A simplified BBGKY hierarchy for correlated fermions from a stochastic mean-field approach
Lacroix, Denis; Tanimura, Yusuke; Ayik, Sakir; Yilmaz, Bulent
2016-04-01
The stochastic mean-field (SMF) approach allows to treat correlations beyond mean-field using a set of independent mean-field trajectories with appropriate choice of fluctuating initial conditions. We show here that this approach is equivalent to a simplified version of the Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy between one-, two-, ..., N -body degrees of freedom. In this simplified version, one-body degrees of freedom are coupled to fluctuations to all orders while retaining only specific terms of the general BBGKY hierarchy. The use of the simplified BBGKY is illustrated with the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model. We show that a truncated version of this hierarchy can be useful, as an alternative to the SMF, especially in the weak coupling regime to get physical insight in the effect beyond mean-field. In particular, it leads to approximate analytical expressions for the quantum fluctuations both in the weak and strong coupling regime. In the strong coupling regime, it can only be used for short time evolution. In that case, it gives information on the evolution time-scale close to a saddle point associated to a quantum phase-transition. For long time evolution and strong coupling, we observed that the simplified BBGKY hierarchy cannot be truncated and only the full SMF with initial sampling leads to reasonable results.
A simplified BBGKY hierarchy for correlated fermionic systems from a Stochastic Mean-Field approach
Lacroix, Denis; Ayik, Sakir; Yilmaz, Bulent
2015-01-01
The stochastic mean-field (SMF) approach allows to treat correlations beyond mean-field using a set of independent mean-field trajectories with appropriate choice of fluctuating initial conditions. We show here, that this approach is equivalent to a simplified version of the Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy between one-, two-, ..., N-body degrees of freedom. In this simplified version, one-body degrees of freedom are coupled to fluctuations to all orders while retaining only specific terms of the general BBGKY hierarchy. The use of the simplified BBGKY is illustrated with the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model. We show that a truncated version of this hierarchy can be useful, as an alternative to the SMF, especially in the weak coupling regime to get physical insight in the effect beyond mean-field. In particular, it leads to approximate analytical expressions for the quantum fluctuations both in the weak and strong coupling regime. In the strong coupling regime, it can only be used for sho...
Kinetic hierarchy and propagation of chaos in biological swarm models
Carlen, Eric; Chatelin, Robin; Degond, Pierre; Wennberg, Bernt
2011-01-01
We consider two models of biological swarm behavior. In these models, pairs of particles interact to adjust their velocities one to each other. In the first process, called 'BDG', they join their average velocity up to some noise. In the second process, called 'CL', one of the two particles tries to join the other one's velocity. This paper establishes the master equations and BBGKY hierarchies of these two processes. It investigates the infinite particle limit of the hierarchies at large tim...
Mean field propagation of Wigner measures and BBGKY hierarchies for general bosonic states
AMMARI, Zied; Nier, Francis
2011-01-01
International audience Contrary to the finite dimensional case, Weyl and Wick quantizations are no more asymptotically equivalent in the infinite dimensional bosonic second quantization. Moreover neither the Weyl calculus defined for cylindrical symbols nor the Wick calculus defined for polynomials are preserved by the action of a nonlinear flow. Nevertheless taking advantage carefully of the information brought by these two calculuses in the mean field asymptotics, the propagation of Wign...
Mean field propagation of Wigner measures and BBGKY hierarchies for general bosonic states
Ammari, Zied
2010-01-01
Contrary to the finite dimensional case, Weyl and Wick quantizations are no more asymptotically equivalent in the infinite dimensional bosonic second quantization. Moreover neither the Weyl calculus defined for cylindrical symbols nor the Wick calculus defined for polynomials are preserved by the action of a nonlinear flow. Nevertheless taking advantage carefully of the information brought by these two calculuses in the mean field asymptotics, the propagation of Wigner measures for general states can be proved, extending to the infinite dimensional case a standard result of semiclassical analysis.
Stationary solutions of the Bogoliubov hierarchy equations in classical statistical mechanics. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper is the first part of the work whose subject is to investigate the set of stationary solutions of B-B-G-K-Y hierarchy. We state that under some conditions on the interaction any stationary solution obeying certain restrictions of a general type corresponds to an equilibrium state. (orig.)
Kinetic hierarchy and propagation of chaos in biological swarm models
Carlen, Eric; Degond, Pierre; Wennberg, Bernt
2011-01-01
We consider two models of biological swarm behavior. In these models, pairs of particles interact to adjust their velocities one to each other. In the first process, called 'BDG', they join their average velocity up to some noise. In the second process, called 'CL', one of the two particles tries to join the other one's velocity. This paper establishes the master equations and BBGKY hierarchies of these two processes. It investigates the infinite particle limit of the hierarchies at large time-scale. It shows that the resulting kinetic hierarchy for the CL process does not satisfy propagation of chaos. Numerical simulations indicate that the BDG process has similar behavior to the CL process.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Myhaylo O. Stashenko
2004-01-01
Full Text Available It is proved convergence of solution in cumulant expansions of the initial value problem for BBGKY chain of equations of non-symmetrical one-dimensional system of particles which interact via a short-range potential in the space \\(E_{\\xi}\\ of the sequences of continuous bounded functions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristiansen, Marianne; Bloch-Poulsen, Jørgen
2016-01-01
is to show that a participatory approach can unintentionally create new hierarchies or reinforce existing ones, thus leading to the exclusion of certain employees (or action researchers) in terms of voice and/or choice. Second, the theoretical purpose is to show how participation in OAR projects can...
New hierarchy for the Liouville equation, irreversibility and Fokker-Planck-like structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The issue of irreversibility is revisited for a closed system formed by N classical non-relativistic particles inside a volume Ω, interacting through two-body potentials, for large N and Ω. The classical phase-space distribution function f, multiplied by suitable Hermite polynomials and integrated over all momenta, yields new moments. The Liouville equation and the initial distribution fin imply a new non-equilibrium linear infinite hierarchy for the moments. That hierarchy differs from the BBGKY one for distribution functions and displays some suggestive Fokker-Planck-like structures. A physically motivated ansatz for fin (which introduces statistical assumptions), used by previous authors, is chosen. All moments of order n ≥ n0 are expressed in terms of those of order n0 - 1 and of fin. The properties of the Fokker-Planck-like structures (hermiticity, non-negative eigenvalues) allow for implementing a natural long-time approximation in the hierarchy, so as to introduce relaxation to equilibrium and irreversibility, consistently with the hydrodynamical balance equations. Further (more restrictive) assumptions and approximations lead to new irreversible models, generalizing non-trivially the Fokker-Planck equation. They are described through a truncated hierarchy of linear equations for moments of order n ≤ n0 - 1 (n0 being finite). The connections with Brownian particle dynamics and Fluid Dynamics are analyzed, for consistency. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ernst, Erik
2003-01-01
This paper introduces the notion of higher-order inheritance hierarchies. They are useful because they provide well-known benefits of object-orientation at the level of entire hierarchies-benefits which are not available with current approaches. Three facets must be adressed: First, it must...... be possible to create hierarchies incrementally based on existing hierarchies, such that commonalities are expressed via reuse, not duplication. Second, the hierarchies must themselves be organized into hierarchies, such that their relationships are made explicit and can be exploited in a type safe manner....... Finally, it must be possible to write generic code that works on every hierarchy derived from the hierarchy for which it was written. This paper presents a language design that supports such a notion of higher-order hierarchies. It has been implemented in context of a full-fledged, statically typed...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By generalizing Bogolyubov’s reduced description method, we suggest a formalism to derive kinetic equations for many-body dissipative systems in external stochastic field. As a starting point, we use a stochastic Liouville equation obtained from Hamilton’s equations taking dissipation and stochastic perturbations into account. The Liouville equation is then averaged over realizations of the stochastic field by an extension of the Furutsu-Novikov formula to the case of a non-Gaussian field. As the result, a generalization of the classical Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy is derived. In order to get a kinetic equation for the single-particle distribution function, we use a regular cutoff procedure of the BBGKY hierarchy by assuming weak interaction between the particles and weak intensity of the field. Within this approximation, we get the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation for the system in a non-Gaussian stochastic field. Two particular cases are discussed by assuming either Gaussian statistics of external perturbation or homogeneity of the system
Landmark hierarchies in context
Stephan Winter; Martin Tomko; Birgit Elias; Monika Sester
2008-01-01
We are interested in the generation of distinguishing place or route descriptions for urban environments. Such descriptions require a hierarchical model of the discourse, the elements of the city. We postulate that cognitive hierarchies, as used in human communication, can be sufficiently reflected in machine-generated hierarchies. In this paper we (a) propose a computational model for the generation of a hierarchy of one of these elements of the city—landmarks—and (b) demonstrate that a set ...
The Analytical Hierarchy Process
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barfod, Michael Bruhn
2007-01-01
The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....
Ansatz for dynamical hierarchies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, S.; Baas, N.A.; Mayer, B.;
2001-01-01
Complex, robust functionalities can be generated naturally in at least two ways: by the assembly of structures and by the evolution of structures. This work is concerned with spontaneous formation of structures. We define the notion of dynamical hierarchies in natural systems and show the...... importance of this particular kind of organization for living systems. We then define a framework that enables us to formulate, investigate, and manipulate such dynamical hierarchies. This framework allows us to simultaneously investigate different levels of description together with them interrelationship......, which is necessary to understand the nature of dynamical hierarchies. Our framework is then applied to a concrete and very simple formal, physicochemical, dynamical hierarchy involving water and monomers at level one, polymers and water at level two, and micelles (polymer aggregates) and water at level...
Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely
2013-01-01
Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gergely Tibély
Full Text Available Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of
Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely
2013-01-01
Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based o...
Cereals, Appropriability and Hierarchy
Mayshar, Joram; Moav, Omer; Neeman, Zvika; Pascali, Luigi
2015-01-01
We propose that the development of social hierarchy following the Neolithic Revolution was an outcome of the ability of the emergent elite to appropriate cereal crops from farmers and not a result of land productivity, as argued by conventional theory. We argue that cereals are easier to appropriate than roots and tubers, and that regional differences in the suitability of land for different crops explain therefore differences in the formation of hierarchy and states. A simple model illustrat...
Rethinking the waste hierarchy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rasmussen, C.; Vigsoe, D. (eds.)
2005-03-01
There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)
Ansatz for dynamical hierarchies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, S.; Baas, N.A.; Mayer, B.; Nilsson, M.; Olesen, Michael Wiinberg
2001-01-01
, which is necessary to understand the nature of dynamical hierarchies. Our framework is then applied to a concrete and very simple formal, physicochemical, dynamical hierarchy involving water and monomers at level one, polymers and water at level two, and micelles (polymer aggregates) and water at level...... importance of this particular kind of organization for living systems. We then define a framework that enables us to formulate, investigate, and manipulate such dynamical hierarchies. This framework allows us to simultaneously investigate different levels of description together with them interrelationship...... three. Formulating this system as a simple two-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) lattice gas allows us within one dynamical system to demonstrate the successive emergence of two higher levels (three levels all together) of robust structures with associated properties. Second, we demonstrate how the...
Tibély, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely
2014-01-01
Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy betwe...
Güntert, Manuel
2008-01-01
This is a research about hierarchies in student groups. It shows how they are built und what sense they have. The position of a student in his student peer group is evaluated. The influence of the look, the style, the behaviour of the other sex, the gender, the origin, the prehistory, the appearance, achievement and their effect on hierarchies is analysed and the impact of charisma and organisation are compared. The meaning of this research is to indicate how a student must be to get the lead...
Integrable hierarchies and dispersionless limit
Takasaki, K; Kanehisa Takasaki; Takashi Takebe
1994-01-01
Analogues of the KP and the Toda lattice hierarchy called dispersionless KP and Toda hierarchy are studied. Dressing operations in the dispersionless hierarchies are introduced as a canonical transformation, quantization of which is dressing operators of the ordinary KP and Toda hierarchy. An alternative construction of general solutions of the ordinary KP and Toda hierarchy is given as twistor construction which is quatization of the similar construction of solutions of dispersionless hierarchies. These results as well as those obtained in previous papers are presented with proofs and necessary technical details.
Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.
1991-01-01
The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy...
Neutrino Oscillations: Hierarchy Question
Ernst, D J; Burroughs, H R; Escamilla-Roa, J; Latimer, D C
2013-01-01
The only experimentally observed phenomenon that lies outside the standard model of the electroweak interaction is neutrino oscillations. A way to try to unify the extensive neutrino oscillation data is to add a phenomenological mass term to the Lagrangian that is not diagonal in the flavor basis. The goal is then to understand the world's data in terms of the parameters of the mixing matrix and the differences between the squares of the masses of the neutrinos. An outstanding question is what is the correct ordering of the masses, the hierarchy question. We point out a broken symmetry relevant to this question, the symmetry of the simultaneous interchange of hierarchy and the sign of $\\theta_{13}$. We first present the results of an analysis of data that well determine the phenomenological parameters but are not sensitive to the hierarchy. We find $\\theta_{13} = 0.152\\pm 0.014$, $\\theta_{23} = 0.25^{+0.03}_{-0.05} \\pi$ and $\\Delta_{32} = 2.45\\pm 0.14 \\times 10^{-3}$ eV$^2$, results consistent with others. We...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Karim, Samina
2015-01-01
We investigate trade-offs associated with delegating authority over multiple interrelated decisions in a complex task structure. The empirical setting is a business process of a global Fortune 50 firm. The firm decentralized its organization and redefined decision authority across organizational......-relevant knowledge, the matching of required knowledge and managers’ expertise, and information processing intensity affect (a) the occurrence of delegation and, (b) if delegation occurs, how far down the organizational hierarchy authority is delegated. We discuss how these findings complement existing theories on...
Models of random graph hierarchies
Paluch, Robert; Holyst, Janusz
2015-01-01
We introduce two models of inclusion hierarchies: Random Graph Hierarchy (RGH) and Limited Random Graph Hierarchy (LRGH). In both models a set of nodes at a given hierarchy level is connected randomly, as in the Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'{e}nyi random graph, with a fixed average degree equal to a system parameter $c$. Clusters of the resulting network are treated as nodes at the next hierarchy level and they are connected again at this level and so on, until the process cannot continue. In the RGH model we use all clusters, including those of size $1$, when building the next hierarchy level, while in the LRGH model clusters of size $1$ stop participating in further steps. We find that in both models the number of nodes at a given hierarchy level $h$ decreases approximately exponentially with $h$. The height of the hierarchy $H$, i.e. the number of all hierarchy levels, increases logarithmically with the system size $N$, i.e. with the number of nodes at the first level. The height $H$ decreases monotonically with the conne...
Models of random graph hierarchies
Paluch, Robert; Suchecki, Krzysztof; Hołyst, Janusz A.
2015-10-01
We introduce two models of inclusion hierarchies: random graph hierarchy (RGH) and limited random graph hierarchy (LRGH). In both models a set of nodes at a given hierarchy level is connected randomly, as in the Erdős-Rényi random graph, with a fixed average degree equal to a system parameter c. Clusters of the resulting network are treated as nodes at the next hierarchy level and they are connected again at this level and so on, until the process cannot continue. In the RGH model we use all clusters, including those of size 1, when building the next hierarchy level, while in the LRGH model clusters of size 1 stop participating in further steps. We find that in both models the number of nodes at a given hierarchy level h decreases approximately exponentially with h. The height of the hierarchy H, i.e. the number of all hierarchy levels, increases logarithmically with the system size N, i.e. with the number of nodes at the first level. The height H decreases monotonically with the connectivity parameter c in the RGH model and it reaches a maximum for a certain c max in the LRGH model. The distribution of separate cluster sizes in the LRGH model is a power law with an exponent about - 1.25. The above results follow from approximate analytical calculations and have been confirmed by numerical simulations.
Tegmark, Max
2009-01-01
I survey physics theories involving parallel universes, arguing that they form a natural four-level hierarchy of multiverses allowing progressively greater diversity. Level I: A generic prediction of inflation is an infinite ergodic universe, which contains Hubble volumes realizing all initial conditions -- including an identical copy of you about 10^(10^29)m away. Level II: In chaotic inflation, other thermalized regions may have different physical constants, dimensionality and particle content. Level III: In unitary quantum mechanics, other branches of the wavefunction add nothing qualitatively new, which is ironic given that this level has historically been the most controversial. Level IV: Other mathematical structures give different fundamental equations of physics. The key question is not whether parallel universes exist (Level I is the uncontroversial cosmological concordance model), but how many levels there are. I discuss how multiverse models can be falsified and argue that there is a severe "measur...
Bonabeau hierarchy models revisited
Lacasa, L; Lacasa, Lucas; Luque, Bartolo
2005-01-01
What basic processes generate hierarchy in a collective? The Bonabeau model provides us a simple mechanism based on randomness which develops self-organization through both winner/looser effects and relaxation process. A phase transition between egalitarian and hierarchic states has been found both analytically and numerically in previous works. In this paper we present a different approach: by means of a discrete scheme we develop a mean field approximation that not only reproduces the phase transition but also allows us to characterize the complexity of hierarchic phase. In the same philosophy, we study a new version of the Bonabeau model, developed by Stauffer et al. Several previous works described numerically the presence of a similar phase transition in this later version. We find surprising results in this model that can be interpreted properly as the non-existence of phase transition in this version of Bonabeau model, but a changing in fixed point structure.
Bonabeau hierarchy models revisited
Lacasa, Lucas; Luque, Bartolo
2006-07-01
What basic processes generate hierarchy in a collective? The Bonabeau model provides us a simple mechanism based on randomness which develops self-organization through both winner/looser effects and relaxation process. A phase transition between egalitarian and hierarchic states has been found both analytically and numerically in previous works. In this paper we present a different approach: by means of a discrete scheme we develop a mean field approximation that not only reproduces the phase transition but also allows us to characterize the complexity of hierarchic phase. In the same philosophy, we study a new version of the Bonabeau model, developed by Stauffer et al. Several previous works described numerically the presence of a similar phase transition in this later version. We find surprising results in this model that can be interpreted properly as the non-existence of phase transition in this version of Bonabeau model, but a changing in fixed point structure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haba, Naoyuki; Murayama, Hitoshi
2000-09-14
We advocate a new approach to study models of fermion massesand mixings, namely anarchy proposed in hep-ph/9911341. In this approach,we scan the O(1) coefficients randomly. We argue that this is the correctapproach when the fundamental theory is sufficiently complicated.Assuming there is no physical distinction among three generations ofneutrinos, the probability distributions in MNS mixing angles can bepredicted independent of the choice of the measure. This is because themixing angles are distributed according to the Haar measure of the Liegroups whose elements diagonalize the mass matrices. The near-maximalmixings, as observed in the atmospheric neutrino data and as required inthe LMA solution to the solar neutrino problem, are highly probable. Asmall hierarchy between the Delta m2 for the atmospheric and the solarneutrinos is obtained very easily; the complex seesaw case gives ahierarchy of a factor of 20 as the most probable one, even though thisconclusion is more measure-dependent. U_e3 has to be just below thecurrent limit from the CHOOZ experiment. The CP-violating parameter sindelta is preferred to be maximal. We present a simple SU(5)-likeextension of anarchy to the charged-lepton and quark sectors which workswell phenomenologically.
Determination of mass hierarchy with $\
Rashed, Ahmed
2016-01-01
Crucial developments in neutrino physics would be the determination of the mass hierarchy (MH) and measurement of the CP phase in the leptonic sector. The patterns of the transition probabilities $P(\
Mass hierarchies in supersymmetric theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is argued that large gauge hierarchies occur naturally in some theories with supersymmetry spontaneously broken at the tree level. Such theories may also lead to time-dependent values of the natural ''constants''. (author)
Recommended HSE-7 documents hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report recommends a hierarchy of waste management documents at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or ''Laboratory''). The hierarchy addresses documents that are required to plan, implement, and document waste management programs at Los Alamos. These documents will enable the waste management group and the six sections contained within that group to satisfy requirements that are imposed upon them by the US Department of Energy (DOE), DOE Albuquerque Operations, US Environmental Protection Agency, various State of New Mexico agencies, and Laboratory management
Quantify entanglement by concurrence hierarchy
Fan, Heng; Matsumoto, Keiji; Imai, Hiroshi
2002-01-01
We define the concurrence hierarchy as d-1 independent invariants under local unitary transformations in d-level quantum system. The first one is the original concurrence defined by Wootters et al in 2-level quantum system and generalized to d-level pure quantum states case. We propose to use this concurrence hierarchy as measurement of entanglement. This measurement does not increase under local quantum operations and classical communication.
Recursion Operators for Dispersionless KP Hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on the corresponding theorem between dispersionless KP (dKP) hierarchy and ħ-dependent KP (ħKP) hierarchy, a general formal representation of the recursion operators for dKP hierarchy under n-reduction is given in a systematical way from the corresponding ħKP hierarchy. To illustrate this method, the recursion operators for dKP hierarchy under 2-reduction and 3-reduction are calculated in detail.
Information slows down hierarchy growth
Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Minano, Borja; Trias, Miquel; Holyst, Janusz A
2013-01-01
We consider models of a growing tree with the growth process driven by the rules of tournament selection, where a new node is attached to a contestant node at the best hierarchy level (closest to the tree root). The proposed evolution reflects limited information about the network topology that is available for new nodes. Two cases are considered: the constant tournament (CT) model where the number of tournament participants is constant throughout the tree evolution, and the proportional tournament (PT) model where it is grows proportionally to the actual tree size. The results of analytical calculations based on a rate equation fit well to numerical simulations for both models. In the CT model all hierarchy levels emerge in the tree but the birth time of the hierarchy level increases exponentially or faster with level number. The number of nodes at the first hierarchy level (just below the root) grows logarithmically in time, while the size of the last, "worst" hierarchy level oscillates quasi log-periodical...
Quantify entanglement by concurrence hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We define the concurrence hierarchy as d - 1 independent invariants under local unitary transformations in d-level quantum system. The first one is the original concurrence defined by Wootters (1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 2245) and Hill and Wootters (1997 Phys. Rev. Lett. 78 5022) in a two-level quantum system and generalized to the d-level pure quantum state case. We propose to use this concurrence hierarchy as a measurement of entanglement. This measurement does not increase under local quantum operations and classical communication
Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings
Ioannidou, Theodora; Niemi, Antti J.
2016-01-01
The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra.
Poisson Hierarchy of Discrete Strings
Ioannidou, Theodora
2015-01-01
The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equa- tion is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra.
The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.
Mengistu, Henok; Huizinga, Joost; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Clune, Jeff
2016-06-01
Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments). Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics. PMID:27280881
Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.
Brookman, David M.
1989-01-01
Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…
Additional symmetries of supersymmetric KP hierarchies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the additional symmetries of several supersymmetric KP hierarchies: the SKP hierarchy of Manin and Radul, the SKP2 hierarchy, and the Jacobian SKP hierarchy. In all three cases we find that the algebra of symmetries is isomorphic to the algebra of superdifferential operators, or equivalently SW1+∞. These results seem to suggest that despite their realization depending on the dynamics, the additional symmetries are kinematical in nature. (orig.)
Light fermion mass hierarchies in supersymmetric models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss radiative fermion mass hierarchies in grand unified supersymmetric models. There are arguments in the literature that these cannot arise. It is shown that these arguments only apply to a certain type of radiative hierarchy. Another type of radiative hierarchy can arise in simple SUSY-GUTs. We discuss examples. 15 references, 5 figures
Generalized Miura transformations, two-bosons KP hierarchies and their reduction to KdV hierarchies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bracket preserving gauge equivalence is established between several two-boson generated KP type of hierarchies. These KP hierarchies reduce under symplectic reduction (via Dirac constraints) to KdV and Schwarzian KdV hierarchies. Under this reduction the gauge equivalence is taking form of the conventional Miura maps between the above KdV type of hierarchies. (author). 16 refs
The evolutionary origins of hierarchy
Mengistu, Henok; Huizinga, Joost; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Clune, Jeff
2015-01-01
Hierarchical organization -- the recursive composition of sub-modules -- is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been s...
Hierarchy measure for complex networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enys Mones
Full Text Available Nature, technology and society are full of complexity arising from the intricate web of the interactions among the units of the related systems (e.g., proteins, computers, people. Consequently, one of the most successful recent approaches to capturing the fundamental features of the structure and dynamics of complex systems has been the investigation of the networks associated with the above units (nodes together with their relations (edges. Most complex systems have an inherently hierarchical organization and, correspondingly, the networks behind them also exhibit hierarchical features. Indeed, several papers have been devoted to describing this essential aspect of networks, however, without resulting in a widely accepted, converging concept concerning the quantitative characterization of the level of their hierarchy. Here we develop an approach and propose a quantity (measure which is simple enough to be widely applicable, reveals a number of universal features of the organization of real-world networks and, as we demonstrate, is capable of capturing the essential features of the structure and the degree of hierarchy in a complex network. The measure we introduce is based on a generalization of the m-reach centrality, which we first extend to directed/partially directed graphs. Then, we define the global reaching centrality (GRC, which is the difference between the maximum and the average value of the generalized reach centralities over the network. We investigate the behavior of the GRC considering both a synthetic model with an adjustable level of hierarchy and real networks. Results for real networks show that our hierarchy measure is related to the controllability of the given system. We also propose a visualization procedure for large complex networks that can be used to obtain an overall qualitative picture about the nature of their hierarchical structure.
A hierarchy of Poisson brackets
Pavelka, Michal; Klika, Vaclav; Esen, Ogul; Grmela, Miroslav
2015-01-01
The vector field generating reversible time evolution of macroscopic systems involves two ingredients: gradient of a potential (a covector) and a degenerate Poisson structure transforming the covector into a vector. The Poisson structure is conveniently expressed in Poisson brackets, its degeneracy in their Casimirs (i.e. potentials whose gradients produce no vector field). In this paper we investigate in detail hierarchies of Poisson brackets, together with their Casimirs, that arise in pass...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
An intelligent geographic information system (GIS) has to handle various types and huge volumes of geoscience-related knowledge as well as enormous amounts of data and information. More recent attention concentrates on collection,represen-tation,management,and usage of knowledge. This article presents a three-tier hi-erarchy for geoscience knowledge in a GIS. The first tier is for knowledge of data. It includes knowledge of feature objects definition,data structure,data model,and relations among data as well as rules,restrictions,and regulations about data. The second tier is for knowledge of processing. It describes analysis models,data processing procedures,workflows,and conditions. The third tier contains knowl-edge of a GIS for the public sector. This tier provides knowledge to people on how to access this GIS and what the GIS can do. The three-tier hierarchy of knowledge in a GIS provides an understandable and practical category frame to handle geo-science knowledge. One of the advantages of this hierarchy is that it separates system resource consumption into different stages so it can avoid exhausting the system at peak times when the GIS handles a complex,large task.
Solving the Wrong Hierarchy Problem
Blinov, Nikita
2016-01-01
Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and $\\mathbb{Z}_2$-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop thi...
Unfolding the Hierarchy of Voids
Aragon-Calvo, M A; Araya-Melo, P; Platen, E; Szalay, A S
2010-01-01
We present a framework for the hierarchical identification and characterization of voids based on the Watershed Void Finder. The Hierarchical Void Finder is based on a generalization of the scale space of a density field invoked in order to trace the hierarchical nature and structure of cosmological voids. At each level of the hierarchy, the watershed transform is used to identify the voids at that particular scale. By identifying the overlapping regions between watershed basins in adjacent levels, the hierarchical void tree is constructed. Applications on a hierarchical Voronoi model and on a set of cosmological simulations illustrate its potential.
Balasubramonian, Rajeev
2011-01-01
A key determinant of overall system performance and power dissipation is the cache hierarchy since access to off-chip memory consumes many more cycles and energy than on-chip accesses. In addition, multi-core processors are expected to place ever higher bandwidth demands on the memory system. All these issues make it important to avoid off-chip memory access by improving the efficiency of the on-chip cache. Future multi-core processors will have many large cache banks connected by a network and shared by many cores. Hence, many important problems must be solved: cache resources must be allocat
Risk-Taking and Gender in Hierarchies
Scotchmer, suzanne
2008-01-01
In a labor market hierarchy, promotions are affected by the noisiness of information about the candidates. I study the hypothesis that males are more risk taking than females, and its implications for rates of promotion and abilities of survivors. I deâ€¦fine promotion hierarchies with and without memory, where memory means that promotion depends on the entire history of success. In both types of hierarchies, the surviving risk takers will have lower average ability whenever they have a highe...
Two New Multi-component BKP Hierarchies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We firstly propose two kinds of new multi-component BKP (mcBKP) hierarchy based on the eigenfunction symmetry reduction and nonstandard reduction, respectively. The first one contains two types of BKP equation with self-consistent sources whose Lax representations are presented. The two mcBKP hierarchies both admit reductions to the k-constrained BKP hierarchy and to integrable (1+1)-dimensional hierarchy with self-consistent sources, which include two types of SK equation with self-consistent sources and of bi-directional SK equations with self-consistent sources.
Sensitivity to the Neutrino Mass Hierarchy
Ciuffoli, Emilio; Evslin, Jarah; Zhang, Xinmin
2013-01-01
In the next decade, a number of experiments will attempt to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. Feasibility studies for such experiments generally determine the expected value of Delta chi^2. As the hierarchy is a discrete choice, Delta chi^2 does not obey a one degree of freedom chi^2 distribution and so the number of sigmas of confidence of the hierarchy determination is not the square root of the expected Delta chi^2. We present a simple formula for the sensitivity to the hierarchy that...
Confidence in a neutrino mass hierarchy determination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the next decade, a number of experiments will attempt to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. Feasibility studies for such experiments generally determine the statistic (Δχ2)-bar . As the hierarchy is a discrete choice, Δχ2 does not obey a one degree of freedom χ2 distribution and so the number of σ’s of sensitivity to the hierarchy is not the square root of (Δχ2)-bar . We present a simple Bayesian formula for the sensitivity to the hierarchy determination that can be expected from the median experiment as a function of (Δχ2)-bar
Calibrating Determinacy Strength in Borel Hierarchies
Hachtman, Sherwood J.
2015-01-01
We study the strength of determinacy hypotheses in levels of two hierarchies of subsets of Baire space: the standard Borel hierarchy, and the hierarchy of sets in the Borel sigma-algebra generated by coanalytic sets.We begin with the third level of this hierarchy, the lowest level at which the strength of determinacy had not yet been characterized in terms of a natural theory. Building on work of Philip Welch, we show that this determinacy is equivalent to the existence of a wellfounded set ...
The Appropriateness of Hierarchies (Editorial
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Denise Koufogiannakis
2010-09-01
Full Text Available In the early days of EBLIP, then referred to as evidence based librarianship (EBL, there were calls to strengthen our research base with "better" forms of evidence. These proposed better quality research methods were all quantitative and I admit myself to saying that ‚librarianship tends to reflect more qualitative, social sciences/humanities in its research methods and study types which tend to be less rigorous and more prone to bias‛ (Crumley and Koufogiannakis 2002, p.61. Although this was not meant to be a slight to qualitative research, I can see how it came across as one. Now, I would not put ‚less rigorous and more prone to bias‛ in that sentence, although the first half of the statement certainly still holds true. In our 2002 article, the general point that Ellen Crumley and I were trying to make is that a medical style research hierarchy is not a good fit for librarianship, where qualitative methods are generally more appropriate. At that time, we proposed a ‚core-centred approach to librarianship research‛ (p.68 rather than a hierarchical one, although this did not gain much traction within the EBLIP literature. We noted: ‚rather than relying on an evidence hierarchy, which is an artificial concept for librarians, Fig.3 suggests a core-centred approach. The types of studies that are likely to be conducted by librarians are placed near the centre, moving from a hierarchical to an encompassing model. … *This+ presents a more equitable view of a model for research in the profession‛ (p.67.Today I am even more resolved that it is time to remove the concept of a hierarchy of evidence from EBLIP. This concept is tied very closely to the medical model of evidence based medicine (EBM and is solely focused on quantitative research. Library and information studies (LIS is a social sciences discipline and as such is concerned mostly with questions of why we do things and how people function in the world. The actions of people
Flavor hierarchies from dynamical scales
Panico, Giuliano
2016-01-01
One main obstacle for any beyond the SM (BSM) scenario solving the hierarchy problem is its potentially large contributions to electric dipole moments. An elegant way to avoid this problem is to have the light SM fermions couple to the BSM sector only through bilinears, $\\bar ff$. This possibility can be neatly implemented in composite Higgs models. We study the implications of dynamically generating the fermion Yukawa couplings at different scales, relating larger scales to lighter SM fermions. We show that all flavor and CP-violating constraints can be easily accommodated for a BSM scale of few TeV, without requiring any extra symmetry. Contributions to B physics are mainly mediated by the top, giving a predictive pattern of deviations in $\\Delta F=2$ and $\\Delta F=1$ flavor observables that could be seen in future experiments.
Hierarchy of Modular Graph Identities
D'Hoker, Eric
2016-01-01
The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analy...
A hierarchy of Poisson brackets
Pavelka, Michal; Esen, Ogul; Grmela, Miroslav
2015-01-01
The vector field generating reversible time evolution of macroscopic systems involves two ingredients: gradient of a potential (a covector) and a degenerate Poisson structure transforming the covector into a vector. The Poisson structure is conveniently expressed in Poisson brackets, its degeneracy in their Casimirs (i.e. potentials whose gradients produce no vector field). In this paper we investigate in detail hierarchies of Poisson brackets, together with their Casimirs, that arise in passages from more to less detailed (i.e. more macroscopic) descriptions. In particular, we investigate the passage from mechanics of particles (in its Liouville representation) to the reversible kinetic theory and the passage from the reversible kinetic theory to the reversible fluid mechanics. From the physical point of view, the investigation includes binary mixtures and two-point formulations suitable for describing turbulent flows. From the mathematical point of view, we reveal the Lie algebra structure involved in the p...
Coupling Integrable Couplings of an Equation Hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on a kind of Lie algebra G proposed by Zhang, one isospectral problem is designed. Under the framework of zero curvature equation, a new kind of integrable coupling of an equation hierarchy is generated using the methods proposed by Ma and Gao. With the help of variational identity, we get the Hamiltonian structure of the hierarchy. (general)
PINGU Sensitivity to the Neutrino Mass Hierarchy
IceCube, The
2013-01-01
The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the few remaining unknown parameters in the neutrino sector and hence a primary focus of the experimental community. The Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU) experiment, to be co-located with the IceCube DeepCore detector in the deep Antarctic glacier, is being designed to provide a first definitive measurement of the mass hierarchy. We have conducted feasibility studies for the detector design that demonstrate a statistically-limited sensitivity to the hierarchy of 2.1 sigma to 3.4 sigma per year is possible, depending on the detector geometry (20 to 40 strings) and analysis efficiencies. First studies of the effects of systematic and theoretical uncertainties show limited impact on the overall sensitivity to the hierarchy. Assuming deployment of the first array elements in the 2016/17 austral summer season a 3 sigma measurement of the hierarchy is anticipated with PINGU in 2020.
Detectability of ranking hierarchies in directed networks
Letizia, Elisa; Lillo, Fabrizio
2016-01-01
Identifying hierarchies and rankings of nodes in directed graphs is fundamental in many applications such as social network analysis, biology, economics, and finance. A recently proposed method identifies the hierarchy by finding the ordered partition of nodes which minimizes a score function, termed agony. This function penalizes the links violating the hierarchy in a way depending on the strength of the violation. To investigate the detectability of ranking hierarchies we introduce an ensemble of random graphs, the Hierarchical Stochastic Block Model. We find that agony may fail to identify hierarchies when the structure is not strong enough and the size of the classes is small with respect to the whole network. We analytically characterize the detectability threshold and we show that an iterated version of agony can partly overcome this resolution limit.
The Polynomially Exponential Time Restrained Analytical Hierarchy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
眭跃飞
1991-01-01
A polynomially exponential time restrained analytical hierarchy is introduced with the basic properties of the hierarchy followed.And it will be shown that there is a recursive set A such that A does not belong to any level of the p-arithmetical hierarchies.Then we shall prove that there are recursive sets A and B such that the different levels of the analytical hierarchy relative to A are different and for some n every level higher than n of the analytical hierarchy relative to B is the same as the n-th level.And whether the higher levels are collapsed into some lower level is neither provable nor disprovable in set theory and several other results.
Deep Hierarchies in the Primate Visual Cortex
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krüger, Norbert; Jannsen, Per; Kalkan, S.;
2013-01-01
processing hierarchies present in the primate visual system considering recent discoveries in neurophysiology. The hierarchal processing in the primate visual system is characterized by a sequence of different levels of processing (in the order of ten) that constitute a deep hierarchy in contrast to the flat...... vision architectures predominantly used in today's mainstream computer vision. We hope that the functional description of the deep hierarchies realized in the primate visual system provides valuable insights for the design of computer vision algorithms, fostering increasingly productive interaction...
On the combinatorics of several integrable hierarchies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We demonstrate that statistics of certain classes of set partitions are described by generating functions related to the Burgers, Ibragimov–Shabat and Korteweg–de Vries integrable hierarchies. (paper)
Hierarchies of belief and interim rationalizability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeffrey C. Ely
2006-03-01
Full Text Available In games with incomplete information, conventional hierarchies of belief are incomplete as descriptions of the players' information for the purposes of determining a player's behavior. We show by example that this is true for a variety of solution concepts. We then investigate what is essential about a player's information to identify behavior. We specialize to two player games and the solution concept of interim rationalizability. We construct the universal type space for rationalizability and characterize the types in terms of their beliefs. Infinite hierarchies of beliefs over conditional beliefs, which we call Delta-hierarchies, are what turn out to matter. We show that any two types in any two type spaces have the same rationalizable sets in all games if and only if they have the same Delta-hierarchies.
The extended Z N -Toda hierarchy
Li, Chuanzhong; He, Jingsong
2015-11-01
We construct the extended flow equations of a new Z N -Toda hierarchy taking values in a commutative subalgebra Z N of gl( N, C). We give the Hirota bilinear equations and tau function of this new extended Z N -Toda hierarchy. Taking the presence of logarithmic terms into account, we construct some extended vertex operators in generalized Hirota bilinear equations, which might be useful in topological field theory and the Gromov-Witten theory. We present the Darboux transformations and bi-Hamiltonian structure of this hierarchy. Using Hamiltonian tau-symmetry, we obtain another tau function of this hierarchy with some unknown mysterious relation to the tau function derived using the Sato theory.
A hierarchy of needs in international relations
Hayden, Casey P.
2009-01-01
Characterizing U.S.-Russian relations as a new Cold War is nostalgic for many, but it does not accurately describe Russian motivation behind its current behavior. Abraham Maslow, a prominent behavioral psychologist, investigated motivation behind human behavior and concluded that human motivation centers on satisfying five basic "needs." It is plausible to modify his hierarchy of basic human needs and develop a similar hierarchy of basic state needs. A single case study examining Soviet regre...
A Hierarchy of Totally Ordered Multicasts
Wilhelm, U. G.; Schiper, A
1995-01-01
The increased interest in protocols that provide a total order on message delivery has led to several different definitions of total order. In this paper we investigate these different definitions and propose a hierarchy that helps to better understand the implications of the different possibilities in terms of guarantees and communication cost. We identify two definitions: {\\em weak total order} and {\\em strong total order}, which are at the extremes of the proposed hierarchy, and incorpor...
The mammary cellular hierarchy and breast cancer
Oakes, Samantha R.; Gallego-Ortega, David; Ormandy, Christopher J.
2014-01-01
Advances in the study of hematopoietic cell maturation have paved the way to a deeper understanding the stem and progenitor cellular hierarchy in the mammary gland. The mammary epithelium, unlike the hematopoietic cellular hierarchy, sits in a complex niche where communication between epithelial cells and signals from the systemic hormonal milieu, as well as from extra-cellular matrix, influence cell fate decisions and contribute to tissue homeostasis. We review the discovery, definition and ...
Social Hierarchies with AN Attractive Site Distribution
Naumis, G. G.; Del Castillo-Mussot, M.; Pérez, L. A.; Vázquez, G. J.
We reinvestigate the model of Bonabeau et al.1 of self-organizing social hierarchies by including a distribution of attractive sites. Agents move randomly except in the case where an attractive site is located in its neighborhood. We find that the transition between an egalitarian society at low population density and a hierarchical one at high population density strongly depends on the distribution and percolation of the valuable sites. We also show how agent diffusivity is closely related to social hierarchy.
Rosochatius Deformed Soliton Hierarchy with Self-Consistent Sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Integrable Rosochatius deformations of finite-dimensional integrable systems are generalized to the soliton hierarchy with self-consistent sources. The integrable Rosochatius deformations of the Kaup-Newell hierarchy with self-consistent sources, of the TD hierarchy with self-consistent sources, and of the Jaulent-Miodek hierarchy with self-consistent sources, together with their Lax representations are presented. (general)
Hierarchy, Dominance, and Deliberation: Egalitarian Values Require Mental Effort.
Van Berkel, Laura; Crandall, Christian S; Eidelman, Scott; Blanchar, John C
2015-09-01
Hierarchy and dominance are ubiquitous. Because social hierarchy is early learned and highly rehearsed, the value of hierarchy enjoys relative ease over competing egalitarian values. In six studies, we interfere with deliberate thinking and measure endorsement of hierarchy and egalitarianism. In Study 1, bar patrons' blood alcohol content was correlated with hierarchy preference. In Study 2, cognitive load increased the authority/hierarchy moral foundation. In Study 3, low-effort thought instructions increased hierarchy endorsement and reduced equality endorsement. In Study 4, ego depletion increased hierarchy endorsement and caused a trend toward reduced equality endorsement. In Study 5, low-effort thought instructions increased endorsement of hierarchical attitudes among those with a sense of low personal power. In Study 6, participants' thinking quickly allocated more resources to high-status groups. Across five operationalizations of impaired deliberative thought, hierarchy endorsement increased and egalitarianism receded. These data suggest hierarchy may persist in part because it has a psychological advantage. PMID:26133375
Constraints and Soliton Solutions for KdV Hierarchy and AKNS Hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is well-known that the finite-gap solutions of the KdV equation can be generated by its recursion operator. We generalize the result to a special form of Lax pair, from which a method to constrain the integrable system to a lower-dimensional or fewer variable integrable system is proposed. A direct result is that the n-soliton solutions of the KdV hierarchy can be completely depicted by a series of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which may be gotten by a simple but unfamiliar Lax pair. Furthermore the AKNS hierarchy is constrained to a series of univariate integrable hierarchies. The key is a special form of Lax pair for the AKNS hierarchy. It is proved that under the constraints all equations of the AKNS hierarchy are linearizable. (general)
Bureaucratic Hierarchy vs. Feudal Hierarchy: A Study on the Organizational Culture of China’s SOEs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tianyuan Yu
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Bureaucratic Hierarchy and Feudal Hierarchy are two confusing concepts in organization literature, especially inthe study of the organizational culture of enterprises in China. This article clarifies the two concepts in the firstplace. Ralston et al. (2006 and Tsui et al. (2006 suggested that the dominant organizational culture of China’sstate-owned enterprises (SOEs was Bureaucratic Hierarchy, consistent with Quinn and Cameron (1983’s “lifecycles - criteria of effectiveness model”. However, according to Boisot and Child (1996’s “Chinese and Westernpaths to modernization” model, China’s SOEs are dominated by Feudal Hierarchy culture. This article proposesthat the dominant organizational culture of SOEs remains to be Feudal Hierarchy, and then critically examinesthe literature to support this proposition. Finally, it points to key obstacles in the codification/modernizationprocess of China.
Optimal hierarchies for fuzzy object models
Matsumoto, Monica M. S.; Udupa, Jayaram K.
2013-03-01
In radiologic clinical practice, the analysis underlying image examinations are qualitative, descriptive, and to some extent subjective. Quantitative radiology (QR) is valuable in clinical radiology. Computerized automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) is an essential step toward that goal. AAR is a body-wide organ recognition strategy. The AAR framework is based on fuzzy object models (FOMs) wherein the models for the different objects are encoded in a hierarchy. We investigated ways of optimally designing the hierarchy tree while building the models. The hierarchy among the objects is a core concept of AAR. The parent-offspring relationships have two main purposes in this context: (i) to bring into AAR more understanding and knowledge about the form, geography, and relationships among objects, and (ii) to foster guidance to object recognition and object delineation. In this approach, the relationship among objects is represented by a graph, where the vertices are the objects (organs) and the edges connect all pairs of vertices into a complete graph. Each pair of objects is assigned a weight described by the spatial distance between them, their intensity profile differences, and their correlation in size, all estimated over a population. The optimal hierarchy tree is obtained by the shortest-path algorithm as an optimal spanning tree. To evaluate the optimal hierarchies, we have performed some preliminary tests involving the subsequent recognition step. The body region used for initial investigation was the thorax.
Hierarchy modeling of subsurface palaeochannel reservoir architecture
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
The studies on fluvial reservoir architecture are mainly aimed at outcrop and modern deposition,but rarely at the subsurface reservoir,so there are few effective methods to predict the distribution of subsurface reservoir architectures. In this paper,taking the meandering river reservoir of Guantao formation Gudao Oilfield,Jiyang depression,Baohai Gulf Basin,East China as an example,the archi-tectural modeling method of complex meandering belt reservoir is proposed,that is hierarchy con-straint,pattern fitting and multi-dimensional interaction. Architectures of meandering river reservoir can be divided into three hierarchies: meandering channel sandbody,point bar and lateral accretion body. Different hierarchies of the quantitative architecture pattern are fitted to subsurface well data (including dynamic monitoring data) in different hierarchies through one-dimensional hole,2D profiles and plane and 3D space,which are verified by each other. And then 3D model in different hierarchies is established. At the same time,the quantificational relationship between width of active river and the scale of point bar is set up,and the scale of lateral accretion sand body and shale beddings is con-firmed with horizontal well data. The study not only has significant meaning on the development of geology,but also can improve the oilfield exploitation greatly.
Gravitational relaxation of electroweak hierarchy problem
Matsui, Hiroki
2016-01-01
The current status of the LHC experiments has aggravated the electroweak hierarchy problem as severe as the cosmological constant problem. Therefore, recently, theoretically different approaches to the electroweak hierarchy problem have been explored. In the present paper, we formulate several gravitational relaxation scenarios for the electroweak hierarchy problem. These scenarios assume that the frame of the the high-energy theory is essentially different from the frame of the Standard Model and the dimensional parameters as the Higgs boson mass or the cosmological constant depend on the parameter of the conformal transformation. Therefore, the Higgs boson mass and the cosmological constant of the ultraviolet (UV) cut-off scale order are sufficiently suppressed and sequestered via the conformal transformation. In these scenarios, the electroweak scale becomes natural without invoking supersymmetry or any other new physics at the low-energy scale by requiring modification of the gravitational sector.
Cohesion and Hierarchy in Physically Abusive Families
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Clarissa De Antoni
2009-06-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates cohesion (emotional bonding and hierarchy (powerstructure in families with abuse against their children. Twenty low-incomefamilies participated. Father, mother and child’s perspective of family relations(cohesion and hierarchy were evaluated by the Family System Test(FAST. The relationship between father-child, mother-child, couple, andamong siblings were evaluated at typical and conflictive situations. Resultsshow a significance regarding to cohesion in typical and conflictive situationfor father-child and mother-child dyads in all perspectives (by father, mother,and child. There is no significant differences regarding to hierarchy. Theseresults suggest that the families see the intrafamilial violence as a constant,since they cannot differentiate between both situations.
A hierarchy of topological tensor network states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a hierarchy of quantum many-body states among which many examples of topological order can be identified by construction. We define these states in terms of a general, basis-independent framework of tensor networks based on the algebraic setting of finite-dimensional Hopf C*-algebras. At the top of the hierarchy we identify ground states of new topological lattice models extending Kitaev's quantum double models [Ann. Phys. 303, 2 (2003)]. For these states we exhibit the mechanism responsible for their non-zero topological entanglement entropy by constructing an entanglement renormalization flow. Furthermore, we argue that the hierarchy states are related to each other by the condensation of topological charges.
Program information architecture/document hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Nuclear Waste Management System (NWMS) Management Systems Improvement Strategy (MSIS) (DOE 1990) requires that the information within the computer program and information management system be ordered into a precedence hierarchy for consistency. Therefore, the US Department of Energy (DOE). Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) requested Westinghouse Hanford Company to develop a plan for NWMS program information which the MSIS calls a document hierarchy. This report provides the results of that effort and describes the management system as a ''program information architecture.'' 3 refs., 3 figs
Toda lattice hierarchy and generalized string equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
String equations of the pth generalized Kontsevich model and the compactified c = 1 string theory are re-examined in the language of the Toda lattice hierarchy. As opposed to a hypothesis postulated in the literature, the generalized Kontsevich model at p = -1 does not coincide with the c = 1 string theory at self-dual radius. A broader family of solutions of the Toda lattice hierarchy including these models is constructed, and shown to satisfy generalized string equations. The status of a variety of c ≤ 1 string models is discussed in this new framework. (orig.)
An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe
We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this end......, we characterize an operational notion of continuation semantics. We relate it to the traditional CPS transformation and we use it to account for the control operator shift and the control delimiter reset operationally. We then transcribe the resulting continuation semantics in ML, thus obtaining a...
An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe
1999-01-01
We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this end......, we characterize an operational notion of continuation semantics. We relate it to the traditional CPS transformation and we use it to account for the control operator shift and the control delimiter reset operationally. We then transcribe the resulting continuation semantics in ML, thus obtaining a...
Contrastive hierarchies, privative features, and Portuguese vowels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joaquim Brandão de Carvalho
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Dresher’s (2009 Contrastive hierarchy theory (CHT is intended to provide a unified account of both sides of phonological primes: contrastivity and behaviour. This article explores the point and the possibility of extending CHT, which is based on binary features, to a system of monovalent elements that is much indebted to Schane’s (1984 Particle Phonology. It shows how several aspects of the phonology of European Portuguese nuclei that seem prima facie independent from one another – such as reduction patterns and the inventory of diphthongs and nasal vowels – are constrained by element hierarchy, and, thus, receive a unitary account.
The FO^2 alternation hierarchy is decidable
Kufleitner, Manfred
2012-01-01
We consider the two-variable fragment FO^2[<] of first-order logic over finite words. Numerous characterizations of this class are known. Th\\'erien and Wilke have shown that it is decidable whether a given regular language is definable in FO^2[<]. From a practical point of view, as shown by Weis, FO^2[<] is interesting since its satisfiability problem is in NP. Restricting the number of quantifier alternations yields an infinite hierarchy inside the class of FO^2[<]-definable languages. We show that each level of this hierarchy is decidable. For this purpose, we relate each level of the hierarchy with a decidable variety of finite monoids. Our result implies that there are many different ways of climbing up the FO^2[<]-quantifier alternation hierarchy: deterministic and co-deterministic products, Mal'cev products with definite and reverse definite semigroups, iterated block products with J-trivial monoids, and some inductively defined omega-term identities. A combinatorial tool in the process o...
A note on the substructural hierarchy
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jeřábek, Emil
2016-01-01
Roč. 62, 1-2 (2016), s. 102-110. ISSN 0942-5616 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : substructural hierarchy * full Lambek calculus * extension variables Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.325, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/malq.201500066
Lepton Mass Hierarchy and Neutrino Mixing
Fritzsch, Harald; Xing, Zhi-zhong
2006-01-01
We speculate that the mass spectrum of three neutrinos might have a normal hierarchy as that of three charged leptons or that of three up-type (or down-type) quarks. In this spirit, we propose a novel parametrization of the $3\\times 3$ lepton flavor mixing matrix. Its mixing angles $\\theta_l$ and $\\theta_\
Self-organization of divided hierarchy
Odagaki, Takashi; Kitada, Keigo; Omizo, Kenta; Fujie, Ryo
2015-03-01
There are two types of extreme form of hierarchy, one is the plutonomy where small fraction of winners and losers and many people in the middle class appear and the other a divided hierarchy where half of population become winners and the remaining half become losers. We study the emergence of the divided hierarchy in a model society which consists of bellicose individuals who always try to fight and fight with the strongest neighbor and pacific individuals who always try not to fight and when necessary fight with the weakest neighbor. In our model society, (1) individuals make random walk on a square lattice, (2) when two individuals encounter they fight each other and (3) the winner deprives wealth from the loser. By a Monte Carlo simulation, we show that there are two transitions when the population density is increased; one is a transition from the egalitarian society to a hierarchical society I where winners, losers and middle classes coexist and the other is a transition from the hierarchical society I to a hierarchical society II where winners and losers exist but no middle classes exist, that is the divided hierarchy. We also show that clusters consisting mostly of bellicose individuals appear in the hierarchical society I.
Phase Transition in Hierarchy Model of Bonabeau
Stauffer, Dietrich
The model of Bonabeau explains the emergence of social hierarchies from the memory of fights in an initially egalitarian society. Introducing a feedback from the social inequality into the probability to win a fight, we find a sharp transition between an egalitarian society at low population density and a hierarchical society at high population density.
Static Multiresolution Grids with Inline Hierarchy Information
Müller, Gero
2015-01-01
For numerical simulations of cosmic-ray propagation fast access to static magnetic field data is required. We present a data structure for multiresolution vector grids, which are optimized for fast access, low overhead and shared memory use. The hierarchy information is encoded into the grid itself, reducing the memory overhead.
Fuzzy Logic and Arithmetical Hierarchy III
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hájek, Petr
2001-01-01
Roč. 68, č. 1 (2001), s. 129-142. ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * basic fuzzy logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Godel logic * product logic * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Fuzzy Logic and Arithmetical Hierarchy IV
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hájek, Petr
Berlin : Logos Verlag, 2004 - ( Hendricks , V.; Neuhaus, F.; Pedersen, S.; Scheffler, U.; Wansing, H.), s. 107-115 ISBN 3-8325-0475-3 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development
Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these stud...
Stress amplifies memory for social hierarchy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
María I Cordero
2007-10-01
Full Text Available Individuals differ in their social status and societies in the extent of social status differences among their members. There is great interest in understanding the key factors that contribute to the establishment of social dominance structures. Given that stress can affect behavior and cognition, we hypothesized that, given equal opportunities to become either dominant or submissive, stress experienced by one of the individuals during their first encounter would determine the long-term establishment of a social hierarchy by acting as a two-stage rocket: (1 by influencing the rank achieved after a social encounter and (2 by facilitating and/or promoting a long-term memory for the specific hierarchy. Using a novel model for the assessment of long-term dominance hierarchies in rats, we present here the first evidence supporting such hypothesis. In control conditions, the social rank established through a first interaction and food competition test between two male rats is not maintained when animals are confronted 1 week later. However, if one of the rats is stressed just before their first encounter, the dominance hierarchy developed on day 1 is still clearly observed 1 week later, with the stressed animal becoming submissive (i.e., looser in competition tests in both social interactions. Our findings also allow us to propose that stress potentiates a hierarchy-linked recognition memory between “specific” individuals through mechanisms that involve de novo protein synthesis. These results implicate stress among the key mechanisms contributing to create social imbalance and highlight memory mechanisms as key mediators of stress-induced long-term establishment of social rank.
The mKdV and NLS hierarchies revisited
Molnar, Jan-Cornelius; Widmer, Yannick
2016-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to express the entire hierarchy of mKdV vector fields as restrictions of vector fields in the NLS hierarchy. The result is proved using the normal form theory of the two equations.
A review of Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
Babatunde, Olabenjo; Mbarouk, Salim
2014-01-01
With the advancement in telecommunications, packet traffic is rapidly becoming the mainstream of data traffic. The use and deployment of Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) networks for interconnection has gained traction worldwide due to its flexibility and standard for interconnecting multiple vendors, low operating cost and the high quality of service it provides. Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) on the other hand has been used before the introduction of the SDH standard and it also ...
A note on fractional KdV hierarchies
Casati, P; Magri, F; Pedroni, M; Casati, Paolo; Falqui, Gregorio; Magri, Franco; Pedroni, Marco
1996-01-01
We introduce a hierarchy of mutually commuting dynamical systems on a finite number of Laurent series. This hierarchy can be seen as a prolongation of the KP hierarchy, or a ``reduction'' in which the space coordinate is identified with an arbitrarily chosen time of a bigger dynamical system. Fractional KdV hierarchies are gotten by means of further reductions, obtained by constraining the Laurent series. The case of \\fraksl_3^{(2)} and its bihamiltonian structure are discussed in detail.
Vector Loop Algebra and Its Applications to Tu Hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A vector loop algebra and its extended loop algebra are proposed, which are devoted to obtaining the Tu hierarchy. By making use of the extended trace identity, the Hamiltonian structure of the Tu hierarchy is constructed. Furthermore, we apply the quadratic-form identity to the integrable coupling system of the Tu hierarchy.
Optimality Conditions and Finite Convergence of Lasserre's Hierarchy
Nie, Jiawang
2012-01-01
Lasserre's hierarchy is a sequence of semidefinite relaxations for solving polynomial optimization problems globally. This paper studies the relationship between optimality conditions in nonlinear programming theory and finite convergence of Lasserre's hierarchy. Our main results are: i) Lasserre's hierarchy has finite convergence when the constraint qualification, strict complementarity and second order sufficiency conditions hold at every global minimizer, under the standard archimedean ass...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two hierarchies of new nonlinear differential-difference equations with one continuous variable and one discrete variable are constructed from the Darboux transformations of the Kaup—Newell hierarchy of equations. Their integrable properties such as recursion operator, zero-curvature representations, and bi-Hamiltonian structures are studied. In addition, the hierarchy of equations obtained by Wu and Geng is identified with the hierarchy of two-component modified Volterra lattice equations. (general)
Colloquium: Hierarchy of scales in language dynamics
Blythe, Richard A.
2015-11-01
Methods and insights from statistical physics are finding an increasing variety of applications where one seeks to understand the emergent properties of a complex interacting system. One such area concerns the dynamics of language at a variety of levels of description, from the behaviour of individual agents learning simple artificial languages from each other, up to changes in the structure of languages shared by large groups of speakers over historical timescales. In this Colloquium, we survey a hierarchy of scales at which language and linguistic behaviour can be described, along with the main progress in understanding that has been made at each of them - much of which has come from the statistical physics community. We argue that future developments may arise by linking the different levels of the hierarchy together in a more coherent fashion, in particular where this allows more effective use of rich empirical data sets.
Generalized non-linear Schroedinger hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The importance in studying the completely integrable models have became evident in the last years due to the fact that those models present an algebraic structure extremely rich, providing the natural scenery for solitons description. Those models can be described through non-linear differential equations, pseudo-linear operators (Lax formulation), or a matrix formulation. The integrability implies in the existence of a conservation law associated to each of degree of freedom. Each conserved charge Qi can be associated to a Hamiltonian, defining a time evolution related to to a time ti through the Hamilton equation ∂A/∂ti=[A,Qi]. Particularly, for a two-dimensions field theory, infinite degree of freedom exist, and consequently infinite conservation laws describing the time evolution in space of infinite times. The Hamilton equation defines a hierarchy of models which present a infinite set of conservation laws. This paper studies the generalized non-linear Schroedinger hierarchy
Risk prioritisation using the analytic hierarchy process
Sum, Rabihah Md.
2015-12-01
This study demonstrated how to use the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to prioritise risks of an insurance company. AHP is a technique to structure complex problems by arranging elements of the problems in a hierarchy, assigning numerical values to subjective judgements on the relative importance of the elements and synthesizing the judgements to determine which elements have the highest priority. The study is motivated by wide application of AHP as a prioritisation technique in complex problems. It aims to show AHP is able to minimise some limitations of risk assessment technique using likelihood and impact. The study shows AHP is able to provide consistency check on subjective judgements, organise a large number of risks into a structured framework, assist risk managers to make explicit risk trade-offs, and provide an easy to understand and systematic risk assessment process.
Hierarchy of Scales in Language Dynamics
Blythe, Richard A
2015-01-01
Methods and insights from statistical physics are finding an increasing variety of applications where one seeks to understand the emergent properties of a complex interacting system. One such area concerns the dynamics of language at a variety of levels of description, from the behaviour of individual agents learning simple artificial languages from each other, up to changes in the structure of languages shared by large groups of speakers over historical timescales. In this Colloquium, we survey a hierarchy of scales at which language and linguistic behaviour can be described, along with the main progress in understanding that has been made at each of them---much of which has come from the statistical physics community. We argue that future developments may arise by linking the different levels of the hierarchy together in a more coherent fashion, in particular where this allows more effective use of rich empirical data sets.
Gauge hierarchy and long range forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
With the aid of simple examples, we show how a long range attractive force can arise in a gauge theory with a hierarchy. The force is due to the exchange of a Higgs boson whose mass and matter couplings are both naturally suppressed by the hierarchical mass ratio. Such bosons appear if there is an accidental global symmetry in the low-energy renormalizable Lagrangian after the high energy symmetry breaking. 6 refs
Hamiltonian hierarchy and the Hulthen potential
Gönül, B
2000-01-01
We deal with the Hamiltonian hierarchy problem of the Hulth\\'{e}n potential within the frame of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics and find that the associated superymmetric partner potentials simulate the effect of the centrifugal barrier. Incorporating the supersymmetric solutions and using the first-order perturbation theory we obtain an expression for the energy levels of theHulth\\'{e}n potential which gives satisfactory values for the non-zero angular momentum states.
Cancer Stem Cell Hierarchy in Glioblastoma Multiforme
Bradshaw, Amy; Wickremsekera, Agadha; Tan, Swee T.; Peng, Lifeng; Davis, Paul F.; Itinteang, Tinte
2016-01-01
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive tumor that typically exhibits treatment failure with high mortality rates, is associated with the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) within the tumor. CSCs possess the ability for perpetual self-renewal and proliferation, producing downstream progenitor cells that drive tumor growth. Studies of many cancer types have identified CSCs using specific markers, but it is still unclear as to where in the stem cell hierarchy these markers fall. This is ...
Emergent Geometry of KP Hierarchy. II
Zhou, Jian
2015-01-01
We elaborate on a construction of quantum LG superpotential associated to a tau-function of the KP hierarchy in the case that resulting quantum spectral curve lies in the quantum two-torus. This construction is applied to Hurwitz numbers, one-legged topological vertex and resolved conifold with external D-brane to give a natural explanation of some earlier work on the relevant quantum curves.
Supersymmetric Tensor Hierarchies from Superspace Cohomology
Randall, Stephen
2016-01-01
In this set of lectures we give a pedagogical introduction to the way in which the nilpotency of a super-de Rham operator can be exploited for the construction of gauge theories in superspace. We begin with a discussion of how the super-geometric closure conditions can be solved by simply computing the cocycles of the super-algebra. The next couple lectures are then devoted to applying this idea to extensions of the standard super-de Rham complex. This eventually results in a geometric "trivialization" of the consistency conditions required for non-abelian tensor hierarchies. Although this is a general conclusion, we focus specifically on the hierarchy obtained by compactifying the 3-form gauge field of 11D supergravity to 4D, $N = 1$ superspace. In the final lecture, we use the cohomological arguments developed herein to provide a geometric construction of the non-trivial Chern-Simons-type invariant in that tensor hierarchy and comment on generalizations. These lectures are based on a series of talks given a...
Context-dependent hierarchies in pigeons.
Nagy, Máté; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Pettit, Benjamin; Roberts-Mariani, Isabella; Vicsek, Tamás; Biro, Dora
2013-08-01
Hierarchical organization is widespread in the societies of humans and other animals, both in social structure and in decision-making contexts. In the case of collective motion, the majority of case studies report that dominant individuals lead group movements, in agreement with the common conflation of the terms "dominance" and "leadership." From a theoretical perspective, if social relationships influence interactions during collective motion, then social structure could also affect leadership in large, swarm-like groups, such as fish shoals and bird flocks. Here we use computer-vision-based methods and miniature GPS tracking to study, respectively, social dominance and in-flight leader-follower relations in pigeons. In both types of behavior we find hierarchically structured networks of directed interactions. However, instead of being conflated, dominance and leadership hierarchies are completely independent of each other. Although dominance is an important aspect of variation among pigeons, correlated with aggression and access to food, our results imply that the stable leadership hierarchies in the air must be based on a different set of individual competences. In addition to confirming the existence of independent and context-specific hierarchies in pigeons, we succeed in setting out a robust, scalable method for the automated analysis of dominance relationships, and thus of social structure, applicable to many species. Our results, as well as our methods, will help to incorporate the broader context of animal social organization into the study of collective behavior. PMID:23878247
Vanishing point: Scale independence in geomorphological hierarchies
Phillips, Jonathan D.
2016-08-01
Scale linkage problems in geosciences are often associated with a hierarchy of components. Both dynamical systems perspectives and intuition suggest that processes or relationships operating at fundamentally different scales are independent with respect to influences on system dynamics. But how far apart is "fundamentally different"-that is, what is the "vanishing point" at which scales are no longer interdependent? And how do we reconcile that with the idea (again, supported by both theory and intuition) that we can work our way along scale hierarchies from microscale to planetary (and vice-versa)? Graph and network theory are employed here to address these questions. Analysis of two archetypal hierarchical networks shows low algebraic connectivity, indicating low levels of inferential synchronization. This explains the apparent paradox between scale independence and hierarchical linkages. Incorporating more hierarchical levels results in an increase in complexity or entropy of the network as a whole, but at a nonlinear rate. Complexity increases as a power α of the number of levels in the hierarchy, with α network from other level decays rapidly as more levels are added. Relatedness among system components decreases with differences in scale or resolution, analogous to distance decay in the spatial domain. These findings suggest a strategy of identifying and focusing on the most important or interesting scale levels, rather than attempting to identify the smallest or largest scale levels and work top-down or bottom-up from there. Examples are given from soil geomorphology and karst flow networks.
Ditransitive Alignment and Referential Hierarchies in Araki
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandre François
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Since Bossong (1985, referential hierarchies have proven useful in accounting for patterns of differential object marking (DOM in mono‑transitive clauses. More recent studies (Siewierska 1998; Haspelmath 2005; Bickel 2008; papers in this volume have also shown the relevance of such hierarchies in explaining the alignment patterns of ditransitive verbs – that is, how languages treat formally the Theme and the recipient or Goal. Araki, a highly endangered Oceanic language of Vanuatu, not only shows DOM with its transitive verbs, but is also sensitive to referential properties of arguments in its handling of ditransitive alignment. On a hierarchy defined by the features [±local] (i.e. speech-act participant and [±human], the higher-ranking participant receives the status of object, while the other one is demoted to a peripheral role. The result is a pattern of regular alternation between indirective and secundative alignment, depending on the relative properties of the Theme and the Goal. The present article will describe these patterns, and discuss cases of variation. Ultimately, rules of ditransitive alignment in Araki can be explained functionally as a competition between non-agent participants on a scale of affectedness.
Affine Lie algebraic origin of constrained KP hierarchies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is presented an affine sl(n+1) algebraic construction of the basic constrained KP hierarchy. This hierarchy is analyzed using two approaches, namely linear matrix eigenvalue problem on hermitian symmetric space and constrained KP Lax formulation and we show that these approaches are equivalent. The model is recognized to be generalized non-linear Schroedinger (GNLS) hierarchy and it is used as a building block for a new class of constrained KP hierarchies. These constrained KP hierarchies are connected via similarity-Backlund transformations and interpolate between GNLS and multi-boson KP-Toda hierarchies. The construction uncovers origin of the Toda lattice structure behind the latter hierarchy. (author). 23 refs
Physical interpretation of the combinatorial hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The combinatorial hierarchy model for base particle processes is compared and contrasted with the Ur-theory as developed at the Tutzing Conferences. It agrees with Ur-theory about a finite basis, the ''fixed past--uncertain future'' aspects of physics, and the necessity of dropping Bohr's requirement of reduction to the haptic language of commonsense and classical physics. However, it retains a constructive, hierarchial approach with can yield only an approximate and discrete ''space time'', and introduces the observation metaphysic at the start. Concrete interpretation of the four levels of the hierarchy (with cardinals 3, 7, 127, 2127-1 approx. =1038) associates the three levels which map up and down with three absolute conservation laws (charge, baryon number, lepton number) and the spin dichotomy. The first level represents +, -, and +- unit charge. The second has the quantum nubmers of a baryon--antibaryon pair and associated charged meson (e.g., n anti n, p anti n, p anti p, n anti p, π+, π0, π-). The third level associates this pair, now including four spin states as well as four charge states, with a neutral lepton--antilepton pair (e anti e or ν anti ν) in four spin states (total, 64 states): three charged spinless, three charged spin-1, and neutral spin-1 mesons (15 states), and a neutral vector boson associated with the leptons; this gives 3 + 15 + 3 x 15 = 63 possible boson states, so a total correct count of 63 + 64 = 127 states. Something like SU2 X SU3 and other indications of quark quantum numbers can occur as substructures at the fourth (unstable) level. A slight extension gives the usual static approximation to the building energy of the hydrogen atom, α2m/sub e/c2. Cosmological implications of the theory are in accord with current experience. A beginning in the physical interpretation of a theory which could eventually encompass all branches of physics was made. 3 figures, 6 tables
Vanishing point: Scale independence in geomorphological hierarchies
Phillips, Jonathan D.
2016-08-01
Scale linkage problems in geosciences are often associated with a hierarchy of components. Both dynamical systems perspectives and intuition suggest that processes or relationships operating at fundamentally different scales are independent with respect to influences on system dynamics. But how far apart is "fundamentally different"-that is, what is the "vanishing point" at which scales are no longer interdependent? And how do we reconcile that with the idea (again, supported by both theory and intuition) that we can work our way along scale hierarchies from microscale to planetary (and vice-versa)? Graph and network theory are employed here to address these questions. Analysis of two archetypal hierarchical networks shows low algebraic connectivity, indicating low levels of inferential synchronization. This explains the apparent paradox between scale independence and hierarchical linkages. Incorporating more hierarchical levels results in an increase in complexity or entropy of the network as a whole, but at a nonlinear rate. Complexity increases as a power α of the number of levels in the hierarchy, with α < 1 and usually ≤ 0.6. However, algebraic connectivity decreases at a more rapid rate. Thus, the ability to infer one part of the hierarchical network from other level decays rapidly as more levels are added. Relatedness among system components decreases with differences in scale or resolution, analogous to distance decay in the spatial domain. These findings suggest a strategy of identifying and focusing on the most important or interesting scale levels, rather than attempting to identify the smallest or largest scale levels and work top-down or bottom-up from there. Examples are given from soil geomorphology and karst flow networks.
An Imperative Type Hierarchy with Partial Products
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Schmidt, Erik Meineche
constructor, the partial product, and show how to define a consistent hierarchy in the context of fully recursive types. A simple polymorphism is derived by introducing a notion of placeholder types. By extending the partial product types to include structural invariants we obtain a particularly appropriate...... notation for defining recursive types, that is superior to traditional type sums and products. We show how the ordering on types extends to an ordering on types with invariants. We allow the use of least upper bounds in type definitions and show how to compute upper bounds of invariants....
Toda hierarchy, Hurwitz numbers and conformal dynamics
Natanzon, S M
2013-01-01
We explicitly construct the series expansion for a certain class of solutions to the 2D Toda hierarchy in the zero dispersion limit, which we call symmetric solutions. We express the Taylor coefficients through some universal combinatorial constants and find recurrence relations for them. These results are used to obtain new formulas for the genus 0 double Hurwitz numbers. They can also serve as a starting point for a constructive approach to the Riemann mapping problem and the inverse potential problem in 2D.
Revaluing the hierarchy of paper recycling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This article revalues the hierarchy of paper waste management policies in a dynamic general equilibrium model. Incineration, material recycling and the distinction between non-renewable fossil fuels and renewable forest assets are incorporated. By comparing the first order conditions from the command optimum with the conditions from the market model, it is discovered that the unregulated market fails to create an optimal resource allocation. To see how the market behaves, in absence of environmental policy, compared to the first best solution a numerical model is used. Pigouvian taxes and subsidies are derived to correct for the externalities
Three New Integrable Hierarchies of Equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A general Lie algebra Vs and the corresponding loop algebra V-tildes are constructed, from which the linear isospectral Lax pairs are established, whose compatibility presents the zero curvature equation. As its application, a new Lax integrable hierarchy containing two parameters is worked out. It is not Liouville-integrable, however, its two reduced systems are Liouville-integrable, whose Hamiltonian structures are derived by making use of the quadratic-form identity and the γ formula (i.e. the computational formula on the constant γ appeared in the trace identity and the quadratic-form identity).
Monitoring Subcontracting in a Suppliers' Hierarchy
M. Cella
2009-01-01
In this paper we study the delegation of a production process in a three-tier hierarchy. The principal contracts directly only with the supplier that produces the ?rst input leaving him in charge of the contract for the production of the second input. We allow the principal to costlessly monitor the communication between the agents at the subcontracting stage in an attempt to save on informa- tional rents and improve productive e¢ ciency. We show that, if the contractor is free to choose the ...
Three New Integrable Hierarchies of Equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
A general Lie algebra Vs and the corresponding loop algebra ～Vs are constructed, from which the linear isospectral Lax pairs are established, whose compatibility presents the zero curvature equation. As its application, a new Lax integrable hierarchy containing two parameters is worked out. It is not Liouville-integrable, however, its two reduced systems are Liouville-integrable, whose Hamiltonian structures are derived by making use of the quadratic-form identity and the γ formula (i.e. the computational formula on the constant γ appeared in the trace identity and the quadratic-form identity).
Inverting Onto Functions and Polynomial Hierarchy
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Buhrman, H.; Fortnow, L.; Koucký, Michal; Rogers, J.D.; Vereshchagin, N.K.
Berlin : Springer-Verlag, 2007 - (Diekert, V.; Volkov, M.; Voronkov, A.), s. 92-103 ISBN 978-3-540-74509-9. - (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 4649). [International Computer Science Symposium in Russia, CSR 2007. Jekaterinburg (RU), 03.09.2007-07.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/0124; GA ČR GP201/07/P276 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : one-way functions * polynomial hierarchy * Kolmogorov generic oracle s Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Integrable nonlinear differential-difference hierarchy and Darboux transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, with a free function embedded into a discrete zero-curvature equation, an integrable nonlinear differential-difference hierarchy is derived via the extension of original hierarchy with symbolic computation. Based on the Lax pair, infinitely many conservation laws and Darboux transformations are constructed for the first nonlinear differential-difference equations in the hierarchy. As an application of the Darboux transformation, some explicit solutions of those sample equations are given.
Collapsing Hierarchies in PCGSs with Communication by Commands
L. Ilie
2012-01-01
We investigate here, mainly from the point of view of the hierarchies generated by different classes of systems, two variants of the parallel communicating grammar systems (PCGS) with communication by command: the multiple and, respectively, the single communication case. We show that the hierarchies for regular and linear components collapse in the single communication case and the hierarchy for context-sensitive components collapses in both multiple and single communication cases. By ...
A hierarchy of languages, logics, and mathematical theories
Kastner, Charles W.
2003-01-01
We present mathematics from a foundational perspective as a hierarchy in which each tier consists of a language, a logic, and a mathematical theory. Each tier in the hierarchy subsumes all preceding tiers in the sense that its language, logic, and mathematical theory generalize all preceding languages, logics, and mathematical theories. Starting from the root tier, the mathematical theories in this hierarchy are: combinatory logic restricted to the identity I, combinatory logic, ZFC set the...
AN INTEGRABLE HIERARCHY AND ITS EXPANDING LAX INTEGRABLE MODEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张玉峰; 闫庆友; 许曰才
2004-01-01
In general, Liouville integrable hierarchies of evolution equations were obtained by choosing proper U in zero curvature frame Ut - Vx + [U, V] = 0 first. But in the present paper, a new Liouville integrable hierarchy possessing bi-Hamiltonian structure is obtained by choosing V with derivatives in x and spectral potentials. Then integrable coupling, i.e. expanding Lax integrable model of the hierarchy obtained is presented by constructing a subalgebra of loop algebra A2.
Know Your Place: Neural Processing of Social Hierarchy in Humans
Zink, Caroline F.; Tong, Yunxia; Chen, Qiang; Bassett, Danielle S; Stein, Jason L; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas
2008-01-01
Social hierarchies guide behavior in many species, including humans, where status also has an enormous impact on motivation and health. However, little is known about the underlying neural representation of social hierarchies in humans. In the present study, we identify dissociable neural responses to perceived social rank using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in an interactive simulated social context. In both stable and unstable social hierarchies, viewing a superior individual...
Rescaling Symmetry Flow of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili Hierarchy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Ning
2004-01-01
@@ We present a new symmetry flow of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy, which origins from the rescaling of whole "multi-time" valuables. This flow describes the deformation of solutions of the KP hierarchy with respect to a noncommutative parameter. It is shown that the introduced rescaling symmetry flow does not commute with the ordinary evolution flows of the KP hierarchy, but commutes with the evolution flows with respect to slow- variables.
Infinite Conservation Laws for Nonlinear Integrable Couplings of Toda Hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We construct nonlinear integrable couplings of discrete soliton hierarchy, then the infinite conservation laws for the nonlinear integrable couplings of the lattice hierarchy are established. For explicit application of the method proposed, the infinite conservation laws of nonlinear integrable couplings of the Toda lattice hierarchy are presented. The obtained integrable couplings of the Toda lattice equations and conservation laws can be used to describe the possible formation mechanisms for hydrodynamics, solid state physics and plasma physics, respectively
Neutrino Hierarchies from a Gauge Symmetry
Heeck, Julian
2012-01-01
We consider the phenomenology of the gauged abelian symmetry B + 3 (L_e - L_mu - L_tau). Right-handed neutrinos necessary to cancel triangle anomalies are used in a type-I seesaw scheme to create active neutrino masses. Breaking the B + 3 (L_e - L_mu - L_tau) symmetry spontaneously below the seesaw scale generates low energy neutrino mass matrices with the approximate symmetries L_e (leading to normal hierarchy) or L_e - L_mu - L_tau (inverted hierarchy). For the latter we need to introduce a Z_2 symmetry which decouples one of the right-handed neutrinos. Accidently, the Z_2 makes it a dark matter candidate that interacts with the Standard Model via the Z' and a scalar s originating from spontaneous breaking of the new symmetry. The measured relic abundance of the Majorana dark matter particle can be obtained around the scalar and Z' resonances, while direct detection experiments are mainly sensitive to scalar exchange, which is induced by mass mixing of s with the standard Higgs.
Probing Neutrino Hierarchy and Chirality via Wakes.
Zhu, Hong-Ming; Pen, Ue-Li; Chen, Xuelei; Inman, Derek
2016-04-01
The relic neutrinos are expected to acquire a bulk relative velocity with respect to the dark matter at low redshifts, and neutrino wakes are expected to develop downstream of the dark matter halos. We propose a method of measuring the neutrino mass based on this mechanism. This neutrino wake will cause a dipole distortion of the galaxy-galaxy lensing pattern. This effect could be detected by combining upcoming lensing surveys with a low redshift galaxy survey or a 21 cm intensity mapping survey, which can map the neutrino flow field. The data obtained with LSST and Euclid should enable us to make a positive detection if the three neutrino masses are quasidegenerate with each neutrino mass of ∼0.1 eV, and a future high precision 21 cm lensing survey would allow the normal hierarchy and inverted hierarchy cases to be distinguished, and even the right-handed Dirac neutrinos may be detectable. PMID:27104695
Neutrino flavor pendulum in both mass hierarchies
Raffelt, Georg
2013-01-01
We construct a simple example for self-induced flavor conversion in dense neutrino gases showing new solutions that violate the symmetries of initial conditions. Our system consists of two opposite momentum modes 1 and 2, each initially occupied with equal densities of nu_e and anti-nu_e. Restricting solutions to symmetry under 1 2 allows for the usual bimodal instability ("flavor pendulum") in the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy (IH) and stability (no self-induced flavor conversion) in the normal hierarchy (NH). Lifting this symmetry restriction allows for a second pendulum-like solution that occurs in NH where the modes 1 and 2 swing in opposite directions in flavor space. Any small deviation from 1-2 symmetry in the initial condition triggers the new instability in NH. This effect corresponds to the recently identified multi-azimuth angle (MAA) instability of supernova neutrino fluxes. Both cases show explicitly that solutions of the equations of collective flavor oscillations need not inherit the symmet...
Neutrino flavor pendulum in both mass hierarchies
Raffelt, Georg; Seixas, David de Sousa
2013-08-01
We construct a simple example for self-induced flavor conversion in dense neutrino gases, showing new solutions that violate the symmetries of initial conditions. Our system consists of two opposite momentum modes 1 and 2, each initially occupied with equal densities of νe and ν¯e. Restricting solutions to symmetry under 1↔2 allows for the usual bimodal instability (“flavor pendulum”) in the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy and stability (no self-induced flavor conversion) in the normal hierarchy (NH). Lifting this symmetry restriction allows for a second pendulumlike solution that occurs in NH, where the modes 1 and 2 swing in opposite directions in flavor space. Any small deviation from 1-2 symmetry in the initial condition triggers the new instability in NH. This effect corresponds to the recently identified multi-azimuth angle instability of supernova neutrino fluxes. Both cases show explicitly that solutions of the equations of collective flavor oscillations need not inherit the symmetries of initial conditions, although this has been universally assumed.
Hierarchies Without Symmetries from Extra Dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is commonly thought that small couplings in a low-energy theory, such as those needed for the fermion mass hierarchy or proton stability, must originate from symmetries in a high-energy theory. We show that this expectation is violated in theories where the Standard Model fields are confined to a thick wall in extra dimensions, with the fermions ''stuck'' at different points in the wall. Couplings between them are then suppressed due to the exponentially small overlaps of their wave functions. This provides a framework for understanding both the fermion mass hierarchy and proton stability without imposing symmetries, but rather in terms of higher dimensional geography. A model independent prediction of this scenario is non-universal couplings of the Standard Model fermions to the ''Kaluza-Klein'' excitations of the gauge fields. This allows a measurement of the fermion locations in the extra dimensions at the LHC or NLC if the wall thickness is close to the TeV scale
Hierarchies without symmetries from extra dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is commonly thought that small couplings in a low-energy theory, such as those needed for the fermion mass hierarchy or proton stability, must originate from symmetries in a high-energy theory. We show that this expectation is violated in theories where the standard model fields are confined to a thick wall in extra dimensions, with the fermions ''stuck'' at different points in the wall. Couplings between them are then suppressed due to the exponentially small overlaps of their wave functions. This provides a framework for understanding both the fermion mass hierarchy and proton stability without imposing symmetries, but rather in terms of higher dimensional geography. A model independent prediction of this scenario is non-universal couplings of the standard model fermions to the ''Kaluza-Klein'' excitations of the gauge fields. This allows a measurement of the fermion locations in the extra dimensions at the CERN LHC or NLC if the wall thickness is close to the TeV scale. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
OPTIMAL HIERARCHY STRUCTURES FOR MULTI-ATTRIBUTE-CRITERIA DECISIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Stan LIPOVETSKY
2009-01-01
A problem of a hierarchy structure optimization is considered. Hierarchical structures are widely used in the Analytic Hierarchy Process, conjoint analysis, and various other methods of multiple criteria decision making. The problem consists in finding a structure that needs a minimum number of pair comparisons for a given total number of the alternatives. For an optimal hierarchy, the minimum efforts are needed for eliciting data and synthesizing the local References across the hierarchy to get the global priorities or utilities. Special estimation techniques are developed and numerical simulations performed. Analytical and numerical results suggest optimal ways of priority evaluations for practical managerial decisions in a complex environment.
The analytic hierarchy process as a support for decision making
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Filipović Milanka
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The first part of this text deals with a convention site selection as one of the most lucrative areas in the tourism industry. The second part gives a further description of a method for decision making - the analytic hierarchy process. The basic characteristics: hierarchy constructions and pair wise comparison on the given level of the hierarchy are allured. The third part offers an example of application. This example is solved using the Super - Decision software, which is developed as a computer support for the analytic hierarchy process. This indicates that the AHP approach is a useful tool to help support a decision of convention site selection. .
Efficient Algorithms for Membership in Boolean Hierarchies of Regular Languages
Glasser, Christian; Selivanov, Victor
2008-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to provide efficient algorithms that decide membership for classes of several Boolean hierarchies for which efficiency (or even decidability) were previously not known. We develop new forbidden-chain characterizations for the single levels of these hierarchies and obtain the following results: - The classes of the Boolean hierarchy over level $\\Sigma_1$ of the dot-depth hierarchy are decidable in $NL$ (previously only the decidability was known). The same remains true if predicates mod $d$ for fixed $d$ are allowed. - If modular predicates for arbitrary $d$ are allowed, then the classes of the Boolean hierarchy over level $\\Sigma_1$ are decidable. - For the restricted case of a two-letter alphabet, the classes of the Boolean hierarchy over level $\\Sigma_2$ of the Straubing-Th\\'erien hierarchy are decidable in $NL$. This is the first decidability result for this hierarchy. - The membership problems for all mentioned Boolean-hierarchy classes are logspace many-one hard for $NL$. - T...
On the Extended Multi-component Toda Hierarchy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Chuanzhong, E-mail: lichuanzhong@nbu.edu.cn; He, Jingsong, E-mail: hejingsong@nbu.edu.cn [Ningbo University, Department of Mathematics (China)
2014-12-15
The extended flow equations of the multi-component Toda hierarchy are constructed. We give the Hirota bilinear equations and tau function of this new extended multi-component Toda hierarchy(EMTH). Because of logarithmic terms, some extended Vertex operators are constructed in generalized Hirota bilinear equations which might be useful in topological field theory and Gromov-Witten theory. Meanwhile the Darboux transformation and bi-hamiltonian structure of this hierarchy are given. From the hamiltonian tau symmetry, we give another different tau function of this hierarchy with some unknown mysterious connections with the one defined from the point of wave functions.
Gauge transformation and symmetries of the commutative multicomponent BKP hierarchy
Li, Chuanzhong
2016-01-01
In this paper, we defined a new multi-component B type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (BKP) hierarchy that takes values in a commutative subalgebra of {gl}(N,{{C}}). After this, we give the gauge transformation of this commutative multicomponent BKP (CMBKP) hierarchy. Meanwhile, we construct a new constrained CMBKP hierarchy that contains some new integrable systems, including coupled KdV equations under a certain reduction. After this, the quantum torus symmetry and quantum torus constraint on the tau function of the commutative multi-component BKP hierarchy will be constructed.
Advanced Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ezzati Abdellah,
2010-10-01
Full Text Available The use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs is anticipated to bring enormous changes in data gathering, processing and dissemination for different environments and applications. However, a WSN is a power constrained system, since nodes run on limited power batteries which shorten its lifespan. Prolonging the network lifetime depends on efficient management of sensing node energy resource. Hierarchicalrouting protocols are best known in regard to energy efficiency. By using a clustering technique hierarchical routing protocols greatly minimize energy consumed in collecting and disseminating data. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH is one of the undamental protocols in this class. In this paper we propose Advanced LEACH (A-LEACH, a heterogeneous-energy protocol to decrease probability of failure nodes and to prolong the time interval before the death of the first node (we refer to as stability period and increasing the lifetime in heterogeneous WSNs, which is crucial for many applications.
Lax operator algebras and Hamiltonian integrable hierarchies
Sheinman, Oleg K
2009-01-01
We consider the theory of Lax equations in complex simple and reductive classical Lie algebras with the spectral parameter on a Riemann surface of finite genus. Our approach is based on the new objects -- the Lax operator algebras, and develops the approach of I.Krichever treating the $\\gl(n)$ case. For every Lax operator considered as the mapping sending a point of the cotangent bundle on the space of extended Tyrin data to an element of the corresponding Lax operator algebra we construct the hierarchy of mutually commuting flows given by Lax equations and prove that those are Hamiltonian with respect to the Krichever-Phong symplectic structure. The corresponding Hamiltonians give integrable finite-dimensional Hitchin-type systems. For example we derive elliptic $A_n$, $C_n$, $D_n$ Calogero-Moser systems in frame of our approach.
Cancer Stem Cell Hierarchy in Glioblastoma Multiforme.
Bradshaw, Amy; Wickremsekera, Agadha; Tan, Swee T; Peng, Lifeng; Davis, Paul F; Itinteang, Tinte
2016-01-01
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive tumor that typically exhibits treatment failure with high mortality rates, is associated with the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) within the tumor. CSCs possess the ability for perpetual self-renewal and proliferation, producing downstream progenitor cells that drive tumor growth. Studies of many cancer types have identified CSCs using specific markers, but it is still unclear as to where in the stem cell hierarchy these markers fall. This is compounded further by the presence of multiple GBM and glioblastoma cancer stem cell subtypes, making investigation and establishment of a universal treatment difficult. This review examines the current knowledge on the CSC markers SALL4, OCT-4, SOX2, STAT3, NANOG, c-Myc, KLF4, CD133, CD44, nestin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, specifically focusing on their use and validity in GBM research and how they may be utilized for investigations into GBM's cancer biology. PMID:27148537
Cancer Stem Cell Hierarchy in Glioblastoma Multiforme
Bradshaw, Amy; Wickremsekera, Agadha; Tan, Swee T.; Peng, Lifeng; Davis, Paul F.; Itinteang, Tinte
2016-01-01
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive tumor that typically exhibits treatment failure with high mortality rates, is associated with the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) within the tumor. CSCs possess the ability for perpetual self-renewal and proliferation, producing downstream progenitor cells that drive tumor growth. Studies of many cancer types have identified CSCs using specific markers, but it is still unclear as to where in the stem cell hierarchy these markers fall. This is compounded further by the presence of multiple GBM and glioblastoma cancer stem cell subtypes, making investigation and establishment of a universal treatment difficult. This review examines the current knowledge on the CSC markers SALL4, OCT-4, SOX2, STAT3, NANOG, c-Myc, KLF4, CD133, CD44, nestin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, specifically focusing on their use and validity in GBM research and how they may be utilized for investigations into GBM’s cancer biology.
What Can Hierarchies Do for Data Streams?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yin, Xuepeng; Pedersen, Torben Bach
Much effort has been put into building data streams management systems for querying data streams. Here, data streams have been viewed as a flow of low-level data items, e.g., sensor readings or IP packet data. Stream query languages have mostly been SQL-based, with the STREAM and Telegraph......CQ languages as examples. However, there has been little work on supporting OLAP-like queries that provide multi-dimensional and summarized views of stream data. In this paper, we introduce a multidimensional stream query language and its formal semantics. Our approach enables powerful OLAP queries against...... data streams with dimension hierarchies, thus turning low-level data streams into informative high-level aggregates. A comparison with STREAM shows that our approach is more flexible and powerful for high-level OLAP queries, as well as far more compact and concise....
Scale-Independent Inflation and Hierarchy Generation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferreira, Pedro G. [Oxford U.; Hill, Christopher T. [Fermilab; Ross, Graham G. [Oxford U., Theor. Phys.
2016-03-18
We discuss models involving two scalar fields coupled to classical gravity that satisfy the general criteria: (i) the theory has no mass input parameters, (ii) classical scale symmetry is broken only through $-\\frac{1}{12}\\varsigma \\phi^2 R$ couplings where $\\varsigma$ departs from the special conformal value of $1$; (iii) the Planck mass is dynamically generated by the vacuum expectations values (VEVs) of the scalars (iv) there is a stage of viable inflation associated with slow roll in the two--scalar potential; (v) the final vacuum has a small to vanishing cosmological constant and an hierarchically small ratio of the VEVs and the ratio of the scalar masses to the Planck scale. This assumes the paradigm of classical scale symmetry as a custodial symmetry of large hierarchies.
Soft QCD path to the mass hierarchy
Todorova-Nova, Sarka
2014-01-01
The study of the quantization of the QCD string with the helix structure is put into the context of a decades-long discussion opposing the probabilistic and the deterministic interpretations of the quantum theory. The recent evolution of the string fragmentation model (to a large extent driven and confirmed by the empirical evidence), towards the deterministic point of view is recounted: the notion of causality not only paves a way to the study of mass hierarchy, it also resolves a long-standing ambiguity about the nature of the so-called Bose-Einstein correlations. Two directions for the further development of the model are outlined: 1/ the relation between the ordered emission of field quanta and the spin of the emitting particle, 2/ the relation between the topological properties of the QCD string and the emergence of new particle types (quantum numbers).
Scale-Independent Inflation and Hierarchy Generation
Ferreira, Pedro G; Ross, Graham G
2016-01-01
We discuss models involving two scalar fields coupled to classical gravity that satisfy the general criteria: (i) the theory has no mass input parameters, (ii) classical scale symmetry is broken only through $-\\frac{1}{12}\\varsigma \\phi^2 R$ couplings where $\\varsigma$ departs from the special conformal value of $1$; (iii) the Planck mass is dynamically generated by the vacuum expectations values (VEVs) of the scalars (iv) there is a stage of viable inflation associated with slow roll in the two--scalar potential; (v) the final vacuum has a small to vanishing cosmological constant and an hierarchically small ratio of the VEVs and the ratio of the scalar masses to the Planck scale. This assumes the paradigm of classical scale symmetry as a custodial symmetry of large hierarchies.
Optimal Organizational Hierarchies: Source Coding: Disaster Relief
Murthy, G Rama
2011-01-01
ulticasting is an important communication paradigm for enabling the dissemination of information selectively. This paper considers the problem of optimal secure multicasting in a communication network captured through a graph (optimal is in an interesting sense) and provides a doubly optimal solution using results from source coding. It is realized that the solution leads to optimal design (in a well defined optimality sense) of organizational hierarchies captured through a graph. In this effort two novel concepts : prefix free path, graph entropy are introduced. Some results of graph entropy are provided. Also some results on Kraft inequality are discussed. As an application Hierarchical Hybrid Communication Network is utilized as a model of structured Mobile Adhoc network for utility in Disaster Management. Several new research problems that naturally emanate from this research are summarized.
Predictability and hierarchy in Drosophila behavior
Berman, Gordon J; Shaevitz, Joshua W
2016-01-01
Even the simplest of animals exhibit behavioral sequences with complex temporal dynamics. Prominent amongst the proposed organizing principles for these dynamics has been the idea of a hierarchy, wherein the movements an animal makes can be understood as a set of nested sub-clusters. Although this type of organization holds potential advantages in terms of motion control and neural circuitry, measurements demonstrating this for an animal's entire behavioral repertoire have been limited in scope and temporal complexity. Here, we use a recently developed unsupervised technique to discover and track the occurrence of all stereotyped behaviors performed by fruit flies moving in a shallow arena. Calculating the optimally predictive representation of the fly's future behaviors, we show that fly behavior exhibits multiple time scales and is organized into a hierarchical structure that is indicative of its underlying behavioral programs and its changing internal states.
Criteria for optimizing cortical hierarchies with continuous ranges
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew T Reid
2010-03-01
Full Text Available In a recent paper (Reid et al.; 2009, NeuroImage we introduced a method to calculate optimal hierarchies in the visual network that utilizes continuous, rather than discrete, hierarchical levels, and permits a range of acceptable values rather than attempting to fit fixed hierarchical distances. There, to obtain a hierarchy, the sum of deviations from the constraints that define the hierarchy was minimized using linear optimization. In the short time since publication of that paper we noticed that many colleagues misinterpreted the meaning of the term "optimal hierarchy". In particular, a majority of them were under the impression that there was perhaps only one optimal hierarchy, but a substantial difficulty in finding that one. However, there is not only more than one optimal hierarchy but also more than one option for defining optimality. Continuing the line of this work we look at additional options for optimizing the visual hierarchy: minimizing the number of violated constraints and minimizing the maximal size of a constraint violation using linear optimization and mixed integer programming. The implementation of both optimization criteria is explained in detail. In addition, using constraint sets based on the data from Felleman and Van Essen, optimal hierarchies for the visual network are calculated for both optimization methods.
Inequality Matters : Classroom Status Hierarchy and Adolescents' Bullying
Garandeau, Claire F.; Lee, Ihno A.; Salmivalli, Christina
2014-01-01
The natural emergence of status hierarchies in adolescent peer groups has long been assumed to help prevent future intragroup aggression. However, clear evidence of this beneficial influence is lacking. In fact, few studies have examined between-group differences in the degree of status hierarchy (d
On Symmetry Flows of Noncommutative Kadomtsev-Petviashvili Hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss symmetry flows of noncommutative Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (NCKP) hierarchy. An operator-based formulation, alternative to the star-product approach of extended symmetry flows is presented. Noncommutative additional symmetry flows of the NCKP hierarchy are formulated. A rescaling symmetry flow which is associated with the rescaling of whole coordinates is introduced.
Hamiltonian Tri-Integrable Couplings of the AKNS Hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a systematic approach for generating Hamiltonian tri-integrable couplings of soliton hierarchies. The resulting approach is based on semi-direct sums of matrix Lie algebras consisting of 4×4 block matrix Lie algebras. We apply the approach to the AKNS soliton hierarchy, and Hamiltonian structures of the obtained tri-integrable couplings are constructed by the variational identity. (general)
Super-KN Hierarchy and Its Super-Hamiltonian Structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on the basis of the constructed Lie super algebra, the super-isospectral problem of KN hierarchy is considered. Under the frame of the zero curvature equation, the super-KN hierarchy is obtained. Furthermore, its super-Hamiltonian structure is presented by using super-trace identity and it has super-bi-Hamiltonian structure. (general)
ON GENERATING EQUATIONS FOR THE KAUP-NEWELL HIERARCHY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
It is shown that the Kaup-Newell hierarchy can be derived from the so-called generating equations which are Lax integrable. Positive and negative flows in the hierarchy are derived simultaneously. The generating equations and mutual commutativity of these flows enable us to construct new Lax integrable equations.
On Symmetry Flows of Noncommutative Kadomtsev-Petviashvili Hierarchy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
We discuss symmetry flows of noncommutative Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (NCKP) hierarchy. An operatorbased formulation, alternative to the star-product approach of extended symmetry flows is presented. Noncommutative additional symmetry flows of the NCKP hierarchy are formulated. A rescaling symmetry flow which is associated with the rescaling of whole coordinates is introduced.
The Diversity Education Dilemma: Exposing Status Hierarchies without Reinforcing Them
Amoroso, Lisa M.; Loyd, Denise Lewin; Hoobler, Jenny M.
2010-01-01
A "diversity education dilemma" occurs when exposure to information concerning status hierarchies, related to demographic and other socially salient identity groups, reinforces those hierarchies in the classroom. Discussions of diversity-related issues in a variety of management courses (e.g., immigrant issues in labor relations, the composition…
A Validation Study of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory.
Clay, Rex J.
A study was conducted to expand the body of research that tests the validity of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory in a work context where it often serves as a guide for the supervisor's relationships with his subordinates. Data was gathered by questionnaire which tested for a hierarchy of needs among instructors at four community colleges…
Phase model expectation values and the 2-Toda hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that the scalar product of the phase model on a finite rectangular lattice is a (restricted) τ function of the 2-Toda hierarchy. Using this equivalence we then show that the wavefunctions of the hierarchy correspond to certain classes of boundary correlation functions of the model
Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Classical-Boussinesq Hierarchy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiuzhi Xing
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear integrable couplings of super classical-Boussinesq hierarchy based upon an enlarged matrix Lie super algebra were constructed. Then, its super Hamiltonian structures were established by using super trace identity. As its reduction, nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable hierarchy were obtained.
Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, Rene
2013-01-01
The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys ("N" = 1,665) and girls ("N" = 1,637) ("M" age = 13.60). In line with the…
Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan; Veenstra, René
2013-01-01
The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys (N = 1,665) and girls (N = 1,637) (M age = 13.60). In line
Dispersionless Hirota Equations of Two-Component BKP Hierarchy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kanehisa Takasaki
2006-05-01
Full Text Available The BKP hierarchy has a two-component analogue (the 2-BKP hierarchy. Dispersionless limit of this multi-component hierarchy is considered on the level of the τ-function. The so called dispersionless Hirota equations are obtained from the Hirota equations of the τ-function. These dispersionless Hirota equations turn out to be equivalent to a system of Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Other relevant equations, in particular, dispersionless Lax equations, can be derived from these fundamental equations. For comparison, another approach based on auxiliary linear equations is also presented.
The Impact of Formal Hierarchies on Enterprise Social Networking Behavior
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Behrendt, Sebastian; Klier, Julia; Klier, Mathias;
2015-01-01
With more and more companies using enterprise social networks (ESN) for employee communication and collaboration, the influence of ESN on organizational hierarchies has been subject of countless discussions in practice-oriented media and first academic studies. Conversely, the question whether and...... impact on social networking behavior. By applying means of social network analysis and supported by statements from interviews, we illustrate how deeply formal hierarchy impacts the three examined types of relationships. Our results motivate academics to further study the interrelation between hierarchy...
6D RG Flows and Nilpotent Hierarchies
Heckman, Jonathan J; Tomasiello, Alessandro
2016-01-01
With the eventual aim of classifying renormalization group flows between 6D superconformal field theories (SCFTs), we study flows generated by the vevs of "conformal matter," a generalization of conventional hypermultiplets which naturally appear in the F-theory classification of 6D SCFTs. We consider flows in which the parent UV theory is (on its partial tensor branch) a linear chain of gauge groups connected by conformal matter, with one flavor group G at each end of the chain, and in which the symmetry breaking of the conformal matter at each end is parameterized by the orbit of a nilpotent element, i.e. T-brane data, of one of these flavor symmetries. Such nilpotent orbits admit a partial ordering, which is reflected in a hierarchy of IR fixed points. For each such nilpotent orbit, we determine the corresponding tensor branch for the resulting SCFT. An important feature of this algebraic approach is that it also allows us to systematically compute the unbroken flavor symmetries inherited from the parent U...
Kinetic mixing and the supersymmetric gauge hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The most general Lagrangian for a model with two U(1) gauge symmetries contains a renormalizable operator which mixes their gauge kinetic terms. Such kinetic mixing can be generated at arbitrarily high scales but will not be suppressed by large masses. In models whose supersymmetry (SUSY)-breaking hidden sectors contain U(1) gauge factors, we show that such terms will generically arise and communicate SUSY breaking to the visible sector through mixing with hypercharge. In the context of the usual supergravity- or gauge-mediated communication scenarios with D-terms of order the fundamental scale of SUSY breaking, this effect can destabilize the gauge hierarchy. Even in models for which kinetic mixing is suppressed or the D-terms are arranged to be small, this effect is a potentially large correction to the soft scalar masses and therefore introduces a new measurable low-energy parameter. We calculate the size of kinetic mixing both in field theory and in string theory, and argue that appreciable kinetic mixing is a generic feature of string models. We conclude that the possibility of kinetic mixing effects cannot be ignored in model building and in phenomenological studies of the low-energy SUSY spectra. (orig.)
Mirror quintic vacua: hierarchies and inflation
Bizet, Nana Cabo; Zavala, Ivonne
2016-01-01
We study the moduli space of type IIB string theory flux compactifications on the mirror of the CY quintic 3-fold in P4. We focus on the dynamics of the four dimensional moduli space, defined by the axio-dilaton {\\tau} and the complex structure modulus z. The z-plane has critical points, the conifold, the orbifold and the large complex structure with non trivial monodromies. We find the solutions to the Picard-Fuchs equations obeyed by the periods of the CY in the full z-plane as a series expansion in z around the critical points to arbitrary order. This allows us to discard fake vacua, which appear as a result of keeping only the leading order term in the series expansions. Due to monodromies vacua are located at a given sheet in the z-plane. A dS vacuum appears for a set of fluxes. We revisit vacua with hierarchies among the 4D and 6D physical scales close to the conifold point and compare them with those found at leading order in [1, 2]. We explore slow-roll inflationary directions of the scalar potential ...
How transportation hierarchy shapes human mobility
Gallotti, Riccardo; Rambaldi, Sandro; Barthelemy, Marc
2015-01-01
The recent availability of data allowing to monitor the position of individuals triggered a wealth of quantitative studies on human mobility. In particular, it is now believed that displacements can be described by a L\\'evy type of walk, characterized by many small movements and some rare long jumps. We show here that this view is not correct and that effective movements in urban and inter-urban areas are much simpler. We use a database containing the trajectories of $780,000$ private vehicles in Italy and an open dataset describing the temporal characteristics of the entire public transportation system in Great Britain. We observe that trips for both private and public transportation are on average accelerated as a consequence of the multilayer hierarchy of transportation infrastructures. In other terms, the speed depends on the duration of the trip, with larger speed for longer trips. This sole ingredient leads, starting from the observed exponential distribution of travel-times and velocities, to a distrib...
About Fermion Hierarchies from Warped Extra Dimensions
Lawrance, Robert
2014-01-01
We consider fermions propagating in the bulk of the geometry found by deforming AdS, in 5 dimensions, via the back reaction of a scalar field upon the metric. This space is AdS for r asymptotically large (in the UV) but goes through a transition at a point, into another AdS space with different curvature in the IR. Masses are generated for these fermions via electroweak symmetry breaking, by coupling them to a VEV on the IR boundary. We calculate the mass spectrum in four dimensions, comparing approximate results and results found by solving the full system of bulk equations and boundary conditions. We consider the effect on the mass of the light modes of various parameters, including the curvature of the space in the IR. This information is then used to reproduce the mass hierarchy between the top and bottom. By assuming universality of the gauge coupling, we find bounds on the allowed bulk masses of the right--handed fermion fields. We look for solutions that satisfy these bounds in a number of different sc...
Modeling Leadership Hierarchy in Multilevel Animal Societies
Ozogány, Katalin
2014-01-01
A typical feature of many natural and social networks is the presence of communities giving rise to multiple levels of organization. We investigate the decision-making process of a group combining self organization and social dynamics, and reproduce the simultaneous emergence of a hierarchical and modular leadership network. All individuals in the model try, with varying degrees of ability, to find a direction of movement, with the result that leader-follower relationships evolve between them, since they tend to follow the more successful ones. The harem-forming ambitions of male individuals inspired by an observed Przewalski horse herd (Hortob\\'agy, Hungary) leads to modular structure. In this approach we find that the harem-leader to harem-member ratio observed in horses corresponds to an optimal network regarding common success, and that modularly structured hierarchy is more benefical than a non-modular one, in the sense that common success is higher, and the underlying network is more hierarchical. We al...
Bidifferential Calculus Approach to AKNS Hierarchies and Their Solutions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aristophanes Dimakis
2010-07-01
Full Text Available We express AKNS hierarchies, admitting reductions to matrix NLS and matrix mKdV hierarchies, in terms of a bidifferential graded algebra. Application of a universal result in this framework quickly generates an infinite family of exact solutions, including e.g. the matrix solitons in the focusing NLS case. Exploiting a general Miura transformation, we recover the generalized Heisenberg magnet hierarchy and establish a corresponding solution formula for it. Simply by exchanging the roles of the two derivations of the bidifferential graded algebra, we recover ''negative flows'', leading to an extension of the respective hierarchy. In this way we also meet a matrix and vector version of the short pulse equation and also the sine-Gordon equation. For these equations corresponding solution formulas are also derived. In all these cases the solutions are parametrized in terms of matrix data that have to satisfy a certain Sylvester equation.
INTEGRABLE COUPLINGS OF THE TB HIERARCHY AND ITS HAMILTONIAN STRUCTURE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
In this paper,we obtain integrable couplings of the TB hierarchy using the new subalgebra of the loop algebra A_3.Then the Hamiltonian structure of the above system is given by the quadratic-form identity.
A polynomial bracket for the Dubrovin--Zhang hierarchies
Buryak, A; Shadrin, S
2010-01-01
We define a hierarchy of Hamiltonian PDEs associated to an arbitrary tau-function in the semi-simple orbit of the Givental group action on genus expansions of Frobenius manifolds. We prove that the equations, the Hamiltonians, and the bracket are weighted-homogeneous polynomials in the derivatives of the dependent variables with respect to the space variable. In the particular case of a conformal (homogeneous) Frobenius structure, our hierarchy coincides with the Dubrovin-Zhang hierarchy that is canonically associated to the underlying Frobenius structure. Therefore, our approach allows to prove the polynomiality of the equations, Hamiltonians and one of the Poisson brackets of these hierarchies, as conjectured by Dubrovin and Zhang.
Phase model expectation values and the 2-Toda hierarchy
Zuparic, M
2009-01-01
We show that the scalar product of the phase model is a (restricted) 2-Toda tau-function. Additionally, we highlight a correspondence between the boundary correlation functions of the model and the wave-functions of the hierarchy.
Integrable Coupling of KN Hierarchy and Its Hamiltonian Structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Hamiltonian structure of the integrable couplings obtained by our method has not been solved. In this paper, the Hamiltonian structure of the KN hierarchy is obtained by making use of the quadratic-form identity.
Two-reduction of the super-KP hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recursion relations are established for the residues of fractional powers of a two-reduced super-KP operator making use of the Baker-Akhiezer function. These show the integrability of the two-reduced even (or bosonic) flows of the super-KP hierarchy. Similar recursion relations are also proven for the residues of operators associated with the odd (or fermionic) flows of the Mulase-Rabin super-KP hierarchy. Due to the presence of a spectral parameter and itts fermionic partner in the Baker-Akhiezer function, these recursion relations should be relevant to any attempt to prove or disprove a recent proposal that the integrable hierarchy underlying two-dimensional quantum supergravity is the Mulase-Rabin super-KP hierarchy. (orig.)
Neutrino mass hierarchy determination at reactor antineutrino experiments
Yang, Guang
2015-01-01
After the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ has been precisely measured by the reactor antineutrino experiments, one of the most important open questions left in neutrino physics is the neutrino mass hierarchy. Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH) without exploring the matter effect. The JUNO site location is optimized to have the best sensitivity for the mass hierarchy determination. JUNO will employ a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector located in a laboratory 700 meters underground. The excellent energy resolution and PMT coverage will give us an unprecedented opportunity to reach a 3-4 $\\sigma$ precision. In this paper, the JUNO detector design and simulation work will be presented. Also, RENO-50, another medium distance reactor antineutrino experiment, will do a similar measurement. With the efforts of these experiments, it is very likely that the neutrino mass hierarchy will be determined in the next 10 years.
Improving the hierarchy sensitivity of ICAL using neural network
Ajmi, Ali; Nizam, Mohammad; Nayak, Nitish; Sankar, S Uma
2015-01-01
Atmospheric neutrino experiments can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy for any value of $\\delta_{CP}$. The Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector at the India-based Neutrino Observatory can distinguish between the charged current interactions of $\
Self-organizing social hierarchies in a timid society
Odagaki, Takashi; Tsujiguchi, Masaru
2006-07-01
Emergence of hierarchies is investigated by Monte Carlo simulation in a timid society where all individuals are pacifist. The self-organization of hierarchies is shown to occur in two steps as the population is increased, i.e. there are three states, one egalitarian and two hierarchical states; the transition from the egalitarian to the first hierarchical state is continuous and the transition from the first hierarchical state to the second one is discontinuous. In the first hierarchical society, all individuals belong to either middle class or losers and no winners appear. In the second hierarchical society, many winners emerge and the population of the middle class is reduced. The hierarchy in the second hierarchical society is stronger than the hierarchy in a no-preference society studied by Bonabeau et al. [Physica A 217 (1995) 373].
A lecture of the hierarchy problem and gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this lecture we shall briefly review some motivations for physics beyond the Standard Model. We focus our attention on the hierarchy problem and discuss the role of gravity in defining and solving this problem. (author)
Recent developments in ecological theory: hierarchy and scale
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
O`Neill, R.V.
1995-12-31
Over the past decade, hierarchy and scale have been adopted as an ecological paradigm. Beyond this new awareness, however, a number of studies have attempted to test the underlying hierarchy theory and developed new analytical applications. The purpose of the present paper is to review these recent developments. Tests of the theory have focused on the prediction that ecological systems should not be uniformly distributed across scale, but grouped or lumped into discrete levels. The predicted breaks in spatial distribution have been found in vegetation transects. Vertebrate weight distributions are also distinctly aggregated, corresponding to the spatial scale at which each species operates. An important development of hierarchy theory has considered extrapolating information upscale. Simply stated, the dynamics of the higher level cannot be represented by the same functional form as its components. One cannot insert the mean parameter value for the components and predict higher level effects. Analytical methods, derived from hierarchy theory, have been developed deal with the problem.
Generalized Ablowitz–Ladik hierarchy in topological string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper addresses the issue of integrable structures in topological string theory on generalized conifolds. Open string amplitudes of this theory can be expressed as the matrix elements of an operator on the Fock space of 2D charged free fermion fields. The generating function of these amplitudes with respect to the product of two independent Schur functions becomes a tau function of the 2D Toda hierarchy. The associated Lax operators turn out to have a particular factorized form. This factorized form of the Lax operators characterizes a generalization of the Ablowitz–Ladik hierarchy embedded in the 2D Toda hierarchy. The generalized Ablowitz–Ladik hierarchy is thus identified as a fundamental integrable structure of topological string theory on the generalized conifolds. (paper)
An Improved Functional Hierarchy Frame Model for System Maintainability
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Dai-Lin; CHEN Dong-lin; WANG Ru-gen; ZHU Xue-ping
2003-01-01
By means of analogy, this paper analyses the present functional hierarchy frame model for system maintainability, and presents an improved model. Practical application indicates that the improved model is visualized, more convenient and perfected over the pervious models.
Hierarchy of stochastic pure states for open quantum system dynamics
Süß, D.; Eisfeld, A.; Strunz, W. T.
2014-01-01
We derive a hierarchy of stochastic evolution equations for pure states (quantum trajectories) to efficiently solve open quantum system dynamics with non-Markovian structured environments. From this hierarchy of pure states (HOPS) the exact reduced density operator is obtained as an ensemble average. We demonstrate the power of HOPS by applying it to the Spin-Boson model, the calculation of absorption spectra of molecular aggregates and energy transfer in a photosynthetic pigment-protein comp...
An Analytical hierarchy process model for the evaluation of college
Yin, Qingli
2013-01-01
Taking into account the characteristcs of college experimental teaching, through investgaton and analysis, evaluaton indices and an Analytcal Hierarchy Process (AHP) model of experimental teaching quality have been established following the analytcal hierarchy process method, and the evaluaton indices have been given reasonable weights. An example is given, and the evaluaton results show that the evaluaton indices proposed in this paper are capable of refectng objectvely, exactly ...
Supersymmetry Hierarchy Problems and Anomalous Horizontal U(1) Symmetry
Choi, Kiwoon; Chun, Eung Jin; Kim, Hyungdo
1996-01-01
It is suggested that various hierarchy problems in supersymmetric standard model, i.e. the Yukawa hierarchies, the \\mu problem, and the suppression of dangerous baryon and/or lepton number (B/L) violating couplings, are resolved altogether in the framework of horizontal U(1) symmetry whose spontaneous breaking results in the appearance of one expansion parameter (the Cabibbo angle). Within a reasonable range of U(1) charges, there exist a few models compatible with experiments. The specific s...
Supersymmetry breaking from superstrings and the gauge hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The gauge hierarchy problem is reviewed and a class of effective field theories obtained from superstrings is described. These are characterized by a classical symmetry, related to the space-time duality of string theory, that is responsible for the suppression of observable supersymmetry breaking effects. At the quantum level, the symmetry is broken by anomalies that provide the seed of observable supersymmetry breaking, and an acceptably large gauge hierarchy may be generated. 39 refs
Squared Eigenfunction Symmetries for the BTL and CTL Hierarchies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, the squared eigenfunction symmetries for the BTL and CTL hierarchies are explicitly constructed with the suitable modification of the ones for the TL hierarchy, by considering the BTL and CTL constraints. Also the connections with the corresponding additional symmetries are investigated: the squared eigenfunction symmetry generated by the wave function can be viewed as the generating function for the additional symmetries. (general)
Reductions to Korteweg-de Vries Soliton Hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on the nonlinearization of Lax pairs, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) soliton hierarchy is decomposed into a family of finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems, whose Liouville integrability is proved by means of the elliptic coordinates. By applying the Abel-Jacobi coordinates on a Riemann surface of hyperelliptic curve, the resulting Hamiltonian flows as well as the KdV soliton hierarchy are ultimately reduced into linear superpositions, expressed by the Abel-Jacobi variables.
Dispersionless DKP hierarchy and the elliptic Löwner equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that the dispersionless DKP hierarchy (the dispersionless limit of the Pfaff lattice) admits a suggestive reformulation through elliptic functions. We also consider one-variable reductions of the dispersionless DKP hierarchy and show that they are described by an elliptic version of the Löwner equation. With a particular choice of the driving function, the latter appears to be closely related to the Painlevé VI equation with a special choice of parameters. (fast track communication)
Why hierarchy? Communication and information acquisition in organizations
Ishida, Junichiro
2009-01-01
In most firms, if not all, workers are divided asymmetrically in terms of authority and responsibility. In this paper, we view the asymmetric allocations of authority and responsibility as essential features of hierarchy and examine why hierarchies often prevail in organizations from that perspective. The focus of attention is on the tradeoff between costly information acquisition and costless communication. When the agency problem concerning information acquisition is sufficiently severe, th...
THE SOCIOCOMMUNICATIVE TEXT ACTANTS HIERARCHY: THE COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS ASPECT
Karpukhina Viktoriya Nikolaevna
2012-01-01
The article deals with the axiological strategy of construing the sociocommunicative text actants hierarchy. The object under consideration is a fiction text. The subject analyzed is the text interpretation axiological strategies used in the social situations of intralingual and interlingual communication. The article aims in defining the sociocommunicative text actants hierarchy. The article’s novelty considers the translator’s lexical and grammar transformations in the situation of interlin...
Visual Hierarchy and Mind Motion in Advertising Design
Doaa Farouk Badawy Eldesouky
2013-01-01
Visual hierarchy is a significant concept in the field of advertising, a field that is dominated by effective communication, visual recognition and motion. Designers of advertisements have always been trying to organize the visual hierarchy throughout their advertising designs to aid the eye to recognize information in the desired order, to achieve the ultimate goals of clear perception and effectively delivering the advertising messages. However many assumptions and questions usually rise on...
The Shadow of Hierarchy and New Modes of Governance
Héritier, Adrienne; Lehmkuhl, Dirk
2008-01-01
This special issue about sectoral governance in the shadow of hierarchy focuses on two sets of questions. Firstly, do new modes of sectoral governance in themselves contribute to the efficacy of policymaking or do they require the shadow of hierarchy, i.e. legislative and executive decisions, in order to deal effectively with the problems they are supposed to solve? And, secondly, what are the institutional links between sectoral governance and territorially bounded democratic governments? Ho...
Hierarchies versus committees: Communication and information acquisition in organizations
Ishida, Junichiro
2014-01-01
In most firms, if not all, workers are divided asymmetrically in terms of authority and responsibility. In this paper, we view the asymmetric allocations of authority and responsibility as essential features of hierarchy and examine why hierarchies often prevail in organizations from that perspective. A key departure is that we consider a case where the authority relationship is defined only by the allocation of responsibility via contingent contracts. Within this framework, we show that the ...
Scalable distributed computing hierarchy: cloud, fog and dew computing
Skala, Karolj; Davidović, Davor; Afgan, Enis; Sović, Ivan; Šojat, Zorislav
2015-01-01
The paper considers the conceptual approach for organization of the vertical hierarchical links between the scalable distributed computing paradigms: Cloud Computing, Fog Computing and Dew Computing. In this paper, the Dew Computing is described and recognized as a new structural layer in the existing distributed computing hierarchy. In the existing computing hierarchy, the Dew computing is positioned as the ground level for the Cloud and Fog computing paradigms. Vertical, complementary, hier...
First demonstration of collisionless driven reconnection in a multi-hierarchy simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A multi-hierarchy simulation model for magnetic reconnection studies is developed in which macroscopic and microscopic physics are expressed consistently and simultaneously. We are the first to have successfully demonstrated collisionless driven reconnection in the framework of a multi-hierarchy model. Magnetic reconnection is found to occur in a micro-hierarchy upon plasma injection from a macro-hierarchy. (author)
The quadratic-form identity for constructing Hamiltonian structures of the Guo hierarchy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dong Huan-He; Zhang Ning
2006-01-01
The trace identity is extended to the quadratic-form identity. The Hamiltonian structures of the multi-component Guo hierarchy, integrable coupling of Guo hierarchy and (2+1)-dimensional Guo hierarchy are obtained by the quadraticform identity. The method can be used to produce the Hamiltonian structures of the other integrable couplings or multi-component hierarchies.
Links between (γn,σk-KP Hierarchy, (γn,σk-mKP Hierarchy, and (2+1-(γn,σk-Harry Dym Hierarchy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yehui Huang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The new (2+1-(γn,σk-Harry Dym hierarchy and (γn,σk-mKP hierarchy with two new time series γn and σk, which consist of γn-flow, σk-flow, and mixed γn and σk evolution equations of eigenfunctions, are proposed. Gauge transformations and reciprocal transformations between (γn,σk-KP hierarchy, (γn,σk-mKP hierarchy, and (2+1-(γn,σk-Harry Dym hierarchy are studied. Their soliton solutions are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The trace identity is extended to the quadratic-form identity. The Hamiltonian structures of the NLS-MKdV hierarchy, and integrable coupling of multi-component Levi hierarchy are obtained by the quadratic-form identity. The method can be used to produce the Hamiltonian structures of the other integrable couplings or multi-component hierarchies
Threat assessment using visual hierarchy and conceptual firearms ontology
Arslan, Abdullah N.; Hempelmann, Christian F.; Attardo, Salvatore; Blount, Grady Price; Sirakov, Nikolay Metodiev
2015-05-01
The work that established and explored the links between visual hierarchy and conceptual ontology of firearms for the purpose of threat assessment is continued. The previous study used geometrical information to find a target in the visual hierarchy and through the links with the conceptual ontology to derive high-level information that was used to assess a potential threat. Multiple improvements and new contributions are reported. The theoretical basis of the geometric feature extraction method was improved in terms of accuracy. The sample space used for validations is expanded from 31 to 153 firearms. Thus, a new larger and more accurate sequence of visual hierarchies was generated using a modified Gonzalez' clustering algorithm. The conceptual ontology is elaborated as well and more links were created between the two kinds of hierarchies (visual and conceptual). The threat assessment equation is refined around ammunition-related properties and uses high-level information from the conceptual hierarchy. The experiments performed on weapons identification and threat assessment showed that our system recognized 100% of the cases if a weapon already belongs to the ontology and in 90.8% of the cases, determined the correct third ancestor (level concept) if the weapon is unknown to the ontology. To validate the accuracy of identification for a very large data set, we calculated the intervals of confidence for our system.
Visual Hierarchy and Mind Motion in Advertising Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Doaa Farouk Badawy Eldesouky
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Visual hierarchy is a significant concept in the field of advertising, a field that is dominated by effective communication, visual recognition and motion. Designers of advertisements have always been trying to organize the visual hierarchy throughout their advertising designs to aid the eye to recognize information in the desired order, to achieve the ultimate goals of clear perception and effectively delivering the advertising messages. However many assumptions and questions usually rise on how to create effective hierarchy throughout advertising designs and lead the eye and mind of the viewer in the most favorable way. This paper attempts to study visual hierarchy and mind motion in advertising designs and why it is important to develop visual paths when designing an advertisement. It explores the theory behind it, and how the very principles can be used to put these concepts into practice. The paper demonstrates some advertising samples applying visual hierarchy and mind motion in a representation of applying the basics and discussing the results.
Interacting with image hierarchies for fast and accurate object segmentation
Beard, David V.; Eberly, David H.; Hemminger, Bradley M.; Pizer, Stephen M.; Faith, R. E.; Kurak, Charles; Livingston, Mark
1994-05-01
Object definition is an increasingly important area of medical image research. Accurate and fairly rapid object definition is essential for measuring the size and, perhaps more importantly, the change in size of anatomical objects such as kidneys and tumors. Rapid and fairly accurate object definition is essential for 3D real-time visualization including both surgery planning and Radiation oncology treatment planning. One approach to object definition involves the use of 3D image hierarchies, such as Eberly's Ridge Flow. However, the image hierarchy segmentation approach requires user interaction in selecting regions and subtrees. Further, visualizing and comprehending the anatomy and the selected portions of the hierarchy can be problematic. In this paper we will describe the Magic Crayon tool which allows a user to define rapidly and accurately various anatomical objects by interacting with image hierarchies such as those generated with Eberly's Ridge Flow algorithm as well as other 3D image hierarchies. Preliminary results suggest that fairly complex anatomical objects can be segmented in under a minute with sufficient accuracy for 3D surgery planning, 3D radiation oncology treatment planning, and similar applications. Potential modifications to the approach for improved accuracy are summarized.
Visual Hierarchy and Mind Motion in Advertising Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Doaa Farouk Badawy Eldesouky
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Visual hierarchy is a significant concept in the field of advertising, a field that is dominated by effective communication, visual recognition and motion. Designers of advertisements have always been trying to organize the visual hierarchy throughout their advertising designs to aid the eye to recognize information in the desired order, to achieve the ultimate goals of clear perception and effectively delivering the advertising messages. However many assumptions and questions usually rise on how to create effective hierarchy throughout advertising designs and lead the eye and mind of the viewer in the most favorable way. This paper attempts to study visual hierarchy and mind motion in advertising designs and why it is important to develop visual paths when designing an advertisement. It explores the theory behind it, and how the very principles can be used to put these concepts into practice. The paper demonstrates some advertising samples applying visual hierarchy and mind motion in a representation of applying the basics and discussing the results.
Organising evidence for environmental management decisions: a '4S' hierarchy.
Dicks, Lynn V; Walsh, Jessica C; Sutherland, William J
2014-11-01
Making decisions informed by the best-available science is an objective for many organisations managing the environment or natural resources. Yet, available science is still not widely used in environmental policy and practice. We describe a '4S' hierarchy for organising relevant science to inform decisions. This hierarchy has already revolutionised clinical practice. It is beginning to emerge for environmental management, although all four levels need substantial development before environmental decision-makers can reliably and efficiently find the evidence they need. We expose common bypass routes that currently lead to poor or biased representation of scientific knowledge. We argue that the least developed level of the hierarchy is that closest to decision-makers, placing synthesised scientific knowledge into environmental decision support systems. PMID:25280588
Dispersionless Toda hierarchy and two-dimensional string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The dispersionless Toda hierarchy turns out to lie in the heart of a recently proposed Landau-Ginzburg formulation of two-dimensional string theory at self-dual compactification radius. The dynamics of massless tachyons with discrete momenta is shown to be encoded into the structure of a special solution of this integrable hierarchy. This solution is obtained by solving a Riemann-Hilbert problem. Equivalence to the tachyon dynamics is proven by deriving recursion relations of tachyon correlation functions in the machinery of the dispersionless Toda hierarchy. Fundamental ingredients of the Landau-Ginzburg formulation, such as Landau-Ginzburg potentials and tachyon Landau-Ginzburg fields, are translated into the language of the Lax formalism. Furthermore, a wedge algebra is pointed out to exist behind the Riemann-Hilbert problem, and speculations on its possible role as generators of ''extra'' states and fields are presented. (orig.)
Self-organizing social hierarchies in a timid society
Odagaki, T; Odagaki, Takashi; Tsujiguchi, Masaru
2005-01-01
Emergence of hierarchies is investigated by Monte Carlo simulation in a timid society where all individuals are pacifist. The self-organiztion of hierarchies is shown to occur in two steps as the population is increased, i.e. there are three states, one egalitarian and two hierarchical states;the transition from the egalitarian to the first hierarchical state is continuous and the transition from the first hierachical state to the second one is discontinuous. In the first hierarchical society, all individuals belong to either middle class or losers and no winners appear. In the second hierarchical society, many winners emerge and the population of the middle class is reduced. The hierarchy in the second hierarchical society is stronger than the hierachy in a no-preference society studied by Bonabeau et al [ Physica A{\\bf 217}, 373 (1995)
Learning Concept Hierarchies from Text Corpora using Formal Concept Analysis
Cimiano, P; Staab, S; 10.1613/jair.1648
2011-01-01
We present a novel approach to the automatic acquisition of taxonomies or concept hierarchies from a text corpus. The approach is based on Formal Concept Analysis (FCA), a method mainly used for the analysis of data, i.e. for investigating and processing explicitly given information. We follow Harris distributional hypothesis and model the context of a certain term as a vector representing syntactic dependencies which are automatically acquired from the text corpus with a linguistic parser. On the basis of this context information, FCA produces a lattice that we convert into a special kind of partial order constituting a concept hierarchy. The approach is evaluated by comparing the resulting concept hierarchies with hand-crafted taxonomies for two domains: tourism and finance. We also directly compare our approach with hierarchical agglomerative clustering as well as with Bi-Section-KMeans as an instance of a divisive clustering algorithm. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of using different measures wei...
Hierarchy-Direction Selective Approach for Locally Adaptive Sparse Grids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stoyanov, Miroslav K [ORNL
2013-09-01
We consider the problem of multidimensional adaptive hierarchical interpolation. We use sparse grids points and functions that are induced from a one dimensional hierarchical rule via tensor products. The classical locally adaptive sparse grid algorithm uses an isotropic refinement from the coarser to the denser levels of the hierarchy. However, the multidimensional hierarchy provides a more complex structure that allows for various anisotropic and hierarchy selective refinement techniques. We consider the more advanced refinement techniques and apply them to a number of simple test functions chosen to demonstrate the various advantages and disadvantages of each method. While there is no refinement scheme that is optimal for all functions, the fully adaptive family-direction-selective technique is usually more stable and requires fewer samples.
Solving negative and mixed Toda hierarchies by Jacobi inversion problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Xiao, E-mail: yx@zzu.edu.cn; Du, Dianlou, E-mail: ddl@zzu.edu.cn
2015-03-20
The Jacobi inversion problems of negative and mixed Toda hierarchies are investigated through a symplectic map and some finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. Each negative equation is decomposed into the symplectic flow and a negative Hamiltonian flow, each mixed equation is decomposed into the symplectic flow and a mixed Hamiltonian flow. The separated variables are introduced to study these Hamiltonian systems. Based on the Hamilton–Jacobi theory, the relationship between the action-angle coordinates and the Jacobi-inversion problems is established. - Highlights: • Negative and mixed Toda hierarchies are presented. • They are proved to be integrable Hamiltonian systems. • The Jacobi inversion problems for the Hamiltonian systems are given.
Specific Read Only Data Management for Memory Hierarchy Optimization
Vaumourin, Gregory; Thomas, Dombek; Alexandre, Guerre; Barthou, Denis
2014-01-01
The multiplication of the number of cores inside embedded systems has raised the pressure on the memory hierarchy. The cost of coherence protocol and the scalability problem of the memory hierarchy is nowadays a major issue. In this paper, a specific data management for read-only data is in-vestigated because these data can be duplicated in several memories without being tracked. Based on analysis of stan-dard benchmarks for embedded systems, we show that read-only data represent 62% of all t...
A New Lie Algebra and Its Related Liouville Integrable Hierarchies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new Lie algebra G and its two types of loop algebras G-tilde1 and G-tilde2 are constructed. Basing on G-tilde1 and G-tilde2, two different isospectral problems are designed, furthermore, two Liouville integrable soliton hierarchies are obtained respectively under the framework of zero curvature equation, which is derived from the compatibility of the isospectral problems expressed by Hirota operators. At the same time, we obtain the Hamiltonian structure of the first hierarchy and the bi-Hamiltonian structure of the second one with the help of the quadratic-form identity. (general)
Exploring memory hierarchy design with emerging memory technologies
Sun, Guangyu
2013-01-01
This book equips readers with tools for computer architecture of high performance, low power, and high reliability memory hierarchy in computer systems based on emerging memory technologies, such as STTRAM, PCM, FBDRAM, etc.Â The techniques described offer advantages of high density, near-zero static power, and immunity to soft errors, which have the potential of overcoming the ""memory wall.""Â The authors discuss memory design from various perspectives: emerging memory technologies are employed in the memory hierarchy with novel architecture modification;Â hybrid memory structure is intro
Headwater biodiversity among different levels of stream habitat hierarchy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Göthe, Emma; Friberg, Nikolai; Kahlert, Maria;
2014-01-01
of a- and b-diversity to y-diversity between two levels of stream habitat hierarchy (catchment and region level). The relationship between species community structure and local environmental factors was also assessed. Our results show that both a- and b-diversity made a significant contribution to y......-diversity. b-diversity remained relatively constant between the two levels of habitat hierarchy even though local environmental control of the biota decreased from the catchment to the region level. To capture most of headwater y-diversity, management should therefore target sites that are locally diverse...
Solving negative and mixed Toda hierarchies by Jacobi inversion problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Jacobi inversion problems of negative and mixed Toda hierarchies are investigated through a symplectic map and some finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. Each negative equation is decomposed into the symplectic flow and a negative Hamiltonian flow, each mixed equation is decomposed into the symplectic flow and a mixed Hamiltonian flow. The separated variables are introduced to study these Hamiltonian systems. Based on the Hamilton–Jacobi theory, the relationship between the action-angle coordinates and the Jacobi-inversion problems is established. - Highlights: • Negative and mixed Toda hierarchies are presented. • They are proved to be integrable Hamiltonian systems. • The Jacobi inversion problems for the Hamiltonian systems are given
Addendum: Neutrino Mass Hierarchy Determination Using Reactor Antineutrinos
Ghoshal, Pomita
2012-01-01
We update our study of neutrino mass hierarchy determination using a high statistics reactor electron anti-neutrino experiment in the light of the recent evidences of a relatively large non-zero value of \\theta_{13} from the Daya Bay and RENO experiments. We find that there are noticeable modifications in the results, which allow a relaxation in the detector's characteristics, such as the energy resolution and exposure, required to obtain a significant sensitivity to, or to determine, the neutrino mass hierarchy in such a reactor experiment.
Open intersection numbers, matrix models and MKP hierarchy
Alexandrov, A
2014-01-01
In this paper we claim that the generating function of the intersection numbers on the moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces with boundary, constructed recently by R. Pandharipande, J. Solomon and R. Tessler and extended by A. Buryak, is a tau-function of the KP integrable hierarchy. Moreover, it is given by a simple modification of the Kontsevich matrix integral so that the generating functions of open and closed intersection numbers are described by the MKP integrable hierarchy. Virasoro constraints for the open intersection numbers naturally follow from the matrix integral representation.
An Operational Foundation for Delimited Continuations in the CPS Hierarchy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Biernacka, Malgorzata; Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier
We present an abstract machine and a reduction semantics for the lambda-calculus extended with control operators that give access to delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy. The abstract machine is derived from an evaluator in continuation-passing style (CPS); the reduction semantics (i.e., a...... small-step operational semantics with an explicit representation of evaluation contexts) is constructed from the abstract machine; and the control operators are the shift and reset family. We also present new applications of delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy: finding list prefixes and...
An Operational Foundation for Delimited Continuations in the CPS Hierarchy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Biernacka, Malgorzata; Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier
2005-01-01
We present an abstract machine and a reduction semantics for the lambda-calculus extended with control operators that give access to delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy. The abstract machine is derived from an evaluator in continuation-passing style (CPS); the reduction semantics (i.e., a...... small-step operational semantics with an explicit representation of evaluation contexts) is constructed from the abstract machine; and the control operators are the shift and reset family. We also present new applications of delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy: finding list prefixes and...
A radiative model with a naturally mild neutrino mass hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Many neutrino mass models postulate the existence of at least two extra fermions in order to account for the measured solar and atmospheric mass splittings. In these models, however, the predicted hierarchy between the two mass splittings is generically much larger than the observed one, unless extra flavor symmetries are introduced. We present in this Letter a radiative neutrino mass model consisting of the Standard Model extended by one heavy fermionic singlet and two scalars which predicts, under very general conditions, a neutrino mass hierarchy in qualitative agreement with the experimental value.
Fractal structure of data reference applications to the memory hierarchy
McNutt, Bruce
2000-01-01
The architectural concept of a memory hierarchy has been immensely successful, making possible today's spectacular pace of technology evolution in both the volume of data and the speed of data access. Its success is difficult to understand, however, when examined within the traditional 'memoryless' framework of performance analysis. The 'memoryless' framework cannot properly reflect a memory hierarchy's ability to take advantage of patterns of data use that are transient. This work both introduces, and justifies empirically, an alternative modelling framework in which arrivals are driven by a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two hierarchies of nonlinear integrable positive and negative lattice equations are derived from a discrete spectral problem. The two lattice hierarchies are proved to have discrete zero curvature representations associated with a discrete spectral problem, which also shows that the positive and negative hierarchies correspond to positive and negative power expansions of Lax operators with respect to the spectral parameter, respectively. Moreover, the integrable lattice models in the positive hierarchy are of polynomial type, and the integrable lattice models in the negative hierarchy are of rational type. Further, we construct infinite conservation laws about the positive hierarchy.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Xin-Yue; ZHAO Qiu-Lan
2009-01-01
Two hierarchies of nonlinear integrable positive and negative lattice equations are derived from a discrete spectral problem. The two lattice hierarchies are proved to have discrete zero curvature representations associated with a discrete spectral problem, which also shows that the positive and negative hierarchies correspond to positive and negative power expansions of Lax operators with respect to the spectral parameter, respectively. Moreover, the integrable lattice models in the positive hierarchy are of polynomial type, and the integrable lattice models in the negative hierarchy are of rationed type. Further, we construct infinite conservation laws about the positive hierarchy.
Principles of Organization in Young Children's Natural Language Hierarchies.
Callanan, Maureen A.; Markman, Ellen M.
1982-01-01
When preschool children think of objects as organized into collections (e.g., forest, army) they solve certain problems better than when they think of the same objects as organized into classes (e.g., trees, soldiers). Present studies indicate preschool children occasionally distort natural language inclusion hierarchies (e.g., oak, tree) into the…
Tau Functions and Virasoro Actions for soliton Hierarchies
Terng, Chuu-Lian; Uhlenbeck, Karen
2016-02-01
There is a general method for constructing a soliton hierarchy from a splitting {{L_{±}}} of a loop group as positive and negative sub-groups together with a commuting linearly independent sequence in the positive Lie algebra {{L}+}. Many known soliton hierarchies can be constructed this way. The formal inverse scattering associates to each f in the negative subgroup {L_-} a solution {uf} of the hierarchy. When there is a 2 co-cycle of the Lie algebra that vanishes on both sub-algebras, Wilson constructed a tau function {τf} for each element {f in L_-}. In this paper, we give integral formulas for variations of {lnτf} and second partials of {lnτf}, discuss whether we can recover solutions {uf} from {τf}, and give a general construction of actions of the positive half of the Virasoro algebra on tau functions. We write down formulas relating tau functions and formal inverse scattering solutions and the Virasoro vector fields for the {GL(n,{C})}-hierarchy.
Factorization and resummation for generic hierarchies between Jets
Pietrulewicz, Piotr; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.
2016-08-01
Jets are an important probe to identify the hard interaction of interest at the LHC. They are routinely used in Standard Model precision measurements as well as in searches for new heavy particles, including jet substructure methods. In processes with several jets, one typically encounters hierarchies in the jet transverse momenta and/or dijet invariant masses. Large logarithms of the ratios of these kinematic jet scales in the cross section are at present primarily described by parton showers. We present a general factorization framework called SCET+, which is an extension of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) and allows for a systematic higher-order resummation of such kinematic logarithms for generic jet hierarchies. In SCET+ additional intermediate soft/collinear modes are used to resolve jets arising from additional soft and/or collinear QCD emissions. The resulting factorized cross sections utilize collinear splitting amplitudes and soft gluon currents and fully capture spin and color correlations. We discuss how to systematically combine the different kinematic regimes to obtain a complete description of the jet phase space. To present its application in a simple context, we use the case of e + e - → 3 jets. We then discuss in detail the application to N -jet processes at hadron colliders, considering representative classes of hierarchies from which the general case can be built. This includes in particular multiple hierarchies that are either strongly ordered in angle or energy or not.
Object class hierarchy for an incremental hypertext editor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Colesnicov
1995-02-01
Full Text Available The object class hierarchy design is considered due to a hypertext editor implementation. The following basic classes were selected: the editor's coordinate system, the memory manager, the text buffer executing basic editing operations, the inherited hypertext buffer, the edit window, the multi-window shell. Special hypertext editing features, the incremental hypertext creation support and further generalizations are discussed.
An M theory solution to the hierarchy problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An old idea for explaining the hierarchy is strong gauge dynamics. We show that such dynamics also stabilises the moduli in M theory compactifications on manifolds of G2-holonomy without fluxes. This gives stable vacua with softly broken susy, grand unification and a distinctive spectrum of TeV and sub-TeV sparticle masses. (author)
Graph-theoretic algorithm for hierarchial decomposition of dynamic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pichai, V.; Sezer, M.E.; Siljak, D.D.
1982-03-24
A graph-theoretic scheme is proposed for partitioning of dynamic systems into hierarchially ordered subsystems having independent inputs and outputs. The resulting subsystems are input-output reachable as well as structurally controllable and observable, so that a piece-by-piece design of estimators and controllers can be accomplished for systems with large dimensions without excessive computer requirements.
A Super Extension of Kaup-Newell Hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
With the help of the zero-curvature equation and the super trace identity, we derive a super extension of the Kaup-Newell hierarchy associated with a 3 x 3 matrix spectral problem and establish its super bi-Hamiltonian structures. Furthermore, infinite conservation laws of the super Kaup-Newell equation are obtained by using spectral parameter expansions. (general)
A formula relating infinitesimal Backlund transformations to hierarchy generating operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Let u'=Bsub(eta)u and l be, respectively, the elementary Backlund transformation and hierarchy generating operators for the AKNS equations. It is shown that (dB/d eta)(Bsub(eta))-1=σ3/(l-eta). A similar formula relating to the general NxN matrix spectral problem is also derived. (author)
Factorization and resummation for generic hierarchies between jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jets are an important probe to identify the hard interaction of interest at the LHC. They are routinely used in Standard Model precision measurements as well as in searches for new heavy particles, including jet substructure methods. In processes with several jets, one typically encounters hierarchies in the jet transverse momenta and/or dijet invariant masses. Large logarithms of the ratios of these kinematic jet scales in the cross section are at present primarily described by parton showers. We present a general factorization framework called SCET+, which is an extension of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) and allows for a systematic higher-order resummation of such kinematic logarithms for generic jet hierarchies. In SCET+ additional intermediate soft/collinear modes are used to resolve jets arising from additional soft and/or collinear QCD emissions. The resulting factorized cross sections utilize collinear splitting amplitudes and soft gluon currents and fully capture spin and color correlations. We discuss how to systematically combine the different kinematic regimes to obtain a complete description of the jet phase space. To present its application in a simple context, we use the case of e+e- → 3 jets. We then discuss in detail the application to N-jet processes at hadron colliders, considering representative classes of hierarchies from which the most general case can be built. This includes in particular multiple hierarchies that are either strongly ordered in angle or energy or not.
Shifting and Narrowing Masculinity Hierarchies in Physical Education: Status Matters
Tischler, Amy; McCaughtry, Nate
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine boys' perceptions of masculinity hierarchies in adventure physical education in relation to past experiences in sport-based physical education and their evolving views about physical activity in their lives. Theoretical principles of masculinity guided this study. Data were collected with 55 male high…
Phase transition in hierarchy model of Bonabeau et al
Stauffer, Dietrich
2002-01-01
The model of Bonabeau explains the emergence of social hierarchies from the memory of fights in an initially egalitarian society. Introducing a feedback from the social inequality into the probability to win a fight, we find a sharp transition between egalitarian society at low population density and hierarchical society at high population density.
A Predicative Harmonization of the Time and Provable Hierarchies
Caporaso, Salvatore
2006-01-01
A decidable transfinite hierarchy is defined by assigning ordinals to the programs of an imperative language. It singles out: the classes TIMEF(n^c) and TIMEF(n_c); the finite Grzegorczyk classes at and above the elementary level, and the \\Sigma_k-IND fragments of PA. Limited operators, diagonalization, and majorization functions are not used.
Restructuring Large Data Hierarchies for Scientific Query Tools
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomas, M
2005-02-08
Today's large-scale scientific simulations produce data sets tens to hundreds of terabytes in size. The DataFoundry project is developing querying and analysis tools for these data sets. The Approximate Ad-Hoc Query Engine for Simulation Data (AQSIM) uses a multi-resolution, tree-shaped data structure that allows users to place runtime limits on queries over scientific simulation data. In this AQSIM data hierarchy, each node in the tree contains an abstract model describing all of the information contained in the subtree below that node. AQSIM is able to create the data hierarchy in a single pass. However, the nodes in the hierarchy frequently have low node fanout, which leads to inefficient I/O behavior during query processing. Low node fanout is a common problem in tree-shaped indices. This paper presents a set of one-pass tree ''pruning'' algorithms that efficiently restructure the data hierarchy by removing inner nodes, thereby increasing node fanout. As our experimental results show, the best approach is a combination of two algorithms, one that focuses on increasing node fanout and one that attempts to reduce the maximum tree height.
Goal hierarchy: Improving asset data quality by improving motivation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Many have recognized the need for high quality data on assets and the problems in obtaining them, particularly when there is a need for human observation and manual recording. Yet very few have looked at the role of the data collectors themselves in the data quality process. This paper argues that there are benefits to more fully understanding the psychological factors that lay behind data collection and we use goal hierarchy theory to understand these factors. Given the myriad of potential reasons for poor-quality data it has previously proven difficult to identify and successfully deploy employee-driven interventions; however, the goal hierarchy approach looks at all of the goals that an individual has in their life and the connections between them. For instance, does collecting data relate to whether or not they get a promotion? Stay safe? Get a new job? and so on. By eliciting these goals and their connections we can identify commonalities across different groups, sites or organizations that can influence the quality of data collection. Thus, rather than assuming what the data collectors want, a goal hierarchy approach determines that empirically. Practically, this supports the development of customized interventions that will be much more effective and sustainable than previous efforts. - Highlights: → We need to consider psychological aspects of data collectors to improve data quality. → We show how goal hierarchy theory furthers understanding. → Looks at the multiple goals of each individual to determine their behavior.
Ways to remember disasters - inclusions, exclusions and hierarchies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Nina Blom
2009-01-01
Title: Ways to remember disasters ? inclusions, exclusions and hierarchies Abstract: Some disasters are given much attention and get their own place in history. But how are these events remembered in society and why is it that some disasters are forgotten right away? These are the questions...
Tissue-specific designs of stem cell hierarchies
Visvader, Jane E; Clevers, Hans
2016-01-01
Recent work in the field of stem cell biology suggests that there is no single design for an adult tissue stem cell hierarchy, and that different tissues employ distinct strategies to meet their self-renewal and repair requirements. Stem cells may be multipotent or unipotent, and can exist in quiesc
The polynomial and linear time hierarchies in V-0
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kolodziejczyk, L.. A.; Thapen, Neil
2009-01-01
Roč. 55, č. 5 (2009), s. 509-514. ISSN 0942-5616 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Prefix parity * linear hierarchy * bounded arithmetic * bounded depth circuits Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.523, year: 2009
Reactions to Crime as a Hierarchy Regulating Strategy:
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Green, Eva G. T.; Thomsen, Lotte; Sidanius, Jim;
2009-01-01
differential judgments of national ingroup and immigrant outgroup offenders reflect hierarchy regulating strategies. Study 1 (N = 94) revealed that egalitarians (low on SDO) were more lenient toward outgroup offenders and their ethnic group (Arab immigrants) when compared to ingroup offenders and their...
Knowledge-Based Hierarchies: Using Organizations to Understand the Economy
Garicano, Luis; Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban
2015-01-01
Incorporating the decision of how to organize the acquisition, use, and communication of knowledge into economic models is essential to understand a wide variety of economic phenomena. We survey the literature that has used knowledge-based hierarchies to study issues such as the evolution of wage inequality, the growth and productivity of firms,…
Supersymmetry : the ultimate hierarchy of matter? Exhibition LEPFest 2000
2000-01-01
The concept of "Supersymmetry", SUSY for short, promises a solution to the 'hierarchy' problem: the mystery of the enormous ratio between the electroweak scale (at 100-300 GeV), defined by the masses of the W and Z particles, and possibly the Higgs particle, and the Planck scale (10 19 GeV), when gravitational effects become comparable to the other forces.
Social hierarchy and depression: the role of emotion suppression.
Langner, Carrie A; Epel, Elissa S; Matthews, Karen A; Moskowitz, Judith T; Adler, Nancy E
2012-01-01
Position in the social hierarchy is a major determinant of health outcomes. We examined the associations between aspects of social hierarchy and depressive symptoms with a specific focus on one potential psychological mechanism: emotion suppression. Suppressing negative emotion has mental health costs, but individuals with low social power and low social status may use these strategies to avoid conflict. Study 1 assessed perceived social power, tendency to suppress negative emotion, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of women. Low social power was related to greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by emotion suppression. Study 2 examined education as a proxy for social hierarchy position, anger suppression, and depressive symptoms in a national, longitudinal cohort study (The coronary artery risk development in young adults [CARDIA] study; Cutter et al., 1991). Much as in study 1, low education levels were correlated with greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by anger suppression. Further, suppression mediated the relationship between low education and subsequent depression up to 15 years later. These findings support the theory that social hierarchy affects mental health in part through a process of emotion suppression. PMID:22808688
Maslow's Need Hierarchy and the Adjustment of Immigrants
Adler, Seymour
1977-01-01
In this paper the need hierarchy theory of Abraham Maslow is used to describe stages in the adjustment process of new immigrants. This notion is developed and applied to interpreting some longitudinal data on the changing needs of immigrants to Israel during the first two years after their arrival. (Author/GC)
Student Affairs as Perceived Through Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.
Nowacki, Steven
The needs of human behavior are explored and correlated to the various departments within Student Affairs in an effort to show how Student Affairs can satisfy those needs. Maslow's Hierarchy of needs is briefly explained and related to the following Student Affairs departments: Financial Aid, Student Management, Career Development and Placement,…
Supersymmetry : the ultimate hierarchy of matter ? Conference MT17
2001-01-01
The concept of "Supersymmetry", SUSY for short, promises a solution to the hierarchy problem. SUSY enlarges the space-time symmetry of physical laws, by connecting the realms of particles and fields. It predicts a variety of new species of particles at the energy scale around 1 TeV - waiting to be discovered at the LHC.
The Alternation Hierarchy for the Theory of µ-lattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Santocanale, Luigi
2002-01-01
The alternation hierarchy problem asks whether every µ-term φ, that is, a term built up also using a least fixed point constructor as well as a greatest fixed point constructor, is equivalent to a µ-term where the number of nested fixed points of a different type is bounded by a constant independ...
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs in Relation to Employment
Sullivan, Dorothy R.
1972-01-01
The author contends that the counselor, accepting a hierarchy of needs, can assist the client in assessing the fulfillment of those needs and choosing from social institutions the alternatives that will permit adequate gratification of unmet needs. Plans to satisfy needs at higher levels can then be made. (Author/BY)
Orbifold melting crystal models and reductions of Toda hierarchy
Takasaki, Kanehisa
2015-05-01
Orbifold generalizations of the ordinary and modified melting crystal models are introduced. They are labelled by a pair a,b of positive integers, and geometrically related to {{{Z}}a}× {{{Z}}b} orbifolds of local {C}{{{P}}1} geometry of the {O}(0)\\oplus {O}(-2) and {O}(-1)\\oplus {O}(-1) types. The partition functions have a fermionic expression in terms of charged free fermions. With the aid of shift symmetries in a fermionic realization of the quantum torus algebra, one can convert these partition functions to tau functions of the 2D Toda hierarchy. The powers {{L}a},{{\\bar{L}}-b} of the associated Lax operators turn out to take a special factorized form that defines a reduction of the 2D Toda hierarchy. The reduced integrable hierarchy for the orbifold version of the ordinary melting crystal model is the bi-graded Toda hierarchy of bi-degree (a,b). That of the orbifold version of the modified melting crystal model is the rational reduction of bi-degree (a,b). This result seems to be in accord with recent work of Brini et al on a mirror description of the genus-zero Gromov-Witten theory on a {{{Z}}a}× {{{Z}}b} orbifold of the resolved conifold.
Orbifold melting crystal models and reductions of Toda hierarchy
Takasaki, Kanehisa
2014-01-01
Orbifold generalizations of the ordinary and modified melting crystal models are introduced. They are labelled by a pair $a,b$ of positive integers, and geometrically related to $\\ZZ_a\\times\\ZZ_b$ orbifolds of local $\\CC\\PP^1$ geometry of the $\\calO(0)\\oplus\\calO(-2)$ and $\\calO(-1)\\oplus\\calO(-1)$ types. The partition functions have a fermionic expression in terms of charged free fermions. With the aid of shift symmetries in a fermionic realization of the quantum torus algebra, one can convert these partition functions to tau functions of the 2D Toda hierarchy. The powers $L^a,\\Lbar^{-b}$ of the associated Lax operators turn out to take a special factorized form that defines a reduction of the 2D Toda hierarchy. The reduced integrable hierarchy for the orbifold version of the ordinary melting crystal model is the bi-graded Toda hierarchy of bi-degree $(a,b)$. That of the orbifold version of the modified melting crystal model is the rational reduction of bi-degree $(a,b)$. This result seems to be in accord wi...
Sociophysics Simulations IV: Hierarchies of Bonabeau et al
Stauffer, Dietrich
2005-01-01
The model of Bonabeau et al explains social hierarchies as random: People keep a memory of recent fights, and winners have a higher probability to win again. The question of phase transition and the generalization from square lattices to networks is reviewed here.
Universal Neutrino Mass Hierarchy and Cosmological Baryon Number Asymmetry
Xing, Zhi-zhong
2004-01-01
We conjecture that three light Majorana neutrinos and their right-handed counterparts may have a universal geometric mass hierarchy. Incorporating this phenomenological conjecture with the Fritzsch texture of lepton mass matrices in a simple seesaw mechanism, we show that it is possible to simultaneously account for current neutrino oscillation data and the cosmological baryon number asymmetry via leptogenesis.
Plasticity within stem cell hierarchies in mammalian epithelia
Tetteh, Paul W; Farin, Henner F; Clevers, Hans
2015-01-01
Tissue homeostasis and regeneration are fueled by resident stem cells that have the capacity to self-renew, and to generate all the differentiated cell types that characterize a particular tissue. Classical models of such cellular hierarchies propose that commitment and differentiation occur unidire
Flavour democracy and the lepton-quark hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The mass hierarchy of the leptons and quarks is interpreted as a consequence of a coherent state phenomenon ('flavour democracy'). It is emphasized that particular forms of the mass matrices can arise from the coherent state basis. The violations of the 'flavour democracy' turn out to be relatively large. Numerical examples are presented. (orig.)
Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haberland, Hartmut; Mortensen, Janus
2012-01-01
Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university......Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university...
A Hierarchy of New Nonlinear Evolution Equations Associated with a 3 × 3 Matrix Spectral Problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GENG Xian-Guo; LI Fang
2009-01-01
A 3 × 3 matrix spectral problem with three potentials and the corresponding hierarchy of new nonlinear evolution equations are proposed. Generalized Hamiltonian structures for the hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations are derived with the aid of trace identity.
Conservation Laws and Self-Consistent Sources for a Super-Classical-Boussinesq Hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The super-classical-Boussinesq hierarchy with self-consistent sources is considered. Then, infinitely many conservation laws for the integrable super-classical-Boussinesq hierarchy are established. (general)
Void hierarchy a guiding principle to the study of faint structures in voids
Lindner, U; Einasto, M; Fricke, K J; Lindner, Ulrich; Einasto, Jaan; Einasto, Maret; Fricke, Klaus J
1996-01-01
We introduce Void Hierarchy as an important property of the Large--Scale Structure in the Universe and demonstrate how it can be used to interpret observations. Moreover the void hierarchy constraints any realistic galaxy and structure formation scenario.
A generalized Tu formula and Hamiltonian structures of fractional AKNS hierarchy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Guo-cheng, E-mail: wuguocheng2002@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Numerical Simulation of Sichuan Province, Neijiang, Sichuan 641112 (China); College of Mathematics and Information Science, Neijiang Normal University, Neijiang, Sichuan 641112 (China); Zhang, Sheng, E-mail: zhshaeng@yahoo.com.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)
2011-10-03
In this Letter, a generalized Tu formula is firstly presented to construct Hamiltonian structures of fractional soliton equations. The obtained results can be reduced to the classical Hamiltonian hierarchy of AKNS in ordinary calculus. -- Highlights: → A generalized Tu formula is first established based on the fractional variational theory for non-differentiable functions. → Hamiltonian structures of fractional AKNS hierarchy are obtained. → The classical AKNS hierarchy is just a special case of the fractional hierarchy.
Classical Affine {{W}} -Algebras for {{gl}_N} and Associated Integrable Hamiltonian Hierarchies
De Sole, Alberto; Kac, Victor G.; Valeri, Daniele
2016-05-01
We apply the new method for constructing integrable Hamiltonian hierarchies of Lax type equations developed in our previous paper to show that all {{W}} -algebras {{W}({gl}N, f)} carry such a hierarchy. As an application, we show that all vector constrained KP hierarchies and their matrix generalizations are obtained from these hierarchies by Dirac reduction, which provides the former with a bi-Poisson structure.
Block (or Hamiltonian) Lie Symmetry of Dispersionless D-Type Drinfeld–Sokolov Hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, the dispersionless D-type Drinfeld–Sokolov hierarchy, i.e. a reduction of the dispersionless two-component BKP hierarchy, is studied. The additional symmetry flows of this hierarchy are presented. These flows form an infinite-dimensional Lie algebra of Block type as well as a Lie algebra of Hamiltonian type
A Discrete Spectral Problem and Related Hierarchy of Discrete Hamiltonian Lattice Equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staring from a discrete matrix spectral problem, a hierarchy of lattice soliton equations is presented though discrete zero curvature representation. The resulting lattice soliton equations possess non-local Lax pairs. The Hamiltonian structures are established for the resulting hierarchy by the discrete trace identity. Liouville integrability of resulting hierarchy is demonstrated.
New Integrable Couplings of Generalized Kaup-Newell Hierarchy and Its Hamiltonian Structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new isospectral problem is firstly presented, then we derive integrable system of soliton hierarchy. Also we obtain new integrable couplings of the generalized Kaup-Newell soliton equations hierarchy and its Hamiltonian structures by using Tu scheme and the quadratic-form identity. The method can be generalized to other soliton hierarchy. (general)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Xi-Xiang; ZHANG Yu-Feng
2004-01-01
A discrete matrix spectral problem and the associated hierarchy of Lax integrable lattice equations are presented, and it is shown that the resulting Lax integrable lattice equations are all Liouville integrable discrete Hamiltonian systems. A new integrable symplectic map is given by binary Bargmann .constraint of the resulting hierarchy.Finally, an infinite set of conservation laws is given for the resulting hierarchy.
A q-analogue of gl-hat3 hierarchy and q-Painlev? VI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A q-analogue of the gl-hat3 Drinfel'd-Sokolov hierarchy is proposed as a reduction of the q-KP hierarchy. Applying a similarity reduction and a q-Laplace transformation to the hierarchy, one can obtain the q-Painleve VI equation proposed by Jimbo and Sakai
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Han-yu Wei
2013-01-01
Full Text Available New explicit Lie algebras are introduced for which the nonlinear integrable couplings of the Li soliton hierarchy are obtained. Then, the nonlinear integrable couplings of Li soliton hierarchy with self-consistent sources are established. Finally, we present the infinitely many conservation laws for the nonlinear integrable coupling of Li soliton hierarchy.
Weight hierarchies of linear codes satisfying the almost chain condition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
The weight hierarchy of a linear [n, k; q] code C over GF(q) is the sequence (d1, d2,…,dk) where dr is the size of the smallest support of an r-dimensional subcode of C. An [n, k; q] codehas dimension r and support of size dr for all r. Further, C satisfies the almost chain condition ifit does not satisfy the chain condition, but there exist subcodes Dr of dimension r and support offor a sequence to be the weight hierarchy of a code satisfying the almost chain condition is given.Further, explicit constructions of such codes are given, showing that in almost all cases, the necessaryconditions are also sufficient.
The Variable Hierarchy for the Games mu-Calculus
Belkhir, Walid
2007-01-01
Parity games are combinatorial representations of closed Boolean mu-terms. By adding to them draw positions, they have been organized by Arnold and one of the authors into a mu-calculus. As done by Berwanger et al. for the propositional modal mu-calculus, it is possible to classify parity games into levels of a hierarchy according to the number of fixed-point variables. We ask whether this hierarchy collapses w.r.t. the standard interpretation of the games mu-calculus into the class of all complete lattices. We answer this question negatively by providing, for each n >= 1, a parity game Gn with these properties: it unravels to a mu-term built up with n fixed-point variables, it is semantically equivalent to no game with strictly less than n-2 fixed-point variables.
The tensor hierarchy of 8-dimensional field theories
Andino, Oscar Lasso
2016-01-01
We construct the tensor hierarchy of generic, bosonic, 8-dimensional field theories. We first study the form of the most general 8-dimensional bosonic theory with Abelian gauge symmetries only and no massive deformations. This study determines the tensors that occur in the Chern-Simons terms of the (electric and magnetic) field strengths and the action for the electric fields, which we determine. Having constructed the most general Abelian theory we study the most general gaugings of its global symmetries and the possible massive deformations using the embedding tensor formalism, constructing the complete tensor hierarchy using the Bianchi identities. We find the explicit form of all the field strengths of the gauged theory up to the 6-forms. Finally, we find the equations of motion comparing the Noether identities with the identities satisfied by the Bianchi identities themselves. We find that some equations of motion are not simply the Bianchi identities of the dual fields, but combinations of them.
The Tradeoffs of Fused Memory Hierarchies in Heterogeneous Computing Architectures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
With the rise of general purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU), the influence from consumer markets can now be seen across the spectrum of computer architectures. In fact, many of the high-ranking Top500 HPC systems now include these accelerators. Traditionally, GPUs have connected to the CPU via the PCIe bus, which has proved to be a significant bottleneck for scalable scientific applications. Now, a trend toward tighter integration between CPU and GPU has removed this bottleneck and unified the memory hierarchy for both CPU and GPU cores. We examine the impact of this trend for high performance scientific computing by investigating AMD's new Fusion Accelerated Processing Unit (APU) as a testbed. In particular, we evaluate the tradeoffs in performance, power consumption, and programmability when comparing this unified memory hierarchy with similar, but discrete GPUs.
Yukawa Hierarchies From Extra Dimensions With Small FCNC
Lillie, Benjamin Huntington
2003-01-01
We investigate a class of extra dimensional models where all of the Standard Model fermions are localized to a single fixed point in an $S_1/Z_2$ orbifold, and each species is localized with an exponential wavefunction with a different width. We show that this naturally generates Yukawa hierarchies of the size present in the Standard Model, and we find a set of model parameters that reproduces the observed masses and mixings to experimental accuracy. In addition, the dominant constraints, arising from flavor changing neutral currents, are shown to restrict the compactification scale to be $1/R \\ge 2-5 \\tev$, which is a much less stringent constraint than in similar extra dimensional models of the Yukawa hierarchy.
Phase transition and diffusivity in social hierarchies with attractive sites
Naumis, G. G.; del Castillo-Mussot, M.; Pérez, L. A.; Vázquez, G. J.
2006-09-01
We study the effects of including a distribution of valuable or attractive sites in a two-dimensional lattice in self-organizing social hierarchies. Agents move aleatorily except in the case where an attractive site is located in their neighborhood. We find that the transition between an egalitarian society at low population density and a hierarchical one at high population density strongly depends on the distribution and percolation of strategic sites. Also, it is shown how agent diffusivity is closely related to the amount of inequality. The proposed model introduces an optimization aspect to the problem of social hierarchies since the system tends to maximize the occupation of attractive sites (wealth per capita). However, when the density of attractive sites is small, the system fails to reach this state, and is trapped in a local minimum, as in a glass or jam transition.
The family mass hierarchy problem in bosonic technicolor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We use a multiple Higgs system to analyze the family mass hierarchy problem in bosonic technicolor. Dependence on a wide range of Yukawa couplings, λ, for quark and lepton mass generation is greatly reduced, i.e., λ ≅ 0.1 to 1. Third and second generation masses are produced at tree-level, the latter via a see-saw mechanism. We use radiative corrections as a source for many mixing angles and first generation masses. A hierarchy of family masses with small of-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa entries naturally arises. A higher scale of 1-10 TeV for Higgs masses and supersymmetry breaking is needed to alleviate difficulties with flavor-changing effects. Such a large scale is a feature of bosonic technicolor and no fine-tuning is required to obtain electroweak breaking at ≅ 100 GeV. Bosonic technicolor is therefore a natural framework for multi-Higgs systems. (orig.)
TeV Symmetry and the Little Hierarchy Problem
Cheng, H C; Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Low, Ian
2003-01-01
Constraints from precision electroweak measurements reveal no evidence for new physics up to 5 - 7 TeV, whereas naturalness requires new particles at around 1 TeV to address the stability of the electroweak scale. We show that this "little hierarchy problem" can be cured by introducing a symmetry for new particles at the TeV scale. As an example, we construct a little Higgs model with this new symmetry, dubbed T-parity, which naturally solves the little hierarchy problem and, at the same time, stabilize the electroweak scale up to 10 TeV. The model has many important phenomenological consequences, including consistency with the precision data without any fine-tuning, a stable weakly-interacting particle as the dark matter candidate, as well as collider signals completely different from existing little Higgs models, but rather similar to the supersymmetric theories with conserved R-parity.
Investigating a Hierarchy of Students’ Interpretations of Graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kazuhiro Aoyama
2007-10-01
Full Text Available The ability to analyse qualitative information from quantitative information, and/or to create new information from qualitative and quantitative information is the key task of statistical literacy in the 21st century. Although several studies have focussed on critical evaluation of statistical information, this aspect of research has not been clearly conceptualised as yet. This paper presents a hierarchy of the graphical interpretation component of statistical literacy. 175 participants from different educational levels (junior high school to graduate students responded to a questionnaire and some of them were also interviewed. The SOLO Taxonomy was used for coding the students’ responses and the Rasch model was used to clarify the construction of the hierarchy. Five different levels of interpretations of graphs were identified: Idiosyncratic, Basic graph reading, Rational/Literal, Critical, and Hypothesising and Modelling. These results will provide guidelines for teaching statistical literacy.
Template Mode Hierarchies for Binary Black Hole Mergers
Healy, James; Pekowsky, Larne; Shoemaker, Deirdre
2013-01-01
Matched filtering is a popular data analysis framework used to search for gravitational wave signals emitted by compact object binaries. The templates used in matched filtering searches are constructed predominantly from the quadrupolar mode because this mode is the energetically most dominant channel. However, for highly precessing binaries or binaries with moderately large mass ratios, significant power is also carried by higher-order modes. We investigate how the inclusion of higher modes in the templates increases the prospects for detecting gravitational waves. Specifically, we use numerical relativity waveforms from the late inspiral and coalescence of binary black holes to identify mode hierarchies that cover the sky of binary orientations. We show that the ordering in these hierarchies depends on the characteristics of the binary system and the mode strengths. Our study demonstrates that detecting moderately high precessing or unequal mass binaries requires the inclusion of higher modes in the templat...
Signatures of the neutrino mass hierarchy in supernova neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The undetermined neutrino mass hierarchy may leave an observable imprint on the neutrino fluxes from a core-collapse supernova (SN). The interpretation of the observables, however, is subject to the uncertain SN models and the flavor conversion mechanism of neutrinos in a SN. We attempt to propose a qualitative interpretation of the expected neutrino events at terrestrial detectors, focusing on the accretion phase of the neutrino burst. The flavor conversions due to neutrino self-interaction, the MSW effect, and the Earth regeneration effect are incorporated in the calculation. It leads to several distinct scenarios that are identified by the neutrino mass hierarchies and the collective flavor transitions. Consequences resulting from the variation of incident angles and SN models are also discussed
Modeling rises and falls in money addicted social hierarchies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The emergence of large communities is inherently associated with the creation of social structures. Connections between individuals are indispensable for cooperative action of agents building social groups. Moreover, social groups usually evolve and their structure changes over time. Consequently, an underlying network connecting individuals is not static, reflecting an ongoing adaptation to new conditions. The evolution of social connections is influenced by the relative position (hierarchy) of individuals building the system as well as by the availability of resources. We explore this aspect of human ambition by modeling the interplay of social networking and an uneven distribution of external resources. The model naturally generates social hierarchies. Remarkably, this social structure exhibits a rise-and-fall behavior. A well pronounced quasi-periodic dynamics, which is closely associated with the dissipation of resources that are needed to sustain the social links, is revealed. (paper)
Elementar Objects of Matter: Universality, Hierarchy, Isomorphysm, Dynamical Spectrum
Chechelnitsky, A. M.
2001-01-01
In the frame of Wave Universe Concept (WU Concept) it is presented the alternative approach to the effective description of Elementar Objects of Matter (EOM) of micro and megaworld hierarchy, in particular, of particles in subatomic physics. According to the Wave Universe Concept (WU Concept), discrete spectrum of EOM is close connected, generate by universal spectrum of physically preferable, elite velocities in the Universe. The special attantion to analysis and precise description of centr...
Multiple criteria inventory classification using fuzzy analytic hierarchy process
M. Ahsan Akhtar Hasin; Golam Kabir
2012-01-01
A systematic approach to the inventory control and classification may have a significant influence on company competitiveness. In practice, all inventories cannot be controlled with equal attention. In order to efficiently control the inventory items and to determine the suitable ordering policies for them, multi-criteria inventory classification is used. In this paper, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process for multiple criteria ABC inventory classification has been proposed. Fuzzy Analytic Hierar...
Automatic organisation of retrieved images into a hierarchy
Sanderson, M.; Tian, J.; Clough, P.
2006-01-01
Image retrieval is of growing interest to both search engines and academic researchers with increased focus on both content-based and caption-based approaches. Image search, however, is different from document retrieval: users often search a broader set of retrieved images than they would examine returned web pages in a search engine. In this paper, we focus on a concept hierarchy generation approach developed by Sanderson and Croft in 1999, which was used to organise retrieved image...
Quantum supersymmetric Toda-mKdV hierarchies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kulish, Petr P. [St. Petersburg Department of Steklov Mathematical Institute, Fontanka 27, St. Petersburg 191023 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: kulish@pdmi.ras.ru; Zeitlin, Anton M. [St. Petersburg Department of Steklov Mathematical Institute, Fontanka 27, St. Petersburg 191023 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: zam@math.ipme.ru
2005-08-08
In this paper we generalize the quantization procedure of Toda-mKdV hierarchies to the case of arbitrary affine (super)algebras. The quantum analogue of the monodromy matrix, related to the universal R-matrix with the lower Borel subalgebra represented by the corresponding vertex operators is introduced. The auxiliary L-operators satisfying RTT-relation are constructed and the quantum integrability condition is obtained. General approach is illustrated by means of two important examples.
On the Benney Hierarchy: free energy, string equation and quantization
Chang, Jen-Hsu; Tu, Ming-Hsien
2000-01-01
The bi-Hamiltonian structure of the Benney hierarchy is revisited. We show that the compatibility condition of the Poisson brackets provides the genus zero free energy of a topological field theory coupled to 2d gravity. We calculate the correlation functions via the Landau-Ginzburg formulation and derive the string equation based on the twistor construction. Moreover, by using the approach of Dubrovin and Zhang, we compute the genus one correction of the Poisson brackets and compare them wit...
Topological Field Theory approach to the Generalized Benney Hierarchy
Chang, Jen-Hsu; Tu, Ming-Hsien
2001-01-01
The integrability of the generalized Benney hierarchy with three primary fields is investigated from the point of view of two-dimensional topological field theories coupled to gravity. The associated primary free energy and correlation functions at genus zero are obtained via Landau-Ginzburg formulation and the string equation is derived using the twistor construction for the Orlov operators. By adopting the approach of Dubrovin and Zhang we obtain the genus-one corrections of the Poisson bra...
Continuous Materiality: Through a Hierarchy of Computational Codes
Jichen Zhu; Kenneth J. Knoespe
2008-01-01
The legacy of Cartesian dualism inherent in linguistic theory deeply influences current views on the relation between natural language, computer code, and the physical world. However, the oversimplified distinction between mind and body falls short of capturing the complex interaction between the material and the immaterial. In this paper, we posit a hierarchy of codes to delineate a wide spectrum of continuous materiality. Our research suggests that diagrams in architecture provide a valuabl...
A hierarchy of heuristic-based models of crowd dynamics
Degond, Pierre; Appert-Rolland, Cécile; Moussaid, Mehdi; Pettré, Julien; Theraulaz, Guy
2013-01-01
We derive a hierarchy of kinetic and macroscopic models from a noisy variant of the heuristic behavioral Individual-Based Model of Moussaid et al, PNAS 2011, where the pedestrians are supposed to have constant speeds. This IBM supposes that the pedestrians seek the best compromise between navigation towards their target and collisions avoidance. We first propose a kinetic model for the probability distribution function of the pedestrians. Then, we derive fluid models and propose three differe...
ASSESSMENT OF CONSTRUCTION INVESTMENT PROJECTS USING OF ANALYTIC HIERARCHY METHOD
AYTEKİN, Osman; İlker ÖZDEMİR; KUŞAN, Hakan; TEZCAN, Ömür
2012-01-01
In this study, it has been researched the applicability of AHP method (Analytic Hierarchy Method) that is one of multi-criteria decision-making methods, in assessment of construction investment projects. For this aim, it has been considered an application having shopping center, housing estate and residence alternatives. For application of AHP method, a binary comparison matrices have been established using main criteria which have financial conditions, sales and marketing, location and contr...
The Special Case of Women in Formal Education Hierarchies
Thompson, Eleanor
1994-01-01
This paper examines the subordinate position of women in formal education hierarchies in three of the world's foremost democracies: Canada, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and the United States of America. The paper has two major themes: that the causes of women's underachievement are to be found in (i) the conditions responsible for their entry into and concentration in the lower ranks of the teaching profession and (2) the social, cultural and psychological factors which collectively ha...
Emergence, hierarchy and top-down causation in evolutionary biology
Okasha, Samir
2012-01-01
The concept of emergence and the related notion of ‘downward causation’ have arisen in numerous branches of science, and have also been extensively discussed in philosophy. Here I examine emergence and downward causation in relation to evolutionary biology. I focus on the old but ongoing discussion in evolutionary biology over the ‘levels of selection’ question, which asks which level(s) of the biological hierarchy natural selection acts at, e.g. the gene, individual, group or species level? ...
Aplikasi Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) pada Pemilihan Software Manajemen Proyek
Siti Komsiyah
2014-01-01
The problem with many alternative decisions in the areas of management and administration commonly referred to as multi-attribute decision problems. For example, the decision problem with many variables so that the target decision can not always be determined easily. Well-known method of approach, to overcome this kind of problem is called the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). AHP technique is given by arranging alternative levels of decision, so as to provide a structured quantitative desc...
Horava—Lifshitz Type Quantum Field Theory and Hierarchy Problem
Wei, Chao
2016-06-01
We study the Lifshitz type extension of the standard model (SM) at the UV, with dynamical critical exponent z = 3. One loop radiative corrections to the Higgs mass in such a model are calculated. Our result shows that, the Hierarchy problem, which has initiated many excellent extension of the minimal SM, may be weakened in the z = 3 Lifshitz type quantum field theory. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China
Generalized Drinfel'd-Sokolov hierarchies. Pt. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we examine the bi-Hamiltonian structure of the generalized KdV-hierarchies. We verify that both Hamiltonian structures take the form of Kirillov brackets on the Kac-Moody algebra, and that they define a coordinated system. Classical extended conformal algebras are obtained from the second Poisson bracket. In particular, we construct the Wn(l) algebras, first discussed for the case n=3 and l=2 by Polyakov and Bershadsky. (orig.)
An Integrable Symplectic Map of a Differential-Difference Hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By choosing a discrete matrix spectral problem, a hierarchy of integrable differential-difference equations is derived from the discrete zero curvature equation, and the Hamiltonian structures are built. Through a higher-order Bargmann symmetry constraint, the spatial part and the temporal part of the Lax pairs and adjoint Lax pairs, which we obtained are respectively nonlinearized into a new integrable symplectic map and a finite-dimensional integrable Hamiltonian system in Liouville sense. (general)
Sensors Grouping Hierarchy Structure for Wireless Sensor Network
Ammar Hawbani; Xingfu Wang; Saleem Karmoshi; Lin Wang; Naji Husaini
2015-01-01
There are many challenges in implementation of wireless sensor network systems: clustering and grouping are two of them. The grouping of sensors is computational process intended to partition the sensors of network into groups. Each group contains a number of sensors and a sensor can be an element of multiple groups. In this paper, we provided a Sensors Grouping Hierarchy Structure (GHS) to split the nodes in wireless sensor network into groups to assist the collaborative, dynamic, distribute...
Hamiltonian Forms for a Hierarchy of Discrete Integrable Coupling Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A semi-direct sum of two Lie algebras of four-by-four matrices is presented, and a discrete four-by-four matrix spectral problem is introduced. A hierarchy of discrete integrable coupling systems is derived. The obtained integrable coupling systems are all written in their Hamiltonian forms by the discrete variational identity. Finally, we prove that the lattice equations in the obtained integrable coupling systems are all Liouville integrable discrete Hamiltonian systems
Bitstreams Repository Hierarchy for FPGA Partially Reconfigurable Systems
Bomel, Pierre; Diguet, Jean-Philippe; Gogniat, Guy; Crenne, Jeremie
2008-01-01
In this paper we present a hierarchy of bitstreams repositories for FPGA-based networked and partially reconfigurable systems. These systems target embedded systems with very scarce hardware resources taking advantage of dynamic, specific and optimized architectures. Based on FPGA integrated circuits, they require a single FPGA with a network controller and less external memories to store reconfiguration software, bitstreams and buffer pools used by today's standard communication protocols. O...
Introducing a Concept Hierarchy for the Journal of Research Practice
Werner Ulrich; D. P. Dash
2011-01-01
With this issue of the Journal of Research Practice, we initiate a conceptual framework for thinking and writing about research, defining areas of editorial focus, and indexing work published in the journal. The framework takes the form of a concept hierarchy that offers index terms at three interrelated levels: (1) focus areas for reflection on research practice within which the journal aims to achieve excellence and strengthen its profile and visibility, (2) subject areas relevant to resear...
Anarchy in the Universities: Beyond the Student-Teacher Hierarchy
McDowell, James
2010-01-01
This paper examines how the central tenets of much of the thinking of key contemporary educational theorists such as Lave, Wenger and Schön found earlier expression in the work of anarchist philosophers such as Bakunin, Proudhon, and Illich. Three principles of an anarchist philosophy of education for the twenty-first century are derived, and an argument developed that learning from the learners requires the collapse of the student-teacher hierarchy.
Strings and extra dimensions: Mass hierarchies and experimental signatures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antoniadis I.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Lowering the string scale in the TeV region provides a theoretical framework for solving the mass hierarchy problem and unifying all interactions. The apparent weakness of gravity can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the submillimeter region, and transverse to a braneworld where our universe must be confined. I review the main properties of this scenario and its experimental implications.
Workforce skills across the urban-rural hierarchy
Jaison R. Abel; Todd M. Gabe; Stolarick, Kevin
2012-01-01
This paper examines differences in the skill content of work throughout the United States, ranging from densely populated city centers to isolated and sparsely populated rural areas. To do so, we classify detailed geographic areas into categories along the entire urban-rural hierarchy. An occupation-based cluster analysis is then used to measure the types of skills available in the regional workforce, which allows for a broader measure of human capital than is captured by conventional measure...
A peaceful pyramid? Hierarchy and anonymity in newspaper comment sections
Gonçalves, João Fernando Ferreira
2015-01-01
Several studies have linked deindividuation to an increase in aggression and incivility. This paper seeks to ascertain the influence of anonymity and hierarchy in online aggression by comparing two different newspaper comment sections: one with a hierarchical system and the other with an equalitarian setting. This study distinguishes itself form previous works by analyzing systems where identification is optional and where identified and anonymous users coexist. The hierarchical solution m...
ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF ATTRIBUTES FOR TPM IMPLEMENTATION
Abhishek Jain; Gupta, R. C.; S. C. Soni
2014-01-01
Total Productivity Maintenance is one of the effective strategy designed primarily to maximize the effectiveness of equipment throughout its entire life by the participation and motivation of the entire workforce. The paper presents the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) methodology for the implementation of Total Productivity Maintenance (TPM) in an organization. A TPM implementation methodology has been developed for identification of weight and priorities of TPM attributes by using pare-wise...
Figuring out peer group hierarchies in secondary school
Austin, R
2014-01-01
This thesis considers children’s engagement in peer group hierarchies in transition to secondary school. Nineteen children in Year six in schools in South East England participated in the study, six of whom were revisited in Year seven, in secondary school. Data were gathered through loosely structured interviews and drawings, then analysed through contrasting lenses to consider the children’s identity work from different perspectives. In-group/out-group behaviours in line with social i...
Modeling rises and falls in money addicted social hierarchies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim
2014-01-01
The emergence of large communities is inherently associated with the creation of social structures. Connections between individuals are indispensable for cooperative action of agents building social groups. Moreover, social groups usually evolve and their structure changes over time. Consequently......, an underlying network connecting individuals is not static, reflecting an ongoing adaptation to new conditions. The evolution of social connections is influenced by the relative position (hierarchy) of individuals building the system as well as by the availability of resources. We explore this aspect...
A Bayesian generative model for learning semantic hierarchies
Mittelman, Roni; Sun, Min; Kuipers, Benjamin; Savarese, Silvio
2014-01-01
Building fine-grained visual recognition systems that are capable of recognizing tens of thousands of categories, has received much attention in recent years. The well known semantic hierarchical structure of categories and concepts, has been shown to provide a key prior which allows for optimal predictions. The hierarchical organization of various domains and concepts has been subject to extensive research, and led to the development of the WordNet domains hierarchy (Fellbaum, 1998), which w...
Probing the neutrino mass hierarchy with CMB weak lensing
Hall, Alex C
2012-01-01
We forecast constraints on cosmological parameters with primary CMB anisotropy information and weak lensing reconstruction with a future post-Planck CMB experiment, the Cosmic Origins Explorer (COrE), using oscillation data on the neutrino mass splittings as prior information. Our MCMC simulations in flat models with a non-evolving equation-of-state of dark energy w give typical 68% upper bounds on the total neutrino mass of 0.136 eV and 0.098 eV for the inverted and normal hierarchies respectively, assuming the total summed mass is close to the minimum allowed by the oscillation data for the respective hierarchies (0.10 eV and 0.06 eV). Including information from future baryon acoustic oscillation measurements with the complete BOSS, Type 1a supernovae distance moduli from WFIRST, and a realistic prior on the Hubble constant, these upper limits shrink to 0.118 eV and 0.080 eV for the inverted and normal hierarchies, respectively. Addition of these distance priors also yields percent-level constraints on w. W...
Climbing social media in medicine's hierarchy of needs.
Chretien, Katherine C; Kind, Terry
2014-10-01
The social media and medicine landscape is evolving rapidly. Early research, social media policies, and educational efforts focused on risk avoidance, while more current efforts have encouraged reflection and explored opportunities. This trajectory has affirmed physicians' professional commitment to maintaining public trust in the face of new challenges in the digital age. In this Commentary, the authors propose viewing physicians' social media use as a hierarchy of needs, similar to Maslow's psychological theory which posits that more basic levels of needs must be met before higher, aspirational levels can be fully attained. The three levels in the social media in medicine's hierarchy of needs are Security, Reflection, and Discovery. Critical to this model is respecting the essential need for Security in order to move towards Reflection and into Discovery. The social media in medicine hierarchy of needs pyramid rests on a foundation of Public Trust. How physicians as a profession have responded to past--and continue to respond to present and future--social media challenges to professionalism reveals what matters most: maintaining public trust and honoring the physicians' contract with society. A victory for online professionalism would be providing trainees with the tools and guidance needed to ascend to Discovery, while ensuring that their basic social media needs are first met. To do this, physician educators need to continue increasing trainees' awareness through designing relevant curricula, encouraging reflection, and providing positive role modeling and effective mentorship. PMID:25076202
Exploring memory hierarchy design with emerging memory technologies
Sun, Guangyu
2014-01-01
This book equips readers with tools for computer architecture of high performance, low power, and high reliability memory hierarchy in computer systems based on emerging memory technologies, such as STTRAM, PCM, FBDRAM, etc. The techniques described offer advantages of high density, near-zero static power, and immunity to soft errors, which have the potential of overcoming the “memory wall.” The authors discuss memory design from various perspectives: emerging memory technologies are employed in the memory hierarchy with novel architecture modification; hybrid memory structure is introduced to leverage advantages from multiple memory technologies; an analytical model named “Moguls” is introduced to explore quantitatively the optimization design of a memory hierarchy; finally, the vulnerability of the CMPs to radiation-based soft errors is improved by replacing different levels of on-chip memory with STT-RAMs. · Provides a holistic study of using emerging memory technologies i...
Social hierarchy modulates neural responses of empathy for pain.
Feng, Chunliang; Li, Zhihao; Feng, Xue; Wang, Lili; Tian, Tengxiang; Luo, Yue-Jia
2016-03-01
Recent evidence indicates that empathic responses to others' pain are modulated by various situational and individual factors. However, few studies have examined how empathy and underlying brain functions are modulated by social hierarchies, which permeate human society with an enormous impact on social behavior and cognition. In this study, social hierarchies were established based on incidental skill in a perceptual task in which all participants were mediumly ranked. Afterwards, participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while watching inferior-status or superior-status targets receiving painful or non-painful stimulation. The results revealed that painful stimulation applied to inferior-status targets induced higher activations in the anterior insula (AI) and anterior medial cingulate cortex (aMCC), whereas these empathic brain activations were significantly attenuated in response to superior-status targets' pain. Further, this neural empathic bias to inferior-status targets was accompanied by stronger functional couplings of AI with brain regions important in emotional processing (i.e. thalamus) and cognitive control (i.e. middle frontal gyrus). Our findings indicate that emotional sharing with others' pain is shaped by relative positions in a social hierarchy such that underlying empathic neural responses are biased toward inferior-status compared with superior-status individuals. PMID:26516169
Hierarchy construction schemes within the Scale set framework
Pruvot, Jean Hugues
2007-01-01
Segmentation algorithms based on an energy minimisation framework often depend on a scale parameter which balances a fit to data and a regularising term. Irregular pyramids are defined as a stack of graphs successively reduced. Within this framework, the scale is often defined implicitly as the height in the pyramid. However, each level of an irregular pyramid can not usually be readily associated to the global optimum of an energy or a global criterion on the base level graph. This last drawback is addressed by the scale set framework designed by Guigues. The methods designed by this author allow to build a hierarchy and to design cuts within this hierarchy which globally minimise an energy. This paper studies the influence of the construction scheme of the initial hierarchy on the resulting optimal cuts. We propose one sequential and one parallel method with two variations within both. Our sequential methods provide partitions near the global optima while parallel methods require less execution times than t...
Feng, Chunliang; Tian, Tengxiang; Feng, Xue; Luo, Yue-Jia
2015-04-01
Recent behavioral and neuroscientific studies have revealed the preferential processing of superior-hierarchy cues. However, it remains poorly understood whether top-down controlled mechanisms modulate temporal dynamics of neurocognitive substrates underlying the preferential processing of these biologically and socially relevant cues. This was investigated in the current study by recording event-related potentials from participants who were presented with superior or inferior social hierarchy. Participants performed a hierarchy-judgment task that required attention to hierarchy cues or a gender-judgment task that withdrew their attention from these cues. Superior-hierarchy cues evoked stronger neural responses than inferior-hierarchy cues at both early (N170/N200) and late (late positive potential, LPP) temporal stages. Notably, the modulations of top-down attention were identified on the LPP component, such that superior-hierarchy cues evoked larger LPP amplitudes than inferior-hierarchy cues only in the attended condition; whereas the modulations of the N170/N200 component by hierarchy cues were evident in both attended and unattended conditions. These findings suggest that the preferential perception of superior-hierarchy cues involves both relatively automatic attentional bias at the early temporal stage as well as flexible and voluntary cognitive evaluation at the late temporal stage. Finally, these hierarchy-related effects were absent when participants were shown the same stimuli which, however, were not associated with social-hierarchy information in a non-hierarchy task (Experiment 2), suggesting that effects of social hierarchy at early and late temporal stages could not be accounted for by differences in physical attributes between these social cues. PMID:25681738
Discovering Planetary Nebula Geometries: Explorations with a Hierarchy of Models
Huyser, Karen A.; Knuth, Kevin H.; Fischer, Bernd; Schumann, Johann; Granquist-Fraser, Domhnull; Hajian, Arsen R.
2004-11-01
Astronomical objects known as planetary nebulae (PNe) consist of a shell of gas expelled by an aging star. In cases where the gas shell can be assumed to be ellipsoidal, the PN can be easily modeled in three spatial dimensions. We utilize a model that joins the physics of PNe to this geometry and generates simulated nebular images. Hubble Space Telescope images of actual PNe provide data with which the model images may be compared. We employ Bayesian model estimation and search the parameter space for values that generate a match between observed and model images. The forward model is characterized by thirteen parameters; consequently model estimation requires the search of a 13-dimensional parameter space. The `curse of dimensionality,' compounded by a computationally intense forward problem, makes forward searches extremely time-consuming and frequently causes them to become trapped in a local solution. We find that both the speed and quality of the search can be improved by reducing the dimensionality of the search space. Our basic approach utilizes a hierarchy of models of increasing complexity. Earlier studies establish that a hierarchical sequence converges more quickly, and to a better solution, than a search relying only on the most complex model. Here we report results for a hierarchy of five models. The first three models treat the nebula as a 2D image, estimating its position, angular size, orientation and rim thickness. The last two models explore its characteristics as a 3D object and enable us to characterize the physics of the nebula. This live-model hierarchy is applied to real ellipsoidal PNe to estimate their geometric properties and gas density profiles.
FIXING THE ONTOLOGICAL HIERARCHY IN ANCIENT GREEK EPIC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasiljeva A. S.
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of representations of hierarchical structure of the universe in ancient Greek mythic-epic tradition. In the research there was shown that the myth reflects the main program of interpretation of main principles of the universe by a man in its structure; the Chaos in itself possesses the generative power and forms an order from itself but the hierarchy appears together with the formation of the order-outer space. The first deities – Gaea and born from her Uranus, mountains, Pontus, - possess the great power and in the first place, the power of generation. From works of Gomer and Gesiodus we ascertained that the history of gods was connected with the fight of children with the father-sovereign. One generation of gods became that support on which the other stands. The third generation of gods is sovereigns in greater extent than another one. The generation of Titans is implacable but lives according to unlimited forces of nature. Titans are unbridled. Gods-Olympians, on contrary, have the relation to conscious restriction. Gods of the third generation possess passions: love, hate. However, Olympians as well as humans must submit to transcendental law of the universe. Gods of the third generation join to the rationale. The order of the universe submitted to the law – Destiny is disseminated in human community. Power as an accidental of initial hierarchy gives itself in hands of that who can submit its will to absolute power of Destiny. The legitimacy of power is determined by initial hierarchy of the universe
Hierarchy of Local Minimum Solutions of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We derive a new hierarchy of local minimum Heisenberg-uncertainty states by introducing a superposition of ''small waves'' onto some initial state. Our objective is to increase the resolution in one observable, with the least decrease in the resolution in the conjugate observable. This leads to a constrained minimization which in a well-defined sense yields the best possible way of achieving this goal. The results are relevant to many topics (e.g., quantum optics and control, Bose-Einstein condensation, path integration, etc.)
Probing the neutrino mass hierarchy with CMB weak lensing
Hall, Alex C.; Challinor, Anthony
2012-01-01
We forecast constraints on cosmological parameters with primary CMB anisotropy information and weak lensing reconstruction with a future post-Planck CMB experiment, the Cosmic Origins Explorer (COrE), using oscillation data on the neutrino mass splittings as prior information. Our MCMC simulations in flat models with a non-evolving equation-of-state of dark energy w give typical 68% upper bounds on the total neutrino mass of 0.136 eV and 0.098 eV for the inverted and normal hierarchies respec...
Authority and Hierarchy within Anonymous Internet Relay Chat Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stewart Kenton Bertram
2015-09-01
Full Text Available 'The protest group Anonymous has emerged as one of the most significant social movements of recent years, announcing their arrival as a globally recognized brand with regular disruptive cyber attacks and the leak of large volumes of sensitive data. Despite the obvious significance of Anonymous, to date, little academic research has been focused on what role hierarchy and internal authority play (if any within the group. Bespoke software was used to structure over 5000 examples of IRC log files, so that a base line descriptive statistical picture could be drawn, as well as a more granular enumeration of the privileges associated with individual users.'
The physics origin of the hierarchy of bodies in space
Bejan, A.; Wagstaff, R. W.
2016-03-01
Here we show that bodies of the same size suspended uniformly in space constitute a system (a "suspension") in a state of uniform volumetric tension because of mass-to-mass forces of attraction. The system "snaps" hierarchically, and evolves faster to a state of reduced tension when the bodies coalesce spontaneously nonuniformly, i.e., hierarchically, into few large and many small bodies suspended in the same space. Hierarchy, not uniformity, is the design that emerges, and it is in accord with the constructal law. The implications of this principle of physics in natural organization and evolution are discussed.
Joe Celko's Trees and Hierarchies in SQL for Smarties
Celko, Joe
2012-01-01
The demand for SQL information and training continues to grow with the need for a database behind every website capable of offering web-based information queries. SQL is the de facto standard for database retrieval, and if you need to access, update, or utilize data in a modern database management system, you will need SQL to do it. The Second Edition of Joe Celko's Trees and Hierarchies in SQL for Smarties covers two new sets of extensions over three entirely new chapters and expounds upon the changes that have occurred in SQL standards since the previous edition's public
"Positive" Results Increase Down the Hierarchy of the Sciences
Fanelli, Daniele
2010-01-01
The hypothesis of a Hierarchy of the Sciences with physical sciences at the top, social sciences at the bottom, and biological sciences in-between is nearly 200 years old. This order is intuitive and reflected in many features of academic life, but whether it reflects the "hardness" of scientific research-i.e., the extent to which research questions and results are determined by data and theories as opposed to non-cognitive factors-is controversial. This study analysed 2434 papers published i...
Pendekatan Fuzzy-Analytic Hierarchy Process Dalam Pemilihan Konsep Produk.
Sigalingging, Tina M
2011-01-01
Product concept selection among a set of concepts/ alternatives is one of important part to get success in developing a new product. Because it faced by complex situation and uncertain, so it becomes a difficulty of decision maker/s to make a decision. Usually, decision maker/s just use their subjectivity and intuition. Fuzzy-Analytic Hierarchy Process is one of method which can solve this problem. Because this method can help decision maker/s give ranking to every criteria/ alternatives in s...
Abelian tensor hierarchy in 4D, N = 1 superspace
Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Linch, William D.; Robbins, Daniel
2016-03-01
With the goal of constructing the supersymmetric action for all fields, massless and massive, obtained by Kaluza-Klein compactification from type II theory or M-theory in a closed form, we embed the (Abelian) tensor hierarchy of p-forms in four-dimensional, N =1superspaceandconstructitsChern-Simons-likeinvariants. Whenspecializedtothe case in which the tensors arise from a higher-dimensional theory, the invariants may be interpreted as higher-dimensional Chern-Simons forms reduced to four dimensions. As an application of the formalism, we construct the eleven-dimensional Chern-Simons form in terms of four-dimensional, N = 1 superfields.
Non-universal SUSY breaking, hierarchy and squark degeneracty
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
I discuss non-trivial effects in the soft SUSY breaking terms which appear when one integrates out heavy fields. The effects exist only when the SUSY breaking terms are non-universal. They may spoil (1) the hierarchy between the weak and high-energy scales, or (2) degeneracy among the squark masses even in the presense of a horizontal symmetry. I argue, in the end, that such new effects may be useful in probing physics at high-energy scales from TeV-scale experiments
Stability of mass hierarchy in locally supersymmetric grand unification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Some locally supersymmetric SU(5) grand unified models with a sliding singlet and two pairs of 5sub(tilde) and 5sub(tilde)* Higgs multiplets are considered from the viewpoint of universal baryon asymmetry and the one-loop stability of mass hierarchy. A new mechanism based on ''sliding singlet reflection symmetry'' to avoid the problem of the mass hierarchical stability is proposed. The stability is shown up to two-loop levels for some models. All order stability is also discussed. (author)
Does the Polynomial Hierarchy Collapse if Onto Functions are Invertible?
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Buhrman, H.; Fortnow, L.; Koucký, Michal; Rogers, J.D.; Vereshchagin, N.K.
2010-01-01
Roč. 46, č. 1 (2010), s. 143-156. ISSN 1432-4350. [2nd International Computer Science Symposium in Russia (CSR 2007). Ekaterinburg, 03.09.2007-07.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP201/07/P276; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : one-way functions * polynomial hierarchy * Kolmogorov generic oracle s Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.600, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00224-008-9160-8
The Cost of Collaborating with Climbers of Status Hierarchies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeppesen, Jacob; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina
, but at times individuals or organizations successfully climb the status hierarchy or fall from grace. A growing body of research focuses on these status dynamics rather than static status measures. Based on data from 826 scientists affiliated with a Large Scale Research Facility (LSRF) collaborating on 1282 on...... associated with the focal scientist’s performance. Also, we find that the association between individual scientists’ status attainment and tie creation follows and inverted U-shape, while the relationship between status attainment and performance is positive. Finally, we find that status decline has...... a negative association with both tie creation and subsequent performance....
Cache and memory hierarchy design a performance directed approach
Przybylski, Steven A
1991-01-01
An authoritative book for hardware and software designers. Caches are by far the simplest and most effective mechanism for improving computer performance. This innovative book exposes the characteristics of performance-optimal single and multi-level cache hierarchies by approaching the cache design process through the novel perspective of minimizing execution times. It presents useful data on the relative performance of a wide spectrum of machines and offers empirical and analytical evaluations of the underlying phenomena. This book will help computer professionals appreciate the impact of ca
The influence of discourse hierarchy on the acoustic manifestation of focus in standard Chinese
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Jianjun; YANG Xiaohong; YANG Yufang; LU Shinan
2011-01-01
A phonetic experiment was conducted to investigate whether the acoustic features of discourse focus were subjected to the influence of discourse hierarchy. Six speakers were instructed to read aloud 32 groups of experimental material. The duration, pitch range, f0 maxima, and f0 minima of foci in different discourse hierarchies were extracted for statistical analysis. The results revealed that foci embedded higher in the discourse hierarchy had relatively longer duration and more expanded pitch range; moreover, with the variation of tone combination, foci in different discourse hierarchies differed remarkably in their manifestation of f0 maxima and f0 minima features. Specifically speaking, for non-low tone combinations, foci in higher discourse hierarchy were pronounced with higher f0 maxima, while for low-tone combinations, foci in higher discourse hierarchy were articulated with lower f0 minima.
Variable-coefficient nonisospectral Toda lattice hierarchy and its exact solutions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sheng Zhang; Di Wang
2015-12-01
In this paper, a hierarchy of nonisospectral equations with variable coefficients is derived from the compatibility condition of Toda spectral problem and its time evolution. In order to solve the derived Toda lattice hierarchy, the inverse scattering transformation is utilized. As a result, new and more general exact solutions are obtained. It is shown that the inverse scattering transformation can be generalized to solve some other nonisospectral lattice hierarchies with variable coefficients.
On the huge Lie superalgebra of pseudo superdifferential operators and super KP-hierarchies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lie superalgebraic methods are used to establish a connection between the huge Lie superalgebra Ξ of super (pseudo) differential operators and various super KP-hierarchies. We show in particular that Ξ splits into 5 = 2 x 2 + 1 graded algebras expected to correspond to five classes of super KP-hierarchies generalizing the well-known Manin-Radul and Figueroa O'Farrill-Ramos supersymmetric KP-hierarchies. (author). 10 refs
The Sturm-Liouville Hierarchy of Evolution Equations and Limits of Algebro-Geometric Initial Data
Johnson, Russell; Zampogni, Luca
2014-03-01
The Sturm-Liouville hierarchy of evolution equations was introduced in [Adv. Nonlinear Stud. 11 (2011), 555-591] and includes the Korteweg-de Vries and the Camassa-Holm hierarchies. We discuss some solutions of this hierarchy which are obtained as limits of algebro-geometric solutions. The initial data of our solutions are (generalized) reflectionless Sturm-Liouville potentials [Stoch. Dyn. 8 (2008), 413-449].
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we will present some of our results on the soliton hierarchy with self–consistent sources (SHSCSs). The Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy will be used as an illustrative example to show the method to construct the SHSCSs. Some properties of the KP hierarchy with self–consistent sources will also be given, such as the dressing approach, the Wronskian solutions (including soliton solutions), its bilinear identities and the tau function
Integrable Coupling System of JM Equations Hierarchy with Self-Consistent Sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a systematic method for generalizing the integrable couplings of soliton equations hierarchy with self-consistent sources associated with s-tilde l(4). The JM equations hierarchy with self-consistent sources is derived. Furthermore, an integrable couplings of the JM soliton hierarchy with self-consistent sources is presented by using of the loop algebra s-tilde l(4). (general)
A Hierarchy of Integrable Lattice Soliton Equations and New Integrable Symplectic Map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Starting from a discrete spectral problem, a hierarchy of integrable lattice soliton equations is derived. It is shown that the hierarchy is completely integrable in the Liouville sense and possesses discrete bi-Hamiltonian structure. A new integrable symplectic map and finite-dimensional integrable systems are given by nonlinearization method. The binary Bargmann constraint gives rise to a Baecklund transformation for the resulting integrable lattice equations. At last, conservation laws of the hierarchy are presented.
On (2+1)-Dimensional Non-isospectral Toda Lattice Hierarchy and Integrable Coupling System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By considering (2+1)-dimensional non-isospectral discrete zero curvature equation, the (2+1)-dimensional non-isospectral Toda lattice hierarchy is constructed in this article. It follows that some reductions of the (2+1)-dimensional Toda lattice hierarchy are given. Finally, the (2+1)-dimensional integrable coupling system of the Toda lattice hierarchy is obtained through enlarging spectral problem.
A Hierarchy of Integrable Lattice Soliton Equations and New Integrable Symplectic Map
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Starting from a discrete spectral problem, a hierarchy of integrable lattice soliton equations is derived. It is shown that the hierarchy is completely integrable in the Liouville sense and possesses discrete bi-Hamiltonian structure.A new integrable symplectic map and finite-dimensional integrable systems are given by nonlinearization method. The binary Bargmann constraint gives rise to a B(a)cklund transformation for the resulting integrable lattice equations. At last, conservation laws of the hierarchy are presented.
Hierarchy of correlations: Application to Green's functions and interacting topological phases
Gómez-León, Álvaro
2015-01-01
We study the many-body physics of different quantum systems using a hierarchy of correlations, which corresponds to a generalization of the $1/\\mathcal{Z}$ hierarchy. The decoupling scheme obtained from this hierarchy is adapted to calculate double-time Green's functions, and due to its non-perturbative nature, we describe quantum phase transition and topological features characteristic of strongly correlated phases. As concrete examples we consider spinless fermions in a dimers chain and in ...
Green Degree Comprehensive Evaluation of Elevator Based on Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process
Lizhen; Zhangruijun; WangChen
2015-01-01
The green design of the elevator has many characteristics which contains many factors and the combination of qualitative and quantitative. In view of the fuzzy problem of evaluation index information, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model are combined to evaluate the green degree of elevator. In this method, the weights of the indexes are calculated by using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process is used to calculate t...
2016-01-01
The standard approach in accounting for hierarchical differentiation in biology and the social sciences considers a hierarchy as a static distribution of individuals possessing differing amounts of some valued commodity, assumes that the hierarchy is generated by micro-level processes involving individuals, and attempts to reverse engineer the processes that produced the hierarchy. However, sufficient experimental and analytical results are available to evaluate this standard approach in the case of animal dominance hierarchies (pecking orders). Our evaluation using evidence from hierarchy formation in small groups of both hens and cichlid fish reveals significant deficiencies in the three tenets of the standard approach in accounting for the organization of dominance hierarchies. In consequence, we suggest that a new approach is needed to explain the organization of pecking orders and, very possibly, by implication, for other kinds of social hierarchies. We develop an example of such an approach that considers dominance hierarchies to be dynamic networks, uses dynamic sequences of interaction (dynamic network motifs) to explain the organization of dominance hierarchies, and derives these dynamic sequences directly from observation of hierarchy formation. We test this dynamical explanation using computer simulation and find a good fit with actual dynamics of hierarchy formation in small groups of hens. We hypothesize that the same dynamic sequences are used in small groups of many other animal species forming pecking orders, and we discuss the data required to evaluate our hypothesis. Finally, we briefly consider how our dynamic approach may be generalized to other kinds of social hierarchies using the example of the distribution of empty gastropod (snail) shells occupied in populations of hermit crabs. PMID:27410230
Phillips Ceib; Turvey Timothy A; Proffit William R
2007-01-01
Abstract A hierarchy of stability exists among the types of surgical movements that are possible with orthognathic surgery. This report updates the hierarchy, focusing on comparison of the stability of procedures when rigid fixation is used. Two procedures not previously placed in the hierarchy now are included: correction of asymmetry is stable with rigid fixation and repositioning of the chin also is very stable. During the first post-surgical year, surgical movements in patients treated fo...
ÖMÜRBEK, Nuri; ŞİMŞEK, Ali
2014-01-01
Analytic Hierarchy Process and Analytic Network Process are common multi criteria decision-making methods. Analytic Hierarchy Process identifies the degree of importance of effective decision making criteria and ranks decision alternatives by making pairwise comparisons. Analytic Network Process, however, identifies the relationship and its direction between the criteria and the alternatives in order to solve problems in a network. In this study, Analytic Hierarchy Process and Analytic Networ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruhlig, K.
2000-10-01
We construct Drinfel'd twists for the rational sl(n) XXX-model giving rise to a completely symmetric representation of the monodromy matrix. We obtain a polarization free representation of the pseudoparticle creation operators figuring in the construction of the Bethe vectors within the framework of the quantum inverse scattering method. This representation enables us to resolve the hierarchy of the nested Bethe ansatz for the sl(n) invariant rational Heisenberg model. Our results generalize the findings of Maillet and Sanchez de Santos for sl(2) models. (orig.)
Multifold Darboux Transformations of the Extended Bigraded Toda Hierarchy
Li, Chuanzhong; Song, Tao
2016-04-01
With the extended logarithmic flow equations and some extended Vertex operators in generalized Hirota bilinear equations, extended bigraded Toda hierarchy (EBTH) was proved to govern the Gromov-Witten theory of orbiford cNM in literature. The generating function of these Gromov-Witten invariants is one special solution of the EBTH. In this article, the multifold Darboux transformations and their determinant representations of the EBTH are given with two different gauge transformation operators. The two Darboux transformations in different directions are used to generate new solutions from known solutions which include soliton solutions of (N, N)-EBTH, i.e. the EBTH when N=M. From the generation of new solutions, we can find the big difference between the EBTH and the extended Toda hierarchy (ETH). Also, we plotted the soliton graphs of the (N, N)-EBTH from which some approximation analysis is given. From the analysis on velocities of soliton solutions, the difference between the extended flows and other flows are shown. The two different Darboux transformations constructed by us might be useful in Gromov-Witten theory of orbiford cNM.
Selection of Vendor Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prabjot Kaur
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Business environment is characterized by greater domestic and international competitive position in the global market. Vendors play a key role in achieving the so-called corporate competition. It is not easy however to identify good vendors because evaluation is based on multiple criteria. In practice, for VSP most of the input information about the criteria is not known precisely. Intuitionistic fuzzy set is an extension of the classical fuzzy set theory (FST, which is a suitable way to deal with impreciseness. In other words, the application of intuitionistic fuzzy sets instead of fuzzy sets means the introduction of another degree of freedom called nonmembership function into the set description. In this paper, we proposed a triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number based approach for the vendor selection problem using analytical hierarchy process. The crisp data of the vendors is represented in the form of triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. By applying AHP which involves decomposition, pairwise comparison, and deriving priorities for the various levels of the hierarchy, an overall crisp priority is obtained for ranking the best vendor. A numerical example illustrates our method. Lastly a sensitivity analysis is performed to find the most critical criterion on the basis of which vendor is selected.
Fluxes, hierarchies, and metastable vacua in supersymmetric field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis concerns topics both in low-energy effective field theories from type IIB superstring flux compactifications and in four-dimensional, rigidly supersymmetric gauge theories. We introduce flux compactifications with so-called ''warped throat'' regions, which lead to large hierarchies of scales in the effective four-dimensional theory. The correspondence between a particular such throat and a five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum-like model is established. We shown how certain string-theoretic features of the compactification, such as moduli stabilization by fluxes or the presence of an unstabilized Kaehler modulus, are incorporated in the five-dimensional picture. The KKLT construction for metastable de Sitter vacua is reviewed, as well as some possible modifications involving spontaneous F-term supersymmetry breaking. For KKLT-like models with their hidden sector localized inside a throat, the mediation of supersymmetry breaking to the visible sector is investigated. We review the mechanism of mixed modulus-anomaly mediation, and show that there can be additional equally important gravity-mediated contributions. We finally turn to the ISS model of metastable dynamical supersymmetry breaking in four dimensions, and present a renormalizable extension which generates a large hierarchy naturally. We also recapitulate how the ISS model may be obtained from a type IIB superstring model. (orig.)
Truncation identities for the small polaron fusion hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study a one-dimensional lattice model of interacting spinless fermions. This model is integrable for both periodic and open boundary conditions; the latter case includes the presence of Grassmann valued non-diagonal boundary fields breaking the bulk U(1) symmetry of the model. Starting from the embedding of this model into a graded Yang–Baxter algebra, an infinite hierarchy of commuting transfer matrices is constructed by means of a fusion procedure. For certain values of the coupling constant related to anisotropies of the underlying vertex model taken at roots of unity, this hierarchy is shown to truncate giving a finite set of functional equations for the spectrum of the transfer matrices. For generic coupling constants, the spectral problem is formulated in terms of a functional (or TQ-)equation which can be solved by Bethe ansatz methods for periodic and diagonal open boundary conditions. Possible approaches for the solution of the model with generic non-diagonal boundary fields are discussed. (paper)
Fluxes, hierarchies, and metastable vacua in supersymmetric field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bruemmer, F.
2008-02-06
This thesis concerns topics both in low-energy effective field theories from type IIB superstring flux compactifications and in four-dimensional, rigidly supersymmetric gauge theories. We introduce flux compactifications with so-called ''warped throat'' regions, which lead to large hierarchies of scales in the effective four-dimensional theory. The correspondence between a particular such throat and a five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum-like model is established. We shown how certain string-theoretic features of the compactification, such as moduli stabilization by fluxes or the presence of an unstabilized Kaehler modulus, are incorporated in the five-dimensional picture. The KKLT construction for metastable de Sitter vacua is reviewed, as well as some possible modifications involving spontaneous F-term supersymmetry breaking. For KKLT-like models with their hidden sector localized inside a throat, the mediation of supersymmetry breaking to the visible sector is investigated. We review the mechanism of mixed modulus-anomaly mediation, and show that there can be additional equally important gravity-mediated contributions. We finally turn to the ISS model of metastable dynamical supersymmetry breaking in four dimensions, and present a renormalizable extension which generates a large hierarchy naturally. We also recapitulate how the ISS model may be obtained from a type IIB superstring model. (orig.)
Large mass hierarchies from strongly-coupled dynamics
Athenodorou, Andreas; Bennett, Ed; Bergner, Georg; Elander, Daniel; Lin, C.-J. David; Lucini, Biagio; Piai, Maurizio
2016-06-01
Besides the Higgs particle discovered in 2012, with mass 125 GeV, recent LHC data show tentative signals for new resonances in diboson as well as diphoton searches at high center-of-mass energies (2 TeV and 750 GeV, respectively). If these signals are confirmed (or other new resonances are discovered at the TeV scale), the large hierarchies between masses of new bosons require a dynamical explanation. Motivated by these tentative signals of new physics, we investigate the theoretical possibility that large hierarchies in the masses of glueballs could arise dynamically in new strongly-coupled gauge theories extending the standard model of particle physics. We study lattice data on non-Abelian gauge theories in the (near-)conformal regime as well as a simple toy model in the context of gauge/gravity dualities. We focus our attention on the ratio R between the mass of the lightest spin-2 and spin-0 resonances, that for technical reasons is a particularly convenient and clean observable to study. For models in which (non-perturbative) large anomalous dimensions arise dynamically, we show indications that this mass ratio can be large, with R>5. Moreover,our results suggest that R might be related to universal properties of the IR fixed point. Our findings provide an interesting step towards understanding large mass ratios in the non-perturbative regime of quantum field theories with (near) IR conformal behaviour.
Large mass hierarchies from strongly-coupled dynamics
Athenodorou, Andreas; Bergner, Georg; Elander, Daniel; Lin, C -J David; Lucini, Biagio; Piai, Maurizio
2016-01-01
Besides the Higgs particle discovered in 2012, with mass 125 GeV, recent LHC data show tentative signals for new resonances in diboson as well as diphoton searches at high center-of-mass energies (2 TeV and 750 GeV, respectively). If these signals are confirmed (or other new resonances are discovered at the TeV scale), the large hierarchies between masses of new bosons require a dynamical explanation. Motivated by these tentative signals of new physics, we investigate the theoretical possibility that large hierarchies in the masses of glueballs could arise dynamically in new strongly-coupled gauge theories extending the standard model of particle physics. We study lattice data on non-Abelian gauge theories in the (near-)conformal regime as well as a simple toy model in the context of gauge/gravity dualities. We focus our attention on the ratio $R$ between the mass of the lightest spin-2 and spin-0 resonances, that for technical reasons is a particularly convenient and clean observable to study. For models in ...
Maslow and the motivation hierarchy: measuring satisfaction of the needs.
Taormina, Robert J; Gao, Jennifer H
2013-01-01
For each of the 5 needs in Maslow's motivational hierarchy (physiological, safety-security, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization), operational definitions were developed from Maslow's theory of motivation. New measures were created based on the operational definitions (1) to assess the satisfaction of each need, (2) to assess their expected correlations (a) with each of the other needs and (b) with four social and personality measures (i.e., family support, traditional values, anxiety/worry, and life satisfaction), and (3) to test the ability of the satisfaction level of each need to statistically predict the satisfaction level of the next higher-level need. Psychometric tests of the scales conducted on questionnaire results from 386 adult respondents from the general population lent strong support for the validity and reliability of all 5 needs measures. Significant positive correlations among the scales were also found; that is, the more each lower-level need was satisfied, the more the next higher-level need was satisfied. Additionally, as predicted, family support, traditional values, and life satisfaction had significant positive correlations with the satisfaction of all 5 needs, and the anxiety/worry facet of neuroticism had significant negative correlations with the satisfaction of all the needs. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the satisfaction of each higher-level need was statistically predicted by the satisfaction of the need immediately below it in the hierarchy, as expected from Maslow's theory. PMID:23858951
Diagnosing holographic dark energy models with statefinder hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We apply a series of null diagnostics based on the statefinder hierarchy to diagnose different holographic dark energy models including the original holographic dark energy, the new holographic dark energy, the new agegraphic dark energy, and the Ricci dark energy models. We plot the curves of statefinders S3(1) and S4(1) versus redshift z and the evolutionary trajectories of {S3(1), element of } and {S4(1), element of } for these models, where is the fractional growth parameter. Combining the evolution curves with the current values of S3(1), S4(1), and element of, we find that the statefinder S4(1) performs better than S3(1) for diagnosing the holographic dark energy models. In addition, the conjunction of the statefinder hierarchy and the fractional growth parameter is proven to be a useful method to diagnose the holographic dark energy models, especially for breaking the degeneracy of the newagegraphic dark energy model with different parameter values. (orig.)
Reactive Goal Decomposition Hierarchies for On-Board Autonomy
Hartmann, L.
2002-01-01
As our experience grows, space missions and systems are expected to address ever more complex and demanding requirements with fewer resources (e.g., mass, power, budget). One approach to accommodating these higher expectations is to increase the level of autonomy to improve the capabilities and robustness of on- board systems and to simplify operations. The goal decomposition hierarchies described here provide a simple but powerful form of goal-directed behavior that is relatively easy to implement for space systems. A goal corresponds to a state or condition that an operator of the space system would like to bring about. In the system described here goals are decomposed into simpler subgoals until the subgoals are simple enough to execute directly. For each goal there is an activation condition and a set of decompositions. The decompositions correspond to different ways of achieving the higher level goal. Each decomposition contains a gating condition and a set of subgoals to be "executed" sequentially or in parallel. The gating conditions are evaluated in order and for the first one that is true, the corresponding decomposition is executed in order to achieve the higher level goal. The activation condition specifies global conditions (i.e., for all decompositions of the goal) that need to hold in order for the goal to be achieved. In real-time, parameters and state information are passed between goals and subgoals in the decomposition; a termination indication (success, failure, degree) is passed up when a decomposition finishes executing. The lowest level decompositions include servo control loops and finite state machines for generating control signals and sequencing i/o. Semaphores and shared memory are used to synchronize and coordinate decompositions that execute in parallel. The goal decomposition hierarchy is reactive in that the generated behavior is sensitive to the real-time state of the system and the environment. That is, the system is able to react
Cumulative hierarchies and computability over universes of sets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Domenico Cantone
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Various metamathematical investigations, beginning with Fraenkel’s historical proof of the independence of the axiom of choice, called for suitable deﬁnitions of hierarchical universes of sets. This led to the discovery of such important cumulative structures as the one singled out by von Neumann (generally taken as the universe of all sets and Godel’s universe of the so-called constructibles. Variants of those are exploited occasionally in studies concerning the foundations of analysis (according to Abraham Robinson’s approach, or concerning non-well-founded sets. We hence offer a systematic presentation of these many structures, partly motivated by their relevance and pervasiveness in mathematics. As we report, numerous properties of hierarchy-related notions such as rank, have been veriﬁed with the assistance of the ÆtnaNova proof-checker.Through SETL and Maple implementations of procedures which effectively handle the Ackermann’s hereditarily ﬁnite sets, we illustrate a particularly signiﬁcant case among those in which the entities which form a universe of sets can be algorithmically constructed and manipulated; hereby, the fruitful bearing on pure mathematics of cumulative set hierarchies ramiﬁes into the realms of theoretical computer science and algorithmics.
Approximating CSPs with Global Cardinality Constraints Using SDP Hierarchies
Raghavendra, Prasad
2011-01-01
This work is concerned with approximating constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) with an additional global cardinality constraints. For example, \\maxcut is a boolean CSP where the input is a graph $G = (V,E)$ and the goal is to find a cut $S \\cup \\bar S = V$ that maximizes the numberof crossing edges, $|E(S,\\bar S)|$. The \\maxbisection problem is a variant of \\maxcut with an additional global constraint that each side of the cut has exactly half the vertices, i.e., $|S| = |V|/2$. Several other natural optimization problems like \\minbisection and approximating Graph Expansion can be formulated as CSPs with global constraints. In this work, we formulate a general approach towards approximating CSPs with global constraints using SDP hierarchies. To demonstrate the approach we present the following results: Using the Lasserre hierarchy, we present an algorithm that runs in time $O(n^{poly(1/\\epsilon)})$ that given an instance of \\maxbisection with value $1-\\epsilon$, finds a bisection with value $1-O(\\sqrt{\\epsi...
Comparative Analysis between Fuzzy and Traditional Analytical Hierarchy Process
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Mulubrhan Freselam
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is one of the techniques commonly used for prioritizing different alternatives, by using complex criteria. In real applications, conventional AHP assumes the expert judgment as it is exact and use crisp number leading to inconsideration of the uncertainty that came from linguistic variable. Fuzzy logic deals with situations which are vague or unwell defined and gives a quantify value. In this study a comparison is made between traditional AHP and fuzzy AHP by taking a case of selecting an effective oil refinery. The selection is conducted using system effectiveness as a criterion. The two approaches have been compared on the same hierarchy structure and criteria set and the result show that in both case dual drum scheme (DDS has the highest priority but different value that is 0.51 and 0.36 for AHP and FAHP respectively which shows that if the expert opinion is certain AHP should be used if not FAHP should be preferred
Quark-lepton complementarity relation and neutrino mass hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Latest measurements have revealed that the deviation from a maximal solar mixing angle is approximately the Cabibbo angle [i.e., quark-lepton complementarity (QLC) relation]. We argue that it is not plausible that this deviation from maximality, be it a coincidence or not, comes from the charged lepton mixing. Consequently we have calculated the required corrections to the exactly bimaximal neutrino mass matrix ansatz necessary to account for the solar mass difference and the solar mixing angle. We point out that the relative size of these two corrections depends strongly on the hierarchy case under consideration. We find that the inverted hierarchy case with opposite CP parities, which is known to guarantee the renormalization group equations stability of the solar mixing angle, offers the most plausible scenario for a high-energy origin of a QLC-corrected bimaximal neutrino mass matrix. This possibility may allow us to explain the QLC relation in connection with the origin of the charged fermion mass matrices
Multi-component Dirac equation hierarchy and its multi-component integrable couplings system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xia Tie-cheng; You Fu-Cai
2007-01-01
A general scheme for generating a multi-component integrable equation hierarchy is proposed.A simple 3Mdimensional loop algebra (X) is produced.By taking advantage of X,a new isospectral problem is established and then by making use of the Tu scheme the multi-component Dirac equation hierarchy is obtained.Finally,an expanding loop algebra (F) M of the loop algebra (X) is presented.Based on the FM,the multi-component integrable coupling system of the multi-component Dirac equation hierarchy is investigated.The method in this paper can be applied to other nonlinear evolution equation hierarchies.
Finite Projective Geometries and Classification of the Weight Hierarchies of Codes (I)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wen De CHEN; Torleiv KLфVE
2004-01-01
The weight hierarchy of a binary linear [n, k] code C is the sequence (d1, d2,……, dk), where dr is the smallest support of an r-dimensional subcode of C. The codes of dimension 4 are collected in classes and the possible weight hierarchies in each class is determined by finite projective geometries.The possible weight hierarchies in class A, B, C, D are determined in Part (Ⅰ). The possible weight hierarchies in class E, F, G, H, I are determined in Part (Ⅱ).
Exact Solutions of Ablowitz—Ladik Hierarchy with Self-Consistent Sources Revisited and Reductions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the paper, Ablowitz—Ladik hierarchy with new self-consistent sources is investigated. First the source in the hierarchy is described as φnφn+1, where φn is related to the Ablowitz—Ladik spectral problem, instead of the corresponding adjoint spectral problem. Then by means of the inverse scattering transform, the multi-soliton solutions for the hierarchy are obtained. Two reductions to the discrete mKdV and nonlinear Schrödinger hierarchies with self-consistent sources are considered by using the uniqueness of the Jost functions, as well as their N-soliton solutions. (general)
Research on Public Transit Network Hierarchy Based on Residential Transit Trip Distance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gao Jian
2012-01-01
Full Text Available To the problem of being lack of transit network hierarchy theory, a research on public transit network hierarchy optimization based on residential transit trip distance is conducted. Firstly, the hierarchy standard of transit network is given, in addition, both simulating electron cloud model and Rayleigh distribution model are used to fit the residential transit trip distance. Secondly, from the view of balance between supply and demand, the hierarchy step of transit network based on residential transit trip distance is proposed. Then, models of transit’s supply turnover and demand turnover are developed. Finally, the method and models are applied into transit network optimization of Baoding, Hebei, China.
Eye Movement Evidence for Hierarchy Effects on Memory Representation of Discourses.
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Yingying Wu
Full Text Available In this study, we applied the text-change paradigm to investigate whether and how discourse hierarchy affected the memory representation of a discourse. Three kinds of three-sentence discourses were constructed. In the hierarchy-high condition and the hierarchy-low condition, the three sentences of the discourses were hierarchically organized and the last sentence of each discourse was located at the high level and the low level of the discourse hierarchy, respectively. In the linear condition, the three sentences of the discourses were linearly organized. Critical words were always located at the last sentence of the discourses. These discourses were successively presented twice and the critical words were changed to semantically related words in the second presentation. The results showed that during the early processing stage, the critical words were read for longer times when they were changed in the hierarchy-high and the linear conditions, but not in the hierarchy-low condition. During the late processing stage, the changed-critical words were again found to induce longer reading times only when they were in the hierarchy-high condition. These results suggest that words in a discourse have better memory representation when they are located at the higher rather than at the lower level of the discourse hierarchy. Global discourse hierarchy is established as an important factor in constructing the mental representation of a discourse.
Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lee, Fei-Fan; Lee, Feng-Shiuh; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che; Yang, Yi
2016-07-01
The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, ν(bar nu) + p → ν(bar nu) + p, and inverse beta decays (IBD), bar nue + p → n + e+, of supernova neutrinos in scintillation detectors. Neutrino flavor conversions inside the supernova are sensitive to neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of bar nue flux with the bar nux (x = μ, τ) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. As a result, more high energy IBD events occur in the detector for the inverted hierarchy than the high energy IBD events in the normal hierarchy. By comparing IBD interaction rate with the mass hierarchy independent NC interaction rate, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.
Multi-Resolution Seismic Tomography Based on Recursive Tessellation Hierarchy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simmons, N A; Myers, S C; Ramirez, A
2009-07-01
A 3-D global tomographic model that reconstructs velocity structure at multiple scales and incorporates laterally variable seismic discontinuities is currently being developed. The model parameterization is node-based where nodes are placed along vertices defined by triangular tessellations of a spheroidal surface. The triangular tessellation framework is hierarchical. Starting with a tetrahexahedron representing the whole globe (1st level of the hierarchy, 24 faces), they divide each triangle of the tessellation into daughter triangles. The collection of all daughter triangles comprises the 2nd level of the tessellation hierarchy and further recursion produces an arbitrary number of tessellation levels and arbitrarily fine node-spacing. They have developed an inversion procedure that takes advantage of the recursive properties of the tessellation hierarchies by progressively solving for shorter wavelength heterogeneities. In this procedure, we first perform the tomographic inversion using a tessellation level with coarse node spacing. They find that a coarse node spacing of approximately 8{sup o} is adequate to capture bulk regional properties. They then conduct the tomographic inversion on a 4{sup o} tessellation level using the residuals and inversion results from the 8{sup o} run. In practice they find that the progressive tomography approach is robust, providing an intrinsic regularization for inversion stability and avoids the issue of predefining resolution levels. Further, determining average regional properties with coarser tessellation levels enables long-wavelength heterogeneities to account for sparsely sampled regions (or regions of the mantle where longer wavelength patterns of heterogeneity suffice) while allowing shorter length-scale heterogeneities to emerge where necessary. They demonstrate the inversion approach with a set of synthetic test cases that mimic the complex nature of data arrangements (mixed-determined inversion) common to most
Evolutionary hierarchy of vertebrate-like heterotrimeric G protein families.
Krishnan, Arunkumar; Mustafa, Arshi; Almén, Markus Sällman; Fredriksson, Robert; Williams, Michael J; Schiöth, Helgi B
2015-10-01
Heterotrimeric G proteins perform a crucial role as molecular switches controlling various cellular responses mediated by G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathway. Recent data have shown that the vertebrate-like G protein families are found across metazoans and their closest unicellular relatives. However, an overall evolutionary hierarchy of vertebrate-like G proteins, including gene family annotations and in particular mapping individual gene gain/loss events across diverse holozoan lineages is still incomplete. Here, with more expanded invertebrate taxon sampling, we have reconstructed phylogenetic trees for each of the G protein classes/families and provide a robust classification and hierarchy of vertebrate-like heterotrimeric G proteins. Our results further extend the evidence that the common ancestor (CA) of holozoans had at least five ancestral Gα genes corresponding to all major vertebrate Gα classes and contain a total of eight genes including two Gβ and one Gγ. Our results also indicate that the GNAI/O-like gene likely duplicated in the last CA of metazoans to give rise to GNAI- and GNAO-like genes, which are conserved across invertebrates. Moreover, homologs of GNB1-4 paralogon- and GNB5 family-like genes are found in most metazoans and that the unicellular holozoans encode two ancestral Gβ genes. Similarly, most bilaterian invertebrates encode two Gγ genes which include a representative of the GNG gene cluster and a putative homolog of GNG13. Interestingly, our results also revealed key evolutionary events such as the Drosophila melanogaster eye specific Gβ subunit that is found conserved in most arthropods and several previously unidentified species specific expansions within Gαi/o, Gαs, Gαq, Gα12/13 classes and the GNB1-4 paralogon. Also, we provide an overall proposed evolutionary scenario on the expansions of all G protein families in vertebrate tetraploidizations. Our robust classification/hierarchy is essential to further
Continuous Materiality: Through a Hierarchy of Computational Codes
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Jichen Zhu
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The legacy of Cartesian dualism inherent in linguistic theory deeply influences current views on the relation between natural language, computer code, and the physical world. However, the oversimplified distinction between mind and body falls short of capturing the complex interaction between the material and the immaterial. In this paper, we posit a hierarchy of codes to delineate a wide spectrum of continuous materiality. Our research suggests that diagrams in architecture provide a valuable analog for approaching computer code in emergent digital systems. After commenting on ways that Cartesian dualism continues to haunt discussions of code, we turn our attention to diagrams and design morphology. Finally we notice the implications a material understanding of code bears for further research on the relation between human cognition and digital code. Our discussion concludes by noticing several areas that we have projected for ongoing research.
Supplier Selection in Dynamic Environment using Analytic Hierarchy Process
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Prince Agarwal
2014-08-01
Full Text Available In today’s highly competitive business environment, the rapidly changing customer demands and with the advent of enterprise wide information systems, the managers are bound to think beyond the conventional business processes and devise new ways to squeeze out costs and improve the performance without compromising on the quality at the same time. Supplier evaluation and selection is one such area which determines the success of any manufacturing firm. Supplier selection is the problem wherein the company decides which vendor to select to have that strategic and operational advantage of meeting the customers’ varying demands and fight the fierce competition. This paper presents a simple model based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to help decision makers in supplier evaluation and selection, taking into account the firm’s requirements. The article is intended to help new scholars and researchers understand the AHP model and see different facets in first sight.
Permutation symmetry and the origin of fermion mass hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A realization of the ''flavor-democracy'' approach to quark and lepton masses is provided in the context of the standard model with a horizontal S3 permutation symmetry. In this model, t and b quarks pick up mass at the tree level, c, s-quark and τ-lepton masses arise at the one-loop level, u, d, and μ masses at the two-loop level, and the electron mass at the three-loop level, thus reproducing the observed hierarchial structure without fine tuning of the Yukawa couplings. The pattern of quark mixing angles also emerges naturally, with Vus,Vcb∼O(ε), Vub∼O(ε2), where ε is a loop expansion parameter
Hierarchy in Moldova-Russia Relations: the Transnistrian Effect
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Matthew Crandall
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This article examines the effect of the Transnistrian area on Moldova-Russia relations. David Lake’s concept of hierarchy will be used as the theoretical framework. The article examines why Russia’s mechanisms of infl uence should be seen as a reflection of a hierarchical relationship between Russia and Moldova. The article begins by explaining why this work has chosen a hierarchical framework and a brief introduction of Transnistria. This is followed by two sections of analysis: security and economy.These two sections will also contain subsections on events that highlight the hierarchical nature of the Moldova-Russia relationship. This article shows that Russia clearly has a hierarchical relationship with Moldova. David Lake’s theory proves to be a useful tool in understanding Moldovan-Russian relations.
Clustered Hierarchy in Sensor Networks: Performance and Security
Abuhelaleh, Mohammed; Mismar, Thabet
2010-01-01
Many papers have been proposed in order to increase the wireless sensor networks performance; This kind of network has limited resources, where the energy in each sensor came from a small battery that sometime is hard to be replaced or recharged. Transmission energy is the most concern part where the higher energy consumption takes place. Clustered hierarchy has been proposed in many papers; in most cases, it provides the network with better performance than other protocols. In our paper, first we discuss some of techniques, relates to this protocol, that have been proposed for energy efficiency; some of them were proposed to provide the network with more security level. Our proposal then suggests some modifications to some of these techniques to provide the network with more energy saving that should lead to high performance; also we apply our technique on an existing one that proposed to increase the security level of cluster sensor networks.
Selection of Fuel by Using Analytical Hierarchy Process
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Asilata M. Damle,
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Selection of fuel is a very important and critical decision one has to make. Various criteria are to be considered while selecting a fuel. Some of important criteria are Fuel Economy, Availability of fuel, Pollution from vehicle, Maintenance of the vehicle. Selection of best fuel is a complex situation. It needs a multi-criteria analysis. Earlier, the solution to the problem were found by applying classical numerical methods which took into account only technical and economic merits of the various alternatives. By applying multi-criteria tools, it is possible to obtain more realistic results. This paper gives a systematic analysis for selection of fuel by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. This is a multi-criteria decision making process. By using AHP we can select the fuel by comparing various factors in a mathematical model. This is a scientific method to find out the best fuel by making pairwise comparisons.
Exploiting Textons Distributions on Spatial Hierarchy for Scene Classification
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S. Battiato
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to recognize scene categories using bags of visual words obtained by hierarchically partitioning into subregion the input images. Specifically, for each subregion the Textons distribution and the extension of the corresponding subregion are taken into account. The bags of visual words computed on the subregions are weighted and used to represent the whole scene. The classification of scenes is carried out by discriminative methods (i.e., SVM, KNN. A similarity measure based on Bhattacharyya coefficient is proposed to establish similarities between images, represented as hierarchy of bags of visual words. Experimental tests, using fifteen different scene categories, show that the proposed approach achieves good performances with respect to the state-of-the-art methods.
Aplikasi Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP pada Pemilihan Software Manajemen Proyek
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Siti Komsiyah
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The problem with many alternative decisions in the areas of management and administration commonly referred to as multi-attribute decision problems. For example, the decision problem with many variables so that the target decision can not always be determined easily. Well-known method of approach, to overcome this kind of problem is called the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. AHP technique is given by arranging alternative levels of decision, so as to provide a structured quantitative description. Application of multi-attribute types of problems such as problems in the selection of software, car, project proposal, the university, the best employees, and so forth. In this paper, the approach developed using the AHP in software selection project management.
Emergence of hierarchy in cost driven growth of spatial networks
Louf, Rémi; Barthelemy, Marc
2013-01-01
One of the most important features of spatial networks such as transportation networks, power grids, Internet, neural networks, is the existence of a cost associated with the length of links. Such a cost has a profound influence on the global structure of these networks which usually display a hierarchical spatial organization. The link between local constraints and large-scale structure is however not elucidated and we introduce here a generic model for the growth of spatial networks based on the general concept of cost benefit analysis. This model depends essentially on one single scale and produces a family of networks which range from the star-graph to the minimum spanning tree and which are characterised by a continuously varying exponent. We show that spatial hierarchy emerges naturally, with structures composed of various hubs controlling geographically separated service areas, and appears as a large-scale consequence of local cost-benefit considerations. Our model thus provides the first building bloc...
The hierarchy problem of the electroweak standard model revisited
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jegerlehner, Fred [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)
2013-05-15
A careful renormalization group analysis of the electroweak Standard Model reveals that there is no hierarchy problem in the SM. In the broken phase a light Higgs turns out to be natural as it is self-protected and self-tuned by the Higgs mechanism. It means that the scalar Higgs needs not be protected by any extra symmetry, specifically super symmetry, in order not to be much heavier than the other SM particles which are protected by gauge- or chiral-symmetry. Thus the existence of quadratic cutoff effects in the SM cannot motivate the need for a super symmetric extensions of the SM, but in contrast plays an important role in triggering the electroweak phase transition and in shaping the Higgs potential in the early universe to drive inflation as supported by observation.
Dyonic ISO(7) supergravity and the duality hierarchy
Guarino, Adolfo; Varela, Oscar
2016-02-01
Motivated by its well defined higher dimensional origin, a detailed study of D = 4 {N}=8 supergravity with a dyonically gauged ISO(7)=SO(7)ltimes {{R}}^7 gauge group is performed. We write down the Lagrangian and describe the tensor and duality hierarchies, focusing on an interesting subsector with closed field equations and supersymmetry transformations. We then truncate the {N}=8 theory to some smaller sectors with {N}=2 and {N}=1 supersymmetry and SU(3), G2 and SO(4) bosonic symmetry. Canonical and superpotential formulations for these sectors are given, and their vacuum structure and spectra is analysed. Unlike the purely electric ISO(7) gauging, the dyonic gauging displays a rich structure of vacua, all of them AdS. We recover all previously known ones and find a new {N}=1 vacuum with SU(3) symmetry and various non-supersymmetric vacua, all of them stable within the full {N}=8 theory.
Self Organization of Social Hierarchy in Competitive Societies
Fujie, Ryo; Odagaki, Takashi
2011-12-01
The aim of this paper is to understand the condition of emergence of social hierarchy in a competitive society. We introduce a minimal model which incorporates cost for participating in fighting in order to understand effects of the difference between the gain for a winner and the loss for a loser. We show numerically and analytically that phase transition from an egalitarian state to hierarchical states occurs in two steps as the frequency of fighting is increased for any value of cost except when the reward is equal to the cost or to twice of the cost, and when no cost is required. Furthermore, we determine the phase diagram consisting of one egalitarian phase and three distinct hierarchical phases in the parameter space of the cost and the frequency of fighting.
Ee-Leach(Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy Modified Protocol
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Nishita Payar,
2014-05-01
Full Text Available A wireless sensor network is made by many homogeneous and/or nodes which can sense data and communicate to each other. As energy is a scarce resource in WSN, the main issue is energy efficient routing. Many flat and hierarchical protocols have been projected to enhance the network lifetime. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH protocol is a basic energy efficient hierarchical routing protocol in WSN. In LEACH, cluster heads are selected and cluster is formed by joining non cluster head nodes. Member nodes transmit the data to respective cluster head and the cluster head is conscientious to transmit the gathered and aggregated data directly to the base station. This paper examines the performance of the conventional LEACH protocol and gives an enhancement to it for energy efficiency. The proposed protocol considers many parameters like residual energy and distance from base station etc. for cluster head selection and energy efficient routing.
Evaluating supplier quality performance using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process
Ahmad, Nazihah; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Rajoo, Shanmugam Sundram Kalimuthu
2014-12-01
Evaluating supplier quality performance is vital in ensuring continuous supply chain improvement, reducing the operational costs and risks towards meeting customer's expectation. This paper aims to illustrate an application of Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process to prioritize the evaluation criteria in a context of automotive manufacturing in Malaysia. Five main criteria were identified which were quality, cost, delivery, customer serviceand technology support. These criteria had been arranged into hierarchical structure and evaluated by an expert. The relative importance of each criteria was determined by using linguistic variables which were represented as triangular fuzzy numbers. The Center of Gravity defuzzification method was used to convert the fuzzy evaluations into their corresponding crisps values. Such fuzzy evaluation can be used as a systematic tool to overcome the uncertainty evaluation of suppliers' performance which usually associated with human being subjective judgments.
The Hierarchy of Fast Motions in Protein Dynamics
Mazur, A K
1998-01-01
For many biological applications of molecular dynamics (MD) the importance of good sampling in conformational space makes it necessary to eliminate the fastest motions from the system in order to increase the time step. An accurate knowledge of these motions is a necessary prerequisite for such efforts. It is known that harmonic vibrations of bond lengths and bond angles produce the highest frequencies in proteins. There are also fast anharmonic motions, such as inter-atomic collisions, which are probably most important when bond lengths and bond angles are fixed. However, the specific time scales corresponding to all these limitations are not known precisely. In order to clarify the above issue this paper analyses time step limiting factors in a series of numerical tests by using an internal coordinate molecular dynamics approach, which allows chosen internal coordinates to be frozen. It is found that, in proteins, there is a rather complicated hierarchy of fast motions, with both harmonic and anharmonic eff...
Abelian Tensor Hierarchy in 4D, N=1 Superspace
Becker, Katrin; Linch, William D; Robbins, Daniel
2016-01-01
With the goal of constructing the supersymmetric action for all fields, massless and massive, obtained by Kaluza-Klein compactification from type II theory or M-theory in a closed form, we embed the (Abelian) tensor hierarchy of p-forms in four-dimensional, N=1 superspace and construct its Chern-Simons-like invariants. When specialized to the case in which the tensors arise from a higher-dimensional theory, the invariants may be interpreted as higher-dimensional Chern-Simons forms reduced to four dimensions. As an application of the formalism, we construct the eleven-dimensional Chern-Simons form in terms of four-dimensional, N=1 superfields.
Hierarchy of lifetimes of charmed and beautiful hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pre-asymptotic corrections to total hadronic widths of weak decays of charmed and beautiful hadrons are considered. The main emphasis is put on effects due to the spectator quark. The so called hybrid logarithms emerging from the domain of momenta R-2 2 Q2 (R is the hadronic size, mQ is the heavy quark mass) are taken into account, a new element of the analysis. For chamed hadrons the pre-asymptotic corrections are of order unity, and the corresponding estimates of non leptonic widths are of semiquantitative character. The hierarchy of hadronic widths for D, F mesons and Λc, Ξc(A), Ωc baryons is establish. The lifetime of Ωc0 turns out to be the smallest. The difference in lifetimes of beautiful hadrons is predicted to be definitely less than a few percent
The Spontaneous Origin of New Levels in a Scalar Hierarchy
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Stanley N. Salthe
2004-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract: Given a background of universal thermodynamic disequilibrium, I suggest that the interpolation of new levels in a material scale hierarchy is favored when the entropy production of a local region would be increased by such structural complexification. This would involve the separation by order of magnitude of the average dynamical rate of the new level compared to those of the resulting contiguous levels from which it became disentangled, thereby facilitating laminar flows. Here the Second Law of thermodynamics is understood as a final cause, which can be expressed in this creative way when the surrounding superstructure has a form allowing it to mediate this change (by, e.g., focusing kinetics, etc., and given, as well, sufficiently differentiated local energy gradients to materially support the increased local dissipation.
D-particles, matrix integrals and KP hierarchy
Kazakov, V A; Nekrasov, N
1999-01-01
We study the regularized correlation functions of the light-like coordinate operators in the reduction to zero dimensions of the matrix model describing D-particles in four dimensions. We investigate in great detail the related matrix model originally proposed and solved in the planar limit by J. Hoppe. It also gives the solution of the problem of 3-coloring of planar graphs. We find interesting strong/weak 't Hooft coupling dependence. The partition function of the grand canonical ensemble turns out to be a tau-function of KP hierarchy. As an illustration of the method we present a new derivation of the large-N and double-scaling limits of the one-matrix model with cubic potential.
Musings on cosmological relaxation and the hierarchy problem
Jaeckel, Joerg; Witkowski, Lukas T
2015-01-01
Recently Graham, Kaplan and Rajendran [1] proposed cosmological relaxation as a mechanism for generating a hierarchically small Higgs vacuum expectation value. Inspired by this we collect some thoughts on steps towards a solution to the electroweak hierarchy problem and apply them to the original model of cosmological relaxation [1]. To do so, we study the dynamics of the model and determine the relation between the fundamental input parameters and the electroweak vacuum expectation value. Depending on the input parameters the model exhibits three qualitatively different regimes, two of which allow for hierarchically small Higgs vacuum expectation values. One leads to standard electroweak symmetry breaking whereas in the other regime electroweak symmetry is mainly broken by a Higgs source term. While the latter is not acceptable in a model based on the QCD axion, in non-QCD models this may lead to new and interesting signatures in Higgs observables.
Accurate Load Modeling Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process
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Zhenshu Wang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Establishing an accurate load model is a critical problem in power system modeling. That has significant meaning in power system digital simulation and dynamic security analysis. The synthesis load model (SLM considers the impact of power distribution network and compensation capacitor, while randomness of power load is more precisely described by traction power system load model (TPSLM. On the basis of these two load models, a load modeling method that combines synthesis load with traction power load is proposed in this paper. This method uses analytic hierarchy process (AHP to interact with two load models. Weight coefficients of two models can be calculated after formulating criteria and judgment matrixes and then establishing a synthesis model by weight coefficients. The effectiveness of the proposed method was examined through simulation. The results show that accurate load modeling based on AHP can effectively improve the accuracy of load model and prove the validity of this method.
Wetting Hierarchy in Oleophobic 3D Electrospun Nanofiber Networks.
Stachewicz, Urszula; Bailey, Russell J; Zhang, Hao; Stone, Corinne A; Willis, Colin R; Barber, Asa H
2015-08-01
Wetting behavior between electrospun nanofibrous networks and liquids is of critical importance in many applications including filtration and liquid-repellent textiles. The relationship between intrinsic nanofiber properties, including surface characteristics, and extrinsic nanofibrous network organization on resultant wetting characteristics of the nanofiber network is shown in this work. Novel 3D imaging exploiting focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy and cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) highlights a wetting hierarchy that defines liquid interactions with the network. Specifically, small length scale partial wetting between individual electrospun nanofibers and low surface tension liquids, measured both using direct SEM visualization and a nano Wilhelmy balance approach, provides oleophobic surfaces due to the high porosity of electrospun nanofiber networks. These observations conform to a metastable Cassie-Baxter regime and are important in defining general rules for understanding the wetting behavior between fibrous solids and low surface tension liquids for omniphobic functionality. PMID:26176304
On Recognizable Tree Languages Beyond the Borel Hierarchy
Finkel, Olivier
2009-01-01
We investigate the topological complexity of non Borel recognizable tree languages with regard to the difference hierarchy of analytic sets. We show that, for each integer $n \\geq 1$, there is a $D_{\\omega^n}({\\bf \\Sigma}^1_1)$-complete tree language L_n accepted by a (non deterministic) Muller tree automaton. On the other hand, we prove that a tree language accepted by an unambiguous B\\"uchi tree automaton must be Borel. Then we consider the game tree languages $W_{(i,k)}$, for Mostowski-Rabin indices $(i, k)$. We prove that the $D_{\\omega^n}({\\bf \\Sigma}^1_1)$-complete tree languages L_n are Wadge reducible to the game tree language $W_{(i, k)}$ for $k-i \\geq 2$. In particular these languages $W_{(i, k)}$ are not in any class $D_{\\alpha}({\\bf \\Sigma}^1_1)$ for $\\alpha < \\omega^\\omega$.
Hierarchy-Based Team Software Process Simulation Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
According to the characteristic of Team Software Process (TSP), it adopts a hierarchy-based model combined discrete event model with system dynamics model. This model represents TSP as form of two levels, the inner level embodies the continuity of the software process, the outer embodies the software development process by phases, and the structure and principle of the model is explained in detail, then formalization description of the model is offered. At last, an example is presented to demonstrate the simulation process and result. This model can simulate team software process from various angles, supervise and predict the software process. Also it can make the management of software development become more scientific and improve the quality of software.
The Prelle-Singer method and Painlevé hierarchies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) of the form BK=0, where B is a Hamiltonian operator of a completely integrable partial differential equation hierarchy, and K = (K, L)T. Such systems, while of quite low order and linear in the components of K, may represent higher-order nonlinear systems if we make a choice of K in terms of the coefficient functions of B. Indeed, our original motivation for the study of such systems was their appearance in the study of Painlevé hierarchies, where the question of the reduction of order is of great importance. However, here we do not consider such particular cases; instead we study such systems for arbitrary K, where they may represent both integrable and nonintegrable systems of ordinary differential equations. We consider the application of the Prelle-Singer (PS) method—a method used to find first integrals—to such systems in order to reduce their order. We consider the cases of coupled second order ODEs and coupled third order ODEs, as well as the special case of a scalar third order ODE; for the case of coupled third order ODEs, the development of the PS method presented here is new. We apply the PS method to examples of such systems, based on dispersive water wave, Ito and Korteweg-de Vries Hamiltonian structures, and show that first integrals can be obtained. It is important to remember that the equations in question may represent sequences of systems of increasing order. We thus see that the PS method is a further technique which we expect to be useful in our future work
The Prelle-Singer method and Painlevé hierarchies
Gordoa, P. R.; Pickering, A.; Senthilvelan, M.
2014-05-01
We consider systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) of the form B{{K}}=0, where \\cal B is a Hamiltonian operator of a completely integrable partial differential equation hierarchy, and K = (K, L)T. Such systems, while of quite low order and linear in the components of K, may represent higher-order nonlinear systems if we make a choice of K in terms of the coefficient functions of \\cal B. Indeed, our original motivation for the study of such systems was their appearance in the study of Painlevé hierarchies, where the question of the reduction of order is of great importance. However, here we do not consider such particular cases; instead we study such systems for arbitrary K, where they may represent both integrable and nonintegrable systems of ordinary differential equations. We consider the application of the Prelle-Singer (PS) method—a method used to find first integrals—to such systems in order to reduce their order. We consider the cases of coupled second order ODEs and coupled third order ODEs, as well as the special case of a scalar third order ODE; for the case of coupled third order ODEs, the development of the PS method presented here is new. We apply the PS method to examples of such systems, based on dispersive water wave, Ito and Korteweg-de Vries Hamiltonian structures, and show that first integrals can be obtained. It is important to remember that the equations in question may represent sequences of systems of increasing order. We thus see that the PS method is a further technique which we expect to be useful in our future work.
Statefinder hierarchy exploration of the extended Ricci dark energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Fei [Shenyang Aerospace University, College of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Cui, Jing-Lei; Zhang, Jing-Fei [Northeastern University, Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Zhang, Xin [Northeastern University, Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Peking University, Center for High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)
2015-06-15
We apply the statefinder hierarchy plus the fractional growth parameter to explore the extended Ricci dark energy (ERDE) model, in which there are two independent coefficients α and β. By adjusting them, we plot evolution trajectories of some typical parameters, including the Hubble expansion rate E, deceleration parameter q, the third and fourth-order hierarchy S{sub 3}{sup (1)} and S{sub 4}{sup (1)}, and the fractional growth parameter ε, respectively, as well as several combinations of them. For the case of variable α and constant β, in the low-redshift region the evolution trajectories of E are in high degeneracy and that of q separate somewhat. However, the ΛCDM model is confounded with ERDE in both of these cases. S{sub 3}{sup (1)} and S{sub 4}{sup (1)}, especially the former, perform much better. They can differentiate well only varieties of cases within ERDE except ΛCDM in the low-redshift region. For the high-redshift region, combinations {S_n"("1"), ε} can break the degeneracy. Both of {S_3"("1"), ε} and {S_4"("1"), ε} have the ability to discriminate ERDE with α = 1 from ΛCDM, of which the degeneracy cannot be broken by all the before-mentioned parameters. For the case of variable β and constant α, S{sub 3}{sup (1)}(z) and S{sub 4}{sup (1)}(z) can only discriminate ERDE from ΛCDM. Nothing but pairs {S_3"("1"), ε} and {S_4"("1"), ε} can discriminate not only within ERDE but also ERDE from ΛCDM. Finally, we find that S{sub 3}{sup (1)} is surprisingly a better choice to discriminate within ERDE itself, and ERDE from ΛCDM as well, rather than S{sub 4}{sup (1)}. (orig.)
STRATEGI PENINGKATAN KOMPETENSI GURU DENGAN PENDEKATAN ANALYSIS HIERARCHY PROCESS
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Reni Daharti
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Seorang guru sebagai seorang pendidik merupakan komponen penting dalam proses pendidikan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk (1 menganalisis profil guru SLTP Komwil 05 Kabupaten Tegal, (2 menganalisis prioritas kebijakan dalam meningkatkan kompetensi guru di daerah penelitian, (3 menentukan strategi untuk meningkatkan kompetensi guru melalui prioritas kebijakan yang dapat diterapkan di daerah penelitian. Respondennya adalah 33 guru SLTP Komwil 05 Kabupaten Tegal. Mereka dipilih dengan menggunakan simple random sampling. Selain itu 15 orang dipilih untuk menjadi keyperson. Statistik Deskriptif dan Analisis Hierarchy Process digunakan untuk menganalisis data dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kompetensi pedagogik dan kompetensi profesional guru adalah moderat dan guru memiliki kepribadian dan kompetensi sosial yang tinggi. Hal yang harus ditingkatkan adalah kompetensi guru. Prioritas utama dalam meningkatkan kompetensi guru di Kabupaten Tegal adalah (1 memilih moralitas calon guru 2 menyaring kualitas guru (3 mengirim guru untuk mengikuti berbagai pelatihan untuk meningkatkan karakter mereka.A teacher as an educator is an important component in the educational process. This study aims to (1 analyze the teacher profile of SLTP Komwil 05 Kabupaten Tegal, (2 analyze the policy priorities in improving the competence of teachers in the study area, (3 determine the strategies for enhancing the competence of teachers through the policy priorities that can be applied in the study area. There are 33 junior high school teachers of SLTP Komwil 05 Kabupaten Tegal as the respondents. They were selected by using simple random sampling. Then, there are also15 key persons. Descriptive Statistics and Analysis Hierarchy Process were used to analyze the data in the study. The results show that pedagogical competence and professional competence are moderate and the teachers have high personality and social competence. The thing that should be
Statefinder hierarchy exploration of the extended Ricci dark energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We apply the statefinder hierarchy plus the fractional growth parameter to explore the extended Ricci dark energy (ERDE) model, in which there are two independent coefficients α and β. By adjusting them, we plot evolution trajectories of some typical parameters, including the Hubble expansion rate E, deceleration parameter q, the third and fourth-order hierarchy S3(1) and S4(1), and the fractional growth parameter ε, respectively, as well as several combinations of them. For the case of variable α and constant β, in the low-redshift region the evolution trajectories of E are in high degeneracy and that of q separate somewhat. However, the ΛCDM model is confounded with ERDE in both of these cases. S3(1) and S4(1), especially the former, perform much better. They can differentiate well only varieties of cases within ERDE except ΛCDM in the low-redshift region. For the high-redshift region, combinations {Sn(1), ε} can break the degeneracy. Both of {S3(1), ε} and {S4(1), ε} have the ability to discriminate ERDE with α = 1 from ΛCDM, of which the degeneracy cannot be broken by all the before-mentioned parameters. For the case of variable β and constant α, S3(1)(z) and S4(1)(z) can only discriminate ERDE from ΛCDM. Nothing but pairs {S3(1), ε} and {S4(1), ε} can discriminate not only within ERDE but also ERDE from ΛCDM. Finally, we find that S3(1) is surprisingly a better choice to discriminate within ERDE itself, and ERDE from ΛCDM as well, rather than S4(1). (orig.)
The super W∞ symmetry of the Manin-Radul super KP hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that the Manin-Radul super KP hierarchy is invariant under super W∞ transformations. These transformations are characterized by time dependent flows which commute with the usual flows generated by the conserved quantities of the super KP hierarchy. (author). 16 refs
Symmetries of the Super Heat Kernel N = 1 and SKdV hierarchy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrea, S.; Restuccia, A. [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela); Sotomayor, A. [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Unexpo Luis Caballero Mejias (Venezuela)]. E-mail: sandrea@usb.ve
2006-07-01
A new heat operator with N = 1 supersymmetry is proposed. We study the symmetries of the corresponding heat kernel, which generalizes the bosonic one in a natural way. We used these symmetries to obtain, in the asymptotic limit, the super KdV hierarchy supersymmetric tree version associated with this hierarchy is presented. (Author)
Bounds on the Weight Hierarchies of a Kind of Linear Codes Satisfying Non-Chain Condition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIUZihui; CHENWende
2005-01-01
The upper bound of weight hierarchies of codes with a divided-chain of arbitrary continuous break points are studied and the codes satisfying the upperbound are constructed by finite projective geometry, in particular, the geometrical construction is tight for the upper-bound weight hierarchies.
Integrable Rosochatius Deformations for an Integrable Couplings of CKdV Equation Hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a method to construct the integrable Rosochatius deformations for an integrable couplings equations hierarchy. As applications, the integrable Rosochatius deformations of the coupled CKdV hierarchy with self-consistent sources and its Lax representation are presented. (general)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that the Kronecker product can be applied to construct a new integrable coupling system of soliton equation hierarchy in this paper. A direct application to the Burgers spectral problem leads to a novel soliton equation hierarchy of integrable coupling system. It indicates that the Kronecker product is an efficient and straightforward method to construct the integrable couplings.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A 3 x 3 matrix spectral problem and a Liouville integrable hierarchy are constructed by designing a new subalgebra of loop algebra A2. Furthermore, high-order binary symmetry constraints of the corresponding hierarchy are obtained by using the binary nonlinearization method. Finally, according to another new subalgebra of loop algebra A2, its integrable couplings are established.
A New Loop Algebra and Its Corresponding Multi-component Integrable Hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A type of new loop algebra G-tildeM is constructed by making use of the concept of cycled numbers. As its application, an isospectral problem is designed and a new multi-component integrable hierarchy with multi-potential functions is worked out, which can be reduced to the famous KN hierarchy.
Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Dirac Hierarchy and Its Super Hamiltonian Structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We construct nonlinear super integrable couplings of the super integrable Dirac hierarchy based on an enlarged matrix Lie superalgebra. Then its super Hamiltonian structure is furnished by super trace identity. As its reduction, we gain the nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable Dirac hierarchy. (general)
A Hierarchy of Nonlinear Lattice Soliton Equations and Its Darboux Transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A hierarchy of nonlinear lattice soliton equations is derived from a new discrete spectral problem. The Hamiltonian structure of the resulting hierarchy is constructed by using a trace identity formula. Moreover, a Darboux transformation is established with the help of gauge transformations of Lax pairs for the typical lattice soliton equations. The exact solutions are given by applying the Darboux transformation. (general)
Martin, John Levi
2009-01-01
Social psychological investigations of hierarchy formation have been almost entirely confined to the case of task-oriented groups and hence have produced theories that turn on the existence of such a task. But other forms of vertical hierarchy may emerge in non-task groups. One form, orderings of dominance, has been studied among animals using…
Chernukhin, R. V.; Dronov, A. A.; Blashchuk, M. Y.
2015-09-01
The article describes one possibility of choosing layout schemes for geokhod systems which is the analytic hierarchy process. There is the essence of the method summarized therein. The usage of the method is considered for the analysis and the choice of layout schemes for a geokhod pumping station. Keywords: geokhod, analytic hierarchy process, pumping station, layout scheme.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hanyu WEI; Tiecheng XIA
2014-01-01
Based on fractional isospectral problems and general bilinear forms, the gener-alized fractional trace identity is presented. Then, a new explicit Lie algebra is introduced for which the new fractional integrable couplings of a fractional soliton hierarchy are derived from a fractional zero-curvature equation. Finally, we obtain the fractional Hamiltonian structures of the fractional integrable couplings of the soliton hierarchy.
Block-diagonal semidefinite programming hierarchies for 0/1 programming
Gvozdenovic, N.; Laurent, M.; Vallentin, F.
2009-01-01
Lovasz and Schrijver, and later Lasserre, proposed hierarchies of semidefinite programming relaxations for general 0/1 linear programming problems. In this paper these two constructions are revisited and a new, block-diagonal hierarchy is proposed. It has the advantage of being computationally less
An Analytic Hierarchy Process for School Quality and Inspection: Model Development and Application
Al Qubaisi, Amal; Badri, Masood; Mohaidat, Jihad; Al Dhaheri, Hamad; Yang, Guang; Al Rashedi, Asma; Greer, Kenneth
2016-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytic hierarchy planning-based framework to establish criteria weights and to develop a school performance system commonly called school inspections. Design/methodology/approach: The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model uses pairwise comparisons and a measurement scale to generate the…
Fermionic flows and tau function of the N = (1 vertical bar 1) superconformal Toda lattice hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An infinite class of fermionic flows of the N = (1 vertical bar 1) superconformal Toda lattice hierarchy is constructed and their algebraic structure is studied. We completely solve the semi-infinite N = (1 vertical bar 1) Toda lattice and chain hierarchies and derive their tau functions, which may be relevant for building supersymmetric matrix models. Their bosonic limit is also discussed
Fermionic flows and tau function of the n = (1|1) superconformal Toda lattice hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An infinite class of fermionic flows of the N = (1|1) superconformal Toda lattice hierarchy is constructed and their algebraic structure is studied. We completely solve the semi-infinite N = (1|1) Toda lattice and chain hierarchies and derive their tau functions, which may be relevant for building supersymmetric matrix models. Their bosonic limit is also discussed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristiansen, Mette Svart
epistemological challenges in recognising and interpreting the complex material expressions of hierarchy and the interrelationship of space and meaning. It is argued that the tofts can provide a basis for studies of hierarchy, but that the context is important, as many factors had an impact on size....
The complex sine-Gordon equation as a symmetry flow of the AKNS hierarchy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aratyn, H. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Ferreira, L.A.; Gomes, J.F.; Zimerman, A.H. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica-UNESP, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2000-09-08
It is shown how the complex sine-Gordon equation arises as a symmetry flow of the AKNS hierarchy. The AKNS hierarchy is extended by the 'negative' symmetry flows forming the Borel loop algebra. The complex sine-Gordon and the vector nonlinear Schroedinger equations appear as lowest-negative and second-positive flows within the extended hierarchy. This is fully analogous to the well known connection between the sine-Gordon and mKdV equations within the extended mKdV hierarchy. A general formalism for a Toda-like symmetry occupying the 'negative' sector of the sl(N) constrained KP hierarchy and giving rise to the negative Borel sl(N) loop algebra is indicated. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.
Comparing the hierarchy of author given tags and repository given tags in a large document archive
Tibély, Gergely; Palla, Gergely
2015-01-01
Folksonomies - large databases arising from collaborative tagging of items by independent users - are becoming an increasingly important way of categorizing information. In these systems users can tag items with free words, resulting in a tripartite item-tag-user network. Although there are no prescribed relations between tags, the way users think about the different categories presumably has some built in hierarchy, in which more special concepts are descendants of some more general categories. Several applications would benefit from the knowledge of this hierarchy. Here we apply a recent method to check the differences and similarities of hierarchies resulting from tags given by independent individuals and from tags given by a centrally managed repository system. The results from out method showed substantial differences between the lower part of the hierarchies, and in contrast, a relatively high similarity at the top of the hierarchies.
Measuring, Enabling and Comparing Modularity, Regularity and Hierarchy in Evolutionary Design
Hornby, Gregory S.
2005-01-01
For computer-automated design systems to scale to complex designs they must be able to produce designs that exhibit the characteristics of modularity, regularity and hierarchy - characteristics that are found both in man-made and natural designs. Here we claim that these characteristics are enabled by implementing the attributes of combination, control-flow and abstraction in the representation. To support this claim we use an evolutionary algorithm to evolve solutions to different sizes of a table design problem using five different representations, each with different combinations of modularity, regularity and hierarchy enabled and show that the best performance happens when all three of these attributes are enabled. We also define metrics for modularity, regularity and hierarchy in design encodings and demonstrate that high fitness values are achieved with high values of modularity, regularity and hierarchy and that there is a positive correlation between increases in fitness and increases in modularity. regularity and hierarchy.
Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lee, Feng-Shiuh; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che; Yang, Yi
2016-01-01
The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, $\
Katerelos, Marina; Hawley, Lance L.; Antony, Martin M.; McCabe, Randi E.
2008-01-01
This study explored the psychometric properties and utility of the exposure hierarchy as a measure of treatment outcome for social anxiety disorder (SAD). An exposure hierarchy was created for each of 103 individuals with a diagnosis of SAD who completed a course of cognitive behavioral group therapy. Exposure hierarchy ratings were collected on a…
Constraint, Intelligence, and Control Hierarchy in Virtual Environments. Chapter 1
Sheridan, Thomas B.
2007-01-01
This paper seeks to deal directly with the question of what makes virtual actors and objects that are experienced in virtual environments seem real. (The term virtual reality, while more common in public usage, is an oxymoron; therefore virtual environment is the preferred term in this paper). Reality is difficult topic, treated for centuries in those sub-fields of philosophy called ontology- "of or relating to being or existence" and epistemology- "the study of the method and grounds of knowledge, especially with reference to its limits and validity" (both from Webster s, 1965). Advances in recent decades in the technologies of computers, sensors and graphics software have permitted human users to feel present or experience immersion in computer-generated virtual environments. This has motivated a keen interest in probing this phenomenon of presence and immersion not only philosophically but also psychologically and physiologically in terms of the parameters of the senses and sensory stimulation that correlate with the experience (Ellis, 1991). The pages of the journal Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments have seen much discussion of what makes virtual environments seem real (see, e.g., Slater, 1999; Slater et al. 1994; Sheridan, 1992, 2000). Stephen Ellis, when organizing the meeting that motivated this paper, suggested to invited authors that "We may adopt as an organizing principle for the meeting that the genesis of apparently intelligent interaction arises from an upwelling of constraints determined by a hierarchy of lower levels of behavioral interaction. "My first reaction was "huh?" and my second was "yeah, that seems to make sense." Accordingly the paper seeks to explain from the author s viewpoint, why Ellis s hypothesis makes sense. What is the connection of "presence" or "immersion" of an observer in a virtual environment, to "constraints" and what types of constraints. What of "intelligent interaction," and is it the intelligence of the
Statistical symmetries of the Lundgren-Monin-Novikov hierarchy
Wacławczyk, Marta; Staffolani, Nicola; Oberlack, Martin; Rosteck, Andreas; Wilczek, Michael; Friedrich, Rudolf
2014-07-01
It was shown by Oberlack and Rosteck [Discr. Cont. Dyn. Sys. S, 3, 451 2010, 10.3934/dcdss.2010.3.451] that the infinite set of multipoint correlation (MPC) equations of turbulence admits a considerable extended set of Lie point symmetries compared to the Galilean group, which is implied by the original set of equations of fluid mechanics. Specifically, a new scaling group and an infinite set of translational groups of all multipoint correlation tensors have been discovered. These new statistical groups have important consequences for our understanding of turbulent scaling laws as they are essential ingredients of, e.g., the logarithmic law of the wall and other scaling laws, which in turn are exact solutions of the MPC equations. In this paper we first show that the infinite set of translational groups of all multipoint correlation tensors corresponds to an infinite dimensional set of translations under which the Lundgren-Monin-Novikov (LMN) hierarchy of equations for the probability density functions (PDF) are left invariant. Second, we derive a symmetry for the LMN hierarchy which is analogous to the scaling group of the MPC equations. Most importantly, we show that this symmetry is a measure of the intermittency of the velocity signal and the transformed functions represent PDFs of an intermittent (i.e., turbulent or nonturbulent) flow. Interesting enough, the positivity of the PDF puts a constraint on the group parameters of both shape and intermittency symmetry, leading to two conclusions. First, the latter symmetries may no longer be Lie group as under certain conditions group properties are violated, but still they are symmetries of the LMN equations. Second, as the latter two symmetries in its MPC versions are ingredients of many scaling laws such as the log law, the above constraints implicitly put weak conditions on the scaling parameter such as von Karman constant κ as they are functions of the group parameters. Finally, let us note that these kind of
"Positive" results increase down the Hierarchy of the Sciences.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniele Fanelli
Full Text Available The hypothesis of a Hierarchy of the Sciences with physical sciences at the top, social sciences at the bottom, and biological sciences in-between is nearly 200 years old. This order is intuitive and reflected in many features of academic life, but whether it reflects the "hardness" of scientific research--i.e., the extent to which research questions and results are determined by data and theories as opposed to non-cognitive factors--is controversial. This study analysed 2434 papers published in all disciplines and that declared to have tested a hypothesis. It was determined how many papers reported a "positive" (full or partial or "negative" support for the tested hypothesis. If the hierarchy hypothesis is correct, then researchers in "softer" sciences should have fewer constraints to their conscious and unconscious biases, and therefore report more positive outcomes. Results confirmed the predictions at all levels considered: discipline, domain and methodology broadly defined. Controlling for observed differences between pure and applied disciplines, and between papers testing one or several hypotheses, the odds of reporting a positive result were around 5 times higher among papers in the disciplines of Psychology and Psychiatry and Economics and Business compared to Space Science, 2.3 times higher in the domain of social sciences compared to the physical sciences, and 3.4 times higher in studies applying behavioural and social methodologies on people compared to physical and chemical studies on non-biological material. In all comparisons, biological studies had intermediate values. These results suggest that the nature of hypotheses tested and the logical and methodological rigour employed to test them vary systematically across disciplines and fields, depending on the complexity of the subject matter and possibly other factors (e.g., a field's level of historical and/or intellectual development. On the other hand, these results support the
Statistical symmetries of the Lundgren-Monin-Novikov hierarchy.
Wacławczyk, Marta; Staffolani, Nicola; Oberlack, Martin; Rosteck, Andreas; Wilczek, Michael; Friedrich, Rudolf
2014-07-01
It was shown by Oberlack and Rosteck [Discr. Cont. Dyn. Sys. S, 3, 451 2010] that the infinite set of multipoint correlation (MPC) equations of turbulence admits a considerable extended set of Lie point symmetries compared to the Galilean group, which is implied by the original set of equations of fluid mechanics. Specifically, a new scaling group and an infinite set of translational groups of all multipoint correlation tensors have been discovered. These new statistical groups have important consequences for our understanding of turbulent scaling laws as they are essential ingredients of, e.g., the logarithmic law of the wall and other scaling laws, which in turn are exact solutions of the MPC equations. In this paper we first show that the infinite set of translational groups of all multipoint correlation tensors corresponds to an infinite dimensional set of translations under which the Lundgren-Monin-Novikov (LMN) hierarchy of equations for the probability density functions (PDF) are left invariant. Second, we derive a symmetry for the LMN hierarchy which is analogous to the scaling group of the MPC equations. Most importantly, we show that this symmetry is a measure of the intermittency of the velocity signal and the transformed functions represent PDFs of an intermittent (i.e., turbulent or nonturbulent) flow. Interesting enough, the positivity of the PDF puts a constraint on the group parameters of both shape and intermittency symmetry, leading to two conclusions. First, the latter symmetries may no longer be Lie group as under certain conditions group properties are violated, but still they are symmetries of the LMN equations. Second, as the latter two symmetries in its MPC versions are ingredients of many scaling laws such as the log law, the above constraints implicitly put weak conditions on the scaling parameter such as von Karman constant κ as they are functions of the group parameters. Finally, let us note that these kind of statistical symmetries are
A Simple Behavioral Model Predicts the Emergence of Complex Animal Hierarchies.
Sasaki, Takao; Penick, Clint A; Shaffer, Zachary; Haight, Kevin L; Pratt, Stephen C; Liebig, Jürgen
2016-06-01
Social dominance hierarchies are widespread, but little is known about the mechanisms that produce nonlinear structures. In addition to despotic hierarchies, where a single individual dominates, shared hierarchies exist, where multiple individuals occupy a single rank. In vertebrates, these complex dominance relationships are thought to develop from interactions that require higher cognition, but similar cases of shared dominance have been found in social insects. Combining empirical observations with a modeling approach, we show that all three hierarchy structures-linear, despotic, and shared-can emerge from different combinations of simple interactions present in social insects. Our model shows that a linear hierarchy emerges when a typical winner-loser interaction (dominance biting) is present. A despotic hierarchy emerges when a policing interaction is added that results in the complete loss of dominance status for an attacked individual (physical policing). Finally, a shared hierarchy emerges with the addition of a winner-winner interaction that results in a positive outcome for both interactors (antennal dueling). Antennal dueling is an enigmatic ant behavior that has previously lacked a functional explanation. These results show how complex social traits can emerge from simple behaviors without requiring advanced cognition. PMID:27172595
Psychophysical "blinding" methods reveal a functional hierarchy of unconscious visual processing.
Breitmeyer, Bruno G
2015-09-01
Numerous non-invasive experimental "blinding" methods exist for suppressing the phenomenal awareness of visual stimuli. Not all of these suppressive methods occur at, and thus index, the same level of unconscious visual processing. This suggests that a functional hierarchy of unconscious visual processing can in principle be established. The empirical results of extant studies that have used a number of different methods and additional reasonable theoretical considerations suggest the following tentative hierarchy. At the highest levels in this hierarchy is unconscious processing indexed by object-substitution masking. The functional levels indexed by crowding, the attentional blink (and other attentional blinding methods), backward pattern masking, metacontrast masking, continuous flash suppression, sandwich masking, and single-flash interocular suppression, fall at progressively lower levels, while unconscious processing at the lowest levels is indexed by eye-based binocular-rivalry suppression. Although unconscious processing levels indexed by additional blinding methods is yet to be determined, a tentative placement at lower levels in the hierarchy is also given for unconscious processing indexed by Troxler fading and adaptation-induced blindness, and at higher levels in the hierarchy indexed by attentional blinding effects in addition to the level indexed by the attentional blink. The full mapping of levels in the functional hierarchy onto cortical activation sites and levels is yet to be determined. The existence of such a hierarchy bears importantly on the search for, and the distinctions between, neural correlates of conscious and unconscious vision. PMID:25704454
Hint for normal hierarchy from global analysis of neutrino mass splitting
Zhang, Yijia
2013-01-01
Based on the independent measurements on neutrino mass splitting $|\\Delta m^2_{\\mu\\mu}|$ and $|\\Delta m^2_{21}|$, and the lately released value of $|\\Delta m^2_{ee}|$ by the Daya Bay Collaboration, we carry out a global fit analysis on $\\Delta m^2_{32}$ and $\\Delta m^2_{31}$ in normal hierarchy and inverse hierarchy respectively, suggesting $\\Delta m^2_{32}=(2.42\\pm0.09)\\times10^{-3} \\mbox{eV}^2$ and $\\Delta m^2_{31}=(2.49\\pm0.09)\\times10^{-3} \\mbox{eV}^2$ in normal hierarchy, or $\\Delta m^2_{32}$=$-(2.48\\pm0.09)\\times10^{-3} \\mbox{eV}^2$ and $\\Delta m^2_{31}$=$-(2.40\\pm0.09)\\times10^{-3} \\mbox{eV}^2$ in invert hierarchy. The global analysis reveals a hint for normal hierarchy at a significance of $1\\sigma$, while the confidence level for invert hierarchy is 65%, below the $1\\sigma$ level. It is suggested that further measurements on the effective mass splitting with higher accuracy are necessary to finally determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.
The socio-matrix reloaded: from hierarchy to dominance profile in wild lemurs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivan Norscia
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Dominance hierarchy influences the life quality of social animals, and its definition should in principle be based on the outcome of agonistic interactions. However, defining and comparing the dominance profile of social groups is difficult due to the different dominance measures used and because no one measure explains it all. We applied different analytical methods to winner-loser sociomatrices to determine the dominance profile of five groups of wild lemurs (species: Lemur catta, Propithecus verreauxi, and Eulemur rufus x collaris from the Berenty forest (Madagascar. They are an excellent study model because they share the same habitat and an apparently similar dominance profile: linear hierarchy and female dominance. Data were collected over more than 1200 h of observation. Our approach included four steps: (1 by applying the binary dyadic dominance relationship method (I&SI on either aggressions or supplant sociomatrices we verified whether hierarchy was aggression or submission based; (2 by calculating normalized David’s scores and measuring steepness from aggression sociomatrices we evaluated whether hierarchy was shallow or steep; (3 by comparing the ranking orders obtained with methods 1 and 2 we assessed whether hierarchy was consistent or not; and (4 by assessing triangle transitivity and comparing it with the linearity index and the level of group cohesion we determined if hierarchy was more or less cohesive. Our results show that L. catta groups have got a steep, consistent, highly transitive and cohesive hierarchy. P. verreauxi groups are characterized by a moderately steep and consistent hierarchy, with variable levels of triangle transitivity and cohesion. E. rufus x collaris group possesses a shallow and inconsistent hierarchy, with lower (but not lowest levels of transitivity and cohesion. A multiple analytical approach on winner-loser sociomatrices other than leading to an in-depth description of the dominance profile
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Research highlights: → Six levels of Abstraction Hierarchy based information for maintenance were proposed. → Errors and workload with AH based information display were reduced for LL subjects. → Design concerns discovered can be applied to practical use of mobile maintenance aids. - Abstract: Recently, the importance of effective maintenance in nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been emphasized and research into effective maintenance by adopting mobile maintenance aids (MMAs) have been attempted. For improved and effective use of an MMA display design method based on the hierarchy is proposed and its design considerations are discussed in this study. Six levels of hierarchy are proposed in this paper to classify the maintenance information. By classifying and organizing maintenance information using the hierarchy, maintenance information can be used effectively by users with either high or low levels of expertise. When information classification has been finished, the information for MMA design is selected and designed. With the considerations of MMA design analysis and guidelines, a hierarchy-based MMA is designed for the maintenance tasks. An experiment is conducted using the hierarchy-based MMA in order to estimate the effectiveness of the proposed method for the maintenance tasks and to identify design considerations to enhance the proposed MMAs. The result indicated that a hierarchy-based manual was more effective than a conventional manual in terms of task completion time and number of errors. The workload for the hierarchy-based manual was estimated less than the conventional manual for subjects with low level of expertise. As the level of expertise increases, subjects tended to follow more abstract information while the number of navigations decreased. It is believed that when mobile devices become pervasive in NPP maintenance fields, the hierarchy model applied MMAs can be used as an effective maintenance supporting tool.
On the linearization of the coupled Harry-Dym soliton hierarchy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Jin-Bing; Geng Xian-Guo
2006-01-01
This paper is devoted to the study of the underlying linearities of the coupled Harry-Dym (cHD) soliton hierarchy,including the well-known cHD equation. Resorting to the nonlinearization of Lax pairs, a family of finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems associated with soliton equations are presented, constituting the decomposition of the cHD soliton hierarchy. After suitably introducing the Abel-Jacobi coordinates on a Riemann surface, the cHD soliton hierarchy can be ultimately reduced to linear superpositions, expressed by the Abel-Jacobi variables.
Non-local conservation laws and flow equations for supersymmetric integrable hierarchies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An infinite series of Grassmann-odd and Grassmann-even flow equations is defined for a class of supersymmetric integrable hierarchies associated with loop superalgebras. All these flows commute with the mutually commuting bosonic ones originally considered to define these hierarchies and, hence, provide extra fermionic and bosonic symmetries that include the built-in N=1 supersymmetry transformation. The corresponding non-local conserved quantities are also constructed. As an example, the particular case of the principal supersymmetric hierarchies associated with the affine superalgebras with a fermionic simple root system is discussed in detail. (orig.)
Hierarchy of Combined TL-RTL Equations and an Associated (2+1)-Dimensional Lattice Equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new (2+1)-dimensional lattice equation is presented based upon the first two members in the hierarchy of the combined Toda lattice and relativistic Toda lattice (TL-RTL) equations in (1+1) dimensions. A Darboux transformation for the hierarchy of the combined TL-RTL equations is constructed. Solutions of the first two members in the hierarchy of the combined TL-RTL equations, as well as the new (2+1)-dimensional lattice equation are explicitly obtained by the Darboux transformation.
Two Types of Coupling Integrable Couplings of the S-mKdV Hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Firstly 4 Lie algebras are constructed. Then applications of the loop algebra are presented to obtain two types of coupling integrable couplings of the S-mKdV hierarchy by using Tu scheme. The coupling integrable couplings of the S-mKdV hierarchy obtained in the paper reduce to the coupling integrable couplings of the mKdV equation and the coupling integrable couplings of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation respectively. The method given in the paper can be used to other hierarchies generally. (general)
A New Integrable Couplings of Classical-Boussinesq Hierarchy with Self-Consistent Sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A kind of integrable couplings of soliton equations hierarchy with self-consistent sources associated with sl-tilde(4) is presented by Yu. Based on this method, we construct a new integrable couplings of the classical-Boussinesq hierarchy with self-consistent sources by using of loop algebra sl-tilde(4). In this paper, we also point out that there exist some errors in Yu's paper and have corrected these errors and set up new formula. The method can be generalized other soliton hierarchy with self-consistent sources. (general)
A New (γA, σB)-Matrix KP Hierarchy and Its Solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new (γA, σB)-matrix KP hierarchy with two time series γA and σB, which consists of γA-flow, σB-flow and mixed γA and σB-evolution equations of eigenfunctions, is proposed. The reduction and constrained flows of (γA, σB)-matrix KP hierarchy are studied. The dressing method is generalized to the (γA, σB)-matrix KP hierarchy and some solutions are presented. (general)
Determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy with atmospheric neutrinos in JUNO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The JUNO experiment will be a 20 kt liquid scintillator neutrino detector near Kaiping, China. Its main goal is the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy from a precise measurement of the energy spectrum of neutrinos 50 km from the reactor. Its large target mass will allow to also measure oscillations of atmospheric neutrinos. These can give information on the mass hierarchy due to matter effects during propagation through the Earth's interior. The sensitivity of a measurement of the mass hierarchy with atmospheric neutrinos is discussed.
Determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy with atmospheric neutrinos in JUNO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Genster, Christoph; Glauch, Theo; Meloni, Marta; Soiron, Michael; Stahl, Achim; Stattner, Joeran; Weifels, Marcel; Wiebusch, Christopher [RWTH Aachen University, III. Physikalisches Institut b (Germany)
2015-07-01
The JUNO experiment will be a 20 kt liquid scintillator neutrino detector near Kaiping, China. Its main goal is the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy from a precise measurement of the energy spectrum of neutrinos 50 km from the reactor. Its large target mass will allow to also measure oscillations of atmospheric neutrinos. These can give information on the mass hierarchy due to matter effects during propagation through the Earth's interior. The sensitivity of a measurement of the mass hierarchy with atmospheric neutrinos is discussed.
HIERtalker: A default hierarchy of high order neural networks that learns to read English aloud
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
An, Z.G.; Mniszewski, S.M.; Lee, Y.C.; Papcun, G.; Doolen, G.D.
1988-01-01
A new learning algorithm based on a default hierarchy of high order neural networks has been developed that is able to generalize as well as handle exceptions. It learns the ''building blocks'' or clusters of symbols in a stream that appear repeatedly and convey certain messages. The default hierarchy prevents a combinatoric explosion of rules. A simulator of such a hierarchy, HIERtalker, has been applied to the conversion of English words to phonemes. Achieved accuracy is 99% for trained words and ranges from 76% to 96% for sets of new words. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Green Degree Comprehensive Evaluation of Elevator Based on Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lizhen
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The green design of the elevator has many characteristics which contains many factors and the combination of qualitative and quantitative. In view of the fuzzy problem of evaluation index information, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model are combined to evaluate the green degree of elevator. In this method, the weights of the indexes are calculated by using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process is used to calculate the weights of each level. The feasibility will be defined of using green degree evaluation of elevator system as an example to verify the method.
Infinite hierarchy of nonlinear Schrödinger equations and their solutions
Ankiewicz, A.; Kedziora, D. J.; Chowdury, A.; Bandelow, U.; Akhmediev, N.
2016-01-01
We study the infinite integrable nonlinear Schrödinger equation hierarchy beyond the Lakshmanan-Porsezian-Daniel equation which is a particular (fourth-order) case of the hierarchy. In particular, we present the generalized Lax pair and generalized soliton solutions, plane wave solutions, Akhmediev breathers, Kuznetsov-Ma breathers, periodic solutions, and rogue wave solutions for this infinite-order hierarchy. We find that "even- order" equations in the set affect phase and "stretching factors" in the solutions, while "odd-order" equations affect the velocities. Hence odd-order equation solutions can be real functions, while even-order equation solutions are always complex.
The best motivator priorities parents choose via analytical hierarchy process
Farah, R. N.; Latha, P.
2015-05-01
Motivation is probably the most important factor that educators can target in order to improve learning. Numerous cross-disciplinary theories have been postulated to explain motivation. While each of these theories has some truth, no single theory seems to adequately explain all human motivation. The fact is that human beings in general and pupils in particular are complex creatures with complex needs and desires. In this paper, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has been proposed as an emerging solution to move towards too large, dynamic and complex real world multi-criteria decision making problems in selecting the most suitable motivator when choosing school for their children. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 ("Statistical Package for Social Science") software. Statistic testing used are descriptive and inferential statistic. Descriptive statistic used to identify respondent pupils and parents demographic factors. The statistical testing used to determine the pupils and parents highest motivator priorities and parents' best priorities using AHP to determine the criteria chosen by parents such as school principals, teachers, pupils and parents. The moderating factors are selected schools based on "Standard Kualiti Pendidikan Malaysia" (SKPM) in Ampang. Inferential statistics such as One-way ANOVA used to get the significant and data used to calculate the weightage of AHP. School principals is found to be the best motivator for parents in choosing school for their pupils followed by teachers, parents and pupils.
Landscape of supersymmetric particle mass hierarchies in deflected mirage mediation
Altunkaynak, B.; Nelson, B. D.; Everett, L. L.; Rao, Y.; Kim, I.-W.
2012-01-01
With the aim of uncovering viable regions of parameter space in deflected mirage mediation (DMM) models of supersymmetry breaking, we study the landscape of particle mass hierarchies for the lightest four non-Standard Model states for DMM models and compare the results to that of minimal supergravity/constrained MSSM (mSUGRA/CMSSM) models, building on previous studies of Feldman, Liu, and Nath. Deflected mirage mediation is a string-motivated scenario in which the soft terms include comparable contributions from gravity mediation, gauge mediation, and anomaly mediation. DMM allows a wide variety of phenomenologically preferred models with light charginos and neutralinos, including novel patterns in which the heavy Higgs particles are lighter than the lightest superpartner. We use this analysis to motivate two DMM benchmark points to be used for more detailed collider studies. One model point has a higgsino-dominated lightest superpartner and a compressed yet heavy spectrum, while the other has a stau NLSP and similar features to mSUGRA/CMSSM models, but with a slightly less stretched spectrum.
Generating hierarchial scale-free graphs from fractals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: → We generate deterministic scale-free networks using graph-directed self similar IFS. → Our model exhibits similar clustering, power law decay properties to real networks. → The average length of shortest path and the diameter of the graph are determined. → Using this model, we generate random graphs with prescribed power law exponent. - Abstract: Motivated by the hierarchial network model of E. Ravasz, A.-L. Barabasi, and T. Vicsek, we introduce deterministic scale-free networks derived from a graph directed self-similar fractal Λ. With rigorous mathematical results we verify that our model captures some of the most important features of many real networks: the scale-free and the high clustering properties. We also prove that the diameter is the logarithm of the size of the system. We point out a connection between the power law exponent of the degree distribution and some intrinsic geometric measure theoretical properties of the underlying fractal. Using our (deterministic) fractal Λ we generate random graph sequence sharing similar properties.
The Special Case of Women in Formal Education Hierarchies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thompson, Eleanor
1994-01-01
Full Text Available This paper examines the subordinate position of women in formal education hierarchies in three of the world's foremost democracies: Canada, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and the United States of America. The paper has two major themes: that the causes of women's underachievement are to be found in (i the conditions responsible for their entry into and concentration in the lower ranks of the teaching profession and (2 the social, cultural and psychological factors which collectively have kept them in subordinate positions.The discussion draws mainly on the arguments put forward by a number of published researchers, foremost among them being Hennig and Jardin (1977, Prentice (1977 and Byrne (1978. It concludes that the status quo may be attributed to such complex causes as: historical tradition, prejudice and vested interest, the inferior education of women leading to underachievement; the ill-equipping of women (by virtue of their upbringing for managerial jobs embedded in a male-oriented culture; the failure of women themselves to accept their changing roles.
Hippocampal-neocortical interaction: a hierarchy of associativity.
Lavenex, P; Amaral, D G
2000-01-01
The structures forming the medial temporal lobe appear to be necessary for the establishment of long-term declarative memory. In particular, they may be involved in the "consolidation" of information in higher-order associational cortices, perhaps through feedback projections. This review highlights the fact that the medial temporal lobe is organized as a hierarchy of associational networks. Indeed, associational connections within the perirhinal, parahippocampal, and entorhinal cortices enables a significant amount of integration of unimodal and polymodal inputs, so that only highly integrated information reaches the remainder of the hippocampal formation. The feedback efferent projections from the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices to the neocortex largely reciprocate the afferent projections from the neocortex to these areas. There are, however, noticeable differences in the degree of reciprocity of connections between the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices and certain areas of the neocortex, in particular in the frontal and temporal lobes. These observations are particularly important for models of hippocampal-neocortical interaction and long-term storage of information in the neocortex. Furthermore, recent functional studies suggest that the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices are more than interfaces for communication between the neocortex and the hippocampal formation. These structures participate actively in memory processes, but the precise role they play in the service of memory or other cognitive functions is currently unclear. PMID:10985281
Dyonic ISO(7) supergravity and the duality hierarchy
Guarino, Adolfo
2015-01-01
Motivated by its well defined higher dimensional origin, a detailed study of $D=4$ $\\mathcal{N}=8$ supergravity with a dyonically gauged $\\textrm{ISO}(7) = \\textrm{SO}(7) \\ltimes \\mathbb{R}^7$ gauge group is performed. We write down the Lagrangian and describe the tensor and duality hierarchies, focusing on an interesting subsector with closed field equations and supersymmetry transformations. We then truncate the $\\mathcal{N}=8$ theory to some smaller sectors with $\\mathcal{N}=2$ and $\\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetry and SU(3), $\\textrm{G}_2$ and SO(4) bosonic symmetry. Canonical and superpotential formulations for these sectors are given, and their vacuum structure and spectra is analysed. Unlike the purely electric ISO(7) gauging, the dyonic gauging displays a rich structure of vacua, all of them AdS. We recover all previously known ones and find a new $\\mathcal{N}=1$ vacuum with SU(3) symmetry and various non-supersymmetric vacua, all of them stable within the full $\\mathcal{N}=8$ theory.
JUNO. Determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy using reactor neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a medium-baseline reactor neutrino experiment located in China. Its aim is to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy at more than 3 sigma significance after six years of data taking by using a 20kt liquid scintillator detector. To achieve this goal, an energy resolution of less than 3%/√(E) is necessary, creating strict requirements on the detector design and the liquid scintillator. Moreover, JUNO will be the only experiment in the near future able to measure the solar mixing parameters with a precision of better than 1%. This is at the same level as our current knowledge on flavour mixing in the quark sector, marking an important milestone of neutrino physics. In addition, supernova neutrinos, geo-neutrinos, sterile neutrinos as well as solar and atmospheric neutrinos can be studied. JUNO was approved in 2013 and the construction of the underground facility started early this year. In this talk the status of the experiment and its prospects is discussed.
JUNO. Determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy using reactor neutrinos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wonsak, Bjoern [Hamburg University, Inst. Exp. Phys., Hamburg (Germany)
2015-07-01
The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a medium-baseline reactor neutrino experiment located in China. Its aim is to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy at more than 3 sigma significance after six years of data taking by using a 20kt liquid scintillator detector. To achieve this goal, an energy resolution of less than 3%/√(E) is necessary, creating strict requirements on the detector design and the liquid scintillator. Moreover, JUNO will be the only experiment in the near future able to measure the solar mixing parameters with a precision of better than 1%. This is at the same level as our current knowledge on flavour mixing in the quark sector, marking an important milestone of neutrino physics. In addition, supernova neutrinos, geo-neutrinos, sterile neutrinos as well as solar and atmospheric neutrinos can be studied. JUNO was approved in 2013 and the construction of the underground facility started early this year. In this talk the status of the experiment and its prospects is discussed.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: An Islamic critique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anke Iman Bouzenita
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Abraham Maslow’s model of the hierarchy of needs is pervasive in many academic specialisations. After a short description of the model, this article summarises the existing criticisms. While criticism on the empirical validity of the model and its ethno-centricity are frequently mentioned in the literature, the authors of this article give special focus on the missing consideration of the spiritual aspect of human existence in Maslow’s model. The study explores reasons for the commodification of the model (i.e. the divorcing of the model from its substance and using it simply as a commodity and the non-consideration of Maslow’s later changes. Special focus is laid on the usage of this model in marketing, given its position as a field which embodies the capitalist perspective so completely through, particularly, advertising but also through the conceptualisation of people. The article describes the model’s diverse reception in Muslim academic circles. It offers an Islamic critique of both its foundations and its usage. The study concludes that attempts at harmonising the model with the higher objectives (maqāṣid of the Sharī‘ah do not do justice to either model.
Hierarchy of bounds on accessible information and informational power
Dall'Arno, Michele
2015-07-01
Quantum theory imposes fundamental limitations on the amount of information that can be carried by any quantum system. On the one hand, the Holevo bound rules out the possibility of encoding more information in a quantum system than in its classical counterpart, comprised of perfectly distinguishable states. On the other hand, when states are uniformly distributed in the state space, the so-called subentropy lower bound is saturated. How uniform quantum systems are can be naturally quantified by characterizing them as t -designs, with t =∞ corresponding to the uniform distribution. Here we show the existence of a trade-off between the uniformity of a quantum system and the amount of information it can carry. To this aim, we derive a hierarchy of informational bounds as a function of t and prove their tightness for qubits and qutrits. By deriving asymptotic formulas for large dimensions, we also show that the statistics generated by any t -design with t >1 contains no more than a single bit of information, and this amount decreases with t . Holevo and subentropy bounds are recovered as particular cases for t =1 and t =∞ , respectively.
AdS/CFT and the Little Hierarchy Problem
Dong, Xi; Zhao, Yue
2015-01-01
The AdS/CFT correspondence is applied to a close analogue of the little hierarchy problem in $AdS_{d+1}$, $d \\geq 3$. The new mechanism requires a Maxwell field that gauges a $U(1)_R$ symmetry in a bulk supergravity theory with a negative cosmological constant. Supersymmetry is explicitly broken by a non-local boundary term with dimensionless coupling $h$. Non-locality appears to cause no pathology, and the SUSY breaking deformation engendered is exactly marginal. SUSY breaking effects in the bulk are computed using the $U(1)$ Ward identity. Conformal dimensions and thus masses of scalar and spinor partners are split simply because they carry different R-charges. However SUSY breaking effects cancel to all orders for R-neutral fields, even in diagrams with internal R-charged loops. SUSY breaking corrections can be summed to all orders in $h$. Diagrams involving graviton loops do not introduce any further SUSY breaking corrections. A possible scenario for a flat spacetime limit is outlined.
About fermion hierarchies from doubly warped extra dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider fermions propagating in the bulk of the geometry found by deforming AdS5 via the back reaction of a scalar field upon the metric. This space is AdS for r asymptotically large (in the UV) but goes through a transition at a point r=r*, into another AdS space with different curvature in the IR. Masses are generated for these fermions via electroweak symmetry breaking, by coupling them to a VEV on the IR boundary. We calculate the mass spectrum in four dimensions, comparing approximate results and results found by solving the full system of bulk equations and boundary conditions. We consider the effect on the mass of the light modes of various parameters, including the curvature of the space in the region r
Income generation strategy in the overall hierarchy of business strategy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.V. Shastun
2015-03-01
Full Text Available To comply with claims of a modern economy significantly increases the role of strategic revenue management in enterprises, and in the first place, strategic management of income generation. The concept of an income generation strategy is not disclosed in the scientific literature, in this connection in article describes and analyzes the main concepts which are similar in content to the category of income generation strategy of enterprises (strategy analysis of income, revenue strategy, development strategy of income. Defines the role and importance of income generation strategy in modern management practices and presented the author's definition of income generation strategy. In article considered income generation strategy a compared to financial strategy of the enterprise and proved the difference between them. Show the position of income generation strategy in the hierarchy of strategies of enterprises and spheres of influence at all levels of the company. Income generation strategy described as interlevel, components of which are elements of all the functional and resource strategies and established a direct and feedback between the income generation strategy and corporate, competitive, functional and resource strategy.
Implications of Hierarchies for RSO Characterization, Recognition, and Identification
Wilkins, M.; Ruttenberg, B.; Pfeffer, A.; Schumacher, P.; Jah, M.
2014-09-01
In our previous work, we demonstrated that hierarchical (taxonomical) trees can be used to depict hypotheses in a Bayesian object recognition and identification process using Figaro, an open source probabilistic programming language. We assume in this work that we have appropriately defined a satellite taxonomy that allows us to place a given space object (RSO) into a particular class of object without any ambiguity. Such a taxonomy allows one to assess the probability of assignment to a particular class by determining how well the object satisfies the unique criteria of belonging to that class. Furthermore, tree-based taxonomies delineate unique signatures by defining the minimum amount of information required to positively identify a RSO. Because of these properties of taxonomic trees, we can now explore the implications of RSO taxonomic trees for model distance metrics and sensor tasking. In particular, we seek to exploit the fact that taxonomic trees provide a model neighborhood that can be used to initiate a Monte Carlo or Multiple Hypothesis algorithm. We contend this feature of taxonomies will provide a quantifiable metric for model distances and the explicit number of models that should be considered, both of which currently do not exist. Additionally, the discriminating characteristics of taxonomic classes can be used to determine the kind of data and the associated sensor that needs to be tasked to acquire that data. We also discuss the concept of multiple interacting hierarchies that provide deeper insight into how objects interact with one another.
Trophic hierarchies illuminated via amino acid isotopic analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shawn A Steffan
Full Text Available Food web ecologists have long sought to characterize the trophic niches of animals using stable isotopic analysis. However, distilling trophic position from isotopic composition has been difficult, largely because of the variability associated with trophic discrimination factors (inter-trophic isotopic fractionation and routing. We circumvented much of this variability using compound-specific isotopic analysis (CSIA. We examined the (15N signatures of amino acids extracted from organisms reared in pure culture at four discrete trophic levels, across two model communities. We calculated the degree of enrichment at each trophic level and found there was a consistent trophic discrimination factor (~7.6‰. The constancy of the CSIA-derived discrimination factor permitted unprecedented accuracy in the measurement of animal trophic position. Conversely, trophic position estimates generated via bulk-(15N analysis significantly underestimated trophic position, particularly among higher-order consumers. We then examined the trophic hierarchy of a free-roaming arthropod community, revealing the highest trophic position (5.07 and longest food chain ever reported using CSIA. High accuracy in trophic position estimation brings trophic function into sharper focus, providing greater resolution to the analysis of food webs.
Hierarchy Software Development Framework (h-dp-fwk) project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hierarchy Software Development Framework provides a lightweight tool for building portable modular applications for performing automated data analysis tasks in a batch mode. The history of design and development activities devoted to the project has begun in March 2005 and from the very beginning it was targeting the case of building experimental data processing applications for the CMD-3 experiment which is being commissioned at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP, Novosibirsk, Russia). Its design addresses the generic case of modular data processing application operating within the well defined distributed computing environment. The main features of the framework are modularity, built-in message and data exchange mechanisms, XInclude and XML schema enabled XML configuration management tools, dedicated log management tools, internal debugging tools, both dynamic and static module chains support, internal DSO version and consistency checking, well defined API for developing specialized frameworks. It is supported on Scientific Linux 4 and 5 and planned to be ported to other platforms as well. The project is provided with the comprehensive set of technical documentation and users' guides. The licensing schema for the source code, binaries and documentation implies that the product is free for non-commercial use. Although the development phase is not over and many features are to be implemented yet the project is considered ready for public use and creating applications in various fields including development of events reconstruction software for small and moderate scale HEP experiments.
Travelling waves and spatial hierarchies in measles epidemics
Grenfell, B. T.; Bjørnstad, O. N.; Kappey, J.
2001-12-01
Spatio-temporal travelling waves are striking manifestations of predator-prey and host-parasite dynamics. However, few systems are well enough documented both to detect repeated waves and to explain their interaction with spatio-temporal variations in population structure and demography. Here, we demonstrate recurrent epidemic travelling waves in an exhaustive spatio-temporal data set for measles in England and Wales. We use wavelet phase analysis, which allows for dynamical non-stationarity-a complication in interpreting spatio-temporal patterns in these and many other ecological time series. In the pre-vaccination era, conspicuous hierarchical waves of infection moved regionally from large cities to small towns; the introduction of measles vaccination restricted but did not eliminate this hierarchical contagion. A mechanistic stochastic model suggests a dynamical explanation for the waves-spread via infective `sparks' from large `core' cities to smaller `satellite' towns. Thus, the spatial hierarchy of host population structure is a prerequisite for these infection waves.
Image segmentation by hierarchial agglomeration of polygons using ecological statistics
Prasad, Lakshman; Swaminarayan, Sriram
2013-04-23
A method for rapid hierarchical image segmentation based on perceptually driven contour completion and scene statistics is disclosed. The method begins with an initial fine-scale segmentation of an image, such as obtained by perceptual completion of partial contours into polygonal regions using region-contour correspondences established by Delaunay triangulation of edge pixels as implemented in VISTA. The resulting polygons are analyzed with respect to their size and color/intensity distributions and the structural properties of their boundaries. Statistical estimates of granularity of size, similarity of color, texture, and saliency of intervening boundaries are computed and formulated into logical (Boolean) predicates. The combined satisfiability of these Boolean predicates by a pair of adjacent polygons at a given segmentation level qualifies them for merging into a larger polygon representing a coarser, larger-scale feature of the pixel image and collectively obtains the next level of polygonal segments in a hierarchy of fine-to-coarse segmentations. The iterative application of this process precipitates textured regions as polygons with highly convolved boundaries and helps distinguish them from objects which typically have more regular boundaries. The method yields a multiscale decomposition of an image into constituent features that enjoy a hierarchical relationship with features at finer and coarser scales. This provides a traversable graph structure from which feature content and context in terms of other features can be derived, aiding in automated image understanding tasks. The method disclosed is highly efficient and can be used to decompose and analyze large images.
AES based secure low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy for WSNs
Kishore, K. R.; Sarma, N. V. S. N.
2013-01-01
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) provide a low cost solution in diversified application areas. The wireless sensor nodes are inexpensive tiny devices with limited storage, computational capability and power. They are being deployed in large scale in both military and civilian applications. Security of the data is one of the key concerns where large numbers of nodes are deployed. Here, an energy-efficient secure routing protocol, secure-LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) for WSNs based on the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is being proposed. This crypto system is a session based one and a new session key is assigned for each new session. The network (WSN) is divided into number of groups or clusters and a cluster head (CH) is selected among the member nodes of each cluster. The measured data from the nodes is aggregated by the respective CH's and then each CH relays this data to another CH towards the gateway node in the WSN which in turn sends the same to the Base station (BS). In order to maintain confidentiality of data while being transmitted, it is necessary to encrypt the data before sending at every hop, from a node to the CH and from the CH to another CH or to the gateway node.
Self-organization of social hierarchy on interaction networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to examine the effects of interaction network structures on the self-organization of social hierarchy, we introduce the agent-based model: each individual as on a node of a network has its own power and its internal state changes by fighting with its neighbors and relaxation. We adopt three different networks: regular lattice, small-world network and scale-free network. For the regular lattice, we find the emergence of classes distinguished by the internal state. The transition points where each class emerges are determined analytically, and we show that each class is characterized by the local ranking relative to their neighbors. We also find that the antiferromagnetic-like configuration emerges just above the critical point. For the heterogeneous networks, individuals become winners (or losers) in descending order of the number of their links. By using mean-field analysis, we reveal that the transition point is determined by the maximum degree and the degree distribution in its neighbors
Neutrino mass matrix inverted hierarchy and CP violation
Frigerio, M
2003-01-01
We reconstruct the neutrino mass matrix in flavor basis, in the case of inverted mass hierarchy (ordering), using all available experimental data on neutrino masses and oscillations. We analyze the dependence of the matrix elements m_{alpha beta} on the CP violating Dirac, delta, and Majorana, rho and sigma, phases, for different values of the absolute mass scale. We find that the present data admit various structures of the mass matrix: (i) hierarchical structures with a set of small (zero) elements; (ii) structures with equalities among various groups of elements: e-row and/or mu tau-block elements, diagonal and/or off-diagonal elements; (iii) ``democratic'' structure. We find values of phases for which these structures are realized. The mass matrix elements can anti-correlate with flavor: inverted partial or complete flavor alignment is possible. For various structures of the mass matrix we identify possible underlying symmetry. We find that the mass matrix can be reconstructed completely only in particula...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A multi-hierarchy simulation model aimed at magnetic reconnection studies has been developed, in which macroscopic and microscopic physics are solved self-consistently and simultaneously. In this work, the previous multi-hierarchy model by these authors is extended to a more realistic one with non-uniform space grids. Based on the domain decomposition method, the multi-hierarchy model consists of three parts: a magnetohydrodynamics algorithm to express the macroscopic global dynamics, a particle-in-cell algorithm to describe the microscopic kinetic physics, and an interface algorithm to interlock macro and micro hierarchies. For its verification, plasma flow injection is simulated in this multi-hierarchy model and it is confirmed that the interlocking method can describe the correct physics. Furthermore, this model is applied to collisionless driven reconnection in an open system. Magnetic reconnection is found to occur in a micro hierarchy by injecting plasma from a macro hierarchy
Bilinear identities for an extended B-type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili hierarchy
Lin, Runliang; Liu, Xiaojun; Zeng, Yunbo
2016-01-01
In this paper, we construct the bilinear identities for the wave functions of an extended B-type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (BKP) hierarchy, which contains two types of (2+1)-dimensional Sawada-Kotera equation with a self-consistent source (2d-SKwS-I and 2d-SKwS-II). By introducing an auxiliary variable corresponding to the extended flow for the BKP hierarchy, we find the tau-function and the bilinear identities for this extended BKP hierarchy. The bilinear identities can generate all the Hirota's bilinear equations for the zero-curvature forms of this extended BKP hierarchy. As examples, the Hirota's bilinear equations for the two types of 2d-SKwS (both 2d-SKwS-I and 2d-SKwS-II) will be given explicitly.
The Relationship between Incentives to Learn and Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Wu, Wenling
This paper empirically explores lots of students in college for their hierarchy of needs and incentives to learn, and finds the linear relationship between them. With the survey, it's be found that there are some kinds of factors influence the students needs order. The paper gives several diagrams to show these important factors which affect the college students' hierarchy of needs most. The paper also finds the change of the student' hierarchy of needs will affect the variety of incentives to learn. Then the paper develops a model for qualitative analyze this relationship. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the performance of the model. With this model the correct and useful methods can be easily selected for students to incentive according to their types of hierarchy of needs.
Stationary mKdV hierarchy and integrability of the Dirac equations by quadratures
Zhdanov, R S; Fushchych, W I; Zhdanov, Renat; Revenko, Ihor V; Fushchych, Wilhelm
1997-01-01
Using the Lie's infinitesimal method we establish that the Dirac equation in one variable is integrable by quadratures if the potential V(x) is a solution of one of the equations of the stationary mKdV hierarchy.
Generalized Multi-component TC Hierarchy and Its Multi-component Integrable Coupling System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new 3M-dimensional Lie algebra X is constructed firstly. Then, the corresponding loop algebra X-tilde is produced, whose commutation operation defined by us is as simple and straightforward as that in the loop algebra A1. It follows that a general scheme for generating multi-component integrable hierarchy is proposed. By taking advantage of X-tilde, a new isospectral problem is established, and then well-known multi-component TC hierarchy is obtained. Finally, an expanding loop algebra F-tildeM of the loop algebra X-tilde is presented. Based on the F-tildeM, the multi-component integrable coupling system of the generalized multi-component TC hierarchy has been worked out. The method in this paper can be applied to other nonlinear evolution equations hierarchies. It is easy to find that we can construct any finite-dimensional Lie algebra by this approach.
Integrable Couplings of Classical-Boussinesq Hierarchy and Its Hamiltonian Structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By using a Lie algebra, an integrable couplings of the classical-Boussinesq hierarchy is obtained. Then, the Hamiltonian structure of the integrable couplings of the classical-Boussinesq is obtained by the quadratic-form identity. (general)
Multi-component Levi Hierarchy and Its Multi-component Integrable Coupling System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A simple 3M-dimensional loop algebra X-tilde is produced, whose commutation operation defined by us is as simple and straightforward as that in the loop algebra A1. It follows that a general scheme for generating multi-component integrable hierarchy is proposed. By taking advantage of X-tilde , a new isospectral problem is established, and then by making use of the Tu scheme the well-known multi-component Levi hierarchy is obtained. Finally, an expanding loop algebra F-tildeM of the loop algebra X-tilde is presented, based on the F-tildeM, the multi-component integrable coupling system of the multi-component Levi hierarchy is worked out. The method in this paper can be applied to other nonlinear evolution equation hierarchies.
Topological Landau-Ginzburg theory with a rational potential and the dispersionless KP hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on the dispersionless KP (dKP) theory, we study a topological Landau-Ginzburg (LG) theory characterized by a rational potential. Writing the dKP hierarchy in a general form treating all the primaries in an equal basis, we find that the hierarchy naturally includes the dispersionless (continuous) limit of Toda hierarchy and its generalizations having a finite number of primaries. Several flat solutions of the topological LG theory are obtained in this formulation, and are identified with those discussed by Dubrovin. We explicitly construct gravitational descendants for all the primary fields. Giving a residue formula for the 3-point functions of the fields, we show that these 3-point functions satisfy the topological recursion relation. The string equation is obtained as the generalized hodograph solutions of the dKP hierarchy, which show that all the gravitational effects to the constitutive equations (2-point functions) can be renormalized into the coupling constants in the small phase space. (orig.)
TWO INTEGRABLE COUPLINGS FOR A LATTICE HIERARCHY BY THE KRONECKER PRODUCT
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
It is shown that the Kronecker product can be applied to construct integrable couplings for discrete systems. In this paper, using this method, we derive two integrable couplings for a lattice hierarchy.
Iyela, Daddy Balondo; Hounkonnou, M Norbert
2012-01-01
Within the context of Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics and its related hierarchies of integrable quantum Hamiltonians and potentials, a general programme is outlined and applied to its first two simplest illustrations. Going beyond the usual restriction of shape invariance for intertwined potentials, it is suggested to require a similar relation for Hamiltonians in the hierarchy separated by an arbitrary number of levels, N. By requiring further that these two Hamiltonians be in fact identical up to an overall shift in energy, a periodic structure is installed in the hierarchy of quantum systems which should allow for its solution. Specific classes of orthogonal polynomials characteristic of such periodic hierarchies are thereby generated, while the methods of Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics then lead to generalised Rodrigues formulae and recursion relations for such polynomials. The approach also offers the practical prospect of quantum modelling through the engineering of quantum potentials from experiment...
Random walk hierarchy measure: What is more hierarchical, a chain, a tree or a star?
Czégel, Dániel
2015-01-01
Signs of hierarchy are prevalent in a wide range of systems in nature and society. One of the key problems is quantifying the importance of hierarchical organisation in the structure of the network representing the interactions or connections between the fundamental units of the studied system. Although a number of notable methods are already available, their vast majority is treating all directed acyclic graphs as already maximally hierarchical. Here we propose a hierarchy measure based on random walks on the network. The novelty of our approach is that directed trees corresponding to multi level pyramidal structures obtain higher hierarchy scores compared to directed chains and directed stars. Furthermore, in the thermodynamic limit the hierarchy measure of regular trees is converging to a well defined limit depending only on the branching number. When applied to real networks, our method is computationally very effective, as the result can be evaluated with arbitrary precision by subsequent multiplications...
Neutrino Mass Hierarchy and Stepwise Spectral Swapping of Supernova Neutrino Flavors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We examine a phenomenon recently predicted by numerical simulations of supernova neutrino flavor evolution: the swapping of supernova νe and νμ,τ energy spectra below (above) energy EC for the normal (inverted) neutrino mass hierarchy. We present the results of large-scale numerical calculations which show that in the normal neutrino mass hierarchy case, EC decreases as the assumed effective 2x2 vacuum νeνμ,τ mixing angle (≅θ13) is decreased. In contrast, these calculations indicate that EC is essentially independent of the vacuum mixing angle in the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy case. With a good neutrino signal from a future galactic supernova, the above results could be used to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy even if θ13 is too small to be measured by terrestrial neutrino oscillation experiments
Hierarchy of rational order families of chaotic maps with an invariant measure
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M A Jafarizadeh; M Foroutan; S Ahadpour
2006-12-01
We introduce an interesting hierarchy of rational order chaotic maps that possess an invariant measure. In contrast to the previously introduced hierarchy of chaotic maps [1–5], with merely entropy production, the rational order chaotic maps can simultaneously produce and consume entropy. We compute the Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy of these maps analytically and also their Lyapunov exponent numerically, where the obtained numerical results support the analytical calculations.
Ciuffoli, Emilio; Evslin, Jarah; Wang, Zhimin; Yang, Changgen(Particle Astrophysics Division, IHEP, Chinese Academy of Sciences, YuQuan Lu 19(B), Beijing, 100049, China); Zhang, Xinmin; Zhong, Weili
2013-01-01
We study the advantages of a second identical detector at a medium baseline reactor neutrino experiment. A major obstruction to the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy is the detector's unknown nonlinear energy response, which even under optimistic assumptions reduces the confidence in a hierarchy determination by about 1 sigma at a single detector experiment. Various energy response models are considered at one and two detector experiments with the same total target mass. A second d...
An integrable Poisson map generated from the eigenvalue problem of the Lotka-Volterra hierarchy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu Yongtang [Department of Computer Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Wang Hongye [Department of Mathematics, Zhengzhou University, Henan (China); Du Dianlou [Department of Mathematics, Zhengzhou University, Henan (China)]. E-mail: ddl@zzu.edu.cn
2002-05-03
A 3x3 discrete eigenvalue problem associated with the Lotka-Volterra hierarchy is studied and the corresponding nonlinearized one, an integrable Poisson map with a Lie-Poisson structure, is also presented. Moreover, a 2x2 nonlinearized eigenvalue problem, which also begets the Lotka-Volterra hierarchy, is proved to be a reduction of the Poisson map on the leaves of the symplectic foliation. (author)
Hierarchy, Gentility and Humanity in Elizabeth Gaskell´s Cranford
Lundquist, Ingrid
2013-01-01
The essay consists of three chapters. Chapter One first deals with the hierarchy in Cranford and within the ladies´ community. The basis of rank is then developed. The second part of Chapter One explores what behaviour and manners are considered “genteel” or “vulgar”. In Chapter Two, the Cranford views on gentility are put to the test and in Chapter Three the views on hierarchy.
Sikaris, Ken
2012-01-01
The Stockholm Hierarchy is a professional consensus created to define the preferred approaches to defining analytical quality. The quality of a laboratory measurement can also be classified by the quality of the limits that the value is compared with, namely reference interval limits and clinical decision limits. At the highest level in the hierarchy would be placed clinical decision limits based on clinical outcome studies. The second level would include both formal reference interval studie...
A Difference Hamiltonian Operator and a Hierarchy of Generalized Toda Lattice Equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A difference Hamiltonian operator with three arbitrary constants is presented. When the arbitrary constants in the Hamiltonian operator are suitably chosen, a pair of Hamiltonian operators are given. The resulting Hamiltonian pair yields a difference hereditary operator. Using Magri scheme of bi-Hamiltonian formulation, a hierarchy of the generalized Toda lattice equations is constructed. Finally, the discrete zero curvature representation is given for the resulting hierarchy.
Handy, Susan
1993-01-01
This paper explores how the automobile has indirectly led to dramatic changes in patterns of accessibility to retail and service activity within metropolitan regions. The automo bile instigated a greater articulation of the hierarchy of transportation facilities, as reflected in a greater differentia tion between the local and the regional systems. At the same time, the automobile instigated a collapse in the retail hierarchy, by encouraging the growth of community and regional centers at t...
SELECTION OF BUSINESS STRATEGIES FOR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT USING FUZZY ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS
Prasun Das
2010-01-01
Fuzzy linguistic concepts are often used to enhance the traditional analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in capturing the fuzziness and subjectiveness of decision makers' judgments. In this paper, fuzzy AHP methodology is adopted for selection of the strategies for business improvement in an Indian industry as a decision making problem. Due to simplicity and effectiveness, triangular fuzzy numbers are adopted as a reference to indicate the influence strength of each element in the hierarchy struc...
Systems, Resilience, and Organization: Analogies and Points of Contact with Hierarchy Theory
De Florio, Vincenzo
2014-01-01
Aim of this paper is to provide preliminary elements for discussion about the implications of the Hierarchy Theory of Evolution on the design and evolution of artificial systems and socio-technical organizations. In order to achieve this goal, a number of analogies are drawn between the System of Leibniz; the socio-technical architecture known as Fractal Social Organization; resilience and related disciplines; and Hierarchy Theory. In so doing we hope to provide elements for reflection and, h...
Hierarchy of efficiently computable and faithful lower bounds to quantum discord
Piani, Marco
2015-01-01
Quantum discord expresses a fundamental non-classicality of correlations more general than quantum entanglement. We combine the no-local-broadcasting theorem, semidefinite-programming characterizations of quantum fidelity and quantum separability, and a recent breakthrough result of Fawzi and Renner about quantum Markov chains to provide a hierarchy of computationally efficient lower bounds to quantum discord. Such a hierarchy converges to the surprisal of measurement recoverability introduce...
Hierarchy of Hamilton equations on Banach Lie-Poisson spaces related to restricted Grassmannian
Golinski, Tomasz
2009-01-01
Using the Magri method one defines an involutive family of Hamiltonians on Banach Lie-Poisson space iR+UL_res^1 (which contains the restricted Grassmannian as a symplectic leaf) and on its complexification C+L_res^1. The hierarchy of Hamilton equations given by these Hamiltonians is investigated. The operator equations of Ricatti-type are included in this hierarchy. For a few particular cases one gives the explicit solutions.
Lack of experience-based stratification in homing pigeon leadership hierarchies
2016-01-01
In societies that make collective decisions through leadership, a fundamental question concerns the individual attributes that allow certain group members to assume leadership roles over others. Homing pigeons form transitive leadership hierarchies during flock flights, where flock members are ranked according to the average time differences with which they lead or follow others' movement. Here, we test systematically whether leadership ranks in navigational hierarchies are correlated with pr...
A Brane World Perspective on the Cosmological Constant and the Hierarchy Problems
Flanagan, Eanna; Jones, Nicholas; Stoica, Horace; Tye, S.-H. Henry; Wasserman, Ira
2000-01-01
We elaborate on the recently proposed static brane world scenario, where the effective 4-D cosmological constant is exponentially small when parallel 3-branes are far apart. We extend this result to a compactified model with two positive tension branes. Besides an exponentially small effective 4-D cosmological constant, this model incorporates a Randall-Sundrum-like solution to the hierarchy problem. Furthermore, the exponential factors for the hierarchy problem and the cosmological constant ...
Ben Vickers; Michael Dutschke; Michael Victor Galante; Genevieve Patenaude
2012-01-01
The proposed hierarchy of production forest management provides modus operandi for forest concessions to move incrementally towards Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) via Reduced-Impact Logging (RIL) and forest certification. Financial benefits are sourced in the “Additionality Zone”, financing the rise in the hierarchy and offsetting prohibitive forest and carbon certification costs. RIL carbon registration components consist of developing credible baseline, additionality and leakage argume...
Consumer’s trust in Internet shopping: a modelling proposal based on the standard learning hierarchy
MARIO PÉREZ RONCHEL; Martínez López, Francisco J.; MANUEL ORTIGUEIRA SÁNCHEZ
2006-01-01
This paper is placed on the framework of studies focused on analyzing the consumers’ buying behaviour on the Internet. We have based on adapting the hierarchy-of-effects model (standard learning hierarchy), in order to theoretically propose a conceptual model explaining how consumers’ beliefs —i.e. design, interaction speed, social benefits, and privacy— and attitudes toward the Internet as a communication medium can be plausible determinants of trusting in Internet shopping. Furthermore, our...
Kumaran, Dharshan; Ludwig, Hans
2013-12-01
The transitive inference (TI) paradigm has been widely used to examine the role of the hippocampus in generalization. Here we consider a surprising feature of experimental findings in this task: the relatively poor transitivity performance and levels of hierarchy knowledge achieved by adult human subjects. We focused on the influence of the task instructions on participants' subsequent performance--a single-word framing manipulation which either specified the relation between items as transitive (i.e., OLD-FRAME: choose which item is "older") or left it ambiguous (i.e., NO-FRAME: choose which item is "correct"). We show a marked but highly specific effect of manipulating prior knowledge through instruction: transitivity performance and levels of relational hierarchy knowledge were enhanced, but premise performance unchanged. Further, we show that hierarchy recall accuracy, but not conventional awareness scores, was a significant predictor of inferential performance across the entire group of participants. The current study has four main implications: first, our findings establish the importance of the task instructions, and prior knowledge, in the TI paradigm--suggesting that they influence the size of the overall hypothesis space (e.g., to favor a linear hierarchical structure over other possibilities in the OLD-FRAME). Second, the dissociable effects of the instructional frame on premise and inference performance provide evidence for the operation of distinct underlying mechanisms (i.e., an associative mechanism vs. relational hierarchy knowledge). Third, our findings suggest that a detailed measurement of hierarchy recall accuracy may be a more sensitive index of relational hierarchy knowledge, than conventional awareness score--and should be used in future studies investigating links between awareness and inferential performance. Finally, our study motivates an experimental setting that ensures robust hierarchy learning across participants
MULTIPLE CRITERA METHODS WITH FOCUS ON ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS AND GROUP DECISION MAKING
Lidija Zadnik-Stirn; Petra Grošelj
2010-01-01
Managing natural resources is a group multiple criteria decision making problem. In this paper the analytic hierarchy process is the chosen method for handling the natural resource problems. The one decision maker problem is discussed and, three methods: the eigenvector method, data envelopment analysis method, and logarithmic least squares method are presented for the derivation of the priority vector. Further, the group analytic hierarchy process is discussed and six methods for the aggrega...
Polarization Hierarchy and System Operating Architecture for Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar
Yang Ruliang; Dai Bowei; Li Haiying
2016-01-01
Polarization hierarchy and system operating architecture is one of the key technologies for Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) system design. In this paper the polarization hierarchies of PolSAR, including Single-Polarization radar, Dual-Polarization radar, Full-Polarization radar, and Compact Polarization radar, are discussed. In addition, the system operating architectures such as Polarization Timedivision multiplexing pulse, Polarization Frequency-division multiplexing pulse, P...
Gavin C Reid; JULIA A SMITH
1999-01-01
This paper is designed to explore the nature of information system development in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), by appeal to three theories: contingency, agency and markets vs hierarchies. To address these theories empirically, use is made of new data which have been gathered from a sample of Scottish SMEs over a five-year period, 1994-1998. The structrue of this paper is as follows. First, the three theories under examination, contingency, agency and markets vs hierarchies, are ...
ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS FOR QOS EVALUATION OF MOBILE DATA NETWORKS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel E. Asuquo
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The widespread demand for data applications over mobile networks requires that service providers guarantee a well-defined quality of service (QoS for subscribers. Evaluating the QoS provided by service providers within a geographical area to determine which network provides the best QoS is a challenging task. The complex nature of mobile networks with multi-criteria and conflicting factors makes good decision making difficult. This paper presents a measurement-based method called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP for evaluating QoS in application-specific and user-centric data on 3G mobile networks. The evaluation problem is formulated as a multi-criteria decision problem. Latency, jitter, data loss, and throughput are the parameters collected as criteria in drive testing over the mobile network. Decision matrix is applied to solve the problem by reaching a final ranking of the network based on the collected measured values of the problem parameters. A case study of 3G mobile networks in Uyo metropolis is used to show how this approach can be effective in ranking the QoS in data applications to determine which network provides the best QoS based on users’ perception of quality. The implemented results in Java indicate that Etisalat network is the alternative that offers the best QoS for web browsing application based on measured criteria. This is followed by Airtel and then MTN, while Glo is ranked least. The result provides useful information to decision makers for performance improvement on service quality.
Collagen structural hierarchy and susceptibility to degradation by ultraviolet radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collagen type I is the most abundant extracellular matrix protein in the human body, providing the basis for tissue structure and directing cellular functions. Collagen has complex structural hierarchy, organized at different length scales, including the characteristic triple helical feature. In the present study, the relationship between collagen structure (native vs. denatured) and sensitivity to UV radiation was assessed, with a focus on changes in primary structure, changes in conformation, microstructure and material properties. A brief review of free radical reactions involved in collagen degradation is also provided as a mechanistic basis for the changes observed in the study. Structural and functional changes in the collagens were related to the initial conformation (native vs. denatured) and the energy of irradiation. These changes were tracked using SDS-PAGE to assess molecular weight, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to study changes in the secondary structure, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize changes in mechanical properties. The results correlate differences in sensitivity to irradiation with initial collagen structural state: collagen in native conformation vs. heat-treated (denatured) collagen. Changes in collagen were found at all levels of the hierarchical structural organization. In general, the native collagen triple helix is most sensitive to UV-254 nm radiation. The triple helix delays single chain degradation. The loss of the triple helix in collagen is accompanied by hydrogen abstraction through free radical mechanisms. The results received suggest that the effects of electromagnetic radiation on biologically relevant extracellular matrices (collagen in the present study) are important to assess in the context of the state of collagen structure. The results have implications in tissue remodeling, wound repair and disease progression
Hamiltonian Structures and Integrability for a Discrete Coupled KdV-Type Equation Hierarchy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Hai-Qiong; ZHU Zuo-Nong; ZHANG Jing-Li
2011-01-01
@@ Coupled Korteweg-de Vries(KdV) systems have many important physical applications.By considering a 4 × 4spectral problem,we derive a discrete coupled KdV-type equation hierarchy.Our hierarchy includes the coupled Volterra system proposed by Lou et al.(e-print arXiv:0711.0420) as the first member which is a discrete version of the coupled KdV equation.We also investigate the integrability in the Liouville sense and the multi-Hamiltonian structures for the obtained hierarchy.%Coupled Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) systems have many important physical applications.By considering a 4 × 4 spectral problem, we derive a discrete coupled KdV-type equation hierarchy.Our hierarchy includes the coupled Volterra system proposed by Lou et al.(e-print arXiv: 0711.0420) as the first member which is a discrete version of the coupled KdV equation.We also investigate the integrability in the Liouville sense and the multi-Hamiltonian structures for the obtained hierarchy.
Neutrino mass hierarchy and \\delta^{CP} investigation within the biprobability (P-P^T ) plane
Singh, Mandip
2016-01-01
This article illustrates the possibility of investigating mass hierarchy and CP-violating phase \\delta^{CP}, in the context of CP trajectory diagrams in the bi-probability plane. Separation between normal mass hierarchy (NH) and inverted mass hierarchy (IH) CP trajectory ellipses in the P-P^T plane seems to be very promising in order to investigate mass hierarchy. Illustration of separation between two hierarchy ellipses in the E-L plane is very helping to cover all the desired base lines and beam energies and also to analyze benefits and drawbacks at single place. If we know the mass hierarchy, then from the large sizes of CP trajectory ellipse which is possible at appropriately long base line (L) and at specific value of beam energy (E), it becomes possible to investigate at-least narrow ranges of CP/T-violating phase \\delta^{CP}. The Possibility of more than one set of (\\theta_{13}; \\delta^{CP}) parameters to correspond to any chosen coordinate in P-P^T plane, known as parameter degeneracy, may hinder exac...
The significance of 'hierarchy' in a research project on adoption and adaptation.
Mander, R
1999-06-01
In the course of phenomenological research project focusing on the midwife's care of the mother who relinquishes her baby for adoption, hierarchy emerged repeatedly as a significant theme. This concept manifested itself both methodologically as well as thematically. In methodological terms, hierarchy first became apparent during the planning phase in the selection of the research design: at this point it took the form of the distinction between quantitative and qualitative research design. In the course of applying for research access the same attitudes re-emerged in the gatekeepers' responses to the research design which had been chose. Later, during the field work, hierarchy appeared in the course of the interviews, in the form of the unequal balance of power between the interviewer and the informant. Specific tactics were required to overcome the likelihood of hierarchy affecting the data at this stage. Eventually this concept was raised by the informants, who included both relinquishing mothers an midwives, and became a major theme. The informants' use of hierarchy to explain the unselfishness of relinquishment proved to be one of a number of strategies which facilitated coping either with the experience of relinquishment or with caring for a women going through that experience. The conclusion which emerges is that hierarchy features in many aspects of life. While it may be beneficial when applied to certain situations to facilitate coping, in other circumstances it may be less than positive. PMID:10703416
Zhao, Peng; Fan, Engui
2015-04-01
In this paper, a new type of integrable differential-difference hierarchy, namely, the generalized relativistic Lotka-Volterra (GRLV) hierarchy, is introduced. This hierarchy is closely related to Lotka-Volterra lattice and relativistic Lotka-Volterra lattice, which allows us to provide a unified and effective way to obtain some exact solutions for both the Lotka-Volterra hierarchy and the relativistic Lotka-Volterra hierarchy. In particular, we shall construct algebro-geometric quasiperiodic solutions for the LV hierarchy and the RLV hierarchy in a unified manner on the basis of the finite gap integration theory.
Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, transport equations and the second law of thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A first principle statistical theory of nonequilibrium processes is attempted based on the assumption of quasiclassical particle motions. This assumption leads to the BBGKY hierarchy which, in addition to physically reasonable solutions, contains solutions contradicting the causality principle. In order to eliminate them, all the distribution functions involved must be expanded as series in the small parameter ε σ/L, where σ is the particle diameter and L is a characteristic macroscopic length. To zero order in ε, the BBGKY hierarchy yields the Gibbs distribution, the first law of thermodynamics, and the equations of the theory of liquids, thus enabling the thermodynamical parameters of a substance to be calculated