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Sample records for bcci injury correlation

  1. Behavioral and anatomical characterization of the bilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction (bCCI) injury: correlation of anatomic changes and responses to cold stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Sukdeb; Chatterjee, Koel; Kline, Robert H; Wiley, Ronald G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Unilateral constrictive sciatic nerve injury (uCCI) is a common neuropathic pain model. However, the bilateral constrictive injury (bCCI) model is less well studied, and shows unique characteristics. In the present study, we sought to correlate effects of bCCI on nocifensive responses to cold and mechanical stimuli with selected dorsal horn anatomic markers. bCCI or sham ligation of both rat sciatic nerves were followed up to 90 days of behavioural testing. Additional rats...

  2. Behavioral and anatomical characterization of the bilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction (bCCI) injury: correlation of anatomic changes and responses to cold stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sukdeb; Chatterjee, Koel; Kline, Robert H; Wiley, Ronald G

    2010-01-27

    Unilateral constrictive sciatic nerve injury (uCCI) is a common neuropathic pain model. However, the bilateral constrictive injury (bCCI) model is less well studied, and shows unique characteristics. In the present study, we sought to correlate effects of bCCI on nocifensive responses to cold and mechanical stimuli with selected dorsal horn anatomic markers. bCCI or sham ligation of both rat sciatic nerves were followed up to 90 days of behavioural testing. Additional rats sacrificed at 15, 30 and 90 days were used for anatomic analyses. Behavioural tests included hindpaw withdrawal responses to topical acetone, cold plate testing, an operant thermal preference task and hindpaw withdrawal thresholds to mechanical probing. All nocifensive responses to cold increased and remained enhanced for >45 days. Mechanical withdrawal thresholds decreased for 25 days only. Densitometric analyses of immunoperoxidase staining in the superficial dorsal horn at L4-5 revealed decreased cholecystokinin (CCK) staining at all times after bCCI, decreased mu opiate receptor (MOR) staining, maximal at 15 days, increased neuropeptide Y (NPY) staining only at days 15 and 30, and increased neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) staining at all time points, maximal at 15 days. Correlation analyses at 45 days post-bCCI, were significant for individual rat nocifensive responses in each cold test and CCK and NK-1R, but not for MOR or NPY. These results confirm the usefulness of cold testing in bCCI rats, a new approach using CCI to model neuropathic pain, and suggest a potential value of studying the roles of dorsal horn CCK and substance P in chronic neuropathic pain. Compared to human subjects with neuropathic pain, responses to cold stimuli in rats with bCCI may be a useful model of neuropathic pain.

  3. Behavioral and anatomical characterization of the bilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction (bCCI injury: correlation of anatomic changes and responses to cold stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kline Robert H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unilateral constrictive sciatic nerve injury (uCCI is a common neuropathic pain model. However, the bilateral constrictive injury (bCCI model is less well studied, and shows unique characteristics. In the present study, we sought to correlate effects of bCCI on nocifensive responses to cold and mechanical stimuli with selected dorsal horn anatomic markers. bCCI or sham ligation of both rat sciatic nerves were followed up to 90 days of behavioural testing. Additional rats sacrificed at 15, 30 and 90 days were used for anatomic analyses. Behavioural tests included hindpaw withdrawal responses to topical acetone, cold plate testing, an operant thermal preference task and hindpaw withdrawal thresholds to mechanical probing. Results All nocifensive responses to cold increased and remained enhanced for >45 days. Mechanical withdrawal thresholds decreased for 25 days only. Densitometric analyses of immunoperoxidase staining in the superficial dorsal horn at L4-5 revealed decreased cholecystokinin (CCK staining at all times after bCCI, decreased mu opiate receptor (MOR staining, maximal at 15 days, increased neuropeptide Y (NPY staining only at days 15 and 30, and increased neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R staining at all time points, maximal at 15 days. Correlation analyses at 45 days post-bCCI, were significant for individual rat nocifensive responses in each cold test and CCK and NK-1R, but not for MOR or NPY. Conclusions These results confirm the usefulness of cold testing in bCCI rats, a new approach using CCI to model neuropathic pain, and suggest a potential value of studying the roles of dorsal horn CCK and substance P in chronic neuropathic pain. Compared to human subjects with neuropathic pain, responses to cold stimuli in rats with bCCI may be a useful model of neuropathic pain.

  4. STAT3 inhibitor WP1066 as a novel therapeutic agent for bCCI neuropathic pain rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhao-Jing; Shen, Le; Wang, Zhi-Yao; Hui, Shang-Yi; Huang, Yu-Guang; Ma, Chao

    2014-10-02

    Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) is suggested to be critically involved in the development of chronic pain, but the complex regulation of STAT3-dependent pathway and the functional significance of inhibiting this pathway during the development of neuropathic pain remain elusive. To evaluate the contribution of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to neuropathic pain and the potentiality of this pathway as a novel therapeutic target, we examined the effects of the STAT3 inhibitor WP1066 by intrathecal administration in a rat model of bilateral chronic constriction injury (bCCI). The pain behavior tests were performed before the surgery and on postoperative day 3, 7, 14 and 21. L4-L6 dorsal spinal cord were harvested at each time point. Both RT-PCR and Western blot were performed to evaluate the activation of JAK2/STAT3 pathway. To observe the influence of WP1066 on neuropathic pain and its molecular mechanism, WP1066 (10 μl, 10 mmol/L in DMSO) or the same capacity of DMSO as the control were applied through the intrathecal tube on the day before bCCI surgery, and on the postoperative day 3 and 5. Behavioral tests were performed to observe the therapeutic effect on mechanical, thermal and cold hyperalgesia. L4-L6 dorsal spinal cord was harvested on postoperative day fourteen, followed by RT-PCR and Western blot evaluation of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway activation. The mechanical, thermal and cold hyperalgesia of the bCCI rats were significantly decreased when compared with the Sham or the Naïve group at each postoperative time point (PbCCI rats, accompanied by SOCS3 mRNA with a similar tendency. Western blot analysis showed that JAK2 and phosphorylated STAT3 increased significantly since 3 days after bCCI. JAK2 peaked on postoperative day 14 while phosphorylated STAT3 peaked on postoperative day 7 and gradually decreased thereafter and SOCS3׳s peak level on postoperative day 3. When WP1066 were administered intrathecally, the pain behaviors of

  5. Correlation between hypermobility score and injury rate in artistic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukva, Bojan; Vrgoč, Goran; Madić, Dejan; Sporiš, Goran; Trajković, Nebojša

    2018-01-10

    Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is suggested as a contributing factor for injuries in young athletes and adults. It is presumed that GJH causes decreased joint stability, thereby increasing the risk of joint and soft tissue injuries during sports activities. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the hypermobility rate (using the Beighton`s modification of the Carter-Wilkinson criteria of hypermobility) in gymnasts and injury rate, during the period of one year. This study observed 24 artistic gymnasts (11-26 years old), members of Qatar National Team in artistic gymnastics. We examined the Beighton joint hypermobility screen and a seasonal injury survey. The gymnasts characteristics (age, gender) and gymnastics characteristics (training per day and number of years in training artistic gymnastics) and its' relations to injury rate were also included. The most common injury was the lower back pain injury, followed by knee, shoulder, hip and ankle injuries. We found strong correlation of number of years gymnastics training and injury rate (p0.05). According to this study there is no correlation between GJH rate and injury rate in artistic gymnasts in Qatar. Total training period in gymnastics have greater contribution in injury rate.

  6. Discordance Between Body Mass Index (BMI) and a Novel Body Composition Change Index (BCCI) as Outcome Measures in Weight Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Stephen D; Kaats, Gilbert R; Preuss, Harry G

    2018-01-01

    A general assumption is that the body mass index (BMI) reflects changes in fat mass (FM). However, it fails to distinguish the type of weight that is lost or gained-fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM). The BMI treats both changes the same although they have opposite health consequences. The objective of this study was to propose a more precise measure, a body composition change index (BCCI), which distinguishes between changes in FM and FFM, and this study compares it with using the BMI as an outcome measure. Data were obtained from 3,870 subjects who had completed dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) total body scans at baseline and end-of-study when participating in a variety of weight-loss interventions. Since height remained constant in this adult cohort, changes in the BMI corresponded with scale weight changes (r = 0.994), allowing BMI changes to be converted to "lbs." to match the statistic used for calculation of the BCCI. The BCCI is calculated by scoring increases in FFM (lbs.) and decreases in FM (lbs.) as positive outcomes and scoring decreases in FFM and increases in FM as negative outcomes. The BCCI is the net sum of these calculations. Differences between scale weight changes and BCCI values were subsequently compared to obtain "discordance scores." Discordance scores ranged from 0.0 lbs. to >30.0 lbs. with a mean absolute value of between the two measures of 7.79 lbs. (99% confidence interval: 7.49-8.10, p BCCI and the BMI to evaluate the efficacy of weight loss interventions. If assessing changes in body composition is a treatment goal, use of the BMI could result in significantly erroneous conclusions.

  7. MRI of acute cervical injury: correlation with neurologic deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Chang Dong; Kwon, Soon Tae; Lim, Seung Chul; Shin, Myung Jin; Han, Boo Kyung; Kim, Sang Joon; Park, Man Soo; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Suh, Dae Chul

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate MRI findings of spinal cord according to mechanism in acute cervical spinal injury. 25 patients under went MRI within 1 month after acute cervical trauma. Axial T1Wl (TR/TE: 500/20), gradient-echo (TR/TE: 300/14), sagittal T1Wl (TR/TE: 500/20), proton (TR/TE: 2000. 20 msec), T2Wl (TR/TE: 2000/80) were performed. In 11 patients, post-enhancement T1Wl was done. Change of spinal cord signal intensity on MRI in addition to the presence of abnormal changes of vertebral body, intervertebral disc and paraspinal soft tissue were evaluated. 15 patients had flexion injury, seven had extension injury and three had injury of unknown mechanism. Twelve patients showed iso-signal intensity on T2Wl and high signal intensity on T2Wl. Three patients showed low signal intensity on T1Wl and high signal intensity on T2Wl. Spinal cord hemorrhage occured in 10 patients. We found cord swelling in nine patients and cord compression in 12 patients. In nine patients with cord swelling, extent of cord injury was more than one segment of vertebral body. Ligamentous injury, disc injury, soft tissue injury occurred in 16 (64%), 17 (68%), 15 (60%) patients respectively. Vertebral body fracture was found in 17 patients (68%). The levels of fracture were C6 (eight patients) and C5 (five patients). MRI is valuable in exaluetion of the spinal cord, intervertebral disc, and soft tissue lesions in acute cervical spinal injury. Prognosis is worse in flexion injury than in extension injury, and is well correlated with cord hemorrhage and lesion extent

  8. Correlations between coping styles and symptom expectation for whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Robert; Russell, Anthony S

    2010-11-01

    In pain conditions, active coping has been found to be associated with less severe depression, increased activity level, and less functional impairment. Studies indicate that Canadians have a high expectation for chronic pain following whiplash injury. Expectation of recovery has been shown to predict recovery in whiplash victims. The objective of this study was to compare both the expectations and the coping style for whiplash injury in injury-naive subjects. The Vanderbilt Pain Management Inventory was administered to university students. Subjects who had not yet experienced whiplash injury were given a vignette concerning a neck sprain (whiplash injury) in a motor vehicle collision and were asked to indicate how likely they were to have thoughts or behaviors indicated in the coping style questionnaire. Subjects also completed expectation questionnaires regarding whiplash injury. Subjects (57%) held an expectation of chronic pain after whiplash injury. The mean active coping style score was 28.5±6.6 (40 is the maximum score for active coping). The mean passive coping style score was 28.5±6.6 (50 is the maximum score for passive coping). Those with high passive coping styles had a higher mean expectation score. The correlation between passive coping style score and expectation score was 0.62, while the correlation between active coping style score and expectation was -0.48. Both expectations and coping styles may interact or be co-modifiers in the outcomes of whiplash injury in whiplash victims. Further studies of coping style as an etiologic factor in the chronic whiplash syndrome are needed.

  9. Differentiation of Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis and Leishmania (V.) guyanensis using BccI for hsp70 PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo Alvarez, Ana Margarita; Nodarse, Jorge Fraga; Goodridge, Ivón Montano; Fidalgo, Lianet Monzote; Marin, Marcel; Van Der Auwera, Gert; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Bernal, Iván Darío Velez; Muskus, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania guyanensis are two species of the subgenus Viannia that are genetically very similar. Both parasites are usually associated with cutaneous leishmaniasis, but also have the potential to cause the mucocutaneous form of the disease. In addition, the study of foci and consequently the identification of vectors and probable reservoirs involved in transmission require a correct differentiation between both species, which is important at epidemiological level. We explored the possibility of identifying these species by using restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) in the gene coding for heat-shock protein 70 (hsp70). Previously, an hsp70 PCR-RFLP assay proved to be very effective in differentiating other Leishmania species when HaeIII is used as restriction enzyme. Based on hsp70 sequences analysis, BccI was found to generate species-specific fragments that can easily be recognized by agarose gel electrophoresis. Using the analysis of biopsies, scrapings, and parasite isolates previously grouped in a cluster comprising both L. panamensis and L. guyanensis, we showed that our approach allowed differentiation of both entities. This offers the possibility not only for identification of parasites in biological samples, but also to apply molecular epidemiology in certain countries of the New World, where several Leishmania species could coexist. Copyright 2009 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fatigue in the first year after traumatic brain injury: course, relationship with injury severity, and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu-Bonneau, Simon; Ouellet, Marie-Christine

    2017-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to document the evolution of fatigue in the first year after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to explore correlates of fatigue. Participants were 210 adults who were hospitalised following a TBI. They completed questionnaires 4, 8, and 12 months post-injury, including the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI). Participants with severe TBI presented greater mental and physical fatigue, and reduced activity compared to participants with moderate TBI. For all MFI subscales except reduced motivation, the general pattern was a reduction of fatigue levels over time after mild TBI, an increase of fatigue after severe TBI, and stable fatigue after moderate TBI. Fatigue was significantly associated with depression, insomnia, cognitive difficulties, and pain at 4 months; the same variables and work status at 8 months; and depression, insomnia, cognitive difficulties, and work status at 12 months. These findings suggest that injury severity could have an impact on the course of fatigue in the first year post-TBI. Depression, insomnia, and cognitive difficulties remain strong correlates of fatigue, while for pain and work status the association with fatigue evolves over time. This could influence the development of intervention strategies for fatigue, implemented at specific times for each severity subgroup.

  11. Hemodynamic and metabolic correlates of perinatal white matter injury severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Riddle

    Full Text Available Although the spectrum of perinatal white matter injury (WMI in preterm infants is shifting from cystic encephalomalacia to milder forms of WMI, the factors that contribute to this changing spectrum are unclear. We hypothesized that the variability in WMI quantified by immunohistochemical markers of inflammation could be correlated with the severity of impaired blood oxygen, glucose and lactate.We employed a preterm fetal sheep model of in utero moderate hypoxemia and global severe but not complete cerebral ischemia that reproduces the spectrum of human WMI. Since there is small but measurable residual brain blood flow during occlusion, we sought to determine if the metabolic state of the residual arterial blood was associated with severity of WMI. Near the conclusion of hypoxia-ischemia, we recorded cephalic arterial blood pressure, blood oxygen, glucose and lactate levels. To define the spectrum of WMI, an ordinal WMI rating scale was compared against an unbiased quantitative image analysis protocol that provided continuous histo-pathological outcome measures for astrogliosis and microgliosis derived from the entire white matter.A spectrum of WMI was observed that ranged from diffuse non-necrotic lesions to more severe injury that comprised discrete foci of microscopic or macroscopic necrosis. Residual arterial pressure, oxygen content and blood glucose displayed a significant inverse association with WMI and lactate concentrations were directly related. Elevated glucose levels were the most significantly associated with less severe WMI.Our results suggest that under conditions of hypoxemia and severe cephalic hypotension, WMI severity measured using unbiased immunohistochemical measurements correlated with several physiologic parameters, including glucose, which may be a useful marker of fetal response to hypoxia or provide protection against energy failure and more severe WMI.

  12. Pain Catastrophizing Correlates with Early Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Chaput

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Identifying which patients are most likely to be at risk of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI is a difficult clinical challenge. Objectives. To examine the relationship between pain catastrophizing, defined as the exaggerated negative appraisal of a pain experience, and early MTBI outcome. Methods. This cross-sectional design included 58 patients diagnosed with a MTBI. In addition to medical chart review, postconcussion symptoms were assessed by self-report at 1 month (Time 1 and 8 weeks (Time 2 after MTBI. Pain severity, psychological distress, level of functionality, and pain catastrophizing were measured by self-report at Time 2. Results. The pain catastrophizing subscales of rumination, magnification, and helplessness were significantly correlated with pain severity (r=.31 to .44, number of postconcussion symptoms reported (r=.35 to .45, psychological distress (r=.57 to .67, and level of functionality (r=-.43 to -.29. Pain catastrophizing scores were significantly higher for patients deemed to be at high risk of postconcussion syndrome (6 or more symptoms reported at both Time 1 and Time 2. Conclusions. Higher levels of pain catastrophizing were related to adverse early MTBI outcomes. The early detection of pain catastrophizing may facilitate goal-oriented interventions to prevent or minimize the development of chronic pain and other postconcussion symptoms.

  13. Prevalence, patterns, and correlates of equestrian injuries in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeedkutty, Nizar A; Khairulanuar, Nor A B

    2017-01-01

    Equestrian sport carries with it an implicit risk of injury. Despite the frequency of injuries in equestrian sports, there is no published study on injuries of equestrian athletes in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of injuries and its correlates among horseback riders. A web-based standardized questionnaire was used to collect data for this cross-sectional survey. Horseback riders aged 18 years and above were included in the study. Out of 169 participants, 93 were females and 76 were males. The correlation of injuries to gender, age, level of experience, exercise habits, use of safety measures, and type of equestrian sport were determined. Chi-square test was performed to test for statistical significance. The prevalence was high with 85.8% of the participants reporting symptoms and characteristics of injuries in the past 12 months. The most frequently perceived symptoms reported were in the upper extremities (43.4%) followed by lower extremities (40.7%), head injury (8.3%) and injuries of upper and lower back (3.4%). There was a higher prevalence of injury among female participants (55.03%) than males (42.60%). A significant correlation was found between gender and prevalence of injuries. About 70% of the riders sustained soft tissue injuries. Fifty-five percent of the injured were involved in recreational riding. The most common mechanism of injury was a fall from a horse. Sixty percent of the injured riders did not seek medical attention after being injured, and physiotherapy consultation was even lower with 10.3%. The high prevalence of injuries and low rate of medical consultation emphasize the need for education programs on safety in Malaysia. Sessions should be held to improve coaching for riders and instructors, and their knowledge of the nature of the horse, mechanisms of injuries, horse handling, and riding skills to help them host safe equestrian activities.

  14. Prevalence, patterns, and correlates of equestrian injuries in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar A Majeedkutty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Equestrian sport carries with it an implicit risk of injury. Despite the frequency of injuries in equestrian sports, there is no published study on injuries of equestrian athletes in Malaysia. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of injuries and its correlates among horseback riders. Subjects And Methods: A web-based standardized questionnaire was used to collect data for this cross-sectional survey. Horseback riders aged 18 years and above were included in the study. Out of 169 participants, 93 were females and 76 were males. The correlation of injuries to gender, age, level of experience, exercise habits, use of safety measures, and type of equestrian sport were determined. Chi-square test was performed to test for statistical significance. Results: The prevalence was high with 85.8% of the participants reporting symptoms and characteristics of injuries in the past 12 months. The most frequently perceived symptoms reported were in the upper extremities (43.4% followed by lower extremities (40.7%, head injury (8.3% and injuries of upper and lower back (3.4%. There was a higher prevalence of injury among female participants (55.03% than males (42.60%. A significant correlation was found between gender and prevalence of injuries. About 70% of the riders sustained soft tissue injuries. Fifty-five percent of the injured were involved in recreational riding. The most common mechanism of injury was a fall from a horse. Sixty percent of the injured riders did not seek medical attention after being injured, and physiotherapy consultation was even lower with 10.3%. Conclusions: The high prevalence of injuries and low rate of medical consultation emphasize the need for education programs on safety in Malaysia. Sessions should be held to improve coaching for riders and instructors, and their knowledge of the nature of the horse, mechanisms of injuries, horse handling, and riding skills to help them host safe

  15. Therapeutic Hypothermia Following Traumatic Spinal Injury: Morphological and Functional Correlates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yezierski, Robert P

    1998-01-01

    The general purpose of experiments carried out during the first year focused on the neuroprotective effects of systemic hypothermia and pharmacological treatments following moderate and severe spinal cord injury...

  16. Computed tomographic findings of splenic injury and correlation with treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Jin; Koh, Joo Yaul; Kim, Myung Soon; Hong, In Soo; Cho, Whi Youl; Sung, Ki Joon

    1990-01-01

    According to recently reported classification, 46 patients with blunt splenic trauma were evaluate preoperatively with computed tomography(CT). Injures were graded I through IV and describe as capsular or subcapsular disruptions without parenchymal injury(3 patients); capsular and parenchymal injuries(23 patients); injuries involving hilum(3 patients); and fragmentation(17 patients). Nineteen patients were managed conservatively and 27 patients were managed surgically. Twelve patients(47%) out of those with Type I or Type II were managed surgically including five hemodynamically unstable patients and seven hemodynamically stable patients with associated injuries and unknown surgical criteria. On the other hand hemodynamically stable patients(25%) out of those with Type III or Type IV were managed surgically. The amount of hemoperitoneum was graded into small, moderate and large; small in three patients, moderate in 39 patients, and large in two patients. The amount of hemoperitoneum in patients with conservative treatment was moderate in 16 patients and large in one patient. And the amount of hemoperitoneum in patients with operative treatment was small in three patients, moderate in 23 patients and large in one patient. We concluded that CT was accurate method of determining the extent of splenic injury and evaluation of hemoperitoneum, but treatment choice should be based on the hemodynamic status of patients rather than the type of injury or the amount of hemoperitoneum by CT

  17. Computed tomographic findings of splenic injury and correlation with treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Jin; Koh, Joo Yaul; Kim, Myung Soon; Hong, In Soo; Cho, Whi Youl; Sung, Ki Joon [Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-12-15

    According to recently reported classification, 46 patients with blunt splenic trauma were evaluate preoperatively with computed tomography(CT). Injures were graded I through IV and describe as capsular or subcapsular disruptions without parenchymal injury(3 patients); capsular and parenchymal injuries(23 patients); injuries involving hilum(3 patients); and fragmentation(17 patients). Nineteen patients were managed conservatively and 27 patients were managed surgically. Twelve patients(47%) out of those with Type I or Type II were managed surgically including five hemodynamically unstable patients and seven hemodynamically stable patients with associated injuries and unknown surgical criteria. On the other hand hemodynamically stable patients(25%) out of those with Type III or Type IV were managed surgically. The amount of hemoperitoneum was graded into small, moderate and large; small in three patients, moderate in 39 patients, and large in two patients. The amount of hemoperitoneum in patients with conservative treatment was moderate in 16 patients and large in one patient. And the amount of hemoperitoneum in patients with operative treatment was small in three patients, moderate in 23 patients and large in one patient. We concluded that CT was accurate method of determining the extent of splenic injury and evaluation of hemoperitoneum, but treatment choice should be based on the hemodynamic status of patients rather than the type of injury or the amount of hemoperitoneum by CT.

  18. Correlation between radiological assessment of acute ankle fractures and syndesmotic injury on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermans, J.J. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Wentink, N. [Atrium Medisch Centrum, Department of Surgery, PO Box 4446, Heerlen (Netherlands); Beumer, A.; Moonen, A.F.C.M. [Amphia Ziekenhuis Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, PO Box 90158, Breda (Netherlands); Hop, W.C.J. [Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Biostatistics, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Heijboer, M.P. [Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Orthopaedics, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Ginai, A.Z. [Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    Owing to the shortcomings of clinical examination and radiographs, injury to the syndesmotic ligaments is often misdiagnosed. When there is no indication requiring that the fractured ankle be operated on, the syndesmosis is not tested intra-operatively, and rupture of this ligamentous complex may be missed. Subsequently the patient is not treated properly leading to chronic complaints such as instability, pain, and swelling. We evaluated three fracture classification methods and radiographic measurements with respect to syndesmotic injury. Prospectively the radiographs of 51 consecutive ankle fractures were classified according to Weber, AO-Mueller, and Lauge-Hansen. Both the fracture type and additional measurements of the tibiofibular clear space (TFCS), tibiofibular overlap (TFO), medial clear space (MCS), and superior clear space (SCS) were used to assess syndesmotic injury. MRI, as standard of reference, was performed to evaluate the integrity of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. The sensitivity and specificity for detection of syndesmotic injury with radiography were compared to MRI. The Weber and AO-Mueller fracture classification system, in combination with additional measurements, detected syndesmotic injury with a sensitivity of 47% and a specificity of 100%, and Lauge-Hansen with both a sensitivity and a specificity of 92%. TFCS and TFO did not correlate with syndesmotic injury, and a widened MCS did not correlate with deltoid ligament injury. Syndesmotic injury as predicted by the Lauge-Hansen fracture classification correlated well with MRI findings. With MRI the extent of syndesmotic injury and therefore fracture stage can be assessed more accurately compared to radiographs. (orig.)

  19. Neuroimaging Correlates of Novel Psychiatric Disorders after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Jeffrey E.; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Bigler, Erin D.; Thompson, Wesley K.; MacLeod, Marianne; Vasquez, Ana C.; Merkley, Tricia L.; Hunter, Jill V.; Chu, Zili D.; Yallampalli, Ragini; Hotz, Gillian; Chapman, Sandra B.; Yang, Tony T.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates of novel (new-onset) psychiatric disorders (NPD) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and orthopedic injury (OI). Method: Participants were 7 to 17 years of age at the time of hospitalization for either TBI or OI. The study used a prospective, longitudinal, controlled design with…

  20. Iliopsoas injury: an MRI study of patterns and prevalence correlated with clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, Kimmie L.; Ilaslan, Hakan; Recht, Michael; Sundaram, Murali

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to retrospectively determine the prevalence and patterns of iliopsoas injuries based on consecutive MRI examinations, correlated with clinical findings. From 4,862 consecutive MRI examinations of the hips and pelvis, 32 patients with 33 iliopsoas injuries were identified and graded as muscle strain, partial tendon tear, and complete tendon tears. These patients' medical records were reviewed to determine age, gender, and cause of symptoms. The prevalence of iliopsoas tendon and myotendinous injuries was 0.66% (95% CI: 0.44-0.89). There were 18 females and 14 males whose ages ranged from 7 to 95 years (mean, 54 years). The most frequent presenting symptom was hip pain and the most frequent clinical diagnosis, an occult fracture. The most common injuries in patients under 65 years (16 patients) were muscle strains and partial tendon tears, most often due to an athletic injury. The most common injury in patients 65 years and older (16 patients) was a complete tear (8 patients, all females), 2 of which were spontaneous in origin. Each grade of iliopsoas injury occurred with similar frequency. The more advanced the age of the patient, the more severe the injury. Non-athletic injuries predominated in patients 65 years and older; athletic injuries were the most common cause of iliopsoas injury in patients under 65 years. (orig.)

  1. Correlations Between General Joint Hypermobility and Joint Hypermobility Syndrome and Injury in Contemporary Dance Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruemper, Alia; Watkins, Katherine

    2012-12-01

    The first objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of general joint hypermobility (GJH) and joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) in BA Dance Theatre 1st and 3rd year students at a contemporary dance conservatory. The second objective was to determine the statistical correlation between GJH, JHS, and injury in this population. A total of 85 (female, N = 78; male, N = 7) contemporary dance students participated in the study. The Beighton score (with a forward flexion test modification) was used to determine GJH, and the Brighton criteria were used to verify JHS. Participants completed a self-reported injury questionnaire that included type of injury (physical complaint, medical diagnosis, or time-loss) and injury frequency. Statistical analysis (Pearson correlation) was used to correlate GJH, JHS, and frequency-of-injury scores. Overall, 69% of the students were found to have GJH, and 33% had JHS. A statistical correlation of r = + 0.331 (p dance students and suggests that screening programs should include the Brighton criteria to identify JHS in these dancers. Subsequent injury tracking and injury prevention programs would then provide data for further research in this area.

  2. Neuroanatomic correlates of stroke-related myocardial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, H; Koroshetz, W J; Benner, T; Vangel, M G; Melinosky, C; Arsava, E M; Ayata, C; Zhu, M; Schwamm, L H; Sorensen, A G

    2006-05-09

    Myocardial injury can occur after ischemic stroke in the absence of primary cardiac causes. The neuroanatomic basis of stroke-related myocardial injury is not well understood. To identify regions of brain infarction associated with myocardial injury using a method free of the bias of an a priori hypothesis as to any specific location. Of 738 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, the authors identified 50 patients in whom serum cardiac troponin T (cTnT) elevation occurred in the absence of any apparent cause within 3 days of symptom onset. Fifty randomly selected, age- and sex-matched patients with ischemic stroke without cTnT elevation served as controls. Diffusion-weighted images with outlines of infarction were co-registered to a template, averaged, and then subtracted to find voxels that differed between the two groups. Voxel-wise p values were determined using a nonparametric permutation test to identify specific regions of infarction that were associated with cTnT elevation. The study groups were well balanced with respect to stroke risk factors, history of coronary artery disease, infarction volume, and frequency of right and left middle cerebral artery territory involvement. Brain regions that were a priori associated with cTnT elevation included the right posterior, superior, and medial insula and the right inferior parietal lobule. Among patients with right middle cerebral artery infarction, the insular cluster was involved in 88% of patients with and 33% without cTnT elevation (odds ratio: 15.00; 95% CI: 2.65 to 84.79). Infarctions in specific brain regions including the right insula are associated with elevated serum cardiac troponin T level indicative of myocardial injury.

  3. Nonfatal Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among Middle School Students in Cambodia and Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of nonfatal injury among middle school students in Cambodia and Vietnam. Cross-sectional data from 7137 school children (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 1.4 who were randomly sampled for participation in nationally representative Global School-based Health Surveys (GSHS in Cambodia and Vietnam were analyzed. The proportion of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 22.6% among boys and 17.5% among girls in Cambodia and 34.3% among boys and 25.1% among girls in Vietnam. The most prevalent cause of the most serious injury in Cambodia was traffic injuries (4.7% among boys and 4.3% among girls and in Vietnam it was falls (10.0% among boys and 7.0% among girls. In multinomial logistic regression analyses, experiencing hunger (as an indicator for low socioeconomic status and drug use were associated with having sustained one injury and two or more injuries in the past 12 months in Cambodia. In addition, poor mental health was associated with two or more injuries. In Vietnam, being male, experiencing hunger, current alcohol use, poor mental health and ever having had sex were associated with having sustained one injury and two or more injuries in the past 12 months. Several psychosocial variables were identified which could help in designing injury prevention strategies among middle school children in Cambodia and Vietnam.

  4. The correlation of insulin resistance with the cerebral injury and stress reaction in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Lan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of insulin resistance with the cerebral injury and stress reaction in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI. Methods: 78 patients who were diagnosed with acute traumatic brain injury in our hospital between May 2014 and August 2016 were selected as the TBI group, and 90 healthy volunteers who received physical examination during the same period were selected as the control group. The peripheral blood was collected to detect glucose, insulin and nerve injury marker molecules, stress hormones as well as oxidative stress reaction products, and the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR was calculated. Results: The HOMA-IR index of TBI group was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05; serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1, S100β, myelin basic protein (MBP, glucagon, growth hormone, cortisol, malondialdehyde (MDA and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdGlevels of TBI group were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05; serum NSE, UCH-L1, S100β, MBP, glucagon, growth hormone, cortisol, MDA and 8-OHdG levels of patients with high HOMA-IR were significantly higher than those of patients with low HOMA-IR (P<0.05. Conclusion: The insulin resistance increases significantly in patients with traumatic brain injury, and is closely related to the degree of cerebral injury and stress reaction.

  5. Injury Source and Correlation Analysis of Riders in Car-Electric Bicycle Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiefang Zou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about the injury source and correlation of riders in car-electric bicycle accident will be helpful in the cross validation of traces and vehicle safety design. In order to know more information about such kind of knowledge, 57 true car-electric bicycle accidents were reconstructed by PC-Crash and then data on injury information of riders were collected directly from the reconstructed cases. These collected data were validated by some existing research results firstly, and then 4 abnormal cases were deleted according to the statistical method. Finally, conclusions can be obtained according to the data obtained from the remaining 53 cases. Direct injuries of the head and right leg are from the road pavement upon low speed; the source laws of indirect head injuries are not obvious. Upon intermediate and high speed, the injuries of the above parts are from automobiles. Injuries of the left leg, femur, and right knee are from automobiles; left knee injuries are from automobiles, the road pavement and automobiles, respectively, upon low, intermediate, and high speed. The source laws of indirect torso injuries are not obvious upon intermediate and low speed, which are from automobiles upon high speed, while direct torso injuries are from the road pavement. And there is no high correlation between all parts of the injury of riders. The largest correlation coefficient was the head-left femur and left femur-right femur, which was 0.647, followed by the head-right femur (0.638 and head-torso which was 0.617.

  6. Injury Source and Correlation Analysis of Riders in Car-Electric Bicycle Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tiefang; Yi, Liang; Cai, Ming; Hu, Lin; Li, Yuelin

    2018-01-01

    The knowledge about the injury source and correlation of riders in car-electric bicycle accident will be helpful in the cross validation of traces and vehicle safety design. In order to know more information about such kind of knowledge, 57 true car-electric bicycle accidents were reconstructed by PC-Crash and then data on injury information of riders were collected directly from the reconstructed cases. These collected data were validated by some existing research results firstly, and then 4 abnormal cases were deleted according to the statistical method. Finally, conclusions can be obtained according to the data obtained from the remaining 53 cases. Direct injuries of the head and right leg are from the road pavement upon low speed; the source laws of indirect head injuries are not obvious. Upon intermediate and high speed, the injuries of the above parts are from automobiles. Injuries of the left leg, femur, and right knee are from automobiles; left knee injuries are from automobiles, the road pavement and automobiles, respectively, upon low, intermediate, and high speed. The source laws of indirect torso injuries are not obvious upon intermediate and low speed, which are from automobiles upon high speed, while direct torso injuries are from the road pavement. And there is no high correlation between all parts of the injury of riders. The largest correlation coefficient was the head-left femur and left femur-right femur, which was 0.647, followed by the head-right femur (0.638) and head-torso which was 0.617.

  7. Histopathologic correlation of magnetic resonance imaging signal patterns in a spinal cord injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirich, S D; Cotler, H B; Narayana, P A; Hazle, J D; Jackson, E F; Coupe, K J; McDonald, C L; Langford, L A; Harris, J H

    1990-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a noninvasive method of monitoring the pathologic response to spinal cord injury. Specific MR signal intensity patterns appear to correlate with degrees of improvement in the neurologic status in spinal cord injury patients. Histologic correlation of two types of MR signal intensity patterns are confirmed in the current study using a rat animal model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent spinal cord trauma at the midthoracic level using a weight-dropping technique. After laminectomy, 5- and 10-gm brass weights were dropped from designated heights onto a 0.1-gm impounder placed on the exposed dura. Animals allowed to regain consciousness demonstrated variable recovery of hind limb paraplegia. Magnetic resonance images were obtained from 2 hours to 1 week after injury using a 2-tesla MRI/spectrometer. Sacrifice under anesthesia was performed by perfusive fixation; spinal columns were excised en bloc, embedded, sectioned, and observed with the compound light microscope. Magnetic resonance axial images obtained during the time sequence after injury demonstrate a distinct correlation between MR signal intensity patterns and the histologic appearance of the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging delineates the pathologic processes resulting from acute spinal cord injury and can be used to differentiate the type of injury and prognosis.

  8. Connective tissue injury in calf muscle tears and return to play: MRI correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ashutosh; Entwisle, Tom; Schneider, Michal; Brukner, Peter; Connell, David

    2017-10-26

    The aim of our study was to assess a group of patients with calf muscle tears and evaluate the integrity of the connective tissue boundaries and interfaces. Further, we propose a novel MRI grading system based on integrity of the connective tissue and assess any correlation between the grading score and time to return to play. We have also reviewed the anatomy of the calf muscles. We retrospectively evaluated 100 consecutive patients with clinical suspicion and MRI confirmation of calf muscle injury. We evaluated each calf muscle tear with MRI for the particular muscle injured, location of injury within the muscle and integrity of the connective tissue structure at the interface. The muscle tears were graded 0-3 depending on the degree of muscle and connective tissue injury. The time to return to play for each patient and each injury was found from the injury records and respective sports doctors. In 100 patients, 114 injuries were detected. Connective tissue involvement was observed in 63 out of 100 patients and failure (grade 3 injury) in 18. Mean time to return to play with grade 0 injuries was 8 days, grade 1 tears was 17 days, grade 2 tears was 25 days and grade 3 tears was 48 days (pmuscle tears. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Seizure Severity Is Correlated With Severity of Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury in Abusive Head Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Andra L; Stence, Nicholas V; O'Neill, Brent R; Sillau, Stefan H; Chapman, Kevin E

    2017-12-12

    The objective of this study was to characterize hypoxic-ischemic injury and seizures in abusive head trauma. We performed a retrospective study of 58 children with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury due to abusive head trauma. Continuous electroencephalograms and magnetic resonance images were scored. Electrographic seizures (51.2%) and hypoxic-ischemic injury (77.4%) were common in our cohort. Younger age was associated with electrographic seizures (no seizures: median age 13.5 months, interquartile range five to 25 months, versus seizures: 4.5 months, interquartile range 3 to 9.5 months; P = 0.001). Severity of hypoxic-ischemic injury was also associated with seizures (no seizures: median injury score 1.0, interquartile range 0 to 3, versus seizures: 4.5, interquartile range 3 to 8; P = 0.01), but traumatic injury severity was not associated with seizures (no seizures: mean injury score 3.78 ± 1.68 versus seizures: mean injury score 3.83 ± 0.95, P = 0.89). There was a correlation between hypoxic-ischemic injury severity and seizure burden when controlling for patient age (r s =0.61, P interquartile range 0 to 0.23 on magnetic resonance imaging done within two days versus median restricted diffusion ratio 0.13, interquartile range 0.01 to 0.43 on magnetic resonance imaging done after two days, P = 0.03). Electrographic seizures are common in children with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury from abusive head trauma, and therefore children with suspected abusive head trauma should be monitored with continuous electroencephalogram. Severity of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is correlated with severity of seizures, and evidence of hypoxic-ischemic injury on magnetic resonance imaging may evolve over time. Therefore children with a high seizure burden should be reimaged to evaluate for evolving hypoxic-ischemic injury. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. [Correlation between morphogical factor of lateral plateau fracture and meniscus injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, L; Zhou, W; Zhang, W T; Huang, W; You, T; Chen, P; Zhang, H L

    2016-04-18

    To analyze morphological character of lateral tibial plateau fracture fragment, and its correlation to the presence of a meniscus injury in tibial plateau fractures. A total of 79 consecutive patients of the simple lateral tibial plateau fractures from July 2011 to July 2015 were included in this study, with 65 males and 14 females with an average age of (34.3±7.2) years and 22-61 years. According to Schatzker classification, 21 cases were of Type I, 41 cases Type II, and 17 cases Type III. The characteristics of lateral tibial plateau fractures were evaluated by plain X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The type and severity of meniscus injury were diagnosed by MRI scan. Three-dimensional measurements of the lateral fragment width (LFW), the lateral plateau depression (LPD), the coronal angulation of lateral fragment (CALF), and tibial plateau widening (TPW) were measured with Picture Archiving and Communication Systems(PACS) software. The patients with and without meniscus injuries were divided into different groups and analyzed respectively. Comparison of the above measurements between the two groups was analyzed by independent t test. In all the 79 lateral tibial plateau fracture patients, 26 cases (32.9%) of meniscus injuries were detected by MRI. Among all the meniscus injury cases, 3 were of Schatzker I, 16 Schatzker II, and 7 Schatzker III. In meniscus intact group, the average LFW was (22.0±2.8) mm while in meniscus injury group it was (21.3± 3.3) mm (t=-1.008, P=0.317).The average LPD of non meniscus injury group was (5.4±2.8) mm, while in meniscus injury group was (8.7±2.8) mm (t=4.98, P=0.001). The average CALF of the two groups were 9.1°±6.1°and 10.6°± 7.1°, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (t=0.38, P=0.831). The average TPW was (3.0± 1.1) mm, and (4.8±1.7) mm of the two groups. There were significant differences between the two groups (t=5.216, P=0.001). There was no obvious correlation between the

  11. Walking and child pedestrian injury: a systematic review of built environment correlates of safe walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Linda; Buliung, Ron; Macarthur, Colin; To, Teresa; Howard, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    The child active transportation literature has focused on walking, with little attention to risk associated with increased traffic exposure. This paper reviews the literature related to built environment correlates of walking and pedestrian injury in children together, to broaden the current conceptualization of walkability to include injury prevention. Two independent searches were conducted focused on walking in children and child pedestrian injury within nine electronic databases until March, 2012. Studies were included which: 1) were quantitative 2) set in motorized countries 3) were either urban or suburban 4) investigated specific built environment risk factors 5) had outcomes of either walking in children and/or child pedestrian roadway collisions (ages 0-12). Built environment features were categorized according to those related to density, land use diversity or roadway design. Results were cross-tabulated to identify how built environment features associate with walking and injury. Fifty walking and 35 child pedestrian injury studies were identified. Only traffic calming and presence of playgrounds/recreation areas were consistently associated with more walking and less pedestrian injury. Several built environment features were associated with more walking, but with increased injury. Many features had inconsistent results or had not been investigated for either outcome. The findings emphasise the importance of incorporating safety into the conversation about creating more walkable cities.

  12. MR imaging and histopathologic correlations of thermal injuries induced by interstitial laser applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzai, Y.; Lufkin, R.B.; Castro, D.J.; Farahani, K.; Chen, H.W.; Hirchowiz, S.

    1991-01-01

    Interstitial laser phototherapy for deep-seated tumors may become an attractive therapeutic modality when a noninvasive, accurate monitoring system is developed. In this paper, to devaluate the ability of MR imaging to differentiate reversible and irreversible thermal injuries induced by laser therapy, the precise correlation of MR and histopathologic findings are investigated in the in vivo model. Nd:YAG lasers were applied to normal musculature of rabbits, and MR examinations were performed immediately after laser exposure and followed up for up to 10 weeks. The sequential MR images were correlated with histopathologic findings. T2-weighted MR imaging clearly showed laser-induced thermal injuries on any postoperative day. MR imaging of acute thermal injuries showed a central cavity, low-signal zone of coagulative necrosis and a peripheral high-signal layer of interstitial edema. The infiltration of neutrophils followed by fibrovascular response was identified on the marginal edema layer after 6 postoperative days

  13. Correlation between subacute sensorimotor deficits and brain water content after surgical brain injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Devin W.; Wang, Yuechun; Sherchan, Prativa; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Brain edema is a major contributor to poor outcome and reduced quality of life after surgical brain injury (SBI). Although SBI pathophysiology is well-known, the correlation between cerebral edema and neurological deficits has not been thoroughly examined in the rat model of SBI. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between brain edema and deficits in standard sensorimotor neurobehavior tests for rats subjected to SBI. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected ...

  14. Statistical and perceptual updating: correlated impairments in right brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöttinger, Elisabeth; Filipowicz, Alex; Marandi, Elahe; Quehl, Nadine; Danckert, James; Anderson, Britt

    2014-06-01

    It has been hypothesized that many of the cognitive impairments commonly seen after right brain damage (RBD) can be characterized as a failure to build or update mental models. We (Danckert et al. in Neglect as a disorder of representational updating. NOVA Open Access, New York, 2012a; Cereb Cortex 22:2745-2760, 2012b) were the first to directly assess the association between RBD and updating and found that RBD patients were unable to exploit a strongly biased play strategy in their opponent in the children's game rock, paper, scissors. Given that this game required many other cognitive capacities (i.e., working memory, sustained attention, reward processing), RBD patients could have failed this task for various reasons other than a failure to update. To assess the generality of updating deficits after RBD, we had RBD, left brain-damaged (LBD) patients and healthy controls (HCs) describe line drawings that evolved gradually from one figure (e.g., rabbit) to another (e.g., duck) in addition to the RPS updating task. RBD patients took significantly longer to alter their perceptual report from the initial object to the final object than did LBD patients and HCs. Although both patient groups performed poorly on the RPS task, only the RBD patients showed a significant correlation between the two, very different, updating tasks. We suggest these data indicate a general deficiency in the ability to update mental representations following RBD.

  15. Correlating learning and memory improvements to long-term potentiation in patients with brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingfu Peng; Qian Yu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Brain injury patients often exhibit learning and memory functional deficits.Long-term potentiation(LTP)is a representative index for studying learning and memory cellular models; the LTP index correlates to neural plasticity. OBJECTIVE:This study was designed to investigate correlations of learning and memory functions to LTP in brain injury patients,and to summarize the research advancements in mechanisms underlying brain functional improvements after rehabilitation intervention. RETRIEVAL STRATEGY:Using the terms "brain injuries,rehabilitation,learning and memory,long-term potentiation",manuscripts that were published from 2000-2007 were retrieved from the PubMed database.At the same time,manuscripts published from 2000-2007 were also retrieved from the Database of Chinese Scientific and Technical Periodicals with the same terms in the Chinese language.A total of 64 manuscripts were obtained and primarily screened.Inclusion criteria:studies on learning and memory,as well as LTP in brain injury patients,and studies focused on the effects of rehabilitation intervention on the two indices; studies that were recently published or in high-impact journals.Exclusion criteria:repetitive studies.LITERATURE EVALUATION:The included manuscripts primarily focused on correlations between learning and memory and LTP,the effects of brain injury on learning and memory,as well as LTP,and the effects of rehabilitation intervention on learning and memory after brain injury.The included 39 manuscripts were clinical,basic experimental,or review studies. DATA SYNTHESIS:Learning and memory closely correlates to LTP.The neurobiological basis of learning and memory is central nervous system plasticity,which involves neural networks,neural circuits,and synaptic connections,in particular,synaptic plasticity.LTP is considered to be an ideal model for studying synaptic plasticity,and it is also a classic model for studying neural plasticity of learning and memory.Brain injury

  16. Examining the Correlation between Objective Injury Parameters, Personality Traits and Adjustment Measures among Burn Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Mordechai Haik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burn victims experience immense physical and mental hardship during their process of rehabilitation and regaining functionality. We examined different objective burn related factors as well as psychological ones, in the form of personality traits, that may affect the rehabilitation process and its outcome. Objective: To assess the influence and correlation of specific personality traits and objective injury related parameters on the adjustment of burn victims post-injury. Methods: 62 male patients admitted to our burn unit due to burn injuries were compared with 36 healthy male individuals by use of questionnaires to assess each group's psychological adjustment parameters. Multivariate and hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to identify differences between the groups. Results: A significant negative correlation was found between the objective burn injury severity (e.g. TBSA and burn depth and the adjustment of burn victims (p<0.05, p<0.001, table 3. Moreover, patients more severely injured tend to be more neurotic (p<0.001, and less extroverted and agreeable (p<0.01, table 4. Conclusions: Extroverted burn victims tend to adjust better to their post-injury life while the neurotic patients tend to have difficulties adjusting. This finding may suggest new tools for early identification of maladjustment-prone patients and therefore provide them with better psychological support in a more dedicated manner.

  17. Unintentional Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among in-School Adolescents in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to provide estimates of the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of unintentional injury among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS included 21,699 students (predominantly ≤13 to ≥17 years that were selected by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all secondary school students in Forms 1 to 5. The percentage of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 34.9%, 42.1% of boys and 27.8% of girls. The two major causes of the most serious injury were “fall” (9.9% and motor vehicle accident or being hit by a motor vehicle (5.4%, and the most frequent type of injury sustained was cut, puncture, or stab wound (6.2% and a broken bone or dislocated joint (4.2%. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors (being male and low socioeconomic status, substance use (tobacco and cannabis use, frequent soft drink consumption, attending physical education classes three or more times a week, other risky behavior (truancy, ever having had sex, being bullied, psychological distress, and lack of parental or guardian bonding were associated with annual injury prevalence. Several factors were identified, which could be included in injury prevention promotion programs among secondary school children.

  18. Unintentional Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among in-School Adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2015-11-20

    The study aimed to provide estimates of the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of unintentional injury among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) included 21,699 students (predominantly ≤13 to ≥17 years) that were selected by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all secondary school students in Forms 1 to 5. The percentage of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 34.9%, 42.1% of boys and 27.8% of girls. The two major causes of the most serious injury were "fall" (9.9%) and motor vehicle accident or being hit by a motor vehicle (5.4%), and the most frequent type of injury sustained was cut, puncture, or stab wound (6.2%) and a broken bone or dislocated joint (4.2%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors (being male and low socioeconomic status), substance use (tobacco and cannabis use), frequent soft drink consumption, attending physical education classes three or more times a week, other risky behavior (truancy, ever having had sex, being bullied), psychological distress, and lack of parental or guardian bonding were associated with annual injury prevalence. Several factors were identified, which could be included in injury prevention promotion programs among secondary school children.

  19. Significance of radiographic abnormalities in patients with tibial stress injuries: correlation with magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijowski, Richard; Choi, James; Smet, Arthur de; Mukharjee, Rajat

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to correlate radiographic findings with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with suspected tibial stress injuries in order to determine the significance of radiographic signs of stress injury in these individuals. The study group consisted of 80 patients with suspected tibial stress injuries who underwent a radiographic and MR examination of the tibia. Nineteen patients had bilateral involvement. Thus, a total of 99 tibias were evaluated. All radiographs and MR examinations were retrospectively reviewed, 1 month apart, in consensus by two musculoskeletal radiologists. The radiographs were reviewed without knowledge of the site of the clinical symptoms. Fisher's exact tests were used to determine the association between a positive radiograph and the presence of various MRI signs of a high-grade stress injury. There was a strong association between the presence of periosteal reaction on radiographs at the site of the clinical symptoms and a Fredericson grade 4 stress injury on MRI. The presence of periosteal reaction on radiographs at the site of clinical symptoms is predictive of a high-grade stress injury by MRI criteria. (orig.)

  20. Correlation between crash avoidance maneuvers and injury severity sustained by motorcyclists in single-vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Lu, Linjun; Lu, Jian; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve motorcycle safety, this article examines the correlation between crash avoidance maneuvers and injury severity sustained by motorcyclists, under multiple precrash conditions. Ten-year crash data for single-vehicle motorcycle crashes from the General Estimates Systems (GES) were analyzed, using partial proportional odds models (i.e., generalized ordered logit models). The modeling results show that "braking (no lock-up)" is associated with a higher probability of increased severity, whereas "braking (lock-up)" is associated with a higher probability of decreased severity, under all precrash conditions. "Steering" is associated with a higher probability of reduced injury severity when other vehicles are encroaching, whereas it is correlated with high injury severity under other conditions. "Braking and steering" is significantly associated with a higher probability of low severity under "animal encounter and object presence," whereas it is surprisingly correlated with high injury severity when motorcycles are traveling off the edge of the road. The results also show that a large number of motorcyclists did not perform any crash avoidance maneuvers or conducted crash avoidance maneuvers that are significantly associated with high injury severity. In general, this study suggests that precrash maneuvers are an important factor associated with motorcyclists' injury severity. To improve motorcycle safety, training/educational programs should be considered to improve safety awareness and adjust driving habits of motorcyclists. Antilock brakes and such systems are also promising, because they could effectively prevent brake lock-up and assist motorcyclists in maneuvering during critical conditions. This study also provides valuable information for the design of motorcycle training curriculum.

  1. Attachment Style, Social Support, and Coping as Psychosocial Correlates of Happiness in Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lisa; Catalano, Denise; Sung, Connie; Phillips, Brian; Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung; Chan, Fong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the roles of attachment, social support, and coping as psychosocial correlates in predicting happiness in people with spinal cord injuries. Design: Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlation techniques. Participants: 274 individuals with spinal cord injuries. Outcome Measures: Happiness…

  2. Acromioclavicular joint dislocations: radiological correlation between Rockwood classification system and injury patterns in human cadaver species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschler, Anica; Rösler, Klaus; Rotter, Robert; Gradl, Georg; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Gierer, Philip

    2014-09-01

    The classification system of Rockwood and Young is a commonly used classification for acromioclavicular joint separations subdividing types I-VI. This classification hypothesizes specific lesions to anatomical structures (acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments, capsule, attached muscles) leading to the injury. In recent literature, our understanding for anatomical correlates leading to the radiological-based Rockwood classification is questioned. The goal of this experimental-based investigation was to approve the correlation between the anatomical injury pattern and the Rockwood classification. In four human cadavers (seven shoulders), the acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments were transected stepwise. Radiological correlates were recorded (Zanca view) with 15-kg longitudinal tension applied at the wrist. The resulting acromio- and coracoclavicular distances were measured. Radiographs after acromioclavicular ligament transection showed joint space enlargement (8.6 ± 0.3 vs. 3.1 ± 0.5 mm, p acromioclavicular joint space width increased to 16.7 ± 2.7 vs. 8.6 ± 0.3 mm, p acromioclavicular joint lesions higher than Rockwood type I and II. The clinical consequence for reconstruction of low-grade injuries might be a solely surgical approach for the acromioclavicular ligaments or conservative treatment. High-grade injuries were always based on additional structural damage to the coracoclavicular ligaments. Rockwood type V lesions occurred while muscle attachments were intact.

  3. Spinal cord injury after blunt cervical spine trauma: correlation of soft-tissue damage and extension of lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, R; Paredes, I; Cepeda, S; Ramos, A; Castaño-León, A M; García-Fuentes, C; Lobato, R D; Gómez, P A; Lagares, A

    2014-05-01

    In patients with spinal cord injury after blunt trauma, several studies have observed a correlation between neurologic impairment and radiologic findings. Few studies have been performed to correlate spinal cord injury with ligamentous injury. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate whether ligamentous injury or disk disruption after spinal cord injury correlates with lesion length. We retrospectively reviewed 108 patients diagnosed with traumatic spinal cord injury after cervical trauma between 1990-2011. Plain films, CT, and MR imaging were performed on patients and then reviewed for this study. MR imaging was performed within 96 hours after cervical trauma for all patients. Data regarding ligamentous injury, disk injury, and the extent of the spinal cord injury were collected from an adequate number of MR images. We evaluated anterior longitudinal ligaments, posterior longitudinal ligaments, and the ligamentum flavum. Length of lesion, disk disruption, and ligamentous injury association, as well as the extent of the spinal cord injury were statistically assessed by means of univariate analysis, with the use of nonparametric tests and multivariate analysis along with linear regression. There were significant differences in lesion length on T2-weighted images for anterior longitudinal ligaments, posterior longitudinal ligaments, and ligamentum flavum in the univariate analysis; however, when this was adjusted by age, level of injury, sex, and disruption of the soft tissue evaluated (disk, anterior longitudinal ligaments, posterior longitudinal ligaments, and ligamentum flavum) in a multivariable analysis, only ligamentum flavum showed a statistically significant association with lesion length. Furthermore, the number of ligaments affected had a positive correlation with the extension of the lesion. In cervical spine trauma, a specific pattern of ligamentous injury correlates with the length of the spinal cord lesion in MR imaging studies

  4. Considering built environment and spatial correlation in modelling pedestrian injury severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo G.; Kaplan, Sigal; Patrier, Alexandre

    traffic calming measures, illumination solutions, road maintenance programs and speed limit reductions. Moreover, this study emphasises the role of the built environment, as shopping areas, residential areas, and walking traffic density are positively related to a reduction in pedestrian injury severity......This study looks at mitigating and aggravating factors that are associated with the injury severity of pedestrians when they have crashes with another road user and overcomes existing limitations in the literature by posing attention on the built environment and considering spatial correlation...... of pedestrians to sustain a severe or fatal injury conditional on the occurrence of a crash with another road user. This study confirms previous findings about older pedestrians and intoxicated pedestrians being the most vulnerable road users, and crashes with heavy vehicles and in roads with higher speed limits...

  5. Considering built environment and spatial correlation in modelling pedestrian injury severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo G.; Kaplan, Sigal; Patrier, Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    traffic calming measures, illumination solutions, road maintenance programs and speed limit reductions. Moreover, this study emphasises the role of the built environment, as shopping areas, residential areas, and walking traffic density are positively related to a reduction in pedestrian injury severity......This study looks at mitigating and aggravating factors that are associated with the injury severity of pedestrians when they have crashes with another road user and overcomes existing limitations in the literature by posing attention on the built environment and considering spatial correlation...... of pedestrians to sustain a severe or fatal injury conditional on the occurrence of a crash with another road user. This study confirms previous findings about older pedestrians and intoxicated pedestrians being the most vulnerable road users, and crashes with heavy vehicles and in roads with higher speed limits...

  6. Blunt hepatic and splenic trauma in children: correlation of a CT injury severity scale with clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruess, L. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children`s National Medical Center, and George Washington Univ. School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC (United States); Sivit, C.J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children`s National Medical Center, and George Washington Univ. School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)]|[Dept. of Pediatrics, Children`s National Medical Center, and George Washington Univ. School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC (United States); Eichelberger, M.R. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Children`s National Medical Center, and George Washington Univ. School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)]|[Dept. of Surgery, Children`s National Medical Center, and George Washington Univ. School of Medicine and Health Sciences Washington, DC (United States); Taylor, G.A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children`s National Medical Center, and George Washington Univ. School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC (United States); Bond, S.J. [Dept. of Surgery, Children`s National Medical Center, and George Washington Univ. School of Medicine and Health Sciences Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare a computed tomography (CT) injury severity scale for hepatic and splenic injury with the following outcome measures: requirement for surgical hemostasis, requirement for blood transfusion and late complications. Sixty-nine children with isolated hepatic injury and 53 with isolated splenic injury were prospectively classified at CT according to extent of parenchymal involvement. Clinical records were reviewed to determine clinical outcome. Ninety-seven children (80%) were managed non-operatively without transfusion. One child with hepatic injury required surgical hemostasis, and 17 (25%) required transfusion of blood. Increasing severity of hepatic injury at CT was associated with progressively greater frequency of transfusion (P = 0.002 by {chi}{sup 2}-test). One child with splenic injury underwent surgery and eight (15%) required transfusion of blood. Splenic injury grade at CT did not correlate with frequency (P = 0.41 by {chi}{sup 2}-test) or amount (P = 0.35 by factorial analysis of variance) of transfusion. There was one late complication in the nonsurgical group. A majority of children with hepatic and splenic injury were managed non-operatively without requiring blood transfusion. The severity of injury by CT scan did not correlate with need for surgery. Increasing grade of hepatic injury at CT was associated with increasing frequency of blood transfusion. CT staging was not discriminatory in predicting transfusion requirement in splenic injury. (orig.)

  7. Blunt hepatic and splenic trauma in children: correlation of a CT injury severity scale with clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruess, L.; Sivit, C.J.; Eichelberger, M.R.; Taylor, G.A.; Bond, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare a computed tomography (CT) injury severity scale for hepatic and splenic injury with the following outcome measures: requirement for surgical hemostasis, requirement for blood transfusion and late complications. Sixty-nine children with isolated hepatic injury and 53 with isolated splenic injury were prospectively classified at CT according to extent of parenchymal involvement. Clinical records were reviewed to determine clinical outcome. Ninety-seven children (80%) were managed non-operatively without transfusion. One child with hepatic injury required surgical hemostasis, and 17 (25%) required transfusion of blood. Increasing severity of hepatic injury at CT was associated with progressively greater frequency of transfusion (P = 0.002 by χ 2 -test). One child with splenic injury underwent surgery and eight (15%) required transfusion of blood. Splenic injury grade at CT did not correlate with frequency (P = 0.41 by χ 2 -test) or amount (P = 0.35 by factorial analysis of variance) of transfusion. There was one late complication in the nonsurgical group. A majority of children with hepatic and splenic injury were managed non-operatively without requiring blood transfusion. The severity of injury by CT scan did not correlate with need for surgery. Increasing grade of hepatic injury at CT was associated with increasing frequency of blood transfusion. CT staging was not discriminatory in predicting transfusion requirement in splenic injury. (orig.)

  8. Plasma creatine kinase B correlates with injury severity and symptoms in professional boxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilianski, Joseph; Peeters, Sophie; Debad, Jeff; Mohmed, Joseph; Wolf, Steven E; Minei, Joseph P; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Gatson, Joshua W

    2017-11-01

    Each year in the United States, approximately 1.7 million people sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Of these TBI events, about 75 percent are characterized as being mild brain injuries. Immediately following TBI, a secondary brain damage persists for hours, days, and even months. Previously, detection of neuronal and glial biomarkers have proven to be useful to predict neurological outcomes. Here, we hypothesized that creatine kinase, brain (CKBB) is a sensitive biomarker for acute secondary brain injury in professional boxers. Blood (8cc) was collected from the boxing athletes (n=18) prior to and after competition (∼30min). The plasma levels of CKBB were measured using the Meso Scale Diagnostic (MSD) electrochemiluminescence (ECL) array-based multiplex format. Additional data such as number of blows to the head and symptom score (Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire) were collected. At approximately 30min after the competition, the plasma levels of CKBB were significantly elevated in concussed professional boxers and correlated with the number of blows to the head and symptom scores. Additionally, receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis yielded a 77.8% sensitivity and a specificity of 82.4% with an area under the curve (AUC) of 90% for CKBB as an identifier of secondary brain injury within this population. This study describes the detection of CKBB as a brain biomarker to detect secondary brain injury in professional athletes that have experienced multiple high impact blows to the head. This acute biomarker may prove useful in monitoring secondary brain injury after injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Injuries observed in a prospective transition from traditional to minimalist footwear: correlation of high impact transient forces and lower injury severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzler, Matthew J; Kirwan, Hollie J; Scarborough, Donna M; Walker, James T; Guarino, Anthony J; Berkson, Eric M

    2016-11-01

    Minimalist running is increasing in popularity based upon a concept that it can reduce impact forces and decrease injury rates. The purpose of this investigation is to identify the rate and severity of injuries in runners transitioning from traditional to minimalist footwear. The secondary aims were to identify factors correlated with injuries. Fourteen habitually shod (traditional running shoes) participants were enrolled for this prospective study investigating injury prevalence during transition from traditional running shoes to 5-toed minimalist shoes. Participants were uninjured, aged between 22-41 years, and ran at least twenty kilometers per week in traditional running shoes. Participants were given industry recommended guidelines for transition to minimalist footwear and fit with a 5-toed minimalist running shoe. They completed weekly logs for identification of injury, pain using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), injury location, and severity. Foot strike pattern and impact forces were collected using 3D motion analysis at baseline, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks. Injuries were scored according to a modified Running Injury Severity Score (RISS). Fourteen runners completed weekly training and injury logs over an average of 30 weeks. Twelve of 14 (86%) runners sustained injuries. Average injury onset was 6 weeks (range 1-27 weeks). Average weekly mileage of 23.9 miles/week prior to transition declined to 18.3 miles/week after the transition. The magnitude of the baseline impact transient peak in traditional shoes and in minimalist shoes negatively correlated with RISS scores (r = -0.45, p = 0.055 and r = -0.53, p = 0.026, respectively). High injury rates occurred during the transition from traditional to minimalist footwear. Non-compliance to transition guidelines and high injury rates suggest the need for improved education. High impact transient forces unexpectedly predicted lower modified RISS scores in this population.

  10. Correlation between bone contusion and ligament, menisci injury of knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lijuan; Li Pei; Tu Changzhuo; Wu Guangren; Qi Yuliang; Yan Xiaoqun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correlation between bone contusion and ligament, meniscus injury of knee joint with MR imaging. Methods: Thirty-five patients with acute trauma of knee joint were studied retrospectively. All eases showed negative on X-ray and bone cont, -sion on MR imaging. Results: in all patients, ligament and meniscus injury were seen in 25 cases (71%), incorporate anterior cruciate ligament injury in 12 cases, posterior cruciate ligament in 6, tibial collateral ligament in 8 cases, fibular collateral ligament in 6 cases, medial meniscus tear in 4 cases, lateral meniscus tear in 5 cases, and hydrops in 29 cases. There were only 3 patients with ligament or meniscus injury but no bone contusion during the same period. Conclusion: It is necessary to check by MR for the patients with acute trauma of knee joint, who have clinical symptom such as ache, swelling, move un-freely showing bone contusion on MR Imaging but without any abnormality on X-ray in order to avoid failure in diagnosing injury of ligament and meniscus. (authors)

  11. Correlation between muscle electrical impedance data and standard neurophysiologic parameters after experimental neurogenic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahad, M; Rutkove, S B

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has shown that electrical impedance measurements of muscle can assist in quantifying the degree of muscle atrophy resulting from neuronal injury, with impedance values correlating strongly with standard clinical parameters. However, the relationship between such data and neurophysiologic measurements is unexplored. In this study, 24 Wistar rats underwent sciatic crush, with measurement of the 2–1000 kHz impedance spectrum, standard electrophysiological measures, including nerve conduction studies, needle electromyography, and motor unit number estimation (MUNE) before and after sciatic crush, with animals assessed weekly for 4 weeks post-injury. All electrical impedance values, including a group of 'collapsed' variables, in which the spectral characteristics were reduced to single values, showed reductions as high as 47.2% after sciatic crush, paralleling and correlating with changes in compound motor action potential amplitude, conduction velocity and most closely to MUNE, but not to the presence of fibrillation potentials observed on needle electromyography. These results support the concept that localized impedance measurements can serve as surrogate makers of nerve injury; these measurements may be especially useful in assessing nerve injury impacting proximal or axial muscles where standard quantitative neurophysiologic methods such as nerve conduction or MUNE cannot be readily performed

  12. Correlations of radiological assessment of skeletal maturity and orthopaedic injuries in the standardbred

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasolini, M.P.; Meomartino, L.; Fatone, G.; Brunetti, A.; Laratta, I.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define a correlation between the incidence of orthopaedic injuries and the skeletal maturity, radiologically assessed, in a group of 23 standardbred horses. Starting at 18 months of age, radiograms of calcaneus and distal radial physis were taken at two months intervals, until X-ray evidence of closure. All the physis were blindly graded as: C: open physis; B-: initial evidence of central closure; B: partially closed physis; B+: full closure of the central portion of the physis; A: closed physis. Based on this classification, the horses were grouped as I (immature subject - C, B- and B), or M (mature subject - B+ and A). Orthopaedic injuries were classified as major lesion, if causing prolonged or definitive interruption of training, or minor, if causing brief or no interruption of training. Estimation of injury incidence in the different groups was calculated using the chi-square test (significance level P0.01). The average ages of physis closure (mean +- SD) were 24.1 +- 2.6 months (range 19-28), for the calcaneal physis, and 28.2 +- 2 months (range 26-33), for the distal radial physis, without significant differences between colts and fillies. In our study, according to a previous report, no correlation between X-ray skeletal maturity and incidence of orthopaedic injuries was demonstrated [it

  13. No correlation between initial arterial carboxyhemoglobin level and degree of lung injury following ovine burn and smoke inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Matthias; Cox, Robert A; Traber, Daniel L; Hamahata, Atsumori; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Traber, Lillian D; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2014-04-01

    Fire victims often suffer from burn injury and concomitant inhalation trauma, the latter significantly contributing to the morbidity and mortality in these patients. Measurement of blood carboxyhemoglobin levels has been proposed as a diagnostic marker to verify and, perhaps, quantify the degree of lung injury following inhalation trauma. However, this correlation has not yet been sufficiently validated. A total of 77 chronically instrumented sheep received sham injury, smoke inhalation injury, or combined burn and inhalation trauma following an established protocol. Arterial carboxyhemoglobin concentrations were determined directly after injury and correlated to several clinical and histopathological determinants of lung injury that were detected 48 hours post-injury. The injury induced severe impairment of pulmonary gas exchange and increases in transvascular fluid flux, lung water content, and airway obstruction scores. No significant correlations were detected between initial carboxyhemoglobin levels and all measured clinical and histopathological determinants of lung injury. In conclusion, the amount of arterial carboxyhemoglobin concentration cannot predict the degree of lung injury at 48 hours after ovine burn and smoke inhalation trauma.

  14. Patellofemoral Instability in Children: Correlation Between Risk Factors, Injury Patterns, and Severity of Cartilage Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Shiraj, Sahar; Kang, Chang Ho; Anton, Christopher; Kim, Dong Hoon; Horn, Paul S

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare MRI findings between groups with and without patellofemoral instability and to correlate the MRI findings with the severity of patellar cartilage damage. Fifty-three children with patellofemoral instability and 53 age- and sex-matched children without patellofemoral instability (15.9 ± 2.4 years) were included. Knee MRI with T2-weighted mapping was performed. On MR images, femoral trochlear dysplasia, patellofemoral malalignment, medial retinaculum injury, and bone marrow edema were documented. The degree of patellar cartilage damage was evaluated on MR images by use of a morphologic grading scale (0-4) and on T2 maps with mean T2 values at the medial, central, and lateral facets. MRI findings were compared between the two groups. In cases of patellofemoral instability, MRI findings were correlated with the severity of cartilage damage at each region. Trochlear structure and alignment were significantly different between the two groups (Wilcoxon p patellofemoral instability, a high-riding patella was associated with central patellar cartilage damage with a higher morphologic grade and T2 value (Spearman p patellofemoral instability have significantly different trochlear structure and alignment than those who do not, and these differences are known risk factors for patellofemoral instability. However, the only risk factors or injury patterns that directly correlated with the severity of patellar cartilage damage were patella alta, medial stabilizer injury, and bone marrow edema.

  15. Chest and spine radiography abnormality in blunt chest trauma correlated with major vessel injury in an unselected patient population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, G.; Kadir, S.; Encarnacion, C.

    1989-01-01

    To assess the true incidence of major vessel injury, the authors retrospectively reviewed all arch aortograms obtained for blunt chest trauma (BCT) during a 24-month period beginning December 1986. Aortograms were correlated with preangiographic chest radiographic and operative findings. The goals of this review were to examine the usefulness of commonly employed screening criteria for aortography and determine whether thoracic spine fractures imply a decreased likelihood of aortic injury. One hundred twenty aortograms were obtained during this period. The incidence of aortic laceration was 6.7%, and 7.5% had brachiocerebral vascular injury. Only 51% of chest radiographs were suggestive of vascular injury. Two patients with subtle radiographic findings had aortic laceration. One patient with a burst fracture of T-4 had aortic laceration. The results of this review indicate the incidence of great vessel injury is as high as that of injury to the aorta itself and that the presence of spine fractures does not exclude vascular injury

  16. The correlation between the imaging characteristics of hamstring injury and time required before returning to sports: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Kjell; Alricsson, Marie; Eckerman, Mattias; Magounakis, Theofilos; Werner, Suzanne

    2016-06-01

    Injuries to the hamstring muscles are common in athletes. Track and field, Australian football, American football and soccer are examples of sports where hamstring injuries are the most common. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between a hamstring injury prognosis and its characteristics of imaging parameters. The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed and CINAHL, and eleven articles were included. Seven out of the 11 articles showed a correlation between the size of the hamstring injury and length of time required before returning to sports. Different authors have reported contrasting results about length of time required before returning to sports due to location of injury within specific muscle. Majority of the articles found hamstring strain correlated to an extended amount of time required before returning to sports.

  17. A correlative study between prevalence of chondromalacia patellae and sports injury in 4068 students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Kong, Xiang-qing; Cheng, Cong; Liang, Mao-hua

    2003-12-01

    To study the prevalence of chondromalacia patella among college students and the correlation with sports injury. 354 students from gymnastic department and 429 from nongymnastic department with knee joint pain were selected. 184 students from gymnastic department and 342 from nongymnastic department were checked randomly by a surgeon. 77 patients (37 males, 40 females) from gymnastic department and 119 patients (62 males, 57 females) from nongymnastic department were diagnosed as chondromalacia patellae. The amount of exercise and the occurrence of sports injury were investigated in each student. All data were analyzed with SPSS 10.0 statistical software. The prevalence of chondromalacia patella was 20.1% in female students and 11.6% in male students from gymnastic department, and 5.61% in female students and 4.92% in male students from nongymnastic department. The amount of exercise and the occurrence of sports injury to the knee joint in students from gymnastic department were greater than those from nongymnastic department. In both female and male students, the prevalence of chondromalacia patella is higher in gymnastic department than nongymnastic department. Sports injury is an important cause of chondromalacia patella.

  18. Correlation between subacute sensorimotor deficits and brain water content after surgical brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Devin W; Wang, Yuechun; Sherchan, Prativa; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2015-09-01

    Brain edema is a major contributor to poor outcome and reduced quality of life after surgical brain injury (SBI). Although SBI pathophysiology is well-known, the correlation between cerebral edema and neurological deficits has not been thoroughly examined in the rat model of SBI. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between brain edema and deficits in standard sensorimotor neurobehavior tests for rats subjected to SBI. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either sham surgery or surgical brain injury via partial frontal lobectomy. All animals were tested for neurological deficits 24 post-SBI and fourteen were also tested 72 h after surgery using seven common behavior tests: modified Garcia neuroscore (Neuroscore), beam walking, corner turn test, forelimb placement test, adhesive removal test, beam balance test, and foot fault test. After assessing the functional outcome, animals were euthanized for brain water content measurement. Surgical brain injury resulted in significantly elevated frontal lobe brain water content 24 and 72 h after surgery compared to that of sham animals. In all behavior tests, significance was observed between sham and SBI animals. However, a correlation between brain water content and functional outcome was observed for all tests except Neuroscore. The selection of behavior tests is critical to determine the effectiveness of therapeutics. Based on this study's results, we recommend using beam walking, the corner turn test, the beam balance test, and the foot fault test since correlations with brain water content were observed at both 24 and 72 h post-SBI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Correlation between subacute sensorimotor deficits and brain water content after surgical brain injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Devin W.; Wang, Yuechun; Sherchan, Prativa; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Brain edema is a major contributor to poor outcome and reduced quality of life after surgical brain injury (SBI). Although SBI pathophysiology is well-known, the correlation between cerebral edema and neurological deficits has not been thoroughly examined in the rat model of SBI. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between brain edema and deficits in standard sensorimotor neurobehavior tests for rats subjected to SBI. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either sham surgery or surgical brain injury via partial frontal lobectomy. All animals were tested for neurological deficits 24 post-SBI and fourteen were also tested 72 hours after surgery using seven common behavior tests: modified Garcia neuroscore (Neuroscore), beam walking, corner turn test, forelimb placement test, adhesive removal test, beam balance test, and foot fault test. After assessing the functional outcome, animals were euthanized for brain water content measurement. Surgical brain injury resulted in a significantly elevated frontal lobe brain water content 24 and 72 hours after surgery compared to that of sham animals. In all behavior tests, significance was observed between sham and SBI animals. However, a correlation between brain water content and functional outcome was observed for all tests except Neuroscore. The selection of behavior tests is critical to determine the effectiveness of therapeutics. Based on this study’s results, we recommend using beam walking, the corner turn test, the beam balance test, and the foot fault test since correlations with brain water content were observed at both 24 and 72 hours post-SBI. PMID:25975171

  20. Larger ATV engine size correlates with an increased rate of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, C Caleb; Rostas, Jack W; Lee, Y L; Gonzalez, Richard P; Brevard, Sidney B; Frotan, M Amin; Ahmed, Naveed; Simmons, Jon D

    2015-04-01

    Since the introduction of all-terrain vehicles (ATV) to the United States in 1971, injuries and mortalities related to their use have increased significantly. Furthermore, these vehicles have become larger and more powerful. As there are no helmet requirements or limitations on engine-size in the State of Alabama, we hypothesised that larger engine size would correlate with an increased incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in patients following an ATV crash. Patient and ATV data were prospectively collected on all ATV crashes presenting to a level one trauma centre from September 2010 to May 2013. Collected data included: demographics, age of driver, ATV engine size, presence of helmet, injuries, and outcomes. The data were grouped according to the ATV engine size in cubic centimetres (cc). For the purposes of this study, TBI was defined as any type of intracranial haemorrhage on the initial computed tomography scan. There were 61 patients identified during the study period. Two patients (3%) were wearing a helmet at the time of injury. Patients on an ATV with an engine size of 350 cc or greater had higher Injury Severity Scores (13.9 vs. 7.5, p ≤ 0.05) and an increased incidence of TBI (26% vs. 0%, p ≤ 0.05) when compared to patients on ATV's with an engine size less than 350 cc. Patients on an ATV with an engine size of 350 cc or greater were more likely to have a TBI. The use of a helmet was rarely present in this cohort. Legislative efforts to implement rider protection laws for ATVs are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and regional correlates of road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents: A 21-city population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockett, Ian R H; Jiang, Shuhan; Yang, Qian; Yang, Tingzhong; Yang, Xiaozhao Y; Peng, Sihui; Yu, Lingwei

    2017-08-18

    This study estimated the prevalence of road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents and examined individual and regional-level correlates. A cross-sectional multistage process was used to sample residents from 21 selected cities in China. Survey respondents reported their history of road traffic injury in the past 12 months through a community survey. Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify injury correlates. Based on a retrospective 12-month reporting window, road traffic injury prevalence among urban residents was 13.2%. Prevalence of road traffic injury, by type, was 8.7, 8.7, 8.5, and 7.7% in the automobile, bicycle, motorcycle, and pedestrian categories, respectively. Multilevel analysis showed that prevalence of road traffic injury was positively associated with minority status, income, and mental health disorder score at the individual level. Regionally, road traffic injury was associated with geographic location of residence and prevalence of mental health disorders. Both individual and regional-level variables were associated with road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents, a finding whose implications transcend wholesale imported generic solutions. This descriptive research demonstrates an urgent need for longitudinal studies across China on risk and protective factors, in order to inform injury etiology, surveillance, prevention, treatment, and evaluation.

  2. Vitamin E levels in preeclampsia placenta tissue and its correlation with oxidative stress injury and apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the vitamin E levels in preeclampsia placenta tissue and its correlation with oxidative stress injury and apoptosis. Methods: A total of 60 pregnant women with preeclampsia who received treatment and gave birth in our hospital between July 2012 and January 2016 were collected and divided into mild preeclampsia group (n=41 and severe preeclampsia group (n=19 according to the disease severity; 38 normal pregnant women who received pregnancy test and gave birth in our hospital during the same period were selected as healthy control group. The placental tissue samples of three groups of research subjects were retained, high performance liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry was used to detect VitE levels in tissue grinding fluid, automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect the levels of oxidative stress injury indexes, and fluorescence quantitative PCR method was used to detect the mRNA expression of apoptosis molecules. Results: VitE, SOD and CAT levels in grinding fluid of severe preeclampsia group were lower than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group while ROS and AOPP levels were higher than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group; Fas, caspase and Apaf-1 mRNA expression were higher than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group while anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, Mcl-2 and p57kip2 mRNA expression were lower than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group. Spearman correlation analysis showed that VitE level in the preeclampsia placenta tissue was directly correlated with oxidative stress injury and cell apoptosis. Conclusion: VitE deficiency is the direct factor that results in oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in patients with preeclampsia, and the VitE supplementation in time is expected to become the auxiliary treatment means for patients with preeclampsia.

  3. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging correlation in acute spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramon, S.; Dominguez, R.; Ramirez, L.; Garcia Fernandez, L.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) patients'outcome with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed within the first 15 days following trauma. We retrospectively analyzed 55 SCI patients. Early functional prognosis may be established on the basis of clinical presentation of SCI and associated MRI. Cord hemorrhage and transection are irreversible, while edema has a potential for neurological recovery. Cord contusion tends to be associated with an incomplete SCI, unlike the compression pattern, in which the prognosis depends on the degree of the initial neurological damage. (author)

  4. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging correlation in acute spinal cord injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramon, S.; Dominguez, R.; Ramirez, L.; Garcia Fernandez, L. [University Hospital Vall d`Hebron, Barcelona (Spain)

    1998-04-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) patients`outcome with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed within the first 15 days following trauma. We retrospectively analyzed 55 SCI patients. Early functional prognosis may be established on the basis of clinical presentation of SCI and associated MRI. Cord hemorrhage and transection are irreversible, while edema has a potential for neurological recovery. Cord contusion tends to be associated with an incomplete SCI, unlike the compression pattern, in which the prognosis depends on the degree of the initial neurological damage. (author)

  5. Correlation of serum homocysteine levels with nerve injury and atherosclerosis in patients with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-Zhuang Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of serum homocysteine levels with nerve injury and atherosclerosis in patients with stroke. Methods: Patients who were diagnosed with ischemic stroke in our hospital between January 2014 and December 2016 were selected and then divided into moderate-severe stenosis group (C group, mild stenosis group (B group and no stenosis group (A group according to carotid artery ultrasonography; healthy volunteers who received physical examination during the same period were chosen as control group. The serum levels of homocysteine, nerve injury indexes and atherosclerosis indexes were detected. Results: Serum Hcy, S100B, NSE, UCH-L1, GFAP, FGF23, CD36, ox-LDL, MMP8 and MMP9 levels of C group, B group and A group were significantly higher than those of control group, and the severer the carotid stenosis, the higher the serum S100B, NSE, UCHL1, GFAP, FGF23, CD36, ox-LDL, MMP8 and MMP9 levels; serum S100B, NSE, UCHL1, GFAP, FGF23, CD36, ox-LDL, MMP8 and MMP9 levels in stoke patients with high Hcy were significantly higher than those of patients with normal Hcy. Conclusions: Serum homocysteine levels increase in patients with stroke and are closely related to the nerve injury and atherosclerosis.

  6. Brain lesion correlates of fatigue in individuals with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönberger, Michael; Reutens, David; Beare, Richard; O'Sullivan, Richard; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Ponsford, Jennie

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the neurological correlates of both subjective fatigue as well as objective fatigability in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The study has a cross-sectional design. Participants (N = 53) with TBI (77% male, mean age at injury 38 years, mean time since injury 1.8 years) underwent a structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan and completed the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), while a subsample (N = 36) was also tested with a vigilance task. While subjective fatigue (FSS) was not related to measures of brain lesions, multilevel analyses showed that a change in the participants' decision time was significantly predicted by grey matter (GM) lesions in the right frontal lobe. The time-dependent development of the participants' error rate was predicted by total brain white matter (WM) lesion volumes, as well as right temporal GM and WM lesion volumes. These findings could be explained by decreased functional connectivity of attentional networks, which results in accelerated exhaustion during cognitive task performance. The disparate nature of objectively measurable fatigability on the one hand and the subjective experience of fatigue on the other needs further investigation.

  7. Experimental evaluation of neural probe’s insertion induced injury based on digital image correlation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenguang, E-mail: zhwg@sjtu.edu.cn; Ma, Yakun; Li, Zhengwei [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: The application of neural probes in clinic has been challenged by probes’ short lifetime when implanted into brain tissue. The primary goal is to develop an evaluation system for testing brain tissue injury induced by neural probe’s insertion using microscope based digital image correlation method. Methods: A brain tissue phantom made of silicone rubber with speckle pattern on its surface was fabricated. To obtain the optimal speckle pattern, mean intensity gradient parameter was used for quality assessment. The designed testing system consists of three modules: (a) load module for simulating neural electrode implantation process; (b) data acquisition module to capture micrographs of speckle pattern and to obtain reactive forces during the insertion of the probe; (c) postprocessing module for extracting tissue deformation information from the captured speckle patterns. On the basis of the evaluation system, the effects of probe wedge angle, insertion speed, and probe streamline on insertion induced tissue injury were investigated. Results: The optimal quality speckle pattern can be attained by the following fabrication parameters: spin coating rate—1000 r/min, silicone rubber component A: silicone rubber component B: softener: graphite = 5 ml: 5 ml: 2 ml: 0.6 g. The probe wedge angle has a significant effect on tissue injury. Compared to wedge angle 40° and 20°, maximum principal strain of 60° wedge angle was increased by 40.3% and 87.5%, respectively; compared with a relatively higher speed (500 μm/s), the maximum principle strain within the tissue induced by slow insertion speed (100 μm/s) was increased by 14.3%; insertion force required by probe with convex streamline was smaller than the force of traditional probe. Based on the experimental results, a novel neural probe that has a rounded tip covered by a biodegradable silk protein coating with convex streamline was proposed, which has both lower insertion and micromotion induced tissue

  8. Anterior cruciate ligament injury: post-traumatic bone marrow oedema correlates with long-term prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filardo, Giuseppe; Kon, Elizaveta; Tentoni, Francesco; Andriolo, Luca; Di Martino, Alessandro; Busacca, Maurizio; Di Matteo, Berardo; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow oedema (BME) in the knee is a feature of several pathological conditions, and it has been described with high frequency in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of BME, assessed in MRIs performed for ACL injury, with regards to clinical outcome and return to sport. A total of 134 patients (98 men, 36 women) with ACL tear and MRI knee scan within six months from trauma were analysed. The presence of BME was evaluated on MRI images considering: extension and hyperintensity, the WORMS score oedema classification, and measuring the BME area. The clinical results were documented by IKDC-subjective score and the sport activity level by Tegner score at a minimum of five years follow up. BME was present in 74 knees (55.2 %), with a mean area of 523 ± 370 mm². The presence of BME showed a gradual decrease over time (p = 0.008), being detectable in MRIs performed more than three months after trauma in just 25.0 % of cases. Although 54 % of the patients without BME after three months returned to their previous sport level, no patients with oedema reached a full sport recovery (p = 0.01). In the group that underwent ACL reconstruction, the BME area was significantly correlated with a return to the previous sport level at the mid/long-term follow-up (p = 0.038). BME is a common finding, which decreases over time after injury. However, when BME is still detectable it correlates with clinical prognosis, and even in sport-active patients undergoing ACL reconstruction, a higher BME area is a negative predictive factor for a successful outcome at the mid/long-term follow-up.

  9. Considering built environment and spatial correlation in modeling pedestrian injury severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Carlo G; Kaplan, Sigal; Patrier, Alexandre; Rasmussen, Thomas K

    2018-01-02

    This study looks at mitigating and aggravating factors that are associated with the injury severity of pedestrians when they have crashes with another road user and overcomes existing limitations in the literature by focusing attention on the built environment and considering spatial correlation across crashes. Reports for 6,539 pedestrian crashes occurred in Denmark between 2006 and 2015 were merged with geographic information system resources containing detailed information about the built environment and exposure at the crash locations. A linearized spatial logit model estimated the probability of pedestrians sustaining a severe or fatal injury conditional on the occurrence of a crash with another road user. This study confirms previous findings about older pedestrians and intoxicated pedestrians being the most vulnerable road users and crashes with heavy vehicles and in roads with higher speed limits being related to the most severe outcomes. This study provides novel perspectives by showing positive spatial correlations of crashes with the same severity outcomes and emphasizing the role of the built environment in the proximity of the crash. This study emphasizes the need for thinking about traffic calming measures, illumination solutions, road maintenance programs, and speed limit reductions. Moreover, this study emphasizes the role of the built environment, because shopping areas, residential areas, and walking traffic density are positively related to a reduction in pedestrian injury severity. Often, these areas have in common a larger pedestrian mass that is more likely to make other road users more aware and attentive, whereas the same does not seem to apply to areas with lower pedestrian density.

  10. Correlation between brain injury and dysphagia in adult patients with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes, Maria Cristina de Alencar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the literature, the incidence of oropharyngeal dysphagia in patients with cerebrovascular accident (AVE ranges 20-90%. Some studies correlate the location of a stroke with dysphagia, while others do not. Objective: To correlate brain injury with dysphagia in patients with stroke in relation to the type and location of stroke. Method: A prospective study conducted at the Hospital de Clinicas with 30 stroke patients: 18 women and 12 men. All patients underwent clinical evaluation and swallowing nasolaryngofibroscopy (FEES®, and were divided based on the location of the injury: cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex, subcortical areas, and type: hemorrhagic or transient ischemic. Results: Of the 30 patients, 18 had ischemic stroke, 10 had hemorrhagic stroke, and 2 had transient stroke. Regarding the location, 10 lesions were in the cerebral cortex, 3 were in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, 3 were in the cerebral cortex and subcortical areas, and 3 were in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices and subcortical areas. Cerebral cortex and subcortical area ischemic strokes predominated in the clinical evaluation of dysphagia. In FEES®, decreased laryngeal sensitivity persisted following cerebral cortex and ischemic strokes. Waste in the pharyngeal recesses associated with epiglottic valleculae predominated in the piriform cortex in all lesion areas and in ischemic stroke. A patient with damage to the cerebral and cerebellar cortices from an ischemic stroke exhibited laryngeal penetration and tracheal aspiration of liquid and honey. Conclusion: Dysphagia was prevalent when a lesion was located in the cerebral cortex and was of the ischemic type.

  11. Correlation Between Subacute Sensorimotor Deficits and Brain Edema in Rats after Surgical Brain Injury.

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    McBride, Devin W; Wang, Yuechun; Adam, Loic; Oudin, Guillaume; Louis, Jean-Sébastien; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2016-01-01

    No matter how carefully a neurosurgical procedure is performed, it is intrinsically linked to postoperative deficits resulting in delayed healing caused by direct trauma, hemorrhage, and brain edema, termed surgical brain injury (SBI). Cerebral edema occurs several hours after SBI and is a major contributor to patient morbidity, resulting in increased postoperative care. Currently, the correlation between functional recovery and brain edema after SBI remains unknown. Here we examine the correlation between neurological function and brain water content in rats 42 h after SBI. SBI was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats via frontal lobectomy. Twenty-four hours post-ictus animals were subjected to four neurobehavior tests: composite Garcia neuroscore, beam walking test, corner turn test, and beam balance test. Animals were then sacrificed for right-frontal brain water content measurement via the wet-dry method. Right-frontal lobe brain water content was found to significantly correlate with neurobehavioral deficits in the corner turn and beam balance tests: the number of left turns (percentage of total turns) for the corner turn test and distance traveled for the beam balance test were both inversely proportional with brain water content. No correlation was observed for the composite Garcia neuroscore or the beam walking test.

  12. MR imaging of post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries confined to the femoral trochlea Arthroscopic correlation and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huegli, Rolf W.; Moelleken, Sonja M.C.; Stork, Alexander; Bonel, Harald M.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Meckel, Stephan; Genant, Harry K.; Tirman, Phillip F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess and describe post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries isolated to the trochlear groove and provide insight into potential mechanism of injury. Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated MR imaging findings of all knee MRIs performed at our institution over the last 2 years (2450). Thirty patients met the criteria of a cartilage injury confined to the trochlear groove. In 15 cases, which were included in our study, arthroscopic correlation was available. Each plane was evaluated and graded for the presence and appearance of articular cartilage defects using a standard arthroscopic grading scheme adapted to MR imaging. Any additional pathological derangement was documented and information about the mechanism of injury was retrieved by chart review. Results: In all cases the cartilaginous injury was well demonstrated on MRI. In 13 patients additional pathological findings could be observed. The most frequently associated injury was a meniscal tear in nine patients. In eight cases, the arthroscopic grading of the trochlear injury matched exactly with the MRI findings. In the remaining seven cases, the discrepancy between MRI and arthroscopy was never higher than one grade. In 13 out of 15 of patients trauma mechanism could be evaluated. Twelve patients suffered an indirect twisting injury and one suffered a direct trauma to their knee. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate that MR imaging allows reliable grading of isolated injury to the trochlear groove cartilage and assists in directing surgical diagnosis and treatment. These injuries may be the only hyaline cartilage injury in the knee and meniscal tears are a frequently associated finding. Therefore, it is important to search specifically for cartilage injuries of the trochlear groove in patients with anterior knee pain, even if other coexistent pathology could potentially explain the patient's symptoms

  13. MR imaging of post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries confined to the femoral trochlea Arthroscopic correlation and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huegli, Rolf W. E-mail: rhuegli@uhbs.ch; Moelleken, Sonja M.C.; Stork, Alexander; Bonel, Harald M.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Meckel, Stephan; Genant, Harry K.; Tirman, Phillip F.J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess and describe post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries isolated to the trochlear groove and provide insight into potential mechanism of injury. Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated MR imaging findings of all knee MRIs performed at our institution over the last 2 years (2450). Thirty patients met the criteria of a cartilage injury confined to the trochlear groove. In 15 cases, which were included in our study, arthroscopic correlation was available. Each plane was evaluated and graded for the presence and appearance of articular cartilage defects using a standard arthroscopic grading scheme adapted to MR imaging. Any additional pathological derangement was documented and information about the mechanism of injury was retrieved by chart review. Results: In all cases the cartilaginous injury was well demonstrated on MRI. In 13 patients additional pathological findings could be observed. The most frequently associated injury was a meniscal tear in nine patients. In eight cases, the arthroscopic grading of the trochlear injury matched exactly with the MRI findings. In the remaining seven cases, the discrepancy between MRI and arthroscopy was never higher than one grade. In 13 out of 15 of patients trauma mechanism could be evaluated. Twelve patients suffered an indirect twisting injury and one suffered a direct trauma to their knee. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate that MR imaging allows reliable grading of isolated injury to the trochlear groove cartilage and assists in directing surgical diagnosis and treatment. These injuries may be the only hyaline cartilage injury in the knee and meniscal tears are a frequently associated finding. Therefore, it is important to search specifically for cartilage injuries of the trochlear groove in patients with anterior knee pain, even if other coexistent pathology could potentially explain the patient's symptoms.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of acute crush injury of rabbit sciatic nerve: correlation with histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Shen, J.; Chen, J.; Wang, X.; Liu, Q.; Liang, B.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the relation between the quantitative assessment of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and the correlation with histology and functional recovery by using the rabbit sciatic nerve crush model. In New Zealand, 32 rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups (group A and B); all rabbits underwent crushing injury of their left sciatic nerve. In group A (n = 16), the sciatic nerves were crushed by using microvessel clamps with a strength of 3.61 kg. In group B (n = 16), the sciatic nerves were crushed with a strength of 10.50 kg. Right sciatic nerves were served as controls. Serial MRI of both hind limbs in each rabbit was performed before and at the time point of 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after crushed injury. The MRI protocol included T1-weighted spin-echo (T1WI), 3 dimension turbo spin-echo T2-weighted (3DT2WI), T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images with spectral presaturation with inversion recovery (T2WI/SPIR), balanced fast-field echo (B-FFE) and short-time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. The coronal image of the sciatic nerve was obtained. The nerve and muscle signal ratio (SIR) on each sequence was measured. The function recovery was observed and pathological examination was performed at each time point. A signal intensity increase of the distal segment of crushed sciatic nerves was found on 3DT2WI, T2WI/SP1R, B-FFE, and STIR, but not on T,WI images. Of 32 crushed nerves, 30 nerves showed high signal intensity. The correct diagnostic rate was 93.75% with false negative-positive of 6.25%. The SIR of the crushed sciatic nerve at distal portion was higher than those of the control nerves; there was a statistically significant difference (P 0.05). The SIR between group A and group B was not found statistically significantly different (P > 0.05). The SIR of crushed nerves at distal portion increased at one week after the crush injury, subsequently further increased, and reached a maximum at 2 weeks. The pathological examination revealed myelin

  15. Microstructural Consequences of Blast Lung Injury Characterized with Digital Volume Correlation

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    Hari Arora

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on microstructural changes that occur within the mammalian lung when subject to blast and how these changes influence strain distributions within the tissue. Shock tube experiments were performed to generate the blast injured specimens (cadaveric Sprague-Dawley rats. Blast overpressures of 100 and 180 kPa were studied. Synchrotron tomography imaging was used to capture volumetric image data of lungs. Specimens were ventilated using a custom-built system to study multiple inflation pressures during each tomography scan. These data enabled the first digital volume correlation (DVC measurements in lung tissue to be performed. Quantitative analysis was performed to describe the damaged architecture of the lung. No clear changes in the microstructure of the tissue morphology were observed due to controlled low- to moderate-level blast exposure. However, significant focal sites of injury were observed using DVC, which allowed the detection of bias and concentration in the patterns of strain level. Morphological analysis corroborated the findings, illustrating that the focal damage caused by a blast can give rise to diffuse influence across the tissue. It is important to characterize the non-instantly fatal doses of blast, given the transient nature of blast lung in the clinical setting. This research has highlighted the need for better understanding of focal injury and its zone of influence (alveolar interdependency and neighboring tissue burden as a result of focal injury. DVC techniques show great promise as a tool to advance this endeavor, providing a new perspective on lung mechanics after blast.

  16. Correlation Between Euro NCAP Pedestrian Test Results and Injury Severity in Injury Crashes with Pedestrians and Bicyclists in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandroth, Johan; Sternlund, Simon; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes; Rizzi, Matteo; Kullgren, Anders; Ohlin, Maria; Fredriksson, Rikard

    2014-11-01

    Pedestrians and bicyclists account for a significant share of deaths and serious injuries in the road transport system. The protection of pedestrians in car-to-pedestrian crashes has therefore been addressed by friendlier car fronts and since 1997, the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) has assessed the level of protection for most car models available in Europe. In the current study, Euro NCAP pedestrian scoring was compared with real-life injury outcomes in car-to-pedestrian and car-tobicyclist crashes occurring in Sweden. Approximately 1200 injured pedestrians and 2000 injured bicyclists were included in the study. Groups of cars with low, medium and high pedestrian scores were compared with respect to pedestrian injury severity on the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS)-level and risk of permanent medical impairment (RPMI). Significant injury reductions to both pedestrians and bicyclists were found between low and high performing cars. For pedestrians, the reduction of MAIS2+, MAIS3+, RPMI1+ and RPMI10+ ranged from 20-56% and was significant on all levels except for MAIS3+ injuries. Pedestrian head injuries had the highest reduction, 80-90% depending on level of medical impairment. For bicyclist, an injury reduction was only observed between medium and high performing cars. Significant injury reductions were found for all body regions. It was also found that cars fitted with autonomous emergency braking including pedestrian detection might have a 60-70% lower crash involvement than expected. Based on these results, it was recommended that pedestrian protection are implemented on a global scale to provide protection for vulnerable road users worldwide.

  17. Assessment of motor recovery and MRI correlates in a porcine spinal cord injury model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Šulla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study concentrated on behavioral and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI characteristics in a porcine spinal cord injury model. Six adult minipigs weighing 32–35 kg were narcotized by thiopental, intubated, and placed on a volume-cycled ventilator. Anaesthesia was maintained by 1.5% sevoflurane with oxygen. Following location of the 1st lumbar vertebra animals were fastened in an immobilization frame. The spinal cord, exposed through a laminectomy, was compressed by a 5 mm thick circular rod with a peak force of 0.8 kg at a velocity of 3 cm·s-1. The next day the minipigs were paraplegic but improved rapidly to paraparesis. On the 12th postoperative day they were euthanasied. Neural tissue changes were evaluated by post mortem MRI, which showed damage to the spinal cord white and/or gray matter in the epicentre of compression with longitudinal spreading over one segment cranially and caudally. Statistical analyses performed by Spearman’s rho test revealed positive correlations between damaged areas and the whole area of the spinal cord white/gray matter (P = 0.047; rs = 0.742 and (P = 0.002; rs = 0.943, respectively. The study confirmed the reliability and reproducibility of the utilised model of spinal cord trauma. The structural changes in the epicentre of injury did not impede the rapid but incomplete recovery of motor functions.

  18. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children: Is There a Correlation With Parenting Style and Parental Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-08-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems.Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes.Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries.Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child.

  19. Suicidality, bullying and other conduct and mental health correlates of traumatic brain injury in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ilie

    Full Text Available Our knowledge on the adverse correlates of traumatic brain injuries (TBI, including non-hospitalized cases, among adolescents is limited to case studies. We report lifetime TBI and adverse mental health and conduct behaviours associated with TBI among adolescents from a population-based sample in Ontario.Data were derived from 4,685 surveys administered to adolescents in grades 7 through 12 as part of the 2011 population-based cross-sectional Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS. Lifetime TBI was defined as head injury that resulted in being unconscious for at least 5 minutes or being retained in the hospital for at least one night, and was reported by 19.5% (95%CI:17.3,21.9 of students. When holding constant sex, grade, and complex sample design, students with TBI had significantly greater odds of reporting elevated psychological distress (AOR = 1.52, attempting suicide (AOR = 3.39, seeking counselling through a crisis help-line (AOR = 2.10, and being prescribed medication for anxiety, depression, or both (AOR = 2.45. Moreover, students with TBI had higher odds of being victimized through bullying at school (AOR = 1.70, being cyber-bullied (AOR = 2.05, and being threatened with a weapon at school (AOR = 2.90, compared with students who did not report TBI. Students with TBI also had higher odds of victimizing others and engaging in numerous violent as well as nonviolent conduct behaviours.Significant associations between TBI and adverse internalizing and externalizing behaviours were found in this large population-based study of adolescents. Those who reported lifetime TBI were at a high risk for experiencing mental and physical health harms in the past year than peers who never had a head injury. Primary physicians should be vigilant and screen for potential mental heath and behavioural harms in adolescent patients with TBI. Efforts to prevent TBI during adolescence and intervene at an early stage may

  20. Suicidality, bullying and other conduct and mental health correlates of traumatic brain injury in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Gabriela; Mann, Robert E; Boak, Angela; Adlaf, Edward M; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge on the adverse correlates of traumatic brain injuries (TBI), including non-hospitalized cases, among adolescents is limited to case studies. We report lifetime TBI and adverse mental health and conduct behaviours associated with TBI among adolescents from a population-based sample in Ontario. Data were derived from 4,685 surveys administered to adolescents in grades 7 through 12 as part of the 2011 population-based cross-sectional Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). Lifetime TBI was defined as head injury that resulted in being unconscious for at least 5 minutes or being retained in the hospital for at least one night, and was reported by 19.5% (95%CI:17.3,21.9) of students. When holding constant sex, grade, and complex sample design, students with TBI had significantly greater odds of reporting elevated psychological distress (AOR = 1.52), attempting suicide (AOR = 3.39), seeking counselling through a crisis help-line (AOR = 2.10), and being prescribed medication for anxiety, depression, or both (AOR = 2.45). Moreover, students with TBI had higher odds of being victimized through bullying at school (AOR = 1.70), being cyber-bullied (AOR = 2.05), and being threatened with a weapon at school (AOR = 2.90), compared with students who did not report TBI. Students with TBI also had higher odds of victimizing others and engaging in numerous violent as well as nonviolent conduct behaviours. Significant associations between TBI and adverse internalizing and externalizing behaviours were found in this large population-based study of adolescents. Those who reported lifetime TBI were at a high risk for experiencing mental and physical health harms in the past year than peers who never had a head injury. Primary physicians should be vigilant and screen for potential mental heath and behavioural harms in adolescent patients with TBI. Efforts to prevent TBI during adolescence and intervene at an early stage may reduce

  1. EEG indices correlate with sustained attention performance in patients affected by diffuse axonal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelli, Stefania; Barbieri, Riccardo; Reni, Gianluigi; Zucca, Claudio; Bianchi, Anna Maria

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the ability of EEG-based indices in providing relevant information about cognitive engagement level during the execution of a clinical sustained attention (SA) test in healthy volunteers and DAI (diffused axonal injury)-affected patients. We computed three continuous power-based engagement indices (P β /P α , 1/P α , and P β / (P α + P θ )) from EEG recordings in a control group (n = 7) and seven DAI-affected patients executing a 10-min Conners' "not-X" continuous performance test (CPT). A correlation analysis was performed in order to investigate the existence of relations between the EEG metrics and behavioral parameters in both the populations. P β /P α and 1/P α indices were found to be correlated with reaction times in both groups while P β / (P α + P θ ) and P β /P α also correlated with the errors rate for DAI patients. In line with previous studies, time course fluctuations revealed a first strong decrease of attention after 2 min from the beginning of the test and a final fading at the end. Our results provide evidence that EEG-derived indices extraction and evaluation during SA tasks are helpful in the assessment of attention level in healthy subjects and DAI patients, offering motivations for including EEG monitoring in cognitive rehabilitation practice. Graphical abstract Three EEG-derived indices were computed from four electrodes montages in a population of seven healthy volunteers and a group of seven DAI-affected patients. Results show a significant correlation between the time course of the indices and behavioral parameters, thus demonstrating their usefulness in monitoring mental engagement level during a sustained attention task.

  2. Correlation between voluntary cough and laryngeal cough reflex flows in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Chul; Kang, Seong-Woong; Kim, Min Tae; Kim, Yong Kyun; Chang, Won Hyuk; Im, Sang Hee

    2013-08-01

    To correlate voluntary cough and laryngeal cough reflex (LCR) flows in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cross-sectional study. University rehabilitation hospital. Patients with TBI (n=25) and healthy controls (n=48). Not applicable. Peak cough flows (PCFs) and LCR flows were measured using a peak flow meter at the oral-nasal interface. The largest value of 3 attempts was recorded for PCF and LCR, respectively. LCR was elicited by 20% solution of pharmaceutic-grade citric acid dissolved in sterile .15M NaCl solution that was inhaled from a nebulizer. PCF was 447.4 ± 99.0 L/min in the control group and 211.7 ± 58.2 L/min in the patient group. LCR was 209.2 ± 63.8L/min in the control group and 170.0 ± 59.7 L/min in the patient group. Both PCF (P=.000) and LCR (P=.013) were significantly reduced in patients with TBI compared to that of the control group. LCR was strongly related to the PCF in both control (R=.645; P=.000) and patient (R=.711; P=.000) groups. As LCR can be measured as a numerical value and significantly correlates with PCF, LCR can be used to estimate cough ability of patients with TBI who cannot cooperate with PCF measurement. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Retrospective analysis of correlative factors between digestive system injury and anticoagulant or antiplatelet-agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ning; Luo, Hesheng

    2014-05-27

    To explore the correlative factors and clinical characteristics of digestive system injury during the treatment of anticoagulant and (or) antiplatelet-agents. A total of 1 443 hospitalized patients on anticoagulant and (or) antiplatelet-agents from January 2010 to December 2013 at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University were analyzed retrospectively. Their length of hospital stay was from 5 to 27 days. Most of them were elderly males (n = 880, 61.0%) with an average age of (62 ± 6) years. 1 138 patients (78.9%) were farmers, workers or someone without a specific occupation. During the treatment of anticoagulant/antiplatelet-agents, statistical difference existed (P = 0.01) between positively and negatively previous digestive disease groups for actively newly occurring digestive system injury (16.0% (41/256) vs 15.9% (189/1 187)). After the dosing of anticoagulant and (or) antiplatelet-agents, 57 (66.3%, 57/86) patients were complicated by hemorrhage of digestive tract, taking 62.9% (61/97) of all positive result patients for Helicobacter pylori test. Comparing preventive PPI group with no PPI group, there was no marked statistical differences (P = 2.67) for digestive system complication (including hemorrhage of digestive tract) while receiving anticoagulant and (or) antiplatelet-agents (13.9% (74/533) vs 17.1% (156/910)). During anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet-agent therapy, 185 patients (12.8%) were complicated by peptic ulcer or peptic ulcer with bleeding, 40 patients (2.8%) had erosive gastritis and 5 (0.3%) developed acute gastric mucosal lesions. And 42 of 76 patients complicated by hemorrhage of digestive tract underwent endoscopic hemostasis while 2 patients were operated. Ninety-seven patients (6.7%) died, including 61 (62.9%, 61/97) from hemorrhage of digestive tract. The remainder became cured, improved and discharged. Moreover, no significant statistical differences existed (P = 2.29) among three combination group (aspirin, clopidogrel, warfarin), two

  4. Development of Metabolic Indicators of Burn Injury: Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL and Acetoacetate Are Highly Correlated to Severity of Burn Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Louisa Izamis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypermetabolism is a significant sequela to severe trauma such as burns, as well as critical illnesses such as cancer. It persists in parallel to, or beyond, the original pathology for many months as an often-fatal comorbidity. Currently, diagnosis is based solely on clinical observations of increased energy expenditure, severe muscle wasting and progressive organ dysfunction. In order to identify the minimum number of necessary variables, and to develop a rat model of burn injury-induced hypermetabolism, we utilized data mining approaches to identify the metabolic variables that strongly correlate to the severity of injury. A clustering-based algorithm was introduced into a regression model of the extent of burn injury. As a result, a neural network model which employs VLDL and acetoacetate levels was demonstrated to predict the extent of burn injury with 88% accuracy in the rat model. The physiological importance of the identified variables in the context of hypermetabolism, and necessary steps in extension of this preliminary model to a clinically utilizable index of severity of burn injury are outlined.

  5. The correlation of initial radiographic characteristics of distal radius fractures and injuries of the triangular fibrocartilage complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasapinova, K; Kamiloski, V

    2016-06-01

    Our purpose was to determine the correlation of initial radiographic parameters of a distal radius fracture with an injury of the triangular fibrocartilage complex. In a prospective study, 85 patients with surgically treated distal radius fractures were included. Wrist arthroscopy was used to identify and classify triangular fibrocartilage complex lesions. The initial radial length and angulation, dorsal angulation, ulnar variance and distal radioulnar distance were measured. Wrist arthroscopy identified a triangular fibrocartilage complex lesion in 45 patients. Statistical analysis did not identify a correlation with any single radiographic parameter of the distal radius fractures with the associated triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries. The initial radiograph of a distal radius fracture does not predict a triangular fibrocartilage complex injury. III. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Decreasing Signs of Negative Affect and Correlated Self-Injury in an Individual with Mental Retardation and Mood Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindauer, Steven E.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Fisher, Wayne W.

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of an enriched environment, based on a paired-choice preference assessment, on rates of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and frequency of negative affect displayed by a woman with mental retardation and a mood disorder. Results suggested that SIB and negative affect were highly correlated and that the enriched environment…

  7. Administration of raloxifene reduces sensorimotor and working memory deficits following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokiko, Olga N; Murashov, Alexander K; Hoane, Michael R

    2006-06-30

    Hormonal differences between males and females have surfaced as a crucial component in the search for effective treatments after experimental models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent findings have shown that selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) may have therapeutic benefit. The present study examined the effects of raloxifene, a SERM, on functional recovery after bilateral cortical contusion injury (bCCI) or sham procedure. Male rats received injections of raloxifene (3.0mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle (1.0 ml/kg, i.p.) 15 min, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after bCCI or sham procedure. Rats were tested on both sensorimotor (bilateral tactile removal and locomotor placing tests) and cognitive tests (reference and working memory in the Morris water maze). Raloxifene-treated animals showed a significant reduction in the initial magnitude of the deficit and facilitated the rate of recovery for the bilateral tactile removal test, compared to vehicle-treated animals. The raloxifene-treated animals also showed a significant improvement in the acquisition of working memory compared to vehicle-treated animals. However, raloxifene did not significantly improve the acquisition of reference memory or locomotor placing ability. Raloxifene treatment also did not result in a significant reduction in the size of the lesion cavity. Thus, the task-dependent improvements seen following raloxifene treatment do not appear to be the result of cortical neuroprotection. However, these results suggest that raloxifene improves functional outcome following bCCI and may present an interesting avenue for future research.

  8. Disrupted Gamma Synchrony after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Its Correlation with White Matter Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI has been firmly associated with disrupted white matter integrity due to induced white matter damage and degeneration. However, comparatively less is known about the changes of the intrinsic functional connectivity mediated via neural synchronization in the brain after mTBI. Moreover, despite the presumed link between structural and functional connectivity, no existing studies in mTBI have demonstrated clear association between the structural abnormality of white matter axons and the disruption of neural synchronization. To investigate these questions, we recorded resting state EEG and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI from a cohort of military service members. A newly developed synchronization measure, the weighted phase lag index was applied on the EEG data for estimating neural synchronization. Fractional anisotropy was computed from the DTI data for estimating white matter integrity. Fifteen service members with a history of mTBI within the past 3 years were compared to 22 demographically similar controls who reported no history of head injury. We observed that synchronization at low-gamma frequency band (25–40 Hz across scalp regions was significantly decreased in mTBI cases compared with controls. The synchronization in theta (4–7 Hz, alpha (8–13 Hz, and beta (15–23 Hz frequency bands were not significantly different between the two groups. In addition, we found that across mTBI cases, the disrupted synchronization at low-gamma frequency was significantly correlated with the white matter integrity of the inferior cerebellar peduncle, which was also significantly reduced in the mTBI group. These findings demonstrate an initial correlation between the impairment of white matter integrity and alterations in EEG synchronization in the brain after mTBI. The results also suggest that disruption of intrinsic neural synchronization at low-gamma frequency may be a characteristic functional pathology

  9. Deficient conditioned pain modulation after spinal cord injury correlates with clinical spontaneous pain measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, Sergiu; Gómez-Soriano, Julio; Avila-Martin, Gerardo; Taylor, Julian

    2015-02-01

    The contribution of endogenous pain modulation dysfunction to clinical and sensory measures of neuropathic pain (NP) has not been fully explored. Habituation, temporal summation, and heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulus-induced modulation of tonic heat pain intensity were examined in healthy noninjured subjects (n = 10), and above the level of spinal cord injury (SCI) in individuals without (SCI-noNP, n = 10) and with NP (SCI-NP, n = 10). Thermoalgesic thresholds, Cz/AFz contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs), and phasic or tonic (30 seconds) heat pain intensity were assessed within the C6 dermatome. Although habituation to tonic heat pain intensity (0-10) was reported by the noninjured (10 s: 3.5 ± 0.3 vs 30 s: 2.2 ± 0.5 numerical rating scale; P = 0.003), loss of habituation was identified in both the SCI-noNP (3.8 ± 0.3 vs 3.6 ± 0.5) and SCI-NP group (4.2 ± 0.4 vs 4.9 ± 0.8). Significant temporal summation of tonic heat pain intensity was not observed in the 3 groups. Inhibition of tonic heat pain intensity induced by heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulus was identified in the noninjured (-29.7% ± 9.7%) and SCI-noNP groups (-19.6% ± 7.0%), but not in subjects with SCI-NP (+1.1% ± 8.0%; P pain modulation response correlated positively with Cz/AFz CHEP amplitude (ρ = 0.8; P = 0.015) and evoked heat pain intensity (ρ = 0.8; P = 0.007) in the SCI-NP group. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that the mean conditioned pain modulation (R = 0.72) correlated with pain severity and pressing spontaneous pain in the SCI-NP group. Comprehensive assessment of sensory dysfunction above the level of injury with tonic thermal test and conditioning stimuli revealed less-efficient endogenous pain modulation in subjects with SCI-NP.

  10. Computed Tomography Appearance of Early Radiation Injury to the Lung: Correlation With Clinical and Dosimetric Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Peter; Welsh, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically assess the spectrum of radiologic changes in the lung after radiation therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the cases of 146 patients treated with radical radiotherapy at our institution. All patients had computed tomography (CT) scans performed 3 months after completion of therapy. Radiographic appearances were categorized using a standard grading system. The association of these abnormalities with pretreatment factors and clinical radiation pneumonitis (RP) was investigated. Results: New intrapulmonary abnormalities were seen in 92 patients (63%). These were ground-glass opacity in 16 (11%), patchy consolidation in 19 (13%), and diffuse consolidation in 57 (39%). Twenty-five patients (17%) developed clinical symptoms of RP. Although 80% of the patients with RP had areas of consolidation seen on the posttreatment CT scan, the majority (74%) of patients with such radiographic changes were asymptomatic. For patients with lung infiltrates, the minimum isodose encompassing the volume of radiologic abnormality was usually ≥27 Gy. Traditional dose-volume metrics, pulmonary function tests, and the coadministration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) were all strongly correlated with the presence of radiologic injury on univariate analysis (p ≤ 0.002). There was also an inverse correlation between prior smoking history and CT scan changes (p = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, dosimetric parameters and the use of ACE-I retained significance (p = 0.005). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there is substantial interindividual variation in lung radiosensitivity. ACE-I prevented the radiologic changes seen after high-dose radiation therapy, and their role as radioprotectants warrants further investigation.

  11. Differential metabolic rearrangements after cold storage are correlated with chilling injury resistance of peach fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A Bustamante

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reconfiguration of the metabolome is a key component involved in the acclimation to cold in plants; however, few studies have been devoted to the analysis of the overall metabolite changes after cold storage of fruits prior to consumption. Here, metabolite profiling of six peach varieties with differential susceptibility to develop mealiness, a chilling-injury (CI symptom, was performed. According to metabolic content at harvest; after cold treatment; and after ripening, either following cold treatment or not; peach fruits clustered in distinct groups, depending on harvest-time, cold treatment, and ripening state. Both common and distinct metabolic responses among the six varieties were found; common changes including dramatic galactinol and raffinose rise; GABA, Asp and Phe increase; and 2-oxo-glutarate and succinate decrease. Raffinose content after long cold treatment quantitatively correlated to the degree of mealiness resistance of the different peach varieties; and thus, raffinose emerges as a candidate biomarker of this CI disorder. Xylose increase after cold treatment was found only in the susceptible genotypes, indicating a particular cell wall reconfiguration of these varieties while being cold-stored. Overall, results indicate that peach fruit differential metabolic rearrangements due to cold treatment, rather than differential metabolic priming before cold, are better related with CI resistance. The plasticity of peach fruit metabolism renders it possible to induce a diverse metabolite array after cold, which is successful, in some genotypes, to avoid CI

  12. The early IL-6 and IL-10 response in trauma is correlated with injury severity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, J; Christiansen, M; Tønnesen, E

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trauma has previously been shown to influence interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 levels, but the association of injury severity and mortality with IL-6 and IL-10 responses in the early phase of accidental trauma remains to be investigated. We wished to describe serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10...... in the first 24 h after trauma and to assess the relationship with severity of injury and mortality. METHODS: Prospective, descriptive cohort study in a Level 1 trauma centre, Copenhagen, Denmark. We included 265 consecutive adult trauma patients admitted directly from the accident scene during an 18-month...... period. Serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were measured upon arrival and at 6, 12, and 24 h after admittance using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between Injury Severity Score (ISS) and levels of IL-6 and IL-10. Analysis of variance was used...

  13. Long-term global and regional brain volume changes following severe traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal study with clinical correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidaros, Annette; Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller; Liptrot, Matthew George

    2009-01-01

    with percent brain volume change (%BVC) ranging between − 0.6% and − 9.4% (mean − 4.0%). %BVC correlated significantly with injury severity, functional status at both scans, and with 1-year outcome. Moreover, %BVC improved prediction of long-term functional status over and above what could be predicted using......Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in neurodegenerative changes that progress for months, perhaps even years post-injury. However, there is little information on the spatial distribution and the clinical significance of this late atrophy. In 24 patients who had sustained severe TBI we acquired 3D...... scan time point using SIENAX. Regional distribution of atrophy was evaluated using tensor-based morphometry (TBM). At the first scan time point, brain parenchymal volume was reduced by mean 8.4% in patients as compared to controls. During the scan interval, patients exhibited continued atrophy...

  14. Baseball and softball sliding injuries: incidence and correlates during one high school league varsity season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovak, Mark; Parikh, Amit; Harvey, Anne T

    2012-11-01

    To estimate injury rates associated with sliding in high school baseball and softball. Prospective cohort study. Community high school athletic events. Ten high school varsity baseball and softball teams over 1 season. All sliding attempts were recorded during each game and recorded as headfirst, feetfirst, or diveback. Base type, playing surface, and field conditions were also noted. Injury exposure rates by game exposures and sliding/diveback exposures. Data were collected from 153 baseball games and 166 softball games. A greater proportion of slides were associated with injury in softball than in baseball (42.0 and 4.9 per 1000 slides; P softball (55 vs 35 per 1000 slides; P = 0.74). More powerful studies are required to determine whether efforts to prevent baseball sliding injuries at the high school level should focus on better education in sliding technique or changes in equipment. Softball players are vulnerable to injury when wearing inadequate protective sliding apparel.

  15. Study of correlation between clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and arthroscopic findings in meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash R Puri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approx. 28% of patients presents to orthopedic OPD with complaints of knee pain. Common medical complications include an unstable knee, chronic knee pain, and post traumatic arthritis. Aim: To study the correlation between clinical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and arthroscopic findings in knee injuries. Materials and Methods: About 30 cases with history of rotational injury having knee pain and recurrent swelling were subjected to study. Results: MRI had better sensitivity (0.95 vs. 0.85 and specificity (1.0 vs. 0.5 in comparison with clinical examination for medial meniscus. In lateral meniscus injury (sensitivity 0.65 vs. 0.61 and specificity 0.95 vs. 0.92 and in ACL injury (Sensitivity 0.77 vs. 0.8 and specificity 1.0 vs. 0.96 the sensitivity and specificity of MRI versus clinical examination showed minimal difference. Conclusion: Our conclusion is that carefully performed clinical examination can give equal or better diagnosis of meniscal and ACL injuries in comparison with MRI scan. MRI may be used as an additional tool for diagnosis.

  16. Hippocampal CA3 transcriptome signature correlates with initial precipitating injury in refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

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    Silvia Y Bando

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prolonged febrile seizures constitute an initial precipitating injury (IPI commonly associated with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (RMTLE. In order to investigate IPI influence on the transcriptional phenotype underlying RMTLE we comparatively analyzed the transcriptomic signatures of CA3 explants surgically obtained from RMTLE patients with (FS or without (NFS febrile seizure history. Texture analyses on MRI images of dentate gyrus were conducted in a subset of surgically removed sclerotic hippocampi for identifying IPI-associated histo-radiological alterations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA microarray analysis revealed that CA3 global gene expression differed significantly between FS and NFS subgroups. An integrative functional genomics methodology was used for characterizing the relations between GO biological processes themes and constructing transcriptional interaction networks defining the FS and NFS transcriptomic signatures and its major gene-gene links (hubs. Co-expression network analysis showed that: i CA3 transcriptomic profiles differ according to the IPI; ii FS distinctive hubs are mostly linked to glutamatergic signalization while NFS hubs predominantly involve GABAergic pathways and neurotransmission modulation. Both networks have relevant hubs related to nervous system development, what is consistent with cell genesis activity in the hippocampus of RMTLE patients. Moreover, two candidate genes for therapeutic targeting came out from this analysis: SSTR1, a relevant common hub in febrile and afebrile transcriptomes, and CHRM3, due to its putative role in epilepsy susceptibility development. MRI texture analysis allowed an overall accuracy of 90% for pixels correctly classified as belonging to FS or NFS groups. Histological examination revealed that granule cell loss was significantly higher in FS hippocampi. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CA3 transcriptional signatures and dentate gyrus morphology fairly

  17. The correlation between pedestrian injury severity in real-life crashes and Euro NCAP pedestrian test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandroth, Johan; Rizzi, Matteo; Sternlund, Simon; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the correlation between Euro NCAP pedestrian rating scores and injury outcome in real-life car-to-pedestrian crashes, with special focus on long-term disability. Another aim was to determine whether brake assist (BA) systems affect the injury outcome in real-life car-to-pedestrian crashes and to estimate the combined effects in injury reduction of a high Euro NCAP ranking score and BA. In the current study, the Euro NCAP pedestrian scoring was compared with the real-life outcome in pedestrian crashes that occurred in Sweden during 2003 to 2010. The real-life crash data were obtained from the data acquisition system Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition (STRADA), which combines police records and hospital admission data. The medical data consisted of International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnoses and Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scoring. In all, approximately 500 pedestrians submitted to hospital were included in the study. Each car model was coded according to Euro NCAP pedestrian scores. In addition, the presence or absence of BA was coded for each car involved. Cars were grouped according to their scoring. Injury outcomes were analyzed with AIS and, at the victim level, with permanent medical impairment. This was done by translating the injury scores for each individual to the risk of serious consequences (RSC) at 1, 5, and 10 percent risk of disability level. This indicates the total risk of a medical disability for each victim, given the severity and location of injuries. The mean RSC (mRSC) was then calculated for each car group and t-tests were conducted to falsify the null hypothesis at p ≤ .05 that the mRSC within the groups was equal. The results showed a significant reduction of injury severity for cars with better pedestrian scoring, although cars with a high score could not be studied due to lack of cases. The reduction in RSC for medium-performing cars in comparison with low-performing cars

  18. Correlates of undefined cause of injury coded mortality data in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kirsten; Chen, Linping; Walker, Susan M

    The objective of this research was to identify the level of detail regarding the external causes of death in Australia and ascertain problematic areas where data quality improvement efforts may be focused. The 2003 national mortality dataset of 12,591 deaths with an external cause of injury as the underlying cause of death (UCOD) or multiple cause of death (MCOD) based on ICD-10 code assignment from death certificate information was obtained. Logistic regression models were used to examine the precision of coded external cause of injury data. It was found that overall, accidents were the most poorly defined of all intent code blocks with over 30% of accidents being undefined, representing 2,314 deaths in 2003. More undefined codes were identified in MCOD data than for UCOD data. Deaths certified by doctors were more likely to use undefined codes than deaths certified by a coroner or government medical office. To improve the quality of external cause of injuries leading to or associated with death, certifiers need to be made aware of the importance of documenting all information pertaining to the cause of the injury and the intent behind the incident, either through education or more explicit instructions on the death certificate and accompanying instructional materials. It is important that researchers are aware of the validity of the data when they make interpretations as to the underlying causes of fatal injuries and causes of injury associated with deaths.

  19. Correlation of glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and total rotational motion to shoulder injuries in professional baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Kevin E; Macrina, Leonard C; Fleisig, Glenn S; Porterfield, Ronald; Simpson, Charles D; Harker, Paul; Paparesta, Nick; Andrews, James R

    2011-02-01

    Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) indicates a 20° or greater loss of internal rotation of the throwing shoulder compared with the nondominant shoulder. To determine whether GIRD and a deficit in total rotational motion (external rotation + internal rotation) compared with the nonthrowing shoulder correlate with shoulder injuries in professional baseball pitchers. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Over 3 competitive seasons (2005 to 2007), passive range of motion measurements were evaluated on the dominant and nondominant shoulders for 170 pitcher-seasons. This included 122 professional pitchers during the 3 seasons of data collection, in which some pitchers were measured during multiple seasons. Ranges of motion were measured with a bubble goniometer during the preseason, by the same examiner each year. External and internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint was assessed with the participant supine and the arm abducted 90° in the plane of the scapula, with the scapula stabilized anteriorly at the coracoid process. The reproducibility of the test methods had an intraclass correlation coefficient of .81. Days in which the player was unable to participate because of injury or surgery were recorded during the season by the medical staff of the team and defined as an injury. Pitchers with GIRD (n = 40) were nearly twice as likely to be injured as those without but without statistical significance (P = .17). Pitchers with total rotational motion deficit greater than 5° had a higher rate of injury. Minor league pitchers were more likely than major league pitchers to be injured. However, when players were injured, major league pitchers missed a significantly greater number of games than minor league pitchers. Compared with pitchers without GIRD, pitchers with GIRD appear to be at a higher risk for injury and shoulder surgery.

  20. The moderating effects of sex and age on the association between traumatic brain injury and harmful psychological correlates among adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ilie

    Full Text Available Although it is well established that sex is a risk factor in acquiring a traumatic brain injury (TBI among adolescents, it has not been established whether it also moderates the influence of other TBI psychological health correlates.Data were derived from a 2011 population-based cross-sectional school survey, which included 9,288 Ontario 7th-12th graders who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Response rate was 62%. Preliminary analyses found no evidence of nonresponse bias in the reporting of TBI. TBI was defined as a hit or blow to the head that resulted in a 5 minutes loss of consciousness or at least one overnight hospitalization due to symptoms associated with it. Reports of lifetime TBI were more common among males than females (23.1%, 95% CI: 20.5, 25.8 vs. 17.1%, 95% CI: 14.7, 19.8. Thirteen correlates were examined and included cigarette smoking, elevated psychological distress, suicide ideation, bully victimization (at school, as well as cyber bullying, bullying others, cannabis use, cannabis dependence and drug use problems, physical injuries, daily smoking, drinking alcohol, binge drinking, use of cannabis, and poor academic performance. Among the outcomes examined, sex moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and cigarette smoking. In addition, sex and age jointly moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and daily smoking, alcohol use and physical injuries. Late adolescent males who reported lifetime TBI, relative to females, displayed elevated daily smoking and injuries, whereas their females counterparts displayed elevated past year drinking. Possible bias related to self-report procedures and the preclusion of causal inferences due to the cross-sectional nature of the data are limitations of this study.TBI differences in outcomes need to be assessed for potential moderating effects of sex and age. Results have important implications for more tailored injury prevention efforts.

  1. The moderating effects of sex and age on the association between traumatic brain injury and harmful psychological correlates among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Gabriela; Adlaf, Edward M; Mann, Robert E; Boak, Angela; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Colantonio, Angela; Turner, Nigel E; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Although it is well established that sex is a risk factor in acquiring a traumatic brain injury (TBI) among adolescents, it has not been established whether it also moderates the influence of other TBI psychological health correlates. Data were derived from a 2011 population-based cross-sectional school survey, which included 9,288 Ontario 7th-12th graders who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Response rate was 62%. Preliminary analyses found no evidence of nonresponse bias in the reporting of TBI. TBI was defined as a hit or blow to the head that resulted in a 5 minutes loss of consciousness or at least one overnight hospitalization due to symptoms associated with it. Reports of lifetime TBI were more common among males than females (23.1%, 95% CI: 20.5, 25.8 vs. 17.1%, 95% CI: 14.7, 19.8). Thirteen correlates were examined and included cigarette smoking, elevated psychological distress, suicide ideation, bully victimization (at school, as well as cyber bullying), bullying others, cannabis use, cannabis dependence and drug use problems, physical injuries, daily smoking, drinking alcohol, binge drinking, use of cannabis, and poor academic performance. Among the outcomes examined, sex moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and cigarette smoking. In addition, sex and age jointly moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and daily smoking, alcohol use and physical injuries. Late adolescent males who reported lifetime TBI, relative to females, displayed elevated daily smoking and injuries, whereas their females counterparts displayed elevated past year drinking. Possible bias related to self-report procedures and the preclusion of causal inferences due to the cross-sectional nature of the data are limitations of this study. TBI differences in outcomes need to be assessed for potential moderating effects of sex and age. Results have important implications for more tailored injury prevention efforts.

  2. Acute and repeated inhalation lung injury by 3-methoxybutyl chloroformate in rats: CT-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yeon Soo [Department of Radiology, Holy Family Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, 2, Sosa-dong, Wonmi-gu, Pucheon, Kyung gi-do 420-717 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myung Hee [Department of Radiology, Holy Family Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, 2, Sosa-dong, Wonmi-gu, Pucheon, Kyung gi-do 420-717 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: mhchung@catholic.ac.kr; Park, Seog Hee [Department of Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary Hospital, Catholic University of Korea, 505 Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-040 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeon-Yeong [Industrial Chemicals Research Center, Industrial Safety and Health Research Institute KISCO, 104-8, Moonji-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon-si 305-380 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung Gil [Department of Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary Hospital, Catholic University of Korea, 505 Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-040 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyun Wook [Department of Radiology, Holy Family Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, 2, Sosa-dong, Wonmi-gu, Pucheon, Kyung gi-do 420-717 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Ah [Department of Pathology, Holy Family Hospital, Catholic University of Korea, 2, Sosa-dong, Wonmi-gu, Pucheon-si, Kyung gi-do 420-717 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Won Jong [Department of Radiology, Holy Family Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, 2, Sosa-dong, Wonmi-gu, Pucheon, Kyung gi-do 420-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-05-15

    Objectives: To investigate the acute and repeated pulmonary damage in Sprague-Dawley rats caused by the inhalation of 3-methoxybutyl chloroformate (3-MBCF) using computed tomography (CT), and to correlate these results with those obtained from a pathological study. Methods: Sixty, 7-week-old rats were exposed to 3-MBCF vapor via inhalation (6 h/day) for 1 day (N = 20), 3 days (N = 20), and 28 days (5 days/week) (N = 20) using whole body exposure chambers at a concentration of 0 (control), 3, 6 and 12 ppm. CT examinations including densitometry and histopathologic studies were carried out. For the follow-up study, the rats exposed for 3 days were scanned using CT and their pathology was examined at 7, 14, and 28 days. Results: There was a significant decrease in the parenchymal density in the groups exposed to the 3-MBCF vapors for 1 day at 3 ppm (p = 0.022) or 6 ppm (p = 0.010), compared with the control. The parenchymal density of the rats exposed to12 ppm was significantly higher. The pathological findings in this period, the grades of vascular congestion, tracheobronchial exfoliation, and alveolar rupture were significant. In the groups exposed for 3 days, there was a large decrease in the parenchymal density with increasing dose (control: -675.48 {+-} 32.82 HU, 3 ppm: -720.65 {+-} 34.21 HU, 6 ppm: -756.41 {+-} 41.68 HU, 12 ppm: -812.56 {+-} 53.48 HU) (p = 0.000). There were significant density differences between each dose in the groups exposed for 28 days (p = 0.000). The CT findings include an irregular lung surface, areas of multifocal, wedge-shaped increased density, a heterogeneous lung density, bronchial dilatation, and axial peribronchovascular bundle thickening. The histopathology examination revealed the development of alveolar interstitial thickening and vasculitis, and an aggravation of the mainstem bronchial exudates and bronchial inflammation. The alveolar wall ruptures and bronchial dilatation became severe during this period. On the follow

  3. Prevalence and correlates of needle-stick injuries among active duty police officers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, María Luisa; Beletsky, Leo; Patiño, Efraín; Abramovitz, Daniela; Rocha, Teresita; Arredondo, Jaime; Bañuelos, Arnulfo; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2016-01-01

    Police officers are at an elevated risk for needle-stick injuries (NSI), which pose a serious and costly occupational health risk for HIV and viral hepatitis. However, research on NSIs among police officers is limited, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the legality of syringe possession in Mexico, half of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana report extrajudicial syringe-related arrests and confiscation by police, which has been associated with needle-sharing and HIV infection. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of NSIs among Tijuana police officers to inform efforts to improve occupational safety and simultaneously reduce HIV risks among police and PWID. Tijuana's Department of Municipal Public Safety (SSPM) is among Mexico's largest. Our binational, multi-sectoral team analyzed de-identified data from SSPM's 2014 anonymous self-administered occupational health survey. The prevalence of NSI and syringe disposal practices was determined. Logistic regression with robust variance estimation via generalized estimating equations identified factors associated with ever having an occupational NSI. Approximately one-quarter of the Tijuana police force was given the occupational health survey (N=503). Respondents were predominantly male (86.5%) and ≤35 years old (42.6%). Nearly one in six officers reported ever having a NSI while working at SSPM (15.3%), of whom 14.3% reported a NSI within the past year. Most participants reported encountering needles/syringes while on duty (n=473, 94%); factors independently associated with elevated odds of NSIs included frequently finding syringes that contain drugs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.98; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56-5.67) and breaking used needles (AOR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.29-3.91), while protective factors included being willing to contact emergency services in case of NSIs (AOR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.22-0.69), and wearing needle-stick resistant gloves (AOR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.19-0.91). Tijuana

  4. Acute and repeated inhalation lung injury by 3-methoxybutyl chloroformate in rats: CT-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Yeon Soo; Chung, Myung Hee; Park, Seog Hee; Kim, Hyeon-Yeong; Choi, Byung Gil; Lim, Hyun Wook; Kim, Jin Ah; Yoo, Won Jong

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the acute and repeated pulmonary damage in Sprague-Dawley rats caused by the inhalation of 3-methoxybutyl chloroformate (3-MBCF) using computed tomography (CT), and to correlate these results with those obtained from a pathological study. Methods: Sixty, 7-week-old rats were exposed to 3-MBCF vapor via inhalation (6 h/day) for 1 day (N = 20), 3 days (N = 20), and 28 days (5 days/week) (N = 20) using whole body exposure chambers at a concentration of 0 (control), 3, 6 and 12 ppm. CT examinations including densitometry and histopathologic studies were carried out. For the follow-up study, the rats exposed for 3 days were scanned using CT and their pathology was examined at 7, 14, and 28 days. Results: There was a significant decrease in the parenchymal density in the groups exposed to the 3-MBCF vapors for 1 day at 3 ppm (p = 0.022) or 6 ppm (p = 0.010), compared with the control. The parenchymal density of the rats exposed to12 ppm was significantly higher. The pathological findings in this period, the grades of vascular congestion, tracheobronchial exfoliation, and alveolar rupture were significant. In the groups exposed for 3 days, there was a large decrease in the parenchymal density with increasing dose (control: -675.48 ± 32.82 HU, 3 ppm: -720.65 ± 34.21 HU, 6 ppm: -756.41 ± 41.68 HU, 12 ppm: -812.56 ± 53.48 HU) (p = 0.000). There were significant density differences between each dose in the groups exposed for 28 days (p = 0.000). The CT findings include an irregular lung surface, areas of multifocal, wedge-shaped increased density, a heterogeneous lung density, bronchial dilatation, and axial peribronchovascular bundle thickening. The histopathology examination revealed the development of alveolar interstitial thickening and vasculitis, and an aggravation of the mainstem bronchial exudates and bronchial inflammation. The alveolar wall ruptures and bronchial dilatation became severe during this period. On the follow-up study, the

  5. Deliberate self-injury functions and their clinical correlates among adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziwiłłowicz, Wioletta; Lewandowska, Magdalena

    2017-04-30

    The aim of the study was to analyze the relationships between clinical variables (the severity of depression symptoms, feelings towards the body, dissociation, number and type of traumatic events) and deliberate self-injury functions. Moreover, we investigated whether the of group self-mutilating adolescents is internally diverse in terms of how important individual functions of self-mutilation are, and whether the subgroups singled out by these functions differ between each other in terms of clinical variables. The Inventory of Statements about Self-Injury was used. Characterizations of examined individuals and other research tools are included in our previous article (year, issue, pages). Associated with negative feelings towards the body are the functions of self-injuries (anti-dissociation, self-punishment) that can be described as interpersonal. High levels of depression symptoms (self-depreciation included) are mainly associated with the self-injury functions: self-punishment, anti-dissociation, establishing interpersonal boundaries. Affect regulation becomes more important as a function of self-inflicted injuries in cases of biological dysregulation and intense dissociative symptoms. The adolescents psychiatric inpatients are internally diverse in terms of dominant functions of self-injuries, which can be categorized into intra- and interpersonal. Intrapersonal functions dominate when an individual experiences severe depression, dissociative symptoms, and negative feelings towards the body. In cases of moderate intensity of depression, dissociative symptoms and negative feelings towards the body, both intrapersonal and interpersonal functions of self-mutilation are similarly important. Further research is required to explain the lowest severity of depression symptoms, dissociative symptoms and negative feelings towards the body co-occurs with no awareness of self-injuries functions.

  6. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI Correlates of Self-Reported Sleep Quality and Depression Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Adam C. Raikes

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs are a significant social, sport, and military health issue. In spite of advances in the clinical management of these injuries, the underlying pathophysiology is not well-understood. There is a critical need to advance objective biomarkers, allowing the identification and tracking of the long-term evolution of changes resulting from mTBI. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI allows for the assessment of white-matter properties in the brain and shows promise as a suitable biomarker of mTBI pathophysiology.Methods: 34 individuals within a year of an mTBI (age: 24.4 ± 7.4 and 18 individuals with no history of mTBI (age: 23.2 ± 3.4 participated in this study. Participants completed self-report measures related to functional outcomes, psychological health, post-injury symptoms, and sleep, and underwent a neuroimaging session that included DWI. Whole-brain white matter was skeletonized using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS and compared between groups as well as correlated within-group with the self-report measures.Results: There were no statistically significant anatomical differences between the two groups. After controlling for time since injury, fractional anisotropy (FA demonstrated a negative correlation with sleep quality scores (higher FA was associated with better sleep quality and increasing depressive symptoms in the mTBI participants. Conversely, mean (MD and radial diffusivity (RD demonstrated positive correlations with sleep quality scores (higher RD was associated with worse sleep quality and increasing depressive symptoms. These correlations were observed bilaterally in the internal capsule (anterior and posterior limbs, corona radiata (anterior and superior, fornix, and superior fronto-occipital fasciculi.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the clinical presentation of mTBI, particularly with respect to depression and sleep, is associated with reduced white

  7. Imaging of athletic pubalgia and core muscle injuries: clinical and therapeutic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisch, Andrew; Zoga, Adam C; Meyers, William C

    2013-07-01

    Athletes frequently injure their hips and core muscles. Accurate diagnosis and proper treatment of groin pain in the athlete can be tricky, frequently posing vexing problem for trainers and physicians. Clinical presentations of the various hip problems overlap with respect to history and physical examination. This article reviews clinical presentations and magnetic resonance imaging findings specific to the various causes of groin pain in the athlete. The focus is on the core muscle injuries (athletic pubalgia or "sports hernia"). The goal is to raise awareness about the variety of injuries that occur and therapeutic options. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Family functioning in severe brain injuries: correlations with caregivers' burden, perceived social support and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramonti, Francesco; Bonfiglio, Luca; Di Bernardo, Carolina; Ulivi, Chiara; Virgillito, Alessandra; Rossi, Bruno; Carboncini, Maria Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Severe brain injuries have long-term consequences on functional status and psychosocial functioning. Family life can be greatly influenced as well, and features of high caregiver burden can emerge. Although the data on caregivers' distress are constantly increasing, less information is available about the role of family functioning. Thirty caregivers of hospitalised patients with severe brain injuries received questionnaires for the evaluation of caregiver burden, family functioning and perceived social support. A semi-structured interview was performed for the evaluation of quality of life. Family cohesion and adaptability positively correlated with caregivers' quality of life and perceived social support. Partner caregivers' scores were significantly higher on the time-dependent burden than those of sons and daughters, whereas the latter scored higher on the emotional burden.

  9. How bicycle level of traffic stress correlate with reported cyclist accidents injury severities: A geospatial and mixed logit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Anderson, Jason C; Wang, Haizhong; Wang, Yinhai; Vogt, Rachel; Hernandez, Salvador

    2017-11-01

    Transportation agencies need efficient methods to determine how to reduce bicycle accidents while promoting cycling activities and prioritizing safety improvement investments. Many studies have used standalone methods, such as level of traffic stress (LTS) and bicycle level of service (BLOS), to better understand bicycle mode share and network connectivity for a region. However, in most cases, other studies rely on crash severity models to explain what variables contribute to the severity of bicycle related crashes. This research uniquely correlates bicycle LTS with reported bicycle crash locations for four cities in New Hampshire through geospatial mapping. LTS measurements and crash locations are compared visually using a GIS framework. Next, a bicycle injury severity model, that incorporates LTS measurements, is created through a mixed logit modeling framework. Results of the visual analysis show some geospatial correlation between higher LTS roads and "Injury" type bicycle crashes. It was determined, statistically, that LTS has an effect on the severity level of bicycle crashes and high LTS can have varying effects on severity outcome. However, it is recommended that further analyses be conducted to better understand the statistical significance and effect of LTS on injury severity. As such, this research will validate the use of LTS as a proxy for safety risk regardless of the recorded bicycle crash history. This research will help identify the clustering patterns of bicycle crashes on high-risk corridors and, therefore, assist with bicycle route planning and policy making. This paper also suggests low-cost countermeasures or treatments that can be implemented to address high-risk areas. Specifically, with the goal of providing safer routes for cyclists, such countermeasures or treatments have the potential to substantially reduce the number of fatalities and severe injuries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. CORRELATION BETWEEN OZONE EXPOSURE AND VISIBLE FOLIAR INJURY IN PONDEROSA AND JEFFREY PINES. (R825433)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone exposure was related to ozone-induced visible foliar injury in ponderosa and Jeffrey pines growing on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Measurements of ozone exposure, chlorotic mottle and fascicle retention were collected during the years ...

  11. Decreased apparent diffusion coefficient in the pituitary and correlation with hypopituitarism in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ping; He, Bin; Guo, Yijun; Zeng, Jingsong; Tong, Wusong

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between microstructural abnormality in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hormone-secreting status remains unknown. In this study, the authors aimed to identify the role of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) using a diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) technique and to evaluate the association of such changes with hypopituitarism in patients with TBI. Diffusion-weighted images were obtained in 164 consecutive patients with TBI within 2 weeks after injury to generate the pituitary ADC as a measure of microstructural change. Patients with TBI were further grouped into those with and those without hypopituitarism based on the secretion status of pituitary hormones at 6 months postinjury. Thirty healthy individuals were enrolled in the study and underwent MRI examinations for comparison. Mean ADC values were compared between this control group, the patients with TBI and hypopituitarism, and the patients with TBI without hypopituitarism; correlational studies were also performed. Neurological outcome was assessed with the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) for all TBI patients 6 months postinjury. In the TBI group, 84 patients had hypopituitarism and 80 had normal pituitary function. The pituitary ADC in TBI patients was significantly less than that in controls (1.83 ± 0.16 vs 4.13 ± 0.33, p correlated with neurological outcome at 6 months following TBI (r = 0.602, p correlated with hormone-secreting status in TBI patients. The authors suggest that pituitary ADC may be a useful biomarker to predict pituitary function in patients with TBI.

  12. Inflammatory-induced hibernation in the fetus: priming of fetal sheep metabolism correlates with developmental brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Keller

    Full Text Available Prenatal inflammation is considered an important factor contributing to preterm birth and neonatal mortality and morbidity. The impact of prenatal inflammation on fetal bioenergetic status and the correlation of specific metabolites to inflammatory-induced developmental brain injury are unknown. We used a global metabolomics approach to examine plasma metabolites differentially regulated by intrauterine inflammation. Preterm-equivalent sheep fetuses were randomized to i.v. bolus infusion of either saline-vehicle or LPS. Blood samples were collected at baseline 2 h, 6 h and daily up to 10 days for metabolite quantification. Animals were killed at 10 days after LPS injection, and brain injury was assessed by histopathology. We detected both acute and delayed effects of LPS on fetal metabolism, with a long-term down-regulation of fetal energy metabolism. Within the first 3 days after LPS, 121 metabolites were up-regulated or down-regulated. A transient phase (4-6 days, in which metabolite levels recovered to baseline, was followed by a second phase marked by an opposing down-regulation of energy metabolites, increased pO(2 and increased markers of inflammation and ADMA. The characteristics of the metabolite response to LPS in these two phases, defined as 2 h to 2 days and at 6-9 days, respectively, were strongly correlated with white and grey matter volumes at 10 days recovery. Based on these results we propose a novel concept of inflammatory-induced hibernation of the fetus. Inflammatory priming of fetal metabolism correlated with measures of brain injury, suggesting potential for future biomarker research and the identification of therapeutic targets.

  13. Ultrasound appearance of radiation-induced hepatic injury. Correlation with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garra, B.S.; Shawker, T.H.; Chang, R.; Kaplan, K.; White, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    The ultrasound findings in three cases of radiation-induced hepatic injury are described and compared with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Fatty infiltration of the liver was present in two of the cases in which concurrent chemotherapy was being administered. On ultrasound B-scans, the regions of radiation injury were hypoechoic relative to the remainder of the liver. This finding was more obvious in the patients with fatty livers. CT scans on the patients with fatty infiltrated livers showed higher attenuation in the irradiated region than in unexposed liver. In the patient where no fatty infiltration was present, the radiated section of liver had lower attenuation consistent with previous reports. Magnetic resonance imaging showed decreased signal in the exposed areas on T1 weighted images

  14. Psychosocial correlates of non-suicidal self-injury and firesetting among school-based adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Tanner, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence marks a period of increased vulnerability for the development of high-risk or problem behaviors, with these behaviors often observed to co-occur among youth. Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and firesetting are two distinct variants of problem behavior representing significant public health concerns. While existing research examining cooccurring NSSI and firesetting indicates that these behaviors may be functionally related, most of these studies have been conducted within adult cor...

  15. An experimental study on acute brain radiation injury: Dynamic changes in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the correlation with histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui, E-mail: lihui@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Jian-peng, E-mail: lijp@sysucc.org.cn [Department of Radiology, Dongguan People' s Hospital, Dongguan City (China); Lin, Cheng-guang, E-mail: linchg@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Xue-wen, E-mail: liuxw@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Geng, Zhi-jun, E-mail: gengzhj@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Mo, Yun-xian, E-mail: moyx@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Rong, E-mail: zhangr@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Xie, Chuan-miao, E-mail: xchuanm@sysucc.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou (China); Medical Imaging and Minimally Invasive Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between the alterations of single-voxel {sup 1}H MRS and the histopathological characteristics of radiation brain injury following radiation. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven rabbits were randomized into nine groups to receive radiation with a single dose of 25 Gy. The observation time points included a pre-radiation and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 wk following radiation. Each treatment group underwent conventional MRI and single-voxel {sup 1}H MRS, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr) were observed over the region of interest, and the presence or absence of lactate (Lac) and lipid (Lip) was detected. Histological specimens of each group were obtained after image acquisition. Results: The values of Cho were significantly increased in the first 3 wk, and decreased over the following 5 wk after radiation. Levels of NAA showed a trend toward a decrease 5 wk after radiation. The levels of Cr were not changed between before and after radiation. The Cho/NAA metabolic ratio was significantly increased in weeks 6, 7, and 8 following irradiation, compared to pre-radiation values. Vascular and glial injury appeared on 2 wk after RT in the histology samples, until 4 wk after RT, necrosis of the oligodendrocytes, neuronal degeneration and demyelination could be observed. Conclusions: MRS is sensitive to detect metabolic changes following radiation, and can be used in the early diagnosis of radiation brain injury.

  16. Correlation of QRS complex after percutaneous coronary intervention with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury and apoptosis molecule contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Min Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of QRS complex after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury and apoptosis molecule contents. Methods: Patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who were treated in Nanchong Central Hospital between June 2014 and August 2016 were selected and divided into the PCI group who received emergency PCI surgery and the control group who accepted selective PCI or refused emergency PCI after the medical data were retrospectively analyzed. The fQRS as well as the contents of ischemia reperfusion injury indexes and apoptosis molecules was determined after 1 week of treatment. Results: The incidence of fQRS in PCI group was significantly lower than that in control group; serum MDA, cTnI, H-FABP, sTWEAK, sFas, sTRAIL and Caspase-3 contents as well as peripheral blood Nrf-2 and HO-1 expression of PCI group were greatly lower than those of control group; serum MDA, cTnI, H-FABP, sTWEAK, sFas, sTRAIL and Caspase-3 contents as well as peripheral blood Nrf-2 and HO-1 expression of PCI group of patients with fQRS complex (+ were greatly higher than those of patients with fQRS complex (-. Conclusion: The occurrence of fQRS after PCI is closely related to myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury and apoptosis.

  17. Abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging seen acutely following mild traumatic brain injury: correlation with neuropsychological tests and delayed recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, David G.; Jackson, Alan; Mason, Damon L.; Berry, Elizabeth; Hollis, Sally; Yates, David W.

    2004-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a common reason for hospital attendance and is associated with significant delayed morbidity. We studied a series of 80 persons with MTBI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing were used in the acute phase and a questionnaire for post-concussion syndrome (PCS) and return to work status at 6 months. In 26 subjects abnormalities were seen on MRI, of which 5 were definitely traumatic. There was weak correlation with abnormal neuropsychological tests for attention in the acute period. There was no significant correlation with a questionnaire for PCS and return to work status. Although non-specific abnormalities are frequently seen, standard MRI techniques are not helpful in identifying patients with MTBI who are likely to have delayed recovery. (orig.)

  18. The autopsy-correlation of computed tomography in acute severe head injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Shin; Kim, Hong; Mikabe, Toshio; Karasawa, Hideharu; Watanabe, Saburo

    1981-01-01

    We discuss the importance of Contrast-Enhanced CT (C.E.CT) in establishing the variety of the intracranial pathological process in acute severe head injuries. During a two-and-a-half-year period (June, 1977 - December, 1979) thirty-three patients with acute severe head injuries were autopsied, all of whom had been scanned on admission. Among them, 14 patients had undergone both plain CT and C.E.CT on admission. Brain slices were examined macroscopically in three categories; brain contusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Each category was then compared retrospectively with the plain CT and C.E.CT findings. C.E.CT was found to correspond much better to the autopsy finding than plain CT in the following three points: (1) C.E.CT clearly enhances the contusion areas and reveals occult contusion areas. (2) C.E.CT enhances the areas corresponding to the subarachnoid space due to the breakdown of brain-surface blood vessels. (3) C.E.CT reveals the enlargement and formation of the intracerebral hematoma by the extravasation of the intravenous contrast material from injured arterial vessels. (author)

  19. Correlates of Non-suicidal Self-injury and Suicide Attempts in Bulimic Spectrum Disorders

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    Alexandra Gómez-Expósito

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the implication of personality, impulsivity, and emotion regulation difficulties in patients with a bulimic-spectrum disorder (BSD and suicide attempts (SA, BSD patients with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI, and BSD patients without these behaviors. Method: 122 female adult BSD patients were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Patients were clustered post-hoc into three groups depending on whether they presented BSD without NSSI or SA (BSD, BSD with lifetime NSSI (BSD+NSSI or BSD with lifetime SA (BSD+SA. Results: The BSD+NSSI and BSD+SA groups presented more emotion regulation difficulties, more eating and general psychopathology, and increased reward dependence in comparison with the BSD group. In addition, BSD+SA patients specifically showed problems with impulse control, while also presenting higher impulsivity than both the BSD and BSD+NSSI groups. No differences in impulsivity between the BSD and BSD+NSSI groups were found. Conclusions: The results show that BSD + NSSI and BSD+SA share a common profile characterized by difficulties in emotion regulation and low reward dependence, but differ in impulsivity and cooperativeness. This suggests that self-injury, in patients without a history of suicide attempts (i.e. BSD+NSSI, may have a regulatory role rather than being due to impulsivity.

  20. Trauma center designation correlates with functional independence after severe but not moderate traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua B; Stassen, Nicole A; Cheng, Julius D; Sangosanya, Ayodele T; Bankey, Paul E; Gestring, Mark L

    2010-08-01

    The mortality of traumatic brain injury (TBI) continues to decline, emphasizing functional outcomes. Trauma center designation has been linked to survival after TBI, but the impact on functional outcomes is unclear. The objective was to determine whether trauma center designation influenced functional outcomes after moderate and severe TBI. Trauma subjects presenting to an American College of Surgeons (ACS) Level I or II trauma center with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) independence (FI) defined as a modified functional independence measure (FIM) of 12, and independent expression (IE) defined as a FIM component of 4. These were compared between Level I and Level II centers in subjects with both moderate (GCS 9-12) and severe (GCS injuries, and comorbidities. Analysis identified 25,170 subjects (72% severe TBI). After adjusting for covariates, ACS Level I designation was associated with FI (odds ratio: 1.16; confidence interval: 1.07-1.24, p < 0.01) and IE (1.10; 1.03-1.17, p < 0.01) after severe TBI. Trauma center designation was not associated with FI or IE after moderate TBI. ACS trauma center designation is significantly associated with FI and IE after severe, but not moderate TBI. Prospective study is warranted to verify and explore factors contributing to this discrepancy.

  1. Correlates of Non-suicidal Self-Injury and Suicide Attempts in Bulimic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Expósito, Alexandra; Wolz, Ines; Fagundo, Ana B.; Granero, Roser; Steward, Trevor; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Agüera, Zaida; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the implication of personality, impulsivity, and emotion regulation difficulties in patients with a bulimic-spectrum disorder (BSD) and suicide attempts (SA), BSD patients with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), and BSD patients without these behaviors. Method: One hundred and twenty-two female adult BSD patients were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Patients were clustered post-hoc into three groups depending on whether they presented BSD without NSSI or SA (BSD), BSD with lifetime NSSI (BSD + NSSI) or BSD with lifetime SA (BSD + SA). Results: The BSD + NSSI and BSD + SA groups presented more emotion regulation difficulties, more eating and general psychopathology, and increased reward dependence in comparison with the BSD group. In addition, BSD + SA patients specifically showed problems with impulse control, while also presenting higher impulsivity than both the BSD and BSD + NSSI groups. No differences in impulsivity between the BSD and BSD + NSSI groups were found. Conclusions: The results show that BSD + NSSI and BSD + SA share a common profile characterized by difficulties in emotion regulation and low reward dependence, but differ in impulsivity and cooperativeness. This suggests that self-injury, in patients without a history of suicide attempts (i.e., BSD + NSSI), may have a regulatory role rather than being due to impulsivity. PMID:27597836

  2. Acute inversion injury of the ankle without radiological abnormalities: assessment with high-field MR imaging and correlation of findings with clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, Inga; Frank, Matthias; Hinz, Peter; Ekkernkamp, Axel [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, Department of Trauma and Orthopedic Surgery, Emergency Department, Greifswald (Germany); Kuehn, Jens Peter; Hosten, Norbert; Langner, Soenke [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, Institute for Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Acute inversion injuries of the ankle are the most common sports accidents, accounting for approximately 10% of emergency room admissions. In up to 85%, an injury of the lateral collateral ligaments is observed. Classically, the assessment of these injuries has relied on clinical examination and radiographs, including stress views. The aim of our study was to correlate prospectively the findings of high-field 3 T MRI in acute ankle distortion with clinical outcome. During a 6-month period, 38 patients were prospectively included. MRI was performed within 48 h of trauma and clinical examination using a protocol consisting of axial T2-weighted and coronal and sagittal T1-weighted images and a sagittal proton density (PDw) sequence. Each ligament injury was graded on a three-point scale. Functional outcome was evaluated using the AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scale. In 24/38 patients (63.12%), ligament injury was observed. In 22/24 cases, this was an injury of the lateral ligaments and in 2/24 cases of the medial ligaments. Injury of the syndesmosis occurred in three patients, a bone bruise in four, and an osteochondral lesion in three cases. Patients with an injury of two or more ligaments or a bone bruise had a lower AOFAS score and returned to sports activities and full weight-bearing later (P < 0.01). MR imaging at 3 Tesla is an independent predictor for clinical outcome. Therefore MRI may be beneficial in those cases where the findings influence further treatment. (orig.)

  3. Acute inversion injury of the ankle without radiological abnormalities: assessment with high-field MR imaging and correlation of findings with clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, Inga; Frank, Matthias; Hinz, Peter; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Kuehn, Jens Peter; Hosten, Norbert; Langner, Soenke

    2011-01-01

    Acute inversion injuries of the ankle are the most common sports accidents, accounting for approximately 10% of emergency room admissions. In up to 85%, an injury of the lateral collateral ligaments is observed. Classically, the assessment of these injuries has relied on clinical examination and radiographs, including stress views. The aim of our study was to correlate prospectively the findings of high-field 3 T MRI in acute ankle distortion with clinical outcome. During a 6-month period, 38 patients were prospectively included. MRI was performed within 48 h of trauma and clinical examination using a protocol consisting of axial T2-weighted and coronal and sagittal T1-weighted images and a sagittal proton density (PDw) sequence. Each ligament injury was graded on a three-point scale. Functional outcome was evaluated using the AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scale. In 24/38 patients (63.12%), ligament injury was observed. In 22/24 cases, this was an injury of the lateral ligaments and in 2/24 cases of the medial ligaments. Injury of the syndesmosis occurred in three patients, a bone bruise in four, and an osteochondral lesion in three cases. Patients with an injury of two or more ligaments or a bone bruise had a lower AOFAS score and returned to sports activities and full weight-bearing later (P < 0.01). MR imaging at 3 Tesla is an independent predictor for clinical outcome. Therefore MRI may be beneficial in those cases where the findings influence further treatment. (orig.)

  4. [Correlation between serum uric acid level and acute renal injury after coronary artery bypass grafting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D Q; Du, J; Zheng, Z; Tang, Y; Zou, L; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, H T

    2017-07-11

    Objective: To evaluate whether early postoperative serum uric acid level can predict postoperative acute renal injury (AKI) among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: The study retrospectively enrolled 1 306 patients undergoing CABG in Fuwai Hospital between September 2012 and December 2013. The patients were divided into 5 groups by the concentrations of serum uric acid measured on the morning of the first postoperative day, and uric acid categories were as follow: less than 195 μmol/L (Q1 group, 262 cases), 195-236 μmol/L (Q2 group, 263 cases), 237-280 μmol/L (Q3 group, 260 cases), 281-336 μmol/L (Q4 group, 261 cases), more than 336 μmol/L (Q5 group, 260 cases). The primary end points were AKI (RIFLE criteria), severe AKI (AKI≥stage Ⅰ), postoperative continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) requirement, in-hospital death, length of stay in hospital and intensive care unit(ICU). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to determine the ability of the early postoperative serum uric acid level as a risk factor for postoperative AKI prediction. Results: Among the 1 306 patients enrolled in the study, AKI was found in 335 patients (25.65%). After adjusting for variables that were different between the 5 groups, the Q5 group had significantly higher risk of AKI, AKI≥ stage Ⅰ and the requirement of CRRT ( P uric acid levels alone were used (both P uric acid was a better predictor than serum creatinine( P uric acid concentration within 12 hours after operation is an independent predictor of postoperative AKI in patients undergoing CABG, which could be used to identify patients at high risk for AKI.

  5. Correlation of Apgar Score with Asphyxial Hepatic Injury and Mortality in Newborns: A Prospective Observational Study from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study is to determine the correlation of Apgar score with asphyxial hepatic injury and neonatal mortality in moderately and severely asphyxiated newborns. Material and Methods This is a secondary analysis of our prospective observational case-controlled study. Sixteen neonates with severe birth asphyxia (five-minute Apgar ≤3 were compared with either 54 moderate asphyxia neonates (five-minute Apgar >3 or 30 normal neonates. Liver function tests were measured on postnatal days 1, 3, and 10 in the study and control groups. Neonatal mortality was observed in the study and control population. Results Correlation of Apgar score in severely asphyxiated neonates compared with normal Apgar score neonates and moderately asphyxiated neonates for deranged hepatic function showed significant correlation (odds ratio [OR] 4.88, 95% CI 3.26–5.84, P = 0.01 and OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.94–3.32, P = 0.02, respectively. There was a significant increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and total bilirubin on day 1 and serum LDH at age of 10th postnatal life in severely asphyxiated neonates when compared to moderately asphyxiated neonates, whereas there was a significant decrease in total bilirubin and serum albumin on day 3 in severely asphyxiated neonates. There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase, serum LDH, and total bilirubin on day 1, serum aspartate transaminase, serum LDH, and total bilirubin on day 3, and International Normalized Ratio on day 10 of postnatal life when severely asphyxiated neonates were compared with normal neonates. There was a significant reduction in total protein and serum albumin on day 1 and direct bilirubin on day 3 in severely asphyxiated neonates when compared with normal neonates. There was a significant increase in neonatal mortality in severely asphyxiated neonates when compared to the other two groups. Correlation of Apgar score in severely asphyxiated neonates compared with

  6. Correlation of lipid metabolism characteristics with bile acid metabolism and placental hypoxia injury in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

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    Liang Tang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of lipid metabolism characteristics with bile acid metabolism and placental hypoxia injury in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP. Methods: ICP pregnant women and healthy pregnant women who received antenatal care and delivered in Obstetrics Department of Panzhihua Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital between May 2013 and October 2016 were collected and included in ICP group and control group respectively. Serum lipid metabolism and bile acid metabolism indexes were measured at 20 weeks, 24 weeks, 28 weeks, 32 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation; mitochondria damage molecule expression levels in placenta were determined after childbirth. Results: Serum TC, LDL-C and HDL-C levels were not different between two groups of pregnant women at 20 weeks of gestation, and serum TC and LDL-C levels of ICP group at 24 weeks, 28 weeks, 32 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation were significantly higher than those of control group while HDL-C levels were significantly lower than those of control group; serum TBA, ALT and AST levels were not different between two groups of pregnant women at 20 weeks, 24 weeks and 28 weeks of gestation, and serum TBA, ALT and AST levels of ICP group at 32 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation were significantly higher than those of control group; CCO, ATPase, SDH and Bcl-2 protein expression in placenta tissue of ICP group were significantly lower than those of control group while Bax and Caspase-3 protein expression were significantly higher than those of control group. Serum LDL-C levels at 24 weeks, 28 weeks, 32 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation were positively correlated with TBA, ALT and AST levels in serum as well as Bax and Caspase-3 protein expression in placental tissue, and negatively correlated with CCO, ATPase, SDH and Bcl-2 protein expression in placental tissue. Conclusion: Midtrimester lipid metabolism characteristics can early predict the risk of ICP and evaluate the

  7. How does Euro NCAP results correlate to real life injury risks - a paired comparison study of car-to-car crashes in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lie, A. [Swedish National Road Administration, Borlaenge (Sweden)]|[ Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Tingvall, C. [Monash University, Accident Research Centre (Australia)

    2001-07-01

    Euro NCAP is a resource for consumers regarding vehicle crash safety. The program also promotes safety developments, and credits car manufacturers focussing on safety. This study, based on real life car to car crashes, shows that the overall indication of the safety level, provided by the crash testing, is a valid prediction, at least when looking at the star rating and severe to fatal injuries. For minor injuries no significant injury risk differences are seen. The cars with three or four stars are approximately 30% safer, compared to two star cars or cars without an Euro NCAP score, in car to car collisions. The good general correlation between injury risk, and Euro NCAP scores is not necessarily similarly good for individual car models. Pedestrian safety and child occupant protection was not studied. (orig.)

  8. Clinical Analysis for the Correlation of Intra-abdominal Organ Injury in the Patients with Rib Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seongsik

    2012-01-01

    Background Although it is rare for the fracture itself to become a life threatening injury in patients suffering from rib fracture, the lives of these patients are occasionally threatened by other associated injuries. Especially, early discovery of patients with rib fracture and intra-abdominal organ injury is extremely important to the prognosis. This study analyzed the link between rib fracture and intra-abdominal injury to achieve improved treatment. Materials and Methods Among trauma pati...

  9. Is there a correlation between coaches’ leadership styles and injuries in elite football teams? A study of 36 elite teams in 17 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Jan; Lundqvist, Daniel; Lagerbäck, Lars; Vouillamoz, Marc; Papadimitiou, Niki; Karlsson, Jon

    2018-01-01

    Background Do coaches’ leadership styles affect injury rates and the availability of players in professional football? Certain types of leadership behaviour may cause stress and have a negative impact on players’ health and well-being. Aim To investigate the transformational leadership styles of head coaches in elite men’s football and to evaluate the correlation between leadership styles, injury rates and players’ availability. Methods Medical staff from 36 elite football clubs in 17 European countries produced 77 reports at four postseason meetings with a view to assessing their perception of the type of leadership exhibited by the head coaches of their respective teams using the Global Transformational Leadership scale. At the same time, they also recorded details of individual players’ exposure to football and time-loss injuries. Results There was a negative correlation between the overall level of transformational leadership and the incidence of severe injuries (rho=−0.248; n=77; p=0.030); high levels of transformational leadership were associated with smaller numbers of severe injuries. Global Transformational Leadership only explained 6% of variation in the incidence of severe injuries (r2=0.062). The incidence of severe injuries was lower at clubs where coaches communicated a clear and positive vision, supported staff members and gave players encouragement and recognition. Players’ attendance rates at training were higher in teams where coaches gave encouragement and recognition to staff members, encouraged innovative thinking, fostered trust and cooperation and acted as role models. Conclusions There is an association between injury rates and players’ availability and the leadership style of the head coach. PMID:29056596

  10. Is there a correlation between coaches' leadership styles and injuries in elite football teams? A study of 36 elite teams in 17 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Jan; Lundqvist, Daniel; Lagerbäck, Lars; Vouillamoz, Marc; Papadimitiou, Niki; Karlsson, Jon

    2018-04-01

    Do coaches' leadership styles affect injury rates and the availability of players in professional football? Certain types of leadership behaviour may cause stress and have a negative impact on players' health and well-being. To investigate the transformational leadership styles of head coaches in elite men's football and to evaluate the correlation between leadership styles, injury rates and players' availability. Medical staff from 36 elite football clubs in 17 European countries produced 77 reports at four postseason meetings with a view to assessing their perception of the type of leadership exhibited by the head coaches of their respective teams using the Global Transformational Leadership scale. At the same time, they also recorded details of individual players' exposure to football and time-loss injuries. There was a negative correlation between the overall level of transformational leadership and the incidence of severe injuries (rho=-0.248; n=77; p=0.030); high levels of transformational leadership were associated with smaller numbers of severe injuries. Global Transformational Leadership only explained 6% of variation in the incidence of severe injuries (r 2 =0.062). The incidence of severe injuries was lower at clubs where coaches communicated a clear and positive vision, supported staff members and gave players encouragement and recognition. Players' attendance rates at training were higher in teams where coaches gave encouragement and recognition to staff members, encouraged innovative thinking, fostered trust and cooperation and acted as role models. There is an association between injury rates and players' availability and the leadership style of the head coach. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Objective measures of motor dysfunction after compression spinal cord injury in adult rats: correlations with locomotor rating scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semler, Joerg; Wellmann, Katharina; Wirth, Felicitas; Stein, Gregor; Angelova, Srebrina; Ashrafi, Mahak; Schempf, Greta; Ankerne, Janina; Ozsoy, Ozlem; Ozsoy, Umut; Schönau, Eckhard; Angelov, Doychin N; Irintchev, Andrey

    2011-07-01

    Precise assessment of motor deficits after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in rodents is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of functional recovery and testing therapeutic approaches. Here we analyzed the applicability to a rat SCI model of an objective approach, the single-frame motion analysis, created and used for functional analysis in mice. Adult female Wistar rats were subjected to graded compression of the spinal cord. Recovery of locomotion was analyzed using video recordings of beam walking and inclined ladder climbing. Three out of four parameters used in mice appeared suitable: the foot-stepping angle (FSA) and the rump-height index (RHI), measured during beam walking, and for estimating paw placement and body weight support, respectively, and the number of correct ladder steps (CLS), assessing skilled limb movements. These parameters, similar to the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scores, correlated with lesion volume and showed significant differences between moderately and severely injured rats at 1-9 weeks after SCI. The beam parameters, but not CLS, correlated well with the BBB scores within ranges of poor and good locomotor abilities. FSA co-varied with RHI only in the severely impaired rats, while RHI and CLS were barely correlated. Our findings suggest that the numerical parameters estimate, as intended by design, predominantly different aspects of locomotion. The use of these objective measures combined with BBB rating provides a time- and cost-efficient opportunity for versatile and reliable functional evaluations in both severely and moderately impaired rats, combining clinical assessment with precise numerical measures.

  12. Correlation between regional cerebral blood flow and degree of brain tissue injury of interictal epileptic activity in patients with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Huan; Chen Xuehong; Wang Zhengjiang; Ma Dongmei; Feng Jianzhong; Liu Jiangyan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlation between the change of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and brain tissue injury from interictal epileptic activity in patients with epilepsy. Methods: Forty-eight patients with epilepsy and 30 healthy persons were included in the study from which the serum S100β protein levels were determined by double antibody sandwich ELISA method. SPECT rCBF imaging was performed in all patients. The visual and semi-quantitative analyses were used to analyze the epileptic foci. SPSS 11.0 was applied for variance and linear correlation analyses. Results: Serum S-100β in patients with interictal epileptic activity was significantly higher than that in control group ((0.572±0.163) μg/L vs (0.218±0.134) μg/L, t =9.96, P<0.01). According to epilepsy control criteria, 20 cases achieved complete control (CC), 18 cases achieved partial control (PR). However, 10 cases got no improvement,whose serum S-100β protein ((0.809±0.056) μg/L) and the percentage change of rCBF ((0.337±0.060) %) were significantly higher than those of CC ((0.443±0.083) μg/L, (0.035±0.038) %) and those of PC ((0.585±0.108) μg/L, (0.187±0.075)%), F=56. 740, 92. 316, P<0.01. There were high correlation between serum S-100β and the percentage change of rCBF in epilepsy patients (r =0.887, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum S-100β protein assay combined with rCBF on SPECT imaging can make semi-quantitative diagnosis of epilepsy and help evaluate the brain damage from interictal epileptic activity. (authors)

  13. Neural correlates of apathy in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, acquired brain injury, and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Claire; van Tol, Marie-José; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, André

    2016-10-01

    Apathy can be described as a loss of goal-directed purposeful behavior and is common in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although previous studies investigated associations between abnormal brain functioning and apathy, it is unclear whether the neural basis of apathy is similar across different pathological conditions. The purpose of this systematic review was to provide an extensive overview of the neuroimaging literature on apathy including studies of various patient populations, and evaluate whether the current state of affairs suggest disorder specific or shared neural correlates of apathy. Results suggest that abnormalities within fronto-striatal circuits are most consistently associated with apathy across the different pathological conditions. Of note, abnormalities within the inferior parietal cortex were also linked to apathy, a region previously not included in neuroanatomical models of apathy. The variance in brain regions implicated in apathy may suggest that different routes towards apathy are possible. Future research should investigate possible alterations in different processes underlying goal-directed behavior, ranging from intention and goal-selection to action planning and execution. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Tenascin-C levels in synovial fluid are elevated after injury to the human and canine joint and correlate with markers of inflammation and matrix degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chockalingam, P S; Glasson, S S; Lohmander, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    meniscus lesions, isolated knee meniscus injury, acute inflammatory arthritis (AIA) and knee osteoarthritis (OA). TN-C was measured in synovial fluid samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and results correlated to other cartilage markers. TN-C release was also monitored in joints...

  15. Correlation of shoulder range of motion limitations at discharge with limitations in activities and participation one year later in persons with spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriks-Hoogland, Inge E.; de Groot, Sonja; Post, Marcel W. M.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    Objective: To study the correlation between limited shoulder range of motion in persons with spinal cord injury at discharge and the performance of activities, wheeling performance, transfers and participation one year later. Design: Multicentre prospective cohort study. Subjects: A total of 146

  16. Injury patterns of medial patellofemoral ligament after acute lateral patellar dislocation in children: Correlation analysis with anatomical variants and articular cartilage lesion of the patella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Guang-ying; Ding, Hong-yu; Zheng, Lei; Ji, Bing-jun; Shi, Hao; Feng, Yan

    2017-01-01

    To assess the relationship between injury patterns of medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) and anatomical variants and patellar cartilage lesions after acute lateral patellar dislocation (LPD) in children. MR images were obtained in 140 children with acute LPD. Images were acquired and evaluated using standardised protocols. Fifty-eight cases of partial MPFL tear and 75 cases of complete MPFL tear were identified. Injuries occurred at an isolated patellar insertion (PAT) in 52 cases, an isolated femoral attachment (FEM) in 42 cases and an isolated mid-substance (MID) in five cases. More than one site of injury was identified in 34 cases. Compared with Wiberg patellar type C, Wiberg patellar type B predisposed to complete MPFL tear (P = 0.042). No correlations were identified between injury patterns of MPFL and trochlear dysplasia, patellar height and tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance (P > 0.05). Compared with partial MPFL tear, complete MPFL tear predisposed to Grade-IV and Grade-V patellar chondral lesion (P = 0.02). There were no correlations between incidence of patellar cartilage lesion and injury locational-subgroups of MPFL (P = 0.543). MPFL is most easily injured at the PAT in children. Wiberg patellar type B predisposes to complete MPFL tear. Complete MPFL tear predisposes to a higher grade of patellar chondral lesion. (orig.)

  17. Injury patterns of medial patellofemoral ligament after acute lateral patellar dislocation in children: Correlation analysis with anatomical variants and articular cartilage lesion of the patella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guang-ying; Ding, Hong-yu [Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital of Shandong University, Department of Ultrasonography, Jinan (China); Zheng, Lei; Ji, Bing-jun [Shandong Provincial Corps Hospital of Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Department of Radiology, Jinan (China); Shi, Hao [Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital of Shandong University, Department of Radiology, Jinan (China); Feng, Yan [Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical College, Department of Radiology, Binzhou (China)

    2017-03-15

    To assess the relationship between injury patterns of medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) and anatomical variants and patellar cartilage lesions after acute lateral patellar dislocation (LPD) in children. MR images were obtained in 140 children with acute LPD. Images were acquired and evaluated using standardised protocols. Fifty-eight cases of partial MPFL tear and 75 cases of complete MPFL tear were identified. Injuries occurred at an isolated patellar insertion (PAT) in 52 cases, an isolated femoral attachment (FEM) in 42 cases and an isolated mid-substance (MID) in five cases. More than one site of injury was identified in 34 cases. Compared with Wiberg patellar type C, Wiberg patellar type B predisposed to complete MPFL tear (P = 0.042). No correlations were identified between injury patterns of MPFL and trochlear dysplasia, patellar height and tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance (P > 0.05). Compared with partial MPFL tear, complete MPFL tear predisposed to Grade-IV and Grade-V patellar chondral lesion (P = 0.02). There were no correlations between incidence of patellar cartilage lesion and injury locational-subgroups of MPFL (P = 0.543). MPFL is most easily injured at the PAT in children. Wiberg patellar type B predisposes to complete MPFL tear. Complete MPFL tear predisposes to a higher grade of patellar chondral lesion. (orig.)

  18. A correlation study of the expression of resistin and glycometabolism in muscle tissue after traumatic brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Peng; Zhu Lielie; Zhang Jiasheng; Xie Songling; Pan Da; Wen Hao; Meng Weiyang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the expression pattern of resistin (RSTN) in skeletal muscle tissue and its influence on glycometabolism in rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI).Methods:Seventy-eight SD rats were randomly divided into traumatic group (n=36),RSTN group (n=36) and sham operation group (n=6).Fluid percussion TBI model was developed in traumatic and RSTN groups and the latter received additional 1 mg RSTN antibody treatment for each rat.At respectively 12 h,24 h,72 h,1 w,2 w,and 4 w after operation,venous blood was collected and the right hind leg skeletal muscle tissue was sampled.We used real-time PCR to determine mRNA expression of RSTN in skeletal muscles,western blot to determine RSTN protein expression and ELISA to assess serum insulin as well as fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels.Calculation of the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (Q value) was also conducted.The above mentioned indicators and their correction were statistically analyzed.Results:Compared with sham operation group,the RSTN expression in the skeletal muscle as well as serum insulin and FBG levels revealed significant elevation (P<0.05),and reduced Q value (P<0.05) in traumatic group.Single factor linear correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between RSTN expression and Q values (P<0.001) in traumatic group.Conclusion:The expression of RSTN has been greatly increased in the muscular tissue of TBI rats and it was closely related to the index of glycometabolism.RSTN may play an important role in the process of insulin resistance after TBI.

  19. Analysis of behavioral and EEG correlatives of attention in the dynamics of recovery of consciousness following severe brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sharova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the behavioral manifestations and electroencephalographic correlates of modality-nonspecific attention using a clinical model of severe brain injury (SBI.Patients and methods. 35 patients with SBI in the dynamics of post-coma recovery of mental activity (a study group and 23 healthy subjects (a control group were examined. The behavioral manifestations of NSA from coma to clear consciousness were analyzed in the patients. Changes in the pattern of EEG and in the indices of its coherence in the presence and activation of different forms of attention (an orienting response to the sound and eye opening; involuntary and voluntary visual forms, by applying specially developed computerized techniques, were investigated. The features of associated with attention changes in interhemispheric EEG coherence (IHC with the data of 3T diffusion tensor tractography of the corpus callosum (CC were compared.Results. Attention disorders were shown to be essential and an «axial disorder» in patients with SBI. There were statistically confirmed qualitative and quantitative differences attention-associated changes in the EEG pattern and IHC in reversible and chronic unconsciousness. The important favorable prognostic sign proved to be reactive changes in interhemispheric EEG relations, including frontal ones characterized by the absence of clear external manifestations of consciousness in the very earliest stages. There was a significant correlation between the preservation of CC tracts (primarily, the rostrum, anterior portion, and splenium and attention-related reactivity of IHC, which reflects the specific, though nonrigid, structural determinacy of the latter.

  20. [Electrophysiological correlates of efficacy of nootropic drugs in the treatment of consequences of traumatic brain injury in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iznak, E V; Iznak, A F; Pankratova, E A; Zavadenko, N N; Guzilova, L S; Guzilova, Iu I

    2010-01-01

    To assess objectively a dynamics of brain functional state, EEG spectral power and peak latency of the P300 component of cognitive auditory evoked potentials have been analyzed in adolescents during the course of nootropic therapy of residual asthenic consequences of traumatic brain injury (ICD-10 F07.2). The study included 76 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who have undergone severe closed head trauma with brain commotion 1/2--5 years ago. Patients have been divided into 3 groups treated during one month with cerebrolysin, piracetam or magne-B6, respectively. After the end of the nootropic therapy, 77% of patients treated with cerebrolysin as well as 50% of patients treated with piracetam and magne-B6 have demonstrated the positive dynamics of their brain functional state that manifested itself in the appearance of occipital EEG alpha rhythm or in the increase of its spectral power; in the normalization of alpha rhythm frequency; in the decrease in the spectral power of slow wave (theta and delta) EEG activity, in the amount (up to the disappearance) of paroxysmal EEG activity, in the EEG response to hyperventilation and in the shortening of the P300 peak latency. Such positive changes of neurophysiological parameters have been associated with the improvement of clinical conditions of patients and correlated significantly with the dynamics of psychometric scores of attention and memory.

  1. Dissociative, depressive, and PTSD symptom severity as correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidality in dissociative disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webermann, Aliya R; Myrick, Amie C; Taylor, Christina L; Chasson, Gregory S; Brand, Bethany L

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates whether symptom severity can distinguish patients diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified with a recent history of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts from those patients without recent self-harm. A total of 241 clinicians reported on recent history of patient NSSI and suicide attempts. Of these clinicians' patients, 221 completed dissociative, depressive, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology measures. Baseline cross-sectional data from a naturalistic and prospective study of dissociative disorder patients receiving community treatment were utilized. Analyses evaluated dissociative, depressive, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity as methods of classifying patients into NSSI and suicide attempt groupings. Results indicated that dissociation severity accurately classified patients into NSSI and suicidality groups, whereas depression severity accurately classified patients into NSSI groups. These findings point to dissociation and depression severity as important correlates of NSSI and suicidality in patients with dissociative disorders and have implications for self-harm prevention and treatment.

  2. Self-injury, suicide ideation, and sexual orientation: differences in causes and correlates among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Whitney; Bakken, Nicholas W

    2016-01-01

    Research has suggested that sexual minority youth are more likely to experience a number of behavioral and health-related risk factors due to their exposure to negative attitudes and beliefs about sexual minorities. Few studies, however, have examined the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among sexual minority youth. With self-cutting and suicidal ideation common in middle and high schools, understanding the antecedents and correlates of such behavior may help identify troubled students and initiate preventative measures. Bivariate probit regression analyses are performed using data from 7,326 high school students collected via the Delaware Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results indicate that bullying victimization, fighting, substance use, sexual behavior, depression, and unhealthy dieting behaviors were generally associated with NSSI and suicidal ideation. Some effects--including those from sexual activity, substance use, and unhealthy dieting behaviors--significantly differed based on gender and orientation. Risk factors for suicide and NSSI vary by gender and orientation. Both prevention/intervention specialists and researchers should consider the intersection of these risk factors with sexual orientation in their efforts. © 2016 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  3. Self-injury, suicide ideation, and sexual orientation: differences in causes and correlates among high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney DeCamp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Researchhas suggested that sexual minority youth are more likely to experience a number of behavioral and health-related risk factors due to their exposure to negative attitudes and beliefs about sexual minorities. Few studies, however, have examined the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI among sexual minority youth. With self-cutting and suicidal ideation common in middle and high schools, understanding the antecedents and correlates of such behaviormay help identify troubled students and initiate preventative measures. METHODS: Bivariate probit regression analyses are performed using data from 7,326 high school students collected via the Delaware Youth Risk Behavior Survey. RESULTS: Results indicate that bullying victimization, fighting, substance use, sexual behavior, depression, and unhealthy dieting behaviors were generally associated with NSSI and suicidal ideation. Some effects - including those from sexual activity, substance use, and unhealthy dieting behaviors – significantly differed based on gender and orientation. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for suicide and NSSI vary by gender and orientation. Both prevention/intervention specialists and researchers should consider the intersection of these risk factors with sexual orientation in their efforts.

  4. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for the DSM-5 of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Female Adolescents: Diagnostic and Clinical Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina In-Albon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI is included as conditions for further study in the DSM-5. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the proposed diagnostic criteria and the diagnostic and clinical correlates for the validity of a diagnostic entity. The authors investigated the characteristics of NSSI disorder and the proposed diagnostic criteria. A sample of 73 female inpatient adolescents and 37 nonclinical adolescents (aged 13 to 19 years was recruited. Patients were classified into 4 groups (adolescents with NSSI disorder, adolescents with NSSI without impairment/distress, clinical controls without NSSI, and nonclinical controls. Adolescents were compared on self-reported psychopathology and diagnostic cooccurrences. Results indicate that adolescents with NSSI disorder have a higher level of impairment than adolescents with other mental disorders without NSSI. Most common comorbid diagnoses were major depression, social phobia, and PTSD. There was some overlap of adolescents with NSSI disorder and suicidal behaviour and borderline personality disorder, but there were also important differences. Results further suggest that the proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for NSSI are useful and necessary. In conclusion, NSSI is a highly impairing disorder characterized by high comorbidity with various disorders, providing further evidence that NSSI should be a distinct diagnostic entity.

  5. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates for serious injury among adolescents participating in the Djibouti 2007 Global School-based Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muula, Adamson S; Siziya, Seter; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

    2011-09-27

    Mental health and injury are neglected public health issues especially in low-income nations. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates for serious injury in the last 12 months. The study used data of the 2007 Djibouti Global School-based Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to establish associations. Of the 1, 777 respondents, 61.1% (63.2% males and 57.8% females) reported having sustained serious injury (SSI). Compared to participants who were not bullied, those who reported being bullied 3-9 days per month were more likely to have sustained serious injury in the last 12 months (AOR = 1.27; 95% CI [1.06, 1.52] for 3-5 days of bullying victimization per month, and AOR = 3.19; 95% CI [2.28, 4.47] for 6-9 days per month. Adolescents who were engaged in physical fighting were 47% (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI [1.40, 1.55] more likely to have sustained serious injury compared to those who were not engaged in the fighting. Meanwhile, adolescents who used substances (cigarettes, other forms of tobacco or drugs) were 30% (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI [1.19, 1.42]) more likely to have sustained serious injury compared to those who did not use substances. Serious injury is common among adolescents in Djibouti, and we suggest that health workers attending to injured adolescents explore the patients' psycho-social environment. Further, we suggest longitudinal studies where reduction of substance use and bullying may be assessed if they have an impact in reducing serious injury among adolescents.

  6. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates for serious injury among adolescents participating in the Djibouti 2007 Global School-based Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health and injury are neglected public health issues especially in low-income nations. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates for serious injury in the last 12 months. Findings The study used data of the 2007 Djibouti Global School-based Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to establish associations. Of the 1, 777 respondents, 61.1% (63.2% males and 57.8% females reported having sustained serious injury (SSI. Compared to participants who were not bullied, those who reported being bullied 3-9 days per month were more likely to have sustained serious injury in the last 12 months (AOR = 1.27; 95% CI [1.06, 1.52] for 3-5 days of bullying victimization per month, and AOR = 3.19; 95% CI [2.28, 4.47] for 6-9 days per month. Adolescents who were engaged in physical fighting were 47% (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI [1.40, 1.55] more likely to have sustained serious injury compared to those who were not engaged in the fighting. Meanwhile, adolescents who used substances (cigarettes, other forms of tobacco or drugs were 30% (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI [1.19, 1.42] more likely to have sustained serious injury compared to those who did not use substances. Conclusions Serious injury is common among adolescents in Djibouti, and we suggest that health workers attending to injured adolescents explore the patients' psycho-social environment. Further, we suggest longitudinal studies where reduction of substance use and bullying may be assessed if they have an impact in reducing serious injury among adolescents.

  7. Correlation of serum GFAP, S100B and NSE contents with posttraumatic oxidative stress response and insulin resistance in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Feng Tian

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of serum GFAP, S100B and NSE contents with posttraumatic oxidative stress response and insulin resistance in patients with traumatic brain injury. Methods: A total of 110 patients with traumatic brain injury who were treated in our hospital between January 2015 and December 2016 were collected as the observation group, and 60 healthy subjects who received physical examination in our hospital during the same period were collected as normal control group. Serum GFAP, S100B and NSE levels as well as oxidative stress index and insulin resistance index levels of two groups of subjects were detected, and Pearson test was used to further evaluate the correlation of serum GFAP, S100B and NSE contents with oxidative stress response and insulin resistance in patients with traumatic brain injury. Results: Serum GFAP, S100B and NSE contents of observation group were significantly higher than those of normal control group; serum oxidative stress indexes MDA, MPO and LPO contents were higher than those of normal control group while SOD and TAC contents were lower than those of normal control group; serum insulin resistance indexes GLU, INS and HOMA-IR levels were higher than those of control group. Pearson test showed that serum GFAP, S100B and NSE contents in patients with traumatic brain injury were directly correlated with post-traumatic oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Conclusion: The serum GFAP, S100B and NSE contents increase in patients with traumatic brain injury, and the increase is directly correlated with the oxidative stress and insulin resistance.

  8. Tackler’s head position relative to the ball carrier is highly correlated with head and neck injuries in rugby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Shiota, Yuki; Ota, Chihiro; Yoneda, Takeshi; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Maki, Nobukazu; Matsuura, Takahiro; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Itoigawa, Yoshiaki; Tateishi, Tomohiko; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the tackler’s head position during one-on-one tackling in rugby and to determine the incidence of head, neck and shoulder injuries through analysis of game videos, injury records and a questionnaire completed by the tacklers themselves. Methods We randomly selected 28 game videos featuring two university teams in competitions held in 2015 and 2016. Tackles were categorised according to tackler’s head position. The ‘pre-contact phase’ was defined; its duration and the number of steps taken by the ball carrier prior to a tackle were evaluated. Results In total, 3970 tackles, including 317 (8.0%) with the tackler’s head incorrectly positioned (ie, in front of the ball carrier) were examined. Thirty-two head, neck or shoulder injuries occurred for an injury incidence of 0.8% (32/3970). The incidence of injury in tackles with incorrect head positioning was 69.4/1000 tackles; the injury incidence with correct head positioning (ie, behind or to one side of the ball carrier) was 2.7/1000 tackles. Concussions, neck injuries, ‘stingers’ and nasal fractures occurred significantly more often during tackles with incorrect head positioning than during tackles with correct head positioning. Significantly fewer steps were taken before tackles with incorrect head positioning that resulted in injury than before tackles that did not result in injury. Conclusion Tackling with incorrect head position relative to the ball carrier resulted in a significantly higher incidence of concussions, neck injuries, stingers and nasal fractures than tackling with correct head position. Tackles with shorter duration and distance before contact resulted in more injuries. PMID:29162618

  9. Prognostic factors for open globe injuries and correlation of Ocular Trauma Score at a tertiary referral eye care centre in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Agrawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the factors influencing final vision outcome after surgical repair of open globe injuries and to correlate the Ocular trauma score. Materials and Methods: Retrospective case analysis of patients with open globe injuries at a tertiary referral eye care centre in Singapore was performed. Pre-operative factors affecting final vision outcome in patients with open globe injury and correlation of ocular trauma score in our study with international ocular trauma scoring system was performed. Results: Case records of 172 eyes with open globe injury were analyzed. Mean age was 36. 67 years. Mean follow up was 12.26 m. Males were pre-dominantly affected. Initial visual acuity was ≥20/40, 20/50 < 20/200, 20/200- CF, HM- PL and NLP in 24 (14%, 39 (22.7%, 16 (9.3%, 66 (38.4% and 27 (15.7% eyes respectively. Final visual acuity was ≤20/40, 20/50 < 20/200, 20/200- 1/200, HM- PL and NLP in 76 (44.2%, 28 (16.3%, 11 (6.4%, 30 (17.4% and 27 (15.7% eyes respectively. Ocular trauma score in our study correlates with international ocular trauma scoring system. Conclusion: The present study showed pre-operative variables such as mode of injury, pre-operative visual acuity, traumatic cataract, hyphaema, relative afferent papillary defect, vitreous lossand vitreous hemorrhage to be adversely affecting the final vision outcome. Our study showed a good synchrony with international ocular trauma score (OTS and based on this study we were able to validate application of OTS in Singapore population. Recognizing these factors can help the surgeon in evidence based counseling.

  10. Correlation of shoulder range of motion limitations at discharge with limitations in activities and participation one year later in persons with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriks-Hoogland, Inge E; de Groot, Sonja; Post, Marcel W M; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2011-02-01

    To study the correlation between limited shoulder range of motion in persons with spinal cord injury at discharge and the performance of activities, wheeling performance, transfers and participation one year later. Multicentre prospective cohort study. A total of 146 newly injured subjects with spinal cord injury. Shoulder range of motion was measured at discharge. One year later, Functional Independence Measure (FIM), transfer ability, wheelchair circuit and Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) were assessed. Corrections were made for possible confounding factors (age, gender, level and completeness of injury, time since injury and shoulder pain). All subjects with limited shoulder range of motion at discharge had a lower FIM motor score and were less likely (total group 5 times, and subjects with tetraplegia 10 times less likely) to be able to perform an independent transfer one year later. Subjects with limited shoulder range of motion in the total group needed more time to complete the wheelchair circuit. No significant associations with the PASIPD were found in either group. Persons with spinal cord injury and limited shoulder range of motion at discharge are more limited in their activities one year later than those without limited shoulder range of motion.

  11. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Correlates Poorly with Four-Hour Creatinine Clearance in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Kirwan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. RIFLE and AKIN provide a standardised classification of acute kidney injury (AKI, but their categorical rather than continuous nature restricts their use to a research tool. A more accurate real-time description of renal function in AKI is needed, and some published data suggest that equations based on serum creatinine that estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR can provide this. In addition, incorporating serum cystatin C concentration into estimates of GFR may improve their accuracy, but no eGFR equations are validated in critically ill patients with AKI. Aim. This study tests whether creatinine or cystatin-C-based eGFR equations, used in patients with CKD, offer an accurate representation of 4-hour creatinine clearance (4CrCl in critically ill patients with AKI. Methods. Fifty-one critically ill patients with AKI were recruited. Thirty-seven met inclusion criteria, and the performance of eGFR equations was compared to 4CrCl. Results. eGFR equations were better than creatinine alone at predicting 4CrCl. Adding cystatin C to estimates did not improve the bias or add accuracy. The MDRD 7 eGFR had the best combination of correlation, bias, percentage error and accuracy. None were near acceptable standards quoted in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Conclusions. eGFR equations are not sufficiently accurate for use in critically ill patients with AKI. Incorporating serum cystatin C does not improve estimates. eGFR should not be used to describe renal function in patients with AKI. Standards of accuracy for validating eGFR need to be set.

  12. Attention Functions in Traumatic Brain Injury and Stroke: An Exploration of the Predictors of Daily Living Difficulties and the Correlates of the CogniPlus Vigilance Training Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Shehab, Al Amira Safa

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficits are common in traumatic brain injury and stroke. These difficulties can impact the individual’s everyday life, affecting activities of daily living such as running errands, increasing cognitive errors such as failing to notice signs, and minimising community integration. They also call for specific training to improve these functions. We investigated the relationship between attention functions and these daily living aspects, as well as the correlates of the CogniPlus VIG t...

  13. [Expressions of neuropathic pain-related proteins in the spinal cord dorsal horn in rats with bilateral chronic constriction injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Le; Li, Xu; Wang, Hai-tang; Yu, Xue-rong; Huang, Yu-guang

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the pain-related behavioral changes in rats with bilateral chronic constriction injury(bCCI)and identify the expressions of neuropathic pain-related proteins. The bCCI models were established by ligating the sciatic nerves in female Sprague Dawley rats. Both mechanical hyperalgesia and cold hyperalgesia were evaluated through electronic von Frey and acetone method. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry was applied to characterize the differentially expressed proteins. Both mechanical withdrawal threshold and cold hyperalgesia threshold decreased significantly on the postoperative day 7 and 14, when compared with na ve or sham rats(P <0.05). Twenty five differentially expressed proteins associated with bilateral CCI were discovered, with eighteen of them were upregulated and seven of them downregulated. The bCCT rats have remarkably decreased mechanical and cold hyperalgesia thresholds. Twenty five neuropathic pain-related proteins are found in the spinal cord dorsal horn.

  14. Fatigue and Cognitive Fatigability in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury are Correlated with Altered Neural Activity during Vigilance Test Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika C. Möller

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionFatigue is the most frequently reported persistent symptom following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, but the explanations for the persisting fatigue symptoms in mTBI remain controversial. In this study, we investigated the change of cerebral blood flow during the performance of a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT by using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL MRI technique to better understand the relationship between fatigability and brain activity in mTBI.Material and methodsTen patients (mean age: 37.5 ± 11.2 years with persistent complaints of fatigue after mTBI and 10 healthy controls (mean age 36.9 ± 11.0 years were studied. Both groups completed a 20-min long PVT inside a clinical MRI scanner during simultaneous measurements of reaction time and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF with PCASL technique. Cognitive fatigability and neural activity during PVT were analyzed by dividing the performance and rCBF data into quintiles in addition to the assessment of self-rated fatigue before and after the PVT.ResultsThe patients showed significant fatigability during the PVT while the controls had a stable performance. The variability in performance was also significantly higher among the patients, indicating monitoring difficulty. A three-way ANOVA, modeling of the rCBF data demonstrated that there was a significant interaction effect between the subject group and performance time during PVT in a mainly frontal/thalamic network, indicating that the pattern of rCBF change for the mTBI patients differed significantly from that of healthy controls. In the mTBI patients, fatigability at the end of the PVT was related to increased rCBF in the right middle frontal gyrus, while self-rated fatigue was related to increased rCBF in left medial frontal and anterior cingulate gyri and decreases of rCBF in a frontal/thalamic network during this period.DiscussionThis study demonstrates that PCASL is a useful technique to

  15. Classification of the severe trauma patient with the Abbreviated Injury Scale: degree of correlation between versions 98 and 2005 (2008 update).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajas Bustillo, Rebeca; Leal Costa, César; Ortego Mate, María Del Carmen; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Seguí Gómez, María; Durá Ros, María Jesús

    2018-02-01

    To explore differences in severity classifications according to 2 versions of the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS): version 2005 (the 2008 update) and the earlier version 98. To determine whether possible differences might have an impact on identifying severe trauma patients. Descriptive study and cross-sectional analysis of a case series of patients admitted to two spanish hospitals with out-of-hospital injuries between February 2012 and February 2013. For each patient we calculated the Injury Severity Score (ISS), the New Injury Severity Score (NISS), and the AIS scores according to versions 98 and 2005. The sample included 699 cases. The mean Severity (SD) age of patients was 52.7 (29.2) years, and 388 (55.5%) were males. Version 98 of the AIS correlated more strongly with both the ISS (2.6%) and the NISS (2.9%). The 2008 update of the AIS (version 2005) classified fewer trauma patients than version 98 at the severity levels indicated by the ISS and NISS.

  16. A study of burden of care and its correlates among family members supporting relatives and loved ones with traumatic spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina; Lusilla-Palacios, Pilar

    2017-07-01

    To understand and describe in a sample of caregivers of persons with spinal cord injury, their burden of care, resilience and life satisfaction and to explore the relationship between these variables. Cross-sectional design. One Spinal Cord Injury Acute Inpatient Unit from a general hospital. Seventy-five relatives of persons with spinal cord injuries (84% women) with a mean age of 48.55 ( SD = 12.55) years. None. Demographics (neurological loss and severity according to the American Spinal Injury Association criteria), the Zarit Burden Interview, the Resilience Scale and the Life Satisfaction Checklist. All caregivers experienced feelings of different intensities of burden (52% mild-to-moderate, 43% moderate-to-severe and 5% severe), and none of them expressed little or no burden at the assessment moment. Caregivers' main worries were "dependence" and "the future of the injured." Resilience was medium-to-high (mean = 141.93, SD = 23.44) for the whole sample with just a minority of them revealing low (15%) or very low resilience (7%). The highest scores were obtained in relation to "caregivers' independence" and "meaning of their lives." Life satisfaction scores were medium-to-high (mean = 36.6, SD = 6). These scores were not related to demographics or the severity of the injury. Zarit Burden Interview scores were negatively correlated to Resilience Scale ( r = -.370, P = .001) and Life Satisfaction Checklist scores ( r = -.412, P resilient and satisfied caregivers experienced lower burden. Burden is moderate-to-high and mainly related to uncertainty about the future, caregivers' insecurity with caregiving and dependence of the injured.

  17. Prevalence, causes, and correlates of traumatic dental injuries among seven-to-twelve-year-old school children in Dera Bassi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Dua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The paper aims to present a study conducted in Dera Bassi, Mohali, India. The purpose of the study was to ascertain the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries (TDI in children of age group 7-12 years in private schools in Gulabgarh village. Material & Method : Age & sex distribution, etiological factors, risk factors and cause of injury were the parameters taken into consideration. The data collected was processed and analyzed using the SPSS statistical software program. Results : The overall prevalence of dental trauma was 14.5%, amongst the 880 subjects examined, out of which, 63.2% males and 36.4% females were found to be affected. The maxillary central incisor was found to be most commonly affected tooth (43.8%. The most common cause of injury reported was fall during playing (37.5%. Conclusion : Enamel fracture was most prevalent (50%. No risk factor was significantly higher than others; however children with Angle′s class II div 1 malocclusion exhibited greater risk factor for traumatic injuries.

  18. Pharmacological correlation between the formalin test and the neuropathic pain behavior in different species with chronic constriction injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, K.C.P.; Geenen, F.; Biermans, R.; Meert, T.F.

    2006-01-01

    Research on mechanisms of drug action, and preclinical screening of molecules with a potential activity on neuropathic pain requires extensive animal work. The chronic constriction injury model is one of the best-characterized models of neuropathic pain behavior in rats, but requires extensive time

  19. Partner aggression among men and women in substance use disorder treatment: correlates of psychological and physical aggression and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermack, Stephen T; Murray, Regan L; Walton, Maureen A; Booth, Brenda A; Wryobeck, John; Blow, Frederic C

    2008-11-01

    This study examined intimate partner aggression in a sample of 489 participants enrolled in substance use disorder treatment, and expands on prior research by including measures of various forms of aggression, a mixed gender sample (76% men, 24% women), and measurement of several potential risk domains. Aggression measures included both participant-partner and partner-to-participant psychological aggression, physical aggression and injury. Analyses focused on the role of distal and proximal risk factors, including demographics, history of childhood physical and sexual abuse, and family history of problems with alcohol, drugs and depression, as well as recent substance use and symptoms of depression. Overall rates of participant-partner psychological aggression (77%), physical aggression (54%) and injuring partners (33%) were high, as were rates of partner-to-participant psychological aggression (73%), physical aggression (51%), and injury (33%). Several distal (family history variables, physical abuse) and proximal factors (binge drinking, several different drugs, depressive symptoms) were bivariately related to most of the aggression measures. However, according to multivariate analyses predicting aggression and injury measures, binge drinking and cocaine use were the drugs significantly associated with most measures, depression symptoms also were related to most aggression and injury measures, and a history of reported childhood physical abuse was related to all frequency of aggression and injury measures among those reporting such behaviors. Overall, the high rates of aggression among both men and women observed in this study further illustrate the need for interventions targeting substance use and aggression, and for further research regarding the inter-relationships among substance, aggression and depressive symptoms.

  20. Levels of procoagulant microvesicles are elevated after traumatic injury and platelet microvesicles are negatively correlated with mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Curry

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microvesicles (MV have been implicated in the development of thrombotic disease, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS and multiple organ failure (MOF. Trauma patients are at increased risk of late thrombotic events, particularly those who receive a major transfusion. The aims of this study were: (a to determine whether there were increased numbers of pro-coagulant MV following injury; (b to determine their cellular origin; and (c to explore the effects of MV with clinical outcomes; in particular red cell transfusion requirements and death. Methods: Trauma patients were recruited at a Level 1 trauma centre. The presence of MV procoagulant phospholipid (PPL was assessed using 2 activity assays (PPL and thrombin generation. Enumeration and MV cellular origin was assessed using 2 colour flow cytometry. Results: Fifty consecutive patients were recruited; median age 38 (IQR: 24–55, median ISS 18 (IQR: 9–27. Circulating procoagulant MV, rich in phospholipid, were significantly elevated following traumatic injury relative to controls and remained elevated at 72 h post-injury. Red cell/AnnV+ and platelet/AnnV+ MV numbers were 6-fold and 2-fold higher than controls, respectively. Patients who died (n=9, 18% had significantly fewer CD41/AnnV+ MV and lower endogenous thrombin potential relative to patients who survived. Conclusions: MV are elevated following traumatic injury and may be implicated in the increased risk of trauma patients to pro-thrombotic states such as MOF and ARDS. Lower levels of procoagulant MV are associated with mortality and further investigation of this association is warranted.

  1. Boron neutron capture therapy using mixed epithermal and thermal neutron beams in patients with malignant glioma-correlation between radiation dose and radiation injury and clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageji, Teruyoshi; Nagahiro, Shinji; Matsuzaki, Kazuhito; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Toi, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Kumada, Hiroaki

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify the correlation between the radiation dose and clinical outcome of sodium borocaptate-based intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy in patients with malignant glioma. Methods and Materials: The first protocol (P1998, n = 8) prescribed a maximal gross tumor volume (GTV) dose of 15 Gy. In 2001, a dose-escalated protocol was introduced (P2001, n 11), which prescribed a maximal vascular volume dose of 15 Gy or, alternatively, a clinical target volume (CTV) dose of 18 Gy. Results: The GTV and CTV doses in P2001 were 1.1-1.3 times greater than those in P1998. The maximal vascular volume dose of those with acute radiation injury was 15.8 Gy. The mean GTV and CTV dose in long-term survivors with glioblastoma was 26.4 and 16.5 Gy, respectively. A statistically significant correlation between the GTV dose and median survival time was found. In the 11 glioblastoma patients in P2001, the median survival time was 19.5 months and 1- and 2-year survival rate was 60.6% and 37.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Dose escalation contributed to the improvement in clinical outcome. To avoid radiation injury, the maximal vascular volume dose should be <12 Gy. For long-term survival in patients with glioblastoma after boron neutron capture therapy, the optimal mean dose of the GTV and CTV was 26 and 16 Gy, respectively

  2. The Correlation of Gene Expression of Inflammasome Indicators and Impaired Fertility in Rat Model of Spinal Cord Injury: A Time Course Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikmehr, Banafsheh; Bazrafkan, Mahshid; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Shahverdi, Abdolhossein; Sadighi Gilani, Mohammad Ali; Kiani, Sahar; Mokhtari, Tahmineh; Abolhassani, Farid

    2017-11-04

    Expression assessment of the inflammasome genes in the acute and the chronic phases of Spinal cord injury (SCI) on adult rat testis and examination of associations between inflammasome complex expression and sperm parameters. In this study, 25 adult male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. SCI surgery was performed at T10-T11 level of rats' spinal cord in four groups (SCI1, SCI3, SCI7, and SCI56). They were sacrificed after 1day, 3days, 7days and 56 days post SCI, respectively. One group remained intact as control (Co).CASA analysis of sperm parameters and qRT-PCR (ASC and Caspase-1) were made in all cases. Our data showed a severe reduction in sperm count and motility, especially on day 3 and 7. ASC gene expression had a non-significant increase on day 1 and 56 after surgery compared to control group. Caspase-1 expression increased significantly on day 3 post injury versus the control group (P = .009). Moreover, Caspase-1 overexpression, had significant correlations with sperm count (r = -0.555, P = .01) and sperm progressive motility (r = -0.524, P = .02). Inflammasome complex expression increase following SCI induction. This overexpression correlates to low sperm parameters in SCI rats.

  3. Independent spinal cord atrophy measures correlate to motor and sensory deficits in individuals with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundell, Hans Magnus Henrik; Barthelemy, Dorothy; Skimminge, A.

    2011-01-01

    touch and pinprick, and muscle strength. Antero-posterior width (APW), left-right width (LRW) and cross-sectional spinal cord area (SCA) were extracted from MRI at the spinal level of C2. The angular variation of the spinal cord radius over the full circle was also extracted and compared...... with the clinical scores.Results:The motor score was correlated to LRW and the sensory scores were correlated to APW. The scores correlated also well with decreases in spinal cord radius in oblique angles in coherent and non-overlapping sectors for the sensory and motor qualities respectively.Conclusion:APW and LRW...

  4. Non-suicidal self-injury in patients with eating disorders: prevalence, forms, functions, and body image correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Sandra; Marco, Jos H; Cañabate, Montse

    2018-04-12

    More than one third of patients with eating disorders report NSSI. Moreover, negative attitudes and feelings toward the body, body dissatisfaction, and body image disturbances have been linked to NSSI in community and clinical samples. However, there is a lack of studies exploring NSSI frequency and functions and the specific relationship between multidimensional body image dimensions and NSSI in eating disorder patients. First, we explored the frequency, types, and functions of NSSI in a sample of 226 Spanish female participants with eating disorders (ED). Second, we explored differences in NSSI and body image depending on the ED restrictive-purgative subtype; and third, we explored differences in body dissatisfaction, body image orientation, and body investment in eating disorder patients without NSSI (n = 144), with NSSI in their lifetime (n = 19), and (b) with NSSI in the previous year (n = 63). Of the overall sample, 37.1% (n = 89) had a history of self-injury during their lifetime, and 27.1% (n = 65) had self-injured in the previous year. Among the types of ongoing NSSI, the most frequent were banging (64.6%) and cutting (56.9%). Restrictive vs purgative patients differed on NSSI lifetime, Appearance Evaluation, Body Areas Satisfaction, Body Protection and Feelings and Attitudes toward the Body. Moreover, significant differences were found on Appearance Evaluation, Body Areas Satisfaction, Positive Feelings and Attitudes towards the Body, Body Protection, and Comfort with physical contact, between participants without a history of self-injury and both NSSI groups. Body dissatisfaction and body investment have been found to be variables related to NSSI. Thus, the present study highlights the importance of working on body image in ED patients to reduce the frequency of NSSI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlates and determinants of physical activity in persons with spinal cord injury: A review using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as reference framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Christine; Rauch, Alexandra

    2012-07-01

    Participation in physical activity (PA) decreases after the onset of a spinal cord injury (SCI) and is generally low in persons with SCI. To provide an overview of findings on correlates/determinants of PA in persons with SCI applying the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to analyze and report results. A systematic literature review using the databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SSCI, and CINHAL was conducted. Independent variables were extracted and linked to ICF codes. Quality of evidence was rated using internationally accepted standards. Overall, evidence quality of the 25 included studies is low. Environmental Factors were consistently found as correlates of PA, whereas Personal Factors (socio-demographics and psychological constructs) were weakly associated with PA in the SCI population. Associations with Body Functions, Body Structures, Activities and Participation and Health Conditions were less frequently studied. Although quality of evidence of reviewed literature is low, results indicate that rather environmental barriers than the 'classical' socio-demographic factors known from social epidemiology correlate with PA in persons with SCI. There is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions concerning the association of Body Functions and Structures and Activity and Participation with PA. Future research is encouraged to better understand the interplay between functioning, contextual factors, health conditions and PA in SCI to establish a sound basis for intervention planning in this special needs population. In addition, our experience showed that linking study results to the ICF facilitates data analysis and reporting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT, CT and MRI in the evaluation of patients with chronic traumatic brain injury: a correlation with neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichise, M; Chung, D G; Wang, P; Wortzman, G; Gray, B G; Franks, W

    1994-02-01

    The purposes of this study were: (1) to compare 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime (HMPAO) SPECT with CT and MRI in chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients and (2) to correlate both functional and structural neuroimaging measurements of brain damage with neuropsychological (NP) performance. Twenty-nine patients (minor TBI, n = 15 and major TBI, n = 14) and 17 normal controls (NC) underwent HMPAO SPECT, CT, MRI and NP testing. Imaging data were analyzed both visually and quantitatively. Nineteen (66%) patients showed 42 abnormalities on SPECT images, whereas 13 (45%) and 10 (34%) patients showed 29 abnormalities on MRI and 24 abnormalities on CT. SPECT detected relatively more abnormalities than CT or MRI in the minor TBI subgroup. The TBI group showed impairment on 11 tests for memory, attention and executive function. Of these, the anterior-posterior ratio (APR) correlated with six tests, whereas the ventricle-to-brain ratio (VBR), a known structural index of a poor NP outcome, correlated with only two tests. In evaluating chronic TBI patients, HMPAO SPECT, as a complement to CT or MRI, may play a useful role by demonstrating brain dysfunction in morphologically intact brain regions and providing objective evidence for some of the impaired NP performance.

  7. Evaluation of the Talar Cartilage in Chronic Lateral Ankle Instability with Lateral Ligament Injury Using Biochemical T2* Mapping: Correlation with Clinical Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yiwen; Tao, Hongyue; Qiao, Yang; Ma, Kui; Hua, Yinghui; Yan, Xu; Chen, Shuang

    2018-06-19

    This study aims to quantitatively compare T2* measurements of the talar cartilage between chronic lateral ankle instability (LAI) patients with lateral ligament injury and healthy volunteers, and to assess the association of T2* value with American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. Nineteen consecutive patients with chronic LAI (LAI group) and 19 healthy individuals (control group) were enrolled. Biochemical magnetic resonance examination of the ankle was performed in all participants using three-dimensional gradient-echo T2* mapping. Total talar cartilage was divided into six subcompartments, including medial anterior (MA), central medial, medial posterior, lateral anterior, central lateral (LC), and lateral posterior regions. T2* values of respective cartilage areas were measured and compared between the two groups using Student t test. AOFAS scoring was performed for clinical evaluation. Then, the association of T2* value with AOFAS score was evaluated by Pearson correlation. The T2* values of total talar cartilage, as well as MA and LC cartilage compartments, in the chronic LAI group were significantly higher than control values (P T2* value of MA in the chronic LAI group was negatively correlated with AOFAS score (r =-0.8089, P T2* measurements. The clinical score correlates highly with T2* value of the MA cartilage compartment, indicating that MA may be the principal cartilage area conferring clinical symptoms. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The correlation of acute toxicity and late rectal injury in radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma: Evidence suggestive of consequential late effect (CQLE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.-J.; Leung, Stephen Wan; Chen, H.-C.; Sun, L.-M.; Fang, F.-M.; Huang, E.-Y.; Hsiung, C.-Y.; Changchien, C.-C.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate the acute toxicity during pelvic irradiation and the development of late rectal injury following radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Two hundred and twenty patients treated with curative-intent radiation therapy between November 1987 and January 1992 were analyzed. Patients were treated initially with external beam irradiation, 40-44 Gy/20-22 fractions to whole pelvis, followed by high dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy, 7.2 Gy to point A for 3 fractions. Severity of diarrhea during radiation therapy was scored according to six criteria: fecal characteristics, frequency, onset, prescription of antidiarrheal agents, body weight loss during irradiation, and extramedical care needed. Patients were categorized as group ND (no obvious diarrhea), group MD (moderate diarrhea), and group SD (severe diarrhea) for sum score 0-1, 2-5, and ≥6, respectively. The rate of radiation proctitis was expressed, analyzed, and compared with actuarial proctitis-free rate and prevalence. Results: 1) According to the score, 76 (35%), 89 (40%), and 55 (25%) patients were categorized as group ND, group MD, and group SD, respectively. Distribution of patients and treatment characteristics among the three groups appeared similar. Patients treated with a larger field size, ≥16.5 cm 2 , tended to have increased severity of diarrhea. 2) Overall, 103 patients (47%, 103 of 220) developed radiation proctitis. Twenty-one patients were in group ND (28%, 21 of 76), 43 in group MD (48%, 43 of 89), and 39 in group SD (71%, 39 of 55). 3) The five-year actuarial proctitis-free rate was 72, 52, and 29% for group ND, MD, and SD, respectively (p s = 0.229, p = 0.098). 6) Cox's multivariate analysis revealed that severity of diarrhea was the only factor that significantly correlated with the development of radiation proctitis. Conclusion: Patients with increased acute toxicity and diarrhea during radiation therapy of cervical carcinoma significantly

  9. Chronic complications of inhalation injury: chest HRCT findings and a correlation with the pulmonary function test in reactive airway dysfunction syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Hyeok; Lee, In Sun; Jung, Eun Hee; Ji, Young Gu; Lee, Young Seok [Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    To evaluate the HRCT findings and to correlate the findings with the results of a pulmonary function test (PFT) in patients with reactive airway dysfunction syndrome (RADS). On March 2003, a fire at a boarding house of primary school soccer players caused a multiple casualty disaster. After 8 months, nine boys that presented with chronic cough and dyspnea were treated, and were subjected to follow-up evaluations. Eight patients underwent a chest radiograph, HRCT, and a PET. Two patients with severe symptoms received extended follow-up after 1 year. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the chest radiographs and the follow-up HRCT scans. We correlated the HRCT findings with the results of the PET. Six patients with an inhalation injury were diagnosed with RADS. On the chest radiographs, eight patients showed no abnormal findings. On an HRCT scan, four patients showed abnormal findings. The abnormal findings were mosaic air trapping (n = 4), bronchial wall thickening (n = 1), and parenchymal consolidation (n = 1). In all four patients that showed abnormal findings in the HRCT scan, abnormal results of the PET were also seen. The two patients that received extended follow-up showed an improvement of the clinical symptoms, as seen by the PFT, and had a decreased extent and degree of mosaic air trapping, as seen on HRCT. An HRCT scan is an essential modality for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with RADS. Both a full expiratory and inspiratory HRCT scan must be performed for an accurate diagnosis.

  10. Chronic complications of inhalation injury: chest HRCT findings and a correlation with the pulmonary function test in reactive airway dysfunction syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Hyeok; Lee, In Sun; Jung, Eun Hee; Ji, Young Gu; Lee, Young Seok

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the HRCT findings and to correlate the findings with the results of a pulmonary function test (PFT) in patients with reactive airway dysfunction syndrome (RADS). On March 2003, a fire at a boarding house of primary school soccer players caused a multiple casualty disaster. After 8 months, nine boys that presented with chronic cough and dyspnea were treated, and were subjected to follow-up evaluations. Eight patients underwent a chest radiograph, HRCT, and a PET. Two patients with severe symptoms received extended follow-up after 1 year. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the chest radiographs and the follow-up HRCT scans. We correlated the HRCT findings with the results of the PET. Six patients with an inhalation injury were diagnosed with RADS. On the chest radiographs, eight patients showed no abnormal findings. On an HRCT scan, four patients showed abnormal findings. The abnormal findings were mosaic air trapping (n = 4), bronchial wall thickening (n = 1), and parenchymal consolidation (n = 1). In all four patients that showed abnormal findings in the HRCT scan, abnormal results of the PET were also seen. The two patients that received extended follow-up showed an improvement of the clinical symptoms, as seen by the PFT, and had a decreased extent and degree of mosaic air trapping, as seen on HRCT. An HRCT scan is an essential modality for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with RADS. Both a full expiratory and inspiratory HRCT scan must be performed for an accurate diagnosis

  11. Oxidative lung injury correlates with one-lung ventilation time during pulmonary lobectomy: a study of exhaled breath condensate and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-de-la-Asunción, José; García-del-Olmo, Eva; Perez-Griera, Jaume; Martí, Francisco; Galan, Genaro; Morcillo, Alfonso; Wins, Richard; Guijarro, Ricardo; Arnau, Antonio; Sarriá, Benjamín; García-Raimundo, Miguel; Belda, Javier

    2015-09-01

    During lung lobectomy, the operated lung is collapsed and hypoperfused; oxygen deprivation is accompanied by reactive hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. After lung lobectomy, ischaemia present in the collapsed state is followed by expansion-reperfusion and lung injury attributed to the production of reactive oxygen species. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the time course of several markers of oxidative stress simultaneously in exhaled breath condensate and blood and to determine the relationship between oxidative stress and one-lung ventilation time in patients undergoing lung lobectomy. This single-centre, observational, prospective study included 28 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer who underwent lung lobectomy. We measured the levels of hydrogen peroxide, 8-iso-PGF2α, nitrites plus nitrates and pH in exhaled breath condensate (n = 25). The levels of 8-iso-PGF2α and nitrites plus nitrates were also measured in blood (n = 28). Blood samples and exhaled breath condensate samples were collected from all patients at five time points: preoperatively; during one-lung ventilation, immediately before resuming two-lung ventilation; immediately after resuming two-lung ventilation; 60 min after resuming two-lung ventilation and 180 min after resuming two-lung ventilation. Both exhaled breath condensate and blood exhibited significant and simultaneous increases in oxidative-stress markers immediately before two-lung ventilation was resumed. However, all these values underwent larger increases immediately after resuming two-lung ventilation. In both exhaled breath condensate and blood, marker levels significantly and directly correlated with the duration of one-lung ventilation immediately before resuming two-lung ventilation and immediately after resuming two-lung ventilation. Although pH significantly decreased in exhaled breath condensate immediately after resuming two-lung ventilation, these pH values were inversely correlated with the

  12. Hippocampal proton MR spectroscopy as a novel approach in the assessment of radiation injury and the correlation to neurocognitive function impairment: initial experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, Petr; Kazda, Tomas; Bulik, Martin; Dobiaskova, Marie; Burkon, Petr; Hynkova, Ludmila; Slampa, Pavel; Jancalek, Radim

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus is considered as the main radiosensitive brain structure responsible for postradiotherapy cognitive decline. We prospectively assessed correlation of memory change to hippocampal N-acetylaspartate (h-tNAA) concentration, a neuronal density and viability marker, by 1 H-MR spectroscopy focused on the hippocampus. Patients with brain metastases underwent whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) to a dose of 30 Gy in ten fractions daily. Pre-radiotherapy 1 H-MR spectroscopy focused on the h-tNAA concentration and memory testing was performed. Memory was evaluated by Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R). Total recall, recognition and delayed recall were reported. The both investigation procedures were repeated 4 months after WBRT and the h-tNAA and memory changes were correlated. Of the 20 patients, ten passed whole protocol. The h-tNAA concentration significantly decreased from pre-WBRT 8.9, 8.86 and 8.88 [mM] in the right, left and both hippocampi to 7.16, 7.65 and 7.4 after WBRT, respectively. In the memory tests a significant decrease was observed in AVLT total-recall, BVMT-R total-recall and BVMT-R delayed-recall. Weak to moderate correlations were observed between left h-tNAA and AVLT recognition and all BVMT-R subtests and between the right h-tNAA and AVLT total-recall. A significant decrease in h-tNAA after WBRT was proven by 1 H-MR spectroscopy as a feasible method for the in vivo investigation of radiation injury. Continuing patient recruitment focusing on other cognitive tests and metabolites is needed

  13. An experimental study on the radiation-induced injury of the rabbit lung: Correlation of soft-tissue radiograph and high- resolution CT findings with pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Nam; Nam, Kyung Jin; Park, Byeoung Ho; Jeong, Jin Sook; Lee, Hyung Sik

    1994-01-01

    To describe soft-tissue radiographic and high-resolution CT findings of radiation-induced lung injury of rabbit over time and to correlate them with pathologic findings. 15 rabbits were irradiated in the right lung with one fracture of 2000 cGy. After 4, 6, 12, 20, 24 weeks 3 rabbits in each group were sacrificed and soft-tissue radiographs and high-resolution CT of their lung tissue were obtained. Radiological findings were correlated with pathologic findings. On soft-tissue radiogram, radiation pneumonitis shown as consolidation with air- bronchogram occurred in 3 cases after 6 weeks , and in 1 case after 12 weeks of irradiation. In addition, pneumonic consolidation with adjacent pleural contraction was seen in 2 cases after 12 weeks of irradiation. Fibrotic changes indicated by decreased volume occurred after 20 weeks and combined bronchiectatic change and bronchial wall thickening appeared after 20 weeks(N=1), and 24 weeks(N=3). HRCT findings of radiation pneumonitis were homogeneous, increased attention after 4 weeks(N=3), 6 and 12 weeks(each N=1), patchy consolidation after 6 and 12 weeks(each N=2), discrete consolidation after 12, 20 and 24 weeks(each N=1) and solid consolidation after 20 and 24 weeks(each N=2). Pathologically radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary congestion were seen after 4 and 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, collagen and reticulin fibers were detected along alveolar wall. Mixed radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis were detected after 12 weeks. 20 weeks after irradiation, fibrosis was well defined in interstitium and in 24 weeks, decreased number of alveoli and thickening of bronchial wall were defined. Radiation pneumonitis was provoked 4 weeks after irradiation on rabbit lung and progressed into radiation fibrosis 20 weeks after irradiation on soft-tissue radiographs and high-resolution CT. High-resolution CT is more precise in detecting early radiation pneumonitis and detailed pathologic findings

  14. Development and evaluation of a social cognitive theory-based instrument to assess correlations for physical activity among people with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilroy, Jereme; Turner, Lori; Birch, David; Leaver-Dunn, Deidre; Hibberd, Elizabeth; Leeper, James

    2018-01-01

    People with spinal cord injury (SCI) are more susceptible to sedentary lifestyles because of the displacement of physical functioning and the copious barriers. Benefits of physical activity for people with SCI include physical fitness, functional capacity, social integration and psychological well-being. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a social cognitive theory-based instrument aimed to predict physical activity among people with SCI. An instrument was developed through the utilization and modification of previous items from the literature, an expert panel review, and cognitive interviewing, and tested among a sample of the SCI population using a cross-sectional design. Statistical analysis included descriptives, correlations, multiple regression, and exploratory factor analysis. The physical activity outcome variable was significantly and positively correlated with self-regulatory efficacy (r = 0.575), task self-efficacy (r = 0.491), self-regulation (r = 0.432), social support (r = 0.284), and outcome expectations (r = 0.247). Internal consistency for the constructs ranged from 0.82 to 0.96. Construct reliability values for the self-regulation (0.95), self-regulatory efficacy (0.96), task self-efficacy (0.94), social support (0.84), and outcome expectations (0.92) each exceeded the 0.70 a priori criteria. The factor analysis was conducted to seek modifications of current instrument to improve validity and reliability. The data provided support for the convergent validity of the five-factor SCT model. This study provides direction for further development of a valid and reliable instrument for predicting physical activity among people with SCI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Correlation of urinary monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 with other parameters of renal injury in type-II diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Salwa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the western world. Increased number of interstitial macrophages has been observed in biopsies from patients with DN. Monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1 is the strongest known chemo-tactic factor for monocytes and is upregulated in DN. We examined urinary levels of MCP-1 in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM to assess its possible correlation with other para-meters of renal injury. The urinary MCP-1 level was assessed in 75 patients with type-2 DM (25 patients each with no microalbuminuria, with macroalbuminuria and, with renal impairment and compared them with matched healthy control subjects. The HbA1c and estimated glomerular fil-tration rate (eGFR derived from the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD equation were examined in the study groups in relation to the urinary MCP-1. The urinary MCP-1 level was significantly higher in patients with micro and macroalbuminuria (167.41 ± 50.23 and 630.87 ± 318.10 ng/gm creatinine respectively as compared with normoalbuminuric patients and healthy controls (63.85 ± 21.15 and 61.50 ± 24.81 ng/gm creatinine, p< 0.001. MCP-1 correlated positively with urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR (r= 0.75, p< 0.001, HbA1c (r= 0.55, p< 0.001 and inversely with eGFR (r=-0.60, p< 0.001. Our findings suggest that hyperglycemia is associated with increased urinary levels of MCP-1 that is closely linked to renal damage as reflected by proteinuria and eGFR levels. Collectively, these findings suggest that MCP-1 is in-volved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy through its various stages.

  16. Ultrasonographic-arthroscopic correlation in knee injuries in patients operated on at the Hospital Mexico, during the period from January 1, 2010 until December 31, 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora Lopez, Rafael Angel

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound is evaluated as a method of diagnosis for intra-articular pathologies of knee, widely used as a means to rule out injuries to the institutional level. The advantages of ultrasound are mentioned: low cost, availability and is a noninvasive method. In order to implement this study has been to create a question about the real utility of ultrasound in the Hospital Mexico, as further support for the correct diagnosis of knee pathology. A search of clinical records of patients was conducted in the orthopedics and traumatology service with diagnosis of gonalgia, to which was conducted a preoperative ultrasound and, subsequently, have been operated at the Hospital by arthroscopy, during the period 1 January 2010 to December 31, 2010. Subsequently, a comprehensive review of the operative notes was performed, ultrasound reports and records, for the purpose of making an analysis and compare the results of both procedures. This paper has clearly demonstrated poor training in musculoskeletal system of the ultrasound operators. A poor correlation was determined between the arthroscopic results against ultrasound. The need to create care protocols to patients with intra-articular pathology of knee was evidenced. (author) [es

  17. Blood-brain barrier dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: correlation of K(trans) (DCE-MRI) and SUVR (99mTc-DTPA SPECT) but not serum S100B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Craig; Bell, Christopher; Whyte, Timothy; Cardinal, John; Macfarlane, David; Rose, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    Damage to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an important secondary mechanism that occurs following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and may provide a potential therapeutic target to improve patient outcome. For such a progress to be realised, an accurate assessment of BBB compromise needs to be established. Fourteen patients with TBI were prospectively recruited. Post-traumatic BBB dysfunction was assessed using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), single-photon emission computerised tomography (SPECT) and serum S100B levels. A statistically significant correlation between standardised uptake value ratio (SUVR) calculated from 99mTc-DTPA SPECT and K(trans) (a volume transfer constant) from DCE-MRI was found for those eight patients who had concurrent scans. The positive correlation persisted when the data were corrected for patient age, number of days following trauma and both parameters combined. We found no statistically significant correlation between either of the imaging modalities and concurrent serum S100B levels. The correlation of SPECT with DCE-MRI suggests that either scan may be used to assess post-traumatic BBB damage. We could not support serum S100B to be an accurate measure of BBB damage when sampled a number of days following injury but the small number of patients, the heterogeneity in TBI patients and the delay following injury makes any firm conclusions regarding S100B and BBB difficult.

  18. The co-occurrence of non-suicidal self-injury and attempted suicide among adolescents: distinguishing risk factors and psychosocial correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andover Margaret S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although attempted suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI are distinct behaviors differing in intent, form, and function, the behaviors co-occur at a high rate in both adults and adolescents. Researchers have begun to investigate the association between attempted suicide and NSSI among adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to present current research on this association. First, we discuss definitional issues associated with self-injurious behaviors. Next, we present research on the co-occurrence of attempted suicide and NSSI, including prevalence and associations with self-injury characteristics. We then discuss psychosocial variables associated with engaging in both NSSI and attempted suicide or one type of self-injury alone. Finally, we present the research to date on risk factors uniquely associated with either attempted suicide or NSSI. Implications for mental health professionals and future avenues of research are discussed.

  19. Are early MRI findings correlated with long-lasting symptoms following whiplash injury? A prospective trial with 1-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Sorensen, Joan; Andersen, Hans

    2008-01-01

    . Clinical follow-ups were performed after 3 and 12 months. Outcome parameters were neck pain, headache, neck disability and working ability. A total of 178 participants had a cervical MRI scan on average 13 days after the injury. Traumatic findings were observed in seven participants. Signs of disc......Neck pain is the cardinal symptom following whiplash injuries. The trauma mechanism could theoretically lead to both soft tissue and bone injury that could be visualised by means of MRI. From previous quite small trials it seems that MRI does not demonstrate significant tissue damage. Large...... prospectively followed cohorts are needed to identify possible clinically relevant MRI findings. The objective of this trial was to evaluate (1) the predictive value of cervical MRI after whiplash injuries and (2) the value of repeating MRI examinations after 3 months including sequences with flexion...

  20. Low total cortisol correlates closely with low free cortisol in traumatic brain injury and predicts mortality and long-term hypopituitarism

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, M J

    2011-06-01

    Published data has demonstrated that low 0900h plasma total cortisol (PTC) in the acute phase following traumatic brain injury (TBI) predicts mortality. However, there is concern regarding the use of PTC to evaluate the pituitary-adrenal axis in acutely unwell patients due to potential discrepancies between PTC and plasma free cortisol (PFC) due to variations in corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG). We hypothesised that low PTC would correlate closely with PFC and would predict mortality and long-term hypopituitarism.100 patients (84 men, median age 33, range 18-75) were recruited on admission with TBI (mean GCS+\\/-SD = 8.59+\\/-4.2). Each patient had PTC and CBG measured on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 following TBI. Results were compared with 15 patients admitted to ITU following vascular surgery. A PTC <300nmol\\/L in a patient in ITU was regarded clinically as inappropriately low. PFC was calculated for 25% of TBI samples and all control samples using Coolen\\'s equation (1). TBI patients reattended for dynamic pituitary testing >6 months after TBI.All controls had PTC >500 nmol\\/L on day 1, and >300 nmol on days 3–10. By contrast, 78\\/100 TBI patients had at least one PTC <300 nmol\\/L.TBI patients in the lowest quartile of final PTC measurement had the highest mortality (p=0.0187). PTC correlated closely with PFC in both TBI patients (r=0.99, p<0.0001) and controls (r=0.99, p<0.0001). 32\\/79 (40.5%) of TBI survivors attended for dynamic pituitary testing. The median time to dynamic pituitary testing was 14 months (range 6–24 months). 15\\/32 (46.9%) underwent insulin tolerance testing, 9\\/32 (28.1%) underwent glucagon testing and 8\\/32 (25%) underwent short synacthen testing. 6\\/32 (18.8%) were ACTH deficient, of whom 5\\/6 (83.3%) previously had low PTC. 6\\/32 were GH deficient, all of whom previously had low PTC. One patient was gonadotropin deficient; he previously had low PTC. No patients were TSH or prolactin deficient. Overall, 12\\/32 (37

  1. Peroneal nerve injury in three patients with knee trauma: MR imaging and correlation with anatomic findings in volunteers and anatomic specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trappeniers, Laurence; Osteaux, Michel [Department of Radiology, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); De Maeseneer, Michel [Department of Radiology, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Department of Radiology, AZ VUB, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090, Jette (Belgium); Van Roy, Peter [Department of Experimental Anatomy, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Chaskis, Christo [Department of Neurosurgery, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this article is to report on three patients with injuries of the peroneal nerve along the posterolateral aspect of the knee. Injuries in this area are less common than the injuries occurring at the level of the fibular head. In this article we report on three patients with posterolateral knee trauma who had peroneal nerve dysfunction. To better understand the precise location of the nerve on MR images, we performed MR imaging in five volunteers, and studied the position of the nerve on anatomic dissection (n=1) and anatomic slices (n=1). The common peroneal nerve is easily depicted on MR images and has a typical location along the posterior margin of the biceps tendon. Non-visualisation of the peroneal nerve at the posterolateral aspect of the knee, as seen on MR images, is consistent with nerve injury. Scar tissue at the posterolateral aspect of the knee indicates injury of this specific area, and involvement of the peroneal nerve is likely. (orig.)

  2. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  3. Golf Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Golf Injuries Golf looks like an easy game to ... WHAT TYPES OF INJURIES ARE MOST COMMON IN GOLF? Acute injuries are usually the result of a ...

  4. Uncovering the neuroanatomical correlates of cognitive, affective and conative theory of mind in paediatric traumatic brain injury: a neural systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Nicholas P; Catroppa, Cathy; Beare, Richard; Silk, Timothy J; Hearps, Stephen J; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Yeates, Keith O; Anderson, Vicki A

    2017-09-01

    Deficits in theory of mind (ToM) are common after neurological insult acquired in the first and second decade of life, however the contribution of large-scale neural networks to ToM deficits in children with brain injury is unclear. Using paediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a model, this study investigated the sub-acute effect of paediatric traumatic brain injury on grey-matter volume of three large-scale, domain-general brain networks (the Default Mode Network, DMN; the Central Executive Network, CEN; and the Salience Network, SN), as well as two domain-specific neural networks implicated in social-affective processes (the Cerebro-Cerebellar Mentalizing Network, CCMN and the Mirror Neuron/Empathy Network, MNEN). We also evaluated prospective structure-function relationships between these large-scale neural networks and cognitive, affective and conative ToM. 3D T1- weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences were acquired sub-acutely in 137 children [TBI: n = 103; typically developing (TD) children: n = 34]. All children were assessed on measures of ToM at 24-months post-injury. Children with severe TBI showed sub-acute volumetric reductions in the CCMN, SN, MNEN, CEN and DMN, as well as reduced grey-matter volumes of several hub regions of these neural networks. Volumetric reductions in the CCMN and several of its hub regions, including the cerebellum, predicted poorer cognitive ToM. In contrast, poorer affective and conative ToM were predicted by volumetric reductions in the SN and MNEN, respectively. Overall, results suggest that cognitive, affective and conative ToM may be prospectively predicted by individual differences in structure of different neural systems-the CCMN, SN and MNEN, respectively. The prospective relationship between cerebellar volume and cognitive ToM outcomes is a novel finding in our paediatric brain injury sample and suggests that the cerebellum may play a role in the neural networks important for ToM. These findings are

  5. A correlation study between high resolution CT appearances and expression of transforming growth factor-β, tumor necrosis factor-α in radiation-induced lung injury of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lili; Cheng Guangjun; Li Shaodong; Xu Kai

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between high resolution computed tomography manifestations and expression of transforming growth factor beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha in radiation- induced lung injury of rats, and to investigate the values of cytokine detection and HRCT scanning for the prediction and early diagnosis of radiation-induced lung injury. Methods: Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into eight groups, group A was normal control group, and group B- H were irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy to the lungs. HRCT scanning was performed before and 1 week, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24 weeks after radiation in group A-H respectively. The expression of TGF-beta and TNF-alpha were detected with ELISA. All the rats were killed to observe pathological changes of their lungs. HRCT signs, levels of cytokine were simultaneously compared and analyzed. The t-test and Spearman rank correlation were used for the statistics. Results: Four HRCT signs were observed during the 24 weeks after radiation, including ground-glass opacity (1 case), patchy consolidation (8 cases), massive consolidation (7 cases) and fibrosis (3 cases). The average levels of TGF-beta in group B-H [(3.33± 0.47), (3.20±0.65), (3.12±0.45), (3.54±0.80), (3.30±1.13), (2.49±0.67), (4.19± 0.22) μg/L, respectively] were higher than the control group [(0.45±0.14) μg/L, P 0.05). There were no rank correlations between HRCT manifestations and expression of TGF-beta and TNF-alpha (r s = 0.5570 and 0.1013,P>0.05). HRCT signs were correlated with pathological changes. Conclusions: The monitoring of TGF-beta and TNF-alpha in the serum after irradiation can predict the development of radiation-induced lung injury. There are no rank correlations between HRCT manifestations and expression of TGF-beta and TNF-alpha. (authors)

  6. The value of 99mTc-HDP scan in the diagnosis of tibial avascular necrosis caused by thermal injury: a case with multi-image correlation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong Whee

    2007-01-01

    Basic pathology in thermal injury is coagulative soft tissue necorsis that may occasionally be complicated by infection and later by scarring and vascular changes. Radiological features were discussed in detail by Resnick. The early changes consist of soft tissue defect, porosis and periostitis and the late changes include osteophytosis, periarticular calcification or ossification and arthropathy with ankylosis. Acromutilation can occur when small bones of the hand and foot are burned and scarred. This communication describes 99m Tc-HDP pnhole bone scan manifestations of thermal bone injuries observed in a case of skin-bone burns of the mid-tibial shaft that was complicated by infection, soft tissue scarring and osteonecrosis. Patient was a 49-year-old female thermal burn involving a mid-tibial shaft segment along with overlying skin. The injury was accidental to medullary rimming to fit intramedullary nail to fix fracture. The heat produced during drilling spread to burn the pretibial skin that is sparse in subcutaneous buffer tissue and vessels. The soft tissue burn was infected and healed by repeated skin grafts and scar over a period of 2 years. Concomitantly, the underlying bone was infected locally and treated but ensued in osteonecrosis that was accompanied by osteolysis. Indeed. pinhole 99m Tc-HDP scan played a unique role in this case in detecting that live lateral cortex had sustained the large dead bone that involved the main volume of the mid-tibial shaft. Importantly, the scan could confirm live cortex to have sustained dead bone uncollapsed. Anatomical and metabolic data gained from bone scanning prompted us to systematically scrutinize radiograph and CT to specifically identify the preserved lateral cortex. As mentioned the existence of healthy cortex is biomechanically and tactically vital to surgically replace and restore the devitalized bone

  7. Determination of Spearman Correlation Coefficient (r to Evaluate the Linear Association of Dermal Collagen and Elastic Fibers in the Perspectives of Skin Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Difference in scar formation at different sites, in different directions at the same site, but with changes in the elasticity of skin with age, sex, and race or in some pathological conditions, is well known to clinicians. The inappropriate collagen syntheses and delayed or lack of epithelialization are known to induce scar formation with negligible elasticity at the site of damage. Changes in the elasticity of scars may be due to an unequal distribution of dermal collagen (C and elastic (E fibers. Materials and Methods. Spearman correlation coefficients (r of collagen and elastic fibers in horizontal (H and in vertical (V directions (variables CV, CH, EV, and EH were measured from the respective quantitative fraction data in 320 skin samples from 32 human cadavers collected at five selected sites over extremities. Results. Spearman’s correlation analysis revealed the statistically significant (p<0.01 strong positive correlation between CH and CV in all the areas, that is, shoulder joint area (r=0.66, wrist (r=0.75, forearm (r=0.75, and thigh (r=0.80, except at the ankle (r=0.26, p=0.14 region. Similarly, positive correlation between EH and EV has been observed at the forearm (r=0.65, moderate and thigh (r=0.42, low regions. However, a significant moderate negative correlation was observed between CV and EV at the forearm (r=-0.51 and between CH and EH at the thigh region (r=-0.65. Conclusion. Significant differences of correlations of collagen and elastic fibers in different directions from different areas of extremities were noted. This may be one of the possible anatomical reasons of scar behavior in different areas and different directions of the same area.

  8. Determination of Spearman Correlation Coefficient (r) to Evaluate the Linear Association of Dermal Collagen and Elastic Fibers in the Perspectives of Skin Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naveen; Kumar, Pramod; Badagabettu, Satheesha Nayak; Lewis, Melissa Glenda; Adiga, Murali; Padur, Ashwini Aithal

    2018-01-01

    Difference in scar formation at different sites, in different directions at the same site, but with changes in the elasticity of skin with age, sex, and race or in some pathological conditions, is well known to clinicians. The inappropriate collagen syntheses and delayed or lack of epithelialization are known to induce scar formation with negligible elasticity at the site of damage. Changes in the elasticity of scars may be due to an unequal distribution of dermal collagen (C) and elastic (E) fibers. Spearman correlation coefficients ( r ) of collagen and elastic fibers in horizontal (H) and in vertical (V) directions (variables CV, CH, EV, and EH) were measured from the respective quantitative fraction data in 320 skin samples from 32 human cadavers collected at five selected sites over extremities. Spearman's correlation analysis revealed the statistically significant ( p < 0.01) strong positive correlation between C H and C V in all the areas, that is, shoulder joint area ( r = 0.66), wrist ( r = 0.75), forearm ( r = 0.75), and thigh ( r = 0.80), except at the ankle ( r = 0.26, p = 0.14) region. Similarly, positive correlation between E H and E V has been observed at the forearm ( r = 0.65, moderate) and thigh ( r = 0.42, low) regions. However, a significant moderate negative correlation was observed between C V and E V at the forearm ( r = -0.51) and between C H and E H at the thigh region ( r = -0.65). Significant differences of correlations of collagen and elastic fibers in different directions from different areas of extremities were noted. This may be one of the possible anatomical reasons of scar behavior in different areas and different directions of the same area.

  9. 鼻咽癌颅神经损伤程度分级与T分期的关系%Correlation of cranial nerve injury severity and the T stage of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文瑾; 周同冲; 席红利; 余宏伟; 王敏; 林晓丹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between the severity of cranial nerve injury and nasopharyngeal carcinoma prognosis. Methods 165 patients diagnosed as NPC with the cranial nerve injury were admitted into the Cancer Center of Guangzhou Medical University from January 2005 to December 2009. The severity of the cranial nerve injury and the prognosis and T stage of NPC were analyzed. Results 165 patients diagnosed as NPC with the cranial nerve injury. 68 patients had single cranial nerve injury, and 97 patients had multiple cranial nerves injury. In 68 patients had single cranial nerve injury , the abducens nerve involvement was the most common one. Survival rate was estimated using Kaplan-Meier method;the 5-year overall survival rates of the two groups were 69.8%and 54.3%, respectively (P=0.033),and the differences were compared by using the log-rank test. Conclusion Quantity of the cranial nerve involvement was significantly correlated with Prognosis , and it is necessary to establish proper staging criteria of cranial nerve involved.%目的:探讨颅神经损伤程度分级与鼻咽癌患者预后的关系。方法收集2005年1月至2009年12月广州医科大学附属肿瘤医院初治伴颅神经损伤鼻咽癌患者165例,分析颅神经损伤程度与鼻咽癌远期生存的关系及其对T分期的影响。结果165例颅神经损伤患者中,单支颅神经受损患者68例,多支颅神经同时受损患者97例,68例单支颅神经损伤患者中以外展神经损伤最为常见,发生率为47.1%(32/68)。生存率的计算采用Kaplan-Meier法,单支颅神经损伤患者5年总生存率为69.8%,多支颅神经损伤患者5年总生存率为54.3%,通过log-rank法进行生存率的显著性检验,两组差异有统计学意义(P=0.033)。结论鼻咽癌患者颅神经损伤数目与预后显著相关。在鼻咽癌T分期中对颅神经损伤进行适当的程度分级有进一步研究的必要。

  10. CT-based injury classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirvis, S.E.; Whitley, N.O.; Vainright, J.; Gens, D.

    1988-01-01

    Review of preoperative abdominal CT scans obtained in adults after blunt trauma during a 2.5-year period demonstrated isolated or predominant liver injury in 35 patients and splenic injury in 33 patients. CT-based injury scores, consisting of five levels of hepatic injury and four levels of splenic injury, were correlated with clinical outcome and surgical findings. Hepatic injury grades I-III, present in 33 of 35 patients, were associated with successful nonsurgical management in 27 (82%) or with findings at celiotomy not requiring surgical intervention in four (12%). Higher grades of splenic injury generally required early operative intervention, but eight (36%) of 22 patients with initial grade III or IV injury were managed without surgery, while four (36%) of 11 patients with grade I or II injury required delayed celiotomy and splenectomy (three patients) or emergent rehospitalization (one patient). CT-based injury classification is useful in guiding the nonoperative management of blunt hepatic injury in hemodynamically stable adults but appears to be less reliable in predicting the outcome of blunt splenic injury

  11. Hamstring injuries: update article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Ernlund

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hamstring (HS muscle injuries are the most common injury in sports. They are correlated to long rehabilitations and have a great tendency to recur. The HS consist of the long head of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus. The patient's clinical presentation depends on the characteristics of the lesion, which may vary from strain to avulsions of the proximal insertion. The most recognized risk factor is a previous injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the injury diagnosis and classification. Many classification systems have been proposed; the current classifications aim to describe the injury and correlate it to the prognosis. The treatment is conservative, with the use of anti-inflammatory drugs in the acute phase followed by a muscle rehabilitation program. Proximal avulsions have shown better results with surgical repair. When the patient is pain free, shows recovery of strength and muscle flexibility, and can perform the sport's movements, he/she is able to return to play. Prevention programs based on eccentric strengthening of the muscles have been indicated both to prevent the initial injury as well as preventing recurrence.

  12. Evaluation of radiation-induced peripheral nerve injury in rabbits with MR neurography using diffusion tensor imaging and T2 measurements: Correlation with histological and functional changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qi; Wang, Shiyang; Zhou, Jiaxuan; Zou, Qiao; Deng, Yingshi; Wang, Shouyang; Zheng, Xiaoying; Li, Xinchun

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the potential of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and T2 measurements in the evaluation of radiation-induced peripheral nerve injury (RIPNI). RIPNI was produced in a randomly selected side of sciatic nerve in each of 21 rabbits while the contralateral side served as the control. The limb function and MR parameters were evaluated over a 4-month period. Fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (λ∥ ), radial diffusivity (λ⊥ ) and T2 values were obtained using 3T MR for quantitative analysis. Two animals were randomly killed for histological evaluation at each timepoint. The T2 value of irradiated nerve increased at 1 day (63.95 ± 15.60, P = 0.012) and was restored at 1 month (52.34 ± 5.38, P = 0.105). It increased progressively at 2 to 4 months (60.39 ± 10.60, 66.96 ± 6.08, 75.51 ± 7.39, all P evaluate RIPNI compared with T2 measurements. FA and λ⊥ are promising quantitative indices in monitoring RIPNI. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;43:1492-1499. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work in certain jobs, you may need protection. The most common type of injury happens when something irritates the ...

  14. Ocular Injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2015-04-02

    Apr 2, 2015 ... KEYWORDS: Bangers, eye injuries, holidays, Nigeria ... antibiotic and cycloplegic eye drops, antibiotic ointment at night and .... Adeoti C. O, Bello T. O., Ashaye A. O. Blinding ... Can fireworks-related injuries to children during ...

  15. ACL Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... while doing things like skiing, playing soccer or football, and jumping on a trampoline. When you injure ... severity of the injury, age, physical condition, medical history, and other injuries or illnesses. People who are ...

  16. Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Knee Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Knee Injuries What's in ... can do to protect them. What's in a Knee? The knee is a joint , actually the largest ...

  17. Hamstring Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstring injury Overview A hamstring injury occurs when you strain or pull one of your hamstring muscles — the group of three muscles that run along ... You may be more likely to get a hamstring injury if you play soccer, basketball, football, tennis ...

  18. Orienteering injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering.

  19. Acute spinal cord injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Izunaga, H.; Sato, R.; Shinzato, I.; Korogi, Y.; Yamashita, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on sequential MR images and neurologic findings that were correlated in 40 acute spinal cord injuries. Within 1 week after injury, frequent initial MR changes appeared isointense on both T1- and T2-weighted images and isointense on T1- and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. After 2 months, hypointensity appeared on T1-weighted images and hyperintensity persisted or appeared on T2-weighted images. Clinical improvements were observed in patients with isointensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images at the initial examination. A larger area of hyperintensity on subsequent T2-weighted images was correlated with no neurologic improvement. MR findings were good indicators of the spinal cord injury

  20. Hyper-activated pro-inflammatory CD16 monocytes correlate with the severity of liver injury and fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yuan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extensive mononuclear cell infiltration is strongly correlated with liver damage in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB infection. Macrophages and infiltrating monocytes also participate in the development of liver damage and fibrosis in animal models. However, little is known regarding the immunopathogenic role of peripheral blood monocytes and intrahepatic macrophages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The frequencies, phenotypes, and functions of peripheral blood and intrahepatic monocyte/macrophage subsets were analyzed in 110 HBeAg positive CHB patients, including 32 immune tolerant (IT carriers and 78 immune activated (IA patients. Liver biopsies from 20 IA patients undergoing diagnosis were collected for immunohistochemical analysis. IA patients displayed significant increases in peripheral blood monocytes and intrahepatic macrophages as well as CD16(+ subsets, which were closely associated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels and the liver histological activity index (HAI scores. In addition, the increased CD16(+ monocytes/macrophages expressed higher levels of the activation marker HLA-DR compared with CD16(- monocytes/macrophages. Furthermore, peripheral blood CD16(+ monocytes preferentially released inflammatory cytokines and hold higher potency in inducing the expansion of Th17 cells. Of note, hepatic neutrophils also positively correlated with HAI scores. CONCLUSIONS: These distinct properties of monocyte/macrophage subpopulations participate in fostering the inflammatory microenvironment and liver damage in CHB patients and further represent a collaborative scenario among different cell types contributing to the pathogenesis of HBV-induced liver disease.

  1. Brain injuries from blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Cameron R; Panzer, Matthew B; Rafaels, Karen A; Wood, Garrett; Shridharani, Jay; Capehart, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) from blast produces a number of conundrums. This review focuses on five fundamental questions including: (1) What are the physical correlates for blast TBI in humans? (2) Why is there limited evidence of traditional pulmonary injury from blast in current military field epidemiology? (3) What are the primary blast brain injury mechanisms in humans? (4) If TBI can present with clinical symptoms similar to those of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), how do we clinically differentiate blast TBI from PTSD and other psychiatric conditions? (5) How do we scale experimental animal models to human response? The preponderance of the evidence from a combination of clinical practice and experimental models suggests that blast TBI from direct blast exposure occurs on the modern battlefield. Progress has been made in establishing injury risk functions in terms of blast overpressure time histories, and there is strong experimental evidence in animal models that mild brain injuries occur at blast intensities that are similar to the pulmonary injury threshold. Enhanced thoracic protection from ballistic protective body armor likely plays a role in the occurrence of blast TBI by preventing lung injuries at blast intensities that could cause TBI. Principal areas of uncertainty include the need for a more comprehensive injury assessment for mild blast injuries in humans, an improved understanding of blast TBI pathophysiology of blast TBI in animal models and humans, the relationship between clinical manifestations of PTSD and mild TBI from blunt or blast trauma including possible synergistic effects, and scaling between animals models and human exposure to blasts in wartime and terrorist attacks. Experimental methodologies, including location of the animal model relative to the shock or blast source, should be carefully designed to provide a realistic blast experiment with conditions comparable to blasts on humans. If traditional blast scaling is

  2. [Workplace injuries and professional mobility correlated with health problems. The potential and limitations of the ISTAT Labour Force survey--July 1999].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoni, Francesca; Mamo, C; Demaria, M; Ceccarelli, C; Costa, G

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge on the occupational and social factors that influence the relationship between illness, absence from work and occupational mobility is at present insufficient. To map out, by social class and occupational group, the impact of health problems on work and the distribution of accidents and morbidity associated with occupation. Using data from the National Survey of the Italian Labour Force (ISTAT, 1999), covering a sample of 200,384 subjects, prevalence odds ratios of morbidity, work injuries and change of occupation due to health problems were calculated by social class and occupation, adjusting for age and residence. The working class showed a higher risk, due to health problems, of a reduction in time worked (OR = 3.70 in men and OR = 4.10 in women), of choosing to work part-time (OR = 2.04 in men and OR = 2.27 in women), or of withdrawing from the workforce (for artisans, skilled manual workers, farmers and agricultural labourers OR = 1.63 in men and OR = 1.47 in women). This class was also at a greater disadvantage not only with respect to accident rates (OR = 1.85 in men and OR = 1.88 in women), but also with respect to the time needed for post-trauma rehabilitation and return to work (for absences of one week to one month: OR = 1.67 and 1.83 for men and women, respectively; for absences of more than one month: OR = 1.29 and OR = 1.69). Moreover, the working class, when compared to other social classes, had a higher rate of suffering from illness, physical impairment or other physical and psychological problems caused or aggravated by working activity (25% in men and 32% in women). The ISTAT National Survey provides an estimate of minor accidents with prognoses of less than three days, including those not reported to the National Institute for Insurance against Occupational Accidents and Diseases (INAIL). This allows a preliminary exploration of the relationship between health problems and occupational mobility; however, it seems necessary to collect

  3. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Muhammad U; Zacharias, Nikolaos; Velmahos, George C

    2009-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries. PMID:19374761

  4. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmahos George C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries.

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ...

  7. Correlated Disruption of Resting-State fMRI, LFP, and Spike Connectivity between Area 3b and S2 following Spinal Cord Injury in Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruiqi; Yang, Pai-Feng; Chen, Li Min

    2017-11-15

    This study aims to understand how functional connectivity (FC) between areas 3b and S2 alters following input deprivation and the neuronal basis of disrupted FC of resting-state fMRI signals. We combined submillimeter fMRI with microelectrode recordings to localize the deafferented digit regions in areas 3b and S2 by mapping tactile stimulus-evoked fMRI activations before and after cervical dorsal column lesion in each male monkey. An average afferent disruption of 97% significantly reduced fMRI, local field potential (LFP), and spike responses to stimuli in both areas. Analysis of resting-state fMRI signal correlation, LFP coherence, and spike cross-correlation revealed significantly reduced functional connectivity between deafferented areas 3b and S2. The degrees of reductions in stimulus responsiveness and FC after deafferentation differed across fMRI, LFP, and spiking signals. The reduction of FC was much weaker than that of stimulus-evoked responses. Whereas the largest stimulus-evoked signal drop (∼80%) was observed in LFP signals, the greatest FC reduction was detected in the spiking activity (∼30%). fMRI signals showed mild reductions in stimulus responsiveness (∼25%) and FC (∼20%). The overall deafferentation-induced changes were quite similar in areas 3b and S2 across signals. Here we demonstrated that FC strength between areas 3b and S2 was much weakened by dorsal column lesion, and stimulus response reduction and FC disruption in fMRI covary with those of LFP and spiking signals in deafferented areas 3b and S2. These findings have important implications for fMRI studies aiming to probe FC alterations in pathological conditions involving deafferentation in humans. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT By directly comparing fMRI, local field potential, and spike signals in both tactile stimulation and resting states before and after severe disruption of dorsal column afferent, we demonstrated that reduction in fMRI responses to stimuli is accompanied by weakened

  8. Correlation of force control with regional spinal DTI in patients with cervical spondylosis without signs of spinal cord injury on conventional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, Paavel G.; Sanchez, Katherine; Rannou, Francois; Poiraudeau, Serge; Ozcan, Fidan; Feydy, Antoine; Maier, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate spinal cord structure in patients with cervical spondylosis where conventional MRI fails to reveal spinal cord damage. We performed a cross-sectional study of patients with cervical spondylosis without conventional MRI findings of spinal cord damage and healthy controls. Subjects were studied using spinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), precision grip and foot force-tracking tasks, and a clinical examination including assessment of neurological signs. A regional analysis of lateral and medial spinal white matter across multiple cervical levels (C1-C5) was performed. DTI revealed reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity (RD) in the lateral spinal cord at the level of greatest compression (lowest Pavlov ratio) in patients (p < 0.05). Patients with spondylosis had greater error and longer release duration in both grip and foot force-tracking. Similar spinal cord deficits were present in patients without neurological signs. Increased error in grip and foot tracking (low accuracy) correlated with increased RD in the lateral spinal cord at the level of greatest compression (p ≤ 0.01). Spinal DTI can detect subtle spinal cord damage of functional relevance in cervical spondylosis, even in patients without signs on conventional T2-imaging and without neurological signs. (orig.)

  9. Correlation of force control with regional spinal DTI in patients with cervical spondylosis without signs of spinal cord injury on conventional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Paavel G. [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, FR 3636 Neurosciences, Paris (France); Centre de Psychiatrie et Neurosciences, Inserm U894, Paris (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Service de Radiologie B, APHP, CHU Cochin, Faculte de Medecine, Paris (France); Sanchez, Katherine; Rannou, Francois; Poiraudeau, Serge [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Service de Medecine Physique et de Readaptation, APHP, CHU Cochin, Paris (France); INSERM U1153 Epidemiologie Clinique des Maladies Osteo-Articulaires, Paris (France); Ozcan, Fidan [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, FR 3636 Neurosciences, Paris (France); Feydy, Antoine [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, FR 3636 Neurosciences, Paris (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Service de Radiologie B, APHP, CHU Cochin, Faculte de Medecine, Paris (France); Maier, Marc A. [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, FR 3636 Neurosciences, Paris (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France)

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate spinal cord structure in patients with cervical spondylosis where conventional MRI fails to reveal spinal cord damage. We performed a cross-sectional study of patients with cervical spondylosis without conventional MRI findings of spinal cord damage and healthy controls. Subjects were studied using spinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), precision grip and foot force-tracking tasks, and a clinical examination including assessment of neurological signs. A regional analysis of lateral and medial spinal white matter across multiple cervical levels (C1-C5) was performed. DTI revealed reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity (RD) in the lateral spinal cord at the level of greatest compression (lowest Pavlov ratio) in patients (p < 0.05). Patients with spondylosis had greater error and longer release duration in both grip and foot force-tracking. Similar spinal cord deficits were present in patients without neurological signs. Increased error in grip and foot tracking (low accuracy) correlated with increased RD in the lateral spinal cord at the level of greatest compression (p ≤ 0.01). Spinal DTI can detect subtle spinal cord damage of functional relevance in cervical spondylosis, even in patients without signs on conventional T2-imaging and without neurological signs. (orig.)

  10. Paragliding injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-01-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during st...

  11. Paragliding injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-06-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during starting procedures and nine during flight. The mean patient age was 29.6 years. There were 34.9% spinal injuries, 13.4% upper extremity injuries and 41.3% lower limb injuries. Over half of these injuries were treated surgically and in 54 instances permanent disability remained. In paragliding the lower extremities are at greatest risk of injury during landing. Proper equipment, especially sturdy footwear, exact training in landing techniques as well as improved instruction in procedures during aborted or crash landings is required to reduce the frequency of these injuries.

  12. Whiplash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard; Peter, Jason

    2005-10-01

    Whiplash injuries are very common and usually are associated with rear-end collisions. However, a whiplash injury can be caused by any event that results in hyperextension and flexion of the cervical spine. These injuries are of serious concern to all consumers due to escalating cost of diagnosis, treatment, insurance, and litigation. Most acute whiplash injury cases respond well to conservative treatments, which result in resolution of symptoms usually within weeks to a few months after the injury occurred. Chronic whiplash injuries often are harder to diagnose and treat and often result in poor outcomes. Current research shows that various structures in the cervical spine receive nociceptive innervation and potentially may be the cause of chronic pain symptoms. One potential pain generator showing promise is the facet or zygapophyseal joints. Various researchers have proven that these joints are injured during whiplash injuries and that diagnosis and temporary pain relief can be obtained with facet joint injections. The initial evaluation of any patient should follow an organized and stepwise approach, and more serious causes of neck pain must first be ruled out through the history, physical examination, and diagnostic testing. Treatment regimens should be evidence-based, focusing on treatments that have proven to be effective in treating acute and chronic whiplash injuries.

  13. Ocular Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trauma can happen at home, school, play or sports. Most common injuries are scratches to the cornea or blunt trauma. Approved and tested eye and face protection is essential to prevent injuries. Sports such as hockey, baseball, racquet ball, squash, and ...

  14. Rowing Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Jane S; Vinther, Anders; Wilson, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    understanding in pre-participation screening, training load, emerging concepts surrounding back and rib injury, and relative energy deficiency in sport. Through a better understanding of the nature of the sport and mechanisms of injury, physicians and other healthcare providers will be better equipped to treat...

  15. Trampoline injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nysted, M; Drogset, J O

    2006-12-01

    To describe the mechanism, location and types of injury for all patients treated for trampoline-associated injuries at St Olav's University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, from March 2001to October 2004. Patients were identified from a National Injury Surveillance System. All patients were asked to complete a standard questionnaire at their first visit at the hospital. Most data were recorded prospectively, but data on the mechanism of injury, the number of participants on the trampoline at the time of injury, adult supervision and whether the activity occurred at school or in another organised setting were collected retrospectively. A total of 556 patients, 56% male and 44% female, were included. The mean age of patients was 11 (range 1-62) years. 77% of the injuries occurred on the body of the trampoline, including falls on to the mat, collisions with another jumper, falls on to the frame or the springs, and performing a somersault, whereas 22% of the people fell off the trampoline. In 74% of the cases, more than two people were on the trampoline, with as many as nine trampolinists noted at the time of injury. For children Trampolining can cause serious injuries, especially in the neck and elbow areas of young children. The use of a trampoline is a high-risk activity. However, a ban is not supported. The importance of having safety guidelines for the use of trampolines is emphasised.

  16. Injury - kidney and ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney; Ureteral injury; Pre-renal failure - injury, Post-renal failure - injury; Kidney obstruction - injury Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Molitoris BA. Acute kidney injury. In: Goldman ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available menu Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ...

  18. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  19. Badminton injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krøner, K; Schmidt, S A; Nielsen, A B; Yde, J; Jakobsen, B W; Møller-Madsen, B; Jensen, J

    1990-01-01

    In a one year period, from 1 January 1986 to 31 December 1986, 4303 patients with sports injuries were treated at Aarhus Amtssygehus and Aarhus Kommunehospital. The mean age was 21.6 years (range 7-72 years) and 2830 were men. Two hundred and seventeen badminton injuries occurred in 208 patients (136 men) with a mean age of 29.6 years (range 7-57 years), constituting 4.1 percent of all sport injuries in Aarhus. Joints and ligaments were injured in 58.5 percent of the patients, most frequently located in the lower limb and significantly more often among patients younger than 30 years of age. Muscle injury occurred in 19.8 percent of the patients. This type of injury was significantly more frequent among patients older than 30 years of age. Most injuries were minor. However, 6.8 percent of the patients were hospitalized and 30.9 percent received additional treatment by a physician. As the risk of injury varies with age, attempts to plan training individually and to institute prophylactic measures should be made. PMID:2078802

  20. The immunological consequences of injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ni Choileain, N

    2012-02-03

    Immediate and early trauma death rates are determined by "first hits" such as hypoxia, hypotension and organ injury, while late mortality correlates closely with "second hits" such as infection. An imbalance between the early systemic inflammatory response (SIRS), and the later compensatory counter-inflammatory response (CARS), is considered to be responsible for much post-traumatic morbidity and mortality. From a clinical perspective, this remains a significant healthcare problem, which has stimulated decades of experimental and clinical research aimed at understanding the functional effects of injury on the immune system. This review describes the impact of injury on the innate and adaptive immune systems. Though it is worth noting that the features of the immune response to injury overlap in many areas with immune dysregulation in sepsis, we attempt here to elucidate the mechanism by which injury predisposes to infection rather than to describe the alterations in host immunity consequent to established sepsis.

  1. Using Dynamic Response Index (DRI) as a spinal injury predictor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ahmed, Rayeesa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available , moments and accelerations on an occupant are measured using an Anthropomorphic Testing Device (ATD). These measurements are then correlated to injury criteria which determine the probability of injury. Seats are typically evaluated in terms of probability...

  2. Mechanism of injury and instability of cervical cord injuries without remarkable Xp evidence of injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, Takayoshi; Shiba, Keiichiro; Katsuki, Masaaki; Shirasawa, Kenzo; Murao, Tetsu; Mori, Eiji; Yoshimura, Toyoaki; Ishibashi, Yuichi; Ryu, Seiman

    1989-01-01

    In 27 patients with no radiographic evidence of injury, spinal cord injury was depicted as low signal intensity on MRI. In 4 patients who had spontaneous reduction of the anterior dislocation, remarkable instability was observed. Among the other 23 patients, two patients had each two injured sites, and the remaining patients had only one injuried site. Injured sites were not correlated with the development of spondylosis or the antero-posterior diameter of the spinal canal, but well correlated with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Many of the patients had surgical evidence of horizontal rupture of the anterior longitudinal ligament and intervertebral disk. In these cases, although the spinal cord was instable at the level of extension, it was stable at the level of midline flection. Excessively extended injury with no associated anterior longitudinal ligament was considered attributable to the strictured spinal canal. (Namekawa, K)

  3. Spinal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dallas, TX: American Red Cross; 2016. Kaji AH, Newton EJ, Hockberger RS. Spinal injuries. In: Marx JA, ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  4. Chilling injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ahar

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... ROS avoidance genes play pivotal role in defense mechanism against chilling injury derived oxidative stress. ... Low temperature storage is a postharvest technology ..... crops is highly dependent on ethylene production and.

  5. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Power Saws for 2001 05/15/2002 Nail Gun Related Injuries and Deaths Home Maintenance & Construction 05/ ... Information (FOIA) Inspector General No Fear Act Data USA.gov Report an Unsafe Product Contact Us: 800- ...

  6. Electrical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 134. Price LA, Loiacono LA. Electrical and lightning injury. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  7. Ear Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of different injuries can affect the outer ear. Cauliflower ear (subperichondrial hematoma) A blunt blow to the ... to a deformed ear. This deformity, called a cauliflower ear, is common among wrestlers, boxers, and rugby ...

  8. Cold injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  9. Chest Injuries Associated with Head Injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Although there have been significant advances in management, associated severe injuries, in particular chest injuries, remain a major challenge. Extracranial injuries, especially chest injuries increase mortality in patients with TBI in both short.

  10. MDCT diagnosis of penetrating diaphragm injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodanapally, Uttam K.; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Mirvis, Stuart E.; Sliker, Clint W.; Fleiter, Thorsten R.; Sarada, Kamal; Miller, Lisa A. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Stein, Deborah M. [University of Maryland, Department of Surgery, Shock Trauma Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Alexander, Melvin [National Study Center for Trauma and Emergency Medical Systems, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of multidetector CT (MDCT) in detection of diaphragmatic injury following penetrating trauma. Chest and abdominal CT examinations performed preoperatively in 136 patients after penetrating trauma to the torso with injury trajectory in close proximity to the diaphragm were reviewed by radiologists unaware of surgical findings. Signs associated with diaphragmatic injuries in penetrating trauma were noted. These signs were correlated with surgical diagnoses, and their sensitivity and specificity in assisting the diagnosis were calculated. CT confirmed diaphragmatic injury in 41 of 47 injuries (sensitivity, 87.2%), and an intact diaphragm in 71 of 98 patients (specificity, 72.4%). The overall accuracy of MDCT was 77%. The most accurate sign helping the diagnosis was contiguous injury on either side of the diaphragm in single-entry penetrating trauma (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 82%). Thus MDCT has high sensitivity and good specificity in detecting penetrating diaphragmatic injuries. (orig.)

  11. MDCT diagnosis of penetrating diaphragm injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodanapally, Uttam K.; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Mirvis, Stuart E.; Sliker, Clint W.; Fleiter, Thorsten R.; Sarada, Kamal; Miller, Lisa A.; Stein, Deborah M.; Alexander, Melvin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of multidetector CT (MDCT) in detection of diaphragmatic injury following penetrating trauma. Chest and abdominal CT examinations performed preoperatively in 136 patients after penetrating trauma to the torso with injury trajectory in close proximity to the diaphragm were reviewed by radiologists unaware of surgical findings. Signs associated with diaphragmatic injuries in penetrating trauma were noted. These signs were correlated with surgical diagnoses, and their sensitivity and specificity in assisting the diagnosis were calculated. CT confirmed diaphragmatic injury in 41 of 47 injuries (sensitivity, 87.2%), and an intact diaphragm in 71 of 98 patients (specificity, 72.4%). The overall accuracy of MDCT was 77%. The most accurate sign helping the diagnosis was contiguous injury on either side of the diaphragm in single-entry penetrating trauma (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 82%). Thus MDCT has high sensitivity and good specificity in detecting penetrating diaphragmatic injuries. (orig.)

  12. Environmental Subconcussive Injury, Axonal Injury, and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy A. Morley

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain injury occurs in two phases: the initial injury itself and a secondary cascade of precise immune-based neurochemical events. The secondary phase is typically functional in nature and characterized by delayed axonal injury with more axonal disconnections occurring than in the initial phase. Axonal injury occurs across the spectrum of disease severity, with subconcussive injury, especially when repetitive, now considered capable of producing significant neurological damage consistent with axonal injury seen in clinically evident concussion, despite no observable symptoms. This review is the first to introduce the concept of environmental subconcussive injury (ESCI and sets out how secondary brain damage from ESCI once past the juncture of microglial activation appears to follow the same neuron-damaging pathway as secondary brain damage from conventional brain injury. The immune response associated with ESCI is strikingly similar to that mounted after conventional concussion. Specifically, microglial activation is followed closely by glutamate and calcium flux, excitotoxicity, reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (RNS generation, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial dysfunction and energy crisis. ESCI damage also occurs in two phases, with the primary damage coming from microbiome injury (due to microbiome-altering events and secondary damage (axonal injury from progressive secondary neurochemical events. The concept of ESCI and the underlying mechanisms have profound implications for the understanding of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE etiology because it has previously been suggested that repetitive axonal injury may be the primary CTE pathogenesis in susceptible individuals and it is best correlated with lifetime brain trauma load. Taken together, it appears that susceptibility to brain injury and downstream neurodegenerative diseases, such as CTE, can be conceptualized as a continuum of brain resilience. At one end

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  16. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

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  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  20. Fingertip Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Fingertip Injury Email to a friend * required fields ...

  1. Musculoskeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigirey, V

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about musculoskeletal injuries and the diagnosis of osseous tumors. The use of the radiology, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance contribute to detect the localization of the osseous lesions as well as the density (lytic, sclerotic, mixed) and the benign and malignant tumors.

  2. Ganga hospital open injury score in management of open injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, S; Sabapathy, S R; Dheenadhayalan, J; Sundararajan, S R; Venkatramani, H; Devendra, A; Ramesh, P; Srikanth, K P

    2015-02-01

    Open injuries of the limbs offer challenges in management as there are still many grey zones in decision making regarding salvage, timing and type of reconstruction. As a result, there is still an unacceptable rate of secondary amputations which lead to tremendous waste of resources and psychological devastation of the patient and his family. Gustilo Anderson's classification was a major milestone in grading the severity of injury but however suffers from the disadvantages of imprecise definition, a poor interobserver correlation, inability to address the issue of salvage and inclusion of a wide spectrum of injuries in Type IIIb category. Numerous scores such as Mangled Extremity Severity Score, the Predictive Salvage Index, the Limb Salvage Index, Hannover Fracture Scale-97 etc have been proposed but all have the disadvantage of retrospective evaluation, inadequate sample sizes and poor sensitivity and specificity to amputation, especially in IIIb injuries. The Ganga Hospital Open Injury Score (GHOIS) was proposed in 2004 and is designed to specifically address the outcome in IIIb injuries of the tibia without vascular deficit. It evaluates the severity of injury to the three components of the limb--the skin, the bone and the musculotendinous structures separately on a grade from 0 to 5. Seven comorbid factors which influence the treatment and the outcome are included in the score with two marks each. The application of the total score and the individual tissue scores in management of IIIB injuries is discussed. The total score was shown to predict salvage when the value was 14 or less; amputation when the score was 17 and more. A grey zone of 15 and 16 is provided where the decision making had to be made on a case to case basis. The additional value of GHOIS was its ability to guide the timing and type of reconstruction. A skin score of more than 3 always required a flap and hence it indicated the need for an orthoplastic approach from the index procedure. Bone

  3. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF HEAD INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanukollu Venkata Madusudana Rao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This prospective study aimed to evaluate the incidence of ocular manifestations in head injury and their correlation with the intracranial lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 108 consecutive cases of closed head injury admitted in the neurosurgical ward of a tertiary teaching hospital underwent a thorough ophthalmic assessment. Clinical examination, radiological imaging and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS were applied to grade the severity of injury. RESULTS Total number of 108 patients of head injury were examined of which 38 patients had ocular manifestations (35.18%. Of these, 85.18% were males, 84% of injuries were due to road traffic accidents and 16% were due to fall from a height. The ocular manifestations were as follows- Orbital complications were seen in 6 patients (15.8%. Anterior segment manifestations included black eyes seen in 10 patients (26.3%, subconjunctival haemorrhage in 10.5% of patients (4 patients, corneal involvement in 21% of patients (8 patients and pupillary involvement in 50% of patients (19 patients. Posterior segment manifestations were seen in 26.3% of patients (10 patients and were as follows- Purtscher’s retinopathy in 2 patients and optic atrophy in 5 patients. Cranial nerve palsies were seen in 15 patients (39.47% and supranuclear movement disorders were seen in 3 patients (8%. CONCLUSION Even though, neurosurgeons perform comprehensive clinical examination including eye examination, the main purpose is limited to aid topical diagnosis of neurological lesions. This study emphasises the importance of a detailed eye examination by an ophthalmologist to prevent irreversible visual loss in addition to aiding in the neurological diagnosis. Pupillary involvement, papilloedema and ocular motor paresis pointed to a more severe head injury. This observational prospective study helped us to correlate the severity of head injuries in association with ocular findings in patients admitted in neurosurgical ward

  4. Injury profile of mixed martial arts competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Rance; Wassermen, Jason; Mayfield, Carlene; Berry, Andrew C; Grenier, Greg; Suminski, Richard R

    2014-11-01

    To provide an updated comprehensive profile of mixed martial arts (MMAs) injuries. Correlational and multivariate analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data to examine injuries sustained during 711 MMA bouts. One physician diagnosed any injuries occurring during the bouts. Various sports venues in Kansas and Missouri holding MMA competitions. Male and female and amateur and professional MMA competitors contributing to 1422 fight participations (fight participations = 711 bouts × 2 fighters/bout). State, level (amateur or professional), gender, number of rounds, and bout outcome (knockout/technical knockout [KO/TKO] vs other outcomes [eg, decision]). Injuries/fight participations, injury sustained (yes vs no), and fighter referred to emergency room (ER; yes vs no). The overall injury rate was 8.5% of fight participations (121 injuries/1422 fight participations) or 5.6% of rounds (121/2178 rounds). Injury rates were similar between men and women, but a greater percentage of the injuries caused an altered mental state in men. The risk of being injured was significantly greater for bouts held in Kansas, at the professional level, lasting more rounds, and ending in a KO/TKO. Fighters also were more likely to be referred to the ER if they participated in longer bouts ending in a KO/TKO. The observed injury rate was lower than previously reported suggesting recent regulatory changes have made MMA a safer sport. Increased clinical awareness and additional research should be extended to head-related injuries in MMAs especially those associated with KOs/TKOs.

  5. Differential expression of miRNAs in the nervous system of a rat model of bilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haixia; Shen, Le; Ma, Chao; Huang, Yuguang

    2013-07-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain is associated with global changes in gene expression in different areas of the nociceptive pathway. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (~22 nt long) non-coding RNAs, which are able to regulate hundreds of different genes post-transcriptionally. The aim of this study was to determine the miRNA expression patterns in the different regions of the pain transmission pathway using a rat model of human neuropathic pain induced by bilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (bCCI). Using microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR, we observed a significant upregulation in miR-341 expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), but not in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH), hippocampus or anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), in the rats with neuropathic pain compared to rats in the naïve and sham-operated groups. By contrast, the expression of miR-203, miR-181a-1* and miR-541* was significantly reduced in the SDH of rats with neuropathic pain. Our data indicate that miR-341 is upregulated in the DRG, whereas miR-203, miR-181a-1* and miR-541* are downregulated in the SDH under neuropathic pain conditions. Thus, the differential expression of miRNAs in the nervous system may play a role in the development of chronic pain. These observations may aid in the development of novel treatment methods for neuropathic pain, which may involve miRNA gene therapy in local regions.

  6. MR imaging in cervical hyperextension injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.J.; Teresi, L.M.; Bradley, W.G. Jr.; Ziemba, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on cervical hyperextension injuries that are common and often show minimal radiographic abnormalities, even with severe or unstable lesions. MR images and clinical records of 14 patients scanned within 4 months of hyperextension cervical injuries were reviewed. Clinical, radiographic, and MR findings were correlated. Nine patients had acceleration hyperextension whiplash injuries, four with acute cervical disk herniations developing radiculopathy after several weeks. Five patients injured by direct frontal head trauma presented with myelopathy and had MR evidence of cord injury, and four had acute disk herniation

  7. Reducing mitochondrial bound hexokinase II mediates transition from non-injurious into injurious ischemia/reperfusion of the intact heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Nederlof (Rianne); Gürel-Gurevin, E. (Ebru); O. Eerbeek (Otto); C. Xie (Chaoqin); Deijs, G.S.; Konkel, M. (Moritz); Hu, J. (Jun); N.C. Weber (Nina); C. Schumacher (Cees); A. Baartscheer (Antonius); E.G. Mik (Egbert); M.W. Hollmann (Markus); F.G. Akar (Fadi); C.J. Zuurbier (Coert J.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIschemia/reperfusion (I/R) of the heart becomes injurious when duration of the ischemic insult exceeds a certain threshold (approximately ≥20 min). Mitochondrial bound hexokinase II (mtHKII) protects against I/R injury, with the amount of mtHKII correlating with injury. Here, we examine

  8. Dynamic response to peripheral nerve injury detected by in situ hybridization of IL-6 and its receptor mRNAs in the dorsal root ganglia is not strictly correlated with signs of neuropathic pain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázda, Václav; Klusáková, I.; Svíženská, I.; Dubový, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 42 (2013) ISSN 1744-8069 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : CHRONIC CONSTRICTION INJURY * SATELLITE GLIAL-CELLS * SCIATIC-NERVE Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.531, year: 2013

  9. Soft tissue twisting injuries of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, T.; Shapiro, M.

    2001-01-01

    Twisting injuries occur as a result of differential motion of different tissue types in injuries with some rotational force. These injuries are well described in brain injuries but, to our knowledge, have not been described in the musculoskeletal literature. We correlated the clinical examination and MR findings of 20 patients with twisting injuries of the soft tissues around the knee. Design and patients: We prospectively followed the clinical courses of 20 patients with knee injuries who had clinical histories and MR findings to suggest twisting injuries of the subcutaneous tissues. Patients with associated internal derangement of the knee (i.e., meniscal tears, ligamentous or bone injuries) were excluded from this study. MR findings to suggest twisting injuries included linear areas of abnormal dark signal on T1-weighted sequences and abnormal bright signal on T2-weighted or short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences and/or signal to suggest hemorrhage within the subcutaneous tissues. These MR criteria were adapted from those established for indirect musculotendinous junction injuries. Results: All 20 patients presented with considerable pain that suggested internal derangement on physical examination by the referring orthopedic surgeons. All presented with injuries associated with rotational force. The patients were placed on a course of protected weight-bearing of the affected extremity for 4 weeks. All patients had pain relief by clinical examination after this period of protected weight-bearing. Twisting injuries of the soft tissues can result in considerable pain that can be confused with internal derangement of the knee on physical examination. Soft tissue twisting injuries need to be recognized on MR examinations as they may be the cause of the patient's pain despite no MR evidence of internal derangement of the knee. The demonstration of soft tissue twisting injuries in a patient with severe knee pain but no documented internal derangement on MR

  10. Sympathetic Nerve Injury in Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Diamantis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The double innervation of the thyroid comes from the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Injury rates during surgery are at 30% but can be minimized by upwardly preparing the thyroid vessels at the level of thyroid capsule. Several factors have been accused of increasing the risk of injury including age and tumor size. Our aim was to investigate of there is indeed any possible correlations between these factors and a possible increase in injury rates following thyroidectomy. Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Statistical correlation was observed for a positive relationship between injury of the sympathetic nerve and thyroid malignancy surgery (p < 0.001; I2 = 74% No statistical correlations were observed for a negative or positive relationship between injury of the sympathetic nerve and tumor size. There was also no statistically significant value observed for the correlation of the patients’ age with the risk of sympathetic nerve injury (p = 0.388. Lack of significant correlation reported could be due to the small number of studies and great heterogeneity between them.

  11. ORBITAL INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kansky

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Orbit is involved in 40% of all facial fractures. There is considerable variety in severity, ranging from simple nondisplaced to complex comminuted fractures. Complex comminuted fractures (up to 20% are responsible for the majority of complications and unfavorable results. Orbital fractures are classified as internal orbital fractures, zygomatico-orbital fractures, naso-orbito-ethmoidal fractures and combined fractures. The ophtalmic sequelae of midfacial fractures are usually edema and ecchymosis of the soft tissues, subconjuctival hemorrhage, diplopia, iritis, retinal edema, ptosis, enophthalmos, ocular muscle paresis, mechanical restriction of ocular movement and nasolacrimal disturbances. More severe injuries such as optic nerve trauma and retinal detachments have also been reported. Within the wide range of orbital fractures small group of complex fractures causes most of the sequelae. Therefore identification of severe injuries and adequate treatment is of major importance. The introduction of craniofacial techniques made possible a wide exposure even of large orbital wall defects and their reconstruction by bone grafts. In spite of significant progress, repair of complex orbital wall defects remains a problem even for the experienced surgeons.Results. In 1999 121 facial injuries were treated at our department (Clinical Centre Ljubljana Dept. Of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery. Orbit was involved in 65% of cases. Isolated inner orbital fractures presented 4% of all fractures. 17 (14% complex cases were treated, 5 of them being NOE, 5 orbital (frame and inner walls, 3 zygomatico-orbital, 2 FNO and 2 maxillo-orbital fractures.Conclusions. Final result of the surgical treatment depends on severity of maxillofacial trauma. Complex comminuted fractures are responsable for most of the unfavorable results and ocular function is often permanently damaged (up to 75% in these fractures.

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injury? play_arrow What kind of surgery is common after a spinal cord injury? play_ ... How soon after a spinal cord injury should surgery be performed? play_arrow Is it common to ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  16. Radiotherapy injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalifa, G.; Bennet, J.; Couanet, D.; Masselot, J.

    1985-01-01

    Side effects of radiotherapy in pediatrics are reviewed including bone injuries and radio-induced bone tumors; nervous system injuries with emphasis on hypothalamus, pituitary gland, brain and spinal cord; lung, digestive system and urinary tract injuries [fr

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury ... Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical Director, Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Program, Rehabilitation Institute ...

  18. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  1. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes ... this PDF Share this page: WHAT ARE COMMON KNEE INJURIES? Pain Syndromes One of the most common ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ... a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? ...

  4. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mild Traumatic Brain Injury Resilience Families with Kids Depression Families & Friendships Tobacco Life Stress Spirituality Anger Physical Injury Stigma Health & Wellness Work Adjustment Community Peer-2-Peer Forum ...

  5. Baseball and softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quincy

    2006-05-01

    Baseball and softball injuries can be a result of both acute and overuse injuries. Soft tissue injuries include contusions, abrasions, and lacerations. Return to play is allowed when risk of further injury is minimized. Common shoulder injuries include those to the rotator cuff, biceps tendon, and glenoid labrum. Elbow injuries are common in baseball and softball and include medial epicondylitis, ulnar collateral ligament injury, and osteochondritis dissecans. Typically conservative treatment with relative rest, medication, and a rehabilitation program will allow return to play. Surgical intervention may be needed for certain injuries or conservative treatment failure.

  6. Radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubner, K.F.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation accidents and incidents continue to be of great interest and concern to the public. Issues such as the threat of nuclear war, the Chernobyl reactor accident, or reports of sporadic incidences of accidental radiation exposure keep this interest up and maintain a high level of fear among the public. In this climate of real concern and radiation phobia, physicians should not only be prepared to answer questions about acute or late effects of ionizing radiation, but also be able to participate in the initial assessment and management of individuals who have been exposed to ionizing radiation or contaminated with radioactive material. Some of the key facts about radiation injury and its medical treatment are discussed by the author

  7. The value of {sup 99m}Tc-HDP scan in the diagnosis of tibial avascular necrosis caused by thermal injury: a case with multi-image correlation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee [Sung-Ae General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Basic pathology in thermal injury is coagulative soft tissue necorsis that may occasionally be complicated by infection and later by scarring and vascular changes. Radiological features were discussed in detail by Resnick. The early changes consist of soft tissue defect, porosis and periostitis and the late changes include osteophytosis, periarticular calcification or ossification and arthropathy with ankylosis. Acromutilation can occur when small bones of the hand and foot are burned and scarred. This communication describes {sup 99m}Tc-HDP pnhole bone scan manifestations of thermal bone injuries observed in a case of skin-bone burns of the mid-tibial shaft that was complicated by infection, soft tissue scarring and osteonecrosis. Patient was a 49-year-old female thermal burn involving a mid-tibial shaft segment along with overlying skin. The injury was accidental to medullary rimming to fit intramedullary nail to fix fracture. The heat produced during drilling spread to burn the pretibial skin that is sparse in subcutaneous buffer tissue and vessels. The soft tissue burn was infected and healed by repeated skin grafts and scar over a period of 2 years. Concomitantly, the underlying bone was infected locally and treated but ensued in osteonecrosis that was accompanied by osteolysis. Indeed. pinhole {sup 99m}Tc-HDP scan played a unique role in this case in detecting that live lateral cortex had sustained the large dead bone that involved the main volume of the mid-tibial shaft. Importantly, the scan could confirm live cortex to have sustained dead bone uncollapsed. Anatomical and metabolic data gained from bone scanning prompted us to systematically scrutinize radiograph and CT to specifically identify the preserved lateral cortex. As mentioned the existence of healthy cortex is biomechanically and tactically vital to surgically replace and restore the devitalized bone.

  8. MR imaging of medial collateral ligament injury and associated internal knee joint injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chae Ha; Lee, Sun Kyoung; Lim, Dong Hun; Kim, Young Sook; Byun, Ju Nam; Kim, Young Chul; Oh, Jae Hee

    1996-01-01

    To assess the value of MR imaging in the diagnosis of medial collateral ligament injury of the knee, we used MR imaging to evaluate the characteristic findings in MCL tears and the frequency of associated knee joint injury. We retrospectively reviewed 26 patients within four weeks of MCL injury, analysed MR findings and correlated them with surgical findings. We evaluated discontinuity, heterogeneous signal intensity of MCL, thin band- like low signal intensity at MCL, facial edema, loss of clear demarcation of adjacent fat also combined bone injury, meniscus injury and other ligament injury. Complete MCL tears were present in 14 patients and partial tears in 12. Complete tears showed discontinuity of MCL, fascial edema and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat in 11 patients(79%);proximal MCL tears are more common than distal tears. Partial tears showed thin band-like low signal intensity within MCL, fascial edema and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat in seven patients (58%);all patient s with MCL injury showed fascial edema;in 12 patients there was loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat. We could not, however, distinguish between complete tears and partial tears when MCL showed heterogeneous high signal intensity. Combined bone injury in MCL tears was found in eight patients(62%);the most common sites of this were the lateral femoral condyle and lateral tibial plateau. There was associated injury involving other ligaments(ACL:50%;PCL:27%). Combined meniscus injury in MCL tears was present in 17 patients and the most common meniscus site(50%) is the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Complete MCL tears showed discontinuity of MCL and partial tears showed a thin band-like low signal intensity within MCL. All patients with MCL injury showed fascial edema, and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat. Various other injuries combine with MCL tears. MR imaging is therefore useful in the evaluation of medial collateral ligament injury and

  9. Cardiac troponin T: A sensitive and specific indicator of myocardial injury in patients with cerebrovascular stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Amin

    2012-09-01

    Conclusions: Myocardial injury is not uncommon in patients with CVS. Silent ST-T wave changes and new resting SWMA are possible complications. We demonstrated highly significant correlation between positive troponin T and myocardial injury in these patients.

  10. Superadditive correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, B.G.; Heumann, J.M.; Lapedes, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The fact that correlation does not imply causation is well known. Correlation between variables at two sites does not imply that the two sites directly interact, because, e.g., correlation between distant sites may be induced by chaining of correlation between a set of intervening, directly interacting sites. Such 'noncausal correlation' is well understood in statistical physics: an example is long-range order in spin systems, where spins which have only short-range direct interactions, e.g., the Ising model, display correlation at a distance. It is less well recognized that such long-range 'noncausal' correlations can in fact be stronger than the magnitude of any causal correlation induced by direct interactions. We call this phenomenon superadditive correlation (SAC). We demonstrate this counterintuitive phenomenon by explicit examples in (i) a model spin system and (ii) a model continuous variable system, where both models are such that two variables have multiple intervening pathways of indirect interaction. We apply the technique known as decimation to explain SAC as an additive, constructive interference phenomenon between the multiple pathways of indirect interaction. We also explain the effect using a definition of the collective mode describing the intervening spin variables. Finally, we show that the SAC effect is mirrored in information theory, and is true for mutual information measures in addition to correlation measures. Generic complex systems typically exhibit multiple pathways of indirect interaction, making SAC a potentially widespread phenomenon. This affects, e.g., attempts to deduce interactions by examination of correlations, as well as, e.g., hierarchical approximation methods for multivariate probability distributions, which introduce parameters based on successive orders of correlation. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  11. Atomic bomb injury: radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, C L; Cronkite, E P; Le Roy, G V; Warren, S

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 reports. In the first report, the clinical diagnosis and treatment of radiation syndrome in survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are described. The syndrome of acute radiation injury is applied to the symptom complex, or diseased state, which results from exposure of the whole body to the initial nuclear radiation of an atomic bomb. It is applied to injuries of the skin and subcutaneous tissues resulting from x-radiation or from contact with radioactive material. Internal radiation injury may result from the selective deposition, such as in bone or thyroid, of radioactive material that has been inhaled or absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract or wounds. Radiation syndrome is classified as very severe, severe, and mild. In the second report, a brief discussion is presented on the question of genetic effects in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the third report, a study was carried out on 205 4-1/2 year old children who had been exposed to the atomic bomb blast during the first half of intra-uterine life. Correlation between head size and mental development of the child with distance from the hypocenter, symptoms of radiation effect and type of shielding of the mother is discussed. The conclusion drawn from the present study is that central nervous system defects can be produced in the fetus by atomic bomb radiation, provided that exposure occurs within approximately 1200 meters of the hypocenter and that no effective shielding, such as concrete, protects the fetus from direct irradiation.

  12. Patterns of work injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Rasmussen, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA).......To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA)....

  13. Sports-specific injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancher, K D; Minnich, J M

    1996-04-01

    Injuries to the upper extremities can happen in any sport. Injury patterns are common to specific sports. Understanding which injuries occur with these sports allows the examiner to diagnose and treat the athlete easily. This article reviews some of the injuries common in sports such as bicycling, golf, gymnastics, martial arts, racquet sports, and weightlifting.

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  15. Managing eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Mutie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on what you found during the eye examination, classify the injury as a non-mechanical injury (chemical or thermal injury, a non-globe injury (orbital or adnexal injury or as a mechanical globe injury. In the case of mechanical globe injuries, it is important to classify the injury according to the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System (BETTS and write it down in the patient’s notes; this will help to ensure that everyone involved in caring for the patient will have a consistent understanding of the type of injury. The resulting uniformity of terminology also helps with research, making it possible to compare data and do audits of injuries – which is essential for prevention.

  16. LATERAL ANKLE INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with ...

  17. Concomitant hollow viscus injuries in patients with blunt hepatic and splenic injuries: an analysis of a National Trauma Registry database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaid, Forat; Peleg, Kobi; Alfici, Ricardo; Matter, Ibrahim; Olsha, Oded; Ashkenazi, Itamar; Givon, Adi; Kessel, Boris

    2014-09-01

    Non-operative management has become the standard approach for treating stable patients sustaining blunt hepatic or splenic injuries in the absence of other indications for laparotomy. The liberal use of computed tomography (CT) has reduced the rate of unnecessary immediate laparotomies; however, due to its limited sensitivity in the diagnosis of hollow viscus injuries (HVI), this may be at the expense of a rise in the incidence of missed HVI. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of concomitant HVI in blunt trauma patients diagnosed with hepatic and/or splenic injuries, and to evaluate whether a correlation exists between this incidence and the severity of hepatic or splenic injuries. A retrospective cohort study involving blunt trauma patients with splenic and/or liver injuries, between the years 1998 and 2012 registered in the Israel National Trauma Registry. The association between the presence and severity of splenic and/or liver injuries and the incidence of HVI was examined. Of the 57,130 trauma victims identified as suffering from blunt torso injuries, 2335 (4%) sustained hepatic injuries without splenic injuries (H group), 3127 (5.4%) had splenic injuries without hepatic injuries (S group), and 564 (1%) suffered from both hepatic and splenic injuries (H+S group). Overall, 957 patients sustained 1063 HVI. The incidence of HVI among blunt torso trauma victims who sustained neither splenic nor hepatic injuries was 1.5% which is significantly lower than in the S (3.1%), H (3.1%), and H+S (6.7%) groups. In the S group, there was a clear correlation between the severity of the splenic injury and the incidence of HVI. This correlation was not found in the H group. The presence of blunt splenic and/or hepatic injuries predicts a higher incidence of HVI, especially if combined. While in blunt splenic injury patients there is a clear correlation between the incidence of HVI and the severity of splenic injury, such a correlation does not exist in patients

  18. Blunt gastric injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncel, Didem; Malinoski, Darren; Brown, Carlos; Demetriades, Demetrios; Salim, Ali

    2007-09-01

    Gastric rupture after blunt abdominal trauma is a rare injury with few reports in the literature. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with blunt gastric injuries and compare outcomes with small bowel or colon injuries. All patients with hollow viscus perforations after blunt abdominal trauma from 1992 to 2005 at our level I trauma center were reviewed. Of 35,033 blunt trauma admissions, there were 268 (0.7%) patients with a total of 319 perforating hollow viscus injuries, 25 (0.07%) of which were blunt gastric injuries. When compared with the small bowel or colon injuries, the blunt gastric injury group had a higher Injury Severity Score (22 versus 17, P = 0.04), more patients with a chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2 (36% versus 12%, P < 0.01), and a shorter interval from injury to laparotomy (221 versus 366 minutes, P = 0.017). Multivariate analysis identified five independent risk factors for mortality: age older than 55 years, head Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, the presence of hypotension on admission, and Glasgow Coma Scale 8 or less. The results of this study suggest that mortality in patients with blunt hollow viscus injuries can be attributed to concurrent head and chest injuries, but not the specific hollow viscus organ that is injured.

  19. Urological injuries following trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bent, C.; Iyngkaran, T.; Power, N.; Matson, M.; Hajdinjak, T.; Buchholz, N.; Fotheringham, T.

    2008-01-01

    Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated

  20. Urological injuries following trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.bent@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Iyngkaran, T.; Power, N.; Matson, M. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Hajdinjak, T.; Buchholz, N. [Department of Urology, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Fotheringham, T. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated.

  1. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  2. Trauma: Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Matthew J; Martin, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    Injuries to the spinal column and spinal cord frequently occur after high-energy mechanisms of injury, or with lower-energy mechanisms, in select patient populations like the elderly. A focused yet complete neurologic examination during the initial evaluation will guide subsequent diagnostic procedures and early supportive measures to help prevent further injury. For patients with injury to bone and/or ligaments, the initial focus should be spinal immobilization and prevention of inducing injury to the spinal cord. Spinal cord injury is associated with numerous life-threatening complications during the acute and long-term phases of care that all acute care surgeons must recognize. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Upper extremity golf injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.

  4. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  5. Urological injuries following trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, C; Iyngkaran, T; Power, N; Matson, M; Hajdinjak, T; Buchholz, N; Fotheringham, T

    2008-12-01

    Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated.

  6. Acute pulmonary injury: high-resolution CT and histopathological spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadina, E T; Torrealba, J M

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury usually causes hypoxaemic respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although diffuse alveolar damage is the hallmark of ARDS, other histopathological patterns of injury, such as acute and fibrinoid organising pneumonia, can be associated with acute respiratory failure. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia can also cause acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure and mimic ARDS. This pictorial essay reviews the high-resolution CT findings of acute lung injury and the correlative histopathological findings. PMID:23659926

  7. Automated measurement of pressure injury through image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Mathews, Carol

    2017-11-01

    To develop an image processing algorithm to automatically measure pressure injuries using electronic pressure injury images stored in nursing documentation. Photographing pressure injuries and storing the images in the electronic health record is standard practice in many hospitals. However, the manual measurement of pressure injury is time-consuming, challenging and subject to intra/inter-reader variability with complexities of the pressure injury and the clinical environment. A cross-sectional algorithm development study. A set of 32 pressure injury images were obtained from a western Pennsylvania hospital. First, we transformed the images from an RGB (i.e. red, green and blue) colour space to a YC b C r colour space to eliminate inferences from varying light conditions and skin colours. Second, a probability map, generated by a skin colour Gaussian model, guided the pressure injury segmentation process using the Support Vector Machine classifier. Third, after segmentation, the reference ruler - included in each of the images - enabled perspective transformation and determination of pressure injury size. Finally, two nurses independently measured those 32 pressure injury images, and intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated. An image processing algorithm was developed to automatically measure the size of pressure injuries. Both inter- and intra-rater analysis achieved good level reliability. Validation of the size measurement of the pressure injury (1) demonstrates that our image processing algorithm is a reliable approach to monitoring pressure injury progress through clinical pressure injury images and (2) offers new insight to pressure injury evaluation and documentation. Once our algorithm is further developed, clinicians can be provided with an objective, reliable and efficient computational tool for segmentation and measurement of pressure injuries. With this, clinicians will be able to more effectively monitor the healing process of pressure

  8. Cervical vertigo and dizziness after whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Kenji; Ichimaru, Katsuji; Komagata, Mashashi; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2006-06-01

    Whiplash injury is not only limited to neck injury but also brainstem injury that does not involve direct damage to the neck or head. The symptoms of whiplash injury are polymorphous, with the most common complaints being cervical pain, headache and scapulodynia. Vertigo and dizziness are also reported in 25-50% of the cases. In otoneurologic studies, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is used for the evaluation of vertebrobasilar hemodynamics in patients who complain of dizziness and vertigo. It is reported that vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency (VBI) leads to brainstem and cerebellar ischemia and infarction following cervical manipulation. Here we examined the correlation between vertigo or dizziness and the right and left side difference in vertebral arteries after whiplash injury using MRA. We studied 20 patients who complained of neck pain with vertigo or dizziness after whiplash injury and 13 healthy volunteers as a control. In the control group, abnormal MRA findings in the vertebral arteries such as occlusion, stenosis or slow blood flow were seen in 77% of the cases. In the patient group, abnormal MRA findings were seen in 60%. The side difference in blood flow was 3.5+/-2.5 cm/s in the control group and 6.1+/-3.0 cm/s in the patient group. Our findings suggest that some subjects with persistent vertigo or dizziness after whiplash injury are more likely to have VBI on MRA. VBI might be an important background factor to evoke cervical vertigo or dizziness after whiplash injury. The side difference between the two vertebral arteries could cause a circulation disorder in the vertebrobasilar system after whiplash injury. However, the VBI on MRA itself was also seen in the control group, and thus it is not clear whether it is due to whiplash injury in the patient group.

  9. Spinal Motocross Injuries in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rohit; Bhalla, Amit; Ockendon, Matthew; Hay, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    Motocross is a form of motorcycle racing held on established off-road circuits and has been a recreational and competitive sport across the world for >100 years. In the United Kingdom alone, motocross has grown into a phenomenally ambitious and popular franchise. There are >200 motocross clubs across the country, permitting >900 events annually. To assess the current trend of spine-related motocross injuries over the past 5 years. Descriptive epidemiology study. Data were prospectively collected over 5 years (August 2010-August 2015) at our regional trauma and spine unit, regardless of whether the rider was performing the sport competitively or recreationally. During the study period, spine-related injuries were identified for 174 patients (age range, 6-75 years) who were directly referred to our department following recreational or competitive motocross, with most injuries being sustained within the early spring and summer months, representing the start of the motocross season. A significant number of injuries were in males (n = 203, 94%), with the majority of injuries occurring within the 21- to 30-year-old age group. A total of 116 (54%) injuries required operative treatment. The most common spinal injury was thoracolumbar burst fracture (n = 95), followed by chance fractures (n = 26). This data series emphasizes the prevalence and devastation of motocross-related spinal injuries in the United Kingdom and may serve in administering sanctions and guidelines to governing bodies of motocross. The spinal injuries that occur during motocross have significant capital connotations for regional spinal centers. The recent surge in motocross popularity is correlated with the number of injuries, which have increased over the past 5 years by almost 500%.

  10. Spinal Motocross Injuries in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rohit; Bhalla, Amit; Ockendon, Matthew; Hay, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    Background: Motocross is a form of motorcycle racing held on established off-road circuits and has been a recreational and competitive sport across the world for >100 years. In the United Kingdom alone, motocross has grown into a phenomenally ambitious and popular franchise. There are >200 motocross clubs across the country, permitting >900 events annually. Purpose: To assess the current trend of spine-related motocross injuries over the past 5 years. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Data were prospectively collected over 5 years (August 2010–August 2015) at our regional trauma and spine unit, regardless of whether the rider was performing the sport competitively or recreationally. Results: During the study period, spine-related injuries were identified for 174 patients (age range, 6-75 years) who were directly referred to our department following recreational or competitive motocross, with most injuries being sustained within the early spring and summer months, representing the start of the motocross season. A significant number of injuries were in males (n = 203, 94%), with the majority of injuries occurring within the 21- to 30-year-old age group. A total of 116 (54%) injuries required operative treatment. The most common spinal injury was thoracolumbar burst fracture (n = 95), followed by chance fractures (n = 26). Conclusion: This data series emphasizes the prevalence and devastation of motocross-related spinal injuries in the United Kingdom and may serve in administering sanctions and guidelines to governing bodies of motocross. The spinal injuries that occur during motocross have significant capital connotations for regional spinal centers. The recent surge in motocross popularity is correlated with the number of injuries, which have increased over the past 5 years by almost 500%. PMID:29349095

  11. Injury in the national basketball association: a 17-year overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakos, Mark C; Domb, Benjamin; Starkey, Chad; Callahan, Lisa; Allen, Answorth A

    2010-07-01

    Injury patterns in elite athletes over long periods continue to evolve. The goal of this study was to review of the injuries and medical conditions afflicting athletes competing in the National Basketball Association (NBA) over a 17-year period. Descriptive epidemiological study. Injuries and player demographic information were reported by each team's athletic trainer. Criteria for reportable injuries were those that resulted in (1) physician referral, (2) a practice or game being missed, or (3) emergency care. The demographics, frequency of injury, time lost, and game exposures were tabulated, and game-related injury rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. A total of 1094 players appeared in the database 3843 times (3.3 ± 2.6 seasons). Lateral ankle sprains were the most frequent orthopaedic injury (n, 1658; 13.2%), followed by patellofemoral inflammation (n, 1493; 11.9%), lumbar strains (n, 999; 7.9%), and hamstring strains (n, 413; 3.3%). The most games missed were related to patellofemoral inflammation (n, 10 370; 17.5%), lateral ankle sprains (n, 5223; 8.8%), knee sprains (n, 4369; 7.4%), and lumbar strains (n, 3933; 6.6%). No correlations were found between injury rate and player demographics, including age, height, weight, and NBA experience. Professional athletes in the NBA experience a high rate of game-related injuries. Patellofemoral inflammation is the most significant problem in terms of days lost in competition, whereas ankle sprains are the most common injury. True ligamentous injuries of the knee were surprisingly rare. Importantly, player demographics were not correlated with injury rates. Further investigation is necessary regarding the consequences and sport-specific treatment of various injuries in NBA players. Knowledge of these injury patterns can help to guide treatments and provide more accurate guidelines for an athlete to return to play.

  12. Analysis of the risk of injury to firefighters based on a functional assessment using the Functional Movement Screen test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystian Kałużny

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions. 1. In examined firefighters, abnormalities in basic motor patterns are observed in the FMS test. 2. The risk of injury in FMS surveyed firefighters is very high. 3. The FMS test results correlate with BMI, work experience and age of firefighters. 4. No correlation was found between injuries and injuries and physical activity in firefighters and the FMS test result.

  13. Key Injury and Violence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Key Injury and Violence Data Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Injuries ... of death among persons 1-44. Injury- and violence-related deaths are only part of the problem ...

  14. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Kristine Cichowski, MS Occupational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Katie Powell, OT ... does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children ...

  17. Elbow Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many things can make your elbow hurt. A common cause is tendinitis, an inflammation or injury to the tendons that attach muscle to bone. Tendinitis of the elbow is a sports injury, often from playing tennis or golf. You ...

  18. Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your knee is bent also can cause this injury. Risk factors Being in a motor vehicle accident and participating in sports such as football and soccer are the most common risk factors for a PCL injury. Complications In ...

  19. Brain injury - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000163.htm Brain injury - discharge To use the sharing features on ... know was in the hospital for a serious brain injury. At home, it will take time for ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can we expect stem-cell treatments to become available for spinal cord injuries? ...

  1. Football injuries: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries.

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can we expect stem-cell treatments to become available for spinal cord injuries? ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW Marguerite ... arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources ... Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources ...

  5. Mountain Biking Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Majid; Nourian, Ruhollah; Khodaee, Morteza

    With the increasing popularity of mountain biking, also known as off-road cycling, and the riders pushing the sport into extremes, there has been a corresponding increase in injury. Almost two thirds of acute injuries involve the upper extremities, and a similar proportion of overuse injuries affect the lower extremities. Mountain biking appears to be a high-risk sport for severe spine injuries. New trends of injury patterns are observed with popularity of mountain bike trail parks and freeride cycling. Using protective gear, improving technical proficiency, and physical fitness may somewhat decrease the risk of injuries. Simple modifications in bicycle-rider interface areas and with the bicycle (bike fit) also may decrease some overuse injuries. Bike fit provides the clinician with postural correction during the sport. In this review, we also discuss the importance of race-day management strategies and monitoring the injury trends.

  6. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Standards Institute (ANSI) to meet their eye protection standards. If an eye injury occurs, see an ophthalmologist or go to the emergency room immediately, even if the eye injury appears minor. Delaying medical attention can result in permanent vision ...

  7. Injury & Safety Report - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Injury & Safety Report is a mandatory post trip legal document observers fill out to report any injuries they have incurred, illnesses they have had, or...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD ... Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer ... Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ...

  10. Skateboarding injuries of today

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, L; Eriksson, A

    2001-01-01

    Background—Skateboarding injuries have increased with the rise in popularity of the sport, and the injury pattern can be expected to have changed with the development of both skateboard tricks and the materials used for skateboard construction.

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain injury Some traumatic brain injuries have lasting effects, and some do not. You may be left with disabilities. These can be physical, behavioral, communicative, and/or mental. Customized treatment helps you to have as full ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer ... Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ...

  13. Pediatric sports injuries: an age comparison of children versus adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Casciano, Rebecca; Levey Friedman, Hilary; Meehan, William P; Micheli, Lyle J

    2013-08-01

    Significant knowledge deficits exist regarding sports injuries in the young child. Children continue to engage in physically demanding, organized sports to a greater extent despite the lack of physical readiness, predisposing themselves to injury. To evaluate sports injuries sustained in very young children (5-12 years) versus their older counterparts (13-17 years) with regard to the type and location of injuries, severity, and diagnosis. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A retrospective chart review was performed on a 5% random probability sample (final N = 2133) of 5- to 17-year-old patients treated for sports injuries in the Division of Sports Medicine at a large, academic pediatric medical center between 2000 and 2009. Using descriptive statistics, correlates of injuries by age group, injury type, and body area are shown. Five- to 12-year-old patients differed in key ways from older patients. Children in this category sustained injuries that were more often traumatic in nature and more commonly of the upper extremity. Older patients (13-17 years) were more likely to be treated for injuries to the chest, hip/pelvis, and spine. A greater proportion of the older children were treated for overuse injuries, as compared with their younger counterparts (54.4% vs. 49.2%, respectively), and a much larger proportion of these injuries were classified as soft tissue injuries as opposed to bony injuries (37.9% vs. 26.1%, respectively). Injury diagnosis differed between the 2 age groups. The 13- to 17-year age group sustained more anterior cruciate ligament injuries, meniscal tears, and spondylolysis, while younger children were diagnosed with fractures, including physeal fractures, apophysitis, and osteochondritis dissecans. The 5- to 12-year-old patients treated for spine injuries were disproportionately female (75.8%); most of these injuries were overuse (78.8%) and bony (60.6%); over one third of the youngest children were diagnosed with spondylolysis. Surgery

  14. Softball Pitching and Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Aaron; Patel, Niraj

    2016-01-01

    The windmill softball pitch generates considerable forces about the athlete's shoulder and elbow. The injury pattern of softball pitchers seems to be primarily overuse injury, and they seem not to suffer the same volume of injury that baseball pitchers do. This article will explore softball pitching techniques, kinetics and kinematics of the windmill pitch, epidemiology of softball pitchers, and discuss possible etiologies of softball pitching injuries.

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  16. HAND INJURIES IN VOLLEYBALL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BHAIRO, NH; NIJSTEN, MWN; VANDALEN, KC; TENDUIS, HJ

    We studied the long-term sequelae of hand injuries as a result of playing volleyball. In a retrospective study, 226 patients with injuries of the hand who were seen over a 5-year period at our Trauma Department, were investigated. Females accounted for 66 % of all injuries. The mean age was 26

  17. Lightning injury: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritenour, Amber E; Morton, Melinda J; McManus, John G; Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2008-08-01

    Lightning is an uncommon but potentially devastating cause of injury in patients presenting to burn centers. These injuries feature unusual symptoms, high mortality, and significant long-term morbidity. This paper will review the epidemiology, physics, clinical presentation, management principles, and prevention of lightning injuries.

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising new treatments for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow ...

  20. Injury prevention in football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    other sports,[1,2] and youth football players are no exception to this. ... at risk of sports injury because of high levels of exposure at a time of major physiological change.[4] The ..... As part of injury prevention, adequate injury management and.

  1. Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forth between your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... down on the nerve parts that carry signals. Spinal cord injuries can be complete or incomplete. With a complete ...

  2. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Guy W. Fried, MD Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How ... arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  4. Knee injuries in football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    swimming and basketball.1 In 2001 it was reported to have injury rates of 1 000 times ... knee injury in football are the age of the player, a previous injury and the ligamentous .... football is possible, although the success rates may vary from ...

  5. Groin injuries in atheletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Per

    2017-01-01

    Groin injuries have a bad reputation as very difficult to diagnose and treat. However, this is not justified and in the last two decades an increasing number of good scientific papers have been published. The key to the groin injuries is the anatomy. Groin injuries are related to muscles, tendons...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal ... What is a spinal cord injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a ...

  7. Assessment of Ankle Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…

  8. [Acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; van Heurn, L.W.; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  9. Injuries in synchronized skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubravcic-Simunjak, S; Kuipers, H; Moran, J; Simunjak, B; Pecina, M

    2006-06-01

    Synchronized skating is a relatively new competitive sport and data about injuries in this discipline are lacking. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency and pattern of acute and overuse injuries in synchronized skaters. Before and during the World Synchronized Skating Championship 2004, a questionnaire inquiring about the frequency of injuries in this skating discipline was given to 23 participating teams. A total of 514 women and 14 men senior skaters completed the questionnaires (100 % response). Two hundred and eighteen (42.4 %) female and 6 (42.9 %) male skaters had suffered from acute injuries during their synchronized skating career. As some skaters had suffered from more than one injury, the total number of acute injuries in females was 398 and in males 14. In female skaters 19.8 % of acute injuries were head injuries, 7.1 % trunk, 33.2 % upper, and 39.9 % lower extremity injuries. In male skaters 14.3 % were head injuries, 28.6 % upper, and 57.1 % lower extremity injuries, with no report of trunk injuries. Sixty-nine female and 2 male skaters had low back problems and 112 female and 2 male skaters had one or more overuse syndromes during their skating career. Of 155 overuse injuries in female skaters, 102 (65.8 %) occurred during their figure skating career, while 53 injuries (34.2 %) only occurred when they skated in synchronized skating teams. In male skaters, out of 5 overuse injuries, 4 (80 %) occurred in their figure skating career, while 1 (20 %) occurred during their synchronized skating career. Out of the total of 412 injuries, 338 (82 %) occurred during on-ice practice, while 74 (18 %) happened during off-ice training. Ninety-one (26.9 %) acute injures occurred while practicing individual elements, and 247 (73.1 %) on-ice injuries occurred while practicing different team elements. We conclude that injuries in synchronized skating should be of medical concern due to an increasing number of acute injuries, especially

  10. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...... injury was €1406 (2009 price level) in the first year, and €8950 over a 10-year period. Per 100 000 population, the 10-year cost was €6 565 668. A severe traffic injury costs €4969 per person in the first year, and €4 006 685 per 100 000 population over a 10-year period. Victims of traffic injuries...

  11. [Trauma registry and injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, S C

    2001-10-01

    The trauma registry network constitutes an essential database in every injury prevention system. In order to rationally estimate the extent of injury in general, and injuries from traffic accidents in particular, the trauma registry systems should contain the most comprehensive and broad database possible, in line with the operational definitions. Ideally, the base of the injury pyramid should also include mild injuries and even "near-misses". The Israeli National Trauma Registry has come a long way in the last few years. The eventual inclusion of all trauma centers in Israel will enable the establishment of a firm base for the allocation of resources by decision-makers.

  12. Triathlon: running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Andrea M; Dixit, Sameer; Cosgarea, Andrew J

    2012-12-01

    The running portion of the triathlon represents the final leg of the competition and, by some reports, the most important part in determining a triathlete's overall success. Although most triathletes spend most of their training time on cycling, running injuries are the most common injuries encountered. Common causes of running injuries include overuse, lack of rest, and activities that aggravate biomechanical predisposers of specific injuries. We discuss the running-associated injuries in the hip, knee, lower leg, ankle, and foot of the triathlete, and the causes, presentation, evaluation, and treatment of each.

  13. [Trampoline injuries in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Antila, Eeva; Korhonen, Jussi; Rättyä, Johanna; Serlo, Willy

    2012-01-01

    Trampolines for home use have become common in Finland during the past ten years, being especially favored by children. Trampoline jumping is beneficial and constructive physical exercise, but poses a significant risk for injuries. The most common injuries include sprains and strains. During summertime, trampoline injuries account for as many as 13% of children's accidents requiring hospital care. Fractures are by far the most common trampoline injuries requiring hospital care. Injuries can be prevented by using safety nets. Only one child at a time is allowed to jump on the trampoline.

  14. Dismounted Complex Blast Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Romney C; Fleming, Mark; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Gordon, Wade T; Nanos, George P; Charlton, Michael T; Ficke, James R

    2012-01-01

    The severe Dismounted Complex Blast Injury (DCBI) is characterized by high-energy injuries to the bilateral lower extremities (usually proximal transfemoral amputations) and/or upper extremity (usually involving the non-dominant side), in addition to open pelvic injuries, genitourinary, and abdominal trauma. Initial resuscitation and multidisciplinary surgical management appear to be the keys to survival. Definitive treatment follows general principals of open wound management and includes decontamination through aggressive and frequent debridement, hemorrhage control, viable tissue preservation, and appropriate timing of wound closure. These devastating injuries are associated with paradoxically favorable survival rates, but associated injuries and higher amputation levels lead to more difficult reconstructive challenges.

  15. Airbag deployment-related eye injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koisaari, Tapio; Leivo, Tiina; Sahraravand, Ahmad; Haavisto, Anna-Kaisa; Sulander, Pekka; Tervo, Timo M T

    2017-07-04

    We studied the correlation between airbag deployment and eye injuries using 2 different data sets. The registry of the Finnish Road Accident (FRA) Investigation Teams was analyzed to study severe head- and eyewear-related injuries. All fatal passenger car or van accidents that occurred during the years 2009-2012 (4 years) were included (n = 734). Cases in which the driver's front airbag was deployed were subjected to analysis (n = 409). To determine the proportion of minor, potentially airbag-related eye injuries, the results were compared to the data for all new eye injury patients (n = 1,151) recorded at the Emergency Clinic of the Helsinki University Eye Hospital (HUEH) during one year, from May 1, 2011, to April 30, 2012. In the FRA data set, the unbelted drivers showed a significantly higher risk of death (odds ratio [OR] = 5.89, 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.33-10.9, P = 2.6E-12) or of sustaining head injuries (OR = 2.50, 95% CI, 1.59-3.97, P = 3.8E-5). Only 4 of the 1,151 HUEH patients were involved in a passenger car accident. In one of the crashes, the airbag operated, and the belted driver received 2 sutured eye lid wounds and showed conjunctival sugillation. No permanent eye injuries were recorded during the follow-up. The calculated annual airbag-related eye injury incidence was less than 1/1,000,000 people, 4/100,000 accidents, and 4/10,000 injured occupants. Airbag-related eye injuries occurred very rarely in car accidents in cases where the occupant survived and the restraint system was appropriately used. Spectacle use did not appear to increase the risk of eye injury in restrained occupants.

  16. Acute injuries of the spinal cord and spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemann, U.; Freund, M.

    2004-01-01

    Spinal injuries may result in severe neurological deficits, especially if the spinal cord or spinal nerve roots are involved. Patients may even die of a spinal shock. Besides presenting the important embryologic and anatomical basis underlying the typical radiological findings of spinal trauma, the trauma mechanisms and the resulting injuries are correlated. Special situations, such as the involvement of the alar ligaments and typical injuries in children, will be discussed as well as specific traumatic patters relevant for imaging. Based on the actual literature and recommendations of professional organizations, an approach is provided to the radiologic evaluation of spinal injuries. Advantages and disadvantages of the individual imaging modalities are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  17. Martial arts injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieter, Willy

    2005-01-01

    To review the current evidence for the epidemiology of pediatric injuries in martial arts. The relevant literature was searched using SPORT DISCUS (keywords: martial arts injuries, judo injuries, karate injuries, and taekwondo injuries and ProQuest (keywords: martial arts, taekwondo, karate, and judo), as well as hand searches of the reference lists. In general, the absolute number of injuries in girls is lower than in boys. However, when expressed relative to exposure, the injury rates of girls are higher. Injuries by body region reflect the specific techniques and rules of the martial art. The upper extremities tend to get injured more often in judo, the head and face in karate and the lower extremities in taekwondo. Activities engaged in at the time of injury included performing a kick or being thrown in judo, while punching in karate, and performing a roundhouse kick in taekwondo. Injury type tends to be martial art specific with sprains reported in judo and taekwondo and epistaxis in karate. Injury risk factors in martial arts include age, body weight and exposure. Preventive measures should focus on education of coaches, referees, athletes, and tournament directors. Although descriptive research should continue, analytical studies are urgently needed.

  18. Ice hockey injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Brian W; Meeuwisse, Willem H

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the distribution and determinants of injuries reported in the pediatric ice hockey literature, and suggests potential injury prevention strategies and directions for further research. Thirteen electronic databases, the ISI Web of Science, and 'grey literature' databases were searched using a combination of Medical Subject Headings and text words to identify potentially relevant articles. The bibliographies of selected studies were searched to identify additional articles. Studies were selected for review based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A comparison between studies on this topic area was difficult due to the variability in research designs, definition of injury, study populations, and measurements used to assess injury. The majority of injuries were sustained during games compared with practices. The two most commonly reported injuries were sprains/strains and contusions. Players competing at the Minor hockey, High School, and Junior levels of competition sustained most of their injuries to the upper extremity, head, and lower extremity, respectively. The primary mechanism of injury was body checking, followed by stick and puck contact. The frequency of catastrophic eye injuries has been significantly reduced with the world-wide mandation of full facial protection for all Minor hockey players. Specific hockey-related injury risk factors are poorly delineated and rarely studied among pediatric ice hockey players leaving large gaps in the knowledge of appropriate prevention strategies. Risk management strategies should be focused at avoiding unnecessary foreseeable risk, and controlling the risks inherent to the sport. Suggestions for injury prevention and future research are discussed.

  19. Imaging findings in 512 children following all-terrain vehicle injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Chetan C.; Greenberg, Bruce S.; Ramakrishnaiah, Raghu H.; Bhutta, Sadaf T.; Parnell-Beasley, Donna N.

    2009-01-01

    Injuries related to all-terrain vehicle (ATV) use by children have increased in recent years, and the pattern of these injuries is not well known among radiologists. Our purpose was to identify different radiologically diagnosed injuries in children suffering ATV-related trauma and determine associations among various injuries as well as between injuries and outcome. The study included 512 consecutive children suffering from ATV injuries treated at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. All imaging studies were reviewed and correlated with injury frequency and outcome using multivariate analysis. Head injuries occurred in 244 children (48%) and in five of six deaths. Calvarial skull fractures occurred in 104 children and were associated with brain, subdural and epidural injuries. Brain and orbit injuries were associated with long-term disability. A total of 227 extremity fractures were present in 172 children (34%). The femur was the most commonly fractured bone. Nine children had partial foot amputations. Multiorgan injuries occurred in nearly half of the 97 children with torso injuries. Determinants for long-term disability or death were head injuries (odds ratio 3.4) and extremity fractures (odds ratio 3.3). Head and extremity injuries are the two most common injuries in children suffering ATV injuries and are associated with long-term disability. ATV use by children is dangerous and is a significant threat to child safety. (orig.)

  20. Recreational mountain biking injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, S A; Biant, L C; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2011-04-01

    Mountain biking is increasing in popularity worldwide. The injury patterns associated with elite level and competitive mountain biking are known. This study analysed the incidence, spectrum and risk factors for injuries sustained during recreational mountain biking. The injury rate was 1.54 injuries per 1000 biker exposures. Men were more commonly injured than women, with those aged 30-39 years at highest risk. The commonest types of injury were wounding, skeletal fracture and musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Joint dislocations occurred more commonly in older mountain bikers. The limbs were more commonly injured than the axial skeleton. The highest hospital admission rates were observed with head, neck and torso injuries. Protective body armour, clip-in pedals and the use of a full-suspension bicycle may confer a protective effect.

  1. Ice-skating injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, D M; Lowdon, I M

    1986-05-01

    The range of injuries sustained at an ice-rink and presented to an Accident Service department is described. A total of 203 patients with 222 injuries presented themselves during a 2-month period. There were 103 noteworthy injuries, including 61 fractures, 2 dislocations and 2 severed tendons, but the commonest injuries were wounds, sprains and bruises. Beginners appear to be more prone to injury than experienced skaters. In addition to using well-fitting skate-boots to protect the ankle, some injuries could be avoided by wearing elbow and knee pads, and a thick pair of gloves. The number of injuries compared with the total number of skaters was small but produced a noteworthy increase in the workload of the Accident Service.

  2. Snowboarding injuries. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladin, C; McCrory, P

    1995-05-01

    Over the last 10 years, snowboarding has become established as a popular and legitimate alpine sport. However, at present, there are few epidemiological studies examining the spectrum of injuries associated with this new sport. Snowboarders are typically male (male: female ratio of 3:1) and in their early twenties. They have an injury rate of 4 to 6 per 1000 visits, which is comparable to that which occurs with skiing. However, in contrast to skiing, in which only 34% of those injured are beginners, the majority (60%) of snowboarders injured are beginners. This is a reflection of the participant profile of this developing sport. 57% of injuries occur in the lower limbs, and 30% in the upper limbs. The most common injuries are simple sprains (31 to 53%), particularly of the ankles (23 to 26%) and knees (12 to 23%), followed by fractures (24 to 27%) and contusions (12%). Compared with skiing injuries, snowboarders have 2.4 times as many fractures, particularly of the upper limbs (constituting 21 vs 35% of upper limb injuries), fewer knee injuries (23 vs 44% of lower limb injuries), but more ankle injuries (23 vs 6% of lower limb injuries). Snowboarding knee injuries are less severe than those associated with skiing. Fracture of the lateral process of the talus is an unusual and uncommon snowboarding injury that can be misdiagnosed as a severe ankle sprain. Ankle injuries are more common with soft shell boots, whereas knee injuries and distal tibia fractures are more common with hard shell boots.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Radiological imaging of sports injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masciocchi, C.

    1998-01-01

    Sports medicine is acquiring an important role owing to the increasing number of sports-active people and professional athletes. Accurate diagnosis of the different pathological conditions is therefore of fundamental importance. This book provides an overview of the most frequently observed conditions and correlates them with sports activities, as well as documenting relatively unknown lesions of increasing significance. Diagnostic techniques are described and compared, and their roles defined; interpretative pitfalls ar highlighted. All of the contributing authors have distinguished themselves in the field and have a deep knowledge of the problem involved in the diagnosis and classification of sports injuries. (orig.)

  4. Overuse Injury: How to Prevent Training Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Tips for a safe running program. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00132. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Overuse injury. The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. http:// ...

  5. Ulnar nerve injury associated with trampoline injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclin, Melvin M; Novak, Christine B; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2004-08-01

    This study reports three cases of ulnar neuropathy after trampoline injuries in children. A chart review was performed on children who sustained an ulnar nerve injury from a trampoline accident. In all cases, surgical intervention was required. Injuries included upper-extremity fractures in two cases and an upper-extremity laceration in one case. All cases required surgical exploration with internal neurolysis and ulnar nerve transposition. Nerve grafts were used in two cases and an additional nerve transfer was used in one case. All patients had return of intrinsic hand function and sensation after surgery. Children should be followed for evolution of ulnar nerve neuropathy after upper-extremity injury with consideration for electrical studies and surgical exploration if there is no improvement after 3 months.

  6. Correlation spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B [Albuquerque, NM; Pfeifer, Kent B [Los Lunas, NM; Flemming, Jeb H [Albuquerque, NM; Jones, Gary D [Tijeras, NM; Tigges, Chris P [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-04-13

    A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

  7. Ultrasonographic demonstration of intraneural neovascularization after penetrating nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arányi, Zsuzsanna; Csillik, Anita; Dévay, Katalin; Rosero, Maja

    2018-06-01

    Hypervascularization of nerves has been shown to be a pathological sign in some peripheral nerve disorders, but has not been investigated in nerve trauma. An observational cohort study was performed of the intraneural blood flow of 30 patients (34 nerves) with penetrating nerve injuries, before or after nerve reconstruction. All patients underwent electrophysiological assessment, and B-mode and color Doppler ultrasonography. Intraneural hypervascularization proximal to the site of injury was found in all nerves, which was typically marked and had a longitudinal extension of several centimeters. In 6 nerves, some blood flow was also present within the injury site or immediately distal to the injury. No correlation was found between the degree of vascularization and age, size of the scar / neuroma, or degree of reinnervation. Neovascularization of nerves proximal to injury sites appears to be an essential element of nerve regeneration after penetrating nerve injuries. Muscle Nerve 57: 994-999, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Radionuclide assessment of heterotopic ossification in spinal cord injury patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, V.

    1983-01-01

    Whole body /sup 99m/T-pyrophosphate bone scans were obtained and correlated with skeletal radiographs for detection of heterotopic ossification in 135 spinal injury patients. There were 40 patients with recent injury (less than 6 months) and 95 with injury of over 6 months duration. Heterotopic new bone was detected on the bone scan in 33.7% of 95 patients with spinal cord injuries of more than 6 months duration and 30% of 40 patients with injuries of less than 6 months. The radionuclide scan was found to be useful in detection of heterotopic ossification at its early stage and in its differentiation from other complications in spinal cord injury patients

  9. Injuries in Irish dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Cynthia J; Tyson, Kesley D; Johnson, Victor M; Popoli, David M; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Micheli, Lyle J

    2013-12-01

    Irish dance is growing in popularity and competitiveness; however, very little research has focused specifically on this genre of dance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types of dance injuries incurred by Irish dancers. A chart review was performed to identify all injuries associated with Irish dance seen in the sports medicine or orthopaedic clinics at the investigators' hospital over an 11-year period. "Injury" was defined as any dance-related pain or disorder that led to evaluation in the clinics. Survey data were also collected from study participants. Ultimately, 255 patients from over 30 different schools of dance were seen with injuries directly related (726 clinic visits) or partially related (199 visits) to Irish dance. Participants ranged in age from 4 to 47, with 95% (243/255) under the age of 19. These 255 patients received 437 diagnoses. Almost 80% of the injuries (348/437) were attributable to overuse, and 20.4% were acute and traumatic injuries (89/437). Ninety-five percent (95.9%) of injuries involved the hip or lower extremity. The most common sites were the foot (33.2%), ankle (22.7%), knee (19.7%), and hip (14.4%). Typical diagnoses were tendon injury (13.3%), apophysitis (11.4%), patellofemoral pain and instability (10.8%), stress injury (10.1%), and muscle injury (7.8%). The majority of traumatic injuries were seen in clinic within 3 weeks, but less than a quarter of overuse injuries were seen that quickly. The most common treatment, prescribed to 84.3% of patients, was physical therapy and home exercises, and the majority of dancers (64.3%) were able to return to full dance activity after injury.

  10. Lysosomes and radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    Changes in activities of lysosomal enzymes following whole-body treatment with ionizing radiation have long been recognized (e.g., Douglass and Day 1955, Okada et al., 1957). Attempts to explain nuclear damage by cytoplasmic enzyme attack, concentrated most of the earlier work on DNASE II and acid RNASE. Lysosomal enzymes have subsequently been studied in many tissues following whole-body irradiation. The observations coupled with in vitro results from isolated lysosomes, and u.v. and visible light studies on cells in culture, have led to the presentation of tentative mechanisms of action. General methods of detecting lysosomal damage have utilized the consequent activation or leakage of acid hydrolases. As this is of a temporal nature following irradiation, direct damage to the lysosomal membrane has not as yet been measured and the primary lesion either in the membrane itself or at the hypothetical site of acid hydrolase-membrane attachment has still to be discovered. Despite the accumulating evidence of lysosome disruption subsequent to treatment with radiation of various qualities, the role (if any) of these organelles in cell killing remains obscure. In the following pages a review of the many aspects of radiation damage will be presented and an attempt will be made to correlate the results and to draw general conclusions where possible. A final short section will deal with thecontribution that lysosomal damage may make in cell death and tissue injury and possible implications in radiotherapy

  11. Occupational injuries in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Arrayed, A; Hamza, A

    1995-10-01

    A study was conducted to show the problem of occupational injuries in Bahrain and try to highlight some solutions that may help to prevent or reduce workplace hazards. The data for occupational injuries between 1988 to 1991 from the social insurance records were reviewed and analysed. The data were summarized, grouped and tabulated according to age, sex, nationality, work place, type of injuries, cause and site of injury. Data were analysed statistically, frequencies were computed and results represented graphically. The study shows that there was a decline in the number of injuries in 1990 and 1991 due to a slow-down of economic activities in general in the Arabian Gulf region during the Gulf War. It also shows that Asian workers are at a high risk of occupational injuries.

  12. Paediatric treadmill friction injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremijenko, Luke; Mott, Jonathan; Wallis, Belinda; Kimble, Roy

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to report on the severity and incidence of children injured by treadmills and to promote the implementation of safety standards. This retrospective review of children with treadmill friction injuries was conducted in a single tertiary-level burns centre in Australia between January 1997 and June 2007. The study revealed 37 children who sustained paediatric treadmill friction injuries. This was a presentation of 1% of all burns. Thirty-three (90%) of the injuries occurred in the last 3.5 years (January 2004 to June 2007). The modal age was 3.2 years. Thirty-three (90%) injuries were either full thickness or deep partial friction burns. Eleven (30%) required split thickness skin grafts. Of those who became entrapped, 100% required skin grafting. This study found that paediatric treadmill friction injuries are severe and increasing in incidence. Australian standards should be developed, implemented and mandated to reduce this preventable and severe injury.

  13. Injuries in women's basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojian, Thomas H; Ragle, Rosemary B

    2008-03-01

    Women's basketball has changed over time. It is a faster paced game than it was 30 years ago. Greatplayers, like Anne Meyers,who was the first, and only, woman to be signed to an NBA contract, would agree today's game is different. The game is played mostly "below the rim" but with players like Candice Parker, Sylvia Fowles and Maya Moore able to dunk the ball, the game is still changing. The one thing that remains constant in basketball, especially women's basketball, is injury. The majority of injuries in women's basketball are similar to those in men's basketball. Studies at the high school and college level show similar injury rates between women and men. ACL injuries are one exception, with female athletes having atwo to four times higher rate ofACL injuries. In this article, we review the common injuries in women's basketball. We discuss treatment issues and possible preventive measures.

  14. Soccer injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. (orig.)

  15. Soccer injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Anne [Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, Radiology Department, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. (orig.)

  16. Soccer injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Anne

    2009-12-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics.

  17. Karate and karate injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    McLatchie, G.

    1981-01-01

    The origins of karate and its evolution as a sport are described. Karate injuries tend to occur in three main areas: the head and neck, the viscera, and the limbs. Effective legislation controlling karate, which could help prevent injuries, is lacking at the moment and should be established. Recommendations for the prevention of injury include the introduction of weight classes, mandatory provision of protective equipment such as padded flooring, and the outlawing of certain uncontrollable m...

  18. Skateboarding injuries of today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, L; Eriksson, A

    2001-01-01

    Background—Skateboarding injuries have increased with the rise in popularity of the sport, and the injury pattern can be expected to have changed with the development of both skateboard tricks and the materials used for skateboard construction. Objective—To describe the injury pattern of today. Methods—The pattern of injuries, circumstances, and severity were investigated in a study of all 139 people injured in skateboarding accidents during the period 1995–1998 inclusive and admitted to the University Hospital of Umeå. This is the only hospital in the area, serving a population of 135 000. Results—Three of the 139 injured were pedestrians hit by a skateboard rider; the rest were riders. The age range was 7–47 years (mean 16). The severity of the injuries was minor (AIS 1) to moderate (AIS 2); fractures were classified as moderate. The annual number of injuries increased during the study period. Fractures were found in 29% of the casualties, and four children had concussion. The most common fractures were of the ankle and wrist. Older patients had less severe injuries, mainly sprains and soft tissue injuries. Most children were injured while skateboarding on ramps and at arenas; only 12 (9%) were injured while skateboarding on roads. Some 37% of the injuries occurred because of a loss of balance, and 26% because of a failed trick attempt. Falls caused by surface irregularities resulted in the highest proportion of the moderate injuries. Conclusions—Skateboarding should be restricted to supervised skateboard parks, and skateboarders should be required to wear protective gear. These measures would reduce the number of skateboarders injured in motor vehicle collisions, reduce the personal injuries among skateboarders, and reduce the number of pedestrians injured in collisions with skateboarders. Key Words: skateboard; injury; prevention PMID:11579065

  19. Morphological aspects of radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Congdon, C C; Fliedner, T M

    1971-04-01

    The injury to haemopoietic and lymphatic tissues produced by ionizing irradiation in various species of mammals including man is one of the major features of the biological effects of radiation (Bond et al. 1965,' Cottier, 1961). At the moment of injury and for a short time thereafter relatively little morphological evidence of cell damage in bone marrow other than cessation of cell division and DNA synthesis is seen. Within a few hours, however, depending on the level of exposure, major destruction of red bone marrow tissue can occur. In this chapter the histologic changes in bone marrow are summarized for correlation with the functional aspects of the change in the target tissue, particularly its cell renewal features and where possible the remarkable flux or migration of cells through bone marrow and lymphatic tissues. This latter topic of cellular traffic represents the outcome of extensive physiological studies on haemopoiesis and lymphopoiesis by mammalian radiobiologists. The initial injury, the structural changes and the physiological consequences are the first half of the radiation injury sequence. Regeneration also has morphological features of major importance to the understanding of radiation haematology. It is common to discuss radiation effects on biological materials from the point of view of external or internal sources of exposure. In addition exposure rate, whole body or partial body, type and quality of the ionizing source are features that must be taken into account. While these features are extremely important, the simplest approach to understanding histologic effects on the bone marrow is to assume acute penetrating whole-body exposure in the lethal range. With this background the differences related to variations in the conditions of exposure can usually be understood. The individual human or animal organism receiving the exposure must also be considered in the final outcome of the experience because age, sex, nutritional status and presence

  20. Assessing inhalation injury in the emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanizaki S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Shinsuke Tanizaki Department of Emergency Medicine, Fukui Prefectural Hospital, Fukui, Japan Abstract: Respiratory tract injuries caused by inhalation of smoke or chemical products are related to significant morbidity and mortality. While many strategies have been built up to manage cutaneous burn injuries, few logical diagnostic strategies for patients with inhalation injuries exist and almost all treatment is supportive. The goals of initial management are to ensure that the airway allows adequate oxygenation and ventilation and to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury and substances that may complicate subsequent care. Intubation should be considered if any of the following signs exist: respiratory distress, stridor, hypoventilation, use of accessory respiratory muscles, blistering or edema of the oropharynx, or deep burns to the face or neck. Any patients suspected to have inhalation injuries should receive a high concentration of supplemental oxygen to quickly reverse hypoxia and to displace carbon monoxide from protein binding sites. Management of carbon monoxide and cyanide exposure in smoke inhalation patients remains controversial. Absolute indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy do not exist because there is a low correlation between carboxyhemoglobin levels and the severity of the clinical state. A cyanide antidote should be administered when cyanide poisoning is clinically suspected. Although an ideal approach for respiratory support of patients with inhalation injuries do not exist, it is important that they are supported using techniques that do not further exacerbate respiratory failure. A well-organized strategy for patients with inhalation injury is critical to reduce morbidity and mortality. Keywords: inhalation injury, burn, carbon monoxide poisoning, cyanide poisoning

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About ... Your email address * This iframe contains the logic required to ...

  2. Lawnmower injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Nora

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Power lawnmowers can pose significant danger of injury to both the operator and the bystander, from direct contact with the rotary blades or missile injury. Our objective was to review our experience with paediatric lawnmower-associated trauma, and the safety recommendations available to operators of power lawnmowers. METHODS: The patient cohort comprised paediatric (<16 years of age) patients treated for lawnmower-associated trauma, by the plastic surgery service, between 1996 and 2003. These patients were identified retrospectively. Age at the time of injury, location and extent of bony and soft tissue injuries sustained, treatment instituted and clinical outcome were recorded. Brochures and instruction manuals of six lawnmower manufacturers were reviewed, and safety recommendations noted. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified. The majority of injuries occurred from direct contact with the rotary blades (93%); the remaining child sustained a burn injury. Fourteen children (93%) required operative intervention. Seven patients (46%) sustained injuries resulting in amputation, two of whom had major limb amputations. All children, except the burns patient, underwent wound debridement and received antibiotic therapy. Reconstructive methods ranged from primary closure to free tissue transfer. Many patients required multiple procedures. In all instruction manuals, instructions to keep children and pets indoors or out of the yard when mowing were found. CONCLUSIONS: Lawnmower injuries can be devastating, particularly in children. Many victims have lasting deformities as a result of their injuries. Awareness of and stringent adherence to safety precautions during use of power lawnmowers can prevent many of these accidents.

  3. ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTIONS Prevalence and Social Correlates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global School-based Health Survey, injury, prevalence, social correlates, school ... factors including age, sex, residence and socioeconomic status, all of which are ... attitudes, concepts, beliefs and habits that may have long-term influences ... theories offer different explanations for the relationship between development.

  4. Comparison of clinically suspected injuries with injuries detected at whole-body CT in suspected multi-trauma victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, L.; Peachey, T.; Skipper, N.; Adiotomre, E.; Chopra, A.; Marappan, B.; Kotnis, N.

    2015-01-01

    thoracic region in 62% (103/165) cases. Of the 278 thoracic injuries, there were abdominal/pelvic region injuries in 37% (103/278) and injuries to the neck in 19% (52/278) cases. Of the 158 head injuries, there were neck injuries in 22% (34/158) cases. Conclusion: Clinical suspicion of injury correlates poorly with findings at WBCT, with a high proportion of uninjured body areas. The number of unsuspected injuries found at WBCT was low, but the majority of these were serious injuries, possibly masked by distracting injury to other body areas. The use of a WBCT protocol is recommended for suspected polytrauma, but regular monitoring of WBCT findings and regular feedback of the results to emergency physicians is suggested to help inform their selection of patients for trauma WBCT. - Highlights: • Clinical suspicion of injury correlates poorly with findings at Trauma WBCT. • Clinically unsuspected injuries found at Trauma WBCT are uncommon. • The majority of unsuspected injuries in this study were serious injuries, possibly masked by other distracting injuries. • Patterns of injury between certain body areas have been found. • Regular monitoring and feedback of the findings of WBCT to emergency physicians is advised.

  5. NDVI to Detect Sugarcane Aphid Injury to Grain Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, N C; Backoulou, G F; Brewer, M J; Giles, K L

    2015-06-01

    Multispectral remote sensing has potential to provide quick and inexpensive information on sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), pest status in sorghum fields. We describe a study conducted to determine if injury caused by sugarcane aphid to sorghum plants in fields of grain sorghum could be detected using multispectral remote sensing from a fixed wing aircraft. A study was conducted in commercial grain sorghum fields in the Texas Gulf Coast region in June 2014. Twenty-six commercial grain sorghum fields were selected and rated for the level of injury to sorghum plants in the field caused by sugarcane aphid. Plant growth stage ranged from 5.0 (watery ripe) to 7.0 (hard dough) among fields; and plant injury rating from sugarcane aphid ranged from 1.0 (little or no injury) to 4.0 (>40% of plants displaying injury) among fields. The normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) is calculated from light reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavelength bands in multispectral imagery and is a common index of plant stress. High NDVI indicates low levels of stress and low NDVI indicates high stress. NDVI ranged from -0.07 to 0.26 among fields. The correlation between NDVI and plant injury rating was negative and significant, as was the correlation between NDVI and plant growth stage. The negative correlation of NDVI with injury rating indicated that plant stress increased with increasing plant injury. Reduced NDVI with increasing plant growth probably resulted from reduced photosynthetic activity in more mature plants. The correlation between plant injury rating and plant growth stage was positive and significant indicating that plant injury from sugarcane aphid increased as plants matured. The partial correlation of NDVI with plant injury rating was negative and significant indicating that NDVI decreased with increasing plant injury after adjusting for its association with plant growth stage. We demonstrated that remotely sensed imagery acquired from grain

  6. Injuries in Cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardiwala, Dinshaw N; Rao, Nandan N; Varshney, Ankit V

    Cricket is a popular global sport that requires a combination of physical fitness, skill, and strategy. Although a noncontact sport, overuse and impact injuries are common since players engage in a wide range of physical activities, including running, throwing, batting, bowling, catching, and diving. Significant or match time-loss injuries are defined as those that either prevent a player from being fully available for selection in a major match, or during a major match, cause a player to be unable to bat, bowl, or keep wicket when required by either the rules or the team's captain. This review describes the various region-wise injuries sustained in cricket along with their epidemiology, biomechanics, treatment, and prevention. Data were collected from peer-reviewed articles (obtained via PubMed search) published through November 2016 that involved the medical, biomechanical, and epidemiological aspects of cricket injuries. Clinical review. Level 4. Cricket was one of the first sports to publish recommended methods for injury surveillance in 2005 from England, South Africa, Australia, the West Indies, and India. While the incidence of injuries is about the same, the prevalence of injuries has increased due to game format changes, increasing number of matches played, and decreased rest between matches. Bowling (41.3%), fielding, and wicket keeping (28.6%) account for most injuries. Acute injuries are most common (64%-76%), followed by acute-on-chronic (16%-22.8%) and chronic ones (8%-22%). The most common modern-day cricket injury is hamstring strain, and the most severe is lumbar stress fracture in young fast bowlers. With improved understanding of the scientific and medical aspects of cricket, along with advances in surgical and nonsurgical treatment techniques, the time to return to play has shortened considerably. While the prevalence of cricket injuries has increased, their severity has decreased over the past decades.

  7. The Evidence for Brain Injury in Whiplash Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The evidence that brain damage can occur in injuries that produce whiplash is reviewed. The clinical phenomena for the two injuries are the same. Pure whiplash injury implies no, or minimal head contact, but many patients also have head contact against a head rest or the steering wheel or windshield. The relative severity of the neck injury and the head injury distinguishes whiplash from mild closed head injury. If there is brain injury is some patients with whiplash, it, by definition, falls at the mildest end of the concussion spectrum. The relationship between these two injuries is examined.

  8. NCHS - Injury Mortality: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes injury mortality in the United States beginning in 1999. Two concepts are included in the circumstances of an injury death: intent of injury...

  9. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Injuries First Aid for Eye Scratches Protective Eyewear Children’s Eye Injuries: Prevention and Care Eye Injuries ... Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  10. Civilian popliteal artery injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with reversed vein grafting in 68 patients, primary anastomosis in 33, prosthetic graft insertion in 11, ... patients underwent delayed amputation, giving an overall amputation rate of 37.5%. .... injury, level of arterial injury and type of repair had no significant ... patients, graft occlusion, and diseased crural vessels with poor run-.

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work ... cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After ... program? play_arrow What are the most promising new treatments for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What ...

  13. Downhill Skiing Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, D H

    1981-01-01

    In brief: Lower extremity injuries are common in downhill skiing. Fifty-three percent of the skiing injuries in one study, and 81% in another, were below the knee. Twelve case reports are presented and their treatment is discussed. The author suggests that skiers undertake a physical fitness program to increase stamina and elasticity of muscles and ligaments.

  14. Injuries in mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulrapp, H; Weber, A; Rosemeyer, B

    2001-01-01

    Despite still growing attraction mountain biking as a matter of sports traumatology still lacks relevant data based on large cross-sectional surveys. To obtain an overview of risk factors, types, and main body sites of injuries occurring in mountain biking we assessed the results of a questionnaire answered by 3873 athletes. A total of 8133 single lesions were reported by 3474 athletes, 36% of whom regularly participated in competitions. The incidence of injuries in mountain biking is comparable to that in other outdoor sports, the majority of injuries being minor. Mountain biking athletes were found to have an overall injury risk rate of 0.6% per year and 1 injury per 1000 h of biking. The main risk factors included slippery road surface, cyclist's poor judgement of the situation, and excessive speed, representing personal factors that could be altered by preventive measures. Of all injuries 14% were due to collision with some part of the bike, especially the pedals and the handlebar. While 75% of the injuries were minor, such as skin wounds and simple contusions, 10% were so severe that hospitalization was required. A breakdown of the injuries according to body site and frequency of occurrence is presented.

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW Marguerite David, ... injuries. The website does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...

  16. Conquering Athletic Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Paul M., Ed.; Taylor, Diane K., Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to be a source of complete, reliable, and practical sports medicine information. Experts from the American Running and Fitness Association describe in clear language how overuse injuries occur, how to recognize and self-treat them, when to seek professional help, and how to prevent future injuries. The book also…

  17. Overuse injuries in running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Rasmussen, Sten; Jørgensen, Jens Erik

    2016-01-01

    What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence.......What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence....

  18. Telemark skiing injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggy, M L

    1996-09-01

    Telemark skiing has become increasingly popular over the past 5 years. Telemark skiing poses unique risks when compared to alpine skiing, because of different equipment, technique, and varied skiing environments. A retrospective survey of telemark skiers was conducted in Western Washington in 1994 to obtain skier information on ski habits, demographics, frequency and types of injury, and equipment used at time of injury. During the 5 month survey period, 118 (63%) of 187 surveys distributed at 7 sites were returned. The overall injury rate was comparable to alpine skiing injury rates at 10.7/1000 skier days. Less experienced skiers and women had higher injury rates, 20/1000 and 13.1/1000 skier days, respectively. The predominant injury sites were knee (41%), hip (13%), and thumb (8%). The knee injuries sustained by telemark skiers appear to be less severe than alpine skiers, with less duration of disability and lower surgical rates. An association was found between the use of plastic reinforced boots and significant ligamentous knee injuries when compared to skiers with leather boots (p < 0.01, chi 2 = 5.43).

  19. CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KINGMA, J

    1994-01-01

    The causes of occupational injuries (N = 2,365) were investigated. Accidents with machinery and hand tools were the two main causes (49.9%). 89% of the patients with occupational injuries were male. The highest risk group were in the age category of 19 years or less (51.9%). This age group also

  20. Acute posterior cruciate ligament injuries: effect of location, severity, and associated injuries on surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark A; Simeone, F Joseph; Palmer, William E; Chang, Connie Y

    2018-06-01

    To correlate MRI findings of patients with posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury and surgical management. A retrospective search yielded 79 acute PCL injuries (36 ± 16 years old, 21 F, 58 M). Two independent readers graded PCL tear location (proximal, middle, or distal third) and severity (low-grade or high-grade partial/complete) and evaluated injury of other knee structures. When available, operative reports were examined and the performed surgical procedure was compared with injury grade, location, and presence of associated injuries. The most commonly injured knee structures in acute PCL tears were posterolateral corner (58/79, 73%) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) (48/79, 61%). Of the 64 patients with treatment information, 31/64 (48%) were managed surgically: 12/31 (39%) had PCL reconstruction, 13/31 (42%) had ACL reconstruction, 10/31 (32%) had posterolateral corner reconstruction, 9/31 (29%) had LCL reconstruction, 8/31 (26%) had meniscectomy, and 8/31 (26%) had fixation of a fracture. Proximal third PCL tear and multiligamentous injury were more commonly associated with surgical management (P < 0.05). Posterolateral and posteromedial corner, ACL, collateral ligament, meniscus, patellar retinaculum, and gastrocnemius muscle injury, and fracture were more likely to result in surgical management (P < 0.05). Patients with high-grade partial/complete PCL tear were more likely to have PCL reconstruction as a portion of surgical management (P < 0.05). Location of PCL tear and presence of other knee injuries were associated with surgical management while high-grade/complete PCL tear grade was associated with PCL reconstruction. MRI reporting of PCL tear location, severity, and of other knee structure injuries is important for guiding clinical management.

  1. Preventing playground injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuselli, Pamela; Yanchar, Natalie L

    2012-06-01

    With concerns increasing around childhood obesity and inactivity, playgrounds offer a chance for children to be active. But playgrounds also have risks, with injuries from falls being the most common. Research has shown that playground injuries can be reduced by lowering the heights of play equipment and using soft, deep surfaces to cushion falls. The Canadian Standards Association has published voluntary standards for playgrounds to address these risks for several years. Parents can further reduce injury risks by following simple playground strategies. This statement outlines the burden of playground injuries. It also provides parents and health care providers with opportunities to reduce injury incidence and severity through education and advocacy, and to implement evidence-informed safety standards and safer play strategies in local playgrounds. This document replaces a previous Canadian Paediatric Society position statement published in 2002.

  2. Ankle ligament injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per A.F.H. Renström

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute ankle ligament sprains are common injuries. The majority of these occur during athletic participation in the 15 to 35 year age range. Despite the frequency of the injury, diagnostic and treatment protocols have varied greatly. Lateral ligament complex injuries are by far the most common of the ankle sprains. Lateral ligament injuries typically occur during plantar flexion and inversion, which is the position of maximum stress on the anterotalofibular liagment (ATFL. For this reason, the ATFL is the most commonly torn ligament during an inversion injury. In more severe inversion injuries the calcaneofibular (CFL, posterotalofibular (PTFL and subtalar ligament can also be injured. Most acute lateral ankle ligament injuries recover quickly with nonoperative management. The treatment program, called "functional treatment," includes application of the RICE principle (rest, ice, compression, and elevation immediately after the injury, a short period of immobilization and protection with an elastic or inelastic tape or bandage, and early motion exercises followed by early weight bearing and neuromuscular ankle training. Proprioceptive training with a tilt board is commenced as soon as possible, usually after 3 to 4 weeks. The purpose is to improve the balance and neuromuscular control of the ankle. Sequelae after ankle ligament injuries are very common. As much as 10% to 30% of patients with a lateral ligament injury may have chronic symptoms. Symptoms usually include persistent synovitis or tendinitis, ankle stiffness, swelling, and pain, muscle weakness, and frequent giving-way. A well designed physical therapy program with peroneal strengthening and proprioceptive training, along with bracing and/or taping can alleviate instability problems in most patients. For cases of chronic instability that are refractory to bracing and external support, surgical treatment can be explored. If the chronic instability is associated with subtalar instability

  3. Trampoline injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, C; Quinlan, J F; Kelly, I P

    2006-06-01

    We reviewed the records of children referred to our hospital between April and September 2005 who had been injured whilst trampolining. Of 88 such children there were 33 boys and 55 girls with a mean age of 8 years 6 months (2 years 4 months to 15 years 9 months). Most of the injuries (53; 60%) occurred when bouncing and 34 (39%) were secondary to falls from the trampoline. The cause of injury was unknown in one child. The injured child was supervised in only 35 cases (40%). In 31 (35%) cases, the injury was related to the presence of others on the trampoline. A total of 36 (40%) children required surgery. Fractures of the upper limbs occurred in 62 cases (70%). Injuries related to the recreational use of trampolines are a significant cause of childhood injury. Our results suggest strongly that there is a need for clear guidelines on safe and responsible use of domestic trampolines.

  4. Driver Injury Risk Variability in Finite Element Reconstructions of Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) Frontal Motor Vehicle Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaewsky, James P; Weaver, Ashley A; Koya, Bharath; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    A 3-phase real-world motor vehicle crash (MVC) reconstruction method was developed to analyze injury variability as a function of precrash occupant position for 2 full-frontal Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) cases. Phase I: A finite element (FE) simplified vehicle model (SVM) was developed and tuned to mimic the frontal crash characteristics of the CIREN case vehicle (Camry or Cobalt) using frontal New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) crash test data. Phase II: The Toyota HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) v4.01 was positioned in 120 precrash configurations per case within the SVM. Five occupant positioning variables were varied using a Latin hypercube design of experiments: seat track position, seat back angle, D-ring height, steering column angle, and steering column telescoping position. An additional baseline simulation was performed that aimed to match the precrash occupant position documented in CIREN for each case. Phase III: FE simulations were then performed using kinematic boundary conditions from each vehicle's event data recorder (EDR). HIC15, combined thoracic index (CTI), femur forces, and strain-based injury metrics in the lung and lumbar vertebrae were evaluated to predict injury. Tuning the SVM to specific vehicle models resulted in close matches between simulated and test injury metric data, allowing the tuned SVM to be used in each case reconstruction with EDR-derived boundary conditions. Simulations with the most rearward seats and reclined seat backs had the greatest HIC15, head injury risk, CTI, and chest injury risk. Calculated injury risks for the head, chest, and femur closely correlated to the CIREN occupant injury patterns. CTI in the Camry case yielded a 54% probability of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2+ chest injury in the baseline case simulation and ranged from 34 to 88% (mean = 61%) risk in the least and most dangerous occupant positions. The greater than 50% probability was consistent with the case occupant's AIS 2

  5. External laryngeal injuries in children--comparison of diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka-Glos, L; Jakubowska, A; Frackiewicz, M; Brzewski, M

    2013-09-01

    The injuries of the larynx constitute around 1% of all injuries. The great majority of the injuries of the larynx happens during playing. The effects of these injuries may appear insignificant however, not always the direct clinical symptoms correlate with the degree of respiratory tract failure. The symptoms of laryngeal injuries depend on the extension and strength of the trauma and always relate to impair patency of respiratory tract. The aim of the study is to compare two diagnostic methods: laryngoscopy and ultrasonography in evaluation of laryngeal injuries in children. In the Department of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw, in the period between 2004 and 2010 there were hospitalised 15 children with external injury of the larynx. From among 15 hospitalized children, 7 were qualified as not serious trauma and were treated preservatively and the other 8 as sever trauma. The mechanism of traumas was diverse. Dyspnea was a predominating symptom, the others included hoarsness, change in voice quality, even aphonia, pain while speaking and swallowing, cough and hemoptysis. Direct laryngoscopy is a standard in diagnostics of the injuries of the larynx. Ultrasonography of the larynx is recommended in every case of laryngeal injury as an additional non-invasive complementary diagnostic examination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, Anthony E; Sitrin, Robert G; Bauman, Kristy A

    2016-07-01

    Spinal cord injury commonly results in neuromuscular weakness that impacts respiratory function. This would be expected to be associated with an increased likelihood of sleep-disordered breathing. (1) Understand the incidence and prevalence of sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury. (2) Understand the relationship between injury and patient characteristics and the incidence of sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury. (3) Distinguish between obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea incidence in spinal cord injury. (4) Clarify the relationship between sleep disordered breathing and stroke, myocardial infarction, metabolic dysfunction, injuries, autonomic dysreflexia and spasticity incidence in persons with spinal cord injury. (5) Understand treatment tolerance and outcome in persons with spinal cord injury and sleep disordered breathing. Extensive database search including PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and Web of Science. Given the current literature limitations, sleep disordered breathing as currently defined is high in patients with spinal cord injury, approaching 60% in motor complete persons with tetraplegia. Central apnea is more common in patients with tetraplegia than in patients with paraplegia. Early formal sleep study in patients with acute complete tetraplegia is recommended. In patients with incomplete tetraplegia and with paraplegia, the incidence of sleep-disordered breathing is significantly higher than the general population. With the lack of correlation between symptoms and SDB, formal study would be reasonable. There is insufficient evidence in the literature on the impact of treatment on morbidity, mortality and quality of life outcomes.

  7. The role of computed tomography in blunt hepatic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Tatsumi

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) images and medical records of 283 patients with blunt abdominal trauma were reviewed. There were 67 patients with hepatic injury. Liver was the most frequently injured organ in blunt abdominal trauma. Most hepatic injuries occurred in the right lobe of the liver. Of the 67 patients with hepatic injury, 60 patients had associated other injuries. There was a high incidence of associated lung injuries (35.8 %). Of importance is the high incidence of associated head injuries (22.4 %), because, in some patients such as those with concomitant head trauma, abdominal symptom is not obvious. The associated hemoperitoneum were correlated with the mode of therapy used in each case (operative vs. nonoperative). 32 patients with hepatic injury but no hemoperitoneum were managed nonoperatively. 9 patients with hepatic injury and little hemoperitoneum were also managed conservatively. 22 patients with high density hemoperitoneum were surgically treated. By combining information on the clinical state of the patient and CT finding, therapy of hepatic injury can be individualized and the incidence of nontherapeutic laparotomies decreased. (author)

  8. Cerebral Vascular Injury in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Kimbra; Amyot, Franck; Haber, Margalit; Pronger, Angela; Bogoslovsky, Tanya; Moore, Carol; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic cerebral vascular injury (TCVI) is a very frequent, if not universal, feature after traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is likely responsible, at least in part, for functional deficits and TBI-related chronic disability. Because there are multiple pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies that promote vascular health, TCVI is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention after TBI. The cerebral microvasculature is a component of the neurovascular unit (NVU) coupling neuronal metabolism with local cerebral blood flow. The NVU participates in the pathogenesis of TBI, either directly from physical trauma or as part of the cascade of secondary injury that occurs after TBI. Pathologically, there is extensive cerebral microvascular injury in humans and experimental animal, identified with either conventional light microscopy or ultrastructural examination. It is seen in acute and chronic TBI, and even described in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Non-invasive, physiologic measures of cerebral microvascular function show dysfunction after TBI in humans and experimental animal models of TBI. These include imaging sequences (MRI-ASL), Transcranial Doppler (TCD), and Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS). Understanding the pathophysiology of TCVI, a relatively under-studied component of TBI, has promise for the development of novel therapies for TBI. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Sport injuries in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Habelt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13% followed by handball (8.89% and sports during school (8.77%. The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34% and ligament tears (18.76%; 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1 and fractures (7:2 in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6. Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3. Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1. Fractures were noted during football (1:9, skiing (1:9, inline (2:3, and during school sports (1:11. Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education.

  10. Traumatic injuries: imaging of head injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besenski, N. [Croatian Institute for Brain Research, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2002-06-01

    Due to the forces of acceleration, linear translation, as well as rotational and angular acceleration, the brain undergoes deformation and distortion depending on the site of impact of traumatizing force direction, severity of the traumatizing force, and tissue resistance of the brain. Linear translation of accereration in a closed-head injury can run along the shorter diameter of the skull in latero-lateral direction causing mostly extra-axial lesions (subdural hematoma,epidural hematoma, subarachnoidal hemorrhage) or quite pronounced coup and countercoup contusions. Contusions are considerably less frequently present in medial or paramedial centroaxial blows (fronto-occipital or occipito-frontal). The centroaxial blows produce a different pattern of lesions mostly in the deep structures, causing in some cases a special category of the brain injury, the diffuse axonal injury (DAI). The brain stem can also be damaged, but it is damaged more often in patients who have suffered centroaxial traumatic force direction. Computed tomography and MRI are the most common techniques in patients who have suffered brain injury. Computed tomography is currently the first imaging technique to be used after head injury, in those settings where CT is available. Using CT, scalp, bone, extra-axial hematomas, and parenchymal injury can be demonstrated. Computed tomography is rapid and easily performed also in monitored patients. It is the most relevant imaging procedure for surgical lesions. Computed tomography is a suitable method to follow the dynamics of lesion development giving an insight into the corresponding pathological development of the brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive for all posttraumatic lesions except skull fractures and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, but scanning time is longer, and the problem with the monitoring of patients outside the MRI field is present. If CT does not demonstrate pathology as can adequately be explained to account for

  11. Traumatic injuries: imaging of head injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besenski, N.

    2002-01-01

    Due to the forces of acceleration, linear translation, as well as rotational and angular acceleration, the brain undergoes deformation and distortion depending on the site of impact of traumatizing force direction, severity of the traumatizing force, and tissue resistance of the brain. Linear translation of accereration in a closed-head injury can run along the shorter diameter of the skull in latero-lateral direction causing mostly extra-axial lesions (subdural hematoma,epidural hematoma, subarachnoidal hemorrhage) or quite pronounced coup and countercoup contusions. Contusions are considerably less frequently present in medial or paramedial centroaxial blows (fronto-occipital or occipito-frontal). The centroaxial blows produce a different pattern of lesions mostly in the deep structures, causing in some cases a special category of the brain injury, the diffuse axonal injury (DAI). The brain stem can also be damaged, but it is damaged more often in patients who have suffered centroaxial traumatic force direction. Computed tomography and MRI are the most common techniques in patients who have suffered brain injury. Computed tomography is currently the first imaging technique to be used after head injury, in those settings where CT is available. Using CT, scalp, bone, extra-axial hematomas, and parenchymal injury can be demonstrated. Computed tomography is rapid and easily performed also in monitored patients. It is the most relevant imaging procedure for surgical lesions. Computed tomography is a suitable method to follow the dynamics of lesion development giving an insight into the corresponding pathological development of the brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive for all posttraumatic lesions except skull fractures and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, but scanning time is longer, and the problem with the monitoring of patients outside the MRI field is present. If CT does not demonstrate pathology as can adequately be explained to account for

  12. Chronic injuries of the cruciate ligaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pricca, P.; Cecchini, A.; Vecchioni, G.; Mariani, P.M.; Tansini, A.; Ferrario, A.

    1988-01-01

    The high incidence of cruciate ligament injuries as a result of acute knee trauma with hemartrosis and abuse of diagnostic arthroscopies call for a suitable radiological imaging of the central pivot. Computed Arthrotomography (CAT) was used to examine the knee joint in 20 cases of clinically suspected chronic cruciate ligament injury. The images were correlated with arthroscopic and/or arthrotomic findings. Thirteen lesions of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) (65%) were found, plus 1 lesion of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) (5%), 2 associated lesions of ACL + PCL (10%), and 4 normal cases. Confirmation of pathology was available in all cases but one by arthroscopy and/or surgery. The central pivot diseases were classified as follows: absence, detachement, partial or complete tear. CAT findings of cruciate ligament injuries are emphasized and the role of the technique as compared to arthroscopy is discussed. CAT is useful in 3-D evaluation of central pivot and detection of different cruciate ligament injuries, with high sensitivity-specifity for ACL and high specifity-moderate sensitivity for PCL. In the evaluation of the chronic unstable knee, CAT is highly accurate and gives the surgeon useful information towards the planning of therapeutic procedures. CAT is almost non-invasive, well tolerated and easy to perform in out-patients, which make it a first-choice procedure in the screening of chronic ligament injuries

  13. Injury patterns of soldiers in the second Lebanon war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Dagan; Glassberg, Elon; Nadler, Roy; Hirschhorn, Gil; Marom, Ophir Cohen; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor

    2014-01-01

    In the second Lebanon war in 2006, the Israeli Defense Forces fought against well-prepared and well-equipped paramilitary forces. The conflict took place near the Israeli border and major Israeli medical centers. Good data records were maintained throughout the campaign, allowing accurate analysis of injury characteristics. This study is an in-depth analysis of injury mechanisms, severity, and anatomic locations. Data regarding all injured soldiers were collected from all care points up to the definitive care hospitals and were cross-referenced. In addition, trauma branch physicians and nurses interviewed medical teams to validate data accuracy. Injuries were analyzed using Injury Severity Score (ISS) (when precise anatomic data were available) and multiple injury patterns scoring for all. A total of 833 soldiers sustained combat-related injury during the study period, including 119 fatalities (14.3%). Although most soldiers (361) sustained injury only to one Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) region, the average number of regions per soldier was 2.0 but was 1.5 for survivors versus 4.2 for fatalities. Current war injury classifications have limitations that hinder valid comparisons between campaigns and settings. In addition, limitation on full autopsy in war fatalities further hinders data use. To partly compensate for those limitations, we have looked at the correlation between fatality rates and number of involved anatomic regions and found it to be strong. We have also found high fatality rates in some "combined" injuries such as head and chest injuries (71%) or in the abdomen and an extremity (75%). The use of multiinjury patterns analysis may help understand fatality rates and improve the utility of war injury analysis. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  14. Chest Injuries Associated with Head Injury | Mezue | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Associated chest injuries result in higher mortality from head injuries. This association is more likely in the young and more productive. All patients presenting with head and spinal cord injury should be specifically and carefully evaluated for associated chest injuries. Computerized tomographic has not replaced ...

  15. Athletic Hip Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T Sean; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Historically, athletic hip injuries have garnered little attention; however, these injuries account for approximately 6% of all sports injuries and their prevalence is increasing. At times, the diagnosis and management of hip injuries can be challenging and elusive for the team physician. Hip injuries are seen in high-level athletes who participate in cutting and pivoting sports that require rapid acceleration and deceleration. Described previously as the "sports hip triad," these injuries consist of adductor strains, osteitis pubis, athletic pubalgia, or core muscle injury, often with underlying range-of-motion limitations secondary to femoroacetabular impingement. These disorders can happen in isolation but frequently occur in combination. To add to the diagnostic challenge, numerous intra-articular disorders and extra-articular soft-tissue restraints about the hip can serve as pain generators, in addition to referred pain from the lumbar spine, bowel, bladder, and reproductive organs. Athletic hip conditions can be debilitating and often require a timely diagnosis to provide appropriate intervention.

  16. Heelys injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, D; Arjandas, M; Lim, K B L; Lee, E H

    2006-05-01

    Heelys, a type of shoes with stealth wheels, are extremely popular among children in Singapore. The widespread availability of cheap imitations has led to a proliferation of young users. Coupled with a total lack of safety equipment and instructions, these shoes can lead to significant injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence and type of injuries sustained by children using Heelys. During a seven-month period from February to August 2004, all children treated at the Paediatric Orthopaedic Department of the KK Women's and Children's Hospital, were asked if the injury was sustained while "heeling". All the patients were reviewed by the authors. A total of 37 patients with significant injuries sustained while "heeling" were identified. Their radiographs and clinical charts were reviewed. The patients and/or their parents were also interviewed to obtain additional information. Upper limb injuries were by far the most common. Distal radius fractures and elbow injuries predominated. None of the children used safety gear. "Heeling" can lead to serious injuries despite the relatively low velocity involved. Children and their parents need to be educated on the use of safety gear.

  17. Knee injuries in skiing. A prospective study from northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, G; Gedda, S; Hemborg, A

    1980-01-01

    This paper evaluates 420 ski injuries occurring in Northern Sweden in 1977. Our main aim was to correlate knee injuries with types of skiing and to note a change in incidence with evolution of equipment. Fifty-eight lesions (13.8%) affected the knee joint which is about the same frequency as 10 years earlier nor has introduction of high stiff boots in downhill skiing increased incidence of knee injuries. Cross-country and long-distance skiing produced more knee injuries (24.7%) than downhill skiing (11.4%). Cross-country skiers were older and more women in this group sustained knee injuries. The use of non-release type bindings is probably the main reason for this higher incidence but age and different skiing techniques seem to contribute.

  18. [Injuries to the upper limbs in competitive wrestlers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, J W-P; Müller, L; Schikora, N; Eysel, P; König, D P

    2008-06-01

    Great variety of tackling and defence in wrestling in standing position and on the floor cannot be compared to other kind of sports. High demand to motoric characteristics and tournament specific movability is required. However wrestling in Germany belongs to a fringe sport there is an increase of professionality. This leads to a sufficient and high-demanded supervision. Aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate sport injuries using a questionnaire and to figure out a correlation between kind and frequency of sport injuries of different body regions. 163 questionnaires out of 200 had been evaluated. In the region of the upper limb injuries had been found in 23%. The injury rate was higher in the athletes wrestling in the 2nd league. Wrestling is a technically and tactically ambitious sport. Injuries should be evaluated very careful to minimize the risk changing tactics and training methods.

  19. Occupational open globe injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasu, U; Vasnaik, A; Battu, R R; Kurian, M; George, S

    2001-03-01

    Occupational ocular trauma is an important cause of acquired monocular blindness in a rapidly industrialising country like India. Knowledge of the epidemiology of occupational eye injuries is essential to formulate viable industrial safety measures. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with occupational open globe injuries between 1994 and 1998. We documented the circumstances of the injuries, their clinical findings and the use of appropriate protective eyewear at the time of the injury. The visual acuity 6 months after the injury was the final outcome measure. In this study period we examined 43 patients with open globe injuries sustained at the work place. Thirty-four (79.1%) patients were young males. The iron and steel industry accounted for 19 (44.2%) cases while 8 (18.6%) patients each were from the agricultural, mining and other small scale industrial sectors. At the time of the injury, 33 (76.7%) were not wearing the recommended protective eyewear and 6 (13.9%) were under the influence of alcohol. The injuries were mild in 6 (13.9%), moderate in 18 (41.9%) and severe in 19 (44.2%) patients. At the end of 6 months, 2 (4.7%) patients had a visual acuity of 6/12 or better, 4 (9.3%) had a visual acuity of 6/18 to 6/60 and 29 (67.4.%) had a vision of eyewear and alcohol-free environment at the work place is likely to reduce the incidence of severe occupational open globe injuries.

  20. Serum alcohol levels correlate with injury severity and resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alcohol consumption leads to violence and poor judgement. The resultant trauma is the leading cause of emergency department visits. In South Africa, alcohol-related emergency visits can be as high as 57%. The purpose of this prospective study was to establish the prevalence of positive blood alcohol and ...

  1. Work injuries and disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Feveile, Helene

    2009-01-01

    of 4,217 male and 4,105 female employees from a national survey were followed up for subsequent DPR. RESULTS AND IMPACT ON INDUSTRY AND GOVERNMENT: Having had a work injury was a strong predictor of DPR among men. After control for age, smoking, body mass index, body postures, and physical demands......, the hazard ratio (HR) among those employees who had ever experienced a work injury was 1.80 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-2.68). No association was found among women. SUMMARY: Having had a reportable work injury is a strong predictor of subsequent DPR for men....

  2. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision

  3. Nasal avulsion injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denneny, J C

    1987-11-01

    The nose is the most frequently traumatized portion of the human face. High-speed motor vehicle accidents and interpersonal violence commonly produce bony pyramid and septal damage and occasional minor soft-tissue damage. Major soft-tissue injuries are much less commonly encountered. Avulsion injuries of this type may involve skin only or the bony and cartilaginous framework as well. The severity of these injuries can range from total avulsion to minor skin loss and anywhere within the spectrum between. My experience is reviewed, management guidelines and options are detailed, and selected cases are presented.

  4. Sports injuries profile of a first division Brazilian soccer team: a descriptive cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme F. Reis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective:To establish the injury profile of soccer players from a first division Brazilian soccer team. In addition, we investigated the association between the characteristics of the injuries and the player's age and position.Method: Forty-eight players from a Brazilian first division soccer team were followed during one season. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the injury profile. Spearman's tests were used to verify the association between the number and severity of injuries and the player's age. Chi-square test was used to verify the association between type of injury and player's position. Fisher's exact test was used to verify the association between the severity of injuries and player's position.Results: The incidence of injuries was 42.84/1000 hours in matches and 2.40/1000 hours in training. The injury severity was 19.5±34.4 days off competition or training. Lower limb was the most common location of injury and most injuries were muscular/tendinous, overuse, non-recurrent, and non-contact injuries. Player's age correlated with the amount and severity of muscle and tendon injuries. Defenders had more minimal injuries (1-3 days lost, while forwards had more moderate (8-28 days lost and severe injuries (>28 days lost. Furthermore, wingbacks had more muscle and tendon injuries, while midfielders had more joint and ligament injuries.Conclusion: The injury profile of the Brazilian players investigated in this study reflected regional differences in soccer practices. Results confirm the influence of the player's age and position on the soccer injuries profile.

  5. Sports injuries profile of a first division Brazilian soccer team: a descriptive cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Guilherme F; Santos, Thiago R T; Lasmar, Rodrigo C P; Oliveira Júnior, Otaviano; Lopes, Rômulo F F; Fonseca, Sérgio T

    2015-01-01

    To establish the injury profile of soccer players from a first division Brazilian soccer team. In addition, we investigated the association between the characteristics of the injuries and the player's age and position. Forty-eight players from a Brazilian first division soccer team were followed during one season. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the injury profile. Spearman's tests were used to verify the association between the number and severity of injuries and the player's age. Chi-square test was used to verify the association between type of injury and player's position. Fisher's exact test was used to verify the association between the severity of injuries and player's position. The incidence of injuries was 42.84/1000 hours in matches and 2.40/1000 hours in training. The injury severity was 19.5±34.4 days off competition or training. Lower limb was the most common location of injury and most injuries were muscular/tendinous, overuse, non-recurrent, and non-contact injuries. Player's age correlated with the amount and severity of muscle and tendon injuries. Defenders had more minimal injuries (1-3 days lost), while forwards had more moderate (8-28 days lost) and severe injuries (>28 days lost). Furthermore, wingbacks had more muscle and tendon injuries, while midfielders had more joint and ligament injuries. The injury profile of the Brazilian players investigated in this study reflected regional differences in soccer practices. Results confirm the influence of the player's age and position on the soccer injuries profile.

  6. Trends in Alabama teen driving death and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Kathy; Irons, Elizabeth; Crew, Marie; Norris, Jesse; Nichols, Michele; King, William D

    2014-09-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in teens. Alabama has been in the Top 5 states for MVC fatality rate among teens in the United States for several years. Twelve years of teen MVC deaths and injuries were evaluated. Our hypothesis is that the teen driving motor vehicle-related deaths and injuries have decreased related to legislative and community awareness activities. A retrospective analysis of Alabama teen MVC deaths and injury for the years 2000 to 2011 was conducted. MVC data were obtained from a Fatality Analysis Reporting System data set managed by the Center for Advanced Public Safety at the University of Alabama. A Lowess regression-scattergram analysis was used to identify period specific changes in deaths and injury over time. Statistical analysis was conducted using True Epistat 5.0 software. When the Lowess regression was applied, there was an obvious change in the trend line in 2007. To test that observation, we then compared medians in the pre-2007 and post-2007 periods, which validated our observation. Moreover, it provided a near-even number of observations for comparison. The Spearman rank correlation was used to test for correlation of deaths and injury over time. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate median differences in deaths and injury comparing pre-2007 and post-2007 data. Alabama teen MVC deaths and injury demonstrated a significant negative correlation over the 12-year period (Rs for deaths and injury, -0.87 [p teen driver deaths and injury have decreased during the 12-year study period, most notably after 2006. Factors that may have contributed to this trend may include stricter laws for teen drivers (enacted in 2002 and updated in 2010), less teen driving because of a nationwide economic downturn, delayed licensing in teens, steady improvements in overall seat belt use, and heightened public awareness of risky behaviors in teen driving.

  7. Diagnosis and initial management of urological injuries associated with 200 consecutive pelvic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, J K; Benson, G S; Corriere, J N

    1983-10-01

    During 26 months 200 consecutive patients with fracture of the bony pelvis were evaluated and treated for urological injury. There was no correlation between the extent of pelvic injury and degree of hematuria but hematuria was present in all patients with a urological injury. All urological injuries occurred with anterior arch fractures. The over-all incidence of injury was 13.5 per cent (bladder 9 per cent, urethra 3.5 per cent and combined 1 per cent). Limited extraperitoneal bladder ruptures were treated successfully by Foley catheter drainage.

  8. Acute Gastrocnemius-Soleus Complex Injuries in National Football League Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C; Belkin, Nicole S; Kennelly, Steve; Weiss, Leigh; Barnes, Ronnie P; Potter, Hollis G; Warren, Russell F; Rodeo, Scott A

    2017-01-01

    Lower extremity muscle injuries are common in professional football. Although less common than hamstring or quadriceps injuries in National Football League (NFL) athletes, calf injuries occur with relative frequency and have not previously been studied. To evaluate gastrocnemius-soleus complex muscle injuries over the past 13 years from a single NFL team to determine the incidence of such injuries, their imaging characteristics, and return to play after such injuries and any correlation between imaging findings and prolonged return to play. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective review of all acute calf muscle injuries on a single NFL team from 2003 to 2015 was performed. Player demographics and return-to-play data were obtained from the medical records. All available magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were reviewed by a musculoskeletal radiologist for specific imaging findings that correlated with return to play. A total of 27 calf injuries in 24 NFL players were reviewed, yielding an incidence of 2.3 acute calf injuries per year on a single NFL team. Of these 27 injuries, 20 (74%) were isolated injuries to the gastrocnemius muscle, 4 (15%) were isolated injuries to the soleus muscle, and the remaining 3 injuries (11%) involved both. Defensive players were more likely to sustain injuries ( P = .043). The mean time to return to play for all 27 players was 17.4 ± 14.6 days (range, 3-62 days). MRIs were available in 14 of the 27 injuries. The average size of the fascial defect ( P = .032) and the presence of a fluid collection ( P = .031) both correlated with return to play of longer than 2 weeks. Although less common than hamstring or quadriceps muscle injuries, calf muscle injuries occur with relative frequency in the NFL, and more so in defensive players. The majority of these injuries occur in the gastrocnemius and result in significant disability, with at least 2 weeks of missed playing time on average. MRI may have an important role in the evaluation

  9. Direct catastrophic injury in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Barry P

    2005-11-01

    Catastrophic sports injuries are rare but tragic events. Direct (traumatic) catastrophic injury results from participating in the skills of a sport, such as a collision in football. Football is associated with the greatest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all major team sports in the United States. Pole vaulting, gymnastics, ice hockey, and football have the highest incidence of direct catastrophic injuries for sports in which males participate. In most sports, the rate of catastrophic injury is higher at the collegiate than at the high school level. Cheerleading is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all sports in which females participate. Indirect (nontraumatic) injury is caused by systemic failure as a result of exertion while participating in a sport. Cardiovascular conditions, heat illness, exertional hyponatremia, and dehydration can cause indirect catastrophic injury. Understanding the common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for direct catastrophic injuries is critical in caring for athletes.

  10. Prevention of childhood injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    road traffic crashes, drowning, burns, poisoning or falls), has become a major ... hugely on childhood health in terms of disability and, depending on their cause ... SA, children continue to be threatened by injuries of various kinds, although this ...

  11. Traumatic bronchial injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Cheaito, MD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: A high level of suspicion and the liberal use of bronchoscopy are important in the diagnosis of tracheobronchial injury. A tailored surgical approach is often necessary for definitive repair.

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC close close

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat T. George Hornby, PhD, PT Empowering ... Rogers, SW Marguerite David, MSW Kathy Hulse, MSW Physical Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Laura Wehrli, PT ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... com is an informational and support website for families facing spinal cord injuries. The website does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or ...

  15. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the patient has HIV or hepatitis. Facial Fractures Sports injuries can cause potentially serious broken bones or fractures of the face. Common symptoms of facial fractures include: swelling and bruising, ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW Marguerite ... play_arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD Understanding SCI Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal ... with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical ...

  19. Ocular fishhook injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, C S

    2001-06-01

    Ocular fishhook injuries are rare, yet potentially vision threatening as complications such as corneal scarring, retinal detachment and endophthalmitis may result. The surgical management of these cases is challenging due to the construction of barbed fishhooks.

  20. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Eyes Sep 20, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 ... Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us ...

  2. Injuries in classical ballet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external rotation at hip level and to undue use of point ballet slippers. The commonest lesions are in feet and ankles, followed by knees and hips. The rarest ones are in the upper limbs. These injuries are caused by exercise excess, by repetitions always in the same side and by wrong and early use of point slippers. The study reached the conclusion that incorrect application of classical ballet technique predisposes the dancers to characteristic injuries.

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury ...

  5. Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TBI Online Concussion Training Press Room Guide to Writing about TBI in News and Social Media Living with TBI HEADS UP to Brain Injury Awareness Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this topic, ...

  6. Spinal Injury: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EmergencyManual/WhatToDoInMedicalEmergency/Default.aspx?id=258&terms=spinal+injuries. Accessed Jan. 8, 2015. Marx JA, et al. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What are the chances of regaining feeling and mobility after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow How long does it usually take for feeling and movement to return after a spinal cord ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC close close

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW Marguerite ... or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill ...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC close close

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC close close

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert Videos Contact Us Personal Experience Videos Blog Videos By Topic Media Resources Donate to support families facing spinal cord ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW ... Experiences By Topic Resources Blog Peer Counseling About Media Donate Contact Us Terms of Use Site Map ...

  14. Brachial Plexus Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brachial Plexus Injuries Show More Show Less Search Disorders SEARCH SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that conducts signals from the spine to the shoulder, arm, ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... SCI Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, ... OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW ...

  16. Overuse Injury Assessment Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stuhmiller, James H; Shen, Weixin; Sih, Bryant

    2005-01-01

    ... bone stresses and strains from kinematic and ground reaction force measures. We broaden the work to address not only the overuse injuries, but the performance enhancement and metabolic demands associated with training...

  17. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are important for motion and standing. Playing sports, running, falling, or having an accident can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint dislocations, and fractures. ...

  18. RUNNING INJURY DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karen Krogh; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. PURPOSE: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runners...... able to compete in national championships and their coaches about factors associated with running injury development. METHODS: A link to an online survey was distributed to middle- and long-distance runners and their coaches across 25 Danish Athletics Clubs. The main research question was: "Which...... factors do you believe influence the risk of running injuries?". In response to this question, the athletes and coaches had to click "Yes" or "No" to 19 predefined factors. In addition, they had the possibility to submit a free-text response. RESULTS: A total of 68 athletes and 19 coaches were included...

  19. Running Injury Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Johansen, Karen; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. Purpose: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runners...... able to compete in national championships and their coaches about factors associated with running injury development. Methods: A link to an online survey was distributed to middle- and long-distance runners and their coaches across 25 Danish Athletics Clubs. The main research question was: “Which...... factors do you believe influence the risk of running injuries?”. In response to this question, the athletes and coaches had to click “Yes” or “No” to 19 predefined factors. In addition, they had the possibility to submit a free-text response. Results: A total of 68 athletes and 19 coaches were included...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow ... recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  2. Eye Injuries at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the Numbers — Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Home Leer en Español: ... that can splatter hot grease or oil. Opening champagne bottles during a celebration. Drilling or hammering screws ...

  3. Chemical and radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The paper is a discussion of radiation injuries and the treatment thereof. Radiation injuries are mainly caused as a result of nuclear leaks or nuclear bomb explosions. Such an explosion is usually accompanied by a light flash, noise, heat radiation and nuclear radiation which can all caurse various types of injuries. The general effect of radioactive radiation is discussed. The seriousness of the situation where the whole body was exposed to nuclear radiation, depends on the total radiation dose received and varies from person to person. The progress of radiation sickness is described. Mention is also made of long term radiation effects. The emergency treatment of the injured before specialised aid is available, is discussed. The primary aim of treatment is to save life and to prevent further injuries and complications. Injured people must be removed as far as possible from the point of maximum radiation. Attention must also be given to decontamination

  4. Traumatic Aortic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Miner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 48-year-old male with unknown past medical history presents as a trauma after being hit by a car traveling approximately 25 miles per hour. On initial presentation, the patient is confused, combative, and not answering questions appropriately. The patient is hypotensive with a blood pressure of 68/40 and a heart rate of 50 beats per minute, with oxygen saturation at 96% on room air. FAST scan is positive for fluid in Morrison’s pouch, splenorenal space, and pericardial space. Significant findings: The initial chest x-ray showed an abnormal superior mediastinal contour (blue line, suggestive of a possible aortic injury. The CT angiogram showed extensive circumferential irregularity and outpouching of the distal aortic arch (red arrows compatible with aortic transection. In addition, there was a circumferential intramural hematoma, which extended through the descending aorta to the proximal infrarenal abdominal aorta (green arrow. There was also an extensive surrounding mediastinal hematoma extending around the descending aorta and supraaortic branches (purple arrows. Discussion: Traumatic aortic injury is a life-threatening event. The incidence of blunt thoracic aortic injury is low, between 1 to 2 percent of those patients with blunt thoracic trauma.1 However, approximately 80% of patients with traumatic aortic injury die at the scene.2 Therefore it is imperative to diagnose traumatic aortic injury in a timely fashion. The diagnosis can be difficult due to the non-specific signs and symptoms and other distracting injuries. Clinical suspicion should be based on the mechanism of the injury and the hemodynamic status of the patient. In any patient with blunt or penetrating trauma to the chest that is hemodynamically unstable, traumatic aortic injury should be on the differential. Chest x-ray can be used as a screening tool. A normal chest x-ray has a negative predictive value of approximately 97%. CTA chest is the

  5. Overuse Injuries in Professional Ballet

    OpenAIRE

    Sobrino, Francisco Jos?; de la Cuadra, Cr?tida; Guill?n, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite overuse injuries being previously described as the most frequent in ballet, there are no studies on professional dancers providing the specific clinical diagnoses or type of injury based on the discipline. Hypothesis Overuse injuries are the most frequent injuries in ballet, with differences in the type and frequency of injuries based on discipline. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study performed betwe...

  6. Indications for computed tomography in patients with mild head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Kenichiro; Wada, Kojiro; Takahara, Takashi; Shirotani, Toshiki

    2007-01-01

    The factors affecting outcome were analyzed in 1,064 patients, 621 males and 443 females aged 10 to 104 years (mean 46±23 years), with mild head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score≥14) but no neurological signs presenting within 6 hours after injury. Intracranial lesion was found in 4.7% (50/1,064), and 0.66% (7/1,064) required surgical treatment. The Japan Coma Scale (JCS) and GCS assessments were well correlated (r=0.797). Multivariate analysis revealed significant correlations between computed tomography (CT) abnormality and age≥60 years, male sex, JCS score≥1, alcohol consumption, headache, nausea/vomiting, and transient loss of consciousness (LOC)/amnesia. Univariate analysis revealed that pedestrian in a motor vehicle accident, falling from height, and mechanisms of injuries except blows were correlated to intracranial injury. No significant correlations were found between craniofacial soft tissue injury and intracranial injury. Patients with occipital impact, nonfrontal impact, or skull fracture were more likely have intracranial lesions. Bleeding tendency was not correlated with CT abnormality. The following indications were proposed for CT: JCS score>0, presence of accessory symptoms (headache, nausea/vomiting, LOC/amnesia), and age≥60 years. These criteria would reduce the frequency of CT by 29% (309/1,064). Applying these indications to subsequent patients with GCS scores 14-15, 114 of 168 patients required CT, and intracranial lesions were found in 13. Two refused CT. Fifty-four of the 168 patients did not need CT according to the indications, but 38 of the 54 patients actually underwent CT because of social reasons (n=21) or patient request (n=17). These indications for CT including JCS may be useful in the management of patients with mild head injury. (author)

  7. Ocular injury in hurling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, T H

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics of ocular injuries sustained in hurling in the south of Ireland and to investigate reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear. METHODS: Retrospective review of the case notes of 310 patients who attended Cork University Hospital or Waterford Regional Hospital between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2002 with ocular injuries sustained during a hurling match. A confidential questionnaire on reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear was completed by 130 players. RESULTS: Hurling related eye injuries occurred most commonly in young men. Fifty two patients (17%) required hospital admission, with hyphaema accounting for 71% of admissions. Ten injuries required intraocular surgical INTERVENTION: retinal detachment repair (5); macular hole surgery (1); repair of partial thickness corneal laceration (1); repair of globe perforation (1); enucleation (1); trabeculectomy for post-traumatic glaucoma (1). Fourteen eyes (4.5%) had a final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of <6\\/12 and six (2%) had BCVA <3\\/60. In the survey, 63 players (48.5%) reported wearing no protective facemask while playing hurling. Impairment of vision was the most common reason cited for non-use. CONCLUSIONS: Hurling related injury is a significant, and preventable, cause of ocular morbidity in young men in Ireland. The routine use of appropriate protective headgear and faceguards would result in a dramatic reduction in the incidence and severity of these injuries, and should be mandatory.

  8. Longboard and skateboard injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keays, Glenn; Dumas, Alex

    2014-08-01

    The causes and events related to skateboarding injuries have been widely documented. However, little is known about longboard-related injuries. With five deaths linked to longboarding in the United States and Canada in 2012, some cities are already considering banning the practice. This study compared the types and causes of longboarding-related injuries to those associated with skateboarding. We conducted a retrospective cohort study, using an emergency-based surveillance system, on patients under the age of 18 who had been injured while longboarding or skateboarding between 2006 and 2010. A total of 287 longboarding and 4198 skateboarding cases were identified. There were more females in the longboarding group (18.8%) than in the skateboarding one (10.7%, p skateboarders were under the age of 11. Longboarders' injuries occurred mainly on streets and roads (75.3% vs. 34.3% in skateboarders, p skateboarders, p skateboarders suffered more injuries to their lower extremities (33.7% vs. 24.7%, p skateboarding. Because longboarders suffer more intracranial injuries, the importance of helmet use should be especially strongly reinforced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pediatric acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodack, Marie I

    2010-10-01

    Although pediatric patients are sometimes included in studies about visual problems in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI), few studies deal solely with children. Unlike studies dealing with adult patients, in which mechanisms of brain injury are divided into cerebral vascular accident (CVA) and traumatic brain injury (TBI), studies on pediatric patients deal almost exclusively with traumatic brain injury, specifically caused by accidents. Here we report on the vision problems of 4 pediatric patients, ages 3 to 18 years, who were examined in the ophthalmology/optometry clinic at a children's hospital. All patients had an internally caused brain injury and after the initial insult manifested problems in at least one of the following areas: acuity, binocularity, motility (tracking or saccades), accommodation, visual fields, and visual perceptual skills. Pediatric patients can suffer from a variety of oculo-visual problems after the onset of head injury. These patients may or may not be symptomatic and can benefit from optometric intervention. Copyright © 2010 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cluster bomb ocular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Hamade, Haya; Ghaddar, Ayman; Mokadem, Ahmad Samih; El Hajj Ali, Mohamad; Awwad, Shady

    2012-01-01

    To present the visual outcomes and ocular sequelae of victims of cluster bombs. This retrospective, multicenter case series of ocular injury due to cluster bombs was conducted for 3 years after the war in South Lebanon (July 2006). Data were gathered from the reports to the Information Management System for Mine Action. There were 308 victims of clusters bombs; 36 individuals were killed, of which 2 received ocular lacerations and; 272 individuals were injured with 18 receiving ocular injury. These 18 surviving individuals were assessed by the authors. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% (20/308) of cluster bomb victims. Trauma to multiple organs occurred in 12 of 18 cases (67%) with ocular injury. Ocular findings included corneal or scleral lacerations (16 eyes), corneal foreign bodies (9 eyes), corneal decompensation (2 eyes), ruptured cataract (6 eyes), and intravitreal foreign bodies (10 eyes). The corneas of one patient had extreme attenuation of the endothelium. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% of cluster bomb victims and 67% of the patients with ocular injury sustained trauma to multiple organs. Visual morbidity in civilians is an additional reason for a global ban on the use of cluster bombs.

  11. Correlated binomial models and correlation structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisakado, Masato; Kitsukawa, Kenji; Mori, Shintaro

    2006-01-01

    We discuss a general method to construct correlated binomial distributions by imposing several consistent relations on the joint probability function. We obtain self-consistency relations for the conditional correlations and conditional probabilities. The beta-binomial distribution is derived by a strong symmetric assumption on the conditional correlations. Our derivation clarifies the 'correlation' structure of the beta-binomial distribution. It is also possible to study the correlation structures of other probability distributions of exchangeable (homogeneous) correlated Bernoulli random variables. We study some distribution functions and discuss their behaviours in terms of their correlation structures

  12. Head injury as a PTSD predictor among Oklahoma City bombing survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walilko, Timothy; North, Carol; Young, Lee Ann; Lux, Warren E; Warden, Deborah L; Jaffee, Michael S; Moore, David F

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the Oklahoma City (OKC) bombing retrospective review was to investigate the relationship between physical injury, environmental contributors, and psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in an event-based, matched design study focused on injury. The 182 selected participants were a random subset of the 1,092 direct survivors from the OKC bombing. Only 124 of these 182 cases had a full complement of medical/clinical data in the OKC database. These 124 cases were assessed to explore relationships among PTSD diagnoses, levels of blast exposure, and physical injuries. Associations among variables were statistically tested using contingency analysis and logistic regression. Comparison of the PTSD cases to symptoms/diagnoses reported in the medical records reveals a statistically significant association between PTSD and head/brain injuries associated with head acceleration. PTSD was not highly correlated with other injuries. Although blast pressure and impulse were highly correlated with head injuries, the correlation with PTSD was not statistically significant. Thus, a correlation between blast pressure and PTSD may exist, but higher fidelity pressure calculations are required to elucidate this potential relationship. This study provides clear evidence that head injury is associated with subsequent PTSD, giving caregivers' information on what physical injuries may suggest the development of psychologic disorders to aid them in developing a profile for the identification of future survivors of terrorist attacks and Warfighters with brain injuries and potential PTSD.

  13. Injury Rate and Patterns Among CrossFit Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenthal, Benjamin M; Beck, Christopher A; Maloney, Michael D; DeHaven, Kenneth E; Giordano, Brian D

    2014-04-01

    CrossFit is a type of competitive exercise program that has gained widespread recognition. To date, there have been no studies that have formally examined injury rates among CrossFit participants or factors that may contribute to injury rates. To establish an injury rate among CrossFit participants and to identify trends and associations between injury rates and demographic categories, gym characteristics, and athletic abilities among CrossFit participants. Descriptive epidemiology study. A survey was conducted, based on validated epidemiologic injury surveillance methods, to identify patterns of injury among CrossFit participants. It was sent to CrossFit gyms in Rochester, New York; New York City, New York; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and made available via a posting on the main CrossFit website. Participants were encouraged to distribute it further, and as such, there were responses from a wide geographical location. Inclusion criteria included participating in CrossFit training at a CrossFit gym in the United States. Data were collected from October 2012 to February 2013. Data analysis was performed using Fisher exact tests and chi-square tests. A total of 486 CrossFit participants completed the survey, and 386 met the inclusion criteria. The overall injury rate was determined to be 19.4% (75/386). Males (53/231) were injured more frequently than females (21/150; P = .03). Across all exercises, injury rates were significantly different (P CrossFit was approximately 20%. Males were more likely to sustain an injury than females. The involvement of trainers in coaching participants on their form and guiding them through the workout correlates with a decreased injury rate. The shoulder and lower back were the most commonly injured in gymnastic and power lifting movements, respectively. Participants reported primarily acute and fairly mild injuries.

  14. Significance of prevertebral soft tissue measurement in cervical spine injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Liyang E-mail: lydai@etang.com

    2004-07-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling in cervical spine injuries. Materials and methods: A group of 107 consecutive patients with suspected injuries of the cervical vertebrae were reviewed retrospectively to identify the presence of prevertebral soft tissue swelling and to investigate the association of prevertebral soft tissue swelling with the types and degrees of cervical spine injuries. Results: Prevertebral soft tissue swelling occurred in 47 (43.9%) patients. Of the 47 patients, 38 were found with bony injury and nine were without. The statistic difference was significant (P<0.05). No correlation was demonstrated between soft tissue swelling and either the injured level of the cervical vertebrae or the degree of the spinal cord injury (P>0.05). Anterior element injuries in the cervical vertebrae had widening of the prevertebral soft tissue more than posterior element injuries (P<0.05). Conclusion: The diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling for cervical spine injuries is significant, but the absence of this sign does not mean that further image evaluation can be spared.

  15. MRI findings and return to play in football: a prospective analysis of 255 hamstring injuries in the UEFA Elite Club Injury Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Jan; Lee, Justin C; Healy, Jeremiah C

    2016-06-01

    The present study evaluated whether the MRI parameters of hamstring injuries in male professional football players correlate with time to return to play (RTP). 46 elite European football teams were followed prospectively for hamstring injuries between 2007 and 2014. Club medical staff recorded individual player exposure and time-loss after hamstring injury. MRI parameters were evaluated by two independent radiologists and correlated with the RTP data. A total of 255 grade 1 and 2 injuries were evaluated in this study. RTP was longer for grade 2 than grade 1 injuries (24±13, 95% CI 21 to 26 days vs 18±15, 95% CI 16 to 20 days; mean difference: 6, 95% CI 2 to 9 days, p=0.004, d=0.39). 84% of injuries affected the biceps femoris (BF) muscle, whereas 12% and 4% affected the semimembranosus (SM) and semitendinosus (ST), respectively. No difference in lay-off time was found for injuries to the three different muscles (BF 20±15 days, SM 18±11 days, ST 23±14 days; p=0.83). The recurrence rate was higher for BF injuries than for SM and ST injuries combined (18% vs 2%, p=0.009). The size of the oedema weakly correlated with time to RTP (r(2)=6-12%). No correlation was found between location of injury and time to RTP. The majority of the intramuscular injuries affected the MT junction (56% in grade 1 and 2 injuries), but no difference in lay-off time was found between the different types of injuries. The radiological grade and size of the oedema correlate with time to RTP for both, grade 1 and 2 injuries. No correlations were found between time to RTP and the location and type of injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Predisposing factors to lateral ankle injury in male comrades marathon runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hiemstra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: More than two million people experience ankle ligament traumaeach year in the United States. Half of these are severe ligament sprains, however verylittle is known about the factors that predispose individuals to these injuries. The purpose of this study, (which was conducted as an undergraduate research project,was to find a correlation between the characteristics of height, weight and limbdominance and lateral ankle ligament injuries. Method: A  retrospective study was conducted on 114 ultra distance runners whoparticipated in the 2006 Comrades Marathon. During race registration, the runners’ height and weight were measuredafter answering a questionnaire regarding their training. Results: 114 runners responded to the questionnaire. From this cohort, 38 (33.3% had sustained previous lateral ankle injuries. Of these 38 injuries, 47.4% of the injuries occurred on the runner’s dominant limb and 36.8% occurred on thenon-dominant side. 15.8% of the runners sustained previous ankle injuries to both ankles. There was a low negative correlation coefficient of 0.24 with regards to weight as a risk factor. This indicated that the power of the correlationwas 5.93%. The study demonstrates that there is no correlation between an increase in weight and an increase in theincidence of ankle injury. The correlation coefficient indicated a low correlation between an increase in height and the incidence of ankle injury. However, the power of the correlation at 18.37% makes inaccurate any attempt to predict the height at which a runner would be at most risk for lateral ankle injury. Conclusion: Height and weight are not risk factors predisposing subjects to lateral ankle injury. In addition, the studyillustrated that there was no effect of limb dominance on the incidence of lateral ankle injury.

  17. Pediatric trampoline injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurson, Conor; Browne, Katherine; Callender, Orla; O'Donnell, Turlough; O'Neill, Anthony; Moore, David P; Fogarty, Esmond E; Dowling, Francis E

    2007-01-01

    The recreational use of trampolines has increased dramatically during the last 10 years. There has been a striking increase in the number of children presenting to fracture clinics with injuries associated with trampoline use. This increase in trampoline injuries has been reported in North America, but there has been a paucity of research in this area in Europe. We prospectively recorded details of patients presenting to our institution, Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin (Dublin, Ireland), during the busy summer months of June, July, and August 2005. Details recorded included type and mechanism of injury, the mode of referral, treatment, inpatient days, outpatient visits, specific details relating to trampoline safety, and an analysis of the cost of medical care. There were 101 patients treated for trampoline-related injuries in 3 months from June to August 2005. This represented 1.5% of the total attendances to the emergency department. The average age was 8.5 years (range, 1.4-17.4 years). There were 55 fractures, 38 soft tissue injuries, 5 head injuries, and 5 neck injuries, with an average Pediatric Trauma Score of 11.4. Fifty seven percent (58/101) of patients were on the trampoline with at least 1 other person. Twenty patients (19.8%) were admitted to hospital requiring 71 inpatient days. Twelve patients were treated in theatre. There were 163 fracture clinic visits, 212 x-rays, and 2 magnetic resonance imaging scans. Trampolines are a high-risk activity with the potential for significant orthopaedic injury. In Ireland, we have recently seen a dramatic increase in pediatric trampoline-related injuries mirroring the trend in the United States during the last 10 to 15 years. We found that more than 1 individual on a trampoline is a major risk factor for injury, where the lightest person is 14 times more likely to be injured than the heavier. The lighter person also has a greater chance of being injured with smaller numbers on the trampoline. We reiterate

  18. MiR-19a targets suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 to modulate the progression of neuropathic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Conghui; Jiang, Qi; Wang, Min; Li, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: we aimed to investigate whether miR-19a is associated with neuropathic pain and elucidate the underlying regulatory mechanism. Methods: We established a neuropathic pain model of bilateral chronic constriction injury (bCCI). Then bCCI rats were injected with mo-miR-19a, siR-SOCS1 or blank expression vector through a microinjection syringe via an intrathecal catheter on 3 day before surgery and after surgery. Behavioral tests, such as mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia and ace...

  19. Brain injury in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John; Conidi, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Helmets are used for sports, military, and transportation to protect against impact forces and associated injuries. The common belief among end users is that the helmet protects the whole head, including the brain. However, current consensus among biomechanists and sports neurologists indicates that helmets do not provide significant protection against concussion and brain injuries. In this paper the authors present existing scientific evidence on the mechanisms underlying traumatic head and brain injuries, along with a biomechanical evaluation of 21 current and retired football helmets. The National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) standard test apparatus was modified and validated for impact testing of protective headwear to include the measurement of both linear and angular kinematics. From a drop height of 2.0 m onto a flat steel anvil, each football helmet was impacted 5 times in the occipital area. Skull fracture risk was determined for each of the current varsity football helmets by calculating the percentage reduction in linear acceleration relative to a 140-g skull fracture threshold. Risk of subdural hematoma was determined by calculating the percentage reduction in angular acceleration relative to the bridging vein failure threshold, computed as a function of impact duration. Ranking the helmets according to their performance under these criteria, the authors determined that the Schutt Vengeance performed the best overall. The study findings demonstrated that not all football helmets provide equal or adequate protection against either focal head injuries or traumatic brain injuries. In fact, some of the most popular helmets on the field ranked among the worst. While protection is improving, none of the current or retired varsity football helmets can provide absolute protection against brain injuries, including concussions and subdural hematomas. To maximize protection against head and brain injuries for football players of

  20. Trampoline-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, B J; Davis, J W

    1995-08-01

    Two hundred and seventeen patients who had sustained an injury during the recreational use of a trampoline were managed in the emergency room of Logan Regional Hospital in Logan, Utah, from January 1991 through December 1992. We retrospectively reviewed the charts and radiographs of these patients to categorize the injuries. Additional details regarding the injuries of seventy-two patients (33 per cent) were obtained by means of a telephone interview with use of a questionnaire. The injuries occurred from February through November, with the peak incidence in July. The patients were eighteen months to forty-five years old (average, ten years old); ninety-four patients (43 per cent) were five to nine years old. Eighty-four patients (39 per cent) sustained a fracture; fifty-four (25 per cent), a sprain or strain; forty-five (21 per cent), a laceration; and thirty-four (16 per cent), a contusion. Fifty-seven injuries (26 per cent) involved the elbow or forearm; forty-six (21 per cent), the head or neck; forty (18 per cent), the ankle or foot; thirty-three (15 per cent), the knee or leg; nineteen (9 per cent), the trunk or back; thirteen (6 per cent), the shoulder or arm; and nine (4 per cent), the wrist or hand. Thirteen patients (6 per cent) had a back injury, but none of them had a permanent neurological deficit. One patient who had an ocular injury was transferred to a tertiary care center. One hundred and fifty-six patients (72 per cent) were evaluated radiographically, fifteen (7 per cent) were admitted to the hospital, and thirteen (6 per cent) had an operation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Comparison of External and Internal Injury in Cases of Fatal Blunt Trauma Head Injury Autopsied at Tertiary Care Centre in Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Sah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Blunt trauma is more likely to be missed because clinical signs are less obvious in many regions of the body. This study was done with an objective to compare external and internal injuries of autopsy cases with fatal blunt trauma head injuries.Materials & Methods: This was a hospital based, cross sectional and analytical study done on the autopsy cases at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal (tertiary hospital in eastern Nepal from 13th April 2012 to 13th April 2013 with Head injuries by blunt trauma with or without concomitant non-head injuries. The decomposed bodies and the bodies where cause of trauma could not be differentiated were excluded. Postmortem examination was conducted on all the cases and the injuries present on all the body parts were noted. Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS score was given for each injury. Appropriate statistical tool was used to compare the AIS scores of external and internal injuries. The test of significance was fixed at p < 0.01. Results: The correlation of scalp injuries with that of skull fracture, intracranial hemorrhage, cerebral injury and overall internal head injury were 0.591, 0.772, 0.439 and 0.600 respectively and all these correlations were statistically significant whereas the correlation between concomitant external and internal non-head injuries is -0.092 which is statistically not significant.Conclusion: Within the limits of this study it is possible to conclude that there was significant association between periodontitis and anxiety, and depression.

  2. Injuries in Rugby Union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J E; Gibson, T

    In a prospective study of 185 players attached to 10 British rugby clubs, 151 injuries were recorded among 98 of them (53%) during a single season. Forwards sustained significantly more injuries than backs. The standard of rugby, players' body weights, degree of fitness, and presence of joint hypermobility did not affect the risk of injury. The leg was the most common site of injury. Head and neck injuries were significantly more common when play was static and on wet pitches. Scrummaging accounted for no neck injuries. Almost half the injuries occurred during the last quarter of games. Foul play might have caused as many as 47 (31%) of all reported injuries. Complete eradication of deliberately dangerous play would considerably reduce the high incidence of injuries in this sport.

  3. Whiplash Injuries: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Teasell

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash injuries remain a significant public health problem throughout the developed industrialized world, with significant socioeconomic consequences. Studies looking at the natural history of whiplash injuries have suffered from problems of selection bias, retrospective reviewing and unclear outcomes. Etiology continues to be controversial, largely because of the misconception that all soft tissue injuries heal within six weeks. Recent studies have implicated the cervical facet joint as a cause of whiplash injury pain. A recent treatment study that successfully eliminated whiplash-associated facet joint pain demonstrated abnormal psychological profiles secondary to pain which normalized with successful pain elimination. The impact of compensation on recovery remains controversial, while the concept that mild traumatic brain injury occurs in the absence of loss of consciousness has been largely refuted. The Quebec Task Force on Whiplash-Associated Disorders recently published a report in which the scientific literature was exhaustively reviewed and has made recommendations regarding the prevention and treatment of whiplash and its associated disorders. The Quebec Task Force highlighted the paucity of good scientific evidence; however, they still provided consensus treatment guidelines, which have not been validated. There continues to be a need for further research.

  4. Mole gun injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. [Injuries of the duodenum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, M P; Urakcheev, Sh K; Shlosser, K V

    2012-01-01

    Results of surgical treatment of 69 patients with injuries of the duodenum were analyzed. The most frequent causes of the injury were stab-incised wound of the abdomen (43 patients), gunshot wounds (2 patients), closed injury of the abdomen. Postoperative complications developed in 18 (26%) cases. Lethality was 20.3% (14 patients died). Injuries caused by the closed trauma were considerably more severe than those caused by wounds of the duodenum; lethality was 37.5% and 11.1% respectively. The authors discuss questions of the special diagnostics and surgical strategy for open and closed injuries of the duodenum. Causes of the development of unfavorable outcomes were pyo-septic complications associated with progressing retroperitoneal phlegmons, peritonitis, development of traumatic pancreatitis, incompetent sutures of the duodenum with a formed duodenal fistula. Therefore, the effective prophylactics of incompetent sutures of the duodenum is its decompression with aspiration of the duodenal contents as well as decreased secretion by means of drainage of the bile excreting ducts and medicamental suppression of synthesis of the digestion enzymes of the pancreas and duodenum using Octreatid which allowed considerable decrease of the number of postoperative complications.

  6. Robust human body model injury prediction in simulated side impact crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golman, Adam J; Danelson, Kerry A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a parametric methodology to robustly predict occupant injuries sustained in real-world crashes using a finite element (FE) human body model (HBM). One hundred and twenty near-side impact motor vehicle crashes were simulated over a range of parameters using a Toyota RAV4 (bullet vehicle), Ford Taurus (struck vehicle) FE models and a validated human body model (HBM) Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS). Three bullet vehicle crash parameters (speed, location and angle) and two occupant parameters (seat position and age) were varied using a Latin hypercube design of Experiments. Four injury metrics (head injury criterion, half deflection, thoracic trauma index and pelvic force) were used to calculate injury risk. Rib fracture prediction and lung strain metrics were also analysed. As hypothesized, bullet speed had the greatest effect on each injury measure. Injury risk was reduced when bullet location was further from the B-pillar or when the bullet angle was more oblique. Age had strong correlation to rib fractures frequency and lung strain severity. The injuries from a real-world crash were predicted using two different methods by (1) subsampling the injury predictors from the 12 best crush profile matching simulations and (2) using regression models. Both injury prediction methods successfully predicted the case occupant's low risk for pelvic injury, high risk for thoracic injury, rib fractures and high lung strains with tight confidence intervals. This parametric methodology was successfully used to explore crash parameter interactions and to robustly predict real-world injuries.

  7. Development of brain injury criteria (BrIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takhounts, Erik G; Craig, Matthew J; Moorhouse, Kevin; McFadden, Joe; Hasija, Vikas

    2013-11-01

    between CSDM - BrIC and MPS - BrIC respectively. AIS 3+, 4+ and 5+ field risk of anatomic brain injuries was also estimated using the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database for crash conditions similar to the frontal NCAP and side impact conditions that the ATDs were tested in. This was done to assess the risk curve ratios derived from HIC risk curves. The results of the study indicated that: (1) the two available human head models - SIMon and GHBMC - were found to be highly correlated when CSDMs and max principal strains were compared; (2) BrIC correlates best to both - CSDM and MPS, and rotational velocity (not rotational acceleration) is the mechanism for brain injuries; and (3) the critical values for angular velocity are directionally dependent, and are independent of the ATD used for measuring them. The newly developed brain injury criterion is a complement to the existing HIC, which is based on translational accelerations. Together, the two criteria may be able to capture most brain injuries and skull fractures occurring in automotive or any other impact environment. One of the main limitations for any brain injury criterion, including BrIC, is the lack of human injury data to validate the criteria against, although some approximation for AIS 2+ injury is given based on the angular velocities calculated at 50% probability of concussion in college football players instrumented with 5 DOF helmet system. Despite the limitations, a new kinematic rotational brain injury criterion - BrIC - may offer a way to capture brain injuries in situations when using translational accelerations based HIC alone may not be sufficient.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakudo, Miyuki; Inoue, Yuichi; Fukuda, Teruo

    1988-01-01

    Forty-three MR examinations of 30 patients with spinal cord injuries were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate MR findings of the injured cord and to correlate them with the time interval from the day of spinal cord injury. There were 18 cysts, 8 ''myelomalacias'', 2 cord atrophies, one intramedullary hematoma and two transections. In one patient, ''myelomalacia'' became a cyst on the follow-up study. Large cysts of more than 6 vertebral segments were found in 7 patients, all of whom had had trauma more than 5 years prior to examination. Small cysts of less than half a vertebral height were seen in 5 patients, all of whom were studied 3 to 6 months after the injury. Intermediate cysts were seen in 7 patients who had sustained trauma more than a year before. In a majority (13/14 scans) of ''myelomalacia'', the time interval from injury until examination was only 2 weeks to 6 months. Of the 14 patients who showed post-traumatic progressive myelopathy, seven had large cysts. It is known that intramedullary hematoma becomes a cyst, and that post-traumatic myelomalacia probably results in a cyst in animal studies. Our clinical study seems to support a strong causal relation between myelomalacia and post-traumatic cysts. Since post-traumatic progressive myelopathy with a cyst is surgically treatable, follow-up MR imaging is preferable in cases with myelomalacia. (author)

  9. Type II collagen C2C epitope in human synovial fluid and serum after knee injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumahashi, N; Swärd, P; Larsson, S

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Investigate in a cross-sectional study time-dependent changes of synovial fluid type II collagen epitope C2C concentrations after knee injury and correlate to other joint injury biomarkers. METHODS: Synovial fluid samples were aspirated between 0 days and 7 years after injury (n = 235...... = 0.403, P type II collagen (r = 0.444, P = 0.003), ARGS-aggrecan (r = 0.337, P ... with an immediate and sustained local degradation of type II collagen....

  10. MRI patterns in prolonged low response states following traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Peter D; Mabry, Jennifer L; Gurka, Matthew J; Buck, Marcia L; Boatwright, Evelyn; Blackman, James A

    2007-01-01

    To explore the relationship between location and pattern of brain injury identified on MRI and prolonged low response state in children post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). This observational study compared 15 children who spontaneously recovered within 30 days post-TBI to 17 who remained in a prolonged low response state. 92.9% of children with brain stem injury were in the low response group. The predicted probability was 0.81 for brain stem injury alone, increasing to 0.95 with a regional pattern of injury to the brain stem, basal ganglia, and thalamus. Low response state in children post-TBI is strongly correlated with two distinctive regions of injury: the brain stem alone, and an injury pattern to the brain stem, basal ganglia, and thalamus. This study demonstrates the need for large-scale clinical studies using MRI as a tool for outcome assessment in children and adolescents following severe TBI.

  11. Ballet injuries: injury incidence and severity over 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nick; Nevill, Alan; Brooks, John; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew

    2012-09-01

    Prospective, descriptive single-cohort study. To assess the incidence and severity of injuries to a professional ballet company over 1 year. Data for an elite-level ballet company of 52 professional dancers were collected by an in-house medical team using a time-loss injury definition. A total of 355 injuries were recorded, with an overall injury incidence of 4.4 injuries per 1000 hours (female, 4.1; male, 4.8; P>.05) and a mean of 6.8 injuries per dancer (female, 6.3; male, 7.3; P>.05). Mean injury severity was 7 days (female, 4; male, 9; P.05); mean severity of injury was 3 days for females and 9 days for males (PSports Phys Ther 2012;42(9):781-790. Epub 19 July 2012. doi:10.2519/jospt.2012.3893.

  12. Ocular injuries and eye care seeking patterns following injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the extent of ocular injuries and health seeking patterns following these injuries are unknown among cocoa farmers in ... policy exists in Ghana for the occupational health and safety of ...... Cambridge,. UK:University Press.1963. 29.

  13. Injuries in professional Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targett, S G

    1998-10-01

    To document injury rates in professional rugby players in the Rugby Super 12 competition and to act as a pilot study for future studies of rugby injuries. Prospective longitudinal study encompassing the 1997 Super 12 rugby season. A New Zealand Super 12 rugby squad. 25 professional rugby players (replacement players were used for unavailable players, so although 30 different players were used during the season, there were only 25 in the squad at any one time). An "injury" was defined as something that prevented a player from taking part in two training sessions, from playing the next week, or something requiring special medical treatment (suturing or special investigations). An injury was "significant" if it prevented the player from being able to play one week after sustaining it (that is, if it made the player miss the next match). The overall injury rate was 120/1000 player hours. The rate of significant injuries was 45/1000 player hours. Those playing the position of "forward" had a higher overall injury rate than other players, but there was no difference in significant injury rate between the forwards and the backs. Injuries that caused players to miss game time occurred almost exclusively during the pre-season program or in the final third of the season. The majority of injuries were musculo-tendinous sprains or strains. The phase of play responsible for the majority of injuries was the tackle. The most frequently injured body part was the head and face. No catastrophic injuries occurred during the study period. Injury rates increase with increasing grade of rugby, injury rates in the Super 12 competition being higher than in first grade rugby. There is very little quality data on rugby injuries, and the few studies available use different methods of data collection and injury definition. There is a pressing need for the collection of accurate ongoing epidemiological data on injuries in rugby.

  14. A season of football injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, M A; McKeever, J A; McQuillan, R F; O'Higgins, N J

    1994-06-01

    All rugby and soccer players presenting to the Accident & Emergency department during the football season 1992-1993 (a total of 871) were prospectively studied to compare the injuries sustained in the two sports. The nature and site of injury, treatment required, age, fitness, experience and position of the player, situation giving rise to injury, and medical attention at the grounds were all analysed. The results show that rugby and soccer players had the same number of injuries, and while there were some differences in the nature of the injuries, there was no difference in overall severity. Rugby flankers and soccer goalkeepers are particularly at risk. Competitive matches produce more injuries than training sessions. Experience or fitness did not appear to be a factor and 45% of rugby injuries and 15% of soccer injuries were from school matches. Law changes (e.g. the rugby scrum and the use of gum-shields) have reduced some injuries, but other areas (e.g. jumping for the ball in soccer, rucks and mauls in rugby) also warrant consideration. There was one death, but no spinal cord injuries. Medical attention at the grounds was limited. Rugby injuries, therefore, do not appear to be more numerous or severe than soccer injuries. Law changes have been of benefit but they need to be enforced and perhaps more should be considered. Medical attention at sports grounds could be improved and Registers of injuries kept by the sporting bodies would be of benefit.

  15. Gene Expression Analysis to Assess the Relevance of Rodent Models to Human Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Timothy E; Lofgren, Shane; Khatri, Purvesh; Rogers, Angela J

    2017-08-01

    The relevance of animal models to human diseases is an area of intense scientific debate. The degree to which mouse models of lung injury recapitulate human lung injury has never been assessed. Integrating data from both human and animal expression studies allows for increased statistical power and identification of conserved differential gene expression across organisms and conditions. We sought comprehensive integration of gene expression data in experimental acute lung injury (ALI) in rodents compared with humans. We performed two separate gene expression multicohort analyses to determine differential gene expression in experimental animal and human lung injury. We used correlational and pathway analyses combined with external in vitro gene expression data to identify both potential drivers of underlying inflammation and therapeutic drug candidates. We identified 21 animal lung tissue datasets and three human lung injury bronchoalveolar lavage datasets. We show that the metasignatures of animal and human experimental ALI are significantly correlated despite these widely varying experimental conditions. The gene expression changes among mice and rats across diverse injury models (ozone, ventilator-induced lung injury, LPS) are significantly correlated with human models of lung injury (Pearson r = 0.33-0.45, P human lung injury. Predicted therapeutic targets, peptide ligand signatures, and pathway analyses are also all highly overlapping. Gene expression changes are similar in animal and human experimental ALI, and provide several physiologic and therapeutic insights to the disease.

  16. Leadership, infrastructure and capacity to support child injury prevention: can these concepts help explain differences in injury mortality rankings between 18 countries in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, J Morag; Vincenten, Joanne A

    2012-02-01

    Mortality and morbidity rates, traditionally used indicators for child injury, are limited in their ability to explain differences in child injury between countries, are inadequate in capturing actions to address the problem of child injury and do not adequately identify progress made within countries. There is a need for a broader set of indicators to help better understand the success of countries with low rates of child injury, provide guidance and benchmarks for policy makers looking to make investments to reduce their rates of fatal and non-fatal child injury and allow monitoring of progress towards achieving these goals. This article describes an assessment of national leadership, infrastructure and capacity in the context of child injury prevention in 18 countries in Europe and explores the potential of these to be used as additional indicators to support child injury prevention practice. Partners in 18 countries coordinated data collection on 21 items relating to leadership, infrastructure and capacity. Responses were coded into an overall score and scores for each of the three areas and were compared with child injury mortality rankings using Spearman's rank correlation. Overall score and scores for leadership and capacity were significantly negatively correlated to child injury mortality ranking. Findings of this preliminary work suggest that these three policy areas may provide important guidance for the types of commitments that are needed in the policy arena to support advances in child safety and their assessment a way to measure progress.

  17. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have be...

  18. Skiing injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, M S

    1982-07-01

    Skiing injuries in children continue to represent a significant health problem. The incidence of injuries in young teenagers remains significantly above the rate for all ages, and tibial fractures are particularly common. Continued efforts are needed to design adequate binding systems for the child that will account for the demands of a broad range of varying sizes and skill levels. As organized competition becomes more popular, there must be an increasing awareness and supervision of the unique musculoskeletal requirements of young competitors in both Alpine and Nordic events.

  19. Traumatic injuries: imaging of thoracic injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavelli, G.; Canini, R.; Bertaccini, P.; Battista, G.; Bna, C.; Fattori, R.

    2002-01-01

    Chest trauma is one of the most important causes of death, in particular in individuals under the age of 40 years. The mortality rate for chest trauma, often related to motor vehicle accidents, is approximately 15.5%; it increases dramatically to 77% with associated shock and head injury (Glasgow scores of 3-4). The accurate diagnosis of pathologies consequent to blunt chest trauma depends on a complete knowledge of the different clinical and radiological manifestations. The first diagnostic approach is classically based on chest X-ray often carried out on supine position at the hospital admission. A CT study must then be performed in all chest trauma patients in whom there is even the smallest diagnostic doubt on plain film. In particular, spiral CT (SCT) assumes a fundamental role in the demonstration of mediastinal hemorrhage and direct signs of aortic lesions. At present, SCT is routinely part of a diagnostic evaluation which also includes scans of the brain and the abdomen in polytraumatized patients. Magnetic resonance is the ideal method for visualizing diaphragmatic lesions. Furthermore, recent reports have demonstrated the high diagnostic value of MR in evaluating aortic injuries. The purpose of this article is to review the most common radiological patterns related to chest trauma. (orig.)

  20. Ocular injuries and eye care seeking patterns following injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The work environment of cocoa farmers exposes them to several ocular hazards that predispose them to eye diseases and injuries. However, the extent of ocular injuries and health seeking patterns following these injuries are unknown among cocoa farmers in Ghana. Objectives: To determine the prevalence ...

  1. Mitochondrial Mechanisms of Neuronal Injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, Ian

    1999-01-01

    .... In the acute form, this injury accounts for neural injury following stroke and head trauma, while in the chronic phenotype, it may account for degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease...

  2. Predictors of paediatric injury mortality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PTS) and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) were tested against outcome by binary logistic regression analysis. Results. Five hundred and seventy-six children presented with injury during the study period with 22 deaths, giving an injury mortality ...

  3. Radiation Injury to the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hits since January 2003 RADIATION INJURY TO THE BRAIN Radiation treatments affect all cells that are targeted. ... fractions, duration of therapy, and volume of [healthy brain] nervous tissue irradiated influence the likelihood of injury. ...

  4. Rotator Cuff Injuries - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotator Cuff Injuries URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotator Cuff Injuries - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  5. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... joint Quickly stop moving and change direction while running, landing from a jump, or turning Basketball, football, soccer, and skiing are common sports linked to ACL tears. ACL injuries often occur with other injuries. For example, an ...

  6. Analyzing injury severity of bus passengers with different movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duo; Zhao, Yifei; Bai, Qiang; Zhou, Bei; Ling, Hongbiao

    2017-07-04

    Though public transport vehicles are rarely involved in mass casualty accidents, when they are, the number of injuries and fatalities is usually high due to the high passenger capacity. Of the few studies that have been conducted on bus safety, the majority focused on vehicle safety features, road environmental factors, as well as driver characteristics. Nevertheless, few studies have attempted to investigate the underlying risk factors related to bus occupants. This article presents an investigation aimed at identifying the risk factors affecting injury severity of bus passengers with different movements. Three different passenger movement types including standing, seated, and boarding/alighting were analyzed individually using classification and regression tree (CART) method based on publicly available accident database of Great Britain. According to the results of exploratory analyses, passenger age and vehicle maneuver are associated with passenger injury severity in all 3 types of accidents. Moreover, the variable "skidding and overturning" is associated with injury severity of seated passengers and driver age is correlated with injury severity of standing and boarding/alighting passengers. The CART method shows its ability to identify and easily explain the complicated patterns affecting passenger injury severity. Several countermeasures to reduce bus passenger injury severity are recommended.

  7. Characteristics of injuries among young cross-country skiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boguszewski Dariusz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop information about injuries in cadet and junior cross-country skiers. Material and methods. Fifty female (n=21 and male (n=29 competitors from Podhale were in research group. Skiers completed questionnaire. The questions concerned the location of injuries, types of injuries, methods of treatments and rehabilitation and recovery exercises. Results. The most frequent injury in the research group was bruises, cuts and sprains and muscle strain. Few people had suffered broken bones and muscle ruptures. The most of the skiers suffered knee injuries. As a treatment PRICEMM procedure has been introduced. The main method of recovery was rest from training. Conclusions. No correlation was found epidemiology of injuries and the treatment, gender, age, level of sport and the number of starts of the season. Sports training and recovery should be similar In each group (female and male competitors. Players starting considerably more likely to devote less time to treatment and improvement of injury.

  8. Assessment of emerging biomarkers of liver injury in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Shelli; Warner, Roscoe; Bock, Jeff; Johnson, Kent; Potter, David; Van Winkle, Joyce; Aubrecht, Jiri

    2013-04-01

    Hepatotoxicity remains a major challenge in drug development. Although alanine aminotransferase (ALT) remains the gold standard biomarker of liver injury, alternative biomarker strategies to better predict the potential for severe drug-induced liver injury (DILI) are essential. In this study, we evaluated the utility of glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and paraxonase 1 (PON1) as indicators of liver injury in cohorts of human subjects, including healthy subjects across age and gender, subjects with a variety of liver impairments, and several cases of acetaminophen poisoning. In the healthy subjects, levels of GLDH and MDH were not affected by age or gender. Reference ranges for GLDH and MDH in healthy subjects were 1-10 and 79-176U/L, respectively. In contrast, the levels of PON1 and PNP were not consistent across cohorts of healthy subjects. Furthermore, GLDH and MDH had a strong correlation with elevated ALT levels and possessed a high predictive power for liver injury, as determined by ROC analysis. In contrast, PON1 and PNP did not detect liver injury in our study. Finally, evaluation of patients with acetaminophen-induced liver injury provided evidence that both GLDH and MDH might have utility as biomarkers of DILI in humans. This study is the first to evaluate GLDH, MDH, PON1, and PNP in a large number of human subjects and, and it provides an impetus for prospective clinical studies to fully evaluate the diagnostic value of GLDH and MDH for detection of liver injury.

  9. Prevention of injury in karate.

    OpenAIRE

    Johannsen, H V; Noerregaard, F O

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyse the effect of knuckle protection on the type and incidence of injuries in traditional karate contests. Knuckle protection was mandatory at the Danish karate championships 1983 and 1986 (290 matches, 0.26 injuries per match), and prohibited at the championships 1984 and 1985 (620 matches, 0.25 injuries per match). Head injuries were more common in the tournaments where fist pads were used. The incidences of transitory psychomotor disturbances following b...

  10. Radiology of musculoskeletal stress injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    With the new emphasis on physical fitness, musculoskeletal stress injuries are being seen with greater frequency in children and adults, and in locations that are not widely associated with stress injury. Some of the injuries continue to be mistaken for signs of more serious illnesses, such as infection and neoplasm, and this may lead to unnecessary investigative effort. This book covers both the classic stress injuries and the new manifestations

  11. Time dysperception perspective for acquired brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica ePiras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distortions of time perception are presented by a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we survey timing abilities in clinical populations with acquired brain injuries in key cerebral areas recently implicated in human studies of timing. We purposely analyzed the complex relationship between cognitive and contextual factors involved in time estimation, as to characterize the correlation between timed and other cognitive behaviors in each group. We assume that interval timing is a solid construct to study cognitive dysfunctions following brain injury, as timing performance is a sensitive metric of information processing, while temporal cognition has the potential of influencing a wide range of cognitive processes. Moreover, temporal performance is a sensitive assay of damage to the underlying neural substrate after a brain insult. Further research in neurological and psychiatric patients will definitively answer the question of whether time distortions are manifestations of cognitive and behavioral symptoms of brain damage and definitively clarify their mechanisms.

  12. Brain Injury Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Only) 1-800-444-6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) Brain injury is not an event or an outcome. ... misunderstood, under-funded neurological disease. People who sustain brain injuries must have timely access to expert trauma ...

  13. Geriatric fall-related injuries.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The majority of geriatric fall-related injuries were due to fall from the same level at home. Assessment of risk fac- tors for falls including home hazards is essential for prevention of geriatric fall-related injuries. Keywords: Accidental fall, geriatrics, injury, trauma registry. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v16i2.24.

  14. Evaluation after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudel, Tina M.; Halper, James; Pines, Hayley; Cancro, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    It is important to determine if a traumatic brain injury (TBI) has occurred when an individual is assessed in a hospital emergency room after a car accident, fall, or other injury that affects the head. This determination influences decisions about treatment. It is essential to screen for the injury, because the sooner they begin appropriate…

  15. Mountain biking injuries: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronisch, Robert L; Pfeiffer, Ronald P

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the available literature regarding injuries in off-road bicyclists. Recent progress in injury research has allowed the description of several patterns of injury in this sport. Mountain biking remains popular, particularly among young males, although sales and participation figures have decreased in the last several years. Competition in downhill racing has increased, while cross-country racing has decreased somewhat in popularity. Recreational riders comprise the largest segment of participants, but little is known about the demographics and injury epidemiology of noncompetitive mountain cyclists. Most mountain bikers participating in surveys reported a history of previous injuries, but prospective studies conducted at mountain bike races have found injury rates of bike racing the risk of injury may be higher for women than men. Minor injuries such as abrasions and contusions occur frequently, but are usually of little consequence. Fractures usually involve the torso or upper extremities, and shoulder injuries are common. Head and face injuries are not always prevented by current helmet designs. Fatal injuries are rare but have been reported. Improvements in safety equipment, rider training and racecourse design are suggested injury prevention measures. The authors encourage continued research in this sport.

  16. Throwing Injuries of the Shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Frank C., III; and Others

    The majority of shoulder injuries occurring in throwing sports involve the soft tissue structures. Injuries often occur when the unit is overstretched to a point near its greatest length, involving the elastic tissues. The other injury mechanism involves the contractural unit of the muscle, which occurs near the midpoint of contractions, involving…

  17. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  18. Weight-training injuries. Common injuries and preventative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, L J; Yetman, R J; Risser, W L

    1993-07-01

    The use of weights is an increasingly popular conditioning technique, competitive sport and recreational activity among children, adolescents and young adults. Weight-training can cause significant musculoskeletal injuries such as fractures, dislocations, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disk herniation, and meniscal injuries of the knee. Although injuries can occur during the use of weight machines, most apparently happen during the aggressive use of free weights. Prepubescent and older athletes who are well trained and supervised appear to have low injury rates in strength training programmes. Good coaching and proper weightlifting techniques and other injury prevention methods are likely to minimise the number of musculoskeletal problems caused by weight-training.

  19. Pediatric acute lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahlem, P.; van Aalderen, W. M. C.; Bos, A. P.

    2007-01-01

    Among ventilated children, the incidence of acute lung injury (ALI) was 9%; of that latter group 80% developed the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The population-based prevalence of pediatric ARDS was 5.5 cases/100.000 inhabitants. Underlying diseases in children were septic shock (34%),

  20. Injuries in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, S. Bloemhoff, A. Harris, S. Kampen, L.T.B. van & Schoots, W.

    1998-01-01

    As a repeat of a survey carried out in 1986-1987, a telephone survey was conducted. More than 25,000 households, comprising over 67,000 persons, were questioned about any recent traffic, home and leisure, sports and occupational injuries. Expressed as a national number, a total of approximately