quantitative measurement of serum NGAL levels was done by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. As per the Kidney Diseases Improving Global Outcomes International guidelines acute kidney injury network (AKIN, 50 cases (42.37% of AKI stage I, 38 (32.2% cases of AKI stage II, and 30 (25.42% cases of renal failure were detected. Serum NGAL had a positive association with increasing proteinuria. It also had a positive correlation with systolic blood pressure (r~0.36, diastolic blood pressure (r~0.37, and serum creatinine (r~0

  20. Changes of intracellular calcium and the correlation with functional damage of the spinal cord after spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章亚东; 侯树勋; 吴叶

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To observe dynamic changes of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) after spinal cord injury, and to study the relationship between the changes of [Ca2+]i and the functional damage of the spinal cord.   Methods: The rats were subjected to a spinal cord contusion by using a modified Allens method. The [Ca2+]i in the injured segment of the spinal cord was measured by the technique of La3+ blockage and atomic absorption spectroscopy at 1, 4, 8, 24, 72, and 168 hours after injury. The motor function on the inclined plane was measured at the same time.   Results: The spinal cord [Ca2+]i increased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01) after spinal cord injury. There was a significant correlation (P<0.05) between the changes of [Ca2+]i and the motor function.   Conclusions: [Ca2+]i overload may play an important role in the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury.

  1. Impulsive and compulsive self-injurious behavior in bulimia nervosa: prevalence and psychological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, A; Santonastaso, P

    1998-03-01

    A specific link between self-injurious behavior and bulimia nervosa has been observed. In affective spectrum disorders, some authors propose a distinction between impulsive and compulsive self-injurious behavior. One of the aims of the present study is to examine how different kinds of self-injurious behavior, including purging behavior, may be classified in bulimia nervosa. The clinical impact of the different types of self-injury will be studied. The subjects of the study were 125 consecutive patients with bulimia nervosa, diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria. Subjects were evaluated by means of a semistructured interview and self-report questionnaires (Eating Disorders Inventory and Hopkins Symptom Checklist). In our sample, the distinction between compulsive and impulsive self-injurious behavior appeared to be confirmed by a principal component analysis. Self-induced vomiting loaded on the compulsive dimension and laxative abuse on the impulsive dimension. To study the clinical impact of the two kinds of behavior, bulimic subjects were divided according to their position in the two dimensions. The presence of impulsive self-injurious behavior is associated with a history of sexual abuse and with higher scores on the Symptom Checklist. The presence of both impulsive and compulsive behavior is associated with greater depression, whereas the presence of impulsive features in the absence of compulsive ones seems to be linked to a longer duration of illness and to a higher dropout rate. Both compulsive and impulsive self-injurious behaviors are associated with a greater lack of interoceptive awareness. PMID:9521351

  2. Prevalence and correlates of needle-stick injuries among active duty police officers in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, María Luisa; Beletsky, Leo; Patiño, Efraín; Abramovitz, Daniela; Rocha, Teresita; Arredondo, Jaime; Bañuelos, Arnulfo; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Police officers are at an elevated risk for needle-stick injuries (NSI), which pose a serious and costly occupational health risk for HIV and viral hepatitis. However, research on NSIs among police officers is limited, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the legality of syringe possession in Mexico, half of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana report extrajudicial syringe-related arrests and confiscation by police, which has been associated with needle-sharing and HIV infection. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of NSIs among Tijuana police officers to inform efforts to improve occupational safety and simultaneously reduce HIV risks among police and PWID. Methods Tijuana's Department of Municipal Public Safety (SSPM) is among Mexico's largest. Our binational, multi-sectoral team analyzed de-identified data from SSPM's 2014 anonymous self-administered occupational health survey. The prevalence of NSI and syringe disposal practices was determined. Logistic regression with robust variance estimation via generalized estimating equations identified factors associated with ever having an occupational NSI. Results Approximately one-quarter of the Tijuana police force was given the occupational health survey (N=503). Respondents were predominantly male (86.5%) and ≤35 years old (42.6%). Nearly one in six officers reported ever having a NSI while working at SSPM (15.3%), of whom 14.3% reported a NSI within the past year. Most participants reported encountering needles/syringes while on duty (n=473, 94%); factors independently associated with elevated odds of NSIs included frequently finding syringes that contain drugs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.98; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56–5.67) and breaking used needles (AOR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.29–3.91), while protective factors included being willing to contact emergency services in case of NSIs (AOR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.22–0.69), and wearing needle-stick resistant gloves (AOR: 0

  3. Prevalence and correlates of needle-stick injuries among active duty police officers in Tijuana, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Mittal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Police officers are at an elevated risk for needle-stick injuries (NSI, which pose a serious and costly occupational health risk for HIV and viral hepatitis. However, research on NSIs among police officers is limited, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the legality of syringe possession in Mexico, half of people who inject drugs (PWID in Tijuana report extrajudicial syringe-related arrests and confiscation by police, which has been associated with needle-sharing and HIV infection. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of NSIs among Tijuana police officers to inform efforts to improve occupational safety and simultaneously reduce HIV risks among police and PWID. Methods: Tijuana's Department of Municipal Public Safety (SSPM is among Mexico's largest. Our binational, multi-sectoral team analyzed de-identified data from SSPM's 2014 anonymous self-administered occupational health survey. The prevalence of NSI and syringe disposal practices was determined. Logistic regression with robust variance estimation via generalized estimating equations identified factors associated with ever having an occupational NSI. Results: Approximately one-quarter of the Tijuana police force was given the occupational health survey (N=503. Respondents were predominantly male (86.5% and ≤35 years old (42.6%. Nearly one in six officers reported ever having a NSI while working at SSPM (15.3%, of whom 14.3% reported a NSI within the past year. Most participants reported encountering needles/syringes while on duty (n=473, 94%; factors independently associated with elevated odds of NSIs included frequently finding syringes that contain drugs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 2.98; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.56–5.67 and breaking used needles (AOR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.29–3.91, while protective factors included being willing to contact emergency services in case of NSIs (AOR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.22–0.69, and wearing needle-stick resistant

  4. Neurocritical care monitoring correlates with neuropathology in a swine model of pediatric traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Friess, Stuart H.; Ralston, Jill; Eucker, Stephanie A.; Helfaer, Mark A.; Smith, Colin; Margulies, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    Small-animal models have been used in traumatic brain injury (TBI) research to investigate the basic mechanisms and pathology of TBI. Unfortunately, successful TBI investigations in small-animal models have not resulted in marked improvements in clinical outcomes of TBI patients.

  5. Correlation between radiological assessment of acute ankle fractures and syndesmotic injury on MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, J.J.; Wentink, N.; Beumer, A.; Hop, W.C.J.; Heijboer, M.P.; Moonen, A.F.C.M.; Ginai, A.Z.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Owing to the shortcomings of clinical examination and radiographs, injury to the syndesmotic ligaments is often misdiagnosed. When there is no indication requiring that the fractured ankle be operated on, the syndesmosis is not tested intra-operatively, and rupture of this ligamentous com

  6. Correlation between radiological assessment of acute ankle fractures and syndesmotic injury on MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Hermans (John); N. Wentink; A. Beumer (Annechien); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); M.P. Heijboer (Rien); A.F.C.M. Moonen (Adrianus F.C.M.); A.Z. Ginai (Abida)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Owing to the shortcomings of clinical examination and radiographs, injury to the syndesmotic ligaments is often misdiagnosed. When there is no indication requiring that the fractured ankle be operated on, the syndesmosis is not tested intra-operatively, and rupture of this lig

  7. An experimental study on acute brain radiation injury: Dynamic changes in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the correlation with histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui, E-mail: lihui@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Jian-peng, E-mail: lijp@sysucc.org.cn [Department of Radiology, Dongguan People' s Hospital, Dongguan City (China); Lin, Cheng-guang, E-mail: linchg@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Xue-wen, E-mail: liuxw@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Geng, Zhi-jun, E-mail: gengzhj@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Mo, Yun-xian, E-mail: moyx@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Rong, E-mail: zhangr@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Xie, Chuan-miao, E-mail: xchuanm@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between the alterations of single-voxel {sup 1}H MRS and the histopathological characteristics of radiation brain injury following radiation. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven rabbits were randomized into nine groups to receive radiation with a single dose of 25 Gy. The observation time points included a pre-radiation and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 wk following radiation. Each treatment group underwent conventional MRI and single-voxel {sup 1}H MRS, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr) were observed over the region of interest, and the presence or absence of lactate (Lac) and lipid (Lip) was detected. Histological specimens of each group were obtained after image acquisition. Results: The values of Cho were significantly increased in the first 3 wk, and decreased over the following 5 wk after radiation. Levels of NAA showed a trend toward a decrease 5 wk after radiation. The levels of Cr were not changed between before and after radiation. The Cho/NAA metabolic ratio was significantly increased in weeks 6, 7, and 8 following irradiation, compared to pre-radiation values. Vascular and glial injury appeared on 2 wk after RT in the histology samples, until 4 wk after RT, necrosis of the oligodendrocytes, neuronal degeneration and demyelination could be observed. Conclusions: MRS is sensitive to detect metabolic changes following radiation, and can be used in the early diagnosis of radiation brain injury.

  8. Correlation between diagnosis and MRI signal pattern in incomplete paralysis of chronic spinal cord injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyama, Tetsuo; Nihei, Ryuichi; Kimura, Tetsuhiko; Kumura, Hiromitsu; Tobimatsu, Yoshiko (National Rehabilitation Center for the Disabled, Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan))

    1994-10-01

    In incomplete paralysis of spinal cord injury, the clinical symptoms frequently do not coincide with MRI findings. A study of the relationship between the diagnosis and MRI signal pattern was made. The level of spinal cord injury was seen at C[sub 3/4] and C[sub 4/5] in most of the 27 patients. The most frequent type of T[sub 2] signal pattern was oval, and the second was the girdle type in the coronal plane. The coincidence of diagnosis with MRI was found to be 86% in the small type, 55% in the middle type and 67% in the large type. In three dimensions, ellipsoid was 56%, polygon 22%, cone 18.5%, gourd 3.5%. (author).

  9. Correlation between diagnosis and MRI signal pattern in incomplete paralysis of chronic spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In incomplete paralysis of spinal cord injury, the clinical symptoms frequently do not coincide with MRI findings. A study of the relationship between the diagnosis and MRI signal pattern was made. The level of spinal cord injury was seen at C3/4 and C4/5 in most of the 27 patients. The most frequent type of T2 signal pattern was oval, and the second was the girdle type in the coronal plane. The coincidence of diagnosis with MRI was found to be 86% in the small type, 55% in the middle type and 67% in the large type. In three dimensions, ellipsoid was 56%, polygon 22%, cone 18.5%, gourd 3.5%. (author)

  10. The effects of concomitant Ginkgo intake on noise induced Hippocampus injury. Possible auditory clinical correlate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Abousetta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the injurious effects of noise on the hippocampus, and to show whether Ginkgo biloba (Gb has any modulatory effect on hippocampal injury. Fifteen adult male albino rats were divided into three groups; control group, noise group and protected group. The noise group was exposed to 100 dB Sound pressure level (SPL white noise, six hours/day for four consecutive weeks. The protected group was exposed to the same noise level with the administration of Gb extract to the animals (50 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks. In the noise exposed group, both pyramidal cell layer and dentate gyrus (DG granular cell layer showed a decrease in thickness with loss and degeneration of many cells. The protected group showed preservation of many parameters as compared to the noise group i.e. increase in thickness of Cornu Ammonis area3 (CA3 & DG; increase in surface area of cells and increased vascularity. In conclusion, noise had detrimental effects on cells of Cornu Ammonis area1 (CA1, CA3 & DG of the hippocampus. In view of this finding, the clinical auditory hazardous effects in people exposed to harmful noise such as tinnitus, as well as memory disturbances and learning disabilities might have a new dimension. The administration of Gb protected the hippocampus against the injurious effect of noise. The probable mechanism and usefulness of Gb in reducing the previously mentioned effects are discussed.

  11. Abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging seen acutely following mild traumatic brain injury: correlation with neuropsychological tests and delayed recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, David G.; Jackson, Alan [Department of Neuroradiology, Hope Hospital, M6 8HD, Salford (United Kingdom); Mason, Damon L.; Berry, Elizabeth [Department of Behavioural Medicine, Hope Hospital, M6 8HD, Salford (United Kingdom); Hollis, Sally [Medical Statistics Unit, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Yates, David W. [Department of Emergency Medicine, Hope Hospital, M6 8HD, Salford (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a common reason for hospital attendance and is associated with significant delayed morbidity. We studied a series of 80 persons with MTBI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing were used in the acute phase and a questionnaire for post-concussion syndrome (PCS) and return to work status at 6 months. In 26 subjects abnormalities were seen on MRI, of which 5 were definitely traumatic. There was weak correlation with abnormal neuropsychological tests for attention in the acute period. There was no significant correlation with a questionnaire for PCS and return to work status. Although non-specific abnormalities are frequently seen, standard MRI techniques are not helpful in identifying patients with MTBI who are likely to have delayed recovery. (orig.)

  12. Clinical correlates of the spectrum of lung microvascular injury in human noncardiac edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers measured the clearance from blood to pulmonary edema fluid of a small molecular researchersight hydrophilic radiotracer, Indium-111-DTPA (In-DTPA) and a larger molecular researchrsight radiotracer, Iodine-125-HSA (I-HSA), in patients with pulmonary edema on either a cardiac or noncardiac (permeability) basis. In previous investigations, researchers had noted an apparent relationship between the magnitude of clearance of I-HSA across the alveolocapillary membrane and the severity of noncardiac pulmonary edema. In this study, researchers were able to distinguish at least 2 distinct groups of patients with noncardiac pulmonary edema. Patients with the greatest damage to the alveolo-capillary exchanging membrane, defined by the flux of I-HSA from blood to edema fluid, were significantly differentiated from those with a lesser microvascular injury on the basis of higher mean heart rate (HR), temperature, cardiac index (CI), pulmonary artery pressures, right ventricular stroke work index (RVSWI), and a lower mean total white blood cell count (WBC), among others. Therefore, noncardiac pulmonary edema is characterized by a spectrum of permeability injury to the pulmonary microvasculature which seems to parallel other measurable indices of the severity of the systemic response to the illness

  13. Correlates of Non-suicidal Self-injury and Suicide Attempts in Bulimic Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Gómez-Expósito

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the implication of personality, impulsivity, and emotion regulation difficulties in patients with a bulimic-spectrum disorder (BSD and suicide attempts (SA, BSD patients with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI, and BSD patients without these behaviors. Method: 122 female adult BSD patients were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Patients were clustered post-hoc into three groups depending on whether they presented BSD without NSSI or SA (BSD, BSD with lifetime NSSI (BSD+NSSI or BSD with lifetime SA (BSD+SA. Results: The BSD+NSSI and BSD+SA groups presented more emotion regulation difficulties, more eating and general psychopathology, and increased reward dependence in comparison with the BSD group. In addition, BSD+SA patients specifically showed problems with impulse control, while also presenting higher impulsivity than both the BSD and BSD+NSSI groups. No differences in impulsivity between the BSD and BSD+NSSI groups were found. Conclusions: The results show that BSD + NSSI and BSD+SA share a common profile characterized by difficulties in emotion regulation and low reward dependence, but differ in impulsivity and cooperativeness. This suggests that self-injury, in patients without a history of suicide attempts (i.e. BSD+NSSI, may have a regulatory role rather than being due to impulsivity.

  14. Correlates of Non-suicidal Self-Injury and Suicide Attempts in Bulimic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Expósito, Alexandra; Wolz, Ines; Fagundo, Ana B.; Granero, Roser; Steward, Trevor; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Agüera, Zaida; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the implication of personality, impulsivity, and emotion regulation difficulties in patients with a bulimic-spectrum disorder (BSD) and suicide attempts (SA), BSD patients with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), and BSD patients without these behaviors. Method: One hundred and twenty-two female adult BSD patients were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Patients were clustered post-hoc into three groups depending on whether they presented BSD without NSSI or SA (BSD), BSD with lifetime NSSI (BSD + NSSI) or BSD with lifetime SA (BSD + SA). Results: The BSD + NSSI and BSD + SA groups presented more emotion regulation difficulties, more eating and general psychopathology, and increased reward dependence in comparison with the BSD group. In addition, BSD + SA patients specifically showed problems with impulse control, while also presenting higher impulsivity than both the BSD and BSD + NSSI groups. No differences in impulsivity between the BSD and BSD + NSSI groups were found. Conclusions: The results show that BSD + NSSI and BSD + SA share a common profile characterized by difficulties in emotion regulation and low reward dependence, but differ in impulsivity and cooperativeness. This suggests that self-injury, in patients without a history of suicide attempts (i.e., BSD + NSSI), may have a regulatory role rather than being due to impulsivity. PMID:27597836

  15. CORRELATION OF MRI GRADING OF BONE STRESS INJURIES WITH CLINICAL RISK FACTORS AND RETURN TO PLAY: A 5-YEAR PROSPECTIVE STUDY IN COLLEGIATE TRACK AND FIELD ATHLETES

    OpenAIRE

    Nattiv, A; Kennedy, G; Barrack, MT; Abdelkerim, A; Goolsby, MA; Arends, JC; Seeger, LL

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bone stress injuries are common in track and field athletes. Knowledge of risk factors and correlation of these to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) grading could be helpful in determining recovery time. Purpose: To examine the relationships between MRI grading of bone stress injuries with clinical risk factors and time to return to sport in collegiate track and field athletes. Study Design: Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A total of 211 male and female col...

  16. Acute inversion injury of the ankle without radiological abnormalities: assessment with high-field MR imaging and correlation of findings with clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute inversion injuries of the ankle are the most common sports accidents, accounting for approximately 10% of emergency room admissions. In up to 85%, an injury of the lateral collateral ligaments is observed. Classically, the assessment of these injuries has relied on clinical examination and radiographs, including stress views. The aim of our study was to correlate prospectively the findings of high-field 3 T MRI in acute ankle distortion with clinical outcome. During a 6-month period, 38 patients were prospectively included. MRI was performed within 48 h of trauma and clinical examination using a protocol consisting of axial T2-weighted and coronal and sagittal T1-weighted images and a sagittal proton density (PDw) sequence. Each ligament injury was graded on a three-point scale. Functional outcome was evaluated using the AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scale. In 24/38 patients (63.12%), ligament injury was observed. In 22/24 cases, this was an injury of the lateral ligaments and in 2/24 cases of the medial ligaments. Injury of the syndesmosis occurred in three patients, a bone bruise in four, and an osteochondral lesion in three cases. Patients with an injury of two or more ligaments or a bone bruise had a lower AOFAS score and returned to sports activities and full weight-bearing later (P < 0.01). MR imaging at 3 Tesla is an independent predictor for clinical outcome. Therefore MRI may be beneficial in those cases where the findings influence further treatment. (orig.)

  17. Acute inversion injury of the ankle without radiological abnormalities: assessment with high-field MR imaging and correlation of findings with clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, Inga; Frank, Matthias; Hinz, Peter; Ekkernkamp, Axel [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, Department of Trauma and Orthopedic Surgery, Emergency Department, Greifswald (Germany); Kuehn, Jens Peter; Hosten, Norbert; Langner, Soenke [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, Institute for Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Acute inversion injuries of the ankle are the most common sports accidents, accounting for approximately 10% of emergency room admissions. In up to 85%, an injury of the lateral collateral ligaments is observed. Classically, the assessment of these injuries has relied on clinical examination and radiographs, including stress views. The aim of our study was to correlate prospectively the findings of high-field 3 T MRI in acute ankle distortion with clinical outcome. During a 6-month period, 38 patients were prospectively included. MRI was performed within 48 h of trauma and clinical examination using a protocol consisting of axial T2-weighted and coronal and sagittal T1-weighted images and a sagittal proton density (PDw) sequence. Each ligament injury was graded on a three-point scale. Functional outcome was evaluated using the AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scale. In 24/38 patients (63.12%), ligament injury was observed. In 22/24 cases, this was an injury of the lateral ligaments and in 2/24 cases of the medial ligaments. Injury of the syndesmosis occurred in three patients, a bone bruise in four, and an osteochondral lesion in three cases. Patients with an injury of two or more ligaments or a bone bruise had a lower AOFAS score and returned to sports activities and full weight-bearing later (P < 0.01). MR imaging at 3 Tesla is an independent predictor for clinical outcome. Therefore MRI may be beneficial in those cases where the findings influence further treatment. (orig.)

  18. Expression and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase correlate with ethanol-induced liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Jin Yuan; Xiao-Rong Zhou; Zuo-Jiong Gong; Pin Zhang; Xiao-Mei Sun; Shi-Hua Zheng

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in rats with ethanol-induced liver injury and their relation with liver damage, activation of nuclear factor-KB (NF-кB) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)expression in the liver.METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given fish oil (0.5 mL) along with ethanol or isocaloric dextrose daily via gastrogavage for 4 or 6 wk. Liver injury was assessed using serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT)activity and pathological analysis. Liver malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide contents, iNOS and eNOS activity were determined. NF-KB p65, iNOS, eNOS and TNF-αprotein or mRNA expression in the liver were detected by immunohistochemistry or reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).RESULTS: Chronic ethanol gavage for 4 wk caused steatosis, inflammation and necrosis in the liver, and elevated serum ALT activity. Prolonged ethanol administration (6 wk) enhanced the liver damage. These responses were accompanied with increased lipid peroxidation, NO contents, iNOS activity and reduced eNOS activity. NF-кB p65, iNOS and TNF-α protein or mRNA expression were markedly induced after chronic ethanol gavage, whereas eNOS mRNA expression remained unchanged. The enhanced iNOS activity and expression were positively correlated with the liver damage, especially the necro-inflammation, activation of NF-кB, and TNF-α mRNA expression.CONCLUSION: iNOS expression and activity are induced in the liver after chronic ethanol exposure in rats, which are correlated with the liver damage, especially the necro-inflammation, activation of NF-KB and TNF-αexpression. eNOS activity is reduced, but its mRNA expression is not affected.

  19. Neural correlates of apathy revealed by lesion mapping in participants with traumatic brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Kristine M; Monte, Olga Dal; Raymont, Vanessa; Wassermann, Eric M; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-03-01

    Apathy, common in neurological disorders, is defined as disinterest and loss of motivation, with a reduction in self-initiated activity. Research in diseased populations has shown that apathy is associated with variations in the volume of brain regions such as the anterior cingulate and the frontal lobes. The goal of this study was to determine the neural signatures of apathy in people with penetrating traumatic brain injuries (pTBIs), as to our knowledge, these have not been studied in this sample. We studied 176 male Vietnam War veterans with pTBIs using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and apathy scores from the UCLA Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), a structured inventory of symptoms completed by a caregiver. Our results revealed that increased apathy symptoms were associated with brain damage in limbic and cortical areas of the left hemisphere including the anterior cingulate, inferior, middle, and superior frontal regions, insula, and supplementary motor area. Our results are consistent with the literature, and extend them to people with focal pTBI. Apathy is a significant symptom since it can reduce participation of the patient in family and other social interactions, and diminish affective decision-making.

  20. Distinct neuropsychological correlates of cognitive, behavioural and affective apathy sub-domains in acquired brain injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Progress eNjomboro; Shoumitro eDeb

    2014-01-01

    Apathy has a high prevalence and a significant contribution to treatment and rehabilitation outcomes in acquired brain damage. Research on the disorder’s neuropsychological correlates has produced mixed results. While the mixed picture may be due to the use of varied assessment tools on different patient populations, it’s also the case that most studies treat apathy as a unitary syndrome. This is in spite of evidence that apathy is a multifaceted and multidimensional syndrome. This study inve...

  1. For veterans with mild traumatic brain injury, improved posttraumatic stress disorder severity and sleep correlated with symptomatic improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne S. Ruff, PhD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This was an observational study of a cohort of 63 Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI associated with an explosion. They had headaches, residual neurological deficits (NDs on neurological examination, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and were seen on average 2.5 years after their last mTBI. We treated them with sleep hygiene counseling and oral prazosin. We monitored headache severity, daytime sleepiness using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, cognitive performance using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test, and the presence of NDs. We quantitatively measured olfaction and assessed PTSD severity using the PTSD Checklist-Military Version. Nine weeks after starting sleep counseling and bedtime prazosin, the veterans’ headache severity decreased, cognitive function as assayed with a brief screening tool improved, and daytime sleepiness diminished. Six months after completing treatment, the veterans demonstrated additional improvement in headache severity and daytime sleepiness and their improvements in cognitive function persisted. There were no changes in the prevalence of NDs or olfaction scores. Clinical improvements correlated with reduced PTSD severity and daytime sleepiness. The data suggested that reduced clinical manifestations following mTBI correlated with PTSD severity and improvement in sleep, but not the presence of NDs or olfaction impairment.

  2. Multimodal MR imaging of acute and subacute experimental traumatic brain injury: Time course and correlation with cerebral energy metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and permanent disability world-wide. The predominant cause of death after TBI is brain edema which can be quantified by non-invasive diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI). To provide a better understanding of the early onset, time course, spatial development, and type of brain edema after TBI and to correlate MRI data and the cerebral energy state reflected by the metabolite adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The spontaneous development of lateral fluid percussion-induced TBI was investigated in the acute (6 h), subacute (48 h), and chronic (7 days) phase in rats by MRI of quantitative T2 and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping as well as perfusion was combined with ATP-specific bioluminescence imaging and histology. An induced TBI led to moderate to mild brain damages, reflected by transient, pronounced development of vasogenic edema and perfusion reduction. Heterogeneous ADC patterns indicated a parallel, but mixed expression of vasogenic and cytotoxic edema. Cortical ATP levels were reduced in the acute and subacute phase by 13% and 27%, respectively, but were completely normalized at 7 days after injury. The partial ATP reduction was interpreted to be partially caused by a loss of neurons in parallel with transient dilution of the regional ATP concentration by pronounced vasogenic edema. The normalization of energy metabolism after 7 days was likely due to infiltrating glia and not to recovery. The MRI combined with metabolite measurement further improves the understanding and evaluation of brain damages after TBI

  3. Tenascin-C levels in synovial fluid are elevated after injury to the human and canine joint and correlate with markers of inflammation and matrix degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chockalingam, P S; Glasson, S S; Lohmander, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    meniscus lesions, isolated knee meniscus injury, acute inflammatory arthritis (AIA) and knee osteoarthritis (OA). TN-C was measured in synovial fluid samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and results correlated to other cartilage markers. TN-C release was also monitored in joints...

  4. Correlation between regional cerebral blood flow and degree of brain tissue injury of interictal epileptic activity in patients with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the correlation between the change of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and brain tissue injury from interictal epileptic activity in patients with epilepsy. Methods: Forty-eight patients with epilepsy and 30 healthy persons were included in the study from which the serum S100β protein levels were determined by double antibody sandwich ELISA method. SPECT rCBF imaging was performed in all patients. The visual and semi-quantitative analyses were used to analyze the epileptic foci. SPSS 11.0 was applied for variance and linear correlation analyses. Results: Serum S-100β in patients with interictal epileptic activity was significantly higher than that in control group ((0.572±0.163) μg/L vs (0.218±0.134) μg/L, t =9.96, P<0.01). According to epilepsy control criteria, 20 cases achieved complete control (CC), 18 cases achieved partial control (PR). However, 10 cases got no improvement,whose serum S-100β protein ((0.809±0.056) μg/L) and the percentage change of rCBF ((0.337±0.060) %) were significantly higher than those of CC ((0.443±0.083) μg/L, (0.035±0.038) %) and those of PC ((0.585±0.108) μg/L, (0.187±0.075)%), F=56. 740, 92. 316, P<0.01. There were high correlation between serum S-100β and the percentage change of rCBF in epilepsy patients (r =0.887, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum S-100β protein assay combined with rCBF on SPECT imaging can make semi-quantitative diagnosis of epilepsy and help evaluate the brain damage from interictal epileptic activity. (authors)

  5. Correlation between serumβ2 microglobulin and early kidney injury post neonatal asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Xia Liu; Hui-Qin Wang; Na Zhang; Wei-Na Lu; Xin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate serumβ2 microglobulin and neonatal asphyxia early renal damage correlation.Methods:A total of 84 suffocation full-term newborns in our hospital from 2012 March to 2014 November. According to the Apgar standards, divided into severe asphyxia group (n=36) and mild asphyxia group (n=48), and selected 40 cases of full-term newborn, observed blood and urinaryβ2-MG, albumin (Alb) blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) level.Results:severe asphyxia groupβ2-MG (6.02±0.96) mg/L was the highest, followed by mild asphyxia group, lowest in the control group; severe asphyxia group Alb, BUN and Cr were (22.15±6.17) mg/L, (10.01±1.84) mmol/L and (120.16±28.13)μmol/L, significantly higher than the mild asphyxia group and the control group; Mild asphyxia group and the control group Alb, BUN and Cr were not statistically significant; three groups birth 48 h,β2-MG, Alb, serum BUN and Cr showed significant differences, in which the severe asphyxia groupβ2-MG, Alb, BUN and Cr were the highest, and lowest in the control group; Severe asphyxia group was the highestβ2-MG, (7.12±1.32) mg/L; serumβ2-MG were positively associated with urineβ2-MG.Conclusion: Serumβ2-2 microglobulin in judging neonatal asphyxia early renal damage is more sensitive, and has clinical practical value.

  6. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates for serious injury among adolescents participating in the Djibouti 2007 Global School-based Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health and injury are neglected public health issues especially in low-income nations. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates for serious injury in the last 12 months. Findings The study used data of the 2007 Djibouti Global School-based Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to establish associations. Of the 1, 777 respondents, 61.1% (63.2% males and 57.8% females reported having sustained serious injury (SSI. Compared to participants who were not bullied, those who reported being bullied 3-9 days per month were more likely to have sustained serious injury in the last 12 months (AOR = 1.27; 95% CI [1.06, 1.52] for 3-5 days of bullying victimization per month, and AOR = 3.19; 95% CI [2.28, 4.47] for 6-9 days per month. Adolescents who were engaged in physical fighting were 47% (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI [1.40, 1.55] more likely to have sustained serious injury compared to those who were not engaged in the fighting. Meanwhile, adolescents who used substances (cigarettes, other forms of tobacco or drugs were 30% (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI [1.19, 1.42] more likely to have sustained serious injury compared to those who did not use substances. Conclusions Serious injury is common among adolescents in Djibouti, and we suggest that health workers attending to injured adolescents explore the patients' psycho-social environment. Further, we suggest longitudinal studies where reduction of substance use and bullying may be assessed if they have an impact in reducing serious injury among adolescents.

  7. Muscle synergies in cycling after incomplete spinal cord injury: correlation with clinical measures of motor function and spasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe O. Barroso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: After incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI, patients suffer important sensorimotor impairments, such as abnormal locomotion patterns and spasticity. Complementary to current clinical diagnostic procedures, the analysis of muscle synergies has emerged as a promising tool to study muscle coordination, which plays a major role in the control of multi-limb functional movements.Objective: Based on recent findings suggesting that walking and cycling share similar synergistic control, the analysis of muscle synergies during cycling might be explored as an early descriptor of gait-related impaired control. This idea was split into the following two hypotheses: a iSCI patients present a synergistic control of muscles during cycling; b muscle synergies outcomes extracted during cycling correlate with clinical measurements of gait performance and/or spasticity.Methods: Electromyographic (EMG activity of 13 unilateral lower limb muscles was recorded in a group of 10 healthy individuals and 10 iSCI subjects during cycling at four different cadences. A nonnegative matrix factorization (NNMF algorithm was applied to identify synergistic components (i.e., activation coefficients and muscle synergy vectors. Reconstruction goodness scores (VAF and r2 were used to evaluate the ability of a given number of synergies to reconstruct the EMG signals.A set of metrics based on the similarity between pathologic and healthy synergies were correlated with clinical scales of gait performance and spasticity.Results: iSCI patients preserved a synergistic control of muscles during cycling. The similarity with the healthy reference was consistent with the degree of the impairment, i.e., less impaired patients showed higher similarities with the healthy reference. There was a strong correlation between reconstruction goodness scores at 42 rpm motor performance scales (TUG, 10-Meter test and WISCI II. On the other hand, the similarity between the healthy and affected

  8. A correlation study of the expression of resistin and glycometabolism in muscle tissue after traumatic brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Peng; Zhu Lielie; Zhang Jiasheng; Xie Songling; Pan Da; Wen Hao; Meng Weiyang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the expression pattern of resistin (RSTN) in skeletal muscle tissue and its influence on glycometabolism in rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI).Methods:Seventy-eight SD rats were randomly divided into traumatic group (n=36),RSTN group (n=36) and sham operation group (n=6).Fluid percussion TBI model was developed in traumatic and RSTN groups and the latter received additional 1 mg RSTN antibody treatment for each rat.At respectively 12 h,24 h,72 h,1 w,2 w,and 4 w after operation,venous blood was collected and the right hind leg skeletal muscle tissue was sampled.We used real-time PCR to determine mRNA expression of RSTN in skeletal muscles,western blot to determine RSTN protein expression and ELISA to assess serum insulin as well as fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels.Calculation of the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (Q value) was also conducted.The above mentioned indicators and their correction were statistically analyzed.Results:Compared with sham operation group,the RSTN expression in the skeletal muscle as well as serum insulin and FBG levels revealed significant elevation (P<0.05),and reduced Q value (P<0.05) in traumatic group.Single factor linear correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between RSTN expression and Q values (P<0.001) in traumatic group.Conclusion:The expression of RSTN has been greatly increased in the muscular tissue of TBI rats and it was closely related to the index of glycometabolism.RSTN may play an important role in the process of insulin resistance after TBI.

  9. Dissociative, depressive, and PTSD symptom severity as correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidality in dissociative disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webermann, Aliya R; Myrick, Amie C; Taylor, Christina L; Chasson, Gregory S; Brand, Bethany L

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates whether symptom severity can distinguish patients diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified with a recent history of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts from those patients without recent self-harm. A total of 241 clinicians reported on recent history of patient NSSI and suicide attempts. Of these clinicians' patients, 221 completed dissociative, depressive, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology measures. Baseline cross-sectional data from a naturalistic and prospective study of dissociative disorder patients receiving community treatment were utilized. Analyses evaluated dissociative, depressive, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity as methods of classifying patients into NSSI and suicide attempt groupings. Results indicated that dissociation severity accurately classified patients into NSSI and suicidality groups, whereas depression severity accurately classified patients into NSSI groups. These findings point to dissociation and depression severity as important correlates of NSSI and suicidality in patients with dissociative disorders and have implications for self-harm prevention and treatment. PMID:26211678

  10. Self-injury, suicide ideation, and sexual orientation: differences in causes and correlates among high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney DeCamp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Researchhas suggested that sexual minority youth are more likely to experience a number of behavioral and health-related risk factors due to their exposure to negative attitudes and beliefs about sexual minorities. Few studies, however, have examined the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI among sexual minority youth. With self-cutting and suicidal ideation common in middle and high schools, understanding the antecedents and correlates of such behaviormay help identify troubled students and initiate preventative measures. METHODS: Bivariate probit regression analyses are performed using data from 7,326 high school students collected via the Delaware Youth Risk Behavior Survey. RESULTS: Results indicate that bullying victimization, fighting, substance use, sexual behavior, depression, and unhealthy dieting behaviors were generally associated with NSSI and suicidal ideation. Some effects - including those from sexual activity, substance use, and unhealthy dieting behaviors – significantly differed based on gender and orientation. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for suicide and NSSI vary by gender and orientation. Both prevention/intervention specialists and researchers should consider the intersection of these risk factors with sexual orientation in their efforts.

  11. Self-injury, suicide ideation, and sexual orientation: differences in causes and correlates among high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Whitney; W.Bakken, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Research has suggested that sexual minority youth are more likely to experience a number of behavioral and health-related risk factors due to their exposure to negative attitudes and beliefs about sexual minorities. Few studies, however, have examined the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among sexual minority youth. With self-cutting and suicidal ideation common in middle and high schools, understanding the antecedents and correlates of such behavior may help identify troubled students and initiate preventative measures. Methods: Bivariate probit regression analyses are performed using data from 7,326 high school students collected via the Delaware Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Results indicate that bullying victimization, fighting, substance use, sexual behavior, depression, and unhealthy dieting behaviors were generally associated with NSSI and suicidal ideation. Some effects - including those from sexual activity, substance use, and unhealthy dieting behaviors significantly differed based on gender and orientation. Conclusions: Risk factors for suicide and NSSI vary by gender and orientation. Both prevention/intervention specialists and researchers should consider the intersection of these risk factors with sexual orientation in their efforts. PMID:26401756

  12. Long-term global and regional brain volume changes following severe traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal study with clinical correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidaros, Annette; Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller; Liptrot, Matthew George;

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in neurodegenerative changes that progress for months, perhaps even years post-injury. However, there is little information on the spatial distribution and the clinical significance of this late atrophy. In 24 patients who had sustained severe TBI we acquired ......, inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculus, corpus callosum and corona radiata. This indicates that the long-term atrophy is attributable to consequences of traumatic axonal injury. Despite progressive atrophy, remarkable clinical improvement occurred in most patients....

  13. Prognostic factors for open globe injuries and correlation of Ocular Trauma Score at a tertiary referral eye care centre in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Agrawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the factors influencing final vision outcome after surgical repair of open globe injuries and to correlate the Ocular trauma score. Materials and Methods: Retrospective case analysis of patients with open globe injuries at a tertiary referral eye care centre in Singapore was performed. Pre-operative factors affecting final vision outcome in patients with open globe injury and correlation of ocular trauma score in our study with international ocular trauma scoring system was performed. Results: Case records of 172 eyes with open globe injury were analyzed. Mean age was 36. 67 years. Mean follow up was 12.26 m. Males were pre-dominantly affected. Initial visual acuity was ≥20/40, 20/50 < 20/200, 20/200- CF, HM- PL and NLP in 24 (14%, 39 (22.7%, 16 (9.3%, 66 (38.4% and 27 (15.7% eyes respectively. Final visual acuity was ≤20/40, 20/50 < 20/200, 20/200- 1/200, HM- PL and NLP in 76 (44.2%, 28 (16.3%, 11 (6.4%, 30 (17.4% and 27 (15.7% eyes respectively. Ocular trauma score in our study correlates with international ocular trauma scoring system. Conclusion: The present study showed pre-operative variables such as mode of injury, pre-operative visual acuity, traumatic cataract, hyphaema, relative afferent papillary defect, vitreous lossand vitreous hemorrhage to be adversely affecting the final vision outcome. Our study showed a good synchrony with international ocular trauma score (OTS and based on this study we were able to validate application of OTS in Singapore population. Recognizing these factors can help the surgeon in evidence based counseling.

  14. Executive clock drawing correlates with performance-based functional status in people with combat-related mild traumatic brain injury and comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Writer, DO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Executive Clock Drawing Tasks (CLOX parts 1 and 2 can predict functional impairment. This study determined the correlation between CLOX and other psychometric screening instruments with the Structured Assessment of Independent Living Skills (SAILS-defined performance-based functional status in people with combat-related mild traumatic brain injury (TBI and comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. We hypothesized that CLOX would correlate significantly with functional performance. This prospective, cross-sectional study design determined the correlation between a structured neuropsychological battery and functional status assessment. We calculated Pearson correlation coefficients between neuropsychological instruments and functional status scores. We entered neuropsychological measures correlating p < 0.1 with functional status into a linear regression model to determine independent contributions. Fifteen Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans participated. Only CLOX1 correlated significantly with functional competency and efficiency. Only mean CLOX1 scores were significantly lower in those scoring below the median for SAILS competency and in those scoring above the median for SAILS efficiency. CLOX1 contributed significant variance to functional status independent of mood or anxiety symptoms and was not affected by age or time since injury. Executive dysfunction per the brief, easily administered CLOX1 is sensitive to functional status following combat-related mild TBI, independent of PTSD anxiety with or without depression.

  15. Decreased miR-26a expression correlates with the progression of podocyte injury in autoimmune glomerulonephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Ichii

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs contribute to the pathogenesis of certain diseases and may serve as biomarkers. We analyzed glomerular microRNA expression in B6.MRLc1, which serve as a mouse model of autoimmune glomerulonephritis. We found that miR-26a was the most abundantly expressed microRNA in the glomerulus of normal C57BL/6 and that its glomerular expression in B6.MRLc1 was significantly lower than that in C57BL/6. In mouse kidneys, podocytes mainly expressed miR-26a, and glomerular miR-26a expression in B6.MRLc1 mice correlated negatively with the urinary albumin levels and podocyte-specific gene expression. Puromycin-induced injury of immortalized mouse podocytes decreased miR-26a expression, perturbed the actin cytoskeleton, and increased the release of exosomes containing miR-26a. Although miR-26a expression increased with differentiation of immortalized mouse podocytes, silencing miR-26a decreased the expression of genes associated with the podocyte differentiation and formation of the cytoskeleton. In particular, the levels of vimentin and actin significantly decreased. In patients with lupus nephritis and IgA nephropathy, glomerular miR-26a levels were significantly lower than those of healthy controls. In B6.MRLc1 and patients with lupus nephritis, miR-26a levels in urinary exosomes were significantly higher compared with those for the respective healthy control. These data indicate that miR-26a regulates podocyte differentiation and cytoskeletal integrity, and its altered levels in glomerulus and urine may serve as a marker of injured podocytes in autoimmune glomerulonephritis.

  16. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Correlates Poorly with Four-Hour Creatinine Clearance in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Kirwan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. RIFLE and AKIN provide a standardised classification of acute kidney injury (AKI, but their categorical rather than continuous nature restricts their use to a research tool. A more accurate real-time description of renal function in AKI is needed, and some published data suggest that equations based on serum creatinine that estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR can provide this. In addition, incorporating serum cystatin C concentration into estimates of GFR may improve their accuracy, but no eGFR equations are validated in critically ill patients with AKI. Aim. This study tests whether creatinine or cystatin-C-based eGFR equations, used in patients with CKD, offer an accurate representation of 4-hour creatinine clearance (4CrCl in critically ill patients with AKI. Methods. Fifty-one critically ill patients with AKI were recruited. Thirty-seven met inclusion criteria, and the performance of eGFR equations was compared to 4CrCl. Results. eGFR equations were better than creatinine alone at predicting 4CrCl. Adding cystatin C to estimates did not improve the bias or add accuracy. The MDRD 7 eGFR had the best combination of correlation, bias, percentage error and accuracy. None were near acceptable standards quoted in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Conclusions. eGFR equations are not sufficiently accurate for use in critically ill patients with AKI. Incorporating serum cystatin C does not improve estimates. eGFR should not be used to describe renal function in patients with AKI. Standards of accuracy for validating eGFR need to be set.

  17. Long-term cognitive correlates of traumatic brain injury across adulthood and interactions with APOE genotype, sex, and age cohorts.

    OpenAIRE

    Eramudugolla, R.; Bielak, AA; Bunce, D; Easteal, S; Cherbuin, N; Anstey, KJ

    2014-01-01

    There is continuing debate about long-term effects of brain injury. We examined a range of traumatic brain injury (TBI) variables (TBI history, severity, frequency, and age of injury) as predictors of cognitive outcome over 8 years in an adult population, and interactions with apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, sex, and age cohorts. Three randomly sampled age cohorts (20-24, 40-44, 60-64 years at baseline; N = 6333) were each evaluated three times over 8 years. TBI variables, based on self-rep...

  18. Correlation of in vivo and ex vivo 1H-MRI with histology in two severities of mouse spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noristani, Harun N.; Lonjon, Nicolas; Cardoso, Maïda; Le Corre, Marine; Chan-Seng, Emilie; Captier, Guillaume; Privat, Alain; Coillot, Christophe; Goze-Bac, Christophe; Perrin, Florence E.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating neuropathology with no effective treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology is the only method used to assess the impact of an injury on the structure and function of the human spinal cord. Moreover, in pre-clinical SCI research, MRI is a non-invasive method with great translational potential since it provides relevant longitudinal assessment of anatomical and structural alterations induced by an injury. It is only recently that MRI techniques have been effectively used for the follow-up of SCI in rodents. However, the vast majority of these studies have been carried out on rats and when conducted in mice, the contusion injury model was predominantly chosen. Due to the remarkable potential of transgenic mice for studying the pathophysiology of SCI, we examined the use of both in and ex vivo 1H-MRI (9.4 T) in two severities of the mouse SCI (hemisection and over-hemisection) and documented their correlation with histological assessments. We demonstrated that a clear distinction between the two injury severities is possible using in and ex vivo 1H-MRI and that ex vivo MR images closely correlate with histology. Moreover, tissue modifications at a remote location from the lesion epicenter were identified by conventional ex vivo MRI analysis. Therefore, in vivo MRI has the potential to accurately identify in mice the progression of tissue alterations induced by SCI and is successfully implemented by ex vivo MRI examination. This combination of in and ex vivo MRI follow-up associated with histopathological assessment provides a valuable approach for further studies intended to evaluate therapeutic strategies on SCI. PMID:25798092

  19. Correlation between heat shock protein 70 expression in the brain stem and sudden death after experimental traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lian-xu; XU Xiao-hu; LIU Chao; PAN Su-yue; ZHU Jia-zhen; ZHANG Cheng

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the patterns of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) biosynthesis following traumatic brain injury, and observe the effect of HSP70 induction on the function of the vital center in the brain stem. Methods: Rat models of sudden death resulted form traumatic brain injury were produced, and HSP70 expression in the rat brain stem was determined by immunohistochemistry, the induction of HSP70 mRNA detected by RT-PCR. Results: The level of HSP70 mRNA was prominently elevated in the brain stem as early as 1 5 min following the impact injury, while HSP70 expression was only observed 3 to 6 h after the injury. It was also observed that the levels of HSP70 mRNA but not the protein were elevated in the brain stem of sudden death rats. Conclusion: The synthesis of HSP70 was significantly enhanced in the brain stem following traumatic injury, and the expression of HSP70 is beneficial to eliminate the stress agents, and to sustain the cellular protein homeostasis. When the injury disturbs the synthesis of HSP70 to disarm the protective mechanism of heat-shock proteins, dysfunction of the vital center in the brain stem, and consequently death may occur. Breach in the synchronization of HSP70 mRNA-protein can be indicative of fatal damage to the nerve cells.

  20. The Correlation Analysis between Spleen Deficiency and Gastric Mucosal Injury%脾虚与胃黏膜损伤相关性的理论探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施甜; 朱方石; 徐婷婷

    2011-01-01

    This research studies the correlation between spleen asthenia and gastric mucosal injury from 4 aspects of pathogenesis, pathology, syndrome, and therapy. The results indicated that the pathological condition of spleen asthenia supply objective bases for the gastric mucosal injury, meanwhile, the gastric mucosal injury is easy to aggravate spleen asthenia. There is a correlativity of mutual causes and effects between the two diseases. The standpoint may supply the rationale for therapeutic principles of "Treat from spleen asthenia" treating the gastric mucosal diseases.%本文就脾虚与胃黏膜损伤的相关性从中医发病学、痛机关联现、证型归纳属性及治法归类等4个方面,进行了理论探讨.认为中医脾虚的病理状态为胃黏膜损伤提供了客观条件,而胃黏膜损伤因素则又易加重脾虚证侯,二者间存在着互为因果的相关关系.其观点为构建“从脾虚论治”胃黏膜损伤性疾病的治则观提供了理论基础.

  1. Citrulline as a Biomarker in the Non-human Primate Total- and Partial-body Irradiation Models: Correlation of Circulating Citrulline to Acute and Prolonged Gastrointestinal Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jace W; Bennett, Alexander; Carter, Claire L; Tudor, Gregory; Hankey, Kim G; Farese, Ann M; Booth, Catherine; MacVittie, Thomas J; Kane, Maureen A

    2015-11-01

    The use of plasma citrulline as a biomarker for acute and prolonged gastrointestinal injury via exposure to total- and partial-body irradiation (6 MV LINAC-derived photons; 0.80 Gy min) in nonhuman primate models was investigated. The irradiation exposure covered gastrointestinal injuries spanning lethal, mid-lethal, and sub-lethal doses. The acute gastrointestinal injury was assessed via measurement of plasma citrulline and small intestinal histopathology over the first 15 d following radiation exposure and included total-body irradiation at 13.0 Gy, 10.5 Gy, and 7.5 Gy and partial-body irradiation at 11.0 Gy with 5% bone marrow sparing. The dosing schemes of 7.5 Gy total-body irradiation and 11.0 Gy partial-body irradiation included time points out to day 60 and day 180, respectively, which allowed for correlation of plasma citrulline to prolonged gastrointestinal injury and survival. Plasma citrulline values were radiation-dependent for all radiation doses under consideration, with nadir values ranging from 63-80% lower than radiation-naïve NHP plasma. The nadir values were observed at day 5 to 7 post irradiation. Longitudinal plasma citrulline profiles demonstrated prolonged gastrointestinal injury resulting from acute high-dose irradiation had long lasting effects on enterocyte function. Moreover, plasma citrulline did not discriminate between total-body or partial-body irradiation over the first 15 d following irradiation and was not predictive of survival based on the radiation models considered herein.

  2. THE DETERMINATION OF CORRELATION LINKAGES BETWEEN LEVEL OF REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES, CONTENTS OF NEUTROPHILES AND BLOOD GAS COMPOSITION IN EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE LUNG INJURY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marushchak, M; Krynytska, I; Petrenko, N; Klishch, I

    2016-04-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) remains a major cause of acute respiratory failure and death of patients. Despite the achievements at the current stage in treatment, morbidity and mortality of ALI remain high. However, a deeper understanding of the pathogenetic links of ALI, identifying of the predictors that positively or negatively influence on the course of the syndrome, the correlation between some pathogenetic mechanisms will improve therapeutic strategies for patients with ALI, which makes the actuality of this study. The aim of the research was to detect additional pathogenetic mechanisms of the acute lung injury development in rats based on a comparative analysis of the correlations between the level of reactive oxygen species in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage, contents of neutrophils and blood gas composition. The experiments were performed on 54 white nonlinear mature male rats 200-220g in weight. The animals were divided into 5 groups: the 1st - control group (n=6), the 2nd - animals affected by hydrochloric acid for 2 hours (n=12), the 3rd - animals affected by hydrochloric acid for 6 hours (n=12), the 4th - animals affected by hydrochloric acid for 12 hours (n=12), the 5th - animals affected by hydrochloric acid for 24 hours (n=12). Correlation analysis was performed between all the studied indices. Coefficient of linear correlation (r) and its fidelity (p) was calculated that was accordingly denoted in the tables (correlation matrices). The correlation coefficient was significant at palveoli. On this background non-specific inflammatory reaction is developed at lung microvessels level with violation of lung homeostasis, which is iniciated by neutrophils' activation, which are producing ROS. PMID:27249444

  3. Antisaccadic Eye Movements Are Correlated with Corpus Callosum White Matter Mean Diffusivity, Stroop Performance, and Symptom Burden in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Windsor Kwan-Chun; Schweizer, Tom A; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Cusimano, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Antisaccades are thought to involve higher level inputs from neural centers involved in rapid eye movement inhibition and control. Previous work has demonstrated that performance on the antisaccade task can help in the assessment of injury in acute and/or chronic mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). In this exploratory study, we performed cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of rapid eye movement, followed by correlations of antisaccade performance with assessments of symptom burden, diffusion tensor imaging, and a neuropsychological test of response inhibition. Significant deficits in antisaccade median latency, F(2, 31) = 3.65, p = 0.04 and prosaccade error mean duration, F(2, 31) = 3.63, p = 0.04 were found between patient groups and controls: the former was correlated with loss of white matter integrity in the splenium of the corpus callosum in acute mTBI, rho = 0.90, p = 0.0005. Furthermore, increased antisaccade median latency was also correlated with poor performance on an executive functioning task, r (2) = 0.439, p = 0.03, and greater symptom burden, r (2) = 0.480, p = 0.02 in the acute mTBI patients. Our preliminary research suggests that the antisaccade task could be useful as a neurological marker for mTBI and concussion, but more work is required. PMID:26834693

  4. Antisaccadic eye movements are correlated with corpus callosum white matter mean diffusivity, stroop performance and symptom burden in mild traumatic brain injury and concussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windsor Kwan-Chun eTing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisaccades are thought to involve higher level inputs from neural centers involved in rapid eye movement inhibition and control. Previous work has demonstrated that performance on the antisaccade task can help in assessment of injury in acute and/or chronic mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI. In this exploratory study we performed cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of rapid eye movement, followed by correlations of antisaccade performance with assessments of symptom burden, diffusion tensor imaging, and a neuropsychological test of response inhibition. Significant deficits in antisaccade median latency, F(2, 31 = 3.65, p = 0.04 and prosaccade error mean duration, F(2, 31 = 3.63, p = 0.04 were found between patient groups and controls: the former was correlated with loss of white matter integrity in the splenium of the corpus callosum in acute mTBI, rho (8 = 0.90, p = 0.0005. Furthermore, increased antisaccade median latency was also correlated with poor performance on an executive functioning task, r2 = 0.439, p = 0.03, and greater symptom burden, r2 = 0.480, p = 0.02 in the acute mTBI patients. Our preliminary research suggests that the antisaccade task could be useful as a neurological marker for mTBI and concussion but more work is required.

  5. For veterans with mild traumatic brain injury, improved posttraumatic stress disorder severity and sleep correlated with symptomatic improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanne S. Ruff, PhD; Traci Piero, NP‐C, MSN; Xiao-Feng Wang, PhD; Ronald G. Riechers II, MD; Robert L. Ruff, MD, PhD

    2012-01-01

    This was an observational study of a cohort of 63 Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) associated with an explosion. They had headaches, residual neurological deficits (NDs) on neurological examination, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and were seen on average 2.5 years after their last mTBI. We treated them with sleep hygiene counseling and oral prazosin. We monitored headache severity, daytime sleepiness using the Epwort...

  6. Levels of procoagulant microvesicles are elevated after traumatic injury and platelet microvesicles are negatively correlated with mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Curry

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microvesicles (MV have been implicated in the development of thrombotic disease, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS and multiple organ failure (MOF. Trauma patients are at increased risk of late thrombotic events, particularly those who receive a major transfusion. The aims of this study were: (a to determine whether there were increased numbers of pro-coagulant MV following injury; (b to determine their cellular origin; and (c to explore the effects of MV with clinical outcomes; in particular red cell transfusion requirements and death. Methods: Trauma patients were recruited at a Level 1 trauma centre. The presence of MV procoagulant phospholipid (PPL was assessed using 2 activity assays (PPL and thrombin generation. Enumeration and MV cellular origin was assessed using 2 colour flow cytometry. Results: Fifty consecutive patients were recruited; median age 38 (IQR: 24–55, median ISS 18 (IQR: 9–27. Circulating procoagulant MV, rich in phospholipid, were significantly elevated following traumatic injury relative to controls and remained elevated at 72 h post-injury. Red cell/AnnV+ and platelet/AnnV+ MV numbers were 6-fold and 2-fold higher than controls, respectively. Patients who died (n=9, 18% had significantly fewer CD41/AnnV+ MV and lower endogenous thrombin potential relative to patients who survived. Conclusions: MV are elevated following traumatic injury and may be implicated in the increased risk of trauma patients to pro-thrombotic states such as MOF and ARDS. Lower levels of procoagulant MV are associated with mortality and further investigation of this association is warranted.

  7. MONOCYTE DEACTIVATION CORRELATES WITH INJURY SEVERITY SCORE, BUT NOT WITH HEME OXYGENASE-1 LEVELS IN TRAUMA PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sonlee D West; Mold, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic injury induces a local and systemic release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, acute phase proteins, hormones and other inflammatory mediators. The excessive release of these mediators plays an important role in the pathogenesis of shock. In parallel to this pro-inflammatory response, there is a regulatory response characterized by the release of anti-inflammatory mediators, which is thought to represent the host’s attempt to restore immunological equilibrium. Studies in septic patients...

  8. Partner Aggression among Men and Women in Substance Use Disorder Treatment: Correlates of Psychological and Physical Aggression and Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Chermack, Stephen T.; Murray, Regan L.; Walton, Maureen A.; Booth, Brenda A; Wryobeck, John; Blow, Frederic C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined intimate partner aggression in a sample of 489 participants enrolled in substance use disorder treatment, and expands on prior research by including measures of various forms of aggression, a mixed gender sample (76% men, 24% women), and measurement of several potential risk domains. Aggression measures included both participant-to-partner and partner-to-participant psychological aggression, physical aggression and injury. Analyses focused on the role of distal and proxima...

  9. Acute Achilles Paratendinopathy following Major Injury of the Crural Fascia in a Professional Soccer Player: A Possible Correlation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Mattiussi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The anatomy and mechanical properties of the Crural Fascia (CF, the ubiquitous connective tissue of the posterior region of the leg, have recently been investigated. The most important findings are that (i the CF may suffer structural damage from indirect trauma, (ii structural changes of the CF may affect the biomechanics of tissues connected to it, causing myofascial pain syndromes, and (iii the CF is in anatomical continuity with the Achilles paratenon. Consistent with these points, the authors hypothesize that the onset of acute Achilles paratendinopathy may be related to histological and biomechanical changes of the CF. Case Presentation. A professional male football player suffered an isolated injury of the CF, interposed between the soleus and medial gastrocnemius (an atypical site of injury with structural connective integrity of the muscles. After participating in the first official match, two and a half months after the trauma, he has unexpectedly demonstrated the clinical picture of acute Achilles paratendinopathy in the previously injured limb. Conclusions. Analysis of this case suggests that the acute Achilles paratendinopathy may be a muscle injury complication from indirect trauma of the calf muscle, if a frank and extensive involvement of the CF were to be ascertained.

  10. Acute Achilles Paratendinopathy following Major Injury of the Crural Fascia in a Professional Soccer Player: A Possible Correlation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiussi, Gabriele; Turloni, Michele; Baldassi, Pietro Tobia

    2016-01-01

    Background. The anatomy and mechanical properties of the Crural Fascia (CF), the ubiquitous connective tissue of the posterior region of the leg, have recently been investigated. The most important findings are that (i) the CF may suffer structural damage from indirect trauma, (ii) structural changes of the CF may affect the biomechanics of tissues connected to it, causing myofascial pain syndromes, and (iii) the CF is in anatomical continuity with the Achilles paratenon. Consistent with these points, the authors hypothesize that the onset of acute Achilles paratendinopathy may be related to histological and biomechanical changes of the CF. Case Presentation. A professional male football player suffered an isolated injury of the CF, interposed between the soleus and medial gastrocnemius (an atypical site of injury) with structural connective integrity of the muscles. After participating in the first official match, two and a half months after the trauma, he has unexpectedly demonstrated the clinical picture of acute Achilles paratendinopathy in the previously injured limb. Conclusions. Analysis of this case suggests that the acute Achilles paratendinopathy may be a muscle injury complication from indirect trauma of the calf muscle, if a frank and extensive involvement of the CF were to be ascertained. PMID:27242940

  11. Correlation between liver cell necrosis and circulating alanine aminotransferase after ischaemia/reperfusion injuries in the rat liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Anders R.; Andersen, Kasper J.; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen;

    2016-01-01

    performed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Alanine transferase peaked after 4 h of reperfusion; however, at this time-point, only mild necrosis was observed, with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.663 (P = 0.001). After 24 h of reperfusion, alanine aminotransferase was found to be highly...

  12. Independent spinal cord atrophy measures correlate to motor and sensory deficits in individuals with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundell, Hans Magnus Henrik; Barthelemy, Dorothy; Skimminge, A.;

    2011-01-01

    to sensory and motor outcome in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI).Setting:Danish study on human SCI.Methods:We included 19 individuals with chronic incomplete SCI and 16 healthy controls. Participants underwent MRI and a neurological examination including sensory testing for light...... touch and pinprick, and muscle strength. Antero-posterior width (APW), left-right width (LRW) and cross-sectional spinal cord area (SCA) were extracted from MRI at the spinal level of C2. The angular variation of the spinal cord radius over the full circle was also extracted and compared...

  13. Correlation of mid-pregnancy uterine artery notch with preeclampsia incidence risk as well as serum endothelial injury and placental hypoperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Jing Guo; Xin Ni; Ying Huang; Hang Gu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the correlation of mid-pregnancy uterine artery notch with preeclampsia incidence risk as well as serum endothelial injury and placental hypoperfusion.Methods:A total of 2 800 cases of singleton primiparas who received antenatal examination in Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Pudong New Area Shanghai between April 2014 and October 2015 were selected for prospective study and divided into notch group and non-notch group according to the uterine artery notch at 22-24 weeks of gestation, serum was collected at 24-30 weeks, 31-36 weeks and 37-41 weeks of gestation respectively to determine endothelial injury indexes VEGF, PLGF, sFlt-1 and sEng in serum, ultrasonography was conducted to determine uterine spiral arterial resistance index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI), and the levels of apoptosis molecules in placenta tissue were determined after delivery.Results: Preeclampsia incidence rate of notch group was significantly higher than that of non-notch group; at 24-30 weeks, 31-36 weeks and 37-41 weeks of gestation, serum VEGF and PLGF levels of notch group were significantly lower than those of non-notch group, sFlt-1 and sEng levels were significantly higher than those of non-notch group, and uterine spiral artery PI and RI were significantly higher than those of non-notch group; after delivery, p57kip2, Bax, Caspase-3, Fas and FasL levels in placenta tissue of notch group were significantly higher than those of non-notch group.Conclusion: The risk of preeclampsia is high in pregnant women with mid-pregnancy (22-24 weeks of gestation) uterine artery notch and it will cause maternal endothelial injury, spiral artery remodeling dysfunction and placental hypoperfusion.

  14. Low T3 State Is Correlated with Cardiac Mitochondrial Impairments after Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Evidence from a Proteomic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Forini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are major determinants of cell fate in ischemia/reperfusion injury (IR and common effectors of cardio-protective strategies in cardiac ischemic disease. Thyroid hormone homeostasis critically affects mitochondrial function and energy production. Since a low T3 state (LT3S is frequently observed in the post infarction setting, the study was aimed to investigate the relationship between 72 h post IR T3 levels and both the cardiac function and the mitochondrial proteome in a rat model of IR. The low T3 group exhibits the most compromised cardiac performance along with the worst mitochondrial activity. Accordingly, our results show a different remodeling of the mitochondrial proteome in the presence or absence of a LT3S, with alterations in groups of proteins that play a key role in energy metabolism, quality control and regulation of cell death pathways. Overall, our findings highlight a relationship between LT3S in the early post IR and poor cardiac and mitochondrial outcomes, and suggest a potential implication of thyroid hormone in the cardio-protection and tissue remodeling in ischemic disease.

  15. 新生儿低血糖与脑损伤的关系%Correlation between neonatal hypoglycemia and brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁明明; 周丛乐; 汤泽中; 王红梅; 侯新琳

    2012-01-01

    .000)为新生儿脑损伤的独立危险因素. 结论 低血糖可导致新生儿神经系统损伤,血糖水平越低,持续时间越长,脑损伤越重.当低血糖新生儿合并宫内窘迫或母亲高血糖时更容易发生脑损伤.%Objective To investigate the correlation between hypoglycemia and brain injury of newborns.Methods Medical records and follow-up data of 110 newborns with hypoglycemia (blood glucose level≤2.2 mmol/L) who admitted into neonatal department of Peking University First Hospital from December 2006 to December 2009 were studied.All patients were divided into 3 groups:no brain injury group,mild and severe brain injury group according to their clinical manifestation,cerebral radiological characteristics and cerebral functional tests.By using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and x2 test,the potential optimal blood glucose level and duration of hypoglycemia for predicting brain injury were confirmed.Multivariate Logistic regression was taken to determine independent predictors for brain injury.The analyzed factors included gender,preterm/small for gestational age,hyperbillirubinemia,fetal distress,asphyxia,infection,seizures and maternal hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy and hyperglycemia.Results Among the 110 hypoglycemia newborns,33 (30.0%) infants suffered from brain injury,of which 23 were mild and 10 were severe.Blood glucose ≤1.7 mmol/L had high specificity (73%) and sensitivity (60%)for predicting brain injury.When blood glucose≤ 1.7 mmol/L,the incidence of brain injury and severe brain injury was 43.6% (24/55) and 18.2% (10/55),which was higher than those [16.4%(9/55) and 0.0% (0/55)] of patients whose glucose level >1.7 mmol/L(x2 =9.74 and 11.00,P<0.01 respectively).Blood glucose ≤ 1.2 mmol/L had high specificity (100%) and sensitivity (81%) for predicting severe brain injury.When blood glucose ≤1.2 mmol/L,the incidence of severe brain injury was higher than that of the patients

  16. Hippocampal proton MR spectroscopy as a novel approach in the assessment of radiation injury and the correlation to neurocognitive function impairment: initial experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hippocampus is considered as the main radiosensitive brain structure responsible for postradiotherapy cognitive decline. We prospectively assessed correlation of memory change to hippocampal N-acetylaspartate (h-tNAA) concentration, a neuronal density and viability marker, by 1H-MR spectroscopy focused on the hippocampus. Patients with brain metastases underwent whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) to a dose of 30 Gy in ten fractions daily. Pre-radiotherapy 1H-MR spectroscopy focused on the h-tNAA concentration and memory testing was performed. Memory was evaluated by Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R). Total recall, recognition and delayed recall were reported. The both investigation procedures were repeated 4 months after WBRT and the h-tNAA and memory changes were correlated. Of the 20 patients, ten passed whole protocol. The h-tNAA concentration significantly decreased from pre-WBRT 8.9, 8.86 and 8.88 [mM] in the right, left and both hippocampi to 7.16, 7.65 and 7.4 after WBRT, respectively. In the memory tests a significant decrease was observed in AVLT total-recall, BVMT-R total-recall and BVMT-R delayed-recall. Weak to moderate correlations were observed between left h-tNAA and AVLT recognition and all BVMT-R subtests and between the right h-tNAA and AVLT total-recall. A significant decrease in h-tNAA after WBRT was proven by 1H-MR spectroscopy as a feasible method for the in vivo investigation of radiation injury. Continuing patient recruitment focusing on other cognitive tests and metabolites is needed

  17. Correlations between Event-related Potentials with Pictures Recognition and WMS-RC Scores in Patients with Memory Disorder Caused by Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zilong LIU; Liang LIU; Zebing FAN; Xiaorui CHEN; Xiaohong ZHAO; Lingli ZHANG; Guangxun Rao; Haixia LI

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the possibility of using event-related potentials (ERP) for the measurement of picture-recognition memory and examined its correlation with the Chinese Wechsler Memory Scale-revised (WMS-RC) in patients with memory disorder caused by severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). The subjects included 20 sTBI patients with memory disorder and 22 healthy individuals. Memory function was measured by using WMS-RC. Behavioral and ERP responses were recorded on-line during performance on a battery of picture recognition and the responses were analyzed off-line for recognition memory effects. Mean memory quotient (MQ) of patients with sTBI was significantly lower than that of the control group. Mean reaction time (RT) was significantly longer and the mean correctness rate (CR) of picture recognition was significantly lower in sTBI group than that of the controls. In controls, the main components of average ERP of picture recognition includes two positive-going waves, designated as P170 and P500, that appear 170 ms and 500 ms after stimulation when the subject could later successfully recall and recognize the pictures. P500 amplitude of target stimulus was significantly higher than that of non-target stimulus. Compared to controls, P500 responses of sTBI group were significantly delayed in latency (P<0.001) and lower in amplitude (P<0.001). P500 latency showed significant negative correlation with MQ and the scores of "addition", "visual recognition", "picture recall", "visual reproduction" and "tactile memory" in WMS-RC. ERP of picture recognition provides a neurophysiological approach to directly assess memory impairment, and P500 may serve as a helpful index for memory disorder caused by sTBI in forensic practice.

  18. Correlation of urinary monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 with other parameters of renal injury in type-II diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Salwa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the western world. Increased number of interstitial macrophages has been observed in biopsies from patients with DN. Monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1 is the strongest known chemo-tactic factor for monocytes and is upregulated in DN. We examined urinary levels of MCP-1 in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM to assess its possible correlation with other para-meters of renal injury. The urinary MCP-1 level was assessed in 75 patients with type-2 DM (25 patients each with no microalbuminuria, with macroalbuminuria and, with renal impairment and compared them with matched healthy control subjects. The HbA1c and estimated glomerular fil-tration rate (eGFR derived from the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD equation were examined in the study groups in relation to the urinary MCP-1. The urinary MCP-1 level was significantly higher in patients with micro and macroalbuminuria (167.41 ± 50.23 and 630.87 ± 318.10 ng/gm creatinine respectively as compared with normoalbuminuric patients and healthy controls (63.85 ± 21.15 and 61.50 ± 24.81 ng/gm creatinine, p< 0.001. MCP-1 correlated positively with urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR (r= 0.75, p< 0.001, HbA1c (r= 0.55, p< 0.001 and inversely with eGFR (r=-0.60, p< 0.001. Our findings suggest that hyperglycemia is associated with increased urinary levels of MCP-1 that is closely linked to renal damage as reflected by proteinuria and eGFR levels. Collectively, these findings suggest that MCP-1 is in-volved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy through its various stages.

  19. Magnetoencephalography Slow-Wave Detection in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Ongoing Symptoms Correlated with Long-Term Neuropsychological Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb Swan, Ashley; Nichols, Sharon; Drake, Angela; Angeles, AnneMarie; Diwakar, Mithun; Song, Tao; Lee, Roland R; Huang, Ming-Xiong

    2015-10-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is common in the United States, accounting for as many as 75-80% of all TBIs. It is recognized as a significant public health concern, but there are ongoing controversies regarding the etiology of persistent symptoms post-mTBI. This constellation of nonspecific symptoms is referred to as postconcussive syndrome (PCS). The present study combined results from magnetoencephalography (MEG) and cognitive assessment to examine group differences and relationships between brain activity and cognitive performance in 31 military and civilian individuals with a history of mTBI+PCS and 33 matched healthy control subjects. An operator-free analysis was used for MEG data to increase reliability of the technique. Subjects completed a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, and measures of abnormal slow-wave activity from MEG were collected. Results demonstrated significant group differences on measures of executive functioning and processing speed. In addition, significant correlations between slow-wave activity on MEG and patterns of cognitive functioning were found in cortical areas, consistent with cognitive impairments on exams. Results provide more objective evidence that there may be subtle changes to the neurobiological integrity of the brain that can be detected by MEG. Further, these findings suggest that these abnormalities are associated with cognitive outcomes and may account, at least in part, for long-term PCS in those who have sustained an mTBI.

  20. Magnetoencephalography Slow-Wave Detection in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Ongoing Symptoms Correlated with Long-Term Neuropsychological Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb Swan, Ashley; Nichols, Sharon; Drake, Angela; Angeles, AnneMarie; Diwakar, Mithun; Song, Tao; Lee, Roland R; Huang, Ming-Xiong

    2015-10-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is common in the United States, accounting for as many as 75-80% of all TBIs. It is recognized as a significant public health concern, but there are ongoing controversies regarding the etiology of persistent symptoms post-mTBI. This constellation of nonspecific symptoms is referred to as postconcussive syndrome (PCS). The present study combined results from magnetoencephalography (MEG) and cognitive assessment to examine group differences and relationships between brain activity and cognitive performance in 31 military and civilian individuals with a history of mTBI+PCS and 33 matched healthy control subjects. An operator-free analysis was used for MEG data to increase reliability of the technique. Subjects completed a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, and measures of abnormal slow-wave activity from MEG were collected. Results demonstrated significant group differences on measures of executive functioning and processing speed. In addition, significant correlations between slow-wave activity on MEG and patterns of cognitive functioning were found in cortical areas, consistent with cognitive impairments on exams. Results provide more objective evidence that there may be subtle changes to the neurobiological integrity of the brain that can be detected by MEG. Further, these findings suggest that these abnormalities are associated with cognitive outcomes and may account, at least in part, for long-term PCS in those who have sustained an mTBI. PMID:25808909

  1. Ultrasonographic-arthroscopic correlation in knee injuries in patients operated on at the Hospital Mexico, during the period from January 1, 2010 until December 31, 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasound is evaluated as a method of diagnosis for intra-articular pathologies of knee, widely used as a means to rule out injuries to the institutional level. The advantages of ultrasound are mentioned: low cost, availability and is a noninvasive method. In order to implement this study has been to create a question about the real utility of ultrasound in the Hospital Mexico, as further support for the correct diagnosis of knee pathology. A search of clinical records of patients was conducted in the orthopedics and traumatology service with diagnosis of gonalgia, to which was conducted a preoperative ultrasound and, subsequently, have been operated at the Hospital by arthroscopy, during the period 1 January 2010 to December 31, 2010. Subsequently, a comprehensive review of the operative notes was performed, ultrasound reports and records, for the purpose of making an analysis and compare the results of both procedures. This paper has clearly demonstrated poor training in musculoskeletal system of the ultrasound operators. A poor correlation was determined between the arthroscopic results against ultrasound. The need to create care protocols to patients with intra-articular pathology of knee was evidenced. (author)

  2. Correlations between event-related potentials with pictures recognition and WMS-RC scores in patients with memory disorder caused by severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zilong; Liu, Liang; Fan, Zebing; Chen, Xiaorui; Zhao, Xiaohong; Zhang, Lingli; Rao, Guangxun; Li, Haixia

    2008-12-01

    This study explored the possibility of using event-related potentials (ERP) for the measurement of picture-recognition memory and examined its correlation with the Chinese Wechsler Memory Scale-revised (WMS-RC) in patients with memory disorder caused by severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). The subjects included 20 sTBI patients with memory disorder and 22 healthy individuals. Memory function was measured by using WMS-RC. Behavioral and ERP responses were recorded on-line during performance on a battery of picture recognition and the responses were analyzed off-line for recognition memory effects. Mean memory quotient (MQ) of patients with sTBI was significantly lower than that of the control group. Mean reaction time (RT) was significantly longer and the mean correctness rate (CR) of picture recognition was significantly lower in sTBI group than that of the controls. In controls, the main components of average ERP of picture recognition includes two positive-going waves, designated as P(170) and P(500), that appear 170 ms and 500 ms after stimulation when the subject could later successfully recall and recognize the pictures. P(500) amplitude of target stimulus was significantly higher than that of non-target stimulus. Compared to controls, P(500) responses of sTBI group were significantly delayed in latency (PWMS-RC. ERP of picture recognition provides a neurophysiological approach to directly assess memory impairment, and P(500) may serve as a helpful index for memory disorder caused by sTBI in forensic practice.

  3. 99mTC-Methylene diphosphonate uptake at injury site correlates with osteoblast differentiation and mineralization during bone healing in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhendong A Zhong; Anderson Peck; Shihong Li; Jeff VanOss; John Snider; Casey J Droscha; Tingtung A Chang; Bart O Williams

    2015-01-01

    99mTc-Methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) is widely used in clinical settings to detect bone abnormalities. However, the mechanism of 99mTc-MDP uptake in bone is not well elucidated. In this study, we utilized a mouse tibia injury model, single-photon emission computed tomography (gamma scintigraphy or SPECT), ex vivo micro-computed tomography, and histology to monitor 99mTc-MDP uptake in injury sites during skeletal healing. In an ex vivo culture system, calvarial cells were differentiated into osteoblasts with osteogenic medium, pulsed with 99mTc-MDP at different time points, and quantitated for 99mTc-MDP uptake with a gamma counter. We demonstrated that 99mTc-MDP uptake in the injury sites corresponded to osteoblast generation in those sites throughout the healing process. The 99mTc-MDP uptake within the injury sites peaked on day 7 post-injury, while the injury sites were occupied by mature osteoblasts also starting from day 7. 99mTc-MDP uptake started to decrease 14 days post-surgery, when we observed the highest level of bony tissue in the injury sites. We also found that 99mTc-MDP uptake was associated with osteoblast maturation and mineralization in vitro. This study provides direct and biological evidence for 99mTc-MDP uptake in osteoblasts during bone healing in vivo and in vitro.

  4. The co-occurrence of non-suicidal self-injury and attempted suicide among adolescents: distinguishing risk factors and psychosocial correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andover Margaret S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although attempted suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI are distinct behaviors differing in intent, form, and function, the behaviors co-occur at a high rate in both adults and adolescents. Researchers have begun to investigate the association between attempted suicide and NSSI among adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to present current research on this association. First, we discuss definitional issues associated with self-injurious behaviors. Next, we present research on the co-occurrence of attempted suicide and NSSI, including prevalence and associations with self-injury characteristics. We then discuss psychosocial variables associated with engaging in both NSSI and attempted suicide or one type of self-injury alone. Finally, we present the research to date on risk factors uniquely associated with either attempted suicide or NSSI. Implications for mental health professionals and future avenues of research are discussed.

  5. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay Safe: ... Tips: Inline Skating Safety Tips: Skateboarding Dealing With Sports Injuries Concussions: What to Do Contact Us Print Resources ...

  6. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  7. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  8. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data Consumer Opinion Surveys Home / Research & Statistics Injury Statistics This is the statistic reports page for scientific ... Home Appliances, Maintenance and Construction Injury Statistics Injury Statistics September 30, 2012 Submersions Related to Non-Pool ...

  9. Low total cortisol correlates closely with low free cortisol in traumatic brain injury and predicts mortality and long-term hypopituitarism

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, M J

    2011-06-01

    Published data has demonstrated that low 0900h plasma total cortisol (PTC) in the acute phase following traumatic brain injury (TBI) predicts mortality. However, there is concern regarding the use of PTC to evaluate the pituitary-adrenal axis in acutely unwell patients due to potential discrepancies between PTC and plasma free cortisol (PFC) due to variations in corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG). We hypothesised that low PTC would correlate closely with PFC and would predict mortality and long-term hypopituitarism.100 patients (84 men, median age 33, range 18-75) were recruited on admission with TBI (mean GCS+\\/-SD = 8.59+\\/-4.2). Each patient had PTC and CBG measured on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 following TBI. Results were compared with 15 patients admitted to ITU following vascular surgery. A PTC <300nmol\\/L in a patient in ITU was regarded clinically as inappropriately low. PFC was calculated for 25% of TBI samples and all control samples using Coolen\\'s equation (1). TBI patients reattended for dynamic pituitary testing >6 months after TBI.All controls had PTC >500 nmol\\/L on day 1, and >300 nmol on days 3–10. By contrast, 78\\/100 TBI patients had at least one PTC <300 nmol\\/L.TBI patients in the lowest quartile of final PTC measurement had the highest mortality (p=0.0187). PTC correlated closely with PFC in both TBI patients (r=0.99, p<0.0001) and controls (r=0.99, p<0.0001). 32\\/79 (40.5%) of TBI survivors attended for dynamic pituitary testing. The median time to dynamic pituitary testing was 14 months (range 6–24 months). 15\\/32 (46.9%) underwent insulin tolerance testing, 9\\/32 (28.1%) underwent glucagon testing and 8\\/32 (25%) underwent short synacthen testing. 6\\/32 (18.8%) were ACTH deficient, of whom 5\\/6 (83.3%) previously had low PTC. 6\\/32 were GH deficient, all of whom previously had low PTC. One patient was gonadotropin deficient; he previously had low PTC. No patients were TSH or prolactin deficient. Overall, 12\\/32 (37

  10. Biomechanics of whiplash injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hai-bin; King H YANG; WANG Zheng-guo

    2009-01-01

    the facet capsule connected with events early in the impact. (5) There are several possible injury criteria to correlate with the duration of symptoms during reconstructions of actual crashes. These results form the biomechanical basis for a hypothesis that the facet joint capsule is a source of neck pain and that the pain may arise from large strains in the joint capsule that will cause pain receptors to fire.

  11. Are early MRI findings correlated with long-lasting symptoms following whiplash injury? A prospective trial with 1-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Sorensen, Joan; Andersen, Hans;

    2008-01-01

    prospectively followed cohorts are needed to identify possible clinically relevant MRI findings. The objective of this trial was to evaluate (1) the predictive value of cervical MRI after whiplash injuries and (2) the value of repeating MRI examinations after 3 months including sequences with flexion and......Neck pain is the cardinal symptom following whiplash injuries. The trauma mechanism could theoretically lead to both soft tissue and bone injury that could be visualised by means of MRI. From previous quite small trials it seems that MRI does not demonstrate significant tissue damage. Large...... extension of the cervical spine. Participants were included after rear-end or frontal car collisions. Patients with fractures or dislocations diagnosed by standard procedures at the emergency unit were not included. MRI scans of the cervical spine were performed at baseline and repeated after 3 months...

  12. Correlation between related factors and prognosis of the patients with high falling injury%高处坠落伤患者相关因素与预后的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭宗奎; 黄卫兵; 陈庄洪; 王庆; 蔡贤华; 黄继锋; 刘曦明

    2004-01-01

    effects of the correlated factors on the high falling injury, distinguish the pattern and degree of the injury on different injury conditions objectively and correctly, and improve the level of the diagnosis and treatment for the high falling injury.DESIGN: A retrospective analysis based on the diagnosis.SETTING: Department of Orthopaedics, Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 825 patients of the high falling injury were chosen from Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command from January 1990 to December 2002. There were 645 males and 180 females whose age varied from 1 to 85 years old.METHODS: According to the case recording, the retrospective analysis about the correlated factors was done in the 825 cases of the high falling injury, and the rivised injury severity score(RISS) was applied to the evaluation of all the cases.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Focus on the regularities, characteristics and degrees of the injury at different falling heights, landing positions, ages and body mass and the ground circumstances.RESULTS: The injury pattern, degree, the effect on the treatment and the crisis had close relationship with the factors above. When the falling height was less than 3 m, the injuries mainly occurred on the limbs and craniocerebrum, and as the falling height increased the occurrence rate of the fracture of the spinal column and pelvis also increased. When the falling height was above 8 m, the injuries of the intrapleural and intraperitoneal organs significantly increased. The most easily injured positions were the first landing positions, in which the head landing was the most severe and had the highest mortalities, the foot landing caused more linkage injuries. There were common head injuries in children, and the injuries of the spinal column, ribs,pelvis, lower limbs, intrapleural organs and the linkage injuries in the adults were more than in children. At the same falling height, the injuries of the adults are severer

  13. 创伤性颅脑损伤后睡眠障碍与损伤部位的相关性研究%Study on the correlation between sleep disorders and the site of injury after traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正保; 覃川; 晏怡; 李柏成; 张彪; 胡建刚; 杨秀江

    2015-01-01

    Objective Research on traumatic the related factors of sleep disorder after traumatic brain injury ,in order to pro-vided the rationale for the diagnosis and treatment .Methods The SPIEGEL was used to evaluate the traumatic brain injury patients who were hospitalized .Recording time in sleep disorders in 3 months .Analysis the relations between the sleep disorders and brain injury site by combining with the patients head CT and MRI .Results Seen in 200 cases of patients with sleep disorders of 105 cases (52 .5% );71 cases appeared in patients within 1 week after waking ,accounted for 76 .19% ;The brain stem ,frontal lobe and basal ganglia injury occurred sleep disorders were more likely(66 .7% ,64 .0% ,70% ) .The difference was statistically significant(P<0 .05) .Conclusion Sleep disorder is a common clinical symptom of mild traumatic brain injury .a time to focus on the patients with-in 1 week after waking ,and closely related to brain stem ,frontal lobe and basal ganglia injury .%目的:研究创伤性颅脑损伤(TBI)后出现睡眠障碍与脑损伤部位的关系,为临床诊断及防治提供依据。方法采用SPIEGEL量表对200例轻型颅脑外伤患者进行睡眠质量测评,随访3个月,结合患者的头颅CT、MRI影像检查结果分析发生睡眠障碍与脑外伤部位的关系。结果200例TBI患者发生睡眠障碍105例,有71例出现在患者清醒后1周内。其中,脑干、额叶、基底节受伤的患者发生睡眠障碍相关性高于其他部位受伤的患者,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论睡眠障碍是轻度TBI的常见临床症状,与脑干、额叶、基底节等部位损伤关系密切。

  14. Urinary biomarkers in hexachloro-1:3-butadiene-induced acute kidney injury in the female Hanover Wistar rat; correlation of α-glutathione S-transferase, albumin and kidney injury molecule-1 with histopathology and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Aubrey; Turton, John; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Pereira, Ines; Viswanathan, Neeti; Smyth, Rosemary; Munday, Michael; McClure, Fiona; Gandhi, Mitul; Sondh, Surjit; York, Malcolm

    2011-05-01

    Hexachloro-1:3-butadiene (HCBD) causes kidney injury specific to the pars recta of the proximal tubule. In the present studies, injury to the nephron was characterized at 24 h following a single dose of HCBD, using a range of quantitative urinary measurements, renal histopathology and gene expression. Multiplexed renal biomarker measurements were performed using both the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) and Rules Based Medicine platforms. In a second study, rats were treated with a single nephrotoxic dose of HCBD and the time course release of a range of traditional and newer urinary biomarkers was followed over a 25 day period. Urinary albumin (a marker of both proximal tubular function and glomerular integrity) and α-glutathione S-transferase (α-GST, a proximal tubular cell marker of cytoplasmic leakage) showed the largest fold change at 24 h (day 1) after dosing. Most other markers measured on either the MSD or RBM platforms peaked on day 1 or 2 post-dosing, whereas levels of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), a marker of tubular regeneration, peaked on day 3/4. Therefore, in rat proximal tubular nephrotoxicity, the measurement of urinary albumin, α-GST and KIM-1 is recommended as they potentially provide useful information about the function, degree of damage and repair of the proximal tubule. Gene expression data provided useful confirmatory information regarding exposure of the kidney and liver to HCBD, and the response of these tissues to HCBD in terms of metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and regeneration and repair.

  15. Visceral injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, D H; Blaisdell, F W

    1992-06-01

    Abdominal visceral injuries are encountered by every surgeon who deals with trauma. It is simple and useful to divide abdominal visceral injuries into those caused by penetrating mechanisms of injury and those due to blunt mechanisms. Determination of the need for operative intervention is generally easier after penetrating trauma. Gunshot wounds to the abdomen should be explored, as should stab wounds to the anterior abdomen that penetrate the fascia. A midline incision is the standard approach to abdominal visceral injuries because of its ease and versatility. Abdominal exploration should be consistent and systemic so as not to miss significant injuries. Hollow viscus injury is most common after penetrating injury, while blunt injury most often results in injury to solid viscera. Diagnostic and operative aspects of the treatment of specific visceral injuries are reviewed.

  16. Hysteria following brain injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Eames, P

    1992-01-01

    Of 167 patients referred to a unit treating severe behaviour disorders after brain injury, 54 showed clinical features closely resembling those of gross hysteria as described by Charcot. Close correlation was found with very diffuse insults (hypoxia and hypoglycaemia), but not with severity of injury or with family or personal history of hysterical or other psychiatric disorder. The findings may have implications for the understanding of the nature of hysteria.

  17. Syndesmosis injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis commonly result from high-energy ankle injuries. They can occur as isolated ligamentous injuries and can be associated with ankle fractures. Syndesmotic injuries can create a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for musculoskeletal physicians. Recent literature has added considerably to the body of knowledge pertaining to injury mechanics and treatment outcomes, but there remain a number of controversies regarding diagnostic tests, imp...

  18. Respiratory compliance but not gas exchange correlates with changes in lung aeration after a recruitment maneuver: an experimental study in pigs with saline lavage lung injury

    OpenAIRE

    Henzler, Dietrich; Pelosi, Paolo; Dembinski, Rolf; Ullmann, Annette; Mahnken, Andreas H; Rossaint, Rolf; Kuhlen, Ralf

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Atelectasis is a common finding in acute lung injury, leading to increased shunt and hypoxemia. Current treatment strategies aim to recruit alveoli for gas exchange. Improvement in oxygenation is commonly used to detect recruitment, although the assumption that gas exchange parameters adequately represent the mechanical process of alveolar opening has not been proven so far. The aim of this study was to investigate whether commonly used measures of lung mechanics better detect lu...

  19. 大鼠放射性肺损伤CT定量分析与肺功能的相关性研究%Quantitation Computed Tomography Analysis and Correlation with Pulmonary Function Tests in Radiation induced Lung Injury of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹阳; 田志雄; 田大为; 曾俊杰; 吴光耀; 徐丽莹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the correlation of quantitative CT with pulmonary function tests(PFT) in radiation induced lung injury of rats, and to investigate the values of the quantitative CT analysis in the early diagnosis of radiation in-duced lung injury. Materials and Methods Sixty SPF health female SD rats were divided into 2 groups, one radiated groups and one normal control group randomly. Right lung in the radiated group rat received a dose of 20Gy with 60CO. The rats were underwent high resolution computed tomography( HRCT) scan, CT quantitative lung function and PFT index analysis at the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 12th, 16th week after establishing lung injury model. The rats' s lung was fixed and HE stained for pathology. Results After irradiation, the pathological changes only occurred in radiate field. The pathological and HRCT signs on rats were similar to that on human. At 2nd ~ 16th week after irradiation, the average density of right lungs in radiation groups was higher than that of normal control group (P < 0.05) , and Pixel Index (PI) curve peak shifted to the right. There was correlation between quantitative CT lung function and PFT in radiation induced lung injury rat model, especially FVC and PI-800--700, have highest correlation( r = 0. 936,P < 0.01). Conclusion There is correlation between quantitative CT lung function and PFT in radiation induced lung injury rat model, which can be benefit in early diagnosis of radiation induced lung injury.%目的 研究大鼠放射性肺损伤CT肺功能定量分析及其与肺功能试验的相关关系,初步探讨CT定量分析对于放射性肺损伤的早期诊断价值.材料与方法 将60只SPF级健康雌性SD大鼠,随机等分为两组(对照组和实验组).实验组采用60Co右肺单分割照射20Gy,另一组为空白对照组.于照射后第2、4、6、8、12、16周行高分辨率CT(HRCT)扫描并作CT肺功能定量分析,每组随机抽取5只大鼠测定肺功能试验指标,行HE染色比较

  20. Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury School sports Injuries can land students in the ER. Text Messaging: Emergency Physicians ... For You American College of Emergency Phycisians Copyright © American College of Emergency ...

  1. Inhalation Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Coşkun Araz; Arash Pirat

    2011-01-01

    Despite significant advances in wound care of patients with burn injuries, inhalation injury remains as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, there are limited studies that have focused on the diagnosis, grading, pathophysiology, and therapy of inhalation injury, therefore a widely accepted consensus is lacking on these topics. Inhalation injury is generally defined as the inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants and can be divided into three...

  2. Ankle flexibility and injury patterns in dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesler, E R; Hunter, D M; Martin, D F; Curl, W W; Hoen, H

    1996-01-01

    Lower-extremity injuries are common among dancers and cause significant absences from rehearsals and performances. For this study of lower-extremity injuries in 101 ballet and 47 modern dance students, injuries requiring medical attention sustained over 1 academic year were associated with the following data obtained at the beginning of the school year: ankle flexibility, sex, dance discipline, previous injury, body mass index, and years of training. Eighty-three of the 148 students (age range, 12 to 28 years) reported prior lower-limb injuries, the most common being ankle sprains (28% of all dancers). Previous leg injuries correlated significantly with lower dorsiflexion measurements and with more new injuries. Female students had greater ankle and first metatarsophalangeal flexibility. Modern dancers had greater ankle inversion. Ninety-four students sustained 177 injuries during the study, including 75 sprains or strains and 71 cases of tendinitis. Thirty-nine percent (N = 69) were ankle injuries; 18% (N = 33) were knee injuries; 23% (N = 40) were foot injuries; and 20% (N = 35) were either hip or thigh injuries. Sixty-seven percent (N = 78) of the injured students were ballet dancers. Age, years of training, body mass index, sex, and ankle range of motion measurement had no predictive value for injury; previous injury and dance discipline both correlated with increased risk of injury. PMID:8947396

  3. Head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, G R

    2010-05-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest injuries in sport. Most are mild but some can have serious outcomes. Sports medicine doctors should be able to recognise the clinical features and evaluate athletes with head injury. It is necessary during field assessment to recognise signs and symptoms that help in assessing the severity of injury and making a decision to return-to-play. Prevention of primary head injury should be the aim. This includes protective equipment like helmets and possible rule changes. PMID:20533694

  4. Bicycling injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Marc R

    2013-01-01

    Bicycling injuries can be classified into bicycle contact, traumatic, and overuse injuries. Despite the popularity of cycling, there are few scientific studies regarding injuries. Epidemiological studies are difficult to compare due to different methodologies and the diverse population of cyclists studied. There are only three studies conducted on top level professionals. Ninety-four percent of professionals in 1 year have experienced at least one overuse injury. Most overuse injuries are mild with limited time off the bike. The most common site of overuse injury is the knee, and the most common site of traumatic injury is the shoulder, with the clavicle having the most common fracture. Many overuse and bicycle contact ailments are relieved with simple bike adjustments.

  5. TA1 oncofetal rat liver cDNA and putative amino acid permease: temporal correlation with c-myc during acute CCl4 liver injury and variation of RNA levels in response to amino acids in hepatocyte cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, V D; Campbell, W; Karr, S; Hixson, D C; Thompson, N L

    1999-01-01

    TA1 is a rat liver oncofetal cDNA and a member of an emerging family of evolutionarily conserved molecules with homology to amino acid transporters and permeases. The aim of these studies was to characterize the regulation and role of TA1 in acute rat liver injury by examining its relation to regeneration and metabolic stress. Following a single dose of CCl4, TA1 message was expressed 3-48 h. The major 3.3-kb TA1 transcript correlated temporally with c-myc expression. A novel 2.9-kb TA1 transcript was expressed more variably 24-48 h. TA1 protein was restricted to hepatocytes in G0 and G1 phases of the cell cycle. Relative to CCl4, a much smaller increase in TA1 was noted after partial hepatectomy and TA1 preceded the peak of c-myc expression. In vitro TA1 was not induced in hepatocytes by EGF or the acute-phase cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha, but was found to be modulated in response to amino acid availability. TA1 expression increased in media without arginine and glutamine and was repressed by total amino acid levels 5-fold over basal MEM. Together, these results contrast with the constitutive expression observed in transformed cells and suggest an adaptive role for TA1 during liver injury.

  6. CORRELATION ANALYSIS BETWEEN RECURRENT ANTERIOR SHOULDER DISLOCATION AND SECONDARY INTRA-ARTICULAR INJURIES%复发性肩关节前脱位与关节内继发损伤的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海峰; 刘玉杰; 李众利; 李春宝; 董晓艳; 朱娟丽; 刘洋

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过分析肩关节前脱位次数、病程与关节内继发损伤的关系,探讨复发性肩关节前脱位对关节内继发损伤的影响. 方法 回顾分析2005年1月- 2009年6月关节镜下应用缝合锚钉行Bankart重建术治疗的59例复发性肩关节前脱位患者临床资料.男48例,女11例;年龄15~42岁,平均27.6岁.初次脱位原因:接触性体育运动21例,非接触性体育运动13例,日常活动11例,外伤14例.术前脱位3~32次,平均10.6次.初次脱位至手术时间为11个月~12年,中位时间5.9年.患者恐惧试验及复位试验均呈阳性.术前美国加州大学洛杉矶分校(UCLA)肩关节功能评分为(22.3±2.4)分,Constant-Murley评分为(73.1±5.8)分.关节镜下观察关节内继发损伤情况,并进行统计分析. 结果 术后患者切口均Ⅰ期愈合.患者均获随访,随访时间16~58个月,平均37.3个月.末次随访时,UCLA肩关节功能评分为(34.6±1.7)分,Constant-Murley评分为(86.7±6.1)分,与术前比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).术前关节脱位次数和关节软骨损伤的严重程度成正相关(rs=0.345,P=0.007),和Hill-Sachs损伤严重程度成正相关(rs=0.708,P=0.000);首次脱位至手术时间和关节软骨损伤严重程度成正相关(rs=0.498,P=0.000),与Hill-Sachs损伤严重程度无相关性(rs=0.021,P=0.874). 结论 复发性肩关节前脱位早期行Bankart重建有利于肩关节功能恢复,避免或延缓关节内继发损伤的发生和发展.%Objective To explore the effect of recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation on the secondary intra-articular injuries through analyzing the correlation between the number of dislocation, disease duration, and the secondary intra-articular injuries. Methods The clinical data were analyzed retrospectively from 59 patients with recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation who underwent arthroscopic Bankart reconstruction using suture anchor between January 2005 and June 2009. There were 48

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Psychological Issues After Spinal Cord Injury Psychological Health After Spinal Cord Injury Psychological Health After Spinal Cord Injury The Psychologist's Role After ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Psychological Realities After Spinal Cord Injury Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation How Psychologists Help ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Psychological Realities after Spinal Cord Injury Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation How Psychologists Help ...

  10. Correlation of Erythrocyte Sorbitol Concentration and Kidney Injury in Diabetic Rats%糖尿病大鼠红细胞山梨醇浓度与肾脏损害的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田恩圣; 贾雷

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the correlation of erythrocyte sorbitol concentration and kidney injury in diabetic rats.Methods Diabetic rat model was created by intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin(52 mg/kg).The kidney pathological changes were observed through the measurement of erythrocyte sorbitol concentration,the plasma concentration of creatinine,24 h urine volume and the concentrations of urea nitrogen and creatinine in urine at different time,and the calculation of creatinine clearance rate.The correlation between erythrocyte sorbitol concentration and kidney injury was investigated.Results The erythrocyte sorbitol concentration was gradually increased from the third week,and significantly increased at the sixth week,then tended to be stable in diabetic rats.Renal function and kidney pathological changes were obviously altered after 6 weeks.Conclusion The erythrocyte sorbitol concentration in diabetic rats accumulates to a certain degree and lasts for a period of time,then the kidney injury appears.Hence,the erythrocyte sorbitol concentration can be served as the early-warming index of kidney.%目的 研究糖尿病大鼠红细胞山梨醇浓度与肾脏损害的相关性.方法 链脲佐菌素52 mg/kg一次性腹腔注射大鼠,造模,于不同的时间点测定糖尿病大鼠红细胞内山梨醇、血肌酐、24 h尿量、尿素氮、及尿肌酐,并计算肌酐清除率,观察肾脏的病理改变,研究红细胞山梨醇浓度与肾脏损害的相关性.结果 糖尿病大鼠红细胞内山梨醇由第3周开始浓度显著升高,第6周后趋于稳定;肾功能和肾脏的病理改变则在第6周后变化明显.结论 糖尿病大鼠红细胞内山梨醇聚集达一定浓度,并持续一段时间后糖尿病大鼠出现肾脏损害,红细胞内山梨醇浓度可作为肾脏损害前的预警指标.

  11. Paragliding injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-01-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during st...

  12. Inhalation Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşkun Araz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant advances in wound care of patients with burn injuries, inhalation injury remains as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, there are limited studies that have focused on the diagnosis, grading, pathophysiology, and therapy of inhalation injury, therefore a widely accepted consensus is lacking on these topics. Inhalation injury is generally defined as the inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants and can be divided into three types of injury: thermal injury, which is mostly restricted to the upper airway; chemical injury, which affects tracheobronchial tree; and systemic toxicity owing to toxic gases such as carbon monoxide. Inhalation injury increases the burn injury associated morbidity and mortality by causing airway problems and respiratory failure during the early phase and by contributing to the development of pneumonia and atelectasis during the late phase. Additionally, systemic effects of toxic gases such as carbon monoxide may also adversely affect the early and long-term outcome in burn victims. The early diagnosis and therapy of these problems plays a key role in improving the outcome of burn patients. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 37-45

  13. Correlation between pain relief after percutaneous vertebroplasty and lumbar fascia injury%椎体成形术后残留腰背痛与腰背筋膜损伤的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐人杰; 朱国清; 蔡小强; 喻兆恒; 陈广祥; 邹天明; 王东来

    2012-01-01

    Background: Percutaneous vertebroplasty is an effective measure to relieve pain caused by osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs), but some patients still feel mild to moderate pain after percutaneous vertebroplasty. It is speculated that there is correlation between remained lumbodorsal pain and lumbar fascia injury. Objective: The purpose of the study is to explore the correlation between pain relief after percutaneous vertebroplasty and lumbar fascia injury. Methods: From February 2010 to March 2012, 133 elderly patients with OVCFs were treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty in our hospital. The painful vertebra and the injured lumbar fascia were determined by the signal intensity changes in MR images before operation. The visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were used to evaluate the pain before and after surgery. Results: The VAS and ODI of the patients with lumbar fascia injury were 9.11±0.76 and 73.93%±1.46% before vertebroplasty. They were 2.70±0.83 and 29.34%±2.69%, respectively, after vertebroplasty. In the patients without lumbar fascia injury, the VAS and ODI were 9.26±0.82 and 73.96%±1.38% before vertebroplasty, and 1.23±0.87 and 22.27%±1.25% after vertebroplasty. Pain relief in the patients without lumbar fascia injury was significantly better than the patients with lumbar fascia injury. Conclusions: Pain relief may be correlated with lumbar fascia injury after percutaneous vertebroplasty.%背景:椎体成形术可有效缓解骨质疏松性椎体压缩骨折引起的疼痛,但是部分患者术后短期内仍残留轻度至中度疼痛.而这种残留的腰背痛可能与腰背筋膜损伤相关.目的:探讨骨质疏松性椎体压缩骨折行椎体成形术后腰背痛缓解和腰背筋膜损伤的关系.方法:2010年2月至2012年3月收治骨质疏松性椎体压缩骨折患者133例,行椎体成形术治疗,术前通过MR检查确定责任椎,并观察腰背筋膜损伤情况.术前术后通

  14. Hyper-activated pro-inflammatory CD16 monocytes correlate with the severity of liver injury and fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yuan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extensive mononuclear cell infiltration is strongly correlated with liver damage in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB infection. Macrophages and infiltrating monocytes also participate in the development of liver damage and fibrosis in animal models. However, little is known regarding the immunopathogenic role of peripheral blood monocytes and intrahepatic macrophages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The frequencies, phenotypes, and functions of peripheral blood and intrahepatic monocyte/macrophage subsets were analyzed in 110 HBeAg positive CHB patients, including 32 immune tolerant (IT carriers and 78 immune activated (IA patients. Liver biopsies from 20 IA patients undergoing diagnosis were collected for immunohistochemical analysis. IA patients displayed significant increases in peripheral blood monocytes and intrahepatic macrophages as well as CD16(+ subsets, which were closely associated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels and the liver histological activity index (HAI scores. In addition, the increased CD16(+ monocytes/macrophages expressed higher levels of the activation marker HLA-DR compared with CD16(- monocytes/macrophages. Furthermore, peripheral blood CD16(+ monocytes preferentially released inflammatory cytokines and hold higher potency in inducing the expansion of Th17 cells. Of note, hepatic neutrophils also positively correlated with HAI scores. CONCLUSIONS: These distinct properties of monocyte/macrophage subpopulations participate in fostering the inflammatory microenvironment and liver damage in CHB patients and further represent a collaborative scenario among different cell types contributing to the pathogenesis of HBV-induced liver disease.

  15. Pediatric Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ballesteros, M. F., Sleet, D. A. (2008). CDC childhood injury report: patterns of unintentional injuries among 0-19 ... American Academy of Pediatrics. (2008). Management of pediatric trauma. Pediatrics, 121 , 849–854. [top] How many people are ... may slightly increase childhood risk of neurological impairment, NIH study suggests All ...

  16. 医院消毒供应中心人员配置与锐器伤相关性研究%Correlation between personnel staffing and sharp injuries in central sterile supply departments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康虹; 王丽华; 于静; 高佳

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨集中供应模式下消毒供应中心工作人员结构与锐器伤发生的关系。方法于2011年9月-2012年9月采取问卷调查法对湖南省30所医院的人员配置及342名工作人员的锐器伤发生情况进行调查,分析在不同人员配置下的锐器伤发生率。结果医院消毒供应中心注册护士人员比例平均值达到要求,但工作人员与床位比低于湖南省医院消毒供应中心达标验收标准;消毒供应中心工作人员2011年9月-2012年9月的统计数据中护士的比例、大专学历、护士工作年限>5年、工人工作年限<1年,锐器伤发生率最高(P<0.05)。结论消毒供应中心工作人员数量有待增加,合理的人员结构配置,将有利于降低消毒供应中心工作人员锐器伤的发生。%OBJECTIVE To explore the correlation between the personnel staffing in central sterile supply depart‐ment and the sharp injuries under the centralized supply mode .METHODS From Sep 2011 to Sep 2012 ,a ques‐tionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the personnel staffing in 30 hospitals of Hunan province and the inci‐dence of sharp injuries in 342 staff ,and the incidence of the sharp injuries under different personnel staffing was analyzed .RESULTS The mean value of ratio of the registered nurses in the central sterilized supply departments has met the standard ,however ,the ratio of the staff to bed did not meet the Central Sterile Supply Department Compliance and Acceptance Criteria in Hunan province .The statistical analysis performed from Sep 2011 to Sep 2012 showed the proportion of the nurses ,the junior college education background ,the working lifetime of the nurses more than 5 years ,the working lifetime of the workers less than 1 year ,the incidence of the sharp injuries was the highest (P<0 .05) .CONCLUSION The number of staff in the central sterile supply departments needs to be raised ,and the rational personnel staffing

  17. COMPARATIVE ROLE AND EVALUATION OF ULTRASOUND AND MULTISLICE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE GRADING OF HEMOPERITONEUM IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE BLUNT ABDOMINAL TRAUMA AND ITS CORRELATION WITH THE GRADING OF ORGAN INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunwarpal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: 1. To assess the role of Ultrasound (US and Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT in detecting hemoperitoneum in patients with acute blunt abdominal trauma. 2. To study the use of US and MSCT in grading of hemoperitoneum in blunt abdominal trauma patients. 3. To compare the US and MSCT grading of hemoperitoneum with the grading of organ injury. 4. To compare and statistically analyze the spectrum of findings observed in each modality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted at advanced diagnostics and institute of imaging , Amritsar. The study comprised of 50 patients who were stable enough to undergo both US and CT scans.US was preceded by MSCT in most of the patients and the time gap between the imaging modalities was less than 1 hour to make the study comparable. TECHNIQUES ADOPTED : 1. US was performed on Versa plus (Siemens and Xario (Toshiba with Cardiac , 3.5 - 5 Mhz - Convex and 5 - 7.5 Mhz - Line ar probes. Particular attention was paid to the amount of free fluid in the abdomen and pelvis. 2. MSCT was performed with MSCT Volume Zoom (Siemens Forchheim Germany AG. 500 - 1000cc of water orally or through nasogastric tube was given 15 - 20 minutes before the study , followed by 120cc I/V contrast at the rate of 2 - 3ml/second using power injector. Parameters used: Single breath hold ; A. 165 mAs . B. 120 kvp . C. Scan delay - 40 seconds . D. Collimation - 4x2.5mm . E. Pitch - 5mm . Following findings were observed : a. Presence of peritoneal fluid. B. Any tear or hematoma in the solid abdominal organs like spleen and liver. C. Status of hollow viscera like small bowel , large bowel and urinary bladder. Hemoperitoneum was scored on both US and MSCT. Visceral injuries were graded according to O.I.S grading system. Score was correlated with the underlying organ injury and the management of the patient. US scoring (Table A and MSCT quantification of hemoperitoneum was done. (Table B Location of hemoperitoneum . A

  18. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Repetitive Stress Injuries Print ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  19. 创伤性脑损伤后脑白质损伤与认知功能障碍的相关性研究%Correlation study of cerebral white matter lesion with cognitive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱永山; 张玉龙; 程海云; 李晓光; 熊坤林

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the correlation between white matter injury and cognitive dysfunction using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).Methods Seventeen subjects with TBI hospitalized from October 2012 to September 2013 had Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score of ≥ 13 (mild injury group, 10 cases) and ≤ 12 (moderate-severe injury group, 7 cases).Another 17 healthy subjects were used as controls.All were submitted to DTI examination.Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient(ADC) values in genu corpus callosum, splenium corpus callosum, posterior internal capsule, anterior internal capsule, and cerebral peduncle were calculated using the Neuro 3D software.Correlations between FA and ADC with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score were evaluated.Results Moderate-severe injury group demonstrated significantly reduced FA values in genu corpus callosum and splenium corpus callosum, and significantly increased ADC values of genu corpus callosum, splenium corpus callosum, posterior internal capsule and cerebral peduncle when compared to control group (P <0.05 or 0.01).FA and ADC values in the regions of interest did not differ significantly between mild injury group and control group (P > 0.05).In the genu corpus callosum and splenium corpus callosum, FA values were positively correlated with MMSE score (r =0.636, 0.601), while ADC values were negatively correlated with MMSE score (r =0.552, 0.660).Conclusions DTI reveals the cerebral white matter lesion that is undetectable using CT and conventional MRI.DTI is a helpful tool to evaluate the degree of cognitive function in patients with TBI, which provides the basic reference for the clinical treatment and prognosis.%目的 利用磁共振张量成像(DTI)分析创伤性颅脑损伤(TBI)后脑白质各个参数值的变化与认知功能障碍有无相关性. 方法 选取2012年10月-2013年9月收治的TBI患者17例,按照格拉斯哥昏迷评分(GCS)分为≥13分组(轻度组,10例)和≤12

  20. Correlation of force control with regional spinal DTI in patients with cervical spondylosis without signs of spinal cord injury on conventional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate spinal cord structure in patients with cervical spondylosis where conventional MRI fails to reveal spinal cord damage. We performed a cross-sectional study of patients with cervical spondylosis without conventional MRI findings of spinal cord damage and healthy controls. Subjects were studied using spinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), precision grip and foot force-tracking tasks, and a clinical examination including assessment of neurological signs. A regional analysis of lateral and medial spinal white matter across multiple cervical levels (C1-C5) was performed. DTI revealed reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity (RD) in the lateral spinal cord at the level of greatest compression (lowest Pavlov ratio) in patients (p < 0.05). Patients with spondylosis had greater error and longer release duration in both grip and foot force-tracking. Similar spinal cord deficits were present in patients without neurological signs. Increased error in grip and foot tracking (low accuracy) correlated with increased RD in the lateral spinal cord at the level of greatest compression (p ≤ 0.01). Spinal DTI can detect subtle spinal cord damage of functional relevance in cervical spondylosis, even in patients without signs on conventional T2-imaging and without neurological signs. (orig.)

  1. Correlation of force control with regional spinal DTI in patients with cervical spondylosis without signs of spinal cord injury on conventional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Paavel G. [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, FR 3636 Neurosciences, Paris (France); Centre de Psychiatrie et Neurosciences, Inserm U894, Paris (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Service de Radiologie B, APHP, CHU Cochin, Faculte de Medecine, Paris (France); Sanchez, Katherine; Rannou, Francois; Poiraudeau, Serge [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Service de Medecine Physique et de Readaptation, APHP, CHU Cochin, Paris (France); INSERM U1153 Epidemiologie Clinique des Maladies Osteo-Articulaires, Paris (France); Ozcan, Fidan [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, FR 3636 Neurosciences, Paris (France); Feydy, Antoine [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, FR 3636 Neurosciences, Paris (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Service de Radiologie B, APHP, CHU Cochin, Faculte de Medecine, Paris (France); Maier, Marc A. [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, FR 3636 Neurosciences, Paris (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France)

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate spinal cord structure in patients with cervical spondylosis where conventional MRI fails to reveal spinal cord damage. We performed a cross-sectional study of patients with cervical spondylosis without conventional MRI findings of spinal cord damage and healthy controls. Subjects were studied using spinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), precision grip and foot force-tracking tasks, and a clinical examination including assessment of neurological signs. A regional analysis of lateral and medial spinal white matter across multiple cervical levels (C1-C5) was performed. DTI revealed reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity (RD) in the lateral spinal cord at the level of greatest compression (lowest Pavlov ratio) in patients (p < 0.05). Patients with spondylosis had greater error and longer release duration in both grip and foot force-tracking. Similar spinal cord deficits were present in patients without neurological signs. Increased error in grip and foot tracking (low accuracy) correlated with increased RD in the lateral spinal cord at the level of greatest compression (p ≤ 0.01). Spinal DTI can detect subtle spinal cord damage of functional relevance in cervical spondylosis, even in patients without signs on conventional T2-imaging and without neurological signs. (orig.)

  2. Susceptibility of striatal neurons to excitotoxic injury correlates with basal levels of Bcl-2 and the induction of P53 and c-Myc immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhong-Qin; Wang, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Yumei; Chuang, De-Maw; DiFiglia, Marian; Chase, Thomas N; Qin, Zheng-Hong

    2005-11-01

    The present studies evaluated the potential contribution of Bcl-2, p53, and c-Myc to the differential vulnerability of striatal neurons to the excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QA). In normal rat striatum, Bcl-2 immunoreactivity (Bcl-2-i) was most intense in large aspiny interneurons including choline acetyltransferase positive (CAT+) and parvalbumin positive (PARV+) neurons, but low in a majority of medium-sized neurons. In human brain, intense Bcl-2-i was seen in large striatal neurons but not in medium-sized spiny projection neurons. QA produced degeneration of numerous medium-sized neurons, but not those enriched in Bcl-2-i. Many Bcl-2-i-enriched interneurons including those with CAT+ and PARV+ survived QA injection, while medium-sized neurons labeled for calbindin D-28K (CAL D-28+) did not. In addition, proapoptotic proteins p53-i and c-Myc-i were robustly induced in medium-sized neurons, but not in most large neurons. The selective vulnerability of striatal medium spiny neurons to degeneration in a rodent model of Huntington's disease appears to correlate with their low levels of Bcl-2-i and high levels of induced p53-i and c-Myc-i. PMID:15922606

  3. Correlation between selenium accumulation and physiological injury in Brassica rapa%不结球白菜体内硒累积量与生理损伤指标的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健; 陈义; 杨立飞; 徐为民

    2016-01-01

    To study the mechanism of growth inhibition induced by selenium ( Se) accumulation in plants, the corre⁃lation between the Se concentration and physiological injury in the edible parts ( shoots) of Brassica rapa with root treatment of Na2 SeO3 were analyzed. The Se accumulations in both shoots and roots increased significantly,and the amount was close in both parts. Treatment with Se significantly inhibited the growth of B. rapa, and a significantly negative correlation was found between Se concentration in shoots and the fresh weight of shoots. Treatment with Se remarkably induced the produc⁃tion of MDA in the shoots of B. rapa, and Se concentration in shoots was positively correlated with MDA concentration in shoots. And the MDA concentration in shoots was negatively correlated with the fresh weight of shoots under Se treatment. Treatment with Se at low concentrations didn’ t change the chlorophyll content while Se at high concentrations remarkably induced the decrease in chlorophyll content. A significantly positive correlation between Se concentration in shoots and chlorophyll content was presented, whereas no significant correlation between chlorophyll content and the fresh weight of shoots was observed.In conclusion, high concen⁃tration of Se treatment could result in the considerable ac⁃cumulation of Se in B. rapa, which further led to the growth inhibition of B. rapa.And the reason could be mainly attributed to the oxidative injury instead of the decrease in chlorophyll content in B. rapa.%为了研究累积到作物体内的过量硒抑制作物生长的机理,以不结球白菜( Brassica rapa)为材料,分析了亚硒酸钠( Na2 SeO3)处理不结球白菜根后,不结球白菜地上部可食部分硒累积量与生理损伤指标变化的相关性。结果显示:随着处理液中硒浓度的升高,不结球白菜地上部和地下部的硒累积量显著上升,且两部分几乎累积等量的硒;硒处理抑制不结球

  4. The immunological consequences of injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ni Choileain, N

    2012-02-03

    Immediate and early trauma death rates are determined by "first hits" such as hypoxia, hypotension and organ injury, while late mortality correlates closely with "second hits" such as infection. An imbalance between the early systemic inflammatory response (SIRS), and the later compensatory counter-inflammatory response (CARS), is considered to be responsible for much post-traumatic morbidity and mortality. From a clinical perspective, this remains a significant healthcare problem, which has stimulated decades of experimental and clinical research aimed at understanding the functional effects of injury on the immune system. This review describes the impact of injury on the innate and adaptive immune systems. Though it is worth noting that the features of the immune response to injury overlap in many areas with immune dysregulation in sepsis, we attempt here to elucidate the mechanism by which injury predisposes to infection rather than to describe the alterations in host immunity consequent to established sepsis.

  5. Rowing Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Hosea, Timothy M.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Rowing is one of the original modern Olympic sports and was one of the most popular spectator sports in the United States. Its popularity has been increasing since the enactment of Title IX. The injury patterns in this sport are unique because of the stress applied during the rowing stroke. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes the existing literature describing the biomechanics of the rowing stroke and rowing-related injury patterns. Data were obtained from previously publish...

  6. MR findings of knee injuries in skiing: relation with the mechanism of injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyo Jeong; Jung, Seung Mun; Shin, Myung Jin [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon Tae [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-15

    To evaluate the MR findings of knee injuries in skiing and to explain the mechanism of injury with MR findings. We reviewed MR findings of 18 patients with history of knee injuries in skiing. The MR images were evaluated retrospectively to identify the ligament injuries, bone lesions and meniscal injuries. Ligament injuries were seen in 16 patients, bone contusions in 16 patients, meniscal lesions in two patients. The most common group of injury was anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries with bone contusion on posterior lip of the lateral tibial plateau (LTP). The second common group of injury was isolated ACL injury with bone contusions on the lateral femoral condyle (LFC) and posterior lip of the LTP. We considered that the mechanism of injury of the former group may be correlated with the valgus torque with secondary anterior displacement of the tibia and the latter group may be correlated with the pivot shift phenomenon. MR may play an important role in the diagnosis of knee injuries in skiing and its findings may explain the mechanism of injury.

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from ...

  8. 循环内皮细胞与放射性脑损伤相关性实验研究%Correlation between circulating endothelial cells and radiation-induced brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马代远; 谭榜宪; 李祥攀; 阮林; 甘浪舸; 韦力

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and radiation-induced brain injury. Methods One hundred and eight SD rats were randomly divided into control group, single-dose 10 Gy 60Co irradiation group and single-dose 30 Gy group. The neurobehavioral changes were observed by Morris water labyrinth at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after irradiation. The CECs in right ventricular blood were counted after Morrie water test. Hippocamp ultramicrostructure and GFAP positive cell were detected after perfusion of encephalon. Results Neuobehavior change: at 1 month and 3 months after irradiation the swim latency was significantly prolonged (30 Gy group>10 Gy group>control group, P 10 Gy group> 30 Gy group, P 10 Gy group>control group, P10 Gy group>control group, P<0.05). Good correlations between the numbers of CECs and the swim lantency (r10 Gy=0.97, P=0.034; r30 Gy=0.95, P=0.013),and the numbers of GFAP positive cells(r10 Gy=0.94, P=0.037; r30 Gy=0.96, P=0.027) were demonstrated.Conclusion The changes of the CECs numbers are definitely correlated to radiation-induced brain injury, which is more with irradiation dose and duration.%目的 探讨循环内皮细胞(circulating endothelial cegs,CECs)与放射性脑损伤相关性.方法 108只SD大鼠信封法随机分成对照组、实验组(10 Gy组、30 Gy组),分别于照射后1周、1月和3月每组随机抽取9只进行Morris水迷宫行为测试,心脏取血计数CECs,取脑观察海马形态和结构.结果 神经行为改变:照射1和3个月后平台潜伏期延长、穿越平台象限时间及次数明显减少.海马齿状回形态改变:照射1和3个月后实验组神经胶质酸性蛋白(glial fibfillary acidic protein,GFAP)阳性细胞数量明显高于对照组,30 Gy组高于10 Gy组;照射1和3个月后超微结构变化为毛细血管内皮细胞变薄、内皮细胞吞饮小泡明显增多、内皮细胞间紧密连接破坏,毛细血管基膜外星形胶质细胞

  9. The cell cycle and acute kidney injury

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Peter M.; Safirstein, Robert L.; Megyesi, Judit

    2009-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) activates pathways of cell death and cell proliferation. Although seemingly discrete and unrelated mechanisms, these pathways can now be shown to be connected and even to be controlled by similar pathways. The dependence of the severity of renal-cell injury on cell cycle pathways can be used to control and perhaps to prevent acute kidney injury. This review is written to address the correlation between cellular life and death in kidney tubules, especially in acute ki...

  10. Wrestling injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Laurel

    2008-01-01

    The sport of wrestling has a history dating back to ancient times as one of the original Olympic sports. It particularly appeals to adolescents as equally matched opponents engage in competition. There can be no argument that participation in sports helps promote a physically active lifestyle. However, despite the documented health benefits of increased physical activity, those who participate in athletics are at risk for sports-related injuries. This article will discuss wrestling injuries and recommend prevention strategies to keep athletes safe. PMID:18521035

  11. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News media ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports injuries ...

  12. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask an Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Safety Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Work Edited by: Shirley Dang Feb. ...

  13. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Preventing Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. ...

  14. Correlation between emergency treatment time and prognosis of acute traumatic brain injury patients caused by external violence%外部暴力所致急性颅脑创伤预后的相关性因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玲昌

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation of prognosis with emergency treatment time,gender,age and GCS score of acute traumatic brain injury patients caused by external violence.Methods 92 acute traumatic brain injury patients caused by external violence were selected.The gender,age,emergency treatment time,post-resuscita-tion GCS and GOS after 5 months were collected and analyzed.The relationship between patients′signs and emergency treatment time and prognosis were analyzed.Results The differences of prognosis between elderly patients and youn-ger patients were statistically significant(χ2 =5.30,P<0.05).The differences of prognosis in patients with different GCS scores were statistically significant(χ2 =11.97,P<0.01).The differences of prognosis in patients with different emergency treatment time were statistically significant(χ2 =15.74,P<0.01).The prognosis with age and emergency treatment time had a significant correlation(P=0.016,0.007).The prognosis of patients with different emergency treatment time had a significant difference(χ2 =28.45,P<0.01).Conclusion The age,post-resuscitation GCS and emergency treatment time are meaningful in predicating patients′mortality and prognosis.The shorter the emer-gency treatment time,the better the prognosis.%目的:探讨外部暴力所致急性颅脑创伤患者现场及院内抢救时间、性别、年龄及格拉斯哥昏迷评分(GCS评分)与预后的相关性。方法选取92例外部暴力所致急性颅脑创伤患者为研究对象,回顾性分析其临床资料。收集患者的性别、年龄、受伤到抢救的时间、入院时 GCS 及5个月后格拉斯哥预后评分(GOS),分析各征象及抢救时间与临床预后的相关性。结果高龄和低龄患者的预后差异有统计学意义(χ2=5.30,P<0.05);GCS评分不同对预后好坏的影响有统计学意义(χ2=11.97,P<0.01);伤后到抢救的时间不同亦对预后好坏产生显著性影响(χ2

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ Spinal Cord Injury 101 Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... in countries outside the US ? A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed to ...

  16. Inhalation Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase mortality 30% to 40% when patients with cutaneous burns and inhalation injury are compared with patients ... nasal hairs • Facial burns • Burns around the mouth • Mineral spirits – 104º F – paint thinner, brush cleaner. • Redness, ...

  17. 脑外伤患者P300与神经行为认知状态测试相关性研究%P300 correlates with neurobehavioral cognitive status in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚淑怡; 尤春景

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨脑外伤患者P300电位与认知的相关性,分析其临床意义.方法 采用随机对照方法,分别用事件相关电位和神经行为认知状态测试表(NCSE)对30例不同程度脑外伤患者(病例组)和20例无脑外伤病史志愿者(对照组)进行检测,经正规康复治疗2个月后再次测定病例组P300与NCSE评分,观察其变化,分析其相关性.结果 病例组各记录点N200、P300潜伏期明显较对照组延长,而NCSE评分低于对照组;病例组P300潜伏期与NCSE总评分呈负相关(r=-0.679,P<0.01);P300与NCSE各项评分进行逐步回归多元分析,定向、判断与P300潜伏期相关性大;正规治疗2个月后NCSE评分提高,P300潜伏期较前明显缩短(P<0.01).结论 P300可作为认知评定的有效方法,且空间时间定向能力、判断能力对P300潜伏期影响较大.%Objective To explore the correlation between P300 and cognition, and to analyze its clinical meaning. Methods Thirty patients with traumatic brain injury diagnosed with a definite trauma history were recruited as the experimental group, and 20 normal subjects served as controls. All were examined with event-related potentials and the neurobehavioral cognitive status examination ( NCSE ). After two months of regular rehabilitation treatment, they were examined again with the same methods to observe any changes. Results N200 and P300 latencies in the experimental group were significantly longer compared with the control group, while the NCSE scores in the experimental group were significantly lower than in the control group. After two months of regular treatment, the NCSE scores rose and N200 and P300 latencies were significantly shorter than before. The P300 latencies and the NCSE scores were observed to be significantly correlated (r=-0.679,P≤0.01 ). Stepwise regression and multiva-riate analysis revealed that orientation ability and judgment were the components of the NCSE most closely correlated with the P300

  18. 乳酸水平与颅脑损伤后迟发性颅内血肿的相关性研究%Correlative analysis of lactic acid level with late-onset intracranial hematoma after craniocerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周昌龙; 贺学农; 夏小辉; 张光伟; 崔敏

    2014-01-01

    .25) mmol/L in observation group respectively on admission (t =1.070,P > 0.05) ; Level of lactic acid was (3.32 ± 0.89) mmol/L in observation group at the time of definite diagnosis,which increased to (3.74 ± 1.16) mmol/L at days 7 after treatment and decreased to (1.89 ±0.75) mmol/L at days 14 after treatment.When diagnosed and treated for 7 days,level of lactic acid differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0.05).Level of lactic acid related to craniocerebral injury at each time point,but higher correlation coefficient was observed at the time of definite diagnosis and 7 days after treatment with 0.986 and 0.989 respectively.Conclusion Level of lactic acid relates to late-onset intracranial hematoma after craniocerebral injury,which can be used as reference for progression of the disease.

  19. Correlation between Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Borderline Personality Disorder:A Meta-Analysis%非自杀性自伤与边缘性人格障碍相关性 Meta 分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴名道; 况荣华[; 毛绍菊; 唐寒梅; 傅燕艳; 李瑊妮; 邱红恒; 朱金云; 黄鹏

    2016-01-01

    目的:系统评价非自杀性自伤(NSSI)与边缘性人格障碍(BPD)之间的相关性。方法计算机检索 Elsevi-er、PubMed、CNKI、Medline 和 WangFang Data 数据库,搜集国内外关于 NSSI 与 BPD 关系的原始研究,检索时限均为建库至2015年12月31日。在2名研究者独立进行文献筛选、资料提取和纳入研究的偏倚风险评价后,采用RevMan5.0软件进行 Meta 分析。结果共纳入9个研究。3个研究报道了 BPD 与 NSSI 的相关性,其中 NSSI 组242例,对照组1100例,Meta 分析结果显示,NSSI 组的 BPD 比例高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(Peto OR=9.02,95%CI :6.20~13.10)。6个研究报道了 BPD 症状评分与 NSSI 的相关性,其中 NSSI 组1751例,对照组13630例,Meta 分析结果显示,NSSI 组的 BPD 症状评分高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(SMD=1.54,95%CI :1.08~1.99)。结论NSSI 与 BPD 之间存在相关性。但受纳入研究的质量、数量和类型的限制,NSSI 与 BPD 是否存在因果关联有待更多证据予以验证。%Objective To systematically review the correlation between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI)and borderline personality disorder(BPD).Methods We searched Elsevier,PubMed, CNKI,Medline and Wanfang Data from inception to December 31,2015 to collect the original studies about the relationship between NSSI and BPD.Two researchers screened literature,ex-tracted data and evaluated the risk of bias in included studies independently,and then the meta-a-nalysis was performed by using RevMan5.0.Results A total of 9 studies were included.Among them,3 studies including 242 patients and 1100 controls reported the correlation between BPD and NSSI.The meta-analysis showed that the proportion of BPD in NSSI group was higher than that in control group(Peto OR = 9.02,95%CI 6.20-13.10).Six studies including 1751 patients and 13 630 controls reported the correlation between NSSI and

  20. Soft tissue twisting injuries of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twisting injuries occur as a result of differential motion of different tissue types in injuries with some rotational force. These injuries are well described in brain injuries but, to our knowledge, have not been described in the musculoskeletal literature. We correlated the clinical examination and MR findings of 20 patients with twisting injuries of the soft tissues around the knee. Design and patients: We prospectively followed the clinical courses of 20 patients with knee injuries who had clinical histories and MR findings to suggest twisting injuries of the subcutaneous tissues. Patients with associated internal derangement of the knee (i.e., meniscal tears, ligamentous or bone injuries) were excluded from this study. MR findings to suggest twisting injuries included linear areas of abnormal dark signal on T1-weighted sequences and abnormal bright signal on T2-weighted or short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences and/or signal to suggest hemorrhage within the subcutaneous tissues. These MR criteria were adapted from those established for indirect musculotendinous junction injuries. Results: All 20 patients presented with considerable pain that suggested internal derangement on physical examination by the referring orthopedic surgeons. All presented with injuries associated with rotational force. The patients were placed on a course of protected weight-bearing of the affected extremity for 4 weeks. All patients had pain relief by clinical examination after this period of protected weight-bearing. Twisting injuries of the soft tissues can result in considerable pain that can be confused with internal derangement of the knee on physical examination. Soft tissue twisting injuries need to be recognized on MR examinations as they may be the cause of the patient's pain despite no MR evidence of internal derangement of the knee. The demonstration of soft tissue twisting injuries in a patient with severe knee pain but no documented internal derangement on MR

  1. Soft tissue twisting injuries of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, T.; Shapiro, M. [Neuroimaging Inst., Melbourne, FL (United States)

    2001-08-01

    Twisting injuries occur as a result of differential motion of different tissue types in injuries with some rotational force. These injuries are well described in brain injuries but, to our knowledge, have not been described in the musculoskeletal literature. We correlated the clinical examination and MR findings of 20 patients with twisting injuries of the soft tissues around the knee. Design and patients: We prospectively followed the clinical courses of 20 patients with knee injuries who had clinical histories and MR findings to suggest twisting injuries of the subcutaneous tissues. Patients with associated internal derangement of the knee (i.e., meniscal tears, ligamentous or bone injuries) were excluded from this study. MR findings to suggest twisting injuries included linear areas of abnormal dark signal on T1-weighted sequences and abnormal bright signal on T2-weighted or short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences and/or signal to suggest hemorrhage within the subcutaneous tissues. These MR criteria were adapted from those established for indirect musculotendinous junction injuries. Results: All 20 patients presented with considerable pain that suggested internal derangement on physical examination by the referring orthopedic surgeons. All presented with injuries associated with rotational force. The patients were placed on a course of protected weight-bearing of the affected extremity for 4 weeks. All patients had pain relief by clinical examination after this period of protected weight-bearing. Twisting injuries of the soft tissues can result in considerable pain that can be confused with internal derangement of the knee on physical examination. Soft tissue twisting injuries need to be recognized on MR examinations as they may be the cause of the patient's pain despite no MR evidence of internal derangement of the knee. The demonstration of soft tissue twisting injuries in a patient with severe knee pain but no documented internal derangement on MR

  2. Correlation of Erythrocyte Sorbitol Concentration and Myocardial Injury in Diabetic Rats%糖尿病模型大鼠红细胞内山梨醇浓度与心肌损伤的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田恩圣

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To study the correlation of erythrocyte sorbitol concentration with myocardial injury in diabetic rats.METHODS:Diabetic rats model were induced by intraperitoneal injection of 52 mg/kg streptozocin.The model rats were divided into 4 groups according to blood glucose and body weight with 8 rats in each group,i.e.3rd,6th,9th,12th week groups.The contents of blood glucose,AST,CK,LDH and the blood concentrations (initial concentration and final concentration) of erythrocyte sorbitol were determined at correspording time points.They were sacrificed after weighing.The heart samples were collected to observe pathological change,and compared with normal rats in blank control group.RESULTS:Compared with blank control group,the body weight of rats decreased significantly in 3rd,6th,9th,12th week groups,while the blood glucose,initial and final concentrations of sorbitol increased significantly (P<0.01) and the contents of AST,CK and LDH also increased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01).Compared with 3rd week group,sorbitol final concentration and LDH content increased significantly in 6th,9th,12th week groups (P<0.01).Compared with blank control group,there was no significant pathological change in myocardial tissue in 3rd week group,and part of myofibrosis became acidophilic and showed signs of degeneration and necrosis in 6th week group.Heart injury was increasing as time went on.CONCLUSIONS:Erythrocyte sorbitol in diabetic rats can be used as a leading indicator for heart damage occurs,the highter the concentration,the severer myocardial injury.%目的:研究糖尿病模型大鼠红细胞内山梨醇浓度与心肌损伤的相关性.方法:大鼠腹腔注射链脲佐菌素52 mg/kg建立糖尿病模型,按血糖水平和体质量均分为4组,每组8只,分别为第3、6、9、12周组,于分组后对应时间测定模型大鼠的血糖、天冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)、磷酸肌酸激酶(CK)、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)含量和红细胞内山梨醇的浓

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Coping with a New Injury Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair ... after an injury? What are the most promising new treatments for spinal cord injuries? What are the ...

  4. 肱骨外上髁炎临床表现与伸肌总腱损伤程度的相关性研究%A correlative study of the clinical manifestation of lateral epicondylitis and the severity of injury of the common extensor tendon of the elbow joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁良; 李锋; 艾飞; 王德杭; 夏黎明; 胡道予; 王仁法

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨肱骨外上髁炎临床表现与伸肌总腱损伤程度的相关性.方法:对经临床确诊的23例肱骨外上髁炎患者共24个肘关节行MRI常规扫描,采用疼痛视觉模拟评分法(VAS)将肱骨外上髁炎疼痛程度分为轻、中和重度.分析MRI图像,将伸肌总腱损伤分为轻、中和重度.对肱骨外上髁炎患者的VAS疼痛等级和伸肌总腱损伤程度进行Spearman等级相关分析.结果:24个肘关节中,根据VAS评分轻度疼痛关节8个,中度10个,重度6个;MRI图像分析和统计显示伸肌总腱轻度损伤10个,中度7个,重度7个.肱骨外上髁炎VAS疼痛等级与伸肌总腱损伤程度呈正相关(rs =0.784,P<0.01).结论:MRI是诊断肱骨外上髁炎的重要辅助检查手段;随着肱骨外上炎疼痛等级增加,伸肌总腱损伤程度也明显增加,对患者诊疗具有重要的指导作用.%Objective: To study the correlation between the clinical manifestation of lateral epicondylitis of humerus and the severity of injury degree of common extensor tendon of the elbow. Methods;23 clinical diagnosed lateral epicondylitis patients including 24 elbows underwent MRI examination. The pain of lateral epicondylitis was graded as mild, moderate or ing to trie V.A-O criterion. 1 ne injury ol trie common extensor tendon was graded as mild,moderate or severe based on evaluation of MRI images. Spearman's rank correlation analysis was performed to compare VAS grade of pain with the injury of the common extensor tendon,and statistical correlations were considered significant at P<0.05. Results: Ac cording to VAS criterion, 24 elbows included 8 with mild pain, 10 with moderate, and 6 with sever pain. Basing on MRI image analysis,10 elbows with mild injury of common extensor tendon,/ with moderate injury,and 7 with sever injury were detected. Positive correlation were found between VAS grade of pain and injury of the common extensor tendon ( rs= 0.784,P<0. 01). Conclusion:MRI is an important

  5. Spinal injury - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - spinal injury ... The following organizations are good resources for information on spinal injury : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov The National Spinal Cord Injury ...

  6. Eye Injuries at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, ... chore is being done. Preventing Eye Injuries at Home Wearing protective eyewear will prevent 90 percent of ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... injury? What is the "Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems" program? ... family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal cord injuries ...

  8. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Empowering the Patient After Spinal ...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Workers Help Transitions How Social Workers Help Transitions Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury How Occupational Therapists Work ...

  11. Personality and Injury Risk Among ‎Professional Hockey Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Schwebel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although much is known about risk for athletic injury, research on the roles of individual differences in personality and temperament on athletic injury has lagged. We hypothesized that professional athletes with high sensation-seeking and extraversion scores, and with low effortful control scores, would experience more injuries over the course of a season, would have more severe injuries, and would miss more total days of play. Methods: Prospective design with questionnaire report at time one and injury tracking throughout an 18-week athletic season. Setting: Professional hockey team in the United States. Participants: Eighteen professional hockey players (ages 21-33. Measurements: Players completed self-report personality (Sensation-Seeking Scale, Form V and temperament (the Adult Temperament Questionnaire measures. Quantity and severity of injury, as well as playing time missed, were tracked for 18 weeks. Results: On average, players experienced almost 6 injuries causing a loss of 10 playing days through the season. Those players scoring high on Boredom Susceptibility and Total Sensation-Seeking incurred more total injuries. Those scoring high on temperamental neutral perceptual sensitivity suffered more severe injuries. Conclusions: Athletes who suffered more injuries reported a preference for stimulating environments and boredom with non-stimulating environments. Injury severity was not correlated with sensation-seeking but was related to temperamental perceptual sensitivity. Implications for identification of injury-prone athletes, pre-injury training, and post-injury treatment are discussed.

  12. Sports injuries of the ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G A

    1972-07-01

    The author describes common sports injuries involving the ear. Such injuries include hematoma, lacerations, foreign bodies (tattoo), and thermal injuries. Ear canal injuries include swimmer's ear and penetrating injuries. Tympanum injuries include tympanic membrane perforations, ossicular discontinuity, eustachian tube dysfunction, temporal bone fractures and traumatic facial nerve palsy. Inner ear injuries include traumatic sensorineural deafness. The author emphasizes the management of these injuries.

  13. 脑外伤患者P300与认知功能的相关性研究%Cognition is correlated with auditory event-related potential P300 after traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟明华; 李培媛; 朱其秀; 刘云霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate any correlation between cognition and auditory event-related potential (ERP) after traumatic brain injury (TBI),and to explore the diagnostic value of the P300 ERP for TBI patients.Methods Thirty TBI patients and 28 healthy subjects were recruited.Their P300 auditory event-related potentials were measured and the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) was administered.Results The TBI patients' total MoCA scores and their scores on most of the sub-item components were significantly lower than those of the control subjects,though their naming and speech showed no significant difference.The TBI patients had abnormal P300 responses.Their N1,P2,N2 and P3 latencies were significantly longer and their P2 and P3 amplitudes were significantly lower than those of the control group.Stepwise regression and multivariate analysis showed that the P300 latency was significantly associated with delayed memory,impaired visual spatial executive functioning and total MoCA score.Conclusion P300 can be used as a quantitative electrophysiological index for detecting cognitive impairment in patients with TBI.%目的 研究脑外伤患者事件相关电位(ERP) P300与认知功能的相关性,探讨其在检测脑外伤患者认知功能障碍方面的应用价值.方法 采用随机对照方法,分别对入选的30例脑外伤患者(病例组)和28例健康志愿者(对照组)进行P300检测和蒙特利尔认知评估量表(MoCA)评定,分析其相关性.结果 与对照组比较,病例组视空间与执行能力[(2.70±0.75)分]、注意[(2.23±0.68)分]、抽象[(0.87±0.63)分]、延迟记忆[(2.13±0.82)分]、定向力[(2.63±0.93)分]等子项目得分及MoCA总分[(16.03±3.00)分]较低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);病例组N1、P2、N2、P3潜伏期较对照组延长(P<0.05),P2、P3波幅较对照组低(P<0.05).通过逐步回归多元分析,发现P300潜伏期与延迟记忆、视空间与执行功能呈负相关(r=-0.673,r=-0.702,P<0.05),

  14. Injuries in Basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAOS KOSTOPOULOS & DIMITRIOS PHILLIPOU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety players of 8 teams in 2 male team basketball senior divisions were observed prospectively for 1 season to study the injury incidence in relation to exposure in games and practices. Forty-six injuries were recorded. Injury incidence was evaluated at 2.5 injuries per 1000 player-hours, with a significantly higher incidence in game injuries (14.3 injuries per 1000 game-hours compared with practice injuries(0.6 injuries per 1000 practice-hours.Practice injury incidence was higher in the lower performance level group, and game injury incidence was higher in the high-level group. The upper extremity was involved in 37% of the injuries, and the lower extremity in 54%.The knee was the most commonly injured joint, followed by the finger, ankle, and shoulder. Knee injuries were the most severe injuries, and they were more frequent in high-level players. There was an increase in the severity of injury with respect to performance level. The injury mechanism revealed a high number of offensive injuries, one-third of them occurring during a counterattack. The injury pattern showed certain variations with respect to player position and performance level.

  15. 临床护士职业倦怠程度与针刺伤/锐器伤发生率的相关性研究%Correlation Research between Nurses’ Job Burnout Severity and Frequency of Needle Stick/Cut Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锡唯; 徐军; 王春英; 杨益兰; 张佩君

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨护士职业倦怠程度与针刺伤/锐器伤发生是否存在相关性。方法采用 MBI-GS (Maslach Burnout Inventory-general Survey)工作倦怠量表及自制问卷对宁波市28家医院1535名临床在职注册护士进行情绪衰竭程度及针刺伤/锐器伤发生率进行调查。结果本组临床护士重度情绪衰竭占71.6%,中、重度去人性化占34.1%、43.2%,低个人成就感占64.8%;81.3%的护士过去1年内发生过针刺伤,92.4%的护士发生过锐器伤。针刺伤发生率平均2.0次/(人·年),锐器伤平均7.5次/(人·年)。情绪衰竭与锐器伤呈正相关(r=0.220,P<0.05)。结论宁波地区临床护士职业倦怠处于中高度水平,针刺伤/锐器伤发生率呈中高水平,情绪衰竭程度与锐器伤发生存在相关性。%Objective To explore the relationship between nurses ’ job burnout severity and needle stick /cut injuries. Methods MBI-GS job burnout questionnaire and a self-designed needle/cut injury questionnaire were delivered to 1,535 registered nurses from 28 hospitals then frequency of needle/cut injuries was calculated. Results Totally 71.6% of the nurses were with severe emotional exhaustion, 34.1% with middle level depersonalization, 43.2% with high level depersonalization, 64.8% of with low personal achievement. The average needle stick injury (NSI) rate was 2.0/nurse/year while cut injury rate 7.5/nurse/year. Of the total, 81.3% of the nurses experienced NSI and 92.4% sustained cut injuries in the past year. There was a positive relationship between cut injuries and emotional exhaustion (r=0.220, P<0.05). Conclusion Both job burnout and needle stick/cut injuries maintain in an average or above level. Emotional exhaustion is the main contributing factor to cut injury and is correlated to the incidence of cut injuries.

  16. Correlation of intestinal fatty acid binding protein and intestinal injury in severe sepsis%肠脂肪酸结合蛋白与严重脓毒症患者肠道损伤的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱承睿; 丁仁彧; 孙旖旎; 马晓春

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the content of intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP) and its clinical significance in patients with severe sepsis.Methods A prospective observational study was conducted.Fifty patients with severe sepsis admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University from July to December 2012 were enrolled,and 20 healthy patients served as control group.The concentrations of serum IFABP,interleukin-6 (IL-6),and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on days 0,1 and 3 after ICU admission.Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation Ⅱ (APACHE Ⅱ) and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score,28-day prognosis,acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) grade were recorded at the same time.Furthermore,the contents of IFABP were compared between control group and the severe sepsis group,abdominal infection group and non-abdominal infection group,the survival group and the death group,as well as among different AGI-grade groups.Correlation analysis of IFABP and inflammatory factors,IFABP and two scores,and IFABP and time of stay in ICU and mechanical ventilation were studied.Multivariate logistic regression and analysis of 28-day outcome of the patients were also studied.Results IFABP levels were increased in severe sepsis patients on days 0,1 and 3 compared with those of healthy control group (mg/L:731.90 ±53.91,592.07 ±41.94,511.85 ±47.97 vs.439.88 ±23.68,all P =0.000).There was no statistical significance of IFABP levels between abdominal infection group and non-abdominal infection group,the survival group and the death group,or among different AGI-grade groups.The correlation analysis showed that IFABP was statistically related with IL-6 (r=0.794,P=0.000),TNF-α (r=0.878,P=0.010),APACHE Ⅱ score (r=0.428,P=0.000) in patients with severe sepsis.Significant correlations were also found between IFABP and IL-6 (r=0.812,P=0.000),TNF-α (r

  17. Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inflicted traumatic brain injury (ITBI), is a leading cause of child maltreatment deaths in the United States. Meeting the ... Awareness Additional Prevention Resources Childhood Injuries Concussion in Children and Teens Injuries from Violence Injuries from Motor Vehicle Crashes Teen Driver Safety ...

  18. Managing iatrogenic tracheal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Goonasekera C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present three cases of iatrogenic tracheal injury. Two patients suffered acute tracheal injuries during anesthesia/surgery, one was managed surgically and the other conservatively. The third case is a delayed tracheal injury presenting as a fistula. The reasons for surgical vs conservative management of tracheal injuries and preventive measures are discussed.

  19. Managing iatrogenic tracheal injuries

    OpenAIRE

    A. Goonasekera C; Esufali S

    2005-01-01

    We present three cases of iatrogenic tracheal injury. Two patients suffered acute tracheal injuries during anesthesia/surgery, one was managed surgically and the other conservatively. The third case is a delayed tracheal injury presenting as a fistula. The reasons for surgical vs conservative management of tracheal injuries and preventive measures are discussed.

  20. Patterns of work injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Rasmussen, Kurt;

    2014-01-01

    To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA).......To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA)....

  1. Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging of a sciatic nerve traction injury model and its pathologic correlation%坐骨神经牵拉伤模型MR扩散张量成像与病理的对照

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈镜聪; 李新春; 万齐; 孙翀鹏; 何建勋; 蒙秋华; 洪国斌

    2013-01-01

    背景:磁共振弥散张量成像可以显示周围神经损伤的弥散变化并进行定量研究,因而在显示神经损伤及再生方面具有良好的应用前景。目的:探讨兔坐骨神经急性牵拉伤弥散张量成像的可靠性,明确弥散张量参数在神经损伤诊断中的价值及病理学基础。方法:选取32只新西兰白兔建立右后肢坐骨神经退变与修复模型,左后肢为假手术侧。采用1.5 T MRI 机于术后1 d,3 d,1周,2周,3周,4周,6周,8周行双侧坐骨神经弥散张量成像,进行DTT重建,测量各向异性分数、表观扩散系数;然后进行病理检查。结果与结论:牵拉伤后1d弥散张量成像仅显示神经近段,损伤段及远段中断;牵拉伤后1周远段出现细、短纤维束;牵拉伤后2-6周远段纤维束增多、增粗;牵拉伤8周神经纤维大部分恢复正常。1d-8周牵拉段、牵拉远段各向异性分数值与假手术侧差异有显著性意义(P reconstruction, and then the pathological examination was performed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Diffusion tensor imaging revealed only the proximal nerve, injured nerve as wel as the middle of the distal nerve at 1 day after traction injury. At 1 week, the nerve of distal portion appeared thinner and shorter fiber bundle. At 2-6 weeks after operation, the fiber bundle was increased and thickened. At 8 weeks after operation, the distal nerve fibers had nearly restored to the level before injury. There was significant difference in the fractional anisotropy value of traction portion and distal portions between traction injury and sham-operation group at 1 day-8 weeks after operation (P<0.05). While there was significant difference in the fractional anisotropy value of proximal traction portion between traction injury and sham-operation group 1 day-1 week after operation (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the apparent diffusion coefficient values between traction injury

  2. COMPARATIVE ROLE AND EVALUATION OF ULTRASOUND AND MULTISLICE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE GRADING OF HEMOPERITONEUM IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE BLUNT ABDOMINAL TRAUMA AND ITS CORRELATION WITH THE GRADING OF ORGAN INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Kunwarpal; Sukhdeep; Thukral; Amandeep; Harmeet; Sonali

    2015-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: 1. To assess the role of Ultrasound (US) and Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT) in detecting hemoperitoneum in patients with acute blunt abdominal trauma. 2. To study the use of US and MSCT in grading of hemoperitoneum in blunt abdominal trauma patients. 3. To compare the US and MSCT grading of hemoperitoneum with the grading of organ injury. 4. To compare and statistically analyze the spectrum of findings observed in each moda...

  3. Injuries in professional footballers.

    OpenAIRE

    Muckle, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    The incidence of injuries in footballers is described. Nearly half of footballer's injuries involve the knee, with vertical tearing of the meniscus being common; surgical intervention may be required. Approximately one third of injuries involve the ankle, and will often require immobilisation. Other injuries include muscle damage, spondylosis of L4 or L5, concussion, and dislocations. The importance of prompt and correct treatment of injuries is emphasised.

  4. Injuries in orienteering.

    OpenAIRE

    Linde, F.

    1986-01-01

    In a one-year prospective study of 42 elite orienteers, 73 recent injuries (1.7 per runner per year) were found. Acute injuries totalled 52% and 48% were due to overuse. Ankle sprains made up 37% of acute injuries while the remaining were mainly contusions caused by falls or bumps against branches or rocks. Medial shin pain, Achilles peritendinitis, peroneal tenosynovitis and iliotibial band friction syndrome were the most frequent overuse injuries. All overuse injuries were located in the lo...

  5. The Correlation between Serum ICAM-1 and IL -6 Levels and the Degree of Renal Function Injury%血清ICAM-1和IL-6水平与肾功能损害的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石海燕; 胡维维; 杨秀媚; 赖均鹏; 刘笑芬

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate correlation of serum Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and Interleukin-6 levels with renal injury, to reveal the clinical value of serum ICAM-1 and IL -6 concentration detection for evaluation of renal function injury.Method:48 subjects were collected, who received renal function injury evaluation from August 2011 to July 2012. ELISA was performed to detect serum ICAM-1 and IL -6 concentration,and semi automatic biochemical analyzer was used to measure serum creatinine concentration, which was used for calculation of glomerular filtration rate ( eGFR ) value. Compared serum ICAM-1 and IL -6 concentrations of subjects with eGFR≥ 90 and eGFR < 90 , and analyzed the correlation between serum ICAM-1 and IL -6 concentrations and eGFR value.Result:Serum ICAM-1 and interleukin -6 concentrations of eGFR < 90 group ( renal injury group ) were significantly higher than those of eGFR ≥ 90 group (normal renal function group ) (P<0.05).Serum ICAM-1 and IL -6 concentration and eGFR value of patients with eGFR < 90 were significantly negative correlation (r=-0.9283, P=-0.013; r=-0.9369,P=0.001).Conclusion:The serum ICAM-1 and interleukin -6 levels may correlate with the renal function injury development, and its concentration detection may have potential value for evaluating the degree of renal function injury.%  目的:探讨血清细胞间粘附分子-1和白细胞介素-6表达与肾功能损害的相关性,用以评价血清ICAM-1和IL-6浓度检测用于评价肾功能损伤中的临床价值。方法:选择2011年8月-2012年7月来本院接受肾功能损伤检查的48例患者为研究对象。采用ELISA检测血清ICAM-1和IL-6浓度,采用半自动生化分析仪检测血清肌酐浓度并计算肾小球滤过率(eGFR)值。比较eGFR≥90组和eGFR<90组血清ICAM-1和IL-6浓度,并分析血清ICAM-1和IL-6浓度与eGFR的相关性。结果:eGFR<90组(肾功能损伤组)血清ICAM-1和IL-6

  6. Radiographic evaluation of the renal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adequate radiologic demonstration of the extent of renal injury following abdominal trauma is an important guide to therapy. In general, renal injuries were classified as minor, major or catastrophic based on a combination of radiological and clinical findings. Diagnostic methods were plain abdominal film, IVP, renal angiography and rapid noninvasive methods, such as ultrasonography and CT. This study was carried out to analyze about each diagnostic modalities including the specific findings of various types and extent of trauma and correlation of these studies for the determination of best diagnostic approach. Case materials were 100 cases of renal injuries during our 5 years experience. The results were as follows: 1. Among 100 patients, men predominated over women; men 82, women 18. About one half (44 cases) of these occurred between the age of 11-30. 2. Nonpenetrating blunt trauma account for 98% of cases. Penetrating injuries were only 3 cases. 3. Associated injuries were noted in 23 cases. 4. Renal injuries were classified into 4 categories. Grade I is contusion (33 cases), II parenchymal injury without pelvocalyceal system involvement (24 cases), III parenchymal injury with pelvocalyceal system involvement (29 cases) and IV injuried involving renal pedicle (15 cases). 5.. IVP is the most common initial diagnostic modality and good for screening of patient, but only 30% of specificity is noted. 6. Renal angiography has many advantage with accurate assesment of variety of lesion and be a good guidance for decision of prognosis and therapy. 7. Ultrasonography and CT are rapid noninvasive study, valuable in assessing the specific type and extent of injury and easily evaluated the entire abdomen. But for the vascular lession, angiography is perfected than ultrasonography or CT. 8. Conservative management was done in 68 cases. Operation were performed in 33 cases and 28 cases of them were major injuries

  7. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems. Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes. Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries. Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child. PMID:26266395

  8. MR imaging of posterior cruciate ligament injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing awareness of the clinical importance of early detection and treatment of posterior cruciate ligament(PCL) injury. We evaluate the usefulness of Magnetic resonance(MR) imaging in the diagnosis of PCL injury. We retrospectively analysed the MR images of 140 cases with clinically suspected knee injury. Arthroscopic or surgical correlation was available in 63 cases. We observed the finding and extent of PCL injury and other associated abnormalities. The frequency of anterior and posterior meniscofemoral ligament was evaluated. Eleven PCL injuries were observed, six midsubstance tears, two tibial attachment tears, two femoral attachment tear, one laxity. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MR imaging diagnosis are 100%, 98.1%, 98.4%. MR findings of PCL injury are discontinuity and focal mass formation, irregular increased signal intensity, detachment or redundancy of the ligament with avulsed bony fragment. In all cases of injured PCL, other associated abnormalities of adjacent structures were observed. Accessory anterior and posterior meniscofemoral ligaments were observed in 67.4%(87/129). MR imaging is useful in evaluation of presence or absence of PCL injury, accurate extent of PCL injury and other important associated abnormalities of adjacent structures

  9. 急性创伤性脑损伤后凝血病患者的血糖水平与预后的相关性研究%Study of Correlation between Blood Glucose Level and Prognosis in the Coagulopathy Patients with Acute Traumatic Brain Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐跃; 郭莲

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨急性创伤性脑损伤后凝血病患者的血糖水平与预后的相关性.方法 对120例急性创伤性脑损伤患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析,观察血糖水平对其凝血功能及其预后的影响.结果 血糖水平与凝血病发病率呈正相关(P<0.01),凝血病患者的血糖水平与生存率呈负相关(P<0.01),与其病残程度呈正相关(P<0.01).结论 血糖水平可为创伤性凝血病的早期诊治提供新的方法和思路,并对患者的预后评价具有重要参考价值.%Objective To investigate the correlation between blood glucose level and prognosis in the coagulopathy patients with acute traumatic brain injury. Methods Clinical data of 120 cases with acute traumatic brain injury were analyzed retrospectively , and the effect of blood glucose level on its blood clotting function and its prognosis was observed. Results The blood sugar level was positively correlated with the incidence of coagulopathy ( P < 0. 01 ), and the blood glucose level was negatively correlated with survival rate ( P <0. 01 ), but was positively correlated with disability degrees ( P <0. 01 ). Conclusion The blood glucose level can provide new methods and ways for the early stage diagnosis of the coagulopathy patients with acute traumatic brain injured, and is valuable for the prognostic evaluation of patients.

  10. The value of {sup 99m}Tc-HDP scan in the diagnosis of tibial avascular necrosis caused by thermal injury: a case with multi-image correlation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee [Sung-Ae General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Basic pathology in thermal injury is coagulative soft tissue necorsis that may occasionally be complicated by infection and later by scarring and vascular changes. Radiological features were discussed in detail by Resnick. The early changes consist of soft tissue defect, porosis and periostitis and the late changes include osteophytosis, periarticular calcification or ossification and arthropathy with ankylosis. Acromutilation can occur when small bones of the hand and foot are burned and scarred. This communication describes {sup 99m}Tc-HDP pnhole bone scan manifestations of thermal bone injuries observed in a case of skin-bone burns of the mid-tibial shaft that was complicated by infection, soft tissue scarring and osteonecrosis. Patient was a 49-year-old female thermal burn involving a mid-tibial shaft segment along with overlying skin. The injury was accidental to medullary rimming to fit intramedullary nail to fix fracture. The heat produced during drilling spread to burn the pretibial skin that is sparse in subcutaneous buffer tissue and vessels. The soft tissue burn was infected and healed by repeated skin grafts and scar over a period of 2 years. Concomitantly, the underlying bone was infected locally and treated but ensued in osteonecrosis that was accompanied by osteolysis. Indeed. pinhole {sup 99m}Tc-HDP scan played a unique role in this case in detecting that live lateral cortex had sustained the large dead bone that involved the main volume of the mid-tibial shaft. Importantly, the scan could confirm live cortex to have sustained dead bone uncollapsed. Anatomical and metabolic data gained from bone scanning prompted us to systematically scrutinize radiograph and CT to specifically identify the preserved lateral cortex. As mentioned the existence of healthy cortex is biomechanically and tactically vital to surgically replace and restore the devitalized bone.

  11. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  12. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  13. Neuropathophysiology of Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillinan, Nidia; Herson, Paco S; Traystman, Richard J

    2016-09-01

    Every year in the United States, millions of individuals incur ischemic brain injury from stroke, cardiac arrest, or traumatic brain injury. These acquired brain injuries can lead to death or long-term neurologic and neuropsychological impairments. The mechanisms of ischemic and traumatic brain injury that lead to these deficiencies result from a complex interplay of interdependent molecular pathways, including excitotoxicity, acidotoxicity, ionic imbalance, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. This article reviews several mechanisms of brain injury and discusses recent developments. Although much is known from animal models of injury, it has been difficult to translate these effects to humans. PMID:27521191

  14. Lisfranc Joint Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lisa Chinn

    2009-01-01

    @@ The ankle and foot are the most common sites for athletic injuries.[1]Midfoot,or Lisfranc,injuries are the second most common foot injury and have a high in cidence in particular sports.They account for 4% of all football injuries per year,occurring frequently in linemen.[2]They are also common in equestrians,surfers,and windsurfers.[2]Lisfranc injuries are often misdiagnosed and if not treated properly can have lingering symptoms.It is estimated that Lisfranc joint injuries occur in 1 in every 55,000 persons every year.[3,4

  15. Key Injury and Violence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Key Injury and Violence Data Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Injuries ... of death among persons 1-44. Injury- and violence-related deaths are only part of the problem ...

  16. Teeth Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Teeth Injuries KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Teeth Injuries ... or young child injures the gums or baby teeth: Apply pressure to the area (if it's bleeding) ...

  17. What Are Sports Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 06:02 Size: 11.7 MB November 2014 What Are Sports Injuries? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... Research Is Being Done on Treating Sports Injuries? What’s the Difference Between an Acute and a Chronic ...

  18. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? What is "Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? ...

  20. Overview of Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children are admitted to the hospital for these reasons or if they were unconscious even briefly or had a seizure. Children are also admitted to the hospital if child abuse is suspected. Severe head injury If the injury ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Partnerships How Social Workers Help Transitions How Social Workers Help Transitions Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury How Occupational Therapists Work How Occupational Therapists Work Occupational Therapy Enables Daily ...

  2. Neuropsychological correlates of domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, R A; Rosenbaum, A; Kane, R L; Warnken, W J; Benjamin, S

    1999-01-01

    Neuropsychological functioning was assessed in 39 males who had committed domestic violence (batterers) and compared to 63 nonviolent (both maritally discordant and satisfied) subjects recruited by advertisement. Subjects were subsequently divided into two groups (head injured, nonhead injured) and these groups were also contrasted as a function of batterer status. Tests were administered to assess for cognitive and behavioral functions, including executive dysfunction, hypothesized to be a factor contributing to propensity for violence. Questionnaires and structured clinical interviews were used to assess marital discord, emotional distress, and violent behaviors. Batterers differed from nonbatterers across several cognitive domains: executive, learning, memory, and verbal functioning. Batterers were reliably discriminated from nonbatterers based on three neuropsychological tasks: Digit Symbol, Recognition Memory Test-Words, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Neuropsychological performance was the strongest correlate of domestic violence of all clinical variables measured. However, the inclusion of two other variables, severity of emotional distress and history of head injury, together with the neuropsychological indices provided the strongest correlation with batterers status. Among batterers, neuropsychological performance did not vary as a function of head injury status, indicating that while prior head injury was correlated with batterer status, it was not the sole basis for their impairments. The findings suggest that current cognitive status, prior brain injury, childhood academic problems, as well as psychosocial influences, contribute along with coexisting emotional distress to a propensity for domestic violence. PMID:10751047

  3. Nursing Home Aides Experience Increase in Serious Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personick, Martin E.

    1990-01-01

    Bureau of Labor Statistics' data show that the incidence rate of 15 workplace injuries and illnesses per 100 full-time nursing home workers is well above that for private industry as a whole. Back injuries are most frequently reported. Short tenure and high turnover are correlated with health and safety problems. (SK)

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord ... Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life ...

  5. Assessment of Ankle Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…

  6. Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forth between your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... down on the nerve parts that carry signals. Spinal cord injuries can be complete or incomplete. With a complete ...

  7. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  8. HAND INJURIES IN VOLLEYBALL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BHAIRO, NH; NIJSTEN, MWN; VANDALEN, KC; TENDUIS, HJ

    1992-01-01

    We studied the long-term sequelae of hand injuries as a result of playing volleyball. In a retrospective study, 226 patients with injuries of the hand who were seen over a 5-year period at our Trauma Department, were investigated. Females accounted for 66 % of all injuries. The mean age was 26 years

  9. [Acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; Heurn, L.W. van; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  10. Study on correlation between residual urine volume after catheterization and body positions for patients with spinal cord injury using B-ultrasonography%B超检测脊髓损伤患者导尿后膀胱残余尿量与体位的相关性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙彩霞; 何丽雅; 何凡; 朱如璜

    2009-01-01

    Objective To discuss the correlation between residual urine volume after catheterization and body positions for patients with spinal cord injury using B-ultrasonography. Methods 34 patients with spinal cord injury were randomly selected, the residual urine volume in urinary bladder was detected with bed-side B-ultrasonography under different body positions such as supine position, lateral position and fowler position, the results underwent variance analysis. Results No significant difference was seen in residual urine volume in urinary bladder under different body positions. Conclusions Body positions play no significant influence on residual urine volume in urinary bladder after catheterization.%目的 探讨不同体位与导尿后脊髓损伤患者残余尿量的相关性.方法 随机抽取脊髓损伤患者34例,采用床旁超声仪对其进行平卧位、侧卧位、斜坡卧位的导尿后膀胱残余尿量的检测并对结果进行方差分析.结果 不同体位导尿后膀胱残余尿量比较无显著差异.结论 体位对导尿后的膀胱残余尿量无显著影响.

  11. Posterior cruciate ligament injury: characteristics and associations of most frequent injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tulio Lopes Caldas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and combinations of PCL injuries and their correlations with the mechanism, the occurrence of evident dislocation and associated fracture. METHOD: A retrospective study of 85 lesions of PCL operated between 2003 and 2010. Diagnosis by physical examination and dynamic radiography, compared with surgical findings. RESULTS: Injuries involving the PCL were more prevalent in men (78.8% with a mean age of 33 years. The main cause was traffic accidents (73.80%, and (49.4% motorcycle. Isolated PCL injury occurred in (15.3% cases, and combined (84.7%. Among the isolated lesions, bone avulsions were nine (10.6%. The most associated PCL injuries were the ACL (48.2%, followed by LCL PCL/PLC (22.4%. Fractures were more associated with combining PCL + LCL/PLC injuries and did not appear in the PCL + MCL/PMC. Complications beyond fractures: peripheral nerve injury (4.8% and vascular (1.2%. Evident dislocation in primary care (16.7% was more prevalent in combined ACL + PCL + MCL/PMC (44.4%. Half the patients were operated during the acute phase. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 comparing each combination of ligament injuries with the presence of fracture, dislocation or clear mechanism of injury. CONCLUSION: Surgical treatment of PCL injuries in a center for orthopedic trauma care was mostly multiligament and mainly involving the ACL. A significant association was seen between the type of injury with mechanism of injury, presentation of the knee, if dislocated or reduced, and the presence of associated fracture.

  12. [Trampoline injuries in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Antila, Eeva; Korhonen, Jussi; Rättyä, Johanna; Serlo, Willy

    2012-01-01

    Trampolines for home use have become common in Finland during the past ten years, being especially favored by children. Trampoline jumping is beneficial and constructive physical exercise, but poses a significant risk for injuries. The most common injuries include sprains and strains. During summertime, trampoline injuries account for as many as 13% of children's accidents requiring hospital care. Fractures are by far the most common trampoline injuries requiring hospital care. Injuries can be prevented by using safety nets. Only one child at a time is allowed to jump on the trampoline.

  13. Catastrophic rugby injuries of the spinal cord: changing patterns of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, A T

    1991-03-01

    In reports from the UK and New Zealand, it is noted that the incidence of rugby injuries to the cervical spinal cord has dropped and that the percentage of players injured in the tackle has similarly decreased. In contrast, this does not appear to be the pattern in South Africa and an analysis has therefore been made of 40 rugby players sustaining injuries to the spinal cord during the period 1985 to 1989. The radiological appearances on admission have been correlated with the circumstances of injury, associated orthopaedic injuries and neurological deficits. The tackle was responsible for the majority of injuries, causing more than the scrum. Tackles were also responsible for more cases of complete, permanent quadriplegia than the scrum. The commonest cause of injury in players being tackled was the high tackle around the neck, while the commonest cause of injury in players making the tackle was the dive tackle. This survey has shown that the tackle is now the major cause of spinal cord injury in South African rugby, in contrast to earlier analyses in which the scrum was identified as the most common cause. PMID:1913034

  14. Recreational mountain biking injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, S A; Biant, L C; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2011-04-01

    Mountain biking is increasing in popularity worldwide. The injury patterns associated with elite level and competitive mountain biking are known. This study analysed the incidence, spectrum and risk factors for injuries sustained during recreational mountain biking. The injury rate was 1.54 injuries per 1000 biker exposures. Men were more commonly injured than women, with those aged 30-39 years at highest risk. The commonest types of injury were wounding, skeletal fracture and musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Joint dislocations occurred more commonly in older mountain bikers. The limbs were more commonly injured than the axial skeleton. The highest hospital admission rates were observed with head, neck and torso injuries. Protective body armour, clip-in pedals and the use of a full-suspension bicycle may confer a protective effect. PMID:20659880

  15. Imaging findings in 512 children following all-terrain vehicle injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injuries related to all-terrain vehicle (ATV) use by children have increased in recent years, and the pattern of these injuries is not well known among radiologists. Our purpose was to identify different radiologically diagnosed injuries in children suffering ATV-related trauma and determine associations among various injuries as well as between injuries and outcome. The study included 512 consecutive children suffering from ATV injuries treated at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. All imaging studies were reviewed and correlated with injury frequency and outcome using multivariate analysis. Head injuries occurred in 244 children (48%) and in five of six deaths. Calvarial skull fractures occurred in 104 children and were associated with brain, subdural and epidural injuries. Brain and orbit injuries were associated with long-term disability. A total of 227 extremity fractures were present in 172 children (34%). The femur was the most commonly fractured bone. Nine children had partial foot amputations. Multiorgan injuries occurred in nearly half of the 97 children with torso injuries. Determinants for long-term disability or death were head injuries (odds ratio 3.4) and extremity fractures (odds ratio 3.3). Head and extremity injuries are the two most common injuries in children suffering ATV injuries and are associated with long-term disability. ATV use by children is dangerous and is a significant threat to child safety. (orig.)

  16. 脑卒中早期患者肩部病变损伤及其与肢体功能的相关性研究%The study of shoulder lesion and injury in stroke patients of early stage and its correlation with the function of hemiplegic extremity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 宫萍; 周谋望

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To clarify the shoulder lesion and injury using sonography and to evaluate the relationship between sonographic findings and function of hemiplegic extremity in stroke patients of early stage.Method:Sixty patients were divided into two groups according to Brunnstrom stage of hemiplegic extremity.Of which,44 patients were in the poor function group and 16 patients were in the good function group.All the patients received ultrasound examination and passive range of motion(PROM)measurement of their hemiplegic shoulder.Result:The total occurrence rate of shoulder lesion and injury was 76.7%(n=46).The occurrence rate of subacromial-subdeltoid bursal hydrops or bursitis was 41.7%(n=25).The occurrence rate of hydrops or inflammation of long head of biceps tendon sheath was 30%(n=18).The occurrence rate of tendinitis of rotator cuff was 16.7% (n=10).The occurrence rate of tear leision and injury (partial or complete) of rotator cuff was 21.7%(n=13).There was no statistical correlation between motor function stage of hemiplegic extremity and severity of leision and injury sonographic findings(P>0.05).There were significant differences in PROM of hemiplegic shoulder among patients with different severities of shoulder lesion and injury(P<0.05).Conclusion:The occurrence rate of shoulder lesion and injury after stroke of early stage was very high.There was no correlation between the severity of shoulder lesion and injury and the motor function stage of hemiplegic extremity.The shoulder lesion and injury can affect PROM of hemiplegic shoulder.For the function rehabilitation of upper extremity of stroke hemiplegic patients it is beneficial to find the shoulder lesion and injury earlier and administer effective therapy.%目的:通过超声检查的方法对脑卒中早期的肩部病变和损伤进行分析,并研究其与脑卒中患者患侧上肢功能状态之间的相关性.方法:60例脑卒中早期肩痛患者根据

  17. Superadditive correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, B G; Heumann, J M; Lapedes, A S

    1999-05-01

    The fact that correlation does not imply causation is well known. Correlation between variables at two sites does not imply that the two sites directly interact, because, e.g., correlation between distant sites may be induced by chaining of correlation between a set of intervening, directly interacting sites. Such "noncausal correlation" is well understood in statistical physics: an example is long-range order in spin systems, where spins which have only short-range direct interactions, e.g., the Ising model, display correlation at a distance. It is less well recognized that such long-range "noncausal" correlations can in fact be stronger than the magnitude of any causal correlation induced by direct interactions. We call this phenomenon superadditive correlation (SAC). We demonstrate this counterintuitive phenomenon by explicit examples in (i) a model spin system and (ii) a model continuous variable system, where both models are such that two variables have multiple intervening pathways of indirect interaction. We apply the technique known as decimation to explain SAC as an additive, constructive interference phenomenon between the multiple pathways of indirect interaction. We also explain the effect using a definition of the collective mode describing the intervening spin variables. Finally, we show that the SAC effect is mirrored in information theory, and is true for mutual information measures in addition to correlation measures. Generic complex systems typically exhibit multiple pathways of indirect interaction, making SAC a potentially widespread phenomenon. This affects, e.g., attempts to deduce interactions by examination of correlations, as well as, e.g., hierarchical approximation methods for multivariate probability distributions, which introduce parameters based on successive orders of correlation. PMID:11969452

  18. Radiological imaging of sports injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sports medicine is acquiring an important role owing to the increasing number of sports-active people and professional athletes. Accurate diagnosis of the different pathological conditions is therefore of fundamental importance. This book provides an overview of the most frequently observed conditions and correlates them with sports activities, as well as documenting relatively unknown lesions of increasing significance. Diagnostic techniques are described and compared, and their roles defined; interpretative pitfalls ar highlighted. All of the contributing authors have distinguished themselves in the field and have a deep knowledge of the problem involved in the diagnosis and classification of sports injuries. (orig.)

  19. Injuries in Irish dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Cynthia J; Tyson, Kesley D; Johnson, Victor M; Popoli, David M; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Micheli, Lyle J

    2013-12-01

    Irish dance is growing in popularity and competitiveness; however, very little research has focused specifically on this genre of dance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types of dance injuries incurred by Irish dancers. A chart review was performed to identify all injuries associated with Irish dance seen in the sports medicine or orthopaedic clinics at the investigators' hospital over an 11-year period. "Injury" was defined as any dance-related pain or disorder that led to evaluation in the clinics. Survey data were also collected from study participants. Ultimately, 255 patients from over 30 different schools of dance were seen with injuries directly related (726 clinic visits) or partially related (199 visits) to Irish dance. Participants ranged in age from 4 to 47, with 95% (243/255) under the age of 19. These 255 patients received 437 diagnoses. Almost 80% of the injuries (348/437) were attributable to overuse, and 20.4% were acute and traumatic injuries (89/437). Ninety-five percent (95.9%) of injuries involved the hip or lower extremity. The most common sites were the foot (33.2%), ankle (22.7%), knee (19.7%), and hip (14.4%). Typical diagnoses were tendon injury (13.3%), apophysitis (11.4%), patellofemoral pain and instability (10.8%), stress injury (10.1%), and muscle injury (7.8%). The majority of traumatic injuries were seen in clinic within 3 weeks, but less than a quarter of overuse injuries were seen that quickly. The most common treatment, prescribed to 84.3% of patients, was physical therapy and home exercises, and the majority of dancers (64.3%) were able to return to full dance activity after injury. PMID:24565331

  20. Score Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Fabián, Z. (Zdeněk)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study a distribution-dependent correlation coefficient based on the concept of scalar score. This new measure of association of continuous random variables is compared by means of simulation experiments with the Pearson, Kendall and Spearman correlation coefficients.

  1. Concomitant injuries of anterior cruciate ligament and meniscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between meniscal injuries with injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament, as well as risk factors for those associated injuries. Material and Methods. This study included 496 operated patients. Almost half of patients with meniscal injury were between the ages of 21 and 30 years. Results. Meniscal injuries were diagnosed in 187 patients (38%. These patients were significantly older than the patients without meniscal injury. Meniscal injuries were significantly more frequent in patients who played sports recreationally than in professional athletes. The patients with meniscal injury underwent surgery almost four months later than the patients with preserved menisci. Meniscal injuries occurred significantly more frequently by non - contact mechanism, as a result of landing and sudden changes of direction and rhythm of running. Conclusion. Male patients hurt the medial meniscus more often, “bucket handle” type of lesion being much more frequent than on the lateral meniscus. The increase of body mass index is exactly proportional to the increase in the incidence of meniscal injuries.

  2. Soccer injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Anne [Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, Radiology Department, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. (orig.)

  3. Soccer injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. (orig.)

  4. Lisfranc injuries in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeOrio, Matthew; Erickson, Melissa; Usuelli, Federico Giuseppe; Easley, Mark

    2009-06-01

    Injuries to the Lisfranc ligament complex have traditionally been associated with high energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions and industrial accidents. Recently, there has been a greater appreciation of mid-foot sprains that represent a spectrum of injury to the Lisfranc ligament complex. As a result, there has been an increased incidence of such injury resulting from low-energy trauma in activities ranging from recreational activity to elite athletic activity. This article discusses issues related to anatomy, clinical presentation, mechanism of injury, and diagnosis that are necessary to provide appropriate treatment for these injuries. There should be a high index of suspicion of this injury, and prompt diagnosis is important to allow athletes to return to sport with the best possible outcome. PMID:19501801

  5. 大鼠放射性脑损伤所致血脑屏障通透性改变与EBA及VEGF表达的相关性研究%A correlation study of blood-brain barrier permeability changes and EBA, VEGF expression in rats following radiation-induced brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泊霖; 孙熠; 梁宾; 金学隆

    2016-01-01

    according to the dose of 3 mL/kg via the tail vein, then the blood ves⁃sels of cerebral cortex were exposed after having a craniotomy. EB extravasation was detected by microcirculation micro⁃scope. The permeability of blood-brain barrier was evaluated by using microscope vascular camera device. The expressions of EBA and VEGF in the cerebral cortex were measured by immunohistochemistry staining in each group. Results Both of EB extravasation and VEGF expression in rat cerebral cortex were significantly increased in injury group at day 7, 14 and 28 after brain irradiation compared with those of control group (P<0.05), and which were gradually decreased from day 7 to day 28 after brain irradiation. There were significant differences in EB extravasation and VEGF expression between the injury subgroups (P<0.05). There was a positive correlation between EB extravasation and VEGF expression (r=0.898, P<0.001). The expression levels of EBA were decreased at different time points in injury groups compared with those of control group (P<0.05), and gradually increased from day 7 to 28 after injury. There were significant differences in expression levels of EBA between injury subgroups (P<0.05). The expression of EBA was negatively correlated with EB extravasation (r=-0.866, P<0.001). Conclusion The increases of blood-brain barrier permeability have important relation to the decreases of EBA expression and the increases of VEGF expression after radiation-induced brain injury.

  6. Injuries from hovercraft racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattermole, H R

    1997-01-01

    A 31-year-old man presented with a potentially serious neck injury following a racing hovercraft accident. Previous reports of hovercrafting injuries could not be found, and a review of the sport's own records was undertaken. This shows there to be a wide range of injuries sustained from the sport, although most of them are minor. However, there are some worrying trends, and further studies are being undertaking in order to improve the sport's safety record. PMID:9196622

  7. Karate and karate injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    McLatchie, G

    1981-01-01

    The origins of karate and its evolution as a sport are described. Karate injuries tend to occur in three main areas: the head and neck, the viscera, and the limbs. Effective legislation controlling karate, which could help prevent injuries, is lacking at the moment and should be established. Recommendations for the prevention of injury include the introduction of weight classes, mandatory provision of protective equipment such as padded flooring, and the outlawing of certain uncontrollable m...

  8. Injury Patterns in Youth Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Presents statistics on injury patterns in youth sports, recommending that physicians who care for young athletes understand the kinds of injuries likely to be sustained. Awareness of injury patterns helps medical professionals identify variables associated with injury, anticipate or prevent injuries, plan medical coverage, and compare individual…

  9. Assessing inhalation injury in the emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanizaki S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Shinsuke Tanizaki Department of Emergency Medicine, Fukui Prefectural Hospital, Fukui, Japan Abstract: Respiratory tract injuries caused by inhalation of smoke or chemical products are related to significant morbidity and mortality. While many strategies have been built up to manage cutaneous burn injuries, few logical diagnostic strategies for patients with inhalation injuries exist and almost all treatment is supportive. The goals of initial management are to ensure that the airway allows adequate oxygenation and ventilation and to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury and substances that may complicate subsequent care. Intubation should be considered if any of the following signs exist: respiratory distress, stridor, hypoventilation, use of accessory respiratory muscles, blistering or edema of the oropharynx, or deep burns to the face or neck. Any patients suspected to have inhalation injuries should receive a high concentration of supplemental oxygen to quickly reverse hypoxia and to displace carbon monoxide from protein binding sites. Management of carbon monoxide and cyanide exposure in smoke inhalation patients remains controversial. Absolute indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy do not exist because there is a low correlation between carboxyhemoglobin levels and the severity of the clinical state. A cyanide antidote should be administered when cyanide poisoning is clinically suspected. Although an ideal approach for respiratory support of patients with inhalation injuries do not exist, it is important that they are supported using techniques that do not further exacerbate respiratory failure. A well-organized strategy for patients with inhalation injury is critical to reduce morbidity and mortality. Keywords: inhalation injury, burn, carbon monoxide poisoning, cyanide poisoning

  10. Lawnmower injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Nora

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Power lawnmowers can pose significant danger of injury to both the operator and the bystander, from direct contact with the rotary blades or missile injury. Our objective was to review our experience with paediatric lawnmower-associated trauma, and the safety recommendations available to operators of power lawnmowers. METHODS: The patient cohort comprised paediatric (<16 years of age) patients treated for lawnmower-associated trauma, by the plastic surgery service, between 1996 and 2003. These patients were identified retrospectively. Age at the time of injury, location and extent of bony and soft tissue injuries sustained, treatment instituted and clinical outcome were recorded. Brochures and instruction manuals of six lawnmower manufacturers were reviewed, and safety recommendations noted. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified. The majority of injuries occurred from direct contact with the rotary blades (93%); the remaining child sustained a burn injury. Fourteen children (93%) required operative intervention. Seven patients (46%) sustained injuries resulting in amputation, two of whom had major limb amputations. All children, except the burns patient, underwent wound debridement and received antibiotic therapy. Reconstructive methods ranged from primary closure to free tissue transfer. Many patients required multiple procedures. In all instruction manuals, instructions to keep children and pets indoors or out of the yard when mowing were found. CONCLUSIONS: Lawnmower injuries can be devastating, particularly in children. Many victims have lasting deformities as a result of their injuries. Awareness of and stringent adherence to safety precautions during use of power lawnmowers can prevent many of these accidents.

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury How Occupational Therapists Work How Occupational Therapists Work Occupational Therapy Enables Daily Life Occupational Therapy Enables Daily Life Occupational Therapy Creates ...

  12. Acute injuries in Taekwondo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter-Brust, K; Leistenschneider, P; Dargel, J; Springorum, H P; Eysel, P; Michael, J W-P

    2011-08-01

    Although Taekwondo is becoming an increasingly popular sport, there is a lack of reliable epidemiologic data on Taekwondo injuries. To perform an epidemiologic study on the variety of types of injury in professional and amateur Taekwondo athletes and to find a relation between Taekwondo style, skill level, weight-class and warm-up routine and the occurrence of injuries, we analysed the injury data using a 7-page questionnaire from a total of 356 Taekwondo athletes who were randomly selected. Overall, we registered a total of 2,164 injuries in 356 athletes. Most traumas were contusions and sprains in the lower extremities. Professional Taekwondo athletes have an increased risk of injury in comparison to recreational athletes. Taekwondo style, weight class and tournament frequency have an influence on the athlete's injury profile. Warm-up routines were found to have a positive effect on injury rates. Overall, Taekwondo may be considered a rather benign activity, if injuries during Taekwondo tournaments can be avoided. If not, Taekwondo can result in serious musculoskeletal problems.

  13. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TOPIC Sports Physicals Safety Tips: Basketball Safety Tips: Running Knee Injuries Sports and Exercise Safety Safety Tips: Soccer Physical Therapy Sports Center Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) ...

  14. Morphological aspects of radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injury to haemopoietic and lymphatic tissues produced by ionizing irradiation in various species of mammals including man is one of the major features of the biological effects of radiation (Bond et al. 1965,' Cottier, 1961). At the moment of injury and for a short time thereafter relatively little morphological evidence of cell damage in bone marrow other than cessation of cell division and DNA synthesis is seen. Within a few hours, however, depending on the level of exposure, major destruction of red bone marrow tissue can occur. In this chapter the histologic changes in bone marrow are summarized for correlation with the functional aspects of the change in the target tissue, particularly its cell renewal features and where possible the remarkable flux or migration of cells through bone marrow and lymphatic tissues. This latter topic of cellular traffic represents the outcome of extensive physiological studies on haemopoiesis and lymphopoiesis by mammalian radiobiologists. The initial injury, the structural changes and the physiological consequences are the first half of the radiation injury sequence. Regeneration also has morphological features of major importance to the understanding of radiation haematology. It is common to discuss radiation effects on biological materials from the point of view of external or internal sources of exposure. In addition exposure rate, whole body or partial body, type and quality of the ionizing source are features that must be taken into account. While these features are extremely important, the simplest approach to understanding histologic effects on the bone marrow is to assume acute penetrating whole-body exposure in the lethal range. With this background the differences related to variations in the conditions of exposure can usually be understood. The individual human or animal organism receiving the exposure must also be considered in the final outcome of the experience because age, sex, nutritional status and presence

  15. Hand injuries as an indicator of other associated severe injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossoughi, Faranak; Krantz, Brent; Fann, Stephen

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of disabling or life-threatening injuries in patients with hand injuries. Retrospective data were collected from a level 1 trauma center registry. A total of 472 patients with hand injuries were admitted to the trauma unit between January 2000 and March 2004. Forty-four per cent of patients with hand injuries had life-threatening injuries. Fifty-one per cent of them had motor vehicle crash-related injuries. Motorcycle crashes were the next most common cause followed by explosions, falls, gunshots, machinery, stabs, bites, crushes, and so on. Frequency of associated injuries was as follows: head injuries, 31 per cent, including skull fractures, 22 per cent; spine injuries, 18 per cent, including spine fractures 18 per cent; chest injuries, 36 per cent, including rib fractures, 15 per cent; and abdominal injuries, 13 per cent. The authors focused on the incidence of disabling or life-threatening injuries in patients with hand injuries. Motor vehicle crashes were most common cause of hand injuries. The most common organs to be injured were chest and head. The most common head injury was skull fracture. Other injuries in decreasing order were spine and rib fractures. These data may be helpful in assessing ambulatory patients in the emergency room, in those hand injuries maybe indicative of other simultaneous life-threatening or disabling injuries.

  16. Injury Free Coalition for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sites Awards Safety Resources Staff Donate Online! Injury Free News The Great Trade-In Event Returns to ... Free Site -- Injury Free Call for Proposals Injury Free is supported by the generous contributions of organizations ...

  17. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciate ligament injury - anterior; ACL injury; Knee injury - anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ... knee. It prevents the knee from bending out. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is in the middle of the knee. ...

  18. Traumatic injuries: imaging of peripheral musculoskeletal injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohndorf, K. [Department of Radiology, Zentralklinikum Augsburg (Germany); Kilcoyne, R.F. [Department of Radiology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The current dominant role of conventional radiography must be reassessed at increasingly shorter intervals in view of the continuing emergence of new imaging modalities that are available to diagnose peripheral musculoskeletal injuries. In comparison with conventional radiography, digital radiographic techniques offer advantages for optimization of image quality and dose, such as a wider dynamic range and post-processing of images. Currently, digital luminescence radiography (storage phosphor radiography) is the most commonly used digital method for obtaining radiographs, using the established positioning projections and routines of the film-screen technique. A new process, radiography with flat-panel amorphous silicon detectors, is still under development. Computed tomography is a valuable tool for diagnosing injuries of the peripheral musculoskeletal system, especially when three-dimensional data sets are acquired; these allow reformating images in all planes desired (2D technique) or in a volumetric format (3D technique). Established indications for CT in the peripheral skeleton are hip fractures, wrist injuries and calcaneal fractures; however, CT may be used as a supplement to radiography in every region of the body. Sonography is beginning to play an increasingly important role in trauma. Muscle and tendon injuries are the most common indications, but worthwhile information can be gained of the shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee joints, supplementing conventional or digital radiography. Magnetic resonance imaging effectively visualizes traumatic changes of the skeleton and the peripheral soft tissues. It is the method of choice to detect occult fractures. It can be used to diagnose muscle and tendon injuries. Joint injuries, especially in the knee and the shoulder joint, are common indications for MRI in the posttraumatic setting. (orig.)

  19. Conquering Athletic Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Paul M., Ed.; Taylor, Diane K., Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to be a source of complete, reliable, and practical sports medicine information. Experts from the American Running and Fitness Association describe in clear language how overuse injuries occur, how to recognize and self-treat them, when to seek professional help, and how to prevent future injuries. The book also…

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... US ? A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information ... spinal cord injuries and the members of their families. Our website has more than 1,500 videos ...

  1. Peroneal Tendon Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FootNotes Newsletter Current Issue Archive Subscribe Home » Foot & Ankle Conditions » Peroneal Tendon Injuries A A A | Print | Share Javascript is required ... cases, subluxation occurs following trauma, such as an ankle sprain. Damage or injury to the tissues that stabilize the tendons (retinaculum) ...

  2. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to stretch their limits and learn sportsmanship and discipline. But any sport also carries the potential for injury. By knowing the causes of sports injuries and how to prevent them, you can help make athletics a positive experience for your child. Kids can be particularly ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes ... Patient Partnerships How Social Workers Help Transitions How Social Workers Help ... advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. ...

  4. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...

  5. Fatal Injuries in Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid S. Khodasevich; Aleksei L. Khodasevich; Sergei G. Kuzin

    2013-01-01

    The literary review, related to fatal injuries in sports, contains epidemiology, their mechanisms, causes of death in sports. Injuries in different sports have their own features, concerned with sports equipment, performed exercises, sports facilities equipment and protective equipment, used by the athletes.

  6. Healing of Genital Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

  7. Mild traumatic brain injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, P.E.; Alekseenko, Y.; Battistin, L.; Ehler, E.; Gerstenbrand, F.; Muresanu, D.F.; Potapov, A.; Stepan, C.A.; Traubner, P.; Vecsei, L.; Wild, K. von

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is among the most frequent neurological disorders. Of all TBIs 90% are considered mild with an annual incidence of 100-300/100.000. Intracranial complications of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) are infrequent (10%), requiring neurosurgical intervention in a minority o

  8. CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KINGMA, J

    1994-01-01

    The causes of occupational injuries (N = 2,365) were investigated. Accidents with machinery and hand tools were the two main causes (49.9%). 89% of the patients with occupational injuries were male. The highest risk group were in the age category of 19 years or less (51.9%). This age group also show

  9. Traumatic injuries: imaging of spinal injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhof, H.; Fuchsjaeger, M. [Department of Osteology, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2002-06-01

    Severe (high-energy) spinal injuries are common sequelae of acute traumas. The task of radiology is to establish the radiological diagnosis, classify it, judge stability and instability and lead further radiological evaluation in cases of non-agreement between the radiological diagnosis and the clinical (neurological) findings. While skeletal abnormalities are best diagnosed with spiral CT and to a lesser degree with plain-film radiographs, soft tissue lesions, such as cord injuries or ligament ruptures, are best outlined with emergency MRI. The classification of fractures depends on fracture (trauma)-biomechanics and location. All these efforts are necessary to get the best clinical outcome for the patient. (orig.)

  10. T2弛豫时间图在膝关节软骨下骨髓水肿与软骨损伤相关性研究中的应用%Application of T2 mapping in study on the correlation between subchondral bone marrow edema and cartilage injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方舒; 邢伟

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨T2弛豫时间图(T2 mapping)在膝关节软骨下骨髓水肿(bone marrow edema,BME)与软骨损伤相关性研究中的应用价值。方法:选择因非外伤性膝关节疼痛行MRI检查的BME患者42例作为患者组,另选择10例健康志愿者作为对照组,测量BME被覆软骨T2弛豫时间(T2 RT)及对照组软骨T2 RT,并行独立样本t检验;测量BME体积,将BME体积与被覆软骨T2 RT值行Pearson相关性分析。结果:患者组BME被覆软骨的T2 RT较对照组膝关节软骨的T2 RT值高(P<0.05);BME体积与其被覆软骨的T2 RT之间有相关性(P<0.05)。结论:T2 mapping在膝关节软骨BME与软骨损伤相关性研究中具有重要价值;膝关节软骨下BME的存在提示相应被覆软骨的损伤,且BME范围越大,软骨损伤越严重。%Objective:To discuss the application value of T2 relaxation time diagram (T2 mapping) in correlation analysis between the knee subchondral bone marrow edema (BME) and cartilage injury. Methods:42 cases of non-traumatic knee pain were ex-amined by MRI with BME as case group,another 10 healthy volunteers as control group. The T2 relation time (T2 RT) value of the cartilage of patients and volunteers were compared with the independent sample t-test. And the BME volume and the coat-ing cartilage T2 RT were performed by Pearson correlation analysis. Results:The case group of BME coated T2 RT compared with the control group,the cartilage of knee articular cartilage T2 RT value was high,with statistical significance between differ-ences (P<0.05),there was a significant correlation between BME volume and covered cartilage T2 RT (P<0.05). Conclusion:The existing of BME is the tip to coated cartilage injury of the knee,and the BME range is larger,the more serious the carti-lage injury.

  11. An Unusual Laryngeal Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kohli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Blunt injuries to the anterior neck are most commonly due to road traffic accidents but the incidence of such types of injuries are decreasing probably due to stricter laws pertaining to seat belts and drunken driving. Experience in managing such injuries is limited due to their rarity. The mainstay of management revolves around establishing and maintaining a patent airway and integrity of the spine. Here we document a case of a 25 year old male who met with a Road traffic accident while driving a motorbike and sustained a clear cut linear wound on the right side of the neck with minimal airleak due to the helmet clip. On exploration, he was found to have massive epiglottic edema, mucosal abrasions, lacerations and a thyroid cartilage fracture. The mechanism of injury was probably a combination of penetrating and blunt trauma neck. This case highlights the mechanism of laryngeal injury, its presentation and management

  12. Mole gun injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds.

  13. Ankle ligament injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per A.F.H. Renström

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute ankle ligament sprains are common injuries. The majority of these occur during athletic participation in the 15 to 35 year age range. Despite the frequency of the injury, diagnostic and treatment protocols have varied greatly. Lateral ligament complex injuries are by far the most common of the ankle sprains. Lateral ligament injuries typically occur during plantar flexion and inversion, which is the position of maximum stress on the anterotalofibular liagment (ATFL. For this reason, the ATFL is the most commonly torn ligament during an inversion injury. In more severe inversion injuries the calcaneofibular (CFL, posterotalofibular (PTFL and subtalar ligament can also be injured. Most acute lateral ankle ligament injuries recover quickly with nonoperative management. The treatment program, called "functional treatment," includes application of the RICE principle (rest, ice, compression, and elevation immediately after the injury, a short period of immobilization and protection with an elastic or inelastic tape or bandage, and early motion exercises followed by early weight bearing and neuromuscular ankle training. Proprioceptive training with a tilt board is commenced as soon as possible, usually after 3 to 4 weeks. The purpose is to improve the balance and neuromuscular control of the ankle. Sequelae after ankle ligament injuries are very common. As much as 10% to 30% of patients with a lateral ligament injury may have chronic symptoms. Symptoms usually include persistent synovitis or tendinitis, ankle stiffness, swelling, and pain, muscle weakness, and frequent giving-way. A well designed physical therapy program with peroneal strengthening and proprioceptive training, along with bracing and/or taping can alleviate instability problems in most patients. For cases of chronic instability that are refractory to bracing and external support, surgical treatment can be explored. If the chronic instability is associated with subtalar instability

  14. Lightning and thermal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Arthur; Gamelli, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    Electrical burns are classified as either high voltage (1000 volts and higher) or low voltage (release of myoglobin, the presence of heme pigments in the urine must be evaluated promptly. Presence of these products of breakdown of myoglobin and hemoglobin puts the injured at risk for acute renal failure and must be treated. The exact mechanism of nerve injury has not been explained, but both direct injury by electrical current overload or a vascular cause receive the most attention. Because electrical injuries carry both externally visible cutaneous injuries and possible hidden musculoskeletal damage, conventional burn resuscitation formulas based on body surface area injured may not provide enough fluid to maintain urine output. Damaged muscle resulting in swelling within the investing fascia of an extremity may result in compartment syndromes, requiring further attention. If myoglobin has been detected in the urine, treatment is aggressive volume resuscitation and possibly alkalinization of the urine or mannitol is given IV push to minimize pigment precipitation in the renal tubules. Approximately 15% of electrical burn victims also sustain traumatic injuries. This is because of falls from height or being thrown against an object. The tetanic contractions that result from exposure to electrical injury cause imbalance in flexor versus extensor muscles, with the flexor groups being stronger. Not only is the victim unable to release from the electrical contact, but they are at risk for fracture of bones from this prolonged muscular contracture. Neurologic and psychological symptoms were the most common sequelae of electrical and lightning injuries. Many of these symptoms are nonspecific, and they often do not appear until several months after the injury. A full neurologic examination must be performed on admission, documenting initial presentation and at any change in symptoms. Electrical injuries can have devastating consequences. Prevention of electrical injuries

  15. The study of changes and correlation betwee sICAM-1,U-ALB in pregnancy induced hypertension with early renal injury%sICAM-1、U-ALB在妊娠期高血压疾病早期肾损伤中的变化及相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 刘爱敏; 蒋玉红; 山洁; 于春波

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨妊娠期高血压疾病早期肾损伤中尿微量白蛋白(U-ALB)与可溶性细胞间粘附因子-1水平变化及相关性分析.方法 测定正常妊娠组、妊娠期高血压组U-ALB含量;测定正常未孕组、正常妊娠组、妊娠期高血压组、子痫前期组4组(孕32-35周)sIACM-1值;所测值进行组间比较并对sIACM-1、U-ALB进行相关性分析.结果 妊娠期高血压患者U-ALB阳性率(60.00%)明显高于正常妊娠组(10.00%),P<0.01;sIACM-1正常妊娠组高于未孕组,P<0.05;与正常妊娠组比较,妊娠期高血压组高于正常妊娠组,P<0.05;子痫前期组明显高于正常妊娠组,P<0.01:与妊娠高血压组比较P<0.05.妊娠期高血压组sIACM-1与U-ALB相关性分析,相关系数(r)为0.723;P值<0.01.结论 U-ALB、sIACM-1在妊娠期高血压疾病早期肾损伤中含量明显增高,两者之间呈正相关.%Objective: To investigate the early renal injury in hypertensive disorders in pregnancy in the urine albumin (U -ALB) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule - 1 levels and correlation analysis. Methods: Determined the normal pregnancy group,gestational hypertension group U - ALB levels; determination of the normal nonpregnant group, normal pregnancy, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia group 4 (32 - 35 weeks gestation) sIACM - 1 value; The measured value of the comparison between groups and sIACM - 1, U - ALB correlation analysis. Results: Gestational hypertension U - ALB - positive rate (60. 00% ) was significantly higher than the normal pregnancy group ( 10. 00% ), P < 0. 01; sIACM - 1 higher than those of normal pregnancy and pregnancy group, P <0. 05; with normal pregnancy compared with gestational hypertension group was higher than the normal pregnancy group, P <0. 05; preeclampsia group were significantly higher than the normal pregnancy group, P <0. 01; and pregnancy induced hypertension group P <0. 05. Gestational hypertension group slACM - 1 and U - ALB correlation

  16. The role of computed tomography in blunt hepatic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) images and medical records of 283 patients with blunt abdominal trauma were reviewed. There were 67 patients with hepatic injury. Liver was the most frequently injured organ in blunt abdominal trauma. Most hepatic injuries occurred in the right lobe of the liver. Of the 67 patients with hepatic injury, 60 patients had associated other injuries. There was a high incidence of associated lung injuries (35.8 %). Of importance is the high incidence of associated head injuries (22.4 %), because, in some patients such as those with concomitant head trauma, abdominal symptom is not obvious. The associated hemoperitoneum were correlated with the mode of therapy used in each case (operative vs. nonoperative). 32 patients with hepatic injury but no hemoperitoneum were managed nonoperatively. 9 patients with hepatic injury and little hemoperitoneum were also managed conservatively. 22 patients with high density hemoperitoneum were surgically treated. By combining information on the clinical state of the patient and CT finding, therapy of hepatic injury can be individualized and the incidence of nontherapeutic laparotomies decreased. (author)

  17. Type II collagen C2C epitope in human synovial fluid and serum after knee injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumahashi, N; Swärd, P; Larsson, S;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Investigate in a cross-sectional study time-dependent changes of synovial fluid type II collagen epitope C2C concentrations after knee injury and correlate to other joint injury biomarkers. METHODS: Synovial fluid samples were aspirated between 0 days and 7 years after injury (n = 235......). Serum was collected from 71 of the knee injured patients. Synovial fluid from 8 knee-healthy subjects was used as reference. C2C was quantified by immunoassay and structural injury was determined from magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the injured knee acquired 1-38 days after injury (n = 98......). Additional joint injury biomarker results were from earlier investigations of the same samples. RESULTS: Synovial fluid C2C concentrations were higher in injured knees than in knees of reference subjects from 1 day up to 7 years after injury. C2C concentrations in synovial fluid and serum were correlated (r...

  18. Robust correlators

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, P A

    2010-01-01

    Radio frequency interference (RFI) already limits the sensitivity of existing radio telescopes in several frequency bands and may prove to be an even greater obstacle for future generation instruments to overcome. I aim to create a structure of radio astronomy correlators which will be statistically stable (robust) in the presence of interference. A statistical analysis of the mixture of system noise + signal noise + RFI is proposed here which could be incorporated into the block diagram of a correlator. Order and rank statistics are especially useful when calculated in both temporal and frequency domains. Several new algorithms of robust correlators are proposed and investigated here. Computer simulations and processing of real data demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed algorithms.

  19. Sport injuries in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Habelt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13% followed by handball (8.89% and sports during school (8.77%. The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34% and ligament tears (18.76%; 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1 and fractures (7:2 in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6. Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3. Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1. Fractures were noted during football (1:9, skiing (1:9, inline (2:3, and during school sports (1:11. Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education.

  20. Muscle strain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, W E

    1996-01-01

    One of the most common injuries seen in the office of the practicing physician is the muscle strain. Until recently, little data were available on the basic science and clinical application of this basic science for the treatment and prevention of muscle strains. Studies in the last 10 years represent action taken on the direction of investigation into muscle strain injuries from the laboratory and clinical fronts. Findings from the laboratory indicate that certain muscles are susceptible to strain injury (muscles that cross multiple joints or have complex architecture). These muscles have a strain threshold for both passive and active injury. Strain injury is not the result of muscle contraction alone, rather, strains are the result of excessive stretch or stretch while the muscle is being activated. When the muscle tears, the damage is localized very near the muscle-tendon junction. After injury, the muscle is weaker and at risk for further injury. The force output of the muscle returns over the following days as the muscle undertakes a predictable progression toward tissue healing. Current imaging studies have been used clinically to document the site of injury to the muscle-tendon junction. The commonly injured muscles have been described and include the hamstring, the rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and adductor longus muscles. Injuries inconsistent with involvement of a single muscle-tendon junction proved to be at tendinous origins rather than within the muscle belly. Important information has also been provided regarding injuries with poor prognosis, which are potentially repairable surgically, including injuries to the rectus femoris muscle, the hamstring origin, and the abdominal wall. Data important to the management of common muscle injuries have been published. The risks of reinjury have been documented. The early efficacy and potential for long-term risks of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents have been shown. New data can also be applied to the field

  1. Sports injuries and adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axe, M J; Newcomb, W A; Warner, D

    1991-06-01

    A one-year study was undertaken investigating adolescent sports injury experiences at a major sports clinic in the state of Delaware. A total of 619 athletes sustained 870 injuries, for an overall injury rate of 1.4 injuries per athlete. The largest number of injuries was recorded in football (40.2 percent), followed by boys' soccer, wrestling, baseball and girls' basketball. Severity of injury was measured by the number of days lost per injury. Cheerleading had the highest average days lost per injury (28.8), followed by girls' basketball, wrestling, boys' cross-country and girls' tennis. Inflammation, fractures and dislocations comprised 50.6 percent of all the injuries, while 50.5 percent of the injuries were located in the knee, thigh, and shoulder. Twenty-seven of the 870 injuries required surgery. PMID:1874345

  2. Neural correlates of mystical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofori, Irene; Bulbulia, Joseph; Shaver, John H; Wilson, Marc; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Mystical experiences, or subjectively believed encounters with a supernatural world, are widely reported across cultures and throughout human history. Previous theories speculate that executive brain functions underpin mystical experiences. To evaluate causal hypotheses, structural studies of brain lesion are required. Previous studies suffer from small samples or do not have valid measures of cognitive functioning prior to injury. We investigated mystical experience among participants from the Vietnam Head Injury Study and compared those who suffered penetrating traumatic brain injury (pTBI; n=116) with matched healthy controls (HC; n=32). Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis showed that lesions to frontal and temporal brain regions were linked with greater mystical experiences. Such regions included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and middle/superior temporal cortex (TC). In a confirmatory analysis, we grouped pTBI patients by lesion location and compared mysticism experiences with the HC group. The dlPFC group presented markedly increased mysticism. Notably, longitudinal analysis of pre-injury data (correlating with general intelligence and executive performance) excludes explanations from individual differences. Our findings support previous speculation linking executive brain functions to mystical experiences, and reveal that executive functioning (dlPFC) causally contributes to the down-regulation of mystical experiences. PMID:26631541

  3. A-bomb and skin injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injury and influence in the skin given by A-bomb are reviewed from the dermatological aspect. As an acute injury, primary and secondary thermal burns, flash and flame, respectively, are generally caused by high-energy heat. More than 90% people present within 1 km diameter area of the hypocenter died in a week and about 30% of whom did due to burns. Alopecia appeared in those who had been exposed to A-bomb radiation within 2.5 km diameter region of the hypocenter in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and purpura, an important measure of radiation injury, occurred maximally 20-30 days after explosion in most of those people above. Late injury involves keloid and malignant skin tumor. The former, hypertrophic scar, was seen mainly in the curing process of the burns in 60-80% and was of somewhat different morphology after flash and flame injuries. In 1987, the correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and exposed dose was recognized in 20,348 survivors in Nagasaki. In the period from 1958 to 1987, the incidence of basal cell carcinoma was found increased in the comparative studies of about 90,000 people consisting of survivors and non-exposed control. Skin examination is pointed out from the aspect to be important in those people exposed to the higher radiation dose than general population, like workers in the nuclear power plant and medical field as well as in those enrolled in a nuclear accident. (R.T.)

  4. Axonal PPARγ promotes neuronal regeneration after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezana, Juan Pablo; Dagan, Shachar Y; Robinson, Ari; Goldstein, Ronald S; Fainzilber, Mike; Bronfman, Francisca C; Bronfman, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    PPARγ is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor best known for its involvement in adipogenesis and glucose homeostasis. PPARγ activity has also been associated with neuroprotection in different neurological disorders, but the mechanisms involved in PPARγ effects in the nervous system are still unknown. Here we describe a new functional role for PPARγ in neuronal responses to injury. We found both PPAR transcripts and protein within sensory axons and observed an increase in PPARγ protein levels after sciatic nerve crush. This was correlated with increased retrograde transport of PPARγ after injury, increased association of PPARγ with the molecular motor dynein, and increased nuclear accumulation of PPARγ in cell bodies of sensory neurons. Furthermore, PPARγ antagonists attenuated the response of sensory neurons to sciatic nerve injury, and inhibited axonal growth of both sensory and cortical neurons in culture. Thus, axonal PPARγ is involved in neuronal injury responses required for axonal regeneration. Since PPARγ is a major molecular target of the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of drugs used in the treatment of type II diabetes, several pharmaceutical agents with acceptable safety profiles in humans are available. Our findings provide motivation and rationale for the evaluation of such agents for efficacy in central and peripheral nerve injuries. PMID:26446277

  5. Power lawnmower injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, William W

    2003-04-01

    Power lawnmowers are among the most ubiquitous household tools, yet they pose significant danger to operator and bystanders. Despite of the United States Consumer Products Safety Commission's push to have safety standards established for walk-behind mowers in 1982 and for ride-on mowers in 1986, by 2000 approximately 80,000 injuries nationwide were estimated to be associated with power mowers. Large numbers of these injuries are thought to be preventable, especially those to individuals younger than 14 years. Orthopaedic surgeons treat a significant number of the injuries associated with mower use including lacerations, amputations, fractures, infections, and skin defects. Therefore, the orthopaedic community has a stake in the prevention and outcome of these injuries. To date, changes in mower design have seemed to be more successful than user education programs in decreasing the numbers of these injuries. Involving orthopaedists in safety education programs to help prevent injuries associated with power mower use may be one method of increasing user knowledge and preventing injury. PMID:12671483

  6. Mechanical cornpicker hand injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical cornpicker hand injuries are not frequent in comparison to general hand trauma, but they have a specific mechanism of occurrence and are very severe. This investigation included 221 hand injuries. The sex distribution shows a general male dominance (85.25% in their active age (84.44%. These are, seasonal injuries mostly occurring in October (75.11%. By type of injuries, mutilating crush injuries are most frequent (64.25%. After completing the treatment, in most cases the functional result were estimated as bad (50.68%. Data concerning education and training for operating agricultural machines (96.38% - patients without training and carrying out safety measures (63.35% of injured patients did not apply any protection measures are devastating. The number of these injuries, as well as consequent permanent disabilities, may be considerably reduced by preventive measures, including public health services and media. Use of contemporary agricultural machinery, as well as obligatory training for operating these machines and application of protective measures, may also reduce the incidence of hand injuries during corn picking.

  7. Correlator technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schooneveld, C. van

    1968-01-01

    The paper reviews a number of designs of cross-correlation receivers for the detection of active underwater transmissions. Particular attention is given to the various structures of phase insensitive receivers, and to the problems concerned with clipping of the input signal and the reference functio

  8. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision

  9. Sports injuries Lesiones deportivas

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Patiño Giraldo; Elkín Arango V.; Mónica Paola Clavijo Rodríguez; Jorge Alberto Osorio Ciro; Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching

    2007-01-01

    Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6....

  10. Work injuries and disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Feveile, Helene;

    2009-01-01

    of 4,217 male and 4,105 female employees from a national survey were followed up for subsequent DPR. RESULTS AND IMPACT ON INDUSTRY AND GOVERNMENT: Having had a work injury was a strong predictor of DPR among men. After control for age, smoking, body mass index, body postures, and physical demands......, the hazard ratio (HR) among those employees who had ever experienced a work injury was 1.80 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-2.68). No association was found among women. SUMMARY: Having had a reportable work injury is a strong predictor of subsequent DPR for men....

  11. Sports injuries profile of a first division Brazilian soccer team: a descriptive cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme F. Reis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective:To establish the injury profile of soccer players from a first division Brazilian soccer team. In addition, we investigated the association between the characteristics of the injuries and the player's age and position.Method: Forty-eight players from a Brazilian first division soccer team were followed during one season. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the injury profile. Spearman's tests were used to verify the association between the number and severity of injuries and the player's age. Chi-square test was used to verify the association between type of injury and player's position. Fisher's exact test was used to verify the association between the severity of injuries and player's position.Results: The incidence of injuries was 42.84/1000 hours in matches and 2.40/1000 hours in training. The injury severity was 19.5±34.4 days off competition or training. Lower limb was the most common location of injury and most injuries were muscular/tendinous, overuse, non-recurrent, and non-contact injuries. Player's age correlated with the amount and severity of muscle and tendon injuries. Defenders had more minimal injuries (1-3 days lost, while forwards had more moderate (8-28 days lost and severe injuries (>28 days lost. Furthermore, wingbacks had more muscle and tendon injuries, while midfielders had more joint and ligament injuries.Conclusion: The injury profile of the Brazilian players investigated in this study reflected regional differences in soccer practices. Results confirm the influence of the player's age and position on the soccer injuries profile.

  12. Soda pop vending machine injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosio, M Q

    1988-11-11

    Fifteen male patients, 15 to 24 years of age, sustained injuries after rocking soda machines. The machines fell onto the victims, resulting in a variety of injuries. Three were killed. The remaining 12 required hospitalization for their injuries. Unless changes are made to safeguard these machines, people will continue to suffer severe and possibly fatal injuries from what are largely preventable accidents. PMID:3184337

  13. COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF AGING AND IL-6 ON THE HEPATIC INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IN TWO MODELS OF SYSTEMIC INJURY: SCALD INJURY VERSUS I.P. LPS ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Christian R.; Nomellini, Vanessa; Baila, Horea; Oshima, Kiyoko; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    Regardless of age, a marked elevation in circulating IL-6 levels correlates with increased mortality after injury or an inflammatory challenge. We previously reported that aged IL-6 knockout mice given LPS have improved survival and reduced inflammatory response than LPS-treated aged wild type (WT) mice. Herein, we analyzed the effects of aging and IL-6 on the hepatic inflammatory response in two models of systemic injury: dorsal scald (burn) injury versus intraperitoneal LPS administration. ...

  14. Injury predictors for traumatic axonal injury in a rodent head impact acceleration model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Liying; Kallakuri, Srinivasu; Zhou, Runzhou; Cavanaugh, John M

    2011-11-01

    A modified Marmarou impact acceleration injury model was developed to study the kinematics of the rat head to quantify traumatic axonal injury (TAI) in the corpus callosum (CC) and brainstem pyramidal tract (Py), to determine injury predictors and to establish injury thresholds for severe TAI. Thirty-one anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats (392±13 grams) were impacted using a modified impact acceleration injury device from 2.25 m and 1.25 m heights. Beta-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) immunocytochemistry was used to assess and quantify axonal changes in CC and Py. Over 600 injury maps in CC and Py were constructed in the 31 impacted rats. TAI distribution along the rostro-caudal direction in CC and Py was determined. Linear and angular responses of the rat head were monitored and measured in vivo with an attached accelerometer and angular rate sensor, and were correlated to TAI data. Logistic regression analysis suggested that the occurrence of severe TAI in CC was best predicted by average linear acceleration, followed by power and time to surface righting. The combination of average linear acceleration and time to surface righting showed an improved predictive result. In Py, severe TAI was best predicted by time to surface righting, followed by peak and average angular velocity. When both CC and Py were combined, power was the best predictor, and the combined average linear acceleration and average angular velocity was also found to have good injury predictive ability. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to assess the predictive power of individual and paired injury predictors. TAI tolerance curves were also proposed in this study. PMID:22869303

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is "Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? When can we expect ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal cord injuries ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  17. Toe Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe arthritis, can cause toe problems and pain. Gout often causes pain in the big toe. Common toe problems include Corns and bunions Ingrown toenails Sprains and dislocations Fractures Treatments for toe injuries and disorders vary. They might ...

  18. Injuries in classical ballet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external rotation at hip level and to undue use of point ballet slippers. The commonest lesions are in feet and ankles, followed by knees and hips. The rarest ones are in the upper limbs. These injuries are caused by exercise excess, by repetitions always in the same side and by wrong and early use of point slippers. The study reached the conclusion that incorrect application of classical ballet technique predisposes the dancers to characteristic injuries.

  19. Injury reduction at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffing, Bill; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    In a recent DOE Program Review, Fermilab's director presented results of the laboratory's effort to reduce the injury rate over the last decade. The results, shown in the figure below, reveal a consistent and dramatic downward trend in OSHA recordable injuries at Fermilab. The High Energy Physics Program Office has asked Fermilab to report in detail on how the laboratory has achieved the reduction. In fact, the reduction in the injury rate reflects a change in safety culture at Fermilab, which has evolved slowly over this period, due to a series of events, both planned and unplanned. This paper attempts to describe those significant events and analyze how each of them has shaped the safety culture that, in turn, has reduced the rate of injury at Fermilab to its current value.

  20. Injury prophylaxis in paragliding

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, W.; Richter, J; Schulze, B.; Esenwein, S; Buttner-Janz, K

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To show trends in paragliding injuries and derive recommendations for safety precautions for paraglider pilots on the basis of accident statistics, interviews, questionnaires, medical reports, and current stage of development of paragliding equipment.

  1. Brain injury - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injuries do not happen. This includes making the bathroom safe, for either a child or an adult , and protecting against falls . Family and caregivers may need to help the person with the following: Exercising ...

  2. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye nausea or vomiting after an eye injury Think Prevention! Kids who play sports should wear protective goggles or unbreakable glasses as needed. Keep chemicals and other potentially dangerous objects out of the reach of children. Reviewed by: ...

  3. Photobiomodulation on sports injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon C.; Jiao, Jian-Ling; Li, Cheng-Zhang; Xu, Xiao-Yang

    2003-12-01

    Sports injuries healing has long been an important field in sports medicine. The stimulatory effects of Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation have been investigated in several medical fields, such as cultured cell response, wound healing, hormonal or neural stimulation, pain relief and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LIL irradiation can accelerate sports injuries healing. Some experimental and clinical studies have shown the laser stimulation effects on soft tissues and cartilage, however, controversy still exists regarding the role of LIL when used as a therapeutic device. Summarizing the data of cell studies and animal experiments and clinic trials by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation is a valuable treatment for superficial and localized sports injuries and that the injuries healing effects of the therapy depend on the dosage of LIL irradiation.

  4. Ankle injuries of elite male Iranian gymnasts and anthropometric characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    GHASEMPOUR, Hadi; Rajabi, Reza; Alizadeh, Mohammad Hossein; TAVANAI, Ali

    2014-01-01

    In men's gymnastics, the ankle is the most frequently injured part of the body. However, very few studies have been conducted to determine the roles of various risk factors so that the rate of these injuries can be reduced. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between anthropometric factors (intrinsic risk factors) and the ankle injuries incurred by elite male gymnasts in the Iranian Premier League and Division One. This research was cross sectional correlation study in its...

  5. Imaging Techniques in Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ellingson, BM; Salamon, N.; Holly, LT

    2012-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Background Spinal imaging plays a critical role in the diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). In recent years there has been increasing interest in the development of advanced imaging techniques to provide pertinent microstructural and metabolic information that is not provided by conventional modalities. Methods This review details the pathophysiological structural changes that accompany SCI, as well as their imaging correlate...

  6. SECONDARY BRAIN INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Ayu Basmatika

    2013-01-01

    Secondary brain injury is a condision that occurs at some times after the primary impact and can be largely prevented and treated. Most brain injury ends with deadly consequences which is caused by secondary damage to the brain. Traumatic brain injured still represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals under the age of 45 years in the world. The classification of secondary brain injured is divided into extracranial and intracranial causes. The cause of extracranial s...

  7. Study of aeroball injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, A; McGlone, R G; Montgomery, K.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present the risks of aeroball, a new sport played by either two or four players on a trampoline court surrounded by specially constructed fabric walls, and to propose ways to increase awareness and reduce the incidence of injury, in particular, ankle injury. METHOD: A study was carried out to document the nature of aeroball related incidents, between 1991 and 1995, at Lancaster University Sports Centre. Lace-up ankle supports were introduced in April 1992, and their effect on th...

  8. Injuries in classical ballet

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães; Joseani Paulini Neves Simas

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external ...

  9. Pars Injuries in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Jonathan H; Gallina, Jason M

    2016-03-01

    Pars injuries are common causes of low back pain in adolescent athletes. Workup traditionally has included lumbar radiographs with oblique views and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). However, recent literature has demonstrated the accuracy of MRI as a diagnostic modality. Acute injuries may be amenable to bracing with the goal of a healed lesion. Most cases of spondylolysis will result in asymptomatic non-union, though pars repair is an option for symptomatic pars defects without spondylolisthesis. PMID:26977552

  10. Overuse Injuries in Professional Ballet

    OpenAIRE

    Sobrino, Francisco José; de la Cuadra, Crótida; Guillén, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite overuse injuries being previously described as the most frequent in ballet, there are no studies on professional dancers providing the specific clinical diagnoses or type of injury based on the discipline. Hypothesis Overuse injuries are the most frequent injuries in ballet, with differences in the type and frequency of injuries based on discipline. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study performed betwe...

  11. Medical aspects of sports injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, I D

    1981-01-01

    The aims of medicine in sport--treatment and prevention of injury of high-performance athletes, rehabilitation--and its beneficial effects are considered. The types of sporting injuries are described. Collision and contact sports tend to be characterised by injuries caused by direct or indirect trauma, while athletic injuries tend to result from a variety of factors that, instead of producing excellence as intended, produce injury. The physiological changes in a top-class sportsman may also b...

  12. School environment and school injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Simo eSalminen; Marja eKurenniemi; Mirka eRåback; Jaana eMarkkula; Anne eLounamaa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although injuries at school are an important issue in public health, environmental factors in schools and school yards have seldom been the focus of school injury research. The goal of our investigation was to examine the effect of environmental factors on school injuries. Methods: Nine comprehensive Finnish schools registered school injuries over a period of two school years. Injuries were classified as being associated with environmental factors, suspected environmental factors,...

  13. School Environment and School Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Salminen, Simo; Kurenniemi, Marja; Råback, Mirka; Markkula, Jaana; Lounamaa, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although injuries at school are an important issue in public health, environmental factors in schools and school yards have seldom been the focus of school injury research. The goal of our investigation was to examine the effect of environmental factors on school injuries. Methods: Nine comprehensive Finnish schools registered school injuries over a period of two school years. Injuries were classified as being associated with environmental factors, suspected environmental facto...

  14. Quadriceps tendon injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of study was to analyze risk factors, mechanisms of injury, symptoms and time that elapsed from injury until operation of complete quadriceps tendon ruptures. Material and Methods. This retrospective multicenter study included 30 patients operated for this injury, of whom 28 (93.3% were men. The average age was 53.7 years (18-73. Twenty-six patients had reconstruction of unilateral rupture and four of bilateral one. Results. Eighty percent of them had some risk factors for rupture of the tendon with degenerative changes. Eight patients had diabetes, seven patients were on renal dialysis, two patients had secondary hyperparathyroidism, five patients were obese and two patients had former knee operations. These injuries occurred in 80% following minor trauma caused by falls on stairs, on flat surfaces and squatting. The most frequent symptoms were: pain, swelling, lack of extension of knee and defect above patella, and three cases were initially misdiagnosed. During the first 10 days after injury, acute and chronic ruptures were reconstructed in 22 (73.3% and 8 patients, respectively. Conclusion. Quadriceps tendon injuries most often happen to male patients with predisposing conditions in their fifth and sixth decade of life due to trivial trauma. Patients on renal dialysis are the most vulnerable population group.

  15. Cluster bomb ocular injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present the visual outcomes and ocular sequelae of victims of cluster bombs. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, multicenter case series of ocular injury due to cluster bombs was conducted for 3 years after the war in South Lebanon (July 2006. Data were gathered from the reports to the Information Management System for Mine Action. Results: There were 308 victims of clusters bombs; 36 individuals were killed, of which 2 received ocular lacerations and; 272 individuals were injured with 18 receiving ocular injury. These 18 surviving individuals were assessed by the authors. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% (20/308 of cluster bomb victims. Trauma to multiple organs occurred in 12 of 18 cases (67% with ocular injury. Ocular findings included corneal or scleral lacerations (16 eyes, corneal foreign bodies (9 eyes, corneal decompensation (2 eyes, ruptured cataract (6 eyes, and intravitreal foreign bodies (10 eyes. The corneas of one patient had extreme attenuation of the endothelium. Conclusions: Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% of cluster bomb victims and 67% of the patients with ocular injury sustained trauma to multiple organs. Visual morbidity in civilians is an additional reason for a global ban on the use of cluster bombs.

  16. Ocular injury in hurling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, T H

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics of ocular injuries sustained in hurling in the south of Ireland and to investigate reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear. METHODS: Retrospective review of the case notes of 310 patients who attended Cork University Hospital or Waterford Regional Hospital between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2002 with ocular injuries sustained during a hurling match. A confidential questionnaire on reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear was completed by 130 players. RESULTS: Hurling related eye injuries occurred most commonly in young men. Fifty two patients (17%) required hospital admission, with hyphaema accounting for 71% of admissions. Ten injuries required intraocular surgical INTERVENTION: retinal detachment repair (5); macular hole surgery (1); repair of partial thickness corneal laceration (1); repair of globe perforation (1); enucleation (1); trabeculectomy for post-traumatic glaucoma (1). Fourteen eyes (4.5%) had a final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of <6\\/12 and six (2%) had BCVA <3\\/60. In the survey, 63 players (48.5%) reported wearing no protective facemask while playing hurling. Impairment of vision was the most common reason cited for non-use. CONCLUSIONS: Hurling related injury is a significant, and preventable, cause of ocular morbidity in young men in Ireland. The routine use of appropriate protective headgear and faceguards would result in a dramatic reduction in the incidence and severity of these injuries, and should be mandatory.

  17. Outcome of penetrating cardiac injuries in southern Iran, Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janati Mansour

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Cardiac injuries are one of the most challenging injuries in the field of trauma surgery. Their management often requires immediate surgical intervention, excellent surgical technique and the ability to provide excellent postoperative critical care to patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome and survival rate of patients with penetrating cardiac injury in southern Iran, Shiraz. Methods: From January 2001 to June 2007, medical records of all patients suffering from penetrating cardiac injuries were reviewed and their outcomes were investigated. The inclusion criterion was the presence of a confirmed penetrating cardiac injury intraoperatively or by autopsy. Patients with blunt cardiac injuries were excluded from the study. Results: The study consisted of 37 patients, including 1 gunshot wound (2.7%, 35 stab wounds (94.6% and 1 (2.7% shotgun wound. The overall survival rate was 76% (28 in 37 and that in stab wound patients was 80%. The collected data of 9 expired patients revealed 11% death on arrival, 67% hypotensive, and 22% normotensive considering physiologic presentation. Paired sample test showed sig-nificant correlation between mortality and electrocardio-graphic changes, amount of retained blood in pericardium, clinical stage and physiologic condition at presentation, as well as associated injury type (gunshot more than stab wound. Conclusion: Our results show that injury mechanism and initial cardiac rhythm are significant predictors of out-comes in patients with penetrating cardiac injuries. Besides, gunshot injury and exsanguination are the most important predictive variables of mortality. Key words: Heart injuries; Wounds, penetrating; Heart arrest; Survival

  18. Wnt4 is a novel biomarker for the early detection of kidney tubular injury after ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shi-Lei; Wei, Shi-Yao; Wang, Yu-Xiao; Diao, Tian-Tian; Li, Jian-Si; He, Yi-Xin; Yu, Jing; Jiang, Xi-Yue; Cao, Yang; Mao, Xin-Yue; Wei, Qiu-Ju; Wang, Yu; Li, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Earlier intervention after acute kidney injury would promote better outcomes. Our previous study found that Wnt proteins are promptly upregulated after ischemic kidney injury. Thus, we assessed whether Wnt4 could be an early and sensitive biomarker of tubular injury. We subjected mice to bilateral ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Kidney and urinary Wnt4 expression showed an early increase at 3 hours and increased further at 24 hours post-IRI and was closely correlated with histopathological alterations. Serum creatinine slightly increased at 6 hours, indicating that it was less sensitive than Wnt4 expression. These data were further confirmed by clinical study. Both kidney and urinary Wnt4 expression were significantly increased in patients diagnosed with biopsy-proven minimal change disease (MCD) with tubular injury, all of whom nevertheless had normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and serum creatinine. The increased Wnt4 expression also strongly correlated with histopathological alterations in these MCD patients. In conclusion, this is the first demonstration that increases in both kidney and urinary Wnt4 expression can be detected more sensitively and earlier than serum creatinine after kidney injury. In particular, urinary Wnt4 could be a potential noninvasive biomarker for the early detection of tubular injury. PMID:27600466

  19. 创伤性脑损伤大鼠脂肪组织抵抗素水平与糖代谢的相关性研究%Correlation between expression of resistin in adipose tissues and glycometabolism in rats with traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙来芳; 王志翊; 朱烈烈; 张荣; 吴钒; 陈大庆; 卢中秋

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression pattern of resistin in subcutaneous adipose tissue and its effect on glycometabolism in rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI).Methods Fifty-six SD rats were randomly divided into TBI group (n =48) and control group (n =8) according to the random number table.mRNA and protein expressions of resistin in subcutaneous adipose tissue were detected with real-time PCR and Western-blot.Concentrations of serum insulin and serum fasting blood glucose were evaluated using the ELISA method and quantitative estimation of insulin sensitivity was performed.Indices measured and their correlations were statistically analyzed.Results Levels of the resistin,serum insulin and FBG were significantly higher in TBI group than in control group (P < 0.05).Quantitative estimation of insulin sensitivity lowered in TBI group compared to control group (P < 0.05).Single factor linear correlation analysis showed negative correlation between resistin expression and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index in TBI group (P < 0.05).Conclusions Resistin is shown to have significant expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue and involve in glycometabolism.Obviously,resistin may play a significant role in insulin resistance after TBI in rats.%目的 探讨大鼠创伤性脑损伤(traumatic brain injury,TBI)后抵抗素在皮下脂肪组织中的表达规律及其对糖代谢的影响.方法 56只SD大鼠按随机数字表法分为TBI组和对照组.TBI组包括TBI后12,24,72 h、1,2,4周6个时相点,每时相点8只;对照组8只.采用实时PCR测定大鼠皮下脂肪组织抵抗素mRNA的表达,Westem blot印迹法测定皮下脂肪组织抵抗素蛋白表达,ELISA法测定血清胰岛素、空腹血糖并计算定量胰岛素敏感性检测指数,对上述指标及其之间的相关性进行统计学分析.结果 TBI组大鼠皮下脂肪抵抗素表达、血清胰岛素和空腹血糖水平均明显高于对照组(P<0.05),定量胰岛素敏感性

  20. Significance of prevertebral soft tissue measurement in cervical spine injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Liyang E-mail: lydai@etang.com

    2004-07-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling in cervical spine injuries. Materials and methods: A group of 107 consecutive patients with suspected injuries of the cervical vertebrae were reviewed retrospectively to identify the presence of prevertebral soft tissue swelling and to investigate the association of prevertebral soft tissue swelling with the types and degrees of cervical spine injuries. Results: Prevertebral soft tissue swelling occurred in 47 (43.9%) patients. Of the 47 patients, 38 were found with bony injury and nine were without. The statistic difference was significant (P<0.05). No correlation was demonstrated between soft tissue swelling and either the injured level of the cervical vertebrae or the degree of the spinal cord injury (P>0.05). Anterior element injuries in the cervical vertebrae had widening of the prevertebral soft tissue more than posterior element injuries (P<0.05). Conclusion: The diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling for cervical spine injuries is significant, but the absence of this sign does not mean that further image evaluation can be spared.

  1. Hypofibrinogenemia in isolated traumatic brain injury in Indian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabra Gaurav

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation abnormalities are common in patients with head injuries. However, the effect of brain injury on fibrinogen levels has not been well studied prospectively to assess coagulation abnormalities in patients with moderate and severe head injuries and correlate these abnormalities with the neurologic outcome. Consecutive patients with moderate (Glasgow Comma Scale (GCS,9-12 and severe (GCS≤8 head injuries were the subjects of this pilot study, All patients had coagulation parameters, including plasma fibrinogen levels measured. Clinical and computed tomography (CT scan findings and immediate clinical outcome were analyzed. Of the 100 patients enrolled, only seven (7% patients had hypofibrinogenemia (fibrinogen ≤200 mg/dL. The head injury was moderate in two patients and severe in five patients. Fibrinogen levels showed a progressively increasing trend in four patients (three with severe head injuries and one with moderate head injury. CT scan revealed subdural hematoma in five patients; extradural hematoma in one; and subarachnoid hemorrhage in another patient. Of the seven patients, two patients died during hospital. Large-scale prospective studies are needed to assess the fibrinogen level in patients with head injury and its impact on outcome.

  2. Correlative microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loussert Fonta, Céline; Humbel, Bruno M

    2015-09-01

    In recent years correlative microscopy, combining the power and advantages of different imaging system, e.g., light, electrons, X-ray, NMR, etc., has become an important tool for biomedical research. Among all the possible combinations of techniques, light and electron microscopy, have made an especially big step forward and are being implemented in more and more research labs. Electron microscopy profits from the high spatial resolution, the direct recognition of the cellular ultrastructure and identification of the organelles. It, however, has two severe limitations: the restricted field of view and the fact that no live imaging can be done. On the other hand light microscopy has the advantage of live imaging, following a fluorescently tagged molecule in real time and at lower magnifications the large field of view facilitates the identification and location of sparse individual cells in a large context, e.g., tissue. The combination of these two imaging techniques appears to be a valuable approach to dissect biological events at a submicrometer level. Light microscopy can be used to follow a labelled protein of interest, or a visible organelle such as mitochondria, in time, then the sample is fixed and the exactly same region is investigated by electron microscopy. The time resolution is dependent on the speed of penetration and fixation when chemical fixatives are used and on the reaction time of the operator for cryo-fixation. Light microscopy can also be used to identify cells of interest, e.g., a special cell type in tissue or cells that have been modified by either transfections or RNAi, in a large population of non-modified cells. A further application is to find fluorescence labels in cells on a large section to reduce searching time in the electron microscope. Multiple fluorescence labelling of a series of sections can be correlated with the ultrastructure of the individual sections to get 3D information of the distribution of the marked proteins: array

  3. Comparison of the whiplash injury criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, Paul C; Sha, Daohang

    2010-01-01

    Whiplash injury criteria are based upon the hypothesis that neck injuries are caused by excessive loads, displacements, or head/T1 relative acceleration and velocity. The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the whiplash injury criteria (IV-NIC, NIC, Nkm, Nij, and NDC) during simulated rear impacts of a new Human Model of the Neck (HUMON) with and without an active head restraint (AHR). HUMON consisted of a neck specimen mounted to the torso of BioRID II and carrying an anthropometric head stabilized with muscle force replication. HUMON was seated and secured in a Kia Sedona seat with AHR on a sled. Rear impacts (7.1 and 11.1g) were simulated with the AHR in five different positions followed by an impact with no HR. Statistical differences (P or = 0.35 and P < 0.001). The AHR caused significant decreases in peak NIC and NDC as compared to no HR. The IV-NIC identified significantly increased motion above the physiologic limit at the middle and lower cervical spine with and without the AHR. Correlation was observed between IV-NIC and NIC, Nkm, Nij, and NDC. Extrapolation using the present correlations and the IV-NIC injury thresholds suggests neck injuries may occur at peak NIC of 14.4m(2)/s(2), Nkm of 0.33, or Nij of 0.09. Nonphysiologic spinal rotation at one or more spinal levels may occur even if head/T1 motions are small. PMID:19887145

  4. Predisposing factors to lateral ankle injury in male comrades marathon runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hiemstra

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: More than two million people experience ankle ligament traumaeach year in the United States. Half of these are severe ligament sprains, however verylittle is known about the factors that predispose individuals to these injuries. The purpose of this study, (which was conducted as an undergraduate research project,was to find a correlation between the characteristics of height, weight and limbdominance and lateral ankle ligament injuries. Method: A  retrospective study was conducted on 114 ultra distance runners whoparticipated in the 2006 Comrades Marathon. During race registration, the runners’ height and weight were measuredafter answering a questionnaire regarding their training. Results: 114 runners responded to the questionnaire. From this cohort, 38 (33.3% had sustained previous lateral ankle injuries. Of these 38 injuries, 47.4% of the injuries occurred on the runner’s dominant limb and 36.8% occurred on thenon-dominant side. 15.8% of the runners sustained previous ankle injuries to both ankles. There was a low negative correlation coefficient of 0.24 with regards to weight as a risk factor. This indicated that the power of the correlationwas 5.93%. The study demonstrates that there is no correlation between an increase in weight and an increase in theincidence of ankle injury. The correlation coefficient indicated a low correlation between an increase in height and the incidence of ankle injury. However, the power of the correlation at 18.37% makes inaccurate any attempt to predict the height at which a runner would be at most risk for lateral ankle injury. Conclusion: Height and weight are not risk factors predisposing subjects to lateral ankle injury. In addition, the studyillustrated that there was no effect of limb dominance on the incidence of lateral ankle injury.

  5. Economics of head injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Manmohan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Head injuries account for significant proportion of neurosurgical admissions and bed occupancy. Patients with head injuries also consume significant proportions of neurosurgical resources. A prospective 6-month study has been carried out to evaluate the expenditure incurred on head injury patients in a modern neurosurgical center equipped with state of the art infrastructure. Costing areas included wages / salaries of health care personnel, cost of medicines / surgical items / crystalloids, general store items, stationary, all investigation charges, equipment cost, overhead building cost, maintenance cost, electricity and water charges and cost of medical gases, air conditioning and operation theatre expenses. Expenditure in each area was calculated and apportioned to each bed. The statistical analysis was done using X2 test. The cost of stay in ward was found to be Rs. 1062 / bed / day and in neurosurgical ICU Rs. 3082 / bed / day. The operation theatre cost for each surgery was Rs. 11948. The cost of hospital stay per day for minor, moderate and severe head injury group was found to be Rs. 1921, Rs. 2569 and Rs. 2713 respectively. The patients who developed complications, the cost of stay per day in the hospital were Rs. 2867. In the operative group, the cost of hospital stay per day was Rs. 3804. The total expenditure in minor head injury was Rs. 7800 per patient, in moderate head injury was Rs. 22172 per patient, whereas in severe head injury, it was found to be Rs. 32852 per patient. Patients who underwent surgery, the total cost incurred was Rs. 33100 per operated patient.

  6. Scapular fractures and concomitant injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osaree Akaraborworn; Burapat Sangthong; Komet Thongkhao; Prattana Chiniramol; Khanitta Kaewsaengrueang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The association of scapular fractures with other life-threatening injuries including blunt thoracic aortic injury is widely recognized.Few studies have investigated this presumed association.In this study,wc investigated the incidence of significant associated injuries with scapular fracture and their outcomes.Methods: A retrospective study was conducted from 2005 to 2009 in a level I trauma center in Thailand.All blunt trauma patients were identified.Patients' demographics,injury mechanism,associated injuries,Injury Severity Score (ISS),and survival outcomes were recorded.The management of associated injuries with scapular fracture was reviewed,and the risk factors for mortality were identified.Results: Among the 7 345 trauma patients admitted,scapular fractures occurred in 84 cases (1.1%).The mean age was (37.98±15.21) years.Motorcycle crash was the most frequent mechanism of injury,occurring in 51 cases (60.7%).Seventy-four patients (88.1%) suffering from scapular fractures had associated injuries:5 (6.0%) had significant chest injuries,but none of them had blunt thoracic aortic injury.Two patients (2.4%) with scapular fractures died.Factors determining the likelihood of mortality were:(1) ISS>25(LR=8.5,P<0.05); (2) significant associated chest injury (AIS>3,LR=5.3,P<0.05) and (3) significant associated abdominal injury (AIS>3,LR=5.3,P<0.05).Conclusion: A blunt scapular fracture may not accompany a blunt thoracic aortic injury but it is strongly related to other injuries like chest injury,extremity injury,head injury,etc.If a scapular fracture is found with a high ISS score,high chest or abdomen AIS score,the patient would have a high risk of mortality.

  7. SECONDARY BRAIN INJURY

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    Ida Ayu Basmatika

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary brain injury is a condision that occurs at some times after the primary impact and can be largely prevented and treated. Most brain injury ends with deadly consequences which is caused by secondary damage to the brain. Traumatic brain injured still represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals under the age of 45 years in the world. The classification of secondary brain injured is divided into extracranial and intracranial causes. The cause of extracranial such as hipoxia, hypotensi, hyponatremia, hypertermia, hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. The cause of intracranial such as extradural, subdural, intraserebral, intraventrikular, dan subarachnoid hemorrhage. Beside that secondary injury can also be caused by edema and infection. Post-traumatic cerebral injured is characterized by direct tissue damage, impaired regulation of cerebral blood flow (cerebral blood flow / CBF, and disruption of metabolism. Manifestations of secondary brain injured include increased intracranial pressure, ischemic brain damage, cerebral hypoxia and hypercarbi, as well as disruption of cerebral autoregulation. The first priority is to stabilize the patient's cervical spine injury, relieve and maintain airway, ensure adequate ventilation (breathing, and making venous access for fluid resuscitation pathways (circulation and assessing the level of awareness and disability. This steps is crucial in patients with head injured to prevent hypoxia and hypotension, which is the main cause of secondary brain injury.

  8. Whiplash Injuries: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Teasell

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash injuries remain a significant public health problem throughout the developed industrialized world, with significant socioeconomic consequences. Studies looking at the natural history of whiplash injuries have suffered from problems of selection bias, retrospective reviewing and unclear outcomes. Etiology continues to be controversial, largely because of the misconception that all soft tissue injuries heal within six weeks. Recent studies have implicated the cervical facet joint as a cause of whiplash injury pain. A recent treatment study that successfully eliminated whiplash-associated facet joint pain demonstrated abnormal psychological profiles secondary to pain which normalized with successful pain elimination. The impact of compensation on recovery remains controversial, while the concept that mild traumatic brain injury occurs in the absence of loss of consciousness has been largely refuted. The Quebec Task Force on Whiplash-Associated Disorders recently published a report in which the scientific literature was exhaustively reviewed and has made recommendations regarding the prevention and treatment of whiplash and its associated disorders. The Quebec Task Force highlighted the paucity of good scientific evidence; however, they still provided consensus treatment guidelines, which have not been validated. There continues to be a need for further research.

  9. Plant ozone injury symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouchi, I.; Odaira, T.; Sawada, T.; Oguchi, K.; Komeiji, T.

    1973-01-01

    A study of the phytotoxicity of ozone to plants was conducted in controlled-atmosphere greenhouses to determine if the symptoms of such exposure would be similar to symptoms exhibited by plants exposed to photochemical smog (which contains ozone) in the Tokyo area. Test plants used were herbaceous plants and woody plants, which were fumigated to 20 pphm ozone. Plants used as controls for the oxone exposure experiments were placed in a carbon filtered greenhouse. Herbaceous plants were generally sensitive to injury, especially Brassica rapa, Brassica pekinensis and others were extremely responsive species. In comparison with herbaceous plants, woody plants were rather resistant except for poplar. Depending on plant species and severity of injury, ozone-injury symptoms of herbaceous plants were bleaching, chlorosis, necrosis, and red-dish-brown flecks. Leaves of woody plants developed discrete, punctate spots, reddish-brown pigment on the upper surfaces and lastly defoliation. Ozone injury was typically confined to the upper leaf surfaces and notably greater mature leaves. Microscopic examination showed that pallisade cells were much more prone to ozone injury than other tissues.

  10. Catastrophic pediatric sports injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckstead, Eugene F; Patel, Dilip R

    2002-06-01

    The high school sports of wrestling, gymnastics, ice hockey, baseball, track, and cheerleading should receive closer attention to prevent injury. Safer equipment and sport-specific conditioning should be provided and injuries strictly monitored. Greater attention must also be paid to swimming and diving techniques, and continued observation is needed for heat stroke and heat intolerance in sports such as football, wrestling, basketball, track and field, and cross-country. An increased awareness of commotio cordis in sports other than baseball should include ice hockey, football, track field events, and lacrosse. American football because of the sheer numbers and associated catastrophic injury potential must continue to be monitored at the highest medical levels! PMID:12119866

  11. A season of football injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, M A; McKeever, J A; McQuillan, R F; O'Higgins, N J

    1994-06-01

    All rugby and soccer players presenting to the Accident & Emergency department during the football season 1992-1993 (a total of 871) were prospectively studied to compare the injuries sustained in the two sports. The nature and site of injury, treatment required, age, fitness, experience and position of the player, situation giving rise to injury, and medical attention at the grounds were all analysed. The results show that rugby and soccer players had the same number of injuries, and while there were some differences in the nature of the injuries, there was no difference in overall severity. Rugby flankers and soccer goalkeepers are particularly at risk. Competitive matches produce more injuries than training sessions. Experience or fitness did not appear to be a factor and 45% of rugby injuries and 15% of soccer injuries were from school matches. Law changes (e.g. the rugby scrum and the use of gum-shields) have reduced some injuries, but other areas (e.g. jumping for the ball in soccer, rucks and mauls in rugby) also warrant consideration. There was one death, but no spinal cord injuries. Medical attention at the grounds was limited. Rugby injuries, therefore, do not appear to be more numerous or severe than soccer injuries. Law changes have been of benefit but they need to be enforced and perhaps more should be considered. Medical attention at sports grounds could be improved and Registers of injuries kept by the sporting bodies would be of benefit. PMID:8050871

  12. Outcome of penetrating cardiac injuries in southern Iran,Shiraz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansour Janati; Shahram Bolandparvaz; Shirvan Salaminia; Hamed Ghoddusi Johari; Babak Sabet; Javad Kojuri

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Cardiac injuries are one of the most challenging injuries in the field of trauma surgery.Their management often requires immediate surgical intervention,excellent surgical technique and the ability to provide excellent postoperative critical care to patients.The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome and survival rate of patients with penetrating cardiac injury in southern Iran,Shiraz.Methods:From January 2001 to June 2007,medical records of all patients suffering from penetrating cardiac injuries were reviewed and their outcomes were investigated.The inclusion criterion was the presence of a confirmed penetrating cardiac injury intraoperatively or by autopsy.Patients with blunt cardiac injuries were excluded from the study.Results:The study consisted of 37 patients,including 1 gunshot wound (2.7%),35 stab wounds (94.6%) and 1 (2.7%)shotgun wound.The overall survival rate was 76% (28 in 37) and that in stab wound patients was 80%.The collected data of 9 expired patients revealed 11% death on arrival,67% hypotensive,and 22% normotensive considering physiologic presentation.Paired sample test showed significant correlation between mortality and electrocardiographic changes,amount of retained blood in pericardium,clinical stage and physiologic condition at presentation,as well as associated injury type (gunshot more than stab wound).Conclusion:Our results show that injury mechanism and initial cardiac rhythm are significant predictors of outcomes in patients with penetrating cardiac injuries.Besides,gunshot injury and exsanguination are the most important predictive variables of mortality.

  13. 北京市大中学生网络成瘾及其与伤害行为相关性分析%Internet addiction and its correlation to intentional injury behavior among college and secondary school students in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段佳丽; 孙颖; 韩霄; 耳玉亮; 霍达

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the status of Internet addiction among college students and secondary school students in Beijing and to investigate the correlation of Interaet addition and intentional injury behavior,in order to provide a scientific basis for the psychological and behavioral interventions of Intemet addiction.Methods By multi-stage stratified cluster randomized sampling,39 798 students from 65 middle and 76 high schools,34 vocational technical schools and 12 colleges in Beijing were investigated in the way of anonymous collective self-administered questionnaire survey by using of China Youth Health-related Behavior Questionnaire (middle school,high school and university volume),between February-April,2008.Results The overall Internet addiction rate was 7.6% among college students and secondary school students in Beijing.The Internet addiction rate were 6.1%,8.4%,9.0% for middle and high schools,colleges,and 8.5%,6.8% for urban and rural areas.The Internet addiction rate increased with the growth of age.As the results of multi-factor analysis,there was the correlation of Internet addiction and intentional injury behavior,such as fighting,hazing,self-mutilation,and suicide,Intemet addiction and psychological problems (such as loneliness,depressed mood,and insomnia).Conclusion The problem of Intemet addiction among college students and secondary school students should not be overlooked.Because of the correlation of Internet addiction and intentional injury behavior,psychological problems,psychological and behavioral comprehensive interventions should be adopted to control the Internet addition among youth.%目的 了解北京市大、中学生网络成瘾行为的现况及其与伤害行为相关性,为提出网络成瘾的心理行为干预措施提供科学依据.方法 采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样方法,于2008年2---4月抽取北京市65所初中、76所高中、34所职业技术学校和12所大学的学生共39 798名,采用“中

  14. Road traffic injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo 王正国

    2003-01-01

    @@ The appearance of cars has raised materialistic civilization and living standard to an unprecedented level. Today, it is hard to imagine how we human beings can live without cars.Yet, motor vehicles can cause a great number of deaths and injuries as well as considerable economic losses, which have constituted the global burden. Understanding of the occurrence and development of road traffic injuries will contribute to the prevention and control of crash and to the implementation of "everybody has the right to enjoy health" proposed by WHO.

  15. Recreation-Related Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recreation-Related Head Injuries American Association of Neurological Surgeons 5550 Meadowbrook Drive, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008-3852  ... and follow instructions on product packaging. Top 15 Recreation/Leisure-Related Head Injuries by Product Product Category ...

  16. Exertion injuries in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orava, S; Hulkko, A; Jormakka, E

    1981-12-01

    Because sports injuries in men form most of the available statistics, the reportage of injuries in female athletes is sparse. We describe exertion injuries and disorders in 281 women athletes, all of which hampered athletic training or performances. Sixty per cent of the injuries occurred to girls ages between 12-19 years, and about forty-eight per cent were track and field athletes. The most common sites of injury were the ankle, foot, heel and leg. Osteochondritic disorders were the most typical injuries in the series, and the chronic medical tibial syndrome was the injury that needed surgical treatment most frequently. Overuse injuries seem to differ very little from each other in the events included in this survey. PMID:6797496

  17. Isokinetic lifting strength and occupational injury. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostardi, R A; Noe, D A; Kovacik, M W; Porterfield, J A

    1992-02-01

    One hundred seventy-one nurses had their back strength evaluated on an isokinetic lifting device and filled out an epidemiologic questionnaire. They were then followed prospectively for 2 years to determine the incidence of job-related low-back injuries. The data were analyzed to determine if the injury incidence correlated with any of the strength or epidemiologic variables collected during the original evaluation. Average peak force measured during the isokinetic lift was 63.8 kg + 13.6 kg at a lift speed of 30.5 cm/sec and 59.1 kg + 14.9 kg at a lift speed of 45.7 cm/sec. Sixteen nurses reported an occurrence of job-related low-back pain or injury during the 2-year prospective period. Discriminate statistical techniques showed that none of the strength or epidemiologic variables correlated with the incidence of pain or injury or explained significant amounts of variance when the variables were regressed on strength or work calculated from the lift force/lift height data. It was concluded that in this high risk population, in which loads are heavy and lifting postures are variable, the use of low-back strength or prior history of pain or injury are poor predictors as to subsequent low-back pain or injury. PMID:1532461

  18. Orthopaedic Injuries in Equestrian Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Jason David; Gelbs, Jared Craig; Zhu, David Shiyu; Gallacher, Stacey Elisa; Sutton, Karen Michelle; Blaine, Theodore Alton

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the common nature of orthopaedic injuries in equestrian sports, there is no published review to specifically characterize orthopaedic injuries in equestrian athletes. Purpose: To characterize orthopaedic injury patterns in equine sports–related injuries and their treatment. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: This review was performed through a PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus query (from 1978 to June 2014) in the English literature using search terms...

  19. Characteristics of injuries among young cross-country skiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boguszewski Dariusz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop information about injuries in cadet and junior cross-country skiers. Material and methods. Fifty female (n=21 and male (n=29 competitors from Podhale were in research group. Skiers completed questionnaire. The questions concerned the location of injuries, types of injuries, methods of treatments and rehabilitation and recovery exercises. Results. The most frequent injury in the research group was bruises, cuts and sprains and muscle strain. Few people had suffered broken bones and muscle ruptures. The most of the skiers suffered knee injuries. As a treatment PRICEMM procedure has been introduced. The main method of recovery was rest from training. Conclusions. No correlation was found epidemiology of injuries and the treatment, gender, age, level of sport and the number of starts of the season. Sports training and recovery should be similar In each group (female and male competitors. Players starting considerably more likely to devote less time to treatment and improvement of injury.

  20. Finite element modeling of blast lung injury in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Melissa M; Dang, Xinglai; Adkins, Mark; Powell, Brian; Chan, Philemon

    2015-04-01

    A detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) of the sheep thorax was developed to predict heterogeneous and volumetric lung injury due to blast. A shared node mesh of the sheep thorax was constructed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of a sheep cadaver, and while most material properties were taken from literature, an elastic-plastic material model was used for the ribs based on three-point bending experiments performed on sheep rib specimens. Anesthetized sheep were blasted in an enclosure, and blast overpressure data were collected using the blast test device (BTD), while surface lung injury was quantified during necropsy. Matching blasts were simulated using the sheep thorax FEM. Surface lung injury in the FEM was matched to pathology reports by setting a threshold value of the scalar output termed the strain product (maximum value of the dot product of strain and strain-rate vectors over all simulation time) in the surface elements. Volumetric lung injury was quantified by applying the threshold value to all elements in the model lungs, and a correlation was found between predicted volumetric injury and measured postblast lung weights. All predictions are made for the left and right lungs separately. This work represents a significant step toward the prediction of localized and heterogeneous blast lung injury, as well as volumetric injury, which was not recorded during field testing for sheep.

  1. [Biomechanics of whiplash injuries of the cervical spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G

    1989-07-01

    1. The whiplash injury of the cervical spine is a typical, but not very often observed injury of occupants of automotive vehicles involved in moderate collisions. 2. There still exist great uncertainties in the elaboration of expertises concerning the minor whiplash injury, so that the great part of the disturbances cannot be objectivated under a clinical point of view. And on the other hand, serious whiplash injuries often are superposed or veiled by secondary injuries. 3. Thus, the aim of the present paper was to point out injury mechanisms, to give a rough scaling of the whiplash severity under biomechanical aspects and finally to set these injury mechanisms in correlation to the following criteria of accident: a) vehicle velocity change (energy equivalent speed--EES); b) deformation of vehicles on the impact-exposed structure; c) loading of occupants by acceleration or deceleration. 4. The tolerance limit of the cervical spine generally decreases to a lower limit, if the cervical spine is changed in a pathological way, e.g. by preexisting diseases. 5. It is evident and important, that the difficult work of giving an expert's opinion on this field must be performed in an interdisciplinary collaboration of engineers for collision-analysis and physicians experienced in accident-traumatology. PMID:2669311

  2. An experimental study on vascular changes in renal biopsy injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-12-15

    An experimental study on the vascular alternations of the kidney following biopsy procedure was carried out in 47 kidneys from 28 rabbits to clarify their nature and frequency by renal arteriography and microangiography together with histopathologic investigation. Renal arteriography and microangiography were performed immediately 2 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks after percutaneous biopsy and the findings were correlated with histological nature. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Important biopsy injuries verified by renal arteriography and microangiography were arterial spasm, perfusion defect, arteriovenous fistula, injury to vasa rectae and renal tubules, intrarenal and extrarenal extravasation of contrast media, and arterial obstruction, in order of frequency. 2. Arterial spasm observed in majority of the cases were relieved during the period of 2 weeks. 3. Detectability of perfusion detect was 57% and 72% angiography and microangiography, respectively, and this perfusion defect seemed to be mostly caused by renal infraction due to vascular injury, such as arteriovenous fistula, arterial obstruction and other vascular injuries. 4. Arteriovenous fistula was detected in 28% by angiography and 50% by microangiography. Many of the arteriovenous fistulae appeared to be closed spontaneous within a week. Above findings suggest that renal biopsy procedure results in various degree of vascular injuries with their sequential modification, and that microangiography is assumed the most effective approach in analysis of biopsy injuries such as small arteriovenous fistula, perfusion defect, injury to vasa recta and renal tubules, overcoming the limitation of traditional angiography.

  3. Multiple Ligament Knee Injury: Complications

    OpenAIRE

    Manske, Robert C; Hosseinzadeh, Pooya; Giangarra, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    Non-operative and operative complications are common following multiple ligament knee injuries. This article will describe common complications seen by the surgeon and physical therapist following this complex injury. Complications include fractures, infections, vascular and neurologic complications following injury and surgery, compartment syndrome, complex regional pain syndrome, deep venous thrombosis, loss of motion and persistent laxity issues. A brief description of these complications ...

  4. Musculoskeletal Injury in Professional Dancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Craig L; Cassidy, J David; Côté, Pierre;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with injury in professional ballet and modern dancers, and assess if dancers are reporting their injuries and explore reasons for not reporting injuries. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Participants...

  5. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  6. Brain Injury Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Only) 1-800-444-6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) Brain injury is not an event or an outcome. ... misunderstood, under-funded neurological disease. People who sustain brain injuries must have timely access to expert trauma ...

  7. Diagnosis of Acute Groin Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serner, Andreas; Tol, Johannes L; Jomaah, Nabil;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute groin injuries are common in high-intensity sports, but there are insufficient data on injury characteristics such as injury mechanisms and clinical and radiological findings. PURPOSE: To describe these characteristics in a cohort of athletes. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...

  8. Temporomandibular disorders after whiplash injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasch, Helge; Hjorth, Tine; Svensson, Peter;

    2002-01-01

    obtained at each visit. Results: One whiplash patient and I ankle-injury patient bad jaw pain at the first visit. Palpation scores of the TMJ and the summated palpation scores only tended to be higher in patients sustaining a whiplash injury than in ankle-injury controls at the first visit. However, MPQ...

  9. Consciousness and speech evaluation of 96 patients with craniocerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Chuan-jun; WANG Yan-chun; ZHAO Yang; LIU Ning; LIU Yong-jun; DONG Tao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effective methods for evaluating the consciousness and speech status of patients with special types of cerebral injuries.Methods: Atotal of 96 patients with injury in the language center and in coma were treated with operative and correlated conventional therapies. Then their recovery status of consciousness and speech was observed.Results: All the patients were recovered to consciousness. Sixty-nine patients with aphasia were cured completely, but 7 patients were complicated with incomplete ataxic aphasia, 15 with incomplete sensory aphasia,and 5 with incomplete mixed aphasia.Conclusions: For the patients with injury in the language center, evaluation of the conscious state with GCS scoring system has certain limitations and conscious behaviours are advantageous evidences to evaluate the consciousness recovery of the patients. The patients with conscious disturbance and injury in the language center should be considered to have aphasia.

  10. 基质金属蛋白酶-9 与小体积移植肝早期损伤的相关性研究%Correlation between overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 with acute graft injury after small-for-size liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马震宇; 钱建民; 崔一尧; 王乾伟; 汪昉睿

    2010-01-01

    levels of MMP-9 were significantly higher in quarter-size and half-size grafts than those in full-size liver grafts 6, 12, and 24 h after reperfusioa And theelevated levels of MMP-9 were related to graft size inversely. However, MMP-2 was expressed and remained in all groups invariably. MMP-9 overexpression was accompanied by extensive liver I/R injury, as evidenced by significant increases in hepatic microscopic damage scores, MDA content,MPO activity and liver function levels. Furthermore, MMP-9 was found mainly to locate around periportal area. The presence of the active form of MMP-9 was significantly higher in small-for-size grafts, which was correlated with sinusoidal dilatation, congestion and hemorrhage. Conclusion These results support critical function of MMP-9 in acute small-for-size liver graft injury. Moreover,portal hypertension may be a crucial trigger for expression and activation of MMP-9.

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? When can we ...

  12. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A. (2008). Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. soldiers returning from Iraq. New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 453–463. ... and Spotlights U.S. hospitals miss followup for suspected child abuse Q&A with NICHD Acting Director Catherine ...

  13. Sports Injuries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Timothy N.

    1991-01-01

    A literature review revealed an absence of well-controlled studies concerning the prevention of sports injuries in children. A checklist outlines some causes of the overuse syndrome, including (1) training errors; (2) the nature of playing surfaces; (3) muscle imbalance; (4) anatomic malalignments; (5) construction of shoes; and (6) various…

  14. Basketball injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basketball is a popular, worldwide sport played outdoors and indoors year-round. Patterns of injury are related to abrupt changes in the athlete's direction, jumping, contact between athletes, the hard playing surface and paucity of protective equipment. Intensity of play and training in the quest of scholarships and professional careers is believed to contribute to an increasing occurrence of injury. Radiologists' appreciation of the breadth of injury and its relation to imaging and clinical findings should enhance the care of these children. Some of the patterns of injury are well known to radiologists but vary due to age- and size-related changes; the growing skeleton is affected by differing susceptibilities from biomechanical stresses at different sizes. Beyond screening radiographs, the accuracy of MRI and CT has improved diagnosis and treatment plans in this realm. Investigations to detect symptoms and signs in an attempt to prevent the tragedy of sudden cardiac death in basketball players may lead to MRI and CTA studies that compel radiologists to evaluate cardiac function along with myocardial and coronary artery anatomy. Worthy of mention also is the female athlete triad of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis that is observed in some young women participating in this and other sports. (orig.)

  15. Hypermobility and Knee Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Mark E.

    1987-01-01

    A review of research on the effect of hypermobility on knee injury indicates that greater than normal joint flexibility may be necessary for some athletic endeavors and that it may be possible to change one's underlying flexibility through training. However, for most athletes, inherited flexibility probably plays only a small role, if any, in…

  16. Injury Prevention Research

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    Research provides the knowledge that we need to understand what is possible, what is not, and the best way to proceed in our intervention efforts.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 9/1/2009.

  17. Kidney injury in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Krag, Aleksander; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent in patients with cirrhosis. AKI and hyponatraemia are major determinants of the poor prognosis in advanced cirrhosis. The hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) denotes a functional and potential reversible impairment of renal function. Type 1 HRS, a special type of AKI...

  18. Splenic injury after colonoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, C.R.; Adamsen, S.; Gocht-Jensen, P.;

    2008-01-01

    Splenic injury is a rare and serious complication of colonoscopy. The most likely mechanism is tension on the splenocolic ligament and adhesions. Eight cases were identified among claims for compensation submitted to the Danish Patient Insurance Association during the period 1992-2006, seven of w...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How much do you know about taking good care of yourself? Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Illness & disability Types of ... Spinal cord injury Read advice from Dr. Jeffrey Rabin , a pediatric rehabilitation specialist at the Children’s National Medical Center. ...

  20. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to tearing. Growth Plate Injuries, Fractures, and Dislocations Knee fractures rarely occur in childhood sports, but with any ... is the bump on the front of the knee where the patellar tendon attaches. Fractures to the growth plate in this area often ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is "Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? When can we ...

  2. Basketball injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaca, Ana Maria [Duke University Health Systems, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); McGovern-Davison Children' s Health Center, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Basketball is a popular, worldwide sport played outdoors and indoors year-round. Patterns of injury are related to abrupt changes in the athlete's direction, jumping, contact between athletes, the hard playing surface and paucity of protective equipment. Intensity of play and training in the quest of scholarships and professional careers is believed to contribute to an increasing occurrence of injury. Radiologists' appreciation of the breadth of injury and its relation to imaging and clinical findings should enhance the care of these children. Some of the patterns of injury are well known to radiologists but vary due to age- and size-related changes; the growing skeleton is affected by differing susceptibilities from biomechanical stresses at different sizes. Beyond screening radiographs, the accuracy of MRI and CT has improved diagnosis and treatment plans in this realm. Investigations to detect symptoms and signs in an attempt to prevent the tragedy of sudden cardiac death in basketball players may lead to MRI and CTA studies that compel radiologists to evaluate cardiac function along with myocardial and coronary artery anatomy. Worthy of mention also is the female athlete triad of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis that is observed in some young women participating in this and other sports. (orig.)

  3. Time dysperception perspective for acquired brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica ePiras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distortions of time perception are presented by a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we survey timing abilities in clinical populations with acquired brain injuries in key cerebral areas recently implicated in human studies of timing. We purposely analyzed the complex relationship between cognitive and contextual factors involved in time estimation, as to characterize the correlation between timed and other cognitive behaviors in each group. We assume that interval timing is a solid construct to study cognitive dysfunctions following brain injury, as timing performance is a sensitive metric of information processing, while temporal cognition has the potential of influencing a wide range of cognitive processes. Moreover, temporal performance is a sensitive assay of damage to the underlying neural substrate after a brain insult. Further research in neurological and psychiatric patients will definitively answer the question of whether time distortions are manifestations of cognitive and behavioral symptoms of brain damage and definitively clarify their mechanisms.

  4. Strain and rate-dependent neuronal injury in a 3D in vitro compression model of traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Scimone, Mark T.; Estrada, Jonathan B.; Franck, Christian

    2016-08-01

    In the United States over 1.7 million cases of traumatic brain injury are reported yearly, but predictive correlation of cellular injury to impact tissue strain is still lacking, particularly for neuronal injury resulting from compression. Given the prevalence of compressive deformations in most blunt head trauma, this information is critically important for the development of future mitigation and diagnosis strategies. Using a 3D in vitro neuronal compression model, we investigated the role of impact strain and strain rate on neuronal lifetime, viability, and pathomorphology. We find that strain magnitude and rate have profound, yet distinctively different effects on the injury pathology. While strain magnitude affects the time of neuronal death, strain rate influences the pathomorphology and extent of population injury. Cellular injury is not initiated through localized deformation of the cytoskeleton but rather driven by excess strain on the entire cell. Furthermore we find that, mechanoporation, one of the key pathological trigger mechanisms in stretch and shear neuronal injuries, was not observed under compression.

  5. Overuse Injuries in Professional Ballet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, Francisco José; de la Cuadra, Crótida; Guillén, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite overuse injuries being previously described as the most frequent in ballet, there are no studies on professional dancers providing the specific clinical diagnoses or type of injury based on the discipline. Hypothesis Overuse injuries are the most frequent injuries in ballet, with differences in the type and frequency of injuries based on discipline. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study performed between January 1, 2005, and October 10, 2010, on injuries occurring in professional dancers from leading Spanish dance companies who practiced disciplines such as classical, neoclassical, contemporary, and Spanish ballet. Data, including type of injury, were obtained from specialized medical services at the Trauma Service, Fremap, Madrid, Spain. Results A total of 486 injuries were evaluated, a significant number of which were overuse disorders (P < .0001), especially in the most technically demanding discipline of classical ballet (82.60%). Injuries were more frequent among female dancers (75.90%) and classical ballet (83.60%). A statistically significant prevalence of patellofemoral pain syndrome was found in the classical discipline (P = .007). Injuries of the adductor muscles of the thigh (P = .001) and of the low back facet (P = .02) in the Spanish ballet discipline and lateral snapping hip (P = .02) in classical and Spanish ballet disciplines were significant. Conclusion Overuse injuries were the most frequent injuries among the professional dancers included in this study. The prevalence of injuries was greater for the most technically demanding discipline (classical ballet) as well as for women. Patellofemoral pain syndrome was the most prevalent overuse injury, followed by Achilles tendinopathy, patellar tendinopathy, and mechanical low back pain. Clinical Relevance Specific clinical diagnoses and injury-based differences between the disciplines are a key factor in ballet

  6. Blunt Cardiac Injury in the Severely Injured - A Retrospective Multicentre Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Hanschen

    Full Text Available Blunt cardiac injury is a rare trauma entity. Here, we sought to evaluate the relevance and prognostic significance of blunt cardiac injury in severely injured patients.In a retrospective multicentre study, using data collected from 47,580 patients enrolled to TraumaRegister DGU (1993-2009, characteristics of trauma, prehospital / hospital trauma management, and outcome analysis were correlated to the severity of blunt cardiac injury. The severity of cardiac injury was assessed according to the abbreviated injury score (AIS score 1-6, the revised injury severity score (RISC allowed comparison of expected outcome with injury severity-dependent outcome. N = 1.090 had blunt cardiac trauma (AIS 1-6 (2.3% of patients.Predictors of blunt cardiac injury could be identified. Sternal fractures indicate a high risk of the presence of blunt cardiac injury (AIS 0 [control]: 3.0%; AIS 1: 19.3%; AIS 2-6: 19.1%. The overall mortality rate was 13.9%, minor cardiac injury (AIS 1 and severe cardiac injury (AIS 2-6 are associated with higher rates. Severe blunt cardiac injury (AIS 4 and AIS 5-6 is associated with a higher mortality (OR 2.79 and 4.89, respectively as compared to the predicted average mortality (OR 2.49 of the study collective.Multiple injured patients with blunt cardiac trauma are at high risk to be underestimated. Careful evaluation of trauma patients is able to predict the presence of blunt cardiac injury. The severity of blunt cardiac injury needs to be stratified according to the AIS score, as the patients' outcome is dependent on the severity of cardiac injury.

  7. Injury potentials associated with severity of acute spinal cord injury in an experimental rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suying Pan; Guanghao Zhang; Xiaolin Huo; Jinzhu Bai; Tao Song

    2011-01-01

    To investigate characteristics of injury potentials after different degrees of spinal cord injury in rats, the present study established models of spinal cord contusion with severe, moderate, and mild degrees of injury. Injury potential was measured in vivo using a direct current voltage amplification system. Results revealed that in the first 4 hours after acute spinal cord injury, initial amplitude of injury potential was greatest after severe injury, followed by moderate and mild injuries. Amplitude of injury potential decreased gradually with injury time, and the recession curve was logarithmic. Under the same degree of injuries, amplitude of rostral injury potential was generally less than caudal injury potential. Results suggested that injury potential reflected injury severity, because large initial amplitude of injury potential during the early injury stage implied severe injury.

  8. Relationship between type of brain injury with Bispectral Index monitoring in intubated ICU trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Moradi Moghaddam

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: Different kinds of acute traumatic cranial lesions with different prognosis may have different values in BIS monitoring. Presence or absence of frontal lobe injury, had no statistically significant correlations with BIS values.

  9. Exertion injuries in female athletes.

    OpenAIRE

    Orava, S.; Hulkko, A; Jormakka, E.

    1981-01-01

    Because sports injuries in men form most of the available statistics, the reportage of injuries in female athletes is sparse. We describe exertion injuries and disorders in 281 women athletes, all of which hampered athletic training or performances. Sixty per cent of the injuries occurred to girls ages between 12-19 years, and about forty-eight per cent were track and field athletes. The most common sites of injury were the ankle, foot, heel and leg. Osteochondritic disorders were the most ty...

  10. Analysis of the Functional Independence Measure Value of Cervical Spine Injury Patients with Conservative Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafrullah Arifin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Functional Independence Measure Value of Cervical Spine Injury Patients with Conservative Management. Cervical spine injury is one of the most common spinal cord injuries in trauma patients. From 100,000 spinal cord injury cases reported in the United States of America (2008, sixty seven percent involve cervical spine injury. American Spinal Cord Injury Association (ASIA impairment score is used as an initial assessment but not enough attention prognostic outcome of these patients was paid to. The objective of this study is to analyze the value of functional independence measure (FIM cervical spine injury patients with conservative management and its correlation with age, sex, type of trauma, onset of trauma, cervical abnormalities, type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score. A prospective cohort study was performed to all patients with cervical spine injury treated inNeurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung that fullfiled the inclusion criteria. The subjects were classified based on age, sex, single/multiple trauma, acute /chronic, cervical abnormalities, complete/incomplete lesion and ASIA impairment score. The FIM examination was performed in Outpatient clinic of Neurosurgery. T-test and chi-square test was done to analyze the data. There were 17 cervical spine injury patients treated in Neurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital during April 2009–April 2010. The average FIM value of cervical spine injury in those patients is 4+ 1.63 by cohort prospective study. There were no correlation between FIM value with age, sex, type of trauma, onset of trauma and cervical abnormalities. Significant correlations were found between FIM value with type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score in cervical spine patients. Type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score have significant correlation with FIM value of patients in 6 months after cervical injury.

  11. Mathematical model of normal tissue injury in telegammatherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov, S.A.; Lyass, F.M.; Mamin, R.G.; Minakova, E.I.; Raevskaya, S.A. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Nejrokhirurgii)

    1983-03-01

    A model of normal tissue injury as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation is based on an assumption that the degree of tissue injury is determined by the degree of destruction by certain critical cells. The dependence of the number of lethal injuries on a single dose is expressed by a trinomial-linear and quadratic parts and a constant, obtained as a result of the processing of experimental data. Quantitative correlations have been obtained for the skin and brain. They have been tested using clinical and experimental material. The results of the testing point out to the absence of time dependence on a single up to 6-week irradiation courses. Correlation with an irradiation field has been obtained for the skin. A conclusion has been made that the concept of isoefficacy of irradiation courses is conditional. Spatial-time fractionation is a promising direction in the development of radiation therapy.

  12. Adult traumatic brachial plexus injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankine, J.J. E-mail: james.rankine@leedsth.nhs.uk

    2004-09-01

    Injury to the brachial plexus in the adult is usually a closed injury and the result of considerable traction to the shoulder. Brachial plexus injury in the adult is an increasingly common clinical problem. Recent advances in neurosurgical techniques have improved the outlook for patients with brachial plexus injuries. The choice of surgical procedure depends on the level of the injury and the radiologist has an important role in guiding the surgeon to the site of injury. This article will describe the anatomy and pathophysiology of traction brachial plexus injury in the adult. The neurosurgical options available will be described with emphasis on the information that the surgeon wants from imaging studies of the brachial plexus. The relative merits of MRI and CT myelography are discussed.

  13. Monitoring Winter Wheat Freeze Injury Using Multi-Temporal MODIS Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Mei-chen; YANG Wu-de; CAO Liang-liang; DING Guang-wei

    2009-01-01

    Freeze injury is an usual disaster for winter wheat in Shanxi Province,China,and monitoring freeze injury is of important economic significance.The aim of this article is to monitor and analyze the winter wheat freeze injury using remote sensmg data,to monitor the occurrence and spatial distribution of winter wheat freeze in time.as well as the severity of the damage.The winter wheat freeze injury was monitored using multi-temporal moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data,combined with ground meteorological data and field survey data,the change of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) before and after freeze injury was analyzed,as well as the effect of winter wheat growth recovery rate on yield.The results showed that the NDVI of winter wheat decreased dramatically after the suffering from freeze injury,which was the prominent feature for the winter wheat freeze injury monitoring.The degrees of winter wheat freeze injury were different in the three regions,of which,Yuncheng was the worst severity and the largest freeze injury area,the severity of freeze injury correlates with the breeding stage of the winter wheat.The yield of winter wheat showed positive correlation with its growth recovery rate (r=0.659**) which can be utilized to monitor the severity of winter wheat freeze injury as well as its impact on yield.It can effectively monitor the occurrence and severity of winter wheat freeze injury using horizontal and vertical profile distribution and growth recovery rate,and provide a basis for monitoring the winter wheat freeze injury in Shanxi Province.

  14. Effect of AVP on brain edema following traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Miao; SU Wei; HUANG Wei-dong; LU Yuan-qiang; XU Qiu-ping; CHEN Zhao-jun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) level in patients with traumatic brain injury and investigate the role of AVP in the process of brain edema. Methods: A total of 30 patients with traumatic brain injury were involved in our study. They were divided into two groups by Glasgow Coma Scale: severe traumatic brain injury group (STBI, GCS≤ 8) and moderate traumatic brain injury group (MTBI, GCS>8).Samples of venous blood were collected in the morning at rest from 15 healthy volunteers (control group)and within 24 h after traumatic brain injury from these patients for AVP determinations by radioimmunoassay. The severity and duration of the brain edema were estimated by head CT scan.Results: plasma AVP levels (ng/L) were (mean±SD): control, 3.06±1.49; MTBI, 38.12±7.25; and STBI, 66.61±17.10.The plasma level of AVP was significantly increased within 24 h after traumatic brain injury and followed by the reduction of GCS, suggesting the deterioration of cerebral injury (P<0.01). And the AVP level was correlated with the severity (STBI r=0.919, P<0.01; MTBI r=0.724, P<0.01) and the duration of brain edema (STBI r=0.790, P<0.01; MTBI r=0.712, P<0.01). Conclusions: The plasma AVP level is closely associated with the severity of traumatic brain injury. AVP may play an important role in pathogenesis of brain edema after traumatic brain injury.

  15. Current Swiss Techniques in Management of Lisfranc Injuries of the Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Fabian; Schmid, Timo; Weber, Martin

    2016-06-01

    The outcome after Lisfranc injuries correlates with anatomic and stable reduction. The best surgical treatment, particularly for the ligamentous Lisfranc injuries, remains controversial. Recent publications suggest that the ligamentous injuries may benefit from primary partial Lisfranc arthrodesis. Most surgeons agree that an appropriate reduction is better and easier achieved by open reduction and stable temporary screw or dorsal plate fixation or by open primary partial arthrodesis than by closed reduction or Kirschner wire fixation. Despite correct surgical technique and postoperative management, symptom-free recovery is uncommon. This article outlines current techniques in the management of Lisfranc injuries and resultant postoperative outcomes in a level I trauma center. PMID:27261809

  16. Distal humeral physeal injuries in child abuse: MR imaging and ultrasonography findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distal humeral physeal injuries, in particular, fracture-separation of the distal humeral epiphysis, can be seen in abused infants. Detection of physeal injury in an infant of toddler may indicate the possibility of unsuspected abuse, particularly when an appropriate history explaining the circumstance of the fracture is lacking. In addition, the extent of injury can be difficult to characterize on plain radiographs. Ultrasonography (US) and MR imaging (MRI) may be of value in diagnosis and may obviate the need for intraoperative arthrography. We present MRI findings in three abused children with distal humeral physeal injuries. Sonographic correlation is also presented in one case. (orig.)

  17. Knee joint examinations by magnetic resonance imaging: The correlation of pathology, age, and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Avcu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence and coexistence of multiple knee joint pathologies and the distribution of knee joint pathologies according to age and sex. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using the clinical data of patients evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the knee joint. Data from 308 patients examined between August 2002 and July 2003 were included into this study. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the pathological findings and the age and sex of the patients. Results: The ages of the patients ranged between 1 and 74 years (mean: 43.3 years. Age was significantly correlated with meniscal degeneration and tears, medial collateral ligament degeneration, parameniscal cyst, and chondromalacia patellae. There was a significant correlation between male gender and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Meniscal injury was significantly correlated with bursitis, as well as medial collateral ligament injury. Bone bruise was significantly correlated with medial collateral ligament injury, lateral collateral ligament injury, Baker′s cyst, and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Chondromalacia patellae was significantly correlated with anterior cruciate ligament injury, patellae alta, and osteochondral lesion. Bursitis (in 53.2% of the patients followed by grade-II meniscal degeneration (in 43% of the patients were the most common knee pathologies observed by MRI. Conclusions: MRI findings of select knee pathologies are significantly correlated with each other and the age and sex of the patient.

  18. Knee joint examinations by magnetic resonance imaging: The correlation of pathology, age, and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Avcu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence and coexistence of multiple knee joint pathologies and the distribution of knee joint pathologies according to age and sex. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using the clinical data of patients evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the knee joint. Data from 308 patients examined between August 2002 and July 2003 were included into this study. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the pathological findings and the age and sex of the patients. Results: The ages of the patients ranged between 1 and 74 years (mean: 43.3 years. Age was significantly correlated with meniscal degeneration and tears, medial collateral ligament degeneration, parameniscal cyst, and chondromalacia patellae. There was a significant correlation between male gender and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Meniscal injury was significantly correlated with bursitis, as well as medial collateral ligament injury. Bone bruise was significantly correlated with medial collateral ligament injury, lateral collateral ligament injury, Baker’s cyst, and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Chondromalacia patellae was significantly correlated with anterior cruciate ligament injury, patellae alta, and osteochondral lesion. Bursitis (in 53.2% of the patients followed by grade-II meniscal degeneration (in 43% of the patients were the most common knee pathologies observed by MRI. Conclusions: MRI findings of select knee pathologies are significantly correlated with each other and the age and sex of the patient.

  19. Injury count model for quantification of risk of occupational injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanzode, Vivek V; Maiti, J; Ray, P K

    2011-06-01

    Reduction of risk of occupational injuries is one of the most challenging problems faced by industry. Assessing and comparing risks involved in different jobs is one of the important steps towards reducing injury risk. In this study, a comprehensive scheme is given for assessing and comparing injury risks with the development of injury count model, injury risk model and derived statistics. The hazards present in a work system and the nature of the job carried out by workers are perceived as important drivers of injury potential of a work system. A loglinear model is used to quantify injury counts and the event-tree approach with joint, marginal and conditional probabilities is used to quantify injury risk. A case study was carried out in an underground coal mine. Finally a number of indices are proposed for the case study mine to capture risk of injury in different jobs. The findings of this study will help in designing injury intervention strategies for the mine studied. The job-wise risk profiles will be used to prioritise the jobs for redesign. The absolute indices can be applied for benchmarking job-wise risks and the relative indices can be used for comparing job-wise risks across work systems. PMID:21432706

  20. Social inequalities in injury occurrence and in disability retirement attributable to injuries: a 5 year follow-up study of a 2.1 million gainfully employed people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tüchsen Finn

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequalities in injury related disability retirement may be due to differences in injury risk and or differences in retirement given injury. The aim of the present study was to measure social inequalities in injury occurrence and injury related disability retirement. Methods All people in the Danish labour force aged 20–59 years 1 January 1997 were followed for injury related hospital contacts during 1997 and all people in the Danish labour force aged 21–54 years 1 January 1998 were followed for injury related hospital contacts during 1997 and for disability retirements during 1998–2002. As inequality indices we used excess fractions (EF i.e. the proportions of the cases that would not have occurred if the risks in each social group had been as low as they were in the occupational group with the highest skill requirements. Results With regard to the risk that an injury will occur, the EF was 36% among men and 10% among women. With regard to the risk that an injury will lead to disability retirement, the EF was 43% among men and 47% among women. The combined effect of the two types of inequalities rendered an EF for injury related disability retirement of 64% among men and 53% among women. The correlation between the case disability rate ratios among men and those among women was low (r = -0.110, P = 0.795. Conclusion The social inequality in injury related disability retirement lies only to some degree in the differences in the injury risk. More important are differences in the consequences of an injury. This was especially pronounced among the women.

  1. SP-A在急性肠损伤大鼠大肠和肺组织中表达的相关性研究%Correlative Study on Expression of SP-A in Lung And Large Intestine in Acute Intestinal Injury Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑继生; 李志军; 沈延飞; 董雷; 李敏静; 丁志山; 蔡宛如

    2013-01-01

    目的:通过动态观测急性肠损伤(Acute intestinal injury,AⅡ)肺和大肠等组织中肺表面活性蛋白A(pulmonary surfactant protein A,SP-A)含量的变化,寻找其表达的规律及各组织的相关性.方法:60只SD大鼠随机分为六组:空白对照组、生理盐水组(normal saline group,NS组)、急性肠损伤12h组(AⅡ12h组)、急性肠损伤24h组(AⅡ24h组)、急性肠损伤36h组(AⅡ36h组)、急性肠损伤48h组(AⅡ48h组).采用结肠内注入醋酸(Acetic acid)法制备AⅡ大鼠模型,NS组注入等量NS,空白对照组不作任何处理.分别于注入醋酸后12、24、36、48 h及注入NS后48 h采集标本,空白对照组亦于48 h后采集标本,采用酶联免疫法(enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,ELISA)检测大鼠BALF及各种组织中SP-A的含量.结果:①各组大鼠BALF中SP-A的含量明显高于肺、大肠、皮肤、肝组织,有极显著性差异(P<0.01);肺组织SP-A含量其次,与其他组织比有显著性差异(P<0.05),小肠组织中无SP-A表达.②NS组、空白对照组BALF、肺、大肠、肝中SP-A的含量较AII36h组高,差异有极显著性(P<0.01).③AⅡ时间延长,AⅡ各组BALF、肺组织、大肠组织中SP-A的含量下降,至AⅡ36h时含量降至最低;随后有回升趋势.④大肠组织与BALF、肺、皮肤、肝组织中SP-A含量的相关性比较,相关系数r分别为0.292,0.378,0.137,0.518.结论:①大鼠SP-A的合成与分泌具有一定特异性;②BALF、肺、大肠、肝组织中SP-A含量的变化与AⅡ的严重程度有一定的相关性;③大鼠大肠组织中SP-A表达的变化与肝、肺组织中SP-A表达的变化一致性较好.%Objective:By observing the content change of SP-A in lung,large and etc in ALI rats,so as to find the regularity expression and the correlation of substance.Methods:60 SD rats were randomly divided into six groups:blank group,normal saline group,AⅡ12 h group,AⅡ24 h group AⅡ36 h group AⅡ48 h group.The AⅡ rats

  2. Meniscal injury: II. Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greis, Patrick E; Holmstrom, Michael C; Bardana, Davide D; Burks, Robert T

    2002-01-01

    Meniscal repair is a viable alternative to resection in many clinical situations. Repair techniques traditionally have utilized a variety of suture methods, including inside-out and outside-in techniques. Bioabsorbable implants permit all-inside arthroscopic repairs. The success of meniscal repair depends on appropriate meniscal bed preparation and surgical technique and is also influenced by biologic factors such as tear rim width and associated ligamentous injury. Successful repair in >80% of cases has been reported in conjunction with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Success rates are lower for isolated repairs. Complications related to repair include neurologic injury, postoperative loss of motion, recurrence of the tear, and infection. Meniscal allograft transplantation may provide a treatment option when meniscus salvage is not possible or when a previous total meniscectomy has been done.

  3. Obstetric anal sphincter injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Remon Keriakos; Deepa Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Obstetric anal sphincter injuries can be associated with significant short and long term consequences causing devastating impacts on the quality of lives of young, otherwise healthy women. The major consequence is anal incontinence which may be short or long term and vary in severity. The other consequences include pain, infection, dyspareunia and sexual dysfunction. This may in turn result in considerable economic burden to health care providers and patients. It also has an implication on future deliveries. Although it can never be eliminated, it can be reduced by improving practice, training and provision of high quality multidisciplinary care in order to reduce long-term morbidity. Obstetric anal sphincter injuries are also a source of litigation which can be distressing to both patients and clinicians. The aim of this review article is to explore the available evidence on epidemiology, strategies for preventions, prognosis and also how to deal with governance issues.

  4. Meniscal injury: II. Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greis, Patrick E; Holmstrom, Michael C; Bardana, Davide D; Burks, Robert T

    2002-01-01

    Meniscal repair is a viable alternative to resection in many clinical situations. Repair techniques traditionally have utilized a variety of suture methods, including inside-out and outside-in techniques. Bioabsorbable implants permit all-inside arthroscopic repairs. The success of meniscal repair depends on appropriate meniscal bed preparation and surgical technique and is also influenced by biologic factors such as tear rim width and associated ligamentous injury. Successful repair in >80% of cases has been reported in conjunction with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Success rates are lower for isolated repairs. Complications related to repair include neurologic injury, postoperative loss of motion, recurrence of the tear, and infection. Meniscal allograft transplantation may provide a treatment option when meniscus salvage is not possible or when a previous total meniscectomy has been done. PMID:12041939

  5. The Expression Rule of Correlation Factors of Wnt Signal Pathway in Mice Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury%Wnt通路信号蛋白β-链蛋白、糖原合成酶激酶-3β在小鼠脑缺血再灌注损伤后的表达变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅马; 余资江; 罗时鹏; 余彦; 肖朝伦; 孙宝飞; 李玉美

    2015-01-01

    目的:初步探讨Wnt信号通路中相关因子在小鼠脑缺血再灌注损伤中的表达规律。方法将96只1月龄健康昆明雄性小鼠随机分为正常组、假手术组和缺血再灌注后1 d、7 d、14 d、28 d组,采用夹闭小鼠双侧颈总动脉制作脑缺血再灌注损伤模型。通过Y-迷宫检测小鼠学习记忆能力,TTC染色和透射电镜观察小鼠海马形态结构,免疫组织化学染色方法检测β-链蛋白(β-catenin)、糖原合成酶激酶-3β(GSK-3β)的表达变化。结果小鼠脑缺血再灌注后身体出现神经功能损伤症状,同时学习记忆能力明显下降。脑片TTC染色海马区出现白色梗死灶,透射电镜显示海马区神经元细胞水肿,线粒体肿胀,核固缩,核膜间隙扩大。免疫组化显示正常组和假手术组中β-catenin呈弱阳性,GSK-3β呈阳性。脑缺血再灌注损伤后,GSK-3β阳性细胞呈低表达,21 d升高;而β-catenin在缺血再灌注后脑组织中均有表达,且阳性表达于7 d达到高峰,随后开始下降,28 d降至正常,两者呈显著负相关(P<0.05)。结论初步证实夹闭小鼠双侧颈总动脉成功构建脑缺血再灌注损伤模型,同时Wnt信号通路参与脑缺血再灌注损伤的发生。%Objective To discuss the expression rule of correlation factors of Wnt signal pathway in mice cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.Methods 96 one-month healthy Kunming male mice were randomly divided into the normal group, the sham operation group and 1 d, 7 d, 14 d, 28 d after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion groups. The common carotid arteries of mice were clipped to make the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury model. Y-maze was used to test the learning and memory ability of mice. TTC dyeing and transmission electron microscope were used to observe the morphological structure of hippocampus. Immunohistochemistry staining method was used to test the expression change ofβ-catenin and GSK-3

  6. [Snake bite injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchányi, B; Szalontay, T; Zacher, G

    2000-05-14

    Authors treated five patients who suffered venomous snake-bite injury. Although these snakes are not native in Hungary, this kind of injury is estimated to be more frequent, because of the increasing number of the private collections and illegal import of these reptiles. The local and general symptoms, the therapeutic steps are summarised in this study considering the literature as well. Two patients did not show any systemic or local symptoms at the level of injury, they needed only short observation, and woundcare. The other three patients had serious transient systematic symptoms (vasolability, hypotension/shock, coagulopathy, confusion). Two of them were given specific antivenom. As the third patient did not agree with the serum therapy, plasmapheresis was the choice to treat him, and it seemed to be effective. Few hours later the patients needed surgery because of serious compartment syndrome of their affected upper extremity. Surgical decompression of all the compartments and different possibilities of the secondary skin closure technique are demonstrated. Two patient healed completely, but the right thumb of the third was lost. Authors summarise the effects of the poisons, the symptoms, and the basic therapeutic steps during the first aid and in the primary hospital phase, respectively. They point out the indications of the serum therapy and the correct surgical decompression of the injured extremity. PMID:10851889

  7. Sleep disordered breathing following spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Jennum, Poul; Laub, Michael

    2009-01-01

    with SCI, especially with regard to obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, there is a correlation between the incidence of sleep disturbances and the spinal cord level injured, age, body mass index, neck circumference, abdominal girth, and use of sedating medications. Regulation of respiration is dependent......Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly complain about difficulty in sleeping. Although various sleep disordered breathing definitions and indices are used that make comparisons between studies difficult, it seems evident that the frequency of sleep disorders is higher in individuals...

  8. The global burden of injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, E G; Sharma, G K; Lozano, R

    2000-04-01

    The traditional view of injuries as "accidents", or random events, has resulted in the historical neglect of this area of public health. However, the most recent estimates show that injuries are among the leading causes of death and disability in the world. They affect all populations, regardless of age, sex, income, or geographic region. In 1998, about 5.8 million people (97.9 per 100,000 population) died of injuries worldwide, and injuries caused 16% of the global burden of disease. Road traffic injuries are the 10th leading cause of death and the 9th leading cause of the burden of disease; self-inflicted injuries, falls, and interpersonal violence follow closely. Injuries affect mostly young people, often causing long-term disability. Decreasing the burden of injuries is among the main challenges for public health in the next century--injuries are preventable, and many effective strategies are available. Public health officials must gain a better understanding of the magnitude and characteristics of the problem, contribute to the development and evaluation of injury prevention programs, and develop the best possible prehospital and hospital care and rehabilitation for injured persons. PMID:10754963

  9. Telomerase expression in the glial scar of rats with spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingkun Yang; Weibin Sheng; Tao Xu; Kai Huang; Yanjiao Wang

    2012-01-01

    A rat model of spinal cord injury was established using the weight drop method. A cavity formed 14 days following spinal cord injury, and compact scar tissue formed by 56 days. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results demonstrated that glial fibrillary acidic protein and telomerase expression increased gradually after injury, peaked at 28 days, and then gradually decreased. Spearman rank correlation showed a positive correlation between glial fibrillary acidic protein expression and telomerase expression in the glial scar. These results suggest that telomerase promotes glial scar formation.

  10. Establishment of the model of motorcyclist ejection injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hai-bin; HANG Jian-jin; ZHANG Bo; LIU Da-wei; YANG Guang-yu; WANG Zheng-guo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To establish the device and model of motorcyclist ejection injury.Methods: Based on our laboratory devices, a motorcy-clist ejection injury simulation system was developed.A total of 18 pigs were approved by the local animal experi-mentation and ethics committee to serve as the motorcy-clist substitutes.In this ejection motion, the animal rode freely at the motor driver seat and was straightly acceler-ated by means of our custom motorcyclist ejection injury simulation system.When it was speeded up to the preset velocity (v=30, 40 or 50 kin/h) at the preset position, the animal was ejected forward.Pathological and dynamic analy-ses were conducted, accompanied with the high-speed photograph, acceleration/velocity signal test, gross obser-vation and light microscope examination as well as the ab-breviated injury score-injury severity score (AIS-ISS) scale.Results: The high-speed photograph indicated that during the ejection procedure the motorcycle was first ar-rested and decelerated suddenly, and then the motorcycle driver was ejected forward, accompanied with the rotation motion in the air.Finally, the head, shoulder and thorax of the ejected animal impacted directly on the hard ground.Varying degrees of injury focusing on the liver, heart, lung and spleen were found.There existed a significant positive, correlation between ISS and the ejection velocity of the motorcycle drivers (ISS=16.7+2.9 for 30 kin/h, 25.0±0.0 for 40 km/h and 37.3a=1.0 for 50 kin/h), The detailed injury char-acteristics were as follows: for the mildly injured animals, there were interlobar gaps or leaf gaps and lobar surface blood coagulation blocks in the liver, and mild lung hemorrhage; for the severely injured animals, there were liver comminuted laceration, moderate lung hemorrhage and heart injury.Animals suffering from the most severe injuries died half an hour later.Conclusion: The new injury model stated in this paper has a high stability and good repeatability, and is

  11. Mismatch negativity, social cognition, and functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-yan Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mismatch negativity is generated automatically, and is an early monitoring indicator of neuronal integrity impairment and functional abnormality in patients with brain injury, leading to decline of cognitive function. Antipsychotic medication cannot affect mismatch negativity. The present study aimed to explore the relationships of mismatch negativity with neurocognition, daily life and social functional outcomes in patients after brain injury. Twelve patients with traumatic brain injury and 12 healthy controls were recruited in this study. We examined neurocognition with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised China, and daily and social functional outcomes with the Activity of Daily Living Scale and Social Disability Screening Schedule, respectively. Mismatch negativity was analyzed from electroencephalogram recording. The results showed that mismatch negativity amplitudes decreased in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with healthy controls. Mismatch negativity amplitude was negatively correlated with measurements of neurocognition and positively correlated with functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. Further, the most significant positive correlations were found between mismatch negativity in the fronto-central region and measures of functional outcomes. The most significant positive correlations were also found between mismatch negativity at the FCz electrode and daily living function. Mismatch negativity amplitudes were extremely positively associated with Social Disability Screening Schedule scores at the Fz electrode in brain injury patients. These experimental findings suggest that mismatch negativity might efficiently reflect functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury.

  12. Mismatch negativity, social cognition, and functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-yan Sun; Qiang Li; Xi-ping Chen; Lu-yang Tao

    2015-01-01

    Mismatch negativity is generated automatically, and is an early monitoring indicator of neuronal integrity impairment and functional abnormality in patients with brain injury, leading to decline of cognitive function. Antipsychotic medication cannot affect mismatch negativity. The present study aimed to explore the relationships of mismatch negativity with neurocognition, daily life and social functional outcomes in patients after brain injury. Twelve patients with traumatic brain injury and 12 healthy controls were recruited in this study. We examined neurocogni-tion with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised China, and daily and social functional outcomes with the Activity of Daily Living Scale and Social Disability Screening Schedule, re-spectively. Mismatch negativity was analyzed from electroencephalogram recording. The results showed that mismatch negativity amplitudes decreased in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with healthy controls. Mismatch negativity amplitude was negatively correlated with measurements of neurocognition and positively correlated with functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. Further, the most signiifcant positive correlations were found be-tween mismatch negativity in the fronto-central region and measures of functional outcomes. The most signiifcant positive correlations were also found between mismatch negativity at the FCz electrode and daily living function. Mismatch negativity amplitudes were extremely positive-ly associated with Social Disability Screening Schedule scores at the Fz electrode in brain injury patients. These experimental ifndings suggest that mismatch negativity might efifciently relfect functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury.

  13. MONITORING OF LOWER LIMB COMFORT AND INJURY IN ELITE FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kinchington

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the relation between lower limb comfort scores and injury and to measure the responsiveness of a lower limb comfort index (LLCI to changes over time, in a cohort of professional footballers. Lower limb comfort was recorded for each individual using a comfort index which assessed the comfort status of five anatomical segments and footwear. Specifically we tested the extent to which comfort zones as measured by the LLCI were related to injury measured as time loss events. The hypothesis for the study was that poor lower limb comfort is related to time loss events (training or match day. A total of 3524 player weeks of data was collected from 182 professional athletes encompassing three codes of football (Australian Rules, Rugby league, Rugby Union. The study was conducted during football competition periods for the respective football leagues and included a period of pre- season training. The results of regression indicated that poor lower limb comfort was highly correlated to injury (R2 =0.77 and accounted for 43.5 time loss events/ 1000hrs football exposure. While poor comfort was predictive of injury 47% of all time loss events it was not statistically relevant (R2 =0.18. The results indicate lower limb comfort can be used to assess the well-being of the lower limb; poor comfort is associated with injury, and the LLCI has good face validity and high criterion-related validity for the relationship between comfort and injury

  14. Oxidative injury in multiple sclerosis cerebellar grey matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Kevin; Redondo, Juliana; Hares, Kelly; Rice, Claire; Scolding, Neil; Wilkins, Alastair

    2016-07-01

    Cerebellar dysfunction is a significant contributor to disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). Both white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) injury occurs within MS cerebellum and, within GM, demyelination, inflammatory cell infiltration and neuronal injury contribute to on-going pathology. The precise nature of cerebellar GM injury is, however, unknown. Oxidative stress pathways with ultimate lipid peroxidation and cell membrane injury occur extensively in MS and the purpose of this study was to investigate these processes in MS cerebellar GM. Post-mortem human cerebellar GM from MS and control subjects was analysed immunohistochemically, followed by semi-quantitative analysis of markers of cellular injury, lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant enzyme expression. We have shown evidence for reduction in myelin and neuronal markers in MS GM, coupled to an increase in expression of a microglial marker. We also show that the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal co-localises with myelin and its levels negatively correlate to myelin basic protein levels. Furthermore, superoxide dismutase (SOD1 and 2) enzymes, localised within cerebellar neurons, are up-regulated, yet the activation of subsequent enzymes responsible for the detoxification of hydrogen peroxide, catalase and glutathione peroxidase are relatively deficient. These studies provide evidence for oxidative injury in MS cerebellar GM and further help define disease mechanisms within the MS brain. PMID:27086975

  15. A Surgery Protocol for Adult Zebrafish Spinal Cord Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Fang; Jin-Fei Lin; Hong-Chao Pan; Yan-Qin Shen; Melitta Schachner

    2012-01-01

    Adult zebrafish has a remarkable capability to recover from spinal cord injury,providing an excellent model for studying neuroregeneration.Here we list equipment and reagents,and give a detailed protocol for complete transection of the adult zebrafish spinal cord.In this protocol,potential problems and their solutions are described so that the zebrafish spinal cord injury model can be more easily and reproducibly performed.In addition,two assessments are introduced to monitor the success of the surgery and functional recovery:one test to assess free swimming capability and the other test to assess extent of neuroregeneration by in vivo anterograde axonal tracing.In the swimming behavior test,successful complete spinal cord transection is monitored by the inability of zebrafish to swim freely for 1 week after spinal cord injury,followed by the gradual reacquisition of full locomotor ability within 6 weeks after injury.As a morphometric correlate,anterograde axonal tracing allows the investigator to monitor the ability of regenerated axons to cross the lesion site and increasingly extend into the gray and white matter with time after injury,confirming functional recovery.This zebrafish model provides a paradigm for recovery from spinal cord injury,enabling the identification of pathways and components of neuroregeneration.

  16. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N

    2010-07-01

    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  17. Amusement park injuries and deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braksiek, Robert J; Roberts, David J

    2002-01-01

    Media coverage of amusement park injuries has increased over the past several years, raising concern that amusement rides may be dangerous. Amusement park fatalities and increases in reported injuries have prompted proposed legislation to regulate the industry. Since 1979, the medical literature has published reports of 4 subdural hematomas, 4 internal carotid artery dissections, 2 vertebral artery dissections, 2 subarachnoid hemorrhages, 1 intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and 1 carotid artery thrombosis with stroke, all related to roller coaster rides. In this article, we review reports of amusement park injuries in the medical literature and Consumer Product Safety Commission data on the overall risk of injury. We also discuss the physics and the physiologic effects of roller coasters that may influence the type and severity of injuries. Although the risk of injury is low, emergency physicians are advised to include participation on thrill rides as part of their history, particularly when evaluating patients presenting with neurologic symptoms. PMID:11782733

  18. Amusement park injuries and deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braksiek, Robert J; Roberts, David J

    2002-01-01

    Media coverage of amusement park injuries has increased over the past several years, raising concern that amusement rides may be dangerous. Amusement park fatalities and increases in reported injuries have prompted proposed legislation to regulate the industry. Since 1979, the medical literature has published reports of 4 subdural hematomas, 4 internal carotid artery dissections, 2 vertebral artery dissections, 2 subarachnoid hemorrhages, 1 intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and 1 carotid artery thrombosis with stroke, all related to roller coaster rides. In this article, we review reports of amusement park injuries in the medical literature and Consumer Product Safety Commission data on the overall risk of injury. We also discuss the physics and the physiologic effects of roller coasters that may influence the type and severity of injuries. Although the risk of injury is low, emergency physicians are advised to include participation on thrill rides as part of their history, particularly when evaluating patients presenting with neurologic symptoms.

  19. Substance Use and Facial Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Debra A.

    2010-01-01

    Substance use is a major contributing factor to the interpersonal violence that accounts for a significant proportion of facial injuries among adults and adolescents; thus, violence is the main “pathway” through which substance use and injuries are linked. Beyond causality, substance use continues to influence recovery from the injury through its impact on the healing process (e.g., patient non-compliance, suppression of T-cell counts, susceptibility to bacterial colonization, and protein pro...

  20. Systemic Responses to Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKIR, Barış; YEĞEN, Berrak Ç.

    2004-01-01

    The major causes of death in burn patients include multiple organ failure and infection. It is important for the clinician to understand the pathophysiology of burn injury and the effects it will have on the pharmacokinetics of a drug. The local and systemic inflammatory response to thermal injury is extremely complex, resulting in both local burn tissue damage and deleterious systemic effects on all other organ systems distant from the burn area itself. Thermal injury initiates systemic infl...

  1. Biomarker evidence of axonal injury in neuroasymptomatic HIV-1 patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Jessen Krut

    Full Text Available Prevalence of neurocognitive impairment in HIV-1 infected patients is reported to be high. Whether this is a result of active HIV-related neurodegeneration is unclear. We examined axonal injury in HIV-1 patients by measuring the light subunit of neurofilament protein (NFL in CSF with a novel, sensitive method.With a cross-sectional design, CSF concentrations of neurofilament protein light (NFL (marker of neuronal injury, neopterin (intrathecal immunoactivation and CSF/Plasma albumin ratio (blood-brain barrier integrity were analyzed on CSF from 252 HIV-infected patients, subdivided into untreated neuroasymptomatics (n = 200, HIV-associated dementia (HAD (n = 14 and on combinations antiretroviral treatment (cART (n = 85, and healthy controls (n = 204. 46 HIV-infected patients were included in both treated and untreated groups, but sampled at different timepoints. Furthermore, 78 neuroasymptomatic patients were analyzed before and after treatment initiation.While HAD patients had the highest NFL concentrations, elevated CSF NFL was also found in 33% of untreated neuroasymptomatic patients, mainly in those with blood CD4+ cell counts below 250 cells/μL. CSF NFL concentrations in the untreated neuroasymptomatics and treated groups were equivalent to controls 18.5 and 3.9 years older, respectively. Neopterin correlated with NFL levels in untreated groups while the albumin ratio correlated with NFL in both untreated and treated groups.Increased CSF NFL indicates ongoing axonal injury in many neuroasymptomatic patients. Treatment decreases NFL, but treated patients retain higher levels than controls, indicating either continued virus-related injury or an aging-like effect of HIV infection. NFL correlates with neopterin and albumin ratio, suggesting an association between axonal injury, neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier permeability. NFL appears to be a sensitive biomarker of subclinical and clinical brain injury in HIV and warrants further

  2. Injury fatalities among young children.

    OpenAIRE

    Fingerhut, L A; Kleinman, J. C.; Malloy, M H; Feldman, J J

    1988-01-01

    Injuries and violence are the primary causes of death among young children in the United States. In particular, in 1982-84 motor vehicle injuries, fires, drowning, and homicide were the leading external causes of death at ages 1-4 years and 5-9 years, accounting for nearly 80 percent of all deaths from external causes. The purpose of this article is to analyze race and sex differentials in injury fatalities among young children. Race and sex differentials in injury mortality were measured in ...

  3. School environment and school injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo eSalminen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although injuries at school are an important issue in public health, environmental factors in schools and school yards have seldom been the focus of school injury research. The goal of our investigation was to examine the effect of environmental factors on school injuries. Methods: Nine comprehensive Finnish schools registered school injuries over a period of two school years. Injuries were classified as being associated with environmental factors, suspected environmental factors, and others. The consensus between two independent classifiers was 81%. Results: A total of 722 injuries were classified. In 11.6% of these injuries, the physical environment factor was evident, and in 28.1% of the injuries, physical environment was suspected of being a contributory risk factor. Thus the physical environment of the school was a contributing factor in over a third (39.7% of injuries occurring in the school, on the school yard or during the journey to or from school. In this study, conducted in Finland, ice on the ground was mentioned most frequently as an environmental risk factor. Conclusions: In Finland, the Nordic weather conditions are not taken into account in the school yard and playground plans as they ought to from the safety point of view. An initiative has been launched on a mandatory wintertime master plan for every school yard.

  4. Evaluating the prognosis and degree of brain injury by combined S-100 protein and neuron specific enolase determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xihua Wang; Xinding Zhang

    2006-01-01

    purchased from Roche Company,serum NSE and S-100 levels were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay(ECLIA). ②Analysis of variance was used for intergroup companson,Spearman correlative analysis for comparison of different GCS and GOS.and linear regression analysis for comparison of correlation of two factors.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:①The dynamic changes of NSE and S-100 of patients with different brain injuries and their correlations with GCS.②The dynamic changes of NSE and S-100 of patients with different outcomes and their correlations with GOS.RESULTS:Thirty-four patients with brain injury and ten healthy persons were involved in the result analysis.①Overall change rule of NSE and S100 after brain injury:NSE of patients with brain injury reached its peak at 24 hours after injury,then was gradually decreased with time and was below normal level in the 2nd week.The overall tendency of S-100 was the same as that of NSE in patients with brain injury.②The dynamic changes of NSE and S-100 of patients with different brain injuries and their correlations with GCS:NSE and S-100 levels at 24 hours after injury were significantly negatively correlated with those on admission(r=-0.537,-0.731,P<0.05).At 24 hours after injury,serum NSE and S-100 levels of patients with mild.moderate and severe brain injuries were significantly higher than those of control group(P<0.05):At 14 days after brain injury serum NSE and S-100 levels of patients with mild and severe brain injury were close to those of control group (P>0.05):While at 24 hours,3,7 and 14 days after brain injury.the serum NSE and S-100 levels of patients with severe brain injury were significantly higher than those of control group (all P<0.05).NSE level of patients with mild brain injury was decreased to normal level at 7 days after injury and that of patients with moderate brain injury at 14 days after injury.S-100 level of patients with mild and moderate brain injury was decreased to normal level at

  5. Road Traffic Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo

    2005-01-01

    @@ As everybody knows that automobiles have been greatly changing our life. However, everything has two sides, motor vehicles have also caused a huge number of people's deaths, injuries and property damage. Traffic crashes are perhaps the number one public health problem in developed countries [1]. In the United States, pre-retirement years of life lost in traffic crashes are more than that of the two combined leading diseases: cancer and heart disease [1]. Today road traffic crash (RTC) ranks 11th in leading cause of death and accounts for 2.1% of all deaths globally.

  6. Iatrogenic Lens Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Kamış

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During intraocular surgery, undesired damages of various etiology may occur in adjacent tissues. One of these tissues is the crystalline lens, which may be traumatized both in anterior segment and posterior segment surgeries, and when damaged, it usually causes marked decrease in visual acuity. The leading causes of iatrogenic lens injuries are intravitreal injection, laser iridotomy, phakic intraocular lens implantation, anterior chamber paracentesis, and vitreoretinal surgery. When crystalline lens damage occurs, its negative effect on visual function may be eliminated by performing cataract surgery intraoperatively or in elective conditions. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 27-30

  7. A comparison of hamstring muscle activity during different screening tests for non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus S.; Bencke, Jesper; Andersen, Lars L.;

    2016-01-01

    phenomenon and thereby observable independently of the type of clinical screening tests used is not known. This cross sectional study investigated the rank correlation of knee joint neuromuscular activity between three different ACL injury risk screening tests. METHODS: Sixty-two adolescent female elite......-activity, correlation analysis (Spearman correlation coefficient) showed low-to-moderate correlations between SC and 1) DJ (rs=0.34-0.36, P

  8. [Epidemiology and control of injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soonduck

    2005-05-01

    Injury has recently become a major world-wide health problem. Injury related deaths occur in many actively working young people and produce major social and economical losses. However health related specialists do not recognize the importance of injury and there have not been many studies related to this problem. This research studied the trends of injury related research in Korea, mortality rate and prevalence rate, socio-economical losses and control in Korea and out of the country, based on literature from Korea and without such as statistical yearly reports on causes of deaths and OECD health reports, as well as WHO web sites. Studies in Korea about injury were very few, with 9 in the 1960's, 5 in the 1980's, 4 in the 1990's and 5 in 2000's. Mortality rate of injury was higher in Korea than in England, USA or Japan, especially in car accidents, suicide and falls. In Korea, the yearly trends in mortality rates were highest in car accidents but those rates are falling, suicide is steadily rising, with highest rate in 2003. Falls is in second rank with no change in rates. In 2003, the ten causes of death in Korea were suicide in 5th rank, transport accidents in 7th rank, and falls in 10th rank. Considering age groups, in the teens, transport accidents were 1st rank, in the 20's and 30's, suicide was 1st rank, and although there were some differences, falls, drowning, assault, fire were in the top 10. Prevalence rates of injury could not be known, but in 2001, according to the National Health and Nutrition Survey, lifelong injury was 10%, and yearly major injury was 1.3%, major injury for two weeks was 0.1%, and minor injury was 10%. In other foreign countries, injury has become to be recognized as a major health related problem, and much programs are being set up to reduce injury related deaths and injuries. WHO is putting much effort in prevention of violence and transport accidents, and in the USA, Canada and Europe, there are injury surveillance systems

  9. Distal radioulnar joint injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu P Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint , forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments.The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis.

  10. Distal radioulnar joint injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Binu P; Sreekanth, Raveendran

    2012-09-01

    Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint, forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments. The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis. PMID:23162140

  11. Sports injuries Lesiones deportivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Patiño Giraldo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100 games. The great variability among the incidence rates may be explained by differences among sports, countries, competitive levels, ages and methodology used in the studies. Sports injuries have been defined as those occurring when athletes are practicing sports and that result in tissue alterations or damages, affecting the operation of the corresponding structures. Contact sports such as soccer, rugby, martial arts, basketball, handball and hockey generate greater risk of injuries. The probability of lesions is higher during competition than in training. El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes

  12. Thumb injuries in downhill skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engkvist, O; Balkfors, B; Lindsjö, U

    1982-02-01

    Thumb injuries are next to knee injuries the most common injury in downhill skiing today. In this material they constituted 17% of all skiing injuries. Three-fourths of the thumb injuries were lesions of the ulnar collateral ligament of the metacarpophalangeal joint. Compared to a control population consisting of 1619 randomly chosen uninjured skiers, we found that no type of ski pole handle in common use today eliminated the risk of thumb injury, but the injury frequency was higher when using a ski pole with a big plate on the top of the handle. It was, however, of no importance how the skier gripped the ski pole in relation to the strap. It is suggested that the skier during a fall holds on to the ski pole until the very last moment before the hand hits the ground. The ski pole handle then remains in the hand and constitutes the hypomochlium that forces the thumb into abduction and extension, which causes the typical ulnar collateral ligament injury.

  13. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FootNotes Newsletter Current Issue Archive Subscribe Home » Foot & Ankle Conditions » Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot A A A | Print | Share ... or certain activities. Diagnosis In diagnosing a sesamoid injury, the foot and ankle surgeon will examine the foot, focusing on the ...

  14. Self Injurious Behavior in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Self injury is a kind of behavior which begins in early adolescence and difficult to determine because remains suppressed. Most often forms are to cut and hit own. To be exposed to sexual abuse and stressfully life events are known as risk factors for self injurious behavior. High anxiety, depression and hostility levels, decrease of self esteem, suicidal attempts and thoughts are usually together with self injurious behavior and it may be mediating to emotional regulation. To explain the functions of self injurious behavior automatic and social support theories and social learning theories have suggested. The relation between suicidality and self injurious behavior is complex for adolescents. There is no enough knowledge if self injurious behavior aggravates the risk of completed suicide. Although it’s a frequent behavior there are limited randomized controlled studies which examine specific treatment approaches. Dialectic behavior treatment is the type of treatment which shown as most effective for adults. To determine the needs to stop the behavior, to manage emotional senses and urges and to learn more healthy ways for needs to youth are necessary in treatment of self injurious behavior. Treatment also includes determining suicidal risk and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In self injurious behavior medical treatment is useful for comorbid psychiatric disorders. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 201-210

  15. Out of hospital needlestick injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Wyatt, J. P.; Robertson, C E; Scobie, W G

    1994-01-01

    Retrospective analysis showed that 67 children had presented in Edinburgh with needlestick injuries on 70 occasions over five years. Worryingly, 10 children sustained injuries pretending to be intravenous drug abusers. Despite risks of hepatitis B and HIV infection, protection and follow up were inadequate. Publicity about discarded needles and a treatment plan for use in accident and emergency departments are recommended.

  16. Ankle injuries in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leanderson, J; Nemeth, G; Eriksson, E

    1993-01-01

    We carried out a retrospective study of the frequency of ankle sprains in basketball players. A questionnaire about previous ankle injuries, time off after such injuries, current ankle problems, personal data, number of practice hours and the use of prophylactic measures was sent out to 102 basketball players in a second division league in Sweden. Ninety-six players answered. 92% of them had suffered an ankle sprain while playing basketball, and of these 83% reported repeated sprains of one ankle. In the last two seasons, 78% of the players had injured at least one ankle. The injury frequency in the investigation was 5.5 ankle injuries per 1000 activity hours. 22% of the players used some kind of prophylactic support of their ankle joints. Because of the great number of ankle sprains and the disability in terms of time away from sports that they cause, prevention of these injuries is essential. PMID:8536029

  17. Neuropathology of mild traumatic brain injury: relationship to neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D; Maxwell, William L

    2012-06-01

    Neuroimaging identified abnormalities associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are but gross indicators that reflect underlying trauma-induced neuropathology at the cellular level. This review examines how cellular pathology relates to neuroimaging findings with the objective of more closely relating how neuroimaging findings reveal underlying neuropathology. Throughout this review an attempt will be made to relate what is directly known from post-mortem microscopic and gross anatomical studies of TBI of all severity levels to the types of lesions and abnormalities observed in contemporary neuroimaging of TBI, with an emphasis on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, it is impossible to discuss the neuropathology of mTBI without discussing what occurs with more severe injury and viewing pathological changes on some continuum from the mildest to the most severe. Historical milestones in understanding the neuropathology of mTBI are reviewed along with implications for future directions in the examination of neuroimaging and neuropathological correlates of TBI.

  18. Injury in professional Irish dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalan, Roisin; O'Sullivan, Kieran

    2013-12-01

    Despite the evolution of Irish dance to professional status in recent decades, only scant investigation of musculoskeletal pain and injury among professional Irish dancers (PIDs) has been undertaken. This study investigated the rate of injury and associated factors among 178 PIDs, using an online questionnaire. One hundred and thirty-seven PIDs (76.7%) reported a previous injury, with the foot (67.9%) and ankle (60.6%) most commonly affected. A mean career rate of 2.25 injuries per dancer was computed. The majority of injuries were minor in nature, and almost half occurred midway through a tour. Sixty subjects (33.7%) reported that they often or always danced in pain. The main contributory factors to injury were accidents, fatigue or overwork, repetitive movements, and unsafe stages. Warm-up (98.8%) and cool-down (84.3%) were almost universally practised, with cross-training engaged in by 124 PIDs (74.7%). Popular treatments used to prevent and manage injuries were massage (N = 137, or 83.0% of PIDs), stretching (N = 117, or 70.1%) and physiotherapy (N = 105, or 62.9%). There was a moderate level of psychological distress among the participants, with "interpersonal difficulties" and "tension with people" the main problems cited. PIDs who were older (p = 0.008) and more experienced (p = 0.002) reported missing a greater number of performances due to injury. There were no other significant relationships between injury and factors, including gender, frequency of dancing in pain, use of warm-up, cool-down, or cross-training. Further prospective studies of PIDs should consider both physical and biopsychosocial elements to generate an appropriate screening process to predict those at risk of injury. PMID:24565330

  19. Relationship between Morphofunctional Changes in Open Traumatic Brain Injury and the Severity of Brain Damage in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakova, F M; Barskov, I V; Gulyaev, M V; Prokhorenko, S V; Romanova, G A; Grechko, A V

    2016-07-01

    A correlation between the severity of morphofunctional disturbances and the volume of brain tissue injury determined by MRT was demonstrated on the model of open traumatic brain injury in rats. A relationship between the studied parameters (limb placing and beam walking tests and histological changes) and impact force (the height of load fell onto exposed brain surface) was revealed.

  20. 抑郁症状与伤害发生特点的相关分析--基于1224例农村女性的横断面调查%A Cross-sectional Survey on the Correlation between Depressive Symptoms and Characteristics of Injury based on 1 224 Rural Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帅健; 李丽萍; 方瑶; 陈业群; 熊建平; 张艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the occurrence of depressive symptoms and injury among rural women, and to explore the relationship between depressive symptoms and epidemiological characteristics of injury. Methods The study sample which was 1 224 rural women more than 18 years, from 22 places of Chaoshan district (Shantou, Chaozhou and Jieyang) of Guangdong province was got by cluster random sampling and investigated by Injuries information form and CES-D. The collected data was used to analyse the influence factors of depressive symptoms and the characters of injury through means of Chi-square test. Results Incidence of injuries was 8.01%, detection rate of depressive symptoms was 23.04%. The difference with respect to the quantity of samples with injuries did not have a statistical significance in different regions(P>0.05),but did in different age groups , states of marriage, occupation and education level(P0.05), but did in different states of marriage, occupation and education level(P0.05);未婚女性检出率(42.31%)、家务/离退休女性抑郁检出率(27.63%)、未接受教育女性的抑郁检出率(29.20%)较高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。有抑郁倾向组与无抑郁组在受伤种类、受伤性质、伤后处理和住院情况之间有差异。受伤性质中,有抑郁倾向组以骨折(40.00%)为主,无抑郁组为浅表损伤(50.60%);伤后处理中,有抑郁倾向组以门诊(40.00%)为主,无抑郁组为自己处理(32.53%);有抑郁倾向组严重伤害发生率(住院率46.67%)高于非抑郁组(6.02%)。结论农村女性表现出较高的伤害发生率和抑郁症状检出率,抑郁症状与伤害发生特点有一定的关联,应针对其特征采取相应的措施,促进农村女性的身心健康。

  1. Investigation of the relationship between facial injuries and traumatic brain injuries using a realistic subject-specific finite element head model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Kwong Ming; Tan, Long Bin; Lee, Shu Jin; Lim, Siak Piang; Lee, Heow Pueh

    2015-06-01

    In spite of anatomic proximity of the facial skeleton and cranium, there is lack of information in the literature regarding the relationship between facial and brain injuries. This study aims to correlate brain injuries with facial injuries using finite element method (FEM). Nine common impact scenarios of facial injuries are simulated with their individual stress wave propagation paths in the facial skeleton and the intracranial brain. Fractures of cranio-facial bones and intracranial injuries are evaluated based on the tolerance limits of the biomechanical parameters. General trend of maximum intracranial biomechanical parameters found in nasal bone and zygomaticomaxillary impacts indicates that severity of brain injury is highly associated with the proximity of location of impact to the brain. It is hypothesized that the midface is capable of absorbing considerable energy and protecting the brain from impact. The nasal cartilages dissipate the impact energy in the form of large scale deformation and fracture, with the vomer-ethmoid diverging stress to the "crumpling zone" of air-filled sphenoid and ethmoidal sinuses; in its most natural manner, the face protects the brain. This numerical study hopes to provide surgeons some insight in what possible brain injuries to be expected in various scenarios of facial trauma and to help in better diagnosis of unsuspected brain injury, thereby resulting in decreasing the morbidity and mortality associated with facial trauma.

  2. /sup 31/P NMR characterization of graded traumatic brain injury in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vink, R.; McIntosh, T.K.; Yamakami, I.; Faden, A.I.

    1988-01-01

    Irreversible tissue injury following central nervous system trauma is believed to result from both mechanical disruption at the time of primary insult, and more delayed autodestructive processes. These delayed events are associated with various biochemical changes, including alterations in phosphate energy metabolism and intracellular pH. Using /sup 31/P NMR, we have monitored the changes in phosphorus energy metabolism and intracellular pH in a single hemisphere of the rat brain over an 8-h period following graded, traumatic, fluid percussion-induced brain injury. Following trauma the ratio of phosphocreatine to inorganic phosphate (PCr/Pi) declined in each injury group. This decline was transitory with low injury (1.0 +/- 0.5 atm), biphasic with moderate (2.1 +/- 0.4 atm) and high (3.9 +/- 0.9 atm) injury, and sustained following severe injury (5.9 +/- 0.7 atm). The initial PCr/Pi decline in the moderate and high injury groups was associated with intracellular acidosis; however, the second decline occurred in the absence of any pH changes. Alterations in ATP occurred only in severely injured animals and such changes were associated with marked acidosis and 100% mortality rate. After 4h, the posttraumatic PCr/Pi ratio correlated linearly with the severity of injury. We suggest that a reduced posttraumatic PCr/Pi ratio may be indicative of altered mitochondrial energy production and may predict a reduced capacity of the cell to recover from traumatic injury.

  3. Microstructural brain injury in post-concussion syndrome after minor head injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, Marion; Wielopolski, Piotr A.; Vernooij, Meike W.; Lugt, Aad van der [Erasmus MC-University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Department of Radiology (Hs-224), PO Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Houston, Gavin C. [Applied Science Lab, GE Healthcare, Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Dippel, Diederik W.J.; Koudstaal, Peter J. [Erasmus MC-University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Department of Neurology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hunink, M.G.M. [Erasmus MC-University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Department of Radiology (Hs-224), PO Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC-University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Department of Epidemiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Health Policy and Management, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    After minor head injury (MHI), post-concussive symptoms commonly occur. The purpose of this study was to correlate the severity of post-concussive symptoms in MHI patients with MRI measures of microstructural brain injury, namely mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA), as well as the presence of microhaemorrhages. Twenty MHI patients and 12 healthy controls were scanned at 3 T using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and high-resolution gradient recalled echo (HRGRE) T2*-weighted sequences. One patient was excluded from the analysis because of bilateral subdural haematomas. DTI data were preprocessed using Tract Based Spatial Statistics. The resulting MD and FA images were correlated with the severity of post-concussive symptoms evaluated with the Rivermead Postconcussion Symptoms Questionnaire. The number and location of microhaemorrhages were assessed on the HRGRE T2*-weighted images. Comparing patients with controls, there were no differences in MD. FA was decreased in the right temporal subcortical white matter. MD was increased in association with the severity of post-concussive symptoms in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO), the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. FA was reduced in association with the severity of post-concussive symptoms in the uncinate fasciculus, the IFO, the internal capsule and the corpus callosum, as well as in the parietal and frontal subcortical white matter. Microhaemorrhages were observed in one patient only. The severity of post-concussive symptoms after MHI was significantly correlated with a reduction of white matter integrity, providing evidence of microstructural brain injury as a neuropathological substrate of the post-concussion syndrome. (orig.)

  4. Association of Electroencephalography (EEG) Power Spectra with Corneal Nerve Fiber Injury in Retinoblastoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianliang; Sun, Juanjuan; Diao, Yumei; Deng, Aijun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In our clinical experience we discovered that EEG band power may be correlated with corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. This study aimed to investigate biomarkers obtained from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to reflect corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study included 20 retinoblastoma patients treated at the Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University between 2010 and 2014. Twenty normal individuals were included in the control group. EEG activity was recorded continuously with 32 electrodes using standard EEG electrode placement for detecting EEG power. A cornea confocal microscope was used to examine corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients and normal individuals. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between corneal nerve injury and EEG power changes. The sensitivity and specificity of changed EEG power in diagnosis of corneal nerve injury were also analyzed. RESULTS The predominantly slow EEG oscillations changed gradually into faster waves in retinoblastoma patients. The EEG pattern in retinoblastoma patients was characterized by a distinct increase of delta (PEEG spectra power and negatively correlated with theta EEG spectra power. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity by compounding in the series were 60% and 67%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Changes in delta and theta of EEG appear to be associated with occurrence of corneal nerve injury. Useful information can be provided for evaluating corneal nerve damage in retinoblastoma patients through analyzing EEG power bands. PMID:27592207

  5. Association of Electroencephalography (EEG) Power Spectra with Corneal Nerve Fiber Injury in Retinoblastoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianliang; Sun, Juanjuan; Diao, Yumei; Deng, Aijun

    2016-09-04

    BACKGROUND In our clinical experience we discovered that EEG band power may be correlated with corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. This study aimed to investigate biomarkers obtained from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to reflect corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study included 20 retinoblastoma patients treated at the Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University between 2010 and 2014. Twenty normal individuals were included in the control group. EEG activity was recorded continuously with 32 electrodes using standard EEG electrode placement for detecting EEG power. A cornea confocal microscope was used to examine corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients and normal individuals. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between corneal nerve injury and EEG power changes. The sensitivity and specificity of changed EEG power in diagnosis of corneal nerve injury were also analyzed. RESULTS The predominantly slow EEG oscillations changed gradually into faster waves in retinoblastoma patients. The EEG pattern in retinoblastoma patients was characterized by a distinct increase of delta (PEEG spectra power and negatively correlated with theta EEG spectra power. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity by compounding in the series were 60% and 67%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Changes in delta and theta of EEG appear to be associated with occurrence of corneal nerve injury. Useful information can be provided for evaluating corneal nerve damage in retinoblastoma patients through analyzing EEG power bands.

  6. Perioperative acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvert Stacey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI is a serious complication in the perioperative period, and is consistently associated with increased rates of mortality and morbidity. Two major consensus definitions have been developed in the last decade that allow for easier comparison of trial evidence. Risk factors have been identified in both cardiac and general surgery and there is an evolving role for novel biomarkers. Despite this, there has been no real change in outcomes and the mainstay of treatment remains preventive with no clear evidence supporting any therapeutic intervention as yet. This review focuses on definition, risk factors, the emerging role of biomarkers and subsequent management of AKI in the perioperative period, taking into account new and emerging strategies.

  7. Deltoid ligament and tibiofibular syndesmosis injury in chronic lateral ankle instability: Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation at 3T and comparison with arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the prevalence of deltoid ligament and distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injury on 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with chronic lateral ankle instability (CLAI). Fifty patients (mean age, 35 years) who had undergone preoperative 3T MRI and surgical treatment for CLAI were enrolled. The prevalence of deltoid ligament and syndesmosis injury were assessed. The complexity of lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC) injury was correlated with prevalence of deltoid or syndesmosis injuries. The diagnostic accuracy of ankle ligament imaging at 3T MRI was analyzed using arthroscopy as a reference standard. On MRI, deltoid ligament injury was identified in 18 (36%) patients as follows: superficial ligament alone, 9 (50%); deep ligament alone 2 (11%); and both ligaments 7 (39%). Syndesmosis abnormality was found in 21 (42%) patients as follows: anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITFL) alone, 19 (90%); and AITFL and interosseous ligament, 2 (10%). There was no correlation between LCLC injury complexity and the prevalence of an accompanying deltoid or syndesmosis injury on both MRI and arthroscopic findings. MRI sensitivity and specificity for detection of deltoid ligament injury were 84% and 93.5%, and those for detection of syndesmosis injury were 91% and 100%, respectively. Deltoid ligament or syndesmosis injuries were common in patients undergoing surgery for CLAI, regardless of the LCLC injury complexity. 3T MRI is helpful for the detection of all types of ankle ligament injury. Therefore, careful interpretation of pre-operative MRI is essential

  8. Deltoid ligament and tibiofibular syndesmosis injury in chronic lateral ankle instability: Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation at 3T and comparison with arthroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Ka Young; Choi, Yun Sun; Lee, Seok Hoon; Kim, Jin Su; Young, Ki Won; Jeong, Min Sun; Kim, Dae Jung [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate the prevalence of deltoid ligament and distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injury on 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with chronic lateral ankle instability (CLAI). Fifty patients (mean age, 35 years) who had undergone preoperative 3T MRI and surgical treatment for CLAI were enrolled. The prevalence of deltoid ligament and syndesmosis injury were assessed. The complexity of lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC) injury was correlated with prevalence of deltoid or syndesmosis injuries. The diagnostic accuracy of ankle ligament imaging at 3T MRI was analyzed using arthroscopy as a reference standard. On MRI, deltoid ligament injury was identified in 18 (36%) patients as follows: superficial ligament alone, 9 (50%); deep ligament alone 2 (11%); and both ligaments 7 (39%). Syndesmosis abnormality was found in 21 (42%) patients as follows: anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITFL) alone, 19 (90%); and AITFL and interosseous ligament, 2 (10%). There was no correlation between LCLC injury complexity and the prevalence of an accompanying deltoid or syndesmosis injury on both MRI and arthroscopic findings. MRI sensitivity and specificity for detection of deltoid ligament injury were 84% and 93.5%, and those for detection of syndesmosis injury were 91% and 100%, respectively. Deltoid ligament or syndesmosis injuries were common in patients undergoing surgery for CLAI, regardless of the LCLC injury complexity. 3T MRI is helpful for the detection of all types of ankle ligament injury. Therefore, careful interpretation of pre-operative MRI is essential.

  9. The Assessment of Bladder and Urethral Function in Spinal Cord Injury Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong CHEN; Shuangquan SUN; Rongjin DENG; Dan CAI; Xiaoyi YUAN; Guanghui DU; Weimin YANG; Zhangqun YE

    2009-01-01

    The correlation between the anatomic site of spinal cord injury and real-time conditions of bladder and urethral function was assessed in order to provide a reasonable basis for the clinical treat-ment of neurogenic bladder. A total of 134 patients with spinal cord injuries (105 males, 29 females;averaged 34.1 years old) were involved in this retrospective analysis, including urodynamic evaluation,clinical examination and imaging for anatomical position, and Bors-Comarr classification. The associa-tions between the levels of injury and urodynamic findings were analyzed. The results showed that mean follow-up duration was 16.7 months (range 8-27 months). Complete spinal cord injuries occurred in 21 cases, and incomplete spinal cord injuries in 113 cases. Of the 43 patients with upper motor neu-ron (UMN) injuries, hyperreflexia and (or) detmsor sphincter dyssynergia were demonstrated in 30 (69.8%), 31 (72.1%) suffered low bladder compliance (less than 12.5 mL/cmH2O), 28 (65.1%) had high detrusor leak point pressures (greater than 40 cmH2O), and 34 (79.1%) had residual urine. Of the 91 pa-tients with lower motor neuron (LMN) injuries, areflexia occurred in 78 (85.7%), high compliance in 75 (82.4%), low leak point pressures in 80 (87.9%), and residual urine in 87 (95.6%), respectively. The as-sociations between the anatomical site of spinal cord injury and urodynamic findings were ill defined. In patients with spinal cord injury, this study revealed a significant association between the level of injury and the type of voiding dysfunction. The anatomical site of spinal cord injury can not be predicted in real-time condition of bladder and urethral function. Management of neurogenic bladder in patients with spinal cord injury must be based on urodynamic findings rather than inferences from the neurologic evaluation.

  10. CT identification of abdominal injuries in abused pre-school-age children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Kan, J.H. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Greeley, Christopher S. [University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, TX (United States); Piercey, Lisa M. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Yu, Chang [Vanderbilt University, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Although the abdominopelvic CT findings of abdominal trauma in children have been described, little has been written about the subset of children who are victims of abuse. Our purpose is to describe abdominopelvic injuries in abused pre-school-age children as identified on CT. An IRB-approved retrospective review of our institutional child abuse registry was performed. Searching a 14-year period, we identified 84 children {<=} 5 years of age with medically diagnosed abuse who underwent CT. We reviewed imaging studies, operative reports, autopsy findings and patient outcomes. Consensus review of the CT examinations was performed by CAQ-certified pediatric radiologists, and findings were categorized as normal or by injury types (solid organ versus bowel). The injuries were analyzed in light of existing literature on pediatric accidental and non-accidental injuries. Of the 84 children, 35 (41.7%) had abdominal injuries. Abdominal injuries included liver (15), bowel (13), mesentery (4), spleen (6), kidneys (7), pancreas (4) and adrenal glands (3). Of these children, 26% (9/35) required surgical intervention for bowel, mesenteric and pancreatic injuries. Another 9/35 children died, not as a result of abdominal injuries but as a direct result of inflicted intracranial injuries. Our data indicate that abdominal injuries in abused children present in a pattern similar to that of children with accidental abdominal trauma, underscoring the need for vigilance and correlative historical and clinical data to identify victims of abuse. Mortality in abused children with intra-abdominal injury was frequently related to concomitant head injury. (orig.)

  11. Electrophysiological Monitoring of Injury ProgressionIn the Rat Cerebellar Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan eOrdek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The changes of excitability in affected neural networks can be used as a marker to study the temporal course of traumatic brain injury (TBI. The cerebellum is an ideal platform to study brain injury mechanisms at the network level using the electrophysiological methods. Within its crystalline morphology, the cerebellar cortex contains highly organized topographical subunits that are defined by two main inputs, the climbing and mossy fibers. Here we demonstrate the use of cerebellar evoked potentials (EPs mediated through these afferent systems for monitoring the injury progression in a rat model of fluid percussion injury (FPI. A mechanical tap on the dorsal hand was used as a stimulus, and EPs were recorded from the paramedian lobule (PML of the posterior cerebellum via multi-electrode arrays (MEA. Post-injury evoked response amplitudes (EPAs were analyzed on a daily basis for one week and compared with pre-injury values. We found a trend of consistently decreasing EPAs in all nine animals, losing as much as 72±4% of baseline amplitudes measured before the injury. Notably, our results highlighted two particular time windows; the first 24 hours of injury in the acute period and day-3 to day-7 in the delayed period where the largest drops (~50% and 24% were observed in the EPAs. In addition, cross-correlations of spontaneous signals between electrode pairs declined (from 0.47±0.1 to 0.35±0.04, p<0.001 along with the EPAs throughout the week of injury. In support of the electrophysiological findings, immunohistochemical analysis at day-7 post-injury showed detectable Purkinje cell loss at low FPI pressures and more with the largest pressures used. Our results suggest that sensory evoked potentials recorded from the cerebellar surface can be a useful technique to monitor the course of cerebellar injury and identify the phases of injury progression even at mild levels.

  12. Evaluation of Axonal Strain as a Predictor for Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries Using Finite Element Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Chiara; Kleiven, Svein

    2014-11-01

    Finite element (FE) models are often used to study the biomechanical effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Measures based on mechanical responses, such as principal strain or invariants of the strain tensor, are used as a metric to predict the risk of injury. However, the reliability of inferences drawn from these models depends on the correspondence between the mechanical measures and injury data, as well as the establishment of accurate thresholds of tissue injury. In the current study, a validated anisotropic FE model of the human head is used to evaluate the hypothesis that strain in the direction of fibers (axonal strain) is a better predictor of TBI than maximum principal strain (MPS), anisotropic equivalent strain (AESM) and cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM). An analysis of head kinematics-based metrics, such as head injury criterion (HIC) and brain injury criterion (BrIC), is also provided. Logistic regression analysis is employed to compare binary injury data (concussion/no concussion) with continuous strain/kinematics data. The threshold corresponding to 50% of injury probability is determined for each parameter. The predictive power (area under the ROC curve, AUC) is calculated from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The measure with the highest AUC is considered to be the best predictor of mTBI. Logistic regression shows a statistical correlation between all the mechanical predictors and injury data for different regions of the brain. Peaks of axonal strain have the highest AUC and determine a strain threshold of 0.07 for corpus callosum and 0.15 for the brainstem, in agreement with previously experimentally derived injury thresholds for reversible axonal injury. For a data set of mild TBI from the national football league, the strain in the axonal direction is found to be a better injury predictor than MPS, AESM, CSDM, BrIC and HIC.

  13. CT identification of abdominal injuries in abused pre-school-age children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the abdominopelvic CT findings of abdominal trauma in children have been described, little has been written about the subset of children who are victims of abuse. Our purpose is to describe abdominopelvic injuries in abused pre-school-age children as identified on CT. An IRB-approved retrospective review of our institutional child abuse registry was performed. Searching a 14-year period, we identified 84 children ≤ 5 years of age with medically diagnosed abuse who underwent CT. We reviewed imaging studies, operative reports, autopsy findings and patient outcomes. Consensus review of the CT examinations was performed by CAQ-certified pediatric radiologists, and findings were categorized as normal or by injury types (solid organ versus bowel). The injuries were analyzed in light of existing literature on pediatric accidental and non-accidental injuries. Of the 84 children, 35 (41.7%) had abdominal injuries. Abdominal injuries included liver (15), bowel (13), mesentery (4), spleen (6), kidneys (7), pancreas (4) and adrenal glands (3). Of these children, 26% (9/35) required surgical intervention for bowel, mesenteric and pancreatic injuries. Another 9/35 children died, not as a result of abdominal injuries but as a direct result of inflicted intracranial injuries. Our data indicate that abdominal injuries in abused children present in a pattern similar to that of children with accidental abdominal trauma, underscoring the need for vigilance and correlative historical and clinical data to identify victims of abuse. Mortality in abused children with intra-abdominal injury was frequently related to concomitant head injury. (orig.)

  14. ELECTRODIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT OF PERIPHERAL NERVE INJURIES IN KICK-BOXERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R EMAD

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducti0n. Peripheral nerve injuries are one of the common traumas in various sport fields. Nowadays, thera are a growing tendency to Martial arts among young people. Insufficient knowlodage about the biomechanics and true skills in these sports can expose the athletes to many neuromusculoskeletal injuries including peripheral nerve injuries. The aim of this study was assessment of peripheral nerve injuries among Kick-boxers. Methods. The research was done on 30 male kick-boxers Aged between 17-28 years. Ulnar, tibial and median nerves were studied for the presence of unlar nerve entrapment on elbow, trasal tunnel syndrom and carpal tunnel syndrom. Results. Ulnar neuropathy was observed in 12 cases. Tibial entrapment was detected in 13 cases. No median nerve intrapment of CTS was detected. There was a significant correlation between the age of the participants and nerve entrapment. Discussion. Peripheral nerve injuries should be considered in athletes and should be trained to apply preventive and thrapeutic procedures.

  15. Pattern of injury in Shiraz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad-Reza Soroush; Shahram Ghahri-Saremi; Mehdi Rambod; Seyed-Ali Malek-Hosseini; Saman Nick-Eghbal; Ali Kha-ji

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Injury is a major neglected health problem in developing countries. The first step in dealing with injury problem is to identify the injury patterns and characteristics. Therefore, we aimed to demonstrate the current status of trauma admissions to hospitals in Shiraz, as a major city of Iran.Methods: A hospital-based study was conducted in 2002. All injured patients admitted during 6 months in emergency departments of two general hospitals of Shiraz, Nemazi and Chamran were included.Results: A total of 1 765 injured patients were registered during the study period, with mean age of 33 years. Manual workers were the most vulnerable group among occupational categories. Inner-city roads were the most common place of injury and traffic accident was the major cause of injury. Overally, falling injury was the second common cause of injury in males and the first cause in females (especially at the age of over 60).Conclusion: As other studies conducted in our society, traffic accidents are the major cause of morbidity and mortality and this can emphasize on the obligation to take legislative action in the field of driving and road safety, directing resources and educating the public and raising the awareness of the community in prevention of this iceberg-like problem.

  16. Acute injuries from mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, T K; Bracker, M D; Patrick, K

    1993-08-01

    We questioned members of 2 southern California off-road bicycling organizations about injuries associated with the use of all-terrain bicycles. Cyclists were asked about riding and safety habits, the kind(s) of injury sustained with their most recent accident and whether they sought medical treatment, and the circumstances of the accident. Of 459 mailed surveys, 268 (58.4%) were returned. Respondents (82.8% of whom were male) ranged in age from 14 to 68 years. Of these, 225 (84%) had been injured while riding all-terrain bicycles, 51% in the past year. Although most injuries were characterized as minor, 26% required professional medical care, and 4.4% of those injured were admitted to hospital. Extremity injuries--abrasions, lacerations, contusions--occurred in 201 (90%) cyclists with 27 (12%) sustaining a fracture or dislocation. High levels of helmet use (88%) may explain the low occurrence of head and neck trauma (12%). Frequent riding and riding on paved terrain were associated with increased severity of injury, although most accidents--197 (87.6%)--occurred off paved roads. These results suggest that, compared with regular bicyclists, all-terrain cyclists have more, but not necessarily more severe, injuries. Clinicians and emergency medical personnel should be aware that the increasing popularity of off-road cycling may change the frequency and nature of bicycling injuries.

  17. Psychosocial recovery after serious injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan O'Donnell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 2010 iteration of the Global Burden of Disease statistics (Murray et al., 2012 points to the growing impact of injury and highlights the mounting burden of psychiatric disorder. It is essential to examine the intersection between these two contributors to disease burden. Methods: The Australian Injury Vulnerability Study collected data of over 1,000 injury patients from their initial hospitalization to 6 years post-injury. Structured clinical interviews were used to diagnose psychiatric disorder and self-report measures for disability and symptom severity. Results: A wide range of psychiatric disorders developed following injury, which included posttraumatic stress disorder, agoraphobia, depression, and substance use disorders (Bryant, O'Donnell, Creamer, Silove, & McFarlane, 2010. Although prevalence rates for these disorders were generally consistent over time, examination of trajectory data showed that different people had the disorders at different times. Importantly, the data showed that early anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms played a significant role in the development of long term disability after injury (Carty, O'Donnell, Evans, Kazantzis, & Creamer, 2011; O'Donnell et al., 2013. Conclusions: These data support the view that transdiagnostic models for early intervention may be required to address the complex psychiatric disorder trajectories that develop after injury.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord injury in chronic stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobimatsu, Haruki; Nihei, Ryuichi; Kimura, Tetsuhiko; Yano, Hideo; Touyama, Tetsuo; Tobimatsu, Yoshiko; Suyama, Naoto; Yoshino, Yasumasa (National Rehabilitation Center for the Disabled, Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan))

    1991-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of a total of 195 patients with cervical (125) or thoracic (70) spinal cord injury were reviewed. The imaging studies of the spinal cord lesions were correlated with clinical manifestations. Sequential MR imaging revealed hypointensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) in all patients, except for five patients showing no signal changes and two showing isointensity, suggesting gliosis, myelomalacia, and syringomyelia. Spinal cord lesions were classified into four types: small lesions, large lesions, complete transverse, and longitudinal rupture. These lesions were well correlated with the severity of injury and paralysis. Complete paralysis was frequently associated with enlarged, complete transverse for cervical spinal cord injury, and longitudinal ruptured or thinned complete transverse for thoracic spinal cord injury. The height of paralysis was well in agreement with that of lesions. For incomplete paralysis, localized lesions were seen within the spinal cord, coinciding with the paralysis or severity. Traumatic syringomyelia was seen in 17 patients (8.7%)-- for the cervical site (10 patients, 8%) and the thoracic site (7 patients, 10%). When homogeneous and marginally clear hypointensity is shown on T1-weighted images and vacuolated hyperintensity is shown on T2-weighted images, in addition to lesions spreading two or more cords or 1.5 or more cords above the nervous root level of paralysis, traumatic syringomyelia is strongly suspected, requiring the follow up observation. (N.K.).

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord injury in chronic stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of a total of 195 patients with cervical (125) or thoracic (70) spinal cord injury were reviewed. The imaging studies of the spinal cord lesions were correlated with clinical manifestations. Sequential MR imaging revealed hypointensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) in all patients, except for five patients showing no signal changes and two showing isointensity, suggesting gliosis, myelomalacia, and syringomyelia. Spinal cord lesions were classified into four types: small lesions, large lesions, complete transverse, and longitudinal rupture. These lesions were well correlated with the severity of injury and paralysis. Complete paralysis was frequently associated with enlarged, complete transverse for cervical spinal cord injury, and longitudinal ruptured or thinned complete transverse for thoracic spinal cord injury. The height of paralysis was well in agreement with that of lesions. For incomplete paralysis, localized lesions were seen within the spinal cord, coinciding with the paralysis or severity. Traumatic syringomyelia was seen in 17 patients (8.7%)-- for the cervical site (10 patients, 8%) and the thoracic site (7 patients, 10%). When homogeneous and marginally clear hypointensity is shown on T1-weighted images and vacuolated hyperintensity is shown on T2-weighted images, in addition to lesions spreading two or more cords or 1.5 or more cords above the nervous root level of paralysis, traumatic syringomyelia is strongly suspected, requiring the follow up observation. (N.K.)

  20. Urinary tract injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As shown by literature data, abdominal trauma in children is responsible for 14% of deaths, whereas in adults for 10%. Although abdominal traumas in children can be severe and lead to massive blood loss, most children die because of accompanying traumas of the thorax and head. It validates the surgical rule concerning abdominal traumas 'investigate aggressively, manage conservatively'. Posttraumatic injury of the urinary system is not frequent in children and its specificity (compared with adults), depends on greater susceptibility to external aggressive factors. Blunt trauma is the cause of renal parenchyma injury and acceleration/deceleration injury affects the excretory system and vessels. Extension mechanism is the cause of ureter avulsion and/or thrombus formation in stretched renal vessels- it is characteristic in children with non-accidental traumas. Bladder and urethra injuries are rare in children. During car accidents, a rupture of full bladder (seat belt injury) or bladder perforation by fractured bones of the pelvis is possible. We analyzed all hospitalizations of abdominal trauma in our surgical ward in the year 2004 (70 cases). Renal injuries were found in 6 children (8.6%). Thanks to five-year clinical experience of our hospital, on the average only 1-2 cases per annum needed operation. The management of renal injuries involves first of all conservative treatment. This publication has educational character and may serve as a valuable reminder of the useful knowledge in daily cooperation between the emergency room, radiology department and surgical ward. Based on available literature from recent few years, we quote suggested renal injuries classifications and procedures.This publication contains only images from our department of radiology archives. Clinical symptoms are often not appropriate for blunt abdominal traumas diagnosis. Owing to clinical status, which is difficult to interpret, fast and complete radiological diagnosis is necessary for

  1. Acute finger injuries: part II. Fractures, dislocations, and thumb injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggit, Jeffrey C; Meko, Christian J

    2006-03-01

    Family physicians can treat most finger fractures and dislocations, but when necessary, prompt referral to an orthopedic or hand surgeon is important to maximize future function. Examination includes radiography (oblique, anteroposterior, and true lateral views) and physical examination to detect fractures. Dislocation reduction is accomplished with careful traction. If successful, further treatment focuses on the concomitant soft tissue injury. Referral is needed for irreducible dislocations. Distal phalanx fractures are treated conservatively, and middle phalanx fractures can be treated if reduction is stable. Physicians usually can reduce metacarpal bone fractures, even if there is a large degree of angulation. An orthopedic or hand surgeon should treat finger injuries that are unstable or that have rotation. Collateral ligament injuries of the thumb should be examine with radiography before physical examination. Stable joint injuries can be treated with splinting or casting, although an orthopedic or hand surgeon should treat unstable joints.

  2. Traumatic Penile Injury: From Circumcision Injury to Penile Amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Heon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of external genitalia trauma is diverse according to the nature of trauma and injured anatomic site. The classification of trauma is important to establish a strategy of treatment; however, to date there has been less effort to make a classification for trauma of external genitalia. The classification of external trauma in male could be established by the nature of injury mechanism or anatomic site: accidental versus self-mutilation injury and penis versus penis plus scrotum or perineum. Accidental injury covers large portion of external genitalia trauma because of high prevalence and severity of this disease. The aim of this study is to summarize the mechanism and treatment of the traumatic injury of penis. This study is the first review describing the issue.

  3. Posttraumatic incarceration of medial collateral ligament into knee joint with anterior cruciate ligament injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Gurpur Kini; Karel du Pre; Warwick Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Medial collateral ligament of the knee is an important coronal stabiliser and often injured in isolation or as combination of injuries.The article reports a case of incarcerated medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury in combination with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in 20 year old male who presented to us 4 weeks after injury.Clinical examination and MRI was correlated to complete ACL tear with torn distal MCL and incarceration into the joint.Patient was taken up for ACL hamstring graft reconstruction with mini-arthrotomy and repair of the torn MCL.Patient was followed up with dedicated rehabilitation protocol with good functional results.At one year follow-up, patient exhibited full range of motion with negative Lachman, Pivot shift and valgus stress tests.This article highlights the rare pattern of MCL tear and also reviews the literature on this pattern of injury.

  4. Injuries in group kept horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdell, C.M.; Jorgensen, G.M.; Keeling, L.;

    2014-01-01

    Group housing of horses is not very widespread, despite obvious advantages for their development and mental well-being. One often expressed rationale for this is that horse owners are worried about the risk of injuries due to kicks, bites or being chased into obstacles. To address this concern, we...... developed and validated a scoring system for external injuries in horses to be able to record the severity of a lesion in a standardized and simple way under field conditions. The scoring system has five categories from insignificant loss of hair to severe, life threatening injuries. It was used...

  5. Sleep in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaelen, James; Greiffenstein, Patrick; deBoisblanc, Bennett P

    2015-07-01

    More than one-half million patients are hospitalized annually for traumatic brain injury (TBI). One-quarter demonstrate sleep-disordered breathing, up to 50% experience insomnia, and half have hypersomnia. Sleep disturbances after TBI may result from injury to sleep-regulating brain tissue, nonspecific neurohormonal responses to systemic injury, ICU environmental interference, and medication side effects. A diagnosis of sleep disturbances requires a high index of suspicion and appropriate testing. Treatment starts with a focus on making the ICU environment conducive to normal sleep. Treating sleep-disordered breathing likely has outcome benefits in TBI. The use of sleep promoting sedative-hypnotics and anxiolytics should be judicious. PMID:26118920

  6. Acute kidney injury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merouani, A; Flechelles, O; Jouvet, P

    2012-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects 5% of critically ill hospitalized children and is a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality. The current review focuses on new definitions of acute kidney injury, standardized to reflect the entire spectrum of the disease, as well as on ongoing research to identify early biomarkers of kidney injury. Its also provides an overview of current practice and available therapies, with emphasis on new strategies for the prevention and pharmacological treatment of diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. Furthermore, a decision-making algorithm is presented for the use of renal replacement therapies in critically ill children with AKI. PMID:22495187

  7. Multiligamentous injuries and knee dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimber, Lana H; Scalcione, Luke R; Rowan, Andrew; Hardy, Jolene C; Melville, David M; Taljanovic, Mihra S

    2015-11-01

    Complex capsular ligamentous structures contribute to stability of the knee joint. Simultaneous injury of two or more knee ligaments, aside from concurrent tears involving the anterior cruciate and medial collateral ligaments, is considered to be associated with femorotibial knee dislocations. Proximal tibiofibular joint dislocations are not always easily recognized and may be overlooked or missed. Patellofemoral dislocations can be transient with MR imaging sometimes required to reach the diagnosis. In this article, the authors describe the mechanism of injury, ligamentous disruptions, imaging, and treatment options of various types of knee dislocations including injuries of the femorotibial, proximal tibiofibular, and patellofemoral joints. PMID:26002747

  8. The relationship between macroeconomic and industry-specific business cycle indicators and workrelated injuries among Danish construction workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Lander, F.; Lauritsen, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The current study examines and compares the relationship between both macroeconomic and industry-specific business cycle indicators, and work-related injuries among construction workers in Denmark using emergency department (ED) injury data and also officially reported injuries...... to the Danish Working Environment Authority (WEA). Methods The correlations between ED and WEA injury data from the catchment area of Odense University Hospital during the period 1984–2010 were tested separately for variability and trend with two general macroeconomic indicators (gross domestic product...

  9. Hamstring Muscle Injuries, a Rehabilitation Protocol Purpose

    OpenAIRE

    Valle,, Z Conesa Del; van der Tol, L.; Hamilton,; Rodas; Malliaras; Malliaropoulos; Rizo; Moreno; Jardi

    2015-01-01

    Context Hamstring acute muscle injuries are prevalent in several sports including AFL football (Australian Football League), sprinting and soccer, and are often associated with prolonged time away from sport. Evidence Acquisition In response to this, research into prevention and management of hamstring injury has increased, but epidemiological data shows no decline in injury and re-injury rates, suggesting that rehabilitation prog...

  10. Injury Patterns In Low Intensity Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Saraswat

    2009-01-01

    Most common mode of injury was Gunshot wound (41.4%, followed by splinter injuries (39.2% and Road traffic accident(RTA (19.4%. Overall mortality was 3.8% and inpatient mortality of 1.4%. Head and neck injuries were leading cause of death followed by thoracic injuries.

  11. Psychological Aspects of Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Daniel W.

    1976-01-01

    Reviewing literature on the psychological impact of spinal cord injury suggests: (a) depression may not be a precondition for injury adjustment; (b) many persons sustaining cord injury may have experienced psychological disruption prior to injury; and (c) indexes of rehabilitation success need to be developed for the spinal cord injured. (Author)

  12. Evaluation of spinal cord injury animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Zhang; Marong Fang; Haohao Chen; Fangming Gou; Mingxing Ding

    2014-01-01

    Because there is no curative treatment for spinal cord injury, establishing an ideal animal model is important to identify injury mechanisms and develop therapies for individuals suffering from spinal cord injuries. In this article, we systematically review and analyze various kinds of animal models of spinal cord injury and assess their advantages and disadvantages for further studies.

  13. MRI of overuse injury in elite athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overuse injuries are a common finding in elite athletes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the optimal method for the diagnosis of overuse injury in athletes of all levels. We present a review of common and important overuse injuries occurring in elite athletes. A systematic approach based on the functional anatomic units - tendons, bones and joints - may assist in diagnosis of these injuries

  14. High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, C. R.; Benson, E.; England, S.; Charvat, J.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Human hands play a significant role during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. Because of this high frequency usage, hand and arm related injuries are known to occur during EVA and EVA training in the NBL. The primary objectives of this investigation were to: 1) document all known EVA glove related injuries and circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend interventions where possible that could be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigation focused on the discomforts and injuries of U.S. crewmembers who had worn the pressurized Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit and experienced 4000 Series or Phase VI glove related incidents during 1981 to 2010 for either EVA ground training or in-orbit flight. We conducted an observational retrospective case-control investigation using 1) a literature review of known injuries, 2) data mining of crew injury, glove sizing, and hand anthropometry databases, 3) descriptive statistical analyses, and finally 4) statistical risk correlation and predictor analyses to better understand injury prevalence and potential causation. Specific predictor statistical analyses included use of principal component analyses (PCA), multiple logistic regression, and survival analyses (Cox proportional hazards regression). Results of these analyses were computed risk variables in the forms of odds ratios (likelihood of an injury occurring given the magnitude of a risk variable) and hazard ratios (likelihood of time to injury occurrence). Due to the exploratory nature of this investigation, we selected predictor variables significant at p=0.15. RESULTS: Through 2010, there have been a total of 330 NASA crewmembers, from which 96 crewmembers performed 322 EVAs during 1981-2010, resulting in 50 crewmembers being injured inflight and 44

  15. The role of anxiety in vulnerability for self-injurious behaviour: studies in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X; Devine, D P

    2016-09-15

    Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a debilitating characteristic that is highly prevalent in autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Pathological anxiety is also common, and there are reports of comorbid anxiety and self-injury in some children. We have investigated potential interactions between anxiety and self-injury, using a rat model of pemoline-induced self-biting. In one experiment, rats were pre-screened for trait anxiety by measuring expression of anxiety-related behaviour on the elevated plus maze and open field emergence test. The rats were then treated with pemoline once daily for ten days, and vulnerability for pemoline-induced self-injury was evaluated. This revealed modest correlations between innate levels of anxiety-related behaviour in the open field test (time in the start box, and latency to enter the open field), and vulnerability for pemoline-induced self-biting (total duration of self-injurious oral contact, and total size of tissue injury). Measures in the elevated plus maze were not significantly correlated with vulnerability for pemoline-induced self-injury. In a second experiment, rats were treated with the beta-carboline FG 7142 twice daily, during 5days of treatment with pemoline. The rats that were treated with this anxiogenic drug exhibited greater duration of self-injurious oral contact, and larger injuries than vehicle-treated controls did. Overall, these results suggest that anxiety may contribute to the etiology and/or expression of self-injurious behaviour, and indicate that further research is warranted. PMID:27217100

  16. Hematological parameters after acute radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to clinical experiences of radiation accidents during the past two decades, utilization of measured hematologic changes as a direcrt indicator of the severity of radiation injury provides important information for diagnosis and prognostic evaluation in individual cases. Hematologic changes can be described in terms of prognostic categories based on the possible outcome of the acute radiation syndrome. The five categories suggested by Wald according to the grade of severity. By the actual application of this category to our experience of the 1971 Chiba accident of exposure to irridium 192, it was proved that the estimated dose was well correlated to the value by cytogenetic analysis and physical estimation used of thermo-luminescence phenomena. In hematological parameters, a decrease of lymphocytes occurs whithin 24 hours after the exposure. The level of this early lymphopenia is regarded as one of the best indicators of severity of radiation injury. For the decision of therapeutic procedures, however, the total granulocyte count and platelet count are more valuable to exclude severe infection and bleeding symptoms occurred one month after the exposure. The limitation of the approach by hematologic data must exist in the case exposed in a non-uniform fashion. To overwhelm this difficulty, the application of rapid marrow scanning by short-lived RI such as 52Fe is expected and the bone marrow imaging by magnetic resonance studies is more exciting. For more sensitive and technically easy-drived methods detecting hematologic injury, our new method of detecting micro-nucleus in polychromatic erythroblasts from cultured erythroid colonies from peripheral blood is now developing. Preliminary data have shown the sensitivity of this method is comparable to the cytogenetic study of pheripheral lymphocytes. (author)

  17. Injuries in racket sports among Slovenian players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondric, Miran; Matković, Branka R; Furjan-Mandić, Gordana; Hadzić, Vedran; Dervisević, Edvin

    2011-06-01

    On the sample of 83 top Slovenian athletes we have studied the frequency of injuries among table tennis, tennis and badminton players, types of injuries and severity of injuries--the latter based on data of players absences from training and/or competition processes. The most liable parts to injuries are shoulder girdle (17.27%), spine (16.55%) and ankle (15.83%), while foot (10.07%) and wrist (12.23%) are slightly less liable to injuries. The most frequent injuries in racket sports pertain to muscle tissues. According to this data, the majority of injuries occur halfway through a training session or a competition event, mostly during a competition season. The injuries primarily pertain to muscle tissues; these are followed by joint and tendon injuries. There are no differences between male and female players. Compared to other racket sports players, table tennis players suffer from fewer injuries.

  18. Radiology and injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The material available was grouped according to body regions and sport types. The first part contains data on radiography of the injured parts of the body and is intended to be a guide in the radiographic part of the diagnosis and treatment of the injured person. It also contains data on diagnostic pitfalls and recommendations for a comprehensive clarification of X-ray findings after an injury. The second part describes the sport types and hazards. Where possible, the injuries were documented by case studies and literature on the types of injury. The third part contains a collection of X-ray pictures with examples of various injuries. The presentation corresponds to the one of an up-to-date major text book on skeleton radiology. The pictures are presented as a series of problems for the reader to test his/her own diagnostic capabilities before he/she will read the solution to each example. With 411 figs

  19. Pathophysiology of overuse tendon injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overuse tendon injury is one of the most common injuries in sports.The etiology as well as the pathophysilogical mechanisms leading to tendinopathy are of crucial medical importance.At the moment intrinsic and extrinsic factors are assumed as mechanisms of overuse tendon injury. Except for the acute, extrinsic trauma, the chronic overuse tendon injury is a multifactorial process. There are many other factors, such as local hypoxia, less of nutrition, impaired metabolism and local inflammatory that may also contribute to the development of tissue damage.The exact interaction of these factors cannot be explained entirely at the moment.Further studies will be necessary in order to get more information. (orig.)

  20. Depression and Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Washington-operated SCI Clinics: Harborview Medical Center Rehabilitation Medicine Clinic 325 9th Ave., Seattle WA 98104 Spinal Cord Injury Clinic nurses: 206-744-5862 University of Washington ...

  1. Traumatic Brain Injury Registry (TBI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As the number of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) patients has grown, so has the need to track and monitor...

  2. Biomarkers in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokra, Daniela; Kosutova, Petra

    2015-04-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and its milder form acute lung injury (ALI) may result from various diseases and situations including sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, acute pancreatitis, aspiration of gastric contents, near-drowning etc. ALI/ARDS is characterized by diffuse alveolar injury, lung edema formation, neutrophil-derived inflammation, and surfactant dysfunction. Clinically, ALI/ARDS is manifested by decreased lung compliance, severe hypoxemia, and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Severity and further characteristics of ALI/ARDS may be detected by biomarkers in the plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (or tracheal aspirate) of patients. Changed concentrations of individual markers may suggest injury or activation of the specific types of lung cells-epithelial or endothelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages, etc.), and thereby help in diagnostics and in evaluation of the patient's clinical status and the treatment efficacy. This chapter reviews various biomarkers of acute lung injury and evaluates their usefulness in diagnostics and prognostication of ALI/ARDS.

  3. Travelers' Health: Injuries and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visiting Friends and Family in Areas with Chikungunya, Dengue, or Zika Travel to the Olympics Infographic: Olympic ... 297–307. Sleet DA, Balaban V. Travel medicine: preventing injuries to children. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2013 ...

  4. Dance Dynamics: Avoiding Dance Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Sandra, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This series features nine articles and an introduction by the editor. Topics covered include biomechanics of foot, ankle, knee, hip, and back; corrective exercises; preventative approaches to dance instruction; and aerobic dance injuries. (MT)

  5. Occupational Injuries, Illnesses and Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that was created by Act of Congress and publishes data related to safety, injuries, and fatalities that are both work-related and non-work related. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) - a government organization that is part of ...

  6. [Ascites and acute kidney injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Salvatore; Tonon, Marta; Angeli, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis. Ascites develops as a consequence of an abnormal splanchnic vasodilation with reduction of effecting circulating volume and activation of endogenous vasoconstrictors system causing salt and water retention. Patients with ascites have a high risk to develop further complications of cirrhosis such as hyponatremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and acute kidney injury resulting in a poor survival. In recent years, new studies helped a better understanding of the pathophysiology of ascites and acute kidney injury in cirrhosis. Furthermore, new diagnostic criteria have been proposed for acute kidney injury and hepatorenal syndrome and a new algorithm for their management has been recommended with the aim of an early diagnosis and treatment. Herein we will review the current knowledge on the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of ascites and acute kidney injury in patients with cirrhosis and we will identify the unmet needs that should be clarified in the next years.

  7. Self-Injury in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptom that results from a variety of factors. Adolescents who have difficulty talking about their feelings may show their emotional tension, physical discomfort, pain and low self-esteem with self-injurious behaviors. Although some teenagers may ...

  8. Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tend to play contact sports, like football and soccer. More severe injuries happen when the outside of ... impact activities, like swimming, bike riding, or protected running. Talk to your doctor about what you can ...

  9. [Ascites and acute kidney injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Salvatore; Tonon, Marta; Angeli, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis. Ascites develops as a consequence of an abnormal splanchnic vasodilation with reduction of effecting circulating volume and activation of endogenous vasoconstrictors system causing salt and water retention. Patients with ascites have a high risk to develop further complications of cirrhosis such as hyponatremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and acute kidney injury resulting in a poor survival. In recent years, new studies helped a better understanding of the pathophysiology of ascites and acute kidney injury in cirrhosis. Furthermore, new diagnostic criteria have been proposed for acute kidney injury and hepatorenal syndrome and a new algorithm for their management has been recommended with the aim of an early diagnosis and treatment. Herein we will review the current knowledge on the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of ascites and acute kidney injury in patients with cirrhosis and we will identify the unmet needs that should be clarified in the next years. PMID:27571467

  10. Planning and Structuring Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation: The Needs Assessment Checklist

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Paul; Smithson, Emilie F.; Blakey, Laura C.

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the Needs Assessment Checklist (NAC) as a clinically appropriate assessment tool for use during spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation. Data were obtained during routine clinical assessments from 193 patients admitted to the National Spinal Injuries Centre, UK, from September 2007 to November 2009. Reliability analyses yielded high internal consistency coefficients (mean α = .889, SD .051), and the mean item internal validity correlation was .534 (SD .136). All su...

  11. Urinary Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number Identifies Chronic Renal Injury in Hypertensive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirin, Alfonso; Saad, Ahmed; Tang, Hui; Herrmann, Sandra M; Woollard, John R; Lerman, Amir; Textor, Stephen C; Lerman, Lilach O

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondrial injury contributes to renal dysfunction in several models of renal disease, but its involvement in human hypertension remains unknown. Fragments of the mitochondrial genome released from dying cells are considered surrogate markers of mitochondrial injury. We hypothesized that hypertension would be associated with increased urine mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy numbers. We prospectively measured systemic and urinary copy number of the mtDNA genes cytochrome-c oxidase-3 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit-1 by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in essential (n=25) and renovascular (RVH, n=34) hypertensive patients and compared them with healthy volunteers (n=22). Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin served as indices of renal injury. Renal blood flow and oxygenation were assessed by multidetector computed tomography and blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging. Blood pressure, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and kidney injury molecule-1 were similarly elevated in essential hypertension and RVH, and estimated glomerular filtration rate was lower in RVH versus healthy volunteers and essential hypertension. Renal blood flow was lower in RVH compared with essential hypertension. Urinary mtDNA copy number was higher in hypertension compared with healthy volunteers, directly correlated with urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and kidney injury molecule-1 and inversely with estimated glomerular filtration rate. In RVH, urinary mtDNA copy number correlated directly with intrarenal hypoxia. Furthermore, in an additional validation cohort, urinary mtDNA copy number was higher in RVH compared with healthy volunteers (n=10 each). The change in serum creatinine levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate 3 months after medical therapy without or with revascularization correlated with the change in urinary mtDNA. Therefore, elevated urinary mtDNA copy numbers in

  12. Predisposing factors to lateral ankle injury in male comrades marathon runners

    OpenAIRE

    J. Hiemstra; Naidoo, N

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: More than two million people experience ankle ligament traumaeach year in the United States. Half of these are severe ligament sprains, however verylittle is known about the factors that predispose individuals to these injuries. The purpose of this study, (which was conducted as an undergraduate research project),was to find a correlation between the characteristics of height, weight and limbdominance and lateral ankle ligament injuries. Method: A  retrospective study was conduc...

  13. CT Follow-Up and Clinical Outcome in Severe Traumatic Injury Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Belina, Stanko; Kovačić, Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Determining a patient’s prognosis after severe traumatic brain injury remains difficult and complex. The purpose of the present study was following up patients with severe traumatic brain injury by correlating their clinical outcome and sequential computer tomography (CT) findings. We investigated 51 patients who survived the first year following an accident. All patients underwent successive CT examinations within a maximum period of 2 years. The patients’ outcomes depended on th...

  14. Testing an equifinality model of nonsuicidal self-injury among early adolescent girls

    OpenAIRE

    Keenan, Kate; HIPWELL, ALISON E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Wroblewski, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a common behavior among females that has been shown to confer risk for continued self-injury and suicidal attempts. NSSI can be viewed conceptually as behavior that is pathognomonic with aggression and/or depression. Empirical research on concurrent correlates supports this concept: numerous and diverse factors are shown to be significantly associated with self-harm, including depression, emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, and aggression and other conduct pr...

  15. Correlation and Entanglement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-long Luo; You-feng Luo

    2003-01-01

    In quantum mechanics, it is long recognized that there exist correlations between observables which are much stronger than the classical ones. These correlations are usually called entanglement, and cannot be accounted for by classical theory. In this paper, we will study correlations between observables in terms of covariance and the Wigner-Yanase correlation, and compare their merits in characterizing entanglement. We will show that the Wigner-Yanase correlation has some advantages over the conventional covariance.

  16. Morphological and functional aspects of sciatic nerve regeneration after crush injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Răducan, Andreea; Mirică, Silvia; Duicu, Oana; Răducan, S; Muntean, Danina; Fira-Mlădinescu, O; Lighezan, Rodica

    2013-01-01

    Experimental models for the investigation of nerve regeneration are critical in studying new strategies able to promote the repair process. The aim of the present work was to characterize morphological and functional aspects of sciatic nerve regeneration after mechanical crush injury in rodents. Morphological changes were assessed after a four minutes sciatic nerve injury induced by means of a standardized compression clip. Rat nerve samples were collected before injury and after 24 hours, four days, two weeks, and four weeks after injury, respectively. In an additional group with unilateral sciatic nerve injury, animals were evaluated for four weeks using walking track analysis and the sciatic static index (SSI) measured in both rearing and normal standing position. Histological study showed important axonal degeneration at four days and axonal regeneration at four weeks after injury. We observed no significant differences between SSI in rearing and normal standing stance and a strong correlation between SSI values measured in the two positions during the evaluation period. Positive correlations were also found for the footprint parameters. Our data provide a baseline characterization of the sciatic nerve crush injury that will further allow the investigation of peripheral nerve regeneration in the presence of potential neuroprotective agents in post-traumatic nerve repair. PMID:24322020

  17. The imaging of stab injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, Coert S. de; Africa, Mogoeemang; Gebremariam, Fekade A.; Rensburg, J. Janse van; Otto, Susan F.; Potgieter, Henrik F. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Univ. of the Free State and Academic Health Complex, Free State Province Dept. of Health, Bloemfontein (South Africa)), e-mail: devriesc.md@ufs.ac.za

    2010-01-15

    In the trauma unit of the Bloemfontein Academic Complex, the total number of stab wounds seen represents approximately 70.5% of penetrating injuries, which is 6.4% of 5004 trauma cases seen in a period of 1 year. The other cases are gunshot wounds and pedestrian or motor vehicle accidents. Specific guidelines and protocols are followed for penetrating trauma management. All imaging modalities are utilized, with chest radiography the mainstay of thoracic imaging in patients having sustained sharp penetrating chest injuries. Computed tomography (CT) is being used more frequently as the primary imaging modality in the evaluation of hemodynamically stable patients with penetrating injuries. The improved speed of data acquisition and superior image reconstruction of multidetector CT (MDCT) has further driven this change in imaging approach. Although digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has been the reference standard for the diagnosis of traumatic vascular injuries, it is giving way to faster, less invasive, and less personnel-intensive imaging techniques, e.g., MDCT angiography. Given the fact that we work in an academic environment and that we have a dedicated interventional unit, arteriography is still frequently performed and still has its place as the 'gold standard' in the diagnosis of vascular injuries. Penetrating chest injuries suspected of traversing the mediastinum or extending near the posterior mediastinal structures dictate esophageal and tracheal evaluation. Although radiology has a role to play, direct visualization (esophagoscopy, bronchoscopy) remains the most reliable method of excluding injuries to these structures. Transthoracic ultrasound (echocardiography) has become indispensable in helping to evaluate injuries to the heart and the ascending and descending aortas. More recent work has demonstrated that ultrasonography can also be used to detect hemothoraces and pneumothoraces with accuracy

  18. Syndesmosis injuries of the ankle

    OpenAIRE

    Del Buono, Angelo; Florio, Antonietta; Boccanera, Michele Simone; Maffulli, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Ankle syndesmosis injuries are relatively frequent in sports, especially skiing, ice hockey, and soccer, accounting for 1 %–18 % of all ankle sprains. The evolution is unpredictable: When missed, repeated episodes of ankle instability may predispose to early degenerative changes, and frank osteoarthritis may ensue. Diagnosis is clinical and radiological, but arthroscopy may provide a definitive response, allowing one to address secondary injuries to bone and cartilage. Obvious diastasis needs...

  19. Groin Injuries in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Timothy F.; Silvers, Holly J.; Gerhardt, Michael B.; Nicholas, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: An in-season groin injury may be debilitating for the athlete. Proper diagnosis and identification of the pathology are paramount in providing appropriate intervention. Furthermore, an adductor strain that is treated improperly can become chronic and career threatening. Any one of the 6 muscles of the adductor muscle group can be involved. The degree of injury can range from a minor strain (grade 1), where minimal playing time is lost, to a severe strain (grade 3), in which there is ...

  20. Brain injury requires lung protection

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Aguilar, Josefina; Blanch, Lluis

    2015-01-01

    The paper entitled “The high-mobility group protein B1-Receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (HMGB1-RAGE) axis mediates traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced pulmonary dysfunction in lung transplantation” published recently in Science Translational Medicine links lung failure after transplantation with alterations in the axis HMGB1-RAGE after TBI, opening a new field for exploring indicators for the early detection of patients at risk of developing acute lung injury (ALI). The lung is on...

  1. Complications of spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Dursun, Erbil; Hamamci, Nigar; Ozbey, Aydan; Cakci, Aytul

    2004-01-01

    Spinal cord injury and its complications cause important physical, psychosocial and economical problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the complications resulting from spinal cord injury, to show their adverse effects on the rehabilitation program, and to make related clinicians to call attention especially to preventable complications. Sixty-two spinal cord injured patients were included in the study. All the patients were evaluated regarding age, gender, etiology, time since inj...

  2. Neurobiology of premature brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Salmaso, Natalina; Jablonska, Beata; Scafidi, Joseph; Vaccarino, Flora M.; Gallo, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Every year in the United States, an estimated 500,000 babies are born preterm (before 37 completed weeks of gestation), and this number is rising, along with the recognition of brain injuries due to preterm delivery. A common underlying pathogenesis appears to be perinatal hypoxia induced by immature lung development, which causes injury to vulnerable neurons and glia. Abnormal growth and maturation of susceptible cell types, particularly neurons and oligodendrocytes, in preterm babies with v...

  3. Audit of Pediatric ENT Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Aremu, S. K.; B.S. Alabi; Segun-Busari, S; Omotoso, W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ear, Nose and throat (ENT) injuries are relatively common in children. Sometimes they may result in disfigurement or dysfunction of the affected parts. This study was aimed at the pattern and mechanisms of ENT injuries encountered by children in Ilorin located in north central Nigeria. It is therefore our hope that the information will go a long way to assist other African countries as well in health care plans for children. Objectives: The study was aimed at determining the patte...

  4. Injuries to law enforcement officers: the backface signature injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Marianne; Bir, Cynthia

    2008-01-15

    In today's law enforcement community, one of the most vital tools an officer can possess is personal body armor. However, a recent Department of Justice investigation has raised important questions regarding the protection actually afforded officers through the use of personal body armor, and the current test methods used to assess the armor. Test results show that most Zylon-containing vests showed deformations in excess of the 0101.04 Standard's 44 mm backface signature limit. Such increased deformation can lead to serious injuries, including backface signature injuries, which have occurred in the field. Although the vest is successful in containing the round, it is not effectively dissipating the energy enough to prevent large amounts of vest deformation at the area of impact. Therefore, open, penetrating wounds occur even though the bullet did not penetrate the vest. The objective of the current study was to further define the backface signature injury through the use of case studies and laboratory experiments. Following the case study investigation, backface signature testing was conducted using a clay medium based on the NIJ 0101.04 Standard. The final component of this research involved the use of post-mortem human specimens (PMHS) for further investigation of the backface signature injury. Although the underlying cause of backface signature injuries is unknown, energy density is likely to play a role in the mechanism. Energy density (E/a) is defined as the energy per unit area and has been previously used in less lethal skin penetration research. Further research into the underlying causes of backface signature injuries is necessary. In addition to armor testing, the study of law enforcement personnel who have been shot while wearing soft body armor is also a valuable tool for determining the effectiveness of certification standards. Finally, it is important for medical personnel to recognize the backface signature injury and document this as a type of

  5. Injuries to law enforcement officers: the backface signature injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Marianne; Bir, Cynthia

    2008-01-15

    In today's law enforcement community, one of the most vital tools an officer can possess is personal body armor. However, a recent Department of Justice investigation has raised important questions regarding the protection actually afforded officers through the use of personal body armor, and the current test methods used to assess the armor. Test results show that most Zylon-containing vests showed deformations in excess of the 0101.04 Standard's 44 mm backface signature limit. Such increased deformation can lead to serious injuries, including backface signature injuries, which have occurred in the field. Although the vest is successful in containing the round, it is not effectively dissipating the energy enough to prevent large amounts of vest deformation at the area of impact. Therefore, open, penetrating wounds occur even though the bullet did not penetrate the vest. The objective of the current study was to further define the backface signature injury through the use of case studies and laboratory experiments. Following the case study investigation, backface signature testing was conducted using a clay medium based on the NIJ 0101.04 Standard. The final component of this research involved the use of post-mortem human specimens (PMHS) for further investigation of the backface signature injury. Although the underlying cause of backface signature injuries is unknown, energy density is likely to play a role in the mechanism. Energy density (E/a) is defined as the energy per unit area and has been previously used in less lethal skin penetration research. Further research into the underlying causes of backface signature injuries is necessary. In addition to armor testing, the study of law enforcement personnel who have been shot while wearing soft body armor is also a valuable tool for determining the effectiveness of certification standards. Finally, it is important for medical personnel to recognize the backface signature injury and document this as a type of

  6. Plant injury by air pollutants: influence of humidity on stomatal apertures and plant response to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, H W; Daines, R H

    1969-03-14

    Ozone injury to Bel W3 tobacco and pinto bean plants increases with increasing humidity. The degree of plant injury sustained correlates well with porometer measurements; this indicates that the size of stomatal apertures increases with increasing humidity. Humidity may therefore influence plant response to all pollutants and may account in part for the greater sensitivity of plants to ozone-type injury in the eastern United States compared with the same species of plants grown in the Southwest. with those grown in the Southwest.

  7. The relationship between Taekwondo training habits and injury: a survey of a collegiate Taekwondo population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covarrubias N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Natalia Covarrubias,1 Subir Bhatia,2 Luis F Campos,3 Dahn V Nguyen,2,3 Eric Y Chang1,4,51Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA; 2School of Medicine, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA; 3Institute for Clinical and Translational Science, Irvine, CA, USA; 4Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Care, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA; 5Reeve-Irvine Research Center, Irvine, CA, USA Objective: To correlate training habits of Taekwondo (TKD athletes to risk for injury. Background: TKD is a Korean marital art that has been growing in popularity, with nearly 2 million individuals practicing the sport in the United States. Because of the combative nature of the sport, injuries are an inherent risk. However, data on proper training habits, types of injuries sustained during training, and recommendations for athletes to avoid injury are lacking. Frequently, studies of TKD evaluate athletes’ injuries during tournaments, but most do not evaluate athletes in training. Hypothesis: Increased training would potentially create more injuries secondary to increased exposure. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational survey of 72 collegiate TKD athletes from the Pacific West Sanctioned Taekwondo Tournaments in the 2008–2009 season. Variables analyzed during training and competitions were training sessions per week, workout habits, belt level, years of experience, and characteristics of injury (location, type, mechanism, situation, treatment, and days missed. Results: TKD training habits of individuals who practiced four or more times per week (odds ratio [OR], 4.5; P=0.005 or sparred for more than 2 hours (OR, 8.7; P=0.003 were associated with significantly increased odds (risk of sustaining an injury. Those who had more than 3 years of tournament experience were more likely to sustain an injury (OR, 0.198; P=0.020. Conclusion: Increased risk for injury

  8. Epidemiological Review of Injuries in Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Kaux

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rugby is a sport that is growing in popularity. A contact sport par excellence, it causes a significant number of injuries. In Rugby Union, there are 30 to 91 injuries per 1000 match hours. This epidemiological review of injuries incurred by rugby players mentions the position and type of injuries, the causes, time during the match and season in which they occur and the players’ positions as well as the length of players’ absences following the injury.

  9. Epidemiology and prevention of football injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Hägglund, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were to study the incidence, severity and pattern of injury in male and female elite football players; to study time trends in injury risk; to identify risk factors for injury; and to test the effectiveness of an intervention programme aimed at preventing re-injury. All studies followed a prospective design using standardised definitions and data collection forms. Individual training and match exposure was registered for all players participating. Time loss injuries we...

  10. Nutritional Support for Exercise-Induced Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Tipton, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is one method to counter the negative impact of an exercise-induced injury. Deficiencies of energy, protein and other nutrients should be avoided. Claims for the effectiveness of many other nutrients following injuries are rampant, but the evidence is equivocal. The results of an exercise-induced injury may vary widely depending on the nature of the injury and severity. Injuries typically result in cessation, or at least a reduction, in participation in sport and decreased physical ...

  11. The control of vascular endothelial cell injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murota, S; Morita, I; Suda, N

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism by which MCI-186 showed a potent cytoprotective effect on the in vitro endothelial cell injury due to 15-HPETE was studied. Stimulation of human leukocytes with various chemical mediators such as TPA, f-Met-Leu-Phe, LTB4, etc. elicited the production of active oxygens, which could be detected by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Among the chemical mediators tested, TPA elicited the chemiluminescence the most, and f-Met-Leu-Phe and LTB4 came next. When the leukocytes were directly placed on a monolayer of cultured endothelial cells, followed by stimulating the leukocytes with TPA, severe endothelial cell injury was observed. The effect of TPA was dose dependent. There was good correlation between the active oxygen releasing activity and the cytotoxic activity. When the leukocytes were placed on a filter which was set apart from the monolayer of endothelial cell in a culture dish, and stimulated the leukocytes with TPA, no cytotoxicity was observed. These data strongly suggest that the substance responsible for the cytotoxicity must be a very labile and short-lived substance, presumably active oxygens. On the other hand, MCI-186 was found to have a complete quenching activity to the chemiluminescence due to active oxygens in the TPA-leukocyte system. Taken together, these factors indicate that the potent cytoprotective effect of MCI-186 may be due to its specific radical scavenging activity. PMID:2248437

  12. Patterns of Pediatric Maxillofacial Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bede, Salwan Yousif Hanna; Ismael, Waleed Khaleel; Al-Assaf, Dhuha

    2016-05-01

    Facial trauma in children and adolescents is reported to range from 1% to 30%. Because of many anatomical, physiological, and psychological characteristics of the pediatric population, maxillofacial injuries in children should be treated with special consideration that is attributable to certain features inherent in facial growth patterns of children. This study evaluated maxillofacial injuries in 726 children in terms of incidence, patterns of injury, causes, and treatment modalities and compared these parameters among 3 pediatric age groups. Intergroup differences were analyzed using Z test for 2 populations' proportion. The results showed that the incidence of pediatric maxillofacial injuries and fractures is higher than that reported elsewhere with male predominance. Soft tissue injuries are more frequently encountered in younger individuals, whereas the incidence of skeletal injuries increases with age. This study also revealed that certain etiologies, namely road traffic accidents, violence, bicycle, missiles, and industrial injures, increase with age; on the other hand, falls and puncture wounds are more common in younger children. PMID:27100637

  13. Shoulder injuries from attacking motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Shigeru; Nishimura, Tetsu; Itoh, Masaru; Wada, Yuhei; Watanabe, Naoki

    1997-03-01

    Sports injuries have bothered professional players. Although many medical doctors try to treat injured players, to prevent sports injuries is more important. Hence, it is required to clear a kinematic mechanism of the sport injuries. A shoulder of volleyball attacker or baseball pitcher is often inured by playing motion. The injuries are mainly caused at the end of long head tendon, which is located in the upper side of scapula. Generally, a muscle and tendon have enough strength against tensile force, however, it seems that they are sometimes defeated by the lateral force. It is imagined that the effect of the lateral force has a possibility of injuring the tendon. If we find the influence of the lateral force on the injured portion, the mechanism of injuries must be cleared. In our research, volleyball attacking motion is taken by high speed video cameras. We analyze the motion as links system and obtain an acceleration of an arm and a shoulder from video image data. The generated force at a shoulder joint is calculated and resolved into the lateral and longitudinal forces. Our final goal is to discuss a possibility that the lateral force causes the injuries.

  14. Correlations between dose-volume histogram parameters and radiation-induced lung injury for lung cancer patients treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy%肺癌三维适形及调强放疗诱导肺损伤与剂量体积直方图参数的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 石健

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨肺癌三维适形放疗(3D-CRT)和调强放疗(IMRT)诱导肺损伤(RILI)与剂量体积直方图(DVH)参数的关系及两种放疗计划的差异。方法151例肺癌患者分别接受3D-CRT( n=90)和IMRT( n=61),均给予根治性放疗剂量,采用传统分割照射(1�8~2�0Gy/次,1次/天,5次/周),中位剂量60�0Gy。比较两组发生RILI的差异,并分析两组发生≥2级RILI与DVH参数的关系。结果3D-CRT组≥2级RILI发生率为17�8%,略低于IMRT组的24�6%;≥3级RILI发生率为8�9%,略高于IMRT组的3�3%,差异无统计学意义( P>0�05)。单因素分析显示,3D-CRT组V20可增加≥2级RILI的发生风险( OR=3�780,P=0�030);IMRT组V5、V10、V13、V20和平均照射剂量均可增加≥2级RILI的发生风险( OR:3�575~6�286,P:0�003~0�045)。多因素分析显示V20是RILI的独立危险因素。结论3D-CRT和IMRT对肺癌患者≥2级RILI的发生率影响不明显,但RILI的发生风险均与V20相关。%Objective To investigate the effect of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy ( 3D-CRT ) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy( IMRT) on radiation-induced lung injury( RILI) and their relations with parameters of dose volume histograms ( DVH) . Methods One hundred and fifty-one cases of locally advanced lung cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy from sin-gle clinical center were enrolled retrospectively, including 90 cases of 3D-CRT and 61 cases of IMRT. All patients were treated with radical radiotherapy dose, 1�8-2�0Gy per fraction, 5 fracions one week, and the median prescribed dose was 60�0Gy. RILI was de-fined according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, version 3�0. The incidence of RILI in two groups was calcu-lated and its association with the parameters of DVH were analyzed. Results The incidence of RILI(≥grade 2) in 3D-CRT group was lower than

  15. Perioperative acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, O; Matot, I

    2015-12-01

    Perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is not uncommon and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Recently, several definition systems for AKI were proposed, incorporating both small changes of serum creatinine and urinary output reduction as diagnostic criteria. Novel biomarkers are under investigation as fast and accurate predictors of AKI. Several special considerations regarding the risk of AKI are of note in the surgical patient. Co-morbidities are important risk factors for AKI. The surgery in itself, especially emergency and major surgery in the critically ill, is associated with a high incidence of AKI. Certain types of surgeries, such as cardiac and transplantation surgeries, require special attention because they carry higher risk of AKI. Nephrotoxic drugs, contrast dye, and diuretics are commonly used in the perioperative period and are responsible for a significant amount of in-hospital AKI. Before surgery, the anaesthetist is required to identify patients at risk of AKI, optimize anaemia, and treat hypovolaemia. During surgery, normovolaemia is of utmost importance. Additionally, the surgical and anaesthesia team is advised to use measures to reduce blood loss and avoid unnecessary blood transfusion. Hypotension should be avoided because even short periods of mean arterial pressure patients. Urine output can be reduced significantly during surgery and is unrelated to perioperative renal function. Thus, fluids should not be given in excess for the sole purpose of avoiding or treating oliguria. Use of hydroxyethyl starch needs to be reconsidered. Recent evidence indicates a beneficial effect of administering low-chloride solutions. PMID:26658199

  16. Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Eucker, Stephanie A.; Durduran, Turgut; Yu, Guoqiang; Ralston, Jill; Friess, Stuart H.; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Margulies, Susan S.; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2009-05-01

    We used a nonimpact inertial rotational model of a closed head injury in neonatal piglets to simulate the conditions following traumatic brain injury in infants. Diffuse optical techniques, including diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), were used to measure cerebral blood oxygenation and blood flow continuously and noninvasively before injury and up to 6 h after the injury. The DCS measurements of relative cerebral blood flow were validated against the fluorescent microsphere method. A strong linear correlation was observed between the two techniques (R=0.89, p<0.00001). Injury-induced cerebral hemodynamic changes were quantified, and significant changes were found in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations, total hemoglobin concentration, blood oxygen saturation, and cerebral blood flow after the injury. The diffuse optical measurements were robust and also correlated well with recordings of vital physiological parameters over the 6-h monitoring period, such as mean arterial blood pressure, arterial oxygen saturation, and heart rate. Finally, the diffuse optical techniques demonstrated sensitivity to dynamic physiological events, such as apnea, cardiac arrest, and hypertonic saline infusion. In total, the investigation corraborates potential of the optical methods for bedside monitoring of pediatric and adult human patients in the neurointensive care unit.

  17. Injury data needs and opportunities in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Rupert; Latarjet, Jaques; Bauer, Robert; Rogmans, Wim

    2009-06-01

    Targeted injury prevention needs information, and the basis is data. The EU Council Recommendation on injury prevention of 2007 recommends that Member States make better use of the existing data, and that they implement additional injury surveillance, when appropriate, in order to obtain comparable information. In almost all Member States, some data on injuries are available: on deaths, hospital discharges, external causes of injuries, traffic accidents and workplace accidents. It is examined how far these data meet the information needs of key stakeholders in injury prevention. General information about the health burden of injury, based on mortality and hospital discharges, is available and sufficient for identifying injury as a priority for health policy. Health indicators like lost life years, rates of hospitalisation, estimated rates of disabilities or health care costs could be derived, but are not widely available yet. Information about external circumstances (causes) of injuries is indispensible for targeted prevention, but only 12 countries have a harmonised surveillance system on external causes in place (European Injury Database IDB 2009). It is recommended that the harmonised collection of data on fatalities, hospital discharges and external causes of injuries should become compulsory within the new European health information system. The provision of harmonised injury indicators should be promoted. The surveillance system on external causes (IDB) should be implemented in countries without such system. National injury data administrators ('clearing houses') should be established for the provision of comprehensive injury reports and for serving the needs of key stakeholders in injury prevention.

  18. Imaging of spinal injury in abusive head trauma: a retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Arabinda K. [Nemours A.I. DuPont Children Hospital, Department of Radiology, Wilmington, DE (United States); Ishak, Ramsay; Zacharia, Thomas T. [Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States); Dias, Mark S. [Hershey Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Hershey, PA (United States)

    2014-09-15

    statistically significant. Among the AHT group, ligamentous injuries were statistically correlated with evidence of brain ischemia. Injury to the cervical spinal posterior ligamentous complex is common in AHT and even more prevalent than in clinically symptomatic traumatic cases. The high correlation between the radiographic findings of occipitocervical ligamentous injuries and hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is consistent with an interpretation that transient upper occipitocervical spinal cord injury in AHT leads to disordered breathing and results in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. We recommend imaging the entire spine in AHT to properly identify and classify these injuries. (orig.)

  19. Criteria for level 1 and level 2 trauma codes: Are pelvic ring injuries undertriaged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haws, Brittany E; Wuertzer, Scott; Raffield, Laura; Lenchik, Leon; Miller, Anna N

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the association of unstable pelvic ring injuries with trauma code status. METHODS A retrospective review of all pelvic ring injuries at a single academic center from July 2010 to June 2013 was performed. The trauma registry was used to identify level 1 and level 2 trauma codes for each injury. The computed tomography scans in all patients were classified as stable or unstable using the Abbreviated Injury Scale. Pelvic injury classifications in level 1 and level 2 groups were compared. Patient disposition at discharge in level 1 and level 2 groups were also compared. RESULTS There were 108 level 1 and 130 level 2 blunt trauma admissions. In the level 1 group, 67% of pelvic injuries were classified as stable fracture patterns and 33% were classified as unstable. In the level 2 group, 62% of pelvic injuries were classified as stable fracture patterns and 38% were classified as unstable. level 1 trauma code was not associated with odds of having an unstable fracture pattern (OR = 0.83, 95%CI: 0.48-1.41, P = 0.485). In the level 1 group with unstable pelvic injuries, 33% were discharged to home, 36% to a rehabilitation facility, and 32% died. In the level 2 group with unstable pelvic injuries, 65% were discharged to home, 31% to a rehabilitation facility, and 4% died. For those with unstable pelvic fractures (n = 85), assignment of a level 2 trauma code was associated with reduced odds of death (OR = 0.07, 95%CI: 0.01-0.35, P = 0.001) as compared to being discharged to home. CONCLUSION Trauma code level assignment is not correlated with severity of pelvic injury. Because an unstable pelvis can lead to hemodynamic instability, these injuries may be undertriaged. PMID:27622148

  20. INJURIES TO THE SPINE -MECHANICS , ANATOMICAL AND ORTHOPEDIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq ul Hassan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral injuries can occur as isolated injuries or may be associated with other injuries. Recognition of the level of injury is important along with the mechanism of injury. The article describes the various types of injuries of the vertebral column along with the main mechanisms and the difference between the types of injuries in the vertebral column.