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Sample records for bazn2 w-type hexaferrite

  1. Microstructure and characterization of W-type hexaferrite Ba1-xLaxFe22+Fe163+O27 prepared by solid state method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jin; Liu, Xiansong; Mehmood Ur Rehman, Khalid; Li, Dan; Li, Mingling; Yang, Yujie

    2018-04-01

    We report a successful preparation of Ba1-xLaxFe22+Fe163+O27 (x = 0.00-0.10) W-type hexagonal ferrites by standard ceramic method in a reduced oxygen atmosphere. In this work, the effect of the substitution La3+ rare-earth ions for Ba2+ ions on the structural and magnetic properties of the prepared samples have been studied. The phase identification of magnetic powders was performed by X-ray diffraction. The results of XRD show that the single phase was observed in the W-type ferrites with different La content. The SEM micrographs showed that the ferrites have formed the hexagonal structure. The magnetic properties of the samples were metric by a vibrating sample magnetometer. The coercivity (Hc) of the particles decreases with the increase of La content(x), while the saturation magnetization (Ms) of the particles first increases with x from 0 to 0.05, and then begins to decrease when x continues to increase. The monotonic dependence of the magnetic anisotropy field Ha and coercivity Hc on the La3+ doping amount is found to be mainly dominated by the competition between Ms and Keff.

  2. Elastic, electronic properties and intra-atomic bonding in orthorhombic and tetragonal polymorphs of BaZn2As2 from first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shein, I.R.; Ivanovskii, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • α and β polymorphs of BaZn 2 As 2 as a parent phase of the new DMSs are examined. • Structural, elastic, electronic properties are evaluated from first principles. • Inter-atomic bonding picture is discussed. -- Abstract: Very recently, on the example of hole- and spin-doped BaZn 2 As 2 , quite an unexpected area of potential applications of 122-like phases was proposed as a promising platform for searching the new diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) (2013; K. Zhao, et al, Nature Commun. 4:1442). Herein, by means of the first-principles calculations, we have examined in detail the basic structural, elastic, electronic properties and the peculiarities of the inter-atomic bonding in α and β polymorphs of 122-like BaZn 2 As 2 – a parent phase of the new DMSs. Our characterization of these materials covers the optimized structural parameters, the main elastic parameters (elastic constants, bulk, shear, and Young’s moduli, Poisson’s ratio, anisotropy indexes, and Pugh’s criterion), as well as electronic bands and densities of electronic states

  3. Low-loss Z-type hexaferrite (Ba3Co2Fe24O41) for GHz antenna applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woncheol; Hong, Yang-Ki; Park, Jihoon; LaRochelle, Gatlin; Lee, Jaejin

    2016-09-01

    We report a low magnetic loss Ba3Co2Fe24O41 (Co2Z) hexaferrite for use in gigahertz (GHz) antennas. Acid-etching was very effective in removal of unwanted Y-type hexaferrite (Ba2Co2Fe12O22) from calcined Co2Z powder. It is found that the calcined and acid etched (AE) Co2Z hexaferrite shows a low magnetic loss tangent (tan δμ) of 0.012 and 0.037 at 1 and 2 GHz, respectively. These low tan δμ are attributed to removal of Y-type hexaferrite, which possesses a lower anisotropy field (Hk) than W-type hexaferrite (BaCo2Fe16O27). The figure of merit (FOM) of the AE Co2Z hexaferrite is 141.7 and 48.7 at 1 and 2 GHz, respectively. These FOM are much higher than the FOM of previously reported low-loss magnetic materials. Therefore, the AE Co2Z hexaferrite can be a good candidate for GHz antenna application in the ultra-high frequency (UHF) band.

  4. Exchange interactions in barium hexaferrite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Rusz, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 18 (2005), 184433/1-184433/6 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010214 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : hexaferrites * exchange interaction * density functional theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.185, year: 2005

  5. Role of Tb–Mn substitution on the magnetic properties of Y-type hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Irshad, E-mail: irshadalibzu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Islam, M.U. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem, E-mail: naeemashiqqau@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Asif Iqbal, M. [National University of Sciences and Technology, EME College, Islamabad (Pakistan); Karamat, Nazia [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Awan, M.S. [Center for Micro and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, COMSAT Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Naseem, Shahzad [Centre for Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54560 (Pakistan)

    2014-06-25

    Graphical abstract: In-plane MH-loop of Tb–Mn substituted Co{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22}. - Highlights: • The magnetic properties changes with increasing substitution level. • The shape of grains is plate like useful for microwave devices. • The samples can be used in perpendicular recording media (PRM) due to their high value of coercivity. - Abstract: A series of (Tb–Mn) doped Sr{sub 2}Co{sub (2−x)}Mn{sub x}Tb{sub y}Fe{sub (12−y)}O{sub 22} (x = 0.0–1, Y = 0.0–0.1) Y-type hexaferrite were synthesized by the microemulsion method. The effect of doping of manganese at the tetrahedral site, and terbium at octahedral site, has been studied. It was observed that changes in magnetic properties such as saturation magnetization, coercivity, remanence and magnetic moment due to the cationic stoichiometry and their occupancy in the specific sites. The energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis was used to confirm the concentration of the elements. Scanning electron micrograph of the samples showed that grains are of plate like shape which is quite encouraging for their use in microwave devices and in perpendicular recording media (PRM) due to their high value of coercivity, 3200 Oe comparable to M-type and W-type hexaferrites hard magnetic materials.

  6. Hexaferrite multiferroics: from bulk to thick films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutzarova, T.; Ghelev, Ch; Peneva, P.; Georgieva, B.; Kolev, S.; Vertruyen, B.; Closset, R.

    2018-03-01

    We report studies of the structural and microstructural properties of Sr3Co2Fe24O41 in bulk form and as thick films. The precursor powders for the bulk form were prepared following the sol-gel auto-combustion method. The prepared pellets were synthesized at 1200 °C to produce Sr3Co2Fe24O41. The XRD spectra of the bulks showed the characteristic peaks corresponding to the Z-type hexaferrite structure as a main phase and second phases of CoFe2O4 and Sr3Fe2O7-x. The microstructure analysis of the cross-section of the bulk pellets revealed a hexagonal sheet structure. Large areas were observed of packages of hexagonal sheets where the separate hexagonal particles were ordered along the c axis. Sr3Co2Fe24O41 thick films were deposited from a suspension containing the Sr3Co2Fe24O41 powder. The microstructural analysis of the thick films showed that the particles had the perfect hexagonal shape typical for hexaferrites.

  7. Effect of precursor choice and sintering conditions for W hexaferrite formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Mathias; Eikeland, Anna; Christensen, Mogens

    . Hexaferrites are of great interest because of high stability, high anisotropy and favorable cost/performance ratio. This work focuses on the W-phase hexaferrite which excels with its high anisotropy constant, Curie temperature, and a higher saturation magnetization compared to other hexaferrites...

  8. Barium hexaferrite nanoparticles: Synthesis and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martirosyan, K.S.; Galstyan, E.; Hossain, S.M.; Wang Yiju; Litvinov, D.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon combustion synthesis is applied to rapid and energy efficient fabrication of crystalline barium hexaferrite nanoparticles with the average particle size of 50-100 nm. In this method, the exothermic oxidation of carbon nanoparticles with an average size of 5 nm with a surface area of 80 m 2 /g generates a self-propagating thermal wave with maximum temperatures of up to 1000 deg. C. The thermal front rapidly propagates through the mixture of solid reactants converting it to the hexagonal barium ferrite. Carbon is not incorporated in the product and is emitted from the reaction zone as a gaseous CO 2 . The activation energy for carbon combustion synthesis of BaFe 12 O 19 was estimated to be 98 kJ/mol. A complete conversion to hexagonal barium ferrite is obtained for carbon concentration exceeding 11 wt.%. The magnetic properties H c ∼3000 Oe and M s ∼50.3 emu/g of the compact sintered ferrites compare well with those produced by other synthesis methods.

  9. A Comparative Study on Magnetostructural Properties of Barium Hexaferrite Powders Prepared by Polyethylene Glycol

    OpenAIRE

    Zehra Durmus

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline particles of barium hexaferrite were synthesized by a sol-gel combustion route using nitrate-citrate gels prepared from metal nitrates and citric acid solutions with Fe/Ba molar ratio 12. The present paper aims to study the effect of addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions with different molecular weights (MW: 400, 2000, and 10.000 g/mol) on magnetostructural properties of barium hexaferrite. The formation of the barium hexaferrite was inspected using X-ray diffractio...

  10. Influence of Magnetron Effect on Barium Hexaferrite Thin Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassane, H.; Chatelon, J.P.; Rousseau, J.J; Siblini, A.; Kriga, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of a magnet, located in the cathode, on barium hexaferrite thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering technique. During the process, these effects can modify thickness, roughness and stress of coatings. The characteristics of the deposited layers depend on the substrate position that is located opposite of magnetron cathode. In the m agnetron area , one can observe that the high stress can produce cracks or detachment of layers and the increasing of both depositing rate and surface roughness. After sputtering elaboration, barium hexaferrite films are in a compressive stress mode. But, after the post-deposition heat treatment these films are in a tensile stress mode. To improve the quality of BaM films, the subsrtate has to be set outside the magnetron area. (author)

  11. Thermal evolution of exchange interactions in lightly doped barium hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trukhanov, S.V., E-mail: truhanov@ifttp.bas-net.by [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninsky Prospekt, 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); SSPA “Scientific and practical materials research centre of NAS of Belarus”, P. Brovki Str., 19, 220072 Minsk, Belorussia (Belarus); Trukhanov, A.V. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninsky Prospekt, 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); SSPA “Scientific and practical materials research centre of NAS of Belarus”, P. Brovki Str., 19, 220072 Minsk, Belorussia (Belarus); Kostishyn, V.G.; Panina, L.V. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninsky Prospekt, 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Turchenko, V.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie Str., 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Donetsk Institute of Physics and Technology named after A.A. Galkin of the NAS of Ukraine, 72 R.Luxemburg Str., 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Kazakevich, I.S. [SSPA “Scientific and practical materials research centre of NAS of Belarus”, P. Brovki Str., 19, 220072 Minsk, Belorussia (Belarus); Trukhanov, An.V. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninsky Prospekt, 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); SSPA “Scientific and practical materials research centre of NAS of Belarus”, P. Brovki Str., 19, 220072 Minsk, Belorussia (Belarus); Trukhanova, E.L.; Natarov, V.O. [SSPA “Scientific and practical materials research centre of NAS of Belarus”, P. Brovki Str., 19, 220072 Minsk, Belorussia (Belarus); Balagurov, A.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie Str., 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The lightly doped BaFe{sub 12−x}D{sub x}O{sub 19} (D=Al{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}; x=0.1 and 0.3) polycrystalline hexaferrite samples have been investigated by powder neutron diffractometry as well as by vibration sample magnetometry in a wide temperature range from 4 K up to 740 K and in magnetic field up to 14 T to establish the nature of Fe{sup 3+}(Al{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}) – O{sup 2-} - Fe{sup 3+}(Al{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}) indirect exchange interactions. The crystal structure features such as the ionic coordinates and lattice parameters have been defined and Rietveld refined. The Invar effect has been observed in low temperature range below 150 K. It was explained by the thermal oscillation anharmonicity of ions. It is established that the ferrimagnet-paramagnet phase transition is a standard second-order one. From the macroscopic magnetization measurement the Curie temperature and ordered magnetic moment per nominal iron ion are obtained. From the microscopic diffraction measurement the magnetic moments at all the nonequivalent ionic positions and total magnetic moment per iron ion have been obtained at different temperatures down to 4 K. The light diamagnetic doping mechanism and magnetic structure model are proposed. The effect of light diamagnetic doping on nature of Fe{sup 3+}(Al{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}) – O{sup 2-} - Fe{sup 3+}(Al{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}) indirect exchange interactions with temperature increase is discussed. - Highlights: • Crystal structure for lightly doped barium hexaferrites was investigated. • Atomic coordinates and lattice parameters were Rietveld refined. • Magnetic properties for lightly doped barium hexaferrites was investigated. • Magnetic structure for lightly doped barium hexaferrites was investigated. • Magnetic moments at different position and total moment per iron ion were defined.

  12. Usefulness of multiqubit W-type states in quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, P. [Indian Institute of Technology (India); Adhikari, S. [Birla Institute of Technology (India); Kumar, A., E-mail: atulk@iitj.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology (India)

    2016-10-15

    We analyze the efficiency of multiqubit W-type states as resources for quantum information. For this, we identify and generalize four-qubit W-type states. Our results show that these states can be used as resources for deterministic quantum information processing. The utility of results, however, is limited by the availability of experimental setups to perform and distinguish multiqubit measurements. We therefore emphasize protocols where two users want to establish an optimal bipartite entanglement using the partially entangled W-type states. We find that for such practical purposes, four-qubit W-type states can be a better resource in comparison to three-qubit W-type states. For a dense coding protocol, our states can be used deterministically to send two bits of classical message by locally manipulating a single qubit. In addition, we also propose a realistic experimental method to prepare the four-qubit W-type states using standard unitary operations and weak measurements.

  13. Crystal structure, magnetic properties and advances in hexaferrites: A brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotania, Rajshree

    2014-10-01

    Hexaferrites are hard magnetic materials and specifically ferri-magnetic oxides with hexagonal magnetoplumbite type crystallographic structure. Hexagonal ferrites are used as permanent magnets, high-density perpendicular and magneto-optical recording media, and microwave devices like resonance isolators, filters, circulators, phase shifters because of their high magnetic permeability, high electrical resistivity and moderable permittivity. In addition to these; hexagonal ferrites have excellent chemical stability, mechanical hardness and low eddy current loss at high frequencies. The preparation of hexaferrites is a complicated process. Various experimental techniques like standard ceramic techniques, solvent free synthesis route, co precipitation, salt-melt, ion exchange, sol-gel, citrate synthesis, hydrothermal synthesis, spray drying, water-in-oil microemulsion, reverse micelle etc are used to prepare hexaferrite materials. Structural, dielectric and magnetic properties, crystallite size of hexaferrites depend upon nature of substituted ions, method of preparation, sintering temperature and time. The recent interest is nanotechnology, the development of hexaferrite fibres and composites with carbon nano tubes (CNT). Magnetic properties of some doped and un-doped hexaferrites are discussed here. Recent advances in hexaferrites also highlighted in present paper.

  14. A Comparative Study on Magnetostructural Properties of Barium Hexaferrite Powders Prepared by Polyethylene Glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Durmus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline particles of barium hexaferrite were synthesized by a sol-gel combustion route using nitrate-citrate gels prepared from metal nitrates and citric acid solutions with Fe/Ba molar ratio 12. The present paper aims to study the effect of addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG solutions with different molecular weights (MW: 400, 2000, and 10.000 g/mol on magnetostructural properties of barium hexaferrite. The formation of the barium hexaferrite was inspected using X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR analysis, thermogravimetric (TGA analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM analysis for magnetic measurements.

  15. Multiple electrical phase transitions in Al substituted barium hexaferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Supriya, Sweety; Kar, Manoranjan

    2017-12-01

    Barium hexaferrite is known to be a very good ferromagnetic material. However, it shows very good dielectric properties, i.e., the dielectric constant is comparable to that of the ferroelectric material. However, its crystal symmetry does not allow it to be a ferroelectric material. Hence, the electrical properties have revived the considerable research interest on these materials, not only for academic interest, but also for technological applications. There are a few reports on temperature dependent dielectric behavior of these materials. However, the exact cause of dielectric as well as electrical conductivity is yet to be established. Hence, Al (very good conducting material) substituted barium hexaferrite (BaFe12-xAlxO19, x = 0.0-4.0) has been prepared by following the modified sol-gel method to understand the ac and DC electrical properties of these materials. The crystal structure and parameters have been studied by employing the XRD and FTIR techniques. There are two transition temperatures, which have been observed in the temperature dependent ac dielectric and DC resistivity measurement. The response of dielectric behaviors to temperature is similar to that of the ferroelectric material; however, the dielectric polarization is due to the polaron hopping, which is evident from the DC resistivity analysis. Hence, the present observations lead to understand the electrical properties of barium hexaferrite. The frequency dependent dielectric dispersion can be understood by the modified Debye model. More interestingly, the dielectric constant decreases and DC resistivity increases with the increase in the Al concentration, which has the correlation between bond length modifications in the crystal due to substitution.

  16. Structure and multiferroic properties of barium hexaferrite ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Guolong; Chen, Xiuna

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous occurrence of large ferroelectricity and strong ferromagnetism have been observed in barium hexaferrite ceramics. Barium hexaferrite (BaFe 12 O 19 ) powders with hexagonal crystal structure were successfully synthesized in a polymer precursor method using barium acetate and ferric acetylacetonate as the precursors. The powders were pressed into pellets which were sintered into ceramics at 1200 °C and 1300 °C for 1 h. The structure and morphology of the ceramics were examined using X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Large spontaneous polarization was observed in the BaFe 12 O 19 ceramics at room temperature, revealing a clear ferroelectric hysteresis loop. The maximum remanent polarization of the BaFe 12 O 19 ceramic was estimated approximately 11.8 μC cm −2 . The FeO 6 octahedron in its perovskite-like hexagonal unit cell and the shift of Fe 3+ off the center of octahedron are suggested to be the origin of the polarization in BaFe 12 O 19 . The BaFe 12 O 19 ceramics also showed strong ferromagnetism at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Ferroelectric hysteresis loops of BaFe 12 O 19 ceramics measured at a frequency of 120 Hz, which shows that the ceramics sintered at 1200 °C is ferroelectric with P r ∼11.8 μC/cm 2 . Highlights: ► Large ferroelectricity and strong ferromagnetism were observed in barium hexaferrite ceramics. ► The maximum remanent polarization of the BaFe 12 O 19 ceramic was estimated to be 11.8 μC cm −2 . ► The FeO 6 octahedron and off-center shift of Fe 3+ are suggested to be the origin of the polarization.

  17. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of Cr doped barium hexaferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Supriya, Sweety; Pandey, Rabichandra; Pradhan, Lagen Kumar; Kar, Manoranjan

    2018-04-01

    The Cr3+ substituted BaFe12O19 has been synthesized by modified sol-gel method to tailor the magnetic anisotropy and coercivity for technological applications. Some basic studies have revealed that this substitution leads to unusual interactions among the magnetic sublattices of the M-type hexaferrite. In order to investigate these interactions, BaFe12-xCrxO19 (x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0) M-type hexaferrites were characterized by employing XRD (X-ray Diffractometer). It is confirmed that, all the samples are in nanocrystalline and single phase, no impurity has been detected within the XRD limit. The magnetic hysteresis (m-H) loops revealed the ferromagnetic nature of nanoparticles (NPs). The coercive field were increasing with the increasing Cr3+ content, but after the percolation limit it decreases. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy is increasing with the Cr3+ concentration in samples and high values of magnetocrystalline anisotropy revealed that all samples are hard magnetic materials. Magnetic hysteresis loops were analyzed using the Law of Approach to Saturation method.

  18. Preparation of strontium hexaferrite magnets from celestite and blue dust by mechanochemical route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwary R.K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation celestite (natural ore of strontium and blue dust (iron ore fines have been used for the preparation of strontium hexaferrite powder. The mechanical alloying process has been adopted to prepare strontium hexaferrite powder. The celestite after chemical upradation and physically upgraded blue dust alongwith sodium carbonate was taken for the preparation of strontium hexaferrite in this experiment. The high-energy planetary ball mill with tungsten carbide jar and ball was used to prepare strontium hexaferrite powder. A long time of ball milling for different duration has led to displacement solid-state reaction. At the end of each experiment the product was washed thoroughly and dried. The X-ray diffaction study after annealing shows the development of single-phase strontium hexaferrite after 40 hrs. of milling. The resultant powder was compacted under magnetic field and sintered to prepare the magnet after annealing the ferrite powder. The magnetic properties were measured by Pulse magneto meter. The moderate value of coercivity, remanence and energy product were observed in this sintered magnet. The work illustrates the feasibility to prepare strontium hexaferrite magnetic powders directly from natural ores which can reduce the total cost of production as compared to conventional method.

  19. Tunable ferromagnetic resonance in La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites at millimeter wave frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Konstantin A.; Wu, Chuanjian; Yu, Zhong; Sun, Ke; Afsar, Mohammed N.; Harris, Vincent G.

    2018-05-01

    Transmittance measurements have been performed on La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites in millimeter waves. Broadband millimeter-wave measurements have been carried out using the free space quasi-optical spectrometer, equipped with a set of high power backward wave oscillators covering the frequency range of 30 - 120 GHz. Strong absorption zones have been observed in the millimeter-wave transmittance spectra of all La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites due to the ferromagnetic resonance. Linear shift of ferromagnetic resonance frequency as functions of La-Co substitutions have been found. Real and imaginary parts of dielectric permittivity of La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites have been calculated using the analysis of recorded high precision transmittance spectra. Frequency dependences of magnetic permeability of La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites, as well as saturation magnetization and anisotropy field have been determined based on Schlömann's theory for partially magnetized ferrites. La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites have been further investigated by DC magnetization to assess magnetic behavior and compare with millimeter wave data. Consistency of saturation magnetization determined independently by both millimeter wave absorption and DC magnetization have been found for all La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites. These materials seem to be quite promising as tunable millimeter wave absorbers, filters, circulators, based on the adjusting of their substitution parameters.

  20. Attainment of barium hexaferrite nanoparticles by a Pechini Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, S.B.; Timoteo, Jr.J.F.; Melo, G.M.; Souto, K.K.O.; Florioto, N.T.; Paskocimas, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The barium hexaferrites (BaFe 12 O 19 ) are used as a compound of materials applied in electronic devices, as medical devices, satellites, dada servers systems, wireless systems and others. The general properties are strongly related to the microstructure and morphology, and the particles size decrease results in advantages to the majority applications, mainly the high-tech thumbnail devices. These magnetic ceramic materials, with perovskite structure, are traditionally prepared my conventional oxide mixture synthesis. In this work was studied the nanoparticle synthesis of BaFe 12 O 19 by the precursors polymeric method (Pechini), using as precursors the barium carbonate and the iron nitrate, under different thermal treatment conditions. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, BET, DTA and TGA. The results presented the attainment of a monophasic powder with particles size around 100 nm. (author)

  1. Structural and magnetic properties of barium-gadolinium hexaferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsardakis, G.; Manolakis, I.; Serletis, C.; Efthimiadis, K. G.

    A series of Gd-substituted M-type barium hexaferrites has been prepared by the ceramic route, according to the formula (Ba 1-xGd x)O·5.25Fe 2O 3 ( x=0-0.30). XRD analysis revealed that all the samples present primarily an M-type structure. Samples x=0 and x=0.05 are single-phase. Hematite (Fe 2O 3) and GdFeO 3 were detected in the remaining samples. Coercivity ( Hc) shows remarkably high values, ˜293 kA/m for x=0.20 and 0.30 with a maximum of 322 kA/m for x=0.25. Specific saturation magnetization ( σsat) of the samples presents a small increase up to x=0.10. The microstructure examination indicates that Gd may act as a grain growth inhibitor.

  2. Synthesis and magnetic properties of (Eu–Ni) substituted Y-type hexaferrite by surfactant assisted co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Irshad, E-mail: irshadalibzu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, BahauddinZakariya University, Multan, P.O# 60800 (Pakistan); Islam, M.U. [Department of Physics, BahauddinZakariya University, Multan, P.O# 60800 (Pakistan); Sadiq, Imran [Department of Physics, BahauddinZakariya University, Multan, P.O# 60800 (Pakistan); Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of The Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan); Karamat, Nazia [Institute of Chemical Science, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Iftikhar, Aisha [Department of Physics, BahauddinZakariya University, Multan, P.O# 60800 (Pakistan); Khan, M. Azhar [Department of Physics, Islamia University of Bahawalpur, 63100 Pakistan (Pakistan); Shah, Afzal [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Athar, Muhammad [Institute of Chemical Science, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Shakir, Imran [Sustainable Energy Technologies (SET) Center, College of Engineering, King Saud University (Saudi Arabia); Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem, E-mail: naeemashiqqau@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemical Science, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan)

    2015-07-01

    A series of (Eu–Ni) substituted Y-type hexaferrite with composition Sr{sub 2}Co{sub (2−x)}Ni{sub x}Eu{sub y}Fe{sub (12−y)}O{sub 22} (x=0.0–1, Y=0.0–0.1) were prepared by the surfactant assisted co-precipitation method. The present samples were sintered at 1050 °C for 8 h. The shape of the particles is plate-like which is very advantageous for various applications and the grain size varies from 73 to 269 nm. The values of saturation magnetization (M{sub s}), remanent magnetization (M{sub r}) and magnetic moment (n{sub B}) were found to decrease which are attributed to the weakening of super exchange interactions. The values of in-plane Squareness ratios (M{sub r}/M{sub s}) ranging from 0.41 to 0.65 whereas in case of out of plane measurement it varies from 0.30 to 0.62.The investigated samples can be used in perpendicular recording media (PRM) due to high value of coercivity 2300 Oe which is analogous to the those of M-type and W-type hard magnetic. - Highlights: • The present samples sintered at 1050 °C for 8 h. • The grain size varies from 73 to 269 nm. • The magnetic moment varies from 15.27 to 6.07. • The shape of grains is plate like for microwave devices. • The present samples can be used in PRM due to high value of coercivity i.e. 2300 Oe.

  3. Soft x-ray resonant diffraction study of magnetic structure in magnetoelectric Y-type hexaferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Kimura, T.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of magnetic field on the magnetic structure associated with magnetoelectric properties in a Y-type hexaferrite, Ba1.3Sr0.7CoZnFe11AlO22, was investigated by utilizing the soft x-ray resonant diffraction technique. In this hexaferrite, the so-called alternating longitudinal conical phase is stabilized at room temperature and zero magnetic field. Below room temperature, however, this phase is transformed into the so-called transverse conical phase by applying an in-plane magnetic field (≈ 0.3 T). The transverse conical phase persists even after removing the magnetic field. The magnetoelectricity, which is magnetically-induced electric polarization, observed in the hexaferrite is discussed in terms of the temperature-dependent magnetic structure at zero field.

  4. Deposition of magnetoelectric hexaferrite thin films on substrates of silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zare, Saba; Izadkhah, Hessam; Vittoria, Carmine

    2016-12-15

    Magnetoelectric M-type hexaferrite thin films (SrCo{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}Fe{sub 8}O{sub 19}) were deposited using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique on Silicon substrate. A conductive oxide layer of Indium-Tin Oxide (ITO) was deposited as a buffer layer with the dual purposes of 1) to reduce lattice mismatch between the film and silicon and 2) to lower applied voltages to observe magnetoelectric effects at room temperature on Silicon based devices. The film exhibited magnetoelectric effects as confirmed by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques in voltages as low as 0.5 V. Without the oxide conductive layer the required voltages to observe magnetoelectric effects was typically about 1000 times larger. The magnetoelectric thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and ferromagnetic resonance techniques. We measured saturation magnetization of 650 G, and coercive field of about 150 Oe for these thin films. The change in remanence magnetization was measured in the presence of DC voltages and the changes in remanence were in the order of 15% with the application of only 0.5 V (DC voltage). We deduced a magnetoelectric coupling, α, of 1.36×10{sup −9} s m{sup −1} in SrCo{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}Fe{sub 8}O{sub 19} thin films.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of polyaniline-hexaferrite composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khursheed, Tooba [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Islam, M.U., E-mail: dr.misbahulislam@bzu.edu.pk [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Asif Iqbal, M. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); College of E & ME, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, Irshad, E-mail: irshadalibzu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Shakoor, Abdul [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Awan, M.S. [Center for Micro and Nano Devices Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Iftikhar, Aisha [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Azhar Khan, Muhammad [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Naeem Ashiq, Muhammad [Institute of Chemical Science, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan)

    2015-11-01

    Polyaniline was synthesized by chemical polymerization using aniline as monomer, and Y-type hexaferrite with composition (Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 2}Sr{sub 1.66}Nd{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 10}O{sub 22}) was prepared by co-precipitation assisted by surfactant. Three composites of Polyaniline with different ferrite ratios were prepared by mechanical blending. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-Ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy and electrical measurements. The XRD analysis reveals that no second phase was observed in Y-type hexagonal ferrite. In PANI-Ferrite composites, significant changes in resistivity, real and imaginary part of complex permittivity were observed with the increase of ferrite in the polyaniline matrix. At low frequencies the magnitude of dielectric constant and complex permittivity is high with few relaxation peaks. AC conductivity of PANI-Ferrite composites increase with the increase of frequency following Jonscher law. The resistivity and activation energy were found to show similar behavior. - Highlights: • Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 2}Sr{sub 1.66}Nd{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 10}O{sub 22} was prepared by co-precipitation. • Polyaniline was synthesized by chemical polymerization. • AC conductivity increase with the increase of frequency. • The resistivity and activation energy were found to show similar behavior.

  6. Structural and magnetic properties of barium-gadolinium hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litsardakis, G. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)]. E-mail: Lits@eng.auth.gr; Manolakis, I. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Serletis, C. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Efthimiadis, K.G. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

    2007-03-15

    A series of Gd-substituted M-type barium hexaferrites has been prepared by the ceramic route, according to the formula (Ba{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x})O.5.25Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x=0-0.30). XRD analysis revealed that all the samples present primarily an M-type structure. Samples x=0 and x=0.05 are single-phase. Hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and GdFeO{sub 3} were detected in the remaining samples. Coercivity (H{sub c}) shows remarkably high values, {approx}293kA/m for x=0.20 and 0.30 with a maximum of 322kA/m for x=0.25. Specific saturation magnetization ({sigma}{sub sat}) of the samples presents a small increase up to x=0.10. The microstructure examination indicates that Gd may act as a grain growth inhibitor.

  7. Effect of pb on the magnetic interactions of the M-type hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, A.L., E-mail: azdlobo@gmail.com [Instituto de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Álvaro Obregón No. 64, Col. Centro, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. 78000, México (Mexico); Mirabal-García, M. [Instituto de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Álvaro Obregón No. 64, Col. Centro, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. 78000, México (Mexico); Palomares-Sánchez, S.A.; Martínez, J.R. [Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Álvaro Obregón No. 64, Col. Centro, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. 78000, México (Mexico)

    2016-02-01

    This work reports the magnetic interactions of M-type lead hexaferrites. The samples were prepared using the solid state reaction method varying the lead concentration and compensating its lost by thermal treatment in order to obtain pure phases. The structural characterization was made through X-ray diffraction and the Rietveld refinement method. The morphology and grain-growth analysis were carried out using scanning electron microscopy. The magnetic interactions were studied through isothermal remanence (IRM) and DC demagnetization (DCD) remanence curves and through the construction of Henkel plots. By analyzing deviations from the Stoner–Wohlfarth model for non-interacting particles, it was determined the way in which lead modifies the interaction state in the hexaferrites. The experimental results show that the demagnetizing interactions prevail in systems with high lead content, and as lead concentration diminishes the intensity of magnetic interactions also decreases giving rise to magnetizing interactions - Highlights: • Construction of Henkel Plots of substituted hexaferrites. • Evaluation of magnetostatic and exchange interactions. • Effect of lead substitution on magnetic properties of the hexaferrites.

  8. Magnetic studies of cobalt doped barium hexaferrite nanoparticles prepared by modified sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalini, M. Govindaraj; Sahoo, Subasa C.

    2016-01-01

    M-type barium hexaferrite (BaFe_1_2O_1_9) and cobalt doped barium hexaferrite (BaFe_1_1CoO_1_9) nanopowders were synthesized by modified sol-gel auto-combustion technique and were annealed at 900°C in air for 4 hours. The annealed powders were studied in the present work and X-ray diffraction studies showed pure phase formation after annealing. The average grain size in the nanopowder sample was decreased after doping. Magnetization value of 60 emu/g was observed at 300 K for the barium hexaferrite and was reduced to 54 emu/g after doping. The coercivity of 5586 Oe was observed at 300 K for the undoped sample and was found to be decreased in the doped sample. As the measurement temperature was decreased from 300 K to 60 K, magnetization value was increased in both the samples compared to those at 300 K. The coercivity of the undoped sample was found to decrease whereas it was increased for the doped sample at 60 K. The observed magnetic properties may be understood on the basis of modified exchange interaction and anisotropy in the doped sample compared to that of pure barium hexaferrite.

  9. Improvement of high-frequency characteristics of Z-type hexaferrite by dysprosium doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Chunhong; Liu Yingli; Song Yuanqiang; Wang Liguo; Zhang Huaiwu

    2011-01-01

    Z-type hexaferrite has great potential applications as anti-EMI material for magnetic devices in the GHz region. In this work, Dy-doped Z-type hexaferrites with nominal stoichiometry of Ba 3 Co 2 Dy x Fe 24-x O 41 (x 0.0, 0.05, 0.5, 1.0) were prepared by an improved solid-state reaction method. The effects of rare earth oxide (Dy 2 O 3 ) addition on the phase composition, microstructure and electromagnetic properties of the ceramics were investigated. Structure and micromorphology characterizations indicate that certain content of Dy doping will cause the emergence of the second phase Dy 3 Fe 5 O 12 at the grain boundaries of the majority phase Z-type hexaferrite, due to which the straightforward result is the grain refinement during the successive sintering process. Permeability spectra measurements show that the initial permeability reaches its maximum of 17 at 300 MHz with x = 0.5, while the cutoff frequency keeps above 800 MHz. The apparent specific anisotropy field H K of Dy-doped Z-type hexaferrites decreases with x increasing. The relationships among phase composition, grain size, permeability spectra, and anisotropy are theoretically investigated, and according to the analysis, Dy doping effects on its magnetic properties can be well explained and understood.

  10. Composite nanoplatelets combining soft-magnetic iron oxide with hard-magnetic barium hexaferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primc, D.; Makovec, D.

    2015-01-01

    By coupling two different magnetic materials inside a single composite nanoparticle, the shape of the magnetic hysteresis can be engineered to meet the requirements of specific applications. Sandwich-like composite nanoparticles composed of a hard-magnetic Ba-hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) platelet core in between two soft-magnetic spinel iron oxide maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) layers were synthesized using a new, simple and inexpensive method based on the co-precipitation of Fe3+/Fe2+ ions in an aqueous suspension of hexaferrite core nanoparticles. The required close control of the supersaturation of the precipitating species was enabled by the controlled release of the Fe3+ ions from the nitrate complex with urea ([Fe((H2N)2C&z.dbd;O)6](NO3)3) and by using Mg(OH)2 as a solid precipitating agent. The platelet Ba-hexaferrite nanoparticles of different sizes were used as the cores. The controlled coating resulted in an exclusively heterogeneous nucleation and the topotactic growth of the spinel layers on both basal surfaces of the larger hexaferrite nanoplatelets. The direct magnetic coupling between the core and the shell resulted in a strong increase of the energy product |BH|max. Ultrafine core nanoparticles reacted with the precipitating species and homogeneous product nanoparticles were formed, which differ in terms of the structure and composition compared to any other compound in the BaO-Fe2O3 system.By coupling two different magnetic materials inside a single composite nanoparticle, the shape of the magnetic hysteresis can be engineered to meet the requirements of specific applications. Sandwich-like composite nanoparticles composed of a hard-magnetic Ba-hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) platelet core in between two soft-magnetic spinel iron oxide maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) layers were synthesized using a new, simple and inexpensive method based on the co-precipitation of Fe3+/Fe2+ ions in an aqueous suspension of hexaferrite core nanoparticles. The required close control of the

  11. The magnetic properties of aligned M hexa-ferrite fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullar, R.C.; Bhattacharya, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Aligned and random fibres of strontium hexa ferrite (SrM, SrFe 12 O 19 ) and barium hexaferrite (BaM, BaFe 12 O 19 ) were manufactured by blow spinning from an aqueous inorganic sol-gel precursor, which was then fired to give the hexagonal ferrite fibre. Their magnetic properties were studied by VSM, investigating the evolution of these properties with firing and measurement temperature, and in particular the effects of fibre alignment. It has been predicted that aligned ferrite fibres will demonstrate an enhanced magnetisation along the axis of alignment with respect to perpendicular to the axis, and this has been demonstrated here for the first time. The optimum firing temperature was 1000 deg. C, at which point they still had submicron grains. In BaM random fibres M s =63.8 emu g -1 and H c =428.1 kA m -1 , and in SrM random fibres M s =63.3 emu g -1 and H c =452.8 kA m -1 , high values for polycrystalline materials. Fibres aligned parallel to the applied field had saturation magnetisation (M s ) values equal to those of the random fibres, whilst fibres aligned perpendicular to the field had M s values 62% and 75% lower, for BaM and SrM, respectively. There was no change in coercivity (H c ) between random or aligned fibres of any orientation, and fibres aligned 45 deg. and parallel to H appeared identical. Therefore, properties along the axis of alignment were superior when compared to measurements perpendicular to the axis of alignment, giving a directionality to the magnetisation in an otherwise randomly oriented ferrite material

  12. Structural and Magnetic Behavioral Improvisation of Nanocalcium Hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sable, Sharad N., E-mail: sharadtz@hotmail.co [Department of Applied Physics, Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Nagpur (India); Rewatkar, Kishor G. [Department of Physics, Dr. Ambedkar College, Dikshabhumi, Nagpur (India); Nanoti, Vivek M. [Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Nagpur (India)

    2010-04-15

    In modern technoscientific era, the industrial application of nanomaterials has grabbed a paramount importance owing to their improved characteristics. Hexagonal ferrites especially M-type ferrites have been proved to be the promising candidates for nanomaterials by virtue of their ease of applicability in high density recording media, microwave absorption devices, magneto-optic recording media, etc. Keeping a bird's view over, the samples of varied combinations of M-type substituted hexaferrites are synthesized using sol-gel combustion route by blending nitrates and chlorides as oxidants accompanied with fuels like urea, glycine, citric acid, etc. as reducing agents. The substitution of Co{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 4+} ions lie essentially in the octahedral and tetrahedral sites. As the Fe{sup 3+} ions are being replaced by Co{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 4+} ions, the probability of having oxygen vacancies in the structure was found to be greatly reduced. The magnetic particles produced by conventional solid state reactions are often larger than those produced by sol-gel combustion route. Larger particles of magnetic oxides generally exhibit multidomain magnetic structure whereas nanosized particles generally exhibit single domain magnetic structure. The simultaneous or coupled divalent and tetravalent substitution of Co{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 4+} for Fe{sup 3+} ions greatly helps to improvise the magnetic parameters such as Curie temperature, coercivity, remanent magnetization, saturation magnetization, etc. The structural comparison is being analyzed through the XRD, TEM. The samples so synthesized are found to be reseasonably homogeneous and the average particle size of the sample synthesized is found to be in the nanorange. The structural and magnetic properties are observed be improved upon those of the samples reported earlier. This confirms the more viability of such samples in the various applications of digital data devices. Further attempts could possibly lead to

  13. Microwave absorbing properties of rare-earth elements substituted W-type barium ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Zhang Hong; Bai Shuxin; Chen Ke; Zhang Changrui

    2007-01-01

    W-type barium ferrites Ba(MnZn) 0.3 Co 1.4 R 0.01 Fe 15.99 O 27 with R=Dy, Nd and Pr were prepared by chemical coprecipitation method. Effects of rare-earth elements (RE) substitution on microstructural and electromagnetic properties were analyzed. The results show that a small amount of RE 3+ ions can replace Fe 3+ ions and adjust hyperfine parameters. An obvious increase in natural resonance frequency and high frequency relaxation, and a sharp decrease for complex permittivity have been observed. Furthermore, the matching thickness and the reflection loss (RL) of one-layer ferrite absorber were calculated. It reveals that thin and broad-band can be obtained by RE-substitution. But only when the magnetic moment of RE 3+ is higher than that of Fe 3+ , can substitution be effective for higher RL. Dy-substituted ferrite composite has excellent microwave absorption properties. The frequency (with respect to -10 dB RL) begins from 9.9 GHz, and the bandwidth reaches far more than 8.16 GHz. The peak value is -51.92 dB at a matching thickness of 2.1 mm

  14. Effects of Gd substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsardakis, G.; Manolakis, I.; Serletis, C.; Efthimiadis, K. G.

    2007-09-01

    The effect of Gd substitution in M-type strontium hexaferrites has been examined in two series of samples, (Sr1-xGdx)O·5.25Fe2O3 and Sr1-xGdxFe12-xCoxO19, both prepared by the ceramic method, where x=0-0.40. The samples have been characterized by XRD, VSM and SEM-EDAX techniques. All substituted samples present primarily the hexaferrite structure. Sample (Sr0.95Gd)O·5.25Fe2O3 is single phase. Formation of impurity phases is affected by stoichiometry and presence of Co. In Sr-Gd samples, coercivity showed a maximum value of 305 kA/m (3.8 kOe) for x=0.20, while remanence and saturation magnetization did not decrease. Coercivity and magnetization in the Sr-Gd-Co series decreased steadily with substitution degree.

  15. Rare earth doped M-type hexaferrites; ferromagnetic resonance and magnetization dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Sharma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available M-type hexagonal barium ferrites come in the category of magnetic material that plays a key role in electromagnetic wave propagation in various microwave devices. Due to their large magnetic anisotropy and large magnetization, their operating frequency exceeds above 50 GHz. Doping is a way to vary its magnetic properties to such an extent that its ferromagnetic resonance (FMR response can be tuned over a broad frequency band. We have done a complete FMR study of rare earth elements neodymium (Nd and samarium (Sm, with cobalt (Co as base, doped hexaferrite nanoparticles (NPs. X-ray diffractometry, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM, and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR techniques were used to characterize the microstructure and magnetic properties of doped hexaferrite nanoparticles. Using proper theoretical electromagnetic models, various parameters are extracted from FMR data which play important role in designing and fabricating high-frequency microwave devices.

  16. Preparation and magnetic characterization of Y-type hexaferrites containing zinc, cobalt and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yang; Zhou Ji; Gui Zhilun; Yue Zhensing; Li Longtu

    2003-01-01

    Y-type hexaferrites series with Ba 2 Me 2 Fe 12 O 22 (Me=Zn, Co, Cu) has been prepared by the solid-state reaction method. Y-type polycrystalline hexaferrite powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and the magnetic characteristics were investigated by vibrating samples magnetometer. Experimental results show that the substitution of Co for Zn leads to a decrease of saturation magnetization and an increase of magnetic anisotropy. At room temperature, saturation magnetization does not increase linearly as Zn content increases due to the effect of the thermal agitation. Saturation magnetization of the Zn-Cu Y-type ferrite exhibits the similar variational rule at room temperature. As Cu substitute for Co, the saturation magnetization and magnetic anisotropy all decrease. Cu modification can lower the single-phase formed temperature distinctly as the magnetic properties slightly debase

  17. Analysis of the magnetic properties nanoscale barium hexaferrite (BHF) prepared by milling and ultrasonic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novizal; Edie, Sasito; Manawan, Mykel T.E.

    2016-01-01

    Barium hexaferrite (BHF) is well established material which widely used respectively as permanent magnets. In this research, we report our recent investigation on magnetic properties analysis of barium hexaferrite (BHF) compounds with a ratio of Fe/Ba: 11 prepared by a mechanical alloying process and high power ultrasonic destruction to promote the soft magnetic properties. The investigation carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) shows the grain size between 500-1500 nm, it indicates that each grain is composed of several crystallites or polycrystalline. By mean of X-ray diff raction revealed the phase composition and the mean crystallite size <70 nm. The Characterization of the magnetic properties of the effects of downsizing the particle size of ∼ 200 nm to ∼ 50 nm by the ultasonik method provide saturation value of 0.35 T, remanent 0.24 T and the coercivity is 115 kA / m. (paper)

  18. Nanofiber production of poly (vinylidene fluoride) / hexaferrite, obtained by Blow Spinning Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, G.C.; Zadorosny, L.; Malmonge, J.A.; Malmonge, L.F.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, fibrous films of poly (vinylidene fluoride) - PVDF with barium hexaferrite particles were obtained by Solution Blow Spinning technique. In such technique, the polymer solution is injected through an inner nozzle which experiences the action of an accelerated flux of gas that drags and stretches the jet solution forming the nanofibers. The films were obtained from solutions of PVDF/DMF (30% w/v), which was incorporated into barium hexaferrite particles in proportions of 1, 3 and 5% (w / w). The results of the micrographs revealed the formation of a fibrous film with good dispersion of the particles. Xray analyzes showed the predominance of the β crystalline phase of PVDF. The increase of the amount of particles induces the appearance of a characteristic peak of PVDF. EDX measurements confirmed the presence of particles in the films. (author)

  19. The thermal stability range and magnetic properties of U-type hexaferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisjak, Darja; Drofenik, Miha

    2004-01-01

    Single-phase polycrystalline U-hexaferrites with the composition Ba 4 A 2 Fe 36 O 60 (A=Co, Ni, Zn) were prepared by solid-state reaction synthesis employing high-energy milling or topotactic reaction and calcination at 1200-1300 deg. C. The Curie temperature and saturation magnetization of the samples were influenced by the composition, while the coercivity was more strongly influenced by the preparation conditions

  20. Microstructure and magnetic properties of Zr-Mn substituted M-type SrLa hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yujie; Wang, Fanhou; Shao, Juxiang; Huang, Duohui [Yibin University, Computational Physics Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Yibin (China); Batoo, Khalid Mujasam [King Saud University, King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-09-15

    In this study, we have synthesized the M-type SrLa hexaferrites with nominal compositions of Sr{sub 0.75}La{sub 0.25}Fe{sub 12.0-2x}(ZrMn){sub x}O{sub 19} (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.75) by the solid-state method techniques. The phase compositions of the samples were confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis exhibits that all the synthesized M-type hexaferrite magnetic powders are in single magetoplumbite structure and no impurity phase is observed, and with the increase of ZrMn content (x), (107) and (114) peaks are broadened and the 2 θ values of (107) and (114) peaks shift towards lower angles. It is observed that lattice constants (c and a) increase with increasing ZrMn content (x) from 0.00 to 0.75. The morphology of the M-type hexaferrites was characterized by a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). FE-SEM images show that the M-type hexaferrite have formed hexagonal structures. Magnetization properties were measured at room temperature using a physical property measurement system-vibrating sample magnetometer. The saturation magnetization (M{sub s}), remanent magnetization (M{sub r}) and coercivity (H{sub c}) are calculated from magnetic hysteresis loops. M{sub s}, M{sub r} and M{sub r}/M{sub s} ratio first increase with increasing ZrMn content (x) from 0.00 to 0.15, and then decrease when ZrMn content (x) ≥0.15. H{sub c} decreases with the increase of ZrMn content (x) from 0.00 to 0.75. (orig.)

  1. High frequency electromagnetic reflection loss performance of substituted Sr-hexaferrite nanoparticles/SWCNTs/epoxy nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordani, Gholam Reza, E-mail: gordani@gmail.com [Materials Engineering Department, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Shahin Shahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, Ali [Materials Engineering Department, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Shahin Shahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saidi, Ali [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the electromagnetic properties of a novel nanocomposite material made of substituted Sr-hexaferrite nanoparticles and different percentage of single walled carbon nanotube have been studied. The structural, magnetic and electromagnetic properties of samples were studied as a function of volume percentage of SWCNTs by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and vector network analysis. Well suitable crystallinity of hexaferrite nanoparticles was confirmed by XRD patterns. TEM and FESEM micrographs were shown the good homogenity and high level of dispersivity of SWCNTs and Sr-hexaferrite nanoparticles in nanocomposite samples. The VSM results shown that with increasing in amount of CNTs (0–6 vol%), the saturation of magnetization decreased up to 11 emu/g for nanocomposite sample contains of 6 vol% of SWCNTs. The vector network analysis results show that the maximum value of reflection loss was −36.4 dB at the frequency of 11 GHz with an absorption bandwidth of more than 4 GHz (<−20 dB). The results indicate that, this nanocomposite material with appropriate amount of SWCNTs hold great promise for microwave device applications. - Highlights: • We investigate the high frequency properties of Sr-hexaferrite/SWCNTs composite. • Saturation magnetization of nanocomposites is decreased with presence of SWCNTs. • The ferrite/CNTs nanocomposite sample covers whole X-band frequencies (8–12 GHz). • The ferrite/CNTs nanocomposite can be used as a potential magnetic loss material. • Nanocomposite contain 4 vol% of CNTs have shown greater than 99% of reflection loss.

  2. Ce{sup 3+} incorporated structural and magnetic properties of M type barium hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawar, R.A. [Department of Physics, Arts, Commerce and Science College, Satral, MS (India); Desai, S.S.; Tamboli, Q.Y. [Materials Research Laboratory, Shrikrishna Mahavidyalaya, Gunjoti 413613, MS (India); Shirsath, Sagar E. [Spin Device Technology Center, Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu University, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Patange, S.M., E-mail: smpatange@rediffmail.com [Materials Research Laboratory, Shrikrishna Mahavidyalaya, Gunjoti 413613, MS (India)

    2015-03-15

    M type barium hexaferrites BaCe{sub x}Fe{sub 12−x}O{sub 19} (0≤x≤0.3) (BCFO) were synthesized by the sol–gel auto combination method. Optimum annealing temperature of hexagonal phase was determined by using the TGA analysis. The annealing temperature form the TGA is 1000 °C samples annealed 1000 °C for 5 h to produce M type hexaferrites. X-ray diffraction data run to full Prof Program (Winploter 2010) pattern indicate that samples are single phase hexagonal structure with space group P6{sub 3}/mmc. Lattice parameter ‘a’ and ‘c’ increase with increase in Ce content x. Results of field emission scanning electron microscope show that the grains are regular hexagonal platelets with sizes from 0.3 to 1.4 μm. It is observed that from M–H curve value of the saturation magnetization and coercivity decreases with increasing x. Curie temperature from magnetization with temperature plot is found to decrease with Ce{sup 3+} substitution x due to decreases in magnetic interaction. - Highlights: • Ce{sup 3+} substituted Ba hexaferrites. • Increased coercivity with Ce{sup 3+} substitution. • Decrease in saturation magnetization and Curie temperature.

  3. Effect of lanthanum substitution on dielectric relaxation, impedance response, conducting and magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Want, Basharat, E-mail: bawant@kashmiruniversity.ac.in; Bhat, Bilal Hamid; Ahmad, Bhat Zahoor

    2015-04-05

    Highlights: • The substitution of La affects the dielectric and magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite. • The electric behaviour of the compound follows the Koop’s phenomenological theory. • The impedance study shows the role of grain boundaries to the electric properties of the compound. • The substitution of La to strontium hexaferrite reduces the resistive nature of grain boundaries. - Abstract: Lanthanum strontium hexaferrite Sr{sub 1−x}La{sub x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (x = 0, 0.08, 0.13 , 0.18) has been successfully synthesized by using citrate-precursor method and characterized by different techniques. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that the sample is crystalline in nature and is of single phase with the space group P63/mmc. The dielectric, conducting and impedance related studies have been carried out as a function of frequency and concentration of lanthanum in the frequency ranges of 20 Hz–3 MHz. Impedance studies were performed in the frequency domain to distinguish between bulk and grain boundary contributions of the material to the overall dielectric response. The electric response of the material was also modeled by an equivalent circuit and different circuit parameters were calculated. Magnetic characterization of the material was also performed and the effect of lanthanum concentration was studied. The hysteresis loop obtained from the magnetometer showed that with the increase of lanthanum concentration, the saturation magnetisation decreases while as coercivity increases.

  4. High frequency electromagnetic reflection loss performance of substituted Sr-hexaferrite nanoparticles/SWCNTs/epoxy nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordani, Gholam Reza; Ghasemi, Ali; saidi, Ali

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the electromagnetic properties of a novel nanocomposite material made of substituted Sr-hexaferrite nanoparticles and different percentage of single walled carbon nanotube have been studied. The structural, magnetic and electromagnetic properties of samples were studied as a function of volume percentage of SWCNTs by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and vector network analysis. Well suitable crystallinity of hexaferrite nanoparticles was confirmed by XRD patterns. TEM and FESEM micrographs were shown the good homogenity and high level of dispersivity of SWCNTs and Sr-hexaferrite nanoparticles in nanocomposite samples. The VSM results shown that with increasing in amount of CNTs (0-6 vol%), the saturation of magnetization decreased up to 11 emu/g for nanocomposite sample contains of 6 vol% of SWCNTs. The vector network analysis results show that the maximum value of reflection loss was -36.4 dB at the frequency of 11 GHz with an absorption bandwidth of more than 4 GHz (nanocomposite material with appropriate amount of SWCNTs hold great promise for microwave device applications.

  5. Synthesis and properties of nickel-doped nanocrystalline barium hexaferrite ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqar, Moaz; Rafiq, Muhammad Asif; Mirza, Talha Ahmed; Khalid, Fazal Ahmad; Khaliq, Abdul; Anwar, Muhammad Sabieh; Saleem, Murtaza

    2018-04-01

    M-type barium hexaferrite ceramics have emerged as important materials both for technological and commercial applications. However, limited work has been reported regarding the investigation of nanocrystalline Ni-doped barium hexaferrites. In this study, nanocrystalline barium hexaferrite ceramics with the composition BaFe12- x Ni x O19 (where x = 0, 0.3 and 0.5) were synthesized by sol-gel method and characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and precision impedance analyzer. All the synthesized samples had single magnetoplumbite phase having space group P63/mmc showing the successful substitution of Ni in BaFe12O19 without the formation of any impurity phase. Average grain size of undoped samples was around 120 nm which increased slightly with the addition of Ni. Saturation magnetization ( M s) and remnant magnetization ( M r) increased with the addition of Ni, however, coercivity ( H c) decreased with the increase in Ni from x = 0 to x = 0.5. Real and imaginary parts of permittivity decreased with the increasing frequency and increased with Ni content. Dielectric loss and conductivity showed slight variation with the increase in Ni concentration.

  6. Analysis of the structure and Mössbauer study of the neodymium substitution in the Sr-hexaferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Juache, T.J. [Departamento de Ingeniería de Procesos e Hidráulica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, A.P. 55-534, 09340 México D.F., México (Mexico); Guerrero, A.L., E-mail: azdlobo@gmail.com [Facultad de Ciencias, UASLP, Salvador Nava Martínez, s/n. Zona Universitaria, 78290 San Luis Potosí S.L.P., México (Mexico); Cabal-Velarde, J.G. [Instituto Tecnológico Superior de Irapuato, Carretera Irapuato-Silao Km. 12.5. Irapuato, Guanajuato, México (Mexico); Mirabal-García, M. [Instituto de Física, UASLP, Dr. Manuel Nava No. 6. Zona Universitaria, 78290 San Luis Potosí S.L.P., México (Mexico); Palomares-Sánchez, S.A. [Facultad de Ciencias, UASLP, Salvador Nava Martínez, s/n. Zona Universitaria, 78290 San Luis Potosí S.L.P., México (Mexico); Matutes-Aquino, J.A. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, Ave. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua, Ch. México, México (Mexico)

    2016-12-15

    This work reads on the obtainment of the strontium hexaferrite substituted with neodymium in its pure phase using the solid state reaction method. The solubility of neodymium on the strontium hexaferrite was investigated according with the formula Sr{sub 1−x}Nd{sub x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19}, for x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25. Results indicate that neodymium is soluble in the hexaferrite until x=0.15. In samples with higher neodymium content there are traces of secondary phases. Analysis of magnetic and structural properties was performed in function of the neodymium content, always in its solubility range. From the structural properties, it was observed that the addition of a little neodymium quantity in the Sr-hexaferrite causes an important reduction of the unit cell volume. Also, magnetic properties are strongly linked to the structural behavior, in this case a trend to reduce the magnetization of the samples was detected when neodymium content increased, which can be explained in terms of fluctuations of the superexchange coupling conducted by the neodymium interactions with the structure. Mössbauer analysis was carried out in order to analyze the effects of the neodymium substitution on the hyperfine parameters, as well as to confirm the preferential site of the neodymium substitution in the Sr-hexaferrite.

  7. Crystal growth of hexaferrite architecture for magnetoelectrically tunable microwave semiconductor integrated devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bolin

    Hexaferrites (i.e., hexagonal ferrites), discovered in 1950s, exist as any one of six crystallographic structural variants (i.e., M-, X-, Y-, W-, U-, and Z-type). Over the past six decades, the hexaferrites have received much attention owing to their important properties that lend use as permanent magnets, magnetic data storage materials, as well as components in electrical devices, particularly those operating at RF frequencies. Moreover, there has been increasing interest in hexaferrites for new fundamental and emerging applications. Among those, electronic components for mobile and wireless communications especially incorporated with semiconductor integrated circuits at microwave frequencies, electromagnetic wave absorbers for electromagnetic compatibility, random-access memory (RAM) and low observable technology, and as composite materials having low dimensions. However, of particular interest is the magnetoelectric (ME) effect discovered recently in the hexaferrites such as SrScxFe12-xO19 (SrScM), Ba2--xSrxZn 2Fe12O22 (Zn2Y), Sr4Co2Fe 36O60 (Co2U) and Sr3Co2Fe 24O41 (Co2Z), demonstrating ferroelectricity induced by the complex internal alignment of magnetic moments. Further, both Co 2Z and Co2U have revealed observable magnetoelectric effects at room temperature, representing a step toward practical applications using the ME effect. These materials hold great potential for applications, since strong magnetoelectric coupling allows switching of the FE polarization with a magnetic field (H) and vice versa. These features could lead to a new type of storage devices, such as an electric field-controlled magnetic memory. A nanoscale-driven crystal growth of magnetic hexaferrites was successfully demonstrated at low growth temperatures (25--40% lower than the temperatures required often for crystal growth). This outcome exhibits thermodynamic processes of crystal growth, allowing ease in fabrication of advanced multifunctional materials. Most importantly, the

  8. High coercivity Gd-substituted Ba hexaferrites, prepared by chemical coprecipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsardakis, G.; Manolakis, I.; Serletis, C.; Efthimiadis, K. G.

    2008-04-01

    A series of Gd-substituted Ba hexaferrites with nominal formula (Ba1-xGdx)Oṡ5.25 Fe2O3 (x=0-0.30) were prepared by the chemical coprecipitation method from nitrate precursors and heating at T =800-1200°C for 2h. The samples have been examined by x-ray diffraction, vibrating-sample magnetometer, and scanning electron microscopy methods. Gd substituted samples form single phase materials with the M-type hexaferrite structure at all heating temperatures, in the range of x ⩽0.10-0.20. The saturation magnetization (at 1.8T) varies slightly with x in most cases and, for x =0.05-0.10, it increases up to 66.7Am2/kg, exceeding the value of the unsubstituted hexaferrite. A strong enhancement of the coercivity is observed for all substituted samples, with maximum values Hc=457kA/m for the single-phase x =0.10 sample annealed at 1000°C and Hc=477kA/m for the x =0.25 sample annealed at 1100°C which contains Fe2O3 and GdFeO3 impurities. As the variation of coercivity with either substitution rate (x ) or annealing temperature is not monotonic, three different factors may account for the high coercivities that are obtained: (a) an inhibition of grain growth due to the presence of Gd, (b) a possible inherent effect on magnetocrystalline anisotropy, especially for single phase samples, and (c) a microstructural effect of secondary phases.

  9. Preparation and magnetic properties of the Sr-hexaferrite with foam structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, A.L., E-mail: azdlobo@gmail.com [Instituto de Física-UASLP, Álvaro Obregón 64, Centro. San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Facultad de Ingeniería-UASLP, Álvaro Obregón 64, Centro. San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Espericueta, D.L. [Facultad de Ingeniería-UASLP, Álvaro Obregón 64, Centro. San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias-UASLP, Álvaro Obregón 64, Centro. San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Palomares-Sánchez, S.A. [Facultad de Ciencias-UASLP, Álvaro Obregón 64, Centro. San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Elizalde-Galindo, J.T. [Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología-UACJ, Av. Plutarco Elías Calles 1210, Fovissste Chamizal, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (Mexico); Watts, B.E [IMEM-CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Mirabal-García, M. [Instituto de Física-UASLP, Álvaro Obregón 64, Centro. San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico)

    2016-12-01

    This work reports an optimal way to fabricate strontium hexaferrite with porous-reticulated structure using a variation of the replication technique and taking two different precursors, one obtained from the coprecipitation and the other from the ceramic method. Changes made to the original replication technique include the addition of Arabic gum as binder, and the addition of ethylene glycol to form the ceramic sludge. In addition, some parameters such as the relation between solid material and liquid phase, the quantity of binder and the heat treatment were varied to obtain high quality magnetic foams. Two polymeric sponges were used as patterns, one with average pore size of 300 μm diameter and the other with 1100 μm. The characterization of the samples included the analysis of the structure and phase purity, the magnetic properties, the remanence properties, magnetic interactions and the microstructural characteristics. Results indicate that both, the powder precursors and the polymeric pattern play an important role in the configuration of the foam structure and this configuration has an important influence on the dipolar interactions which tend to demagnetize the samples. In addition, it was analyzed the behavior between the minimum value of the δM curves and the hysteresis properties. - Highlights: • New way to obtain Sr-hexaferrite with foam structure and high magnetic performance. • Relation between pore structure and the magnetic properties in ceramic foams. • Analysis of magnetostatic interactions with the magnetism of Sr-hexaferrite foams. • Relation between microstructural characteristics and the magnetization of the foams.

  10. Preparation and magnetic properties of the Sr-hexaferrite with foam structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, A.L.; Espericueta, D.L.; Palomares-Sánchez, S.A.; Elizalde-Galindo, J.T.; Watts, B.E; Mirabal-García, M.

    2016-01-01

    This work reports an optimal way to fabricate strontium hexaferrite with porous-reticulated structure using a variation of the replication technique and taking two different precursors, one obtained from the coprecipitation and the other from the ceramic method. Changes made to the original replication technique include the addition of Arabic gum as binder, and the addition of ethylene glycol to form the ceramic sludge. In addition, some parameters such as the relation between solid material and liquid phase, the quantity of binder and the heat treatment were varied to obtain high quality magnetic foams. Two polymeric sponges were used as patterns, one with average pore size of 300 μm diameter and the other with 1100 μm. The characterization of the samples included the analysis of the structure and phase purity, the magnetic properties, the remanence properties, magnetic interactions and the microstructural characteristics. Results indicate that both, the powder precursors and the polymeric pattern play an important role in the configuration of the foam structure and this configuration has an important influence on the dipolar interactions which tend to demagnetize the samples. In addition, it was analyzed the behavior between the minimum value of the δM curves and the hysteresis properties. - Highlights: • New way to obtain Sr-hexaferrite with foam structure and high magnetic performance. • Relation between pore structure and the magnetic properties in ceramic foams. • Analysis of magnetostatic interactions with the magnetism of Sr-hexaferrite foams. • Relation between microstructural characteristics and the magnetization of the foams.

  11. Effect of sintering conditions on the magnetic disaccommodation in barium M-type hexaferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Gomez, Pablo; Torres, Carlos; Francisco, Carlos de; Munoz, Jose Maria; Alejos, Oscar; Iniguez, Jose Ignacio; Raposo, Victor; Montero, Oscar

    2006-01-01

    The relaxation of the initial magnetic permeability has been measured in polycrystalline hexaferrites with nominal composition BaO.6Fe 2 O 3 (i.e. M-type). The samples have been sintered at different temperatures in CO 2 atmosphere and with different manufacturing conditions. In temperature range between 80 and 500 K, the magnetic disaccommodation shows presence of different relaxation processes, depending on both the sintering temperature and sintering time. The analogies and differences between the results obtained are discussed in terms of similar phase formation and different crystallite size

  12. Magnetic and optical properties of Zn{sup 2+} ion substituted barium hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baykal, A., E-mail: hbaykal@fatih.edu.tr [EYRA Textile Chemicals and Chemical Industry Trade Company, Saraçlar Industrial Zone, No: 3-12, 34490 İkitelli, İstanbul (Turkey); Auwal, I.A. [Department of Chemistry, Sule Lamido University, P.M.B 048, Kafin Hausa, Jigawa State (Nigeria); Güner, S. [Department of Physics, Fatih University, 34500 B.Çekmece, İstanbul (Turkey); Sözeri, H. [TÜBITAK – UME, National Metrology Institute, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2017-05-15

    Ba{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (0.0≤x≤0.3) hexaferrites were produced via sol-gel auto combustion technique. XRD patterns show that all the samples are single-phase M-type barium hexaferrite (BaM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that grains have a size range of 0.5–2 µm. The magnetic hysteresis (σ-H) loops revealed the ferromagnetic nature of NPs. The average crystallite sizes were calculated by applying Scherrer equation on the base of XRD powder patterns of all samples and found to be in the range of 16.78–48.34 nm. In particular, Ba{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (0.0≤x≤0.3) hexaferrites have suitable magnetic characteristics (saturation magnetization in a range of 63.00–67.70 emu/g and coercive field in a range of 822–1275 Oe) for magnetic recording and permanent magnets. Effective crystalline anisotropy constants (K{sub eff}) are between 4.20×10{sup 5} and 4.84×10{sup 5} Erg/g. Magnetic moment increased by the substitution of non-magnetic Zn{sup 2+} ions. The anisotropy field (H{sub a}) or intrinsic coercivity values above 13255 Oe reveals that all samples are magnetically hard materials. Tauc plots were drawn to specify the direct optical energy band gap (E{sub g}) of NPs. The E{sub g} values are in a narrow range between 1.69 eV and 1.76 eV. - Highlights: • Diamagnetic Zn{sup 2+} ionsubstitution on magnetic and optical properties of barium hexaferrite has been investigated. • All products are ferromagnetic. • The grain sizes are much larger than the critical dimension of 431 nm to exhibit single-domain nature.

  13. Influence of stoichiometry on the magnetic disaccommodation in M-type Sr hexaferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Gomez, Pablo; Torres, Carlos; Francisco, Carlos de; Munoz, J.M.; Alejos, Oscar; Iniguez, J.I.; Raposo, Victor

    2004-01-01

    The relaxation of the initial permeability has been measured in polycrystalline Sr hexaferrites with the initial composition SrO·nFe 2 O 3 (n=5.7, 6), prepared by means of standard ceramic techniques in air as well as CO 2 sintering atmospheres. The isochronal disaccommodation spectra show the presence of different relaxation processes, depending on both the sintering atmosphere and especially the initial composition, and associated to ionic reorientations of ferrous cations and lattice vacancies in the different metallic sites within the spinel (S) and hexagonal (R) blocks of the close packed lattice

  14. Improvement of the performance of microwave X band absorbers based on pure and doped Ba-hexaferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyyed Afghahi, Seyyed Salman [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Imam Hossein University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafarian, Mojtaba, E-mail: m.jafarian@srbiau.ac.ir [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salehi, Mohsen [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Atassi, Yomen [Department of Applied Physics, Higher Institute for Applied Sciences and Technology, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2017-01-01

    Optimum Fe/Ba mole ratio is determined in doped Ba-hexaferrite prepared via mechanical activation. X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and vector network analyzer are used to analyze phases, structures, electromagnetic and microwave absorption properties. The mole ratio of Fe/Ba=10 is detected to be optimum for doping and synthesizing the Ba-hexaferrite. In order to achieve high absorption in X band the ions of Zr{sup 4+}–Sn{sup 4+}–Ti{sup 4+}–M{sup 2+} (M=Mg{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}) are used as dopants. The results indicate the formation of single phase Ba-hexaferrite in either pure or doped compounds without any non-magnetic intermediate phases and with spherical and hexagonal morphologies respectively for the pure and doped ferrite. It is found out that BaCo{sub 2}Zr(SnTi){sub 0.5}Fe{sub 8}O{sub 19} compound has the maximum saturation magnetization (49.80 emu/g). Also the composite of BaCo{sub 2}Zr(SnTi){sub 0.5}Fe{sub 8}O{sub 19} 50 wt% in epoxy resin exhibits a minimum reflection loss of −29 dB at 12.2 GHz with 2.6 GHz bandwidth. - Highlights: • Optimum Fe/Ba mole ratio is determined in doped Ba-hexaferrite. • Formation of a single phase M-hexaferrite, pure or doped when Fe/Ba=10. • Preparation of microwave absorber of BaCo{sub 2}Zr(SnTi){sub 0.5}Fe{sub 8}O{sub 19}/epoxy resin, 50 wt%. • The absorber exhibits a minimum RL of −29 dB at 12.2 GHz with 2.6 GHz bandwidth.

  15. Solitonic supercontinuum of femtosecond mid-IR pulses in W-type index tellurite fibers with two zero dispersion wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kedenburg

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed experimental parameter study on mid-IR supercontinuum generation in W-type index tellurite fibers, which reveals how the core diameter, pump wavelength, fiber length, and pump power dramatically influence the spectral broadening. As pump source, we use femtosecond mid-IR pulses from a post-amplified optical parametric oscillator tunable between 1.7 μm and 4.1 μm at 43 MHz repetition rate. We are able to generate red-shifted dispersive waves up to a wavelength of 5.1 μm by pumping a tellurite fiber in the anomalous dispersion regime between its two zero dispersion wavelengths. Distinctive soliton dynamics can be identified as the main broadening mechanism resulting in a maximum spectral width of over 2000 nm with output powers of up to 160 mW. We experimentally demonstrated that efficient spectral broadening with considerably improved power proportion in the important first atmospheric transmission window between 3 and 5 μm can be achieved in robust W-type tellurite fibers pumped at long wavelengths by ultra-fast lasers.

  16. Monolithic Magneto-Optical Nanocomposites of Barium Hexaferrite Platelets in PMMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferk, Gregor; Krajnc, Peter; Hamler, Anton; Mertelj, Alenka; Cebollada, Federico; Drofenik, Miha; Lisjak, Darja

    2015-06-12

    The incorporation of magnetic barium hexaferrite nanoparticles in a transparent polymer matrix of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is reported for the first time. The barium hexaferrite nanoplatelets doped with Sc(3+), i.e., BaSc0.5Fe11.5O12 (BaHF), having diameters in the range 20 to 130 nm and thicknesses of approximately 5 nm, are synthesized hydrothermally and stabilized in 1-butanol with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid. This method enables the preparation of monolithic nanocomposites by admixing the BaHF suspension into a liquid monomer, followed by in-situ, bulk free-radical polymerization. The PMMA retains its transparency for loadings of BaHF nanoparticles up to 0.27 wt.%, meaning that magnetically and optically anisotropic, monolithic nanocomposites can be synthesized when the polymerization is carried out in a magnetic field. The excellent dispersion of the magnetic nanoparticles, coupled with a reasonable control over the magnetic properties achieved in this investigation, is encouraging for the magneto-optical applications of these materials.

  17. Effects of Gd substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litsardakis, G. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)]. E-mail: Lits@eng.auth.gr; Manolakis, I. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Serletis, C. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Efthimiadis, K.G. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

    2007-09-15

    The effect of Gd substitution in M-type strontium hexaferrites has been examined in two series of samples, (Sr{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x})O.5.25Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Sr{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x}Fe{sub 12-x}Co{sub x}O{sub 19}, both prepared by the ceramic method, where x=0-0.40. The samples have been characterized by XRD, VSM and SEM-EDAX techniques. All substituted samples present primarily the hexaferrite structure. Sample (Sr{sub 0.95}Gd{sub x0.05})O.5.25Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is single phase. Formation of impurity phases is affected by stoichiometry and presence of Co. In Sr-Gd samples, coercivity showed a maximum value of 305kA/m (3.8kOe) for x=0.20, while remanence and saturation magnetization did not decrease. Coercivity and magnetization in the Sr-Gd-Co series decreased steadily with substitution degree.

  18. Simple schemes for generation of W-type multipartite entangled states and realization of quantum-information concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng-Yu, Zhang; Shi-Qing, Tang; Li-Jun, Xie; Xiao-Gui, Zhan; Yin-Hua, Chen; Feng, Gao

    2010-01-01

    We propose simple schemes for generating W-type multipartite entangled states in cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED). Our schemes involve a largely detuned interaction of Λ-type three-level atoms with a single-mode cavity field and a classical laser, and both the symmetric and asymmetric W states can be created in a single step. Our schemes are insensitive to both the cavity decay and atomic spontaneous emission. With the above system, we also propose a scheme for realizing quantum-information concentration which is the reverse process of quantum cloning. In this scheme, quantum-information originally coming from a single qubit, but now distributed into many qubits, is concentrated back to a single qubit in only one step. (general)

  19. Quasi-epitaxial barium hexaferrite thin films prepared by a topotactic reactive diffusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Siqin; Yue, Zhenxing; Zhang, Xiaozhi; Li, Longtu

    2014-01-01

    Quasi-epitaxial barium hexaferrite thin films (BaM) with crystallographic c-axis parallel to film normal were prepared through a topotactic reactive diffusion process using two-step solution deposition on c-plane sapphire. The two-step spin coating process involves preparing an epitaxial hematite film, coating the film with barium precursor solution and thermal annealing. The crystal orientation and magnetic anisotropy of BaM thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis, SEM observation and magnetic measurements. Hysteresis loops showed good magnetic anisotropy and high remanence ratio (RR) Mr/Ms = 0.97. The films fabricated by two-step spin coating process displayed wider rocking curve width but better magnetic anisotropy than one-step spin coating. The possible mechanism of this discrepancy is discussed in this paper.

  20. Quasi-epitaxial barium hexaferrite thin films prepared by a topotactic reactive diffusion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Siqin; Yue, Zhenxing, E-mail: yuezhx@tsinghua.edu.cn; Zhang, Xiaozhi; Li, Longtu

    2014-01-30

    Quasi-epitaxial barium hexaferrite thin films (BaM) with crystallographic c-axis parallel to film normal were prepared through a topotactic reactive diffusion process using two-step solution deposition on c-plane sapphire. The two-step spin coating process involves preparing an epitaxial hematite film, coating the film with barium precursor solution and thermal annealing. The crystal orientation and magnetic anisotropy of BaM thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis, SEM observation and magnetic measurements. Hysteresis loops showed good magnetic anisotropy and high remanence ratio (RR) Mr/Ms = 0.97. The films fabricated by two-step spin coating process displayed wider rocking curve width but better magnetic anisotropy than one-step spin coating. The possible mechanism of this discrepancy is discussed in this paper.

  1. Growth of Ba-hexaferrite films on single crystal 6-H SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhoahui; Yang, Aria; Yoon, S.D.; Ziemer, Katherine; Vittoria, Carmine; Harris, V.G.

    2006-01-01

    Barium hexaferrite films have been processed by pulsed laser deposition on single crystal 6-H silicon carbide substrates. Atomic force microscopy images show hexagonal crystals (∼0.5μm in diameter) oriented with the c-axis perpendicular to the film plane. X-ray θ-2θ diffraction measurements indicate a strong (0,0,2n) alignment of crystallites. The magnetization for low-pressure deposition (20mTorr) is comparable to bulk values (4πM s ∼4320G). The loop squareness, important for self-bias microwave device applications, increases with oxygen pressure reaching a maximum value of 70%. This marks the first growth of a microwave ferrite on SiC substrates and offers a new approach in the design and development of μ-wave and mm-wave monolithic integrated circuits. c integrated circuits

  2. The magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrites with La-Cu substitution prepared by SHS method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Liang; You Lishun; Zheng Jingwu; Jiang Liqiang; Sheng Jiawei

    2007-01-01

    La-Cu substituted strontium hexaferrites with the chemical composition of Sr 1- x La x Fe 12- x Cu x O 19 were prepared by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. The effects of La-Cu substitution on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Sr-ferrites were studied. The XRD results show that all the samples are single SrM-type phase for x 1- x La x Fe 12- x Cu x O 19 are remarkably improved for x 2+ by La 3+ in the Sr-layer makes the Cu 2+ preferably substitutes the Fe 3+ in 4f 2 sites is predicted to be associated with the improvement of the magnetic properties of La-Cu substituted samples

  3. Electromagnetic behavior of radar absorbing materials based on Ca hexaferrite modified with Co-Ti ions and doped with La

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdirene Aparecida da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Radar Absorbing Materials (RAM are compounds that absorb incidental electromagnetic radiation in tuned frequencies and dissipate it as heat. Its preparation involves the adequate processing of polymeric matrices filled with compounds that act as radar absorbing centers in the microwave range. This work shows the electromagnetic evaluation of RAM based on CoTi and La doped Ca hexaferrite. Vibrating Sample Magnetization analyses show that ion substitution promoted low values for the parameters of saturation magnetization (123.65 Am2/kg and coercive field (0.07 T indicating ferrite softening. RAM samples obtained using different hexaferrite concentrations (40-80 per cent, w/w show variations in complex permeability and permittivity parameters and also in the performance of incidental radiation attenuation. Microwave attenuation values between 40 and 98 per cent were obtained.

  4. Tailoring magnetic properties of self-biased hexaferrites using an alternative copolymer of isobutylene and maleic anhydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuanjian; Yu, Zhong; Sokolov, Alexander S.; Yu, Chengju; Sun, Ke; Jiang, Xiaona; Lan, Zhongwen; Harris, Vincent G.

    2018-05-01

    Discussed is a novel self-biased hexaferrite gelling system based on a nontoxic and water-soluble copolymer of isobutylene and maleic anhydride. This copolymer simultaneously acts as a dispersant and gelling agent, and recently received much attention from the ceramics community. Herein its effects on the rheological conditions throughout magnetic-field pressing, and consequently, orientation, density and magnetic properties of textured hexaferrites were investigated. Ka-band FMR linewidths were measured, and the crystalline anisotropy and porosity induced linewidth broadening were estimated according to Schlömann's theory. The copolymer allowed to reduce the friction between micron-sized magnetic particulates, resulting in higher density and degree of crystalline orientation, and lower FMR linewidth.

  5. Enhancement of structural and magnetic properties of M-type hexaferrite permanent magnet based on synthesis temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Safia; Sehar, Fatima; Mustafa, Zeeshan; Awan, M. S.

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this research work is to develop the single domain magnetic particles of M-type barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) using oxide precursors employing conventional powder metallurgy technique. The phase formation and magnetic performance of the powders and magnets will be optimized by adjusting calcination and sintering temperatures. The synthesis of M-type barium hexaferrite was carried out in two sections. A series of four samples have been prepared by initial wet mixed powders calcined at different temperatures, i.e., 750, 850, 950 and 1050 °C. On the basis of structural analysis, the sample calcined at 950 °C has been selected and further divided into four parts to sintered them at 1100, 1150, 1200 and 1250 °C. The structural measurements depict the confirmation of M-type barium hexaferrite structure. SEM micrographs show the hexagonal-shaped grains. The abrupt decrease in coercivity for the sample sintered at 1250 °C has been seen which may be due to high sintering temperature, at which the particles have multi-domain properties.

  6. Magnetic properties of co-precipitated hexaferrite powders with Sm-Co substitutions optimized with the molten flux method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serletis, C.; Litsardakis, G.; Pavlidou, E.; Efthimiadis, K. G.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, using the chemical coprecipitation method, Sr1-xSmxFe12-xCoxO19 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2) hexaferrite powders were prepared. Major magnetization loops were recorded at room temperature in order to determine the correct calcination temperature for optimum hard magnetic properties. It is found that a small degree of substitution increases substantially the coercive field. Also, the use of the molten flux calcination method increases the remanent magnetization. SEM/EDXS and XRD measurements were performed at the calcined powders: the results show that a single hexaferrite phase is formed and that the substituted powders consist of an assembly of grains with a mean diameter of 40 nm. Measurements of minor magnetization loops and of the temperature and time dependence of the magnetization confirm that the powders consist of a non-oriented single domain magnetic particles assembly. The results indicate that Sm could be a viable replacement for La in the manufacturing of hexaferrites with a high-energy product.

  7. A comparison of the influence of different dopants on the radar-absorbing properties of barium hexaferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.; Suder, M.M.; Edge, A.J.J.; Stewart, G.A.; Hutchison, W.D.; Amiet, A.; Jewsbury, P.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The ferromagnetic resonance of barium hexaferrite is at approximately 48 GHz, which sits well above the frequency bands employed by most radar systems. However, certain elements (or combinations of elements), when doped into the iron sub-lattice, have been observed to weaken the system's uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy and thereby lower the ferromagnetic resonance frequency. This contribution presents a survey of ferromagnetic resonance frequencies published in the literature, as well as resonance frequencies that we have converted from published magnetic characterisations of the magnetic anisotropy. In several cases we have confirmed the reliability of such converted values, and new data will be presented for (Co 1/2 Zr 1/2 )- and (Co 1/2 Mo 1/2 )-doped barium hexaferrite. Our specimen materials were prepared by solid state reaction, and characterised using x-ray powder diffraction and 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The electromagnetic response characteristics were recorded with a microwave network analyser, using either a co-axial specimen (0 - 18 GHz) or a larger, planar tile specimen (0 - 40 GHz). An ideal radar absorbing material would require just a small concentration of an inexpensive dopant to lower the ferromagnetic resonance frequency into the 0 - 2 GHz band that is typical of long-range radars. The likelihood of finding such a doped barium hexaferrite system will be discussed

  8. Crystal structure refinement, dielectric and magnetic properties of Ca/Pb substituted SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooda, Ashima [Department of Physics, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Murthal 131039, Haryana (India); Sanghi, Sujata, E-mail: sutkash@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar 125001, Haryana (India); Agarwal, Ashish [Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar 125001, Haryana (India); Dahiya, Reetu [Department of Physics, Hindu Girls College, Sonepat 131001, Haryana (India)

    2015-08-01

    SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (SFO), Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (SCFO) and Sr{sub 0.5}Pb{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (SPFO) hexaferrites have been synthesized by a conventional solid state reaction technique. Powder X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement confirm the presence of M-type hexagonal phase in prepared samples. However in SCFO, secondary phase was also present with main phase. Analysis of Nyquist's plots of SFO hexaferrite revealed the contribution of many electrically active regions corresponding to bulk mechanism, distribution of grain boundaries and electrode processes also. Both conductivity and electric modulus formalisms have been employed to study the relaxation dynamics of charge carriers. A perfect overlapping of the normalized plots of modulus isotherms on a single ‘super curve’ for all the studied temperatures reveals a temperature independence of dynamic processes involved in conduction and for relaxation. In SPFO sample coercivity is reduced effectively but accompanied with increase in magnetization, which is requirement for hexaferrites to be used as magnetic recording media. - Highlights: • Samples have hexagonal phase with space group P6{sub 3}/mmc. • SPFO hexaferrite may be used for microwave devices. • SPFO hexaferrite may be used for magnetic recording media.

  9. Investigation on structural properties of M-type strontium hexaferrite synthesized in presence of neem and aloe-vera plant leaves extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Neha; Jotania, Rajshree B.

    2017-05-01

    M-type strontium hexaferrite powder samples were synthesized using a green synthesis route with and without presence of Aloe vera and Neem leaves extract. The dry brownish precursors of strontium hexaferrite were recovered from a mixed solution of metal salts and leaves extract, heated at 100 °C. The obtained precursors were pre-heated at 500 °C for 4 hrs. followed by final heating at 950 °C for 4 hrs. in a muffle furnace to obtain SrFe12O19 hexaferrite powder. The obtained SrFe12O19 hexaferrite powder samples characterized at room temperature in order to check phase purity and structural properties. XRD analysis confirms that samples prepared without and with Aloe vera leaves extract (heated at 950 °C for 4 hrs.) show formation of α-Fe2O3 and M-phase; while the sample prepared in presence of Neem leaves extract (heated at 950 °C for 4 hrs.) show formation of mono phase of strontium hexaferrite. Lattice parameter (a) and cell volume (V) are found to increase in the samples prepared in presence of Aloe vera and Neem leaves extract.

  10. Origin of absorption peaks in reflection loss spectrum in Ku- frequency band of Co-Zr substituted strontium hexaferrites prepared using sucrose precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narang, Sukhleen Bindra, E-mail: sukhleen2@yahoo.com [Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (India); Pubby, Kunal, E-mail: kunalpubby02@gmail.com [Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (India); Chawla, S.K., E-mail: sschawla118@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Advanced Studies-I, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (India); Kaur, Prabhjyot, E-mail: prabhjyot.2525@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Advanced Studies-I, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (India)

    2017-03-15

    This study presents the detailed explanation of the factors, contributing towards the absorption peaks in reflection loss spectrum of hexaferrites. Cobalt-Zirconium substituted strontium hexaferrites, synthesized using sucrose precursor sol-gel technique, were analyzed in 12.4–18 GHz frequency range. The concepts of impedance matching through quarter wavelength condition, complex thickness, dielectric phase angle and attenuation constant have been used to determine the location as well as intensity of absorption peaks. This study also demonstrates the potential application of three compositions of this series with doping content (x)==0.0, 0.6 and 0.8 as an effective microwave absorbers in Ku-frequency band. - Highlights: • EM analysis of Sr Hexaferrites in Ku-band. • Factors towards absorption peak intensity & location.

  11. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type and W-type entangled coherent states: Generation and Bell-type inequality tests without photon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyunseok; Nguyen Ba An

    2006-01-01

    We study Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type (GHZ-type) and W-type three-mode entangled coherent states. Both types of entangled coherent states violate Mermin's version of the Bell inequality with threshold photon detection (i.e., without photon counting). Such an experiment can be performed using linear optics elements and threshold detectors with significant Bell violations for GHZ-type entangled coherent states. However, to demonstrate Bell-type inequality violations for W-type entangled coherent states, additional nonlinear interactions are needed. We also propose an optical scheme to generate W-type entangled coherent states in free-traveling optical fields. The required resources for the generation are a single-photon source, a coherent state source, beam splitters, phase shifters, photodetectors, and Kerr nonlinearities. Our scheme does not necessarily require strong Kerr nonlinear interactions; i.e., weak nonlinearities can be used for the generation of the W-type entangled coherent states. Furthermore, it is also robust against inefficiencies of the single-photon source and the photon detectors

  12. Site occupancy and magnetic properties of Al-substituted M-type strontium hexaferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, Vivek; Nandadasa, Chandani N.; Kim, Seong-Gon, E-mail: kimsg@ccs.msstate.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 (United States); Center for Computational Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 (United States); Kim, Sungho [Center for Computational Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 (United States); Park, Jihoon; Hong, Yang-Ki [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and MINT Center, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Liyanage, Laalitha S. I. [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States); Moitra, Amitava [Thematic Unit of Excellence on Computational Materials Science, S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Sector-III, Block-JD, Salt Lake, Kolkata-700098 (India)

    2015-06-28

    We use first-principles total-energy calculations based on density functional theory to study the site occupancy and magnetic properties of Al-substituted M-type strontium hexaferrite SrFe{sub 12−x}Al{sub x}O{sub 19} with x = 0.5 and x = 1.0. We find that the non-magnetic Al{sup 3+} ions preferentially replace Fe{sup 3+} ions at two of the majority spin sites, 2a and 12k, eliminating their positive contribution to the total magnetization causing the saturation magnetization M{sub s} to be reduced as Al concentration x is increased. Our formation probability analysis further provides the explanation for increased magnetic anisotropy field when the fraction of Al is increased. Although Al{sup 3+} ions preferentially occupy the 2a sites at a low temperature, the occupation probability of the 12k site increases with the rise of the temperature. At a typical annealing temperature (>700 °C) Al{sup 3+} ions are much more likely to occupy the 12k site than the 2a site. Although this causes the magnetocrystalline anisotropy K{sub 1} to be reduced slightly, the reduction in M{sub s} is much more significant. Their combined effect causes the anisotropy field H{sub a} to increase as the fraction of Al is increased, consistent with recent experimental measurements.

  13. Magnetic and Dielectric Investigations of Mn-Doped Ba Hexaferrite Nanoparticles by Hydrothermal Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeela, N.; Khan, U.; Iqbal, M.; Riaz, S.; Ali, H.; Maaz, K.; Naseem, S.

    2016-11-01

    A hydrothermal method followed by heat treatment was used to synthesize Mn-substituted Ba2Co2- x Mn x Fe12O22 nanoparticles with a nominal chemical composition of 0 ≤ x < 1 and step gap of 0.3. In this study, the effect of Mn substitution on Co2Y-type barium hexaferrite is investigated after employing x-ray diffraction for crystal structure, field emission scanning electron microscopy for morphology, energy dispersive analysis of x-ray spectroscopy for elemental composition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to confirm bond modes, and vibrating sample magnetometry for magnetic measurements. It was found that the sample at x = 0.9 is of particular interest due to its large coercivity and anisotropy. Later on, for x = 0.9, temperature-dependent magnetic analyses including hysteresis loops, zero-field-cooled, and field-cooled at a particular field of 100 Oe were performed. The decreasing trend in saturation magnetization with increase in temperature was estimated. On the other hand, first an increase and then decrease in coercivity values were observed. These loops also revealed dependence of coercivity on magneto-crystalline anisotropy and average crystallite size of nanoparticles. Dielectric measurements at x = 0.9 make it suitable for high frequency applications.

  14. Structural and magnetic properties of conventional and microwave treated Ni–Zr doped barium strontium hexaferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanagesan, S.; Jesurani, S.; Velmurugan, R.; Prabu, S.; Kalaivani, T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Saturation magnetization increases whereas the coercivity decreases. ► The transition from hard phase to soft phase. ► Therefore, it is used for high-density magnetic recording applications. -- Abstract: M-type hexaferrites of component B 0.5 Sr 0.5 Fe 12−2x Ni x Zr x O 19 were investigated. The XRD patterns show single phase of the magnetoplumbite barium strontium ferrite and no other phases were present. Significant increase in line broadening of the XRD patterns was observed indicating a decrease of grain size. The samples exhibit well defined crystallization; all of them are hexagonal platelet grains. As the substitution level increased x = 0.2–0.8 mol%, the grains are agglomerated and the average diameter increased. The H c decreases remarkably with increasing Ni and Zr ions content. It was found that the particle size could be effectively decreased and coercivity H c could easily be controlled by varying the concentration (x) without significantly decreasing saturation magnetization. In particular, Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 Fe 12−2x Ni x Zr x O 19 with x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mol% has suitable magnetic characteristics with particle size small enough for high-density magnetic recording applications.

  15. Preparation and investigation of structural, magnetic and microwave absorption properties of cerium doped barium hexaferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kameli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the structure, magnetic and microwave absorption properties of cerium (Ce doped barium hexaferrite with general formulae BaCexFe12-xO19 (x=0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 have been investigated. These samples have been prepared by sol- gel method. Influence of replacing Fe+3 ion by rare- earth Ce+3 ion on the structural, magnetic and microwave absorption properties have been investigated by X- ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR, Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM and vector network analyzer (VNA. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the samples are of single phase with space group p63/mmc. The magnetic properties of samples indicated that with the Ce doping the saturation magnetization show no regular behavior. Moreover, coercivity (Hc first decreased and reached to the minimum value for x=0.1 sample and then increased with Ce content increasing. Also, measurement of electromagnetic wave absorption in X and Ku frequency bands indicated that the maximum of reflection loss obtained for x=0.15 sample. Moreover, result indicated that absorption peak shifted toward a lower frequency when thickness was increased.

  16. Pressure-induced Polarization Reversal in Z-type Hexaferrite Single Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Byung-Gu; Chun, Sae Hwan; Kim, Kee Hoon

    2012-02-01

    Multiferroic materials with a gigantic magnetoelectric (ME) coupling at room temperature have been searched for applications to novel devices. Recently, large direct and converse ME effects were realized at room temperature in the so-called Z-type hexaferrite (Ba,Sr)3Co2Fe24O41 single crystals [1,2]. To obtain a new control parameter for realizing a sensitive ME tuning, we studied ME properties of the crystals under uniaxial pressure. Upon applying a tiny uniaxial pressure of about 0.6 GPa, magnetic field-driven electric polarization reversal and anomaly in a M-H loop start to appear at 10 K and gradually disappear at higher temperature above 130 K. By comparing those results with longitudinal magnetostriction at ambient pressure, we propose the pressure-dependent variations of transverse conical spin configuration as well as its domain structure under small magnetic field bias, and point out the possibility of having two different physical origins of the ME coupling in this system. [1] Y. Kitagawa et al., Nat. Mater. 9, 797 (2010) [2] S. H. Chun et al., submitted.

  17. Simultaneous effect of crystal lattice and non magnetic substitution on magnetic properties of barium hexaferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Supriya, Sweety; Pradhan, Lagen Kumar; Pandey, Rabichandra; Kar, Manoranjan

    2018-05-01

    The aluminium doped barium hexaferrite BaFe12-xAlxO19 with x =0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 have been synthesized by the sol-gel method to modify the magnetic properties for technological applications. The crystal structure and phase purity of all the samples have been explored by employing the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. It confirms that the sample is nanocrystalline, hexagonal symmetry and all the intense peaks could be indexed to the P63/mmc space group. The obtained lattice parameters from the XRD analysis decrease with the increase in Al3+ content in the samples. The microstructural morphology and particle sizes of all samples were studied by using the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM-Hitachi-S4800) technique. The magnetic hysteresis (M-H) loops measurement has been carried out at room temperature by employing the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) over a field range of +20 kOe to -20 kOe. The magnetic hysteresis (M-H) loops revealed the ferromagnetic (hard magnetic materials) nature of the samples and, analyzed by using the Law of Approach to Saturation.

  18. Influence of La-Mn substitutions on magnetic properties of M-type strontium hexaferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Z. F.; Ma, X. H.; Wei, Y. Y.; Liu, Q. C.; Zhang, M.; Zhu, X. B.; Sun, Y. P.

    2018-05-01

    M-type strontium hexaferrites of Sr1-xLaxFe12-xMnxO19 (0.0≤x≤0.4) were synthesized by the chemical coprecipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicate that the samples are single-phase with the space group of P63/mmc. The results of field-emission scanning electronic microscopy (FE-SEM) show that the grains are regular hexagonal platelets with sizes from 0.7 to 1.4 μm. It is observed that the value of Hc increases at low substitution (x ≤ 0.1), reaches a maximum at x = 0.1 and then decreases at x ≥ 0.1, while the value of Ms decreases monotonously with increasing x. The variations of magnetic properties can be tentatively attributed to the effects of La-Mn substitutions. The results above indicate that our samples might be promising candidates for permanent magnets in the future.

  19. Electrical conductivity of cobalt–titanium substituted SrCaM hexaferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eraky, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    A series of polycrystalline M-type hexagonal ferrites with the composition Sr 0.5 Ca 0.5 Co x Ti x Fe 12−2x O 19 (where x=0.0–0.8) were prepared by the conventional ceramic technique. The electrical conductivity has been measured from 300 to 590 K. The dc conductivity, σ dc , exhibited a semiconductor behavior. The negative sign of thermoelectric power coefficient S reveals that all samples are n-type semiconductors. Both σ dc and mobility, μ d , increases with the substitution of Co 2+ and Ti 4+ ions, reach maximum at x=0.4 and start decreasing at x>0.4. Many conduction mechanisms were discussed to explain the electric conduction in the system. It was found that the hopping conduction is the predominant conduction mechanism. For samples with compositional parameter x=0.0 and 0.8, the band conduction mechanism shares in electric conduction beside the hopping process. - Highlights: ► SrCaCoTiM hexaferrites have been prepared by conventional ceramic technique. ► The electrical conductivity exhibited a semiconductor behavior. There is an increase in conductivity up to x=0.4 for Co and Ti substitution. ► The hopping conduction is the predominant conduction mechanism.

  20. Growth, structural and magnetic characterization of Al-substituted barium hexaferrite single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnik, D.A.; Zherebtsov, D.A.; Mashkovtseva, L.S.; Nemrava, S.; Bischoff, M.; Perov, N.S.; Semisalova, A.S.; Krivtsov, I.V.; Isaenko, L.I.; Mikhailov, G.G.; Niewa, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Growth of large Al-substituted crystals BaFe 12−x Al x O 19. • Al-content controllable by flux composition. • Crystallographic site preference of Al unraveled. • Magnetic characterization depending on Al-content. - Abstract: Large single crystals of aluminum-substituted M-type barium hexaferrite BaFe 12−x Al x O 19 were obtained from carbonate flux. The Al content in the crystals can be controlled via the Al content of the flux up to x = 1.1 according to single crystal X-ray structure refinements. Al shows a distinct preference to substitute Fe on crystallographic sites with high coordination numbers by oxygen atoms, whereas no significant amounts of Al can be found on a tetrahedrally coordinated site. An increasing amount of the aluminum dopant results in a monotonous reduction of the Curie temperature from 440 to 415 °C and the saturation magnetization at room temperature from 68 to 57 emu/g for single crystal and from 61 to 53 emu/g for powder samples

  1. Structural and magnetic Properties of TbZn-substituted calcium barium M-type nano-structured hexa-ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Hasan M. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Department of Electronics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Islam, M.U., E-mail: dr.misbahulislam@bzu.edu.pk [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Xu, Yongbing [Department of Electronics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Nanjing–York International Centre of Spintronics and Nano-Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Asif Iqbal, M. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); National University of Science and Technology, College of E and ME, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, Irshad [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Tb–Zn substituted Ca{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} samples exhibit single magnetoplumbite phase. • Lattice parameters a and c have increasing values. • Coercivity can be tuned at lower substitution level • Crystallites size was found in the range 18–25 nm by TEM and by Scherrer formula. • These hexa-ferrites are suitable for microwave devices and magnetic recording media. -- Abstract: Effect of TbZn substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of Ca{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5−x}Tb{sub x}Zn{sub y}Fe{sub 12−y}O{sub 19}, (x = 0.00–0.10; y = 0.00–1.00) ferrites prepared by sol–gel auto combustion is reported. The synthesized samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Vibrating Sample magnetometery. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed single phase M-type hexa-ferrite structure. The lattice parameters were found to increase as TbZn contents increases, which is attributed to the ionic sizes of the implicated cations. The TbZn seems to be completely soluble in the lattice. The results of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy shows that the grain size decreases with increase of TbZn substitution. The coercivity values (1277–2025 Oe) of all samples lies in the range of M-type hexa-ferrite and indicate that an increase of anisotropy was achieved by substitution of TbZn, while the size of nanoparticles was drastically reduced between 18 and 25 nm. The increased anisotropy and fine particle size are useful for many applications, such as improving signal noise ratio of recording devices.

  2. Polyacrylamide Ferrogels with Magnetite or Strontium Hexaferrite: Next Step in the Development of Soft Biomimetic Matter for Biosensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P. Safronov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic biosensors are an important part of biomedical applications of magnetic materials. As the living tissue is basically a “soft matter.” this study addresses the development of ferrogels (FG with micron sized magnetic particles of magnetite and strontium hexaferrite mimicking the living tissue. The basic composition of the FG comprised the polymeric network of polyacrylamide, synthesized by free radical polymerization of monomeric acrylamide (AAm in water solution at three levels of concentration (1.1 M, 0.85 M and 0.58 M to provide the FG with varying elasticity. To improve FG biocompatibility and to prevent the precipitation of the particles, polysaccharide thickeners—guar gum or xanthan gum were used. The content of magnetic particles in FG varied up to 5.2 wt % depending on the FG composition. The mechanical properties of FG and their deformation in a uniform magnetic field were comparatively analyzed. FG filled with strontium hexaferrite particles have larger Young’s modulus value than FG filled with magnetite particles, most likely due to the specific features of the adhesion of the network’s polymeric subchains on the surface of the particles. FG networks with xanthan are stronger and have higher modulus than the FG with guar. FG based on magnetite, contract in a magnetic field 0.42 T, whereas some FG based on strontium hexaferrite swell. Weak FG with the lowest concentration of AAm shows a much stronger response to a field, as the concentration of AAm governs the Young’s modulus of ferrogel. A small magnetic field magnetoimpedance sensor prototype with Co68.6Fe3.9Mo3.0Si12.0B12.5 rapidly quenched amorphous ribbon based element was designed aiming to develop a sensor working with a disposable stripe sensitive element. The proposed protocol allowed measurements of the concentration dependence of magnetic particles in gels using magnetoimpedance responses in the presence of magnetite and strontium hexaferrite ferrogels

  3. Magnetic Properties and Structural Characteristics of BaFe12O19 Hexaferrites Synthesized by the Zol-Gel Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, V. A.; Itin, V. I.; Minin, R. V.; Lopushnyak, Yu. M.; Velikanov, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    The phase structure, structural parameters, and basic magnetic characteristics of BaFe12O19 hexaferrites prepared by the zol-gel combustion method with subsequent annealing at a temperature of 850°C for 6 h are investigated. The influence of the organic fuel type on the properties of synthesized materials is analyzed. Values of the saturation magnetization and the anisotropy field are determined. It is established that they depend on the organic fuel type. It is shown that powders synthesized with citric acid used as a fuel have the largest particle sizes and the highest saturation magnetization.

  4. Microwave absorption and {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer properties of Ni-Ti doped barium hexaferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harker, S. J., E-mail: stephen.harker@defence.gov.au [Russell Offices, Program Office, Defence Science and Technology Organisation (Australia); Stewart, G. A.; Hutchison, W. D. [UNSW Canberra at the Australian Defence Force Academy, School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences (Australia); Amiet, A. [Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Maritime Division (Australia); Tucker, D. [UNSW Canberra at the Australian Defence Force Academy, School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences (Australia)

    2015-04-15

    The impact of doping the Fe component of barium hexaferrite with Ni{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5} is investigated using x-ray powder diffraction, {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and microwave network analysis. The dopant ions exhibit a preference for the 2b, 4f{sub 2} and 12k-sites and the unit cell volume is observed to decrease. The ferromagnetic resonance frequency is reduced by about 11.5 GHz for each additional dopant ion per formula unit.

  5. Magneto-optical effects of reflection on monocrystals of ferrite garnets, orthoferrites hexaferrites and hematite. [Yttrium oxides iron oxides; europium oxides; bismuth oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krinchik, G S; Krylova, V A; Khrebtov, A P; Chepurova, E E

    1975-01-01

    The results of experimental studies of the equatorial Kerr effect in visible and ultraviolet ranges of the spectrum are given for ferromagnetic dielectrics of different classes: ferrimagnetic ferrite garnets and hexaferrites, as well as weakly ferromagnetic orthoferrites and hematite. A method for the nondestructive magneto-optical data readout using reflected light is proposed and described.

  6. Synthesis and micro-structural characterization of graphene/strontium hexaferrite (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durmus, Zehra, E-mail: zdurmus@bezmialem.edu.tr [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Bezmialem Vakif University, 34093, Fatih, Istanbul (Turkey); Kavas, Huseyin [Department of Engineering Physics, Istanbul Medeniyet University, 34700, Kadıköy, Istanbul (Turkey); Durmus, Ali [Department of Chemical Engineering, Istanbul University, 34320, Avcılar, Istanbul (Turkey); Aktaş, Bekir [Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, 41400, Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2015-08-01

    In this study, novel type carbon/ferrite nanocomposites were successfully prepared by decoration of graphene sheets with the magnetic strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles synthesized via the citrate sol–gel combustion method as microwave absorbing material. The microstructural features and physical properties of nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods. Magnetic properties of the nanocomposites were determined by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). It was found that the surface of the graphene nanosheets were successfully decorated with the strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles and the resulting layered nanocomposite structures exhibited sufficiently high magnetic saturation values compared to the agglomerated structure of strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles although the nanocomposites include less active magnetic component than the bulk hexaferrite. - Highlights: • Novel type, two-dimensional carbon-ferrite nanocomposites were prepared. • 2D graphene sheets were successfully decorated with the SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles. • Morphologies of nanocomposites were characterized with SEM, TEM and AFM methods. • Graphene/SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanocomposites exhibited sufficiently high M{sub s} values.

  7. Influence of rare earth Ce3+ on structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Sr2+ based W-type hexagonal ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, Imran; Khan, Imran; Aen, Faiza; Islam, M.U.; Rana, M.U.

    2012-01-01

    A series of single phase W-type Sr 3-x Ce x Fe 16 O 27 (x=0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10) hexagonal ferrites prepared by the Sol-Gel method was sintered at 1050 °C for 5 h. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that all the samples belong to the family of W-type hexagonal ferrites. The c/a ratio falls in the range of W-type hexagonal ferrites. The grain size was measured by SEM varies from 0.7684 to 0.4366 μm which shows that the Ce 3+ substituted samples have smaller grain size than pure ferrite Sr 3 Fe 16 O 27 which results from the difference in ionic radii of Ce 3+ (1.034 Å) and Sr 2+ (1.12 Å). The room temperature resistivity of the present samples varies from 6.5×10 8 to 272×10 8 Ω-cm. The coercivity increases from 1370 to 1993 Oe which is consistent with the decrease in grain size. The coercivity values indicate that the present samples fall in the range of hard ferrites. The large value of H c may be due to domain wall pinning at the grain boundaries.

  8. Radiation losses in microwave K_u region by conducting pyrrole/barium titanate and barium hexaferrite based nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Talwinder; Kumar, Sachin; Narang, S.B.; Srivastava, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    Nanocomposites of substituted barium hexaferrite and barium titanate embedded in a polymer were synthesized via emulsion polymerization. The study was performed by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, a vibrating sample magnetometer and a vector network analyzer. It is found that maximum radiation loss occur at 16.09 GHz (−14.23 dB) frequency owing to the combined effect of conducting polymer, suitable dielectric and magnetic material. This suggests that prepared material is suitable for radiation losses. Micro structural study reveals the presence of all the phases of the compounds comprises composite. Benzene ring absorption band (at 1183 cm"−"1) in FT-IR spectra illustrates the presence of polymer. Surface morphology reveals the presence of array of particles encapsulated by the polymer. - Highlights: • Composites having polymer, barium titanate and hexaferrite have been successfully prepared. • Effective radiation absorption and losses have been achieved. • Magnetic properties have made an impact on shielding effectiveness.

  9. Radiation losses in microwave K{sub u} region by conducting pyrrole/barium titanate and barium hexaferrite based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Talwinder [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144411 (India); Kumar, Sachin [Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Narang, S.B. [Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Srivastava, A.K., E-mail: srivastava_phy@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144411 (India)

    2016-12-15

    Nanocomposites of substituted barium hexaferrite and barium titanate embedded in a polymer were synthesized via emulsion polymerization. The study was performed by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, a vibrating sample magnetometer and a vector network analyzer. It is found that maximum radiation loss occur at 16.09 GHz (−14.23 dB) frequency owing to the combined effect of conducting polymer, suitable dielectric and magnetic material. This suggests that prepared material is suitable for radiation losses. Micro structural study reveals the presence of all the phases of the compounds comprises composite. Benzene ring absorption band (at 1183 cm{sup −1}) in FT-IR spectra illustrates the presence of polymer. Surface morphology reveals the presence of array of particles encapsulated by the polymer. - Highlights: • Composites having polymer, barium titanate and hexaferrite have been successfully prepared. • Effective radiation absorption and losses have been achieved. • Magnetic properties have made an impact on shielding effectiveness.

  10. The mechanically induced structural disorder in barium hexaferrite, BaFe12O19, and its impact on magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Šepelák, V; Witte, R; Röder, J; Menzel, D; Schuster, R H; Hahn, H; Heitjans, P; Becker, K-D

    2014-01-01

    The response of the structure of the M-type barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) to mechanical action through high-energy milling and its impact on the magnetic behaviour of the ferrite are investigated. Due to the ability of the Fe-57 Mossbauer spectroscopic technique to probe the environment of the Fe nuclei, a valuable insight on a local atomic scale into the mechanically induced changes in the hexagonal structure of the material is obtained. It is revealed that the milling of BaFe12O19 results in the deformation of its constituent polyhedra (FeO6 octahedra, FeO4 tetrahedra and FeO5 triangular bi-pyramids) as well as in the mechanically triggered transition of the Fe3+ cations from the regular 12k octahedral sites into the interstitial positions provided by the magnetoplumbite structure. The response of the hexaferrite to the mechanical treatment is found to be accompanied by the formation of a non-uniform nanostructure consisting of an ordered crystallite surrounded/separated by a structurally disordered surfac...

  11. Role of grain boundaries in the conduction of Eu–Ni substituted Y-type hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Irshad, E-mail: irshadalibzu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Islam, M.U. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Naeem Ashiq, Muhammad, E-mail: naeemashiqqau@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Asif Iqbal, M. [National University of Sciences and Technology, EME College, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, Hasan M. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Murtaza, G. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

    2014-08-01

    Single phase nanostructured (Eu–Ni) substituted Y-type hexaferrites with nominal composition of Sr{sub 2}Co{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}Eu{sub y}Fe{sub 12−y}O{sub 22} (x=0.0–1, y=0.0–0.1) were synthesized by the microemulsion method. Temperature dependent DC electrical conductivity and drift mobility were found in good agreement with each other, reflecting semiconducting behavior. The presence of Debye peaks in imaginary electric modulus curves confirmed the existence of relaxation phenomena in given frequency range. The AC conductivity follows power law, with exponent (n) value, ranges from 0.81–0.97, indicating that the mechanism is due to polaron hopping. In the present ferrite system, Cole–Cole plots were used to separate the grain and grain boundary effects. Eu–Ni substitution leads to a remarkable rise of grain boundary resistance as compared to the grain resistance. As both AC conductivity and Cole–Cole plots are the functions of concentration, they reveal the dominant contribution of grain boundaries in the conduction mechanism. It was also observed that the AC activation energy is lower than the DC activation energy. Appreciable improved values of quality factor suggested the possible use of these synthesized materials for power applications and high frequency multilayer chip inductors. - Highlights: • Single phase nanostructures were synthesized by the micro-emulsion method. • Substitution leads to a remarkable rise of grain boundary resistance. • The AC activation energy is lower than the DC activation energy. • Improved values of quality factor make these materials useful for high frequency multilayer chip inductors.

  12. Structural and magnetic properties of conventional and microwave treated Ni-Zr doped barium strontium hexaferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanagesan, S., E-mail: kanagu1980@gmail.com [Center for Materials Science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Tamil Nadu (India); Jesurani, S. [Center for Materials Science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Physics, Jeyaraj Annapackium College for Women, Periyakulam 625601, Tamil Nadu (India); Velmurugan, R. [Center for Materials Science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Tamil Nadu (India); Prabu, S. [Department of Chemistry, S.K.P. Engineering College, Anna University of Technology Chennai, Thiruvannamalai 606 611, Tamil Nadu (India); Kalaivani, T. [Center for Materials Science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Saturation magnetization increases whereas the coercivity decreases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The transition from hard phase to soft phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Therefore, it is used for high-density magnetic recording applications. -- Abstract: M-type hexaferrites of component B{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12-2x}Ni{sub x}Zr{sub x}O{sub 19} were investigated. The XRD patterns show single phase of the magnetoplumbite barium strontium ferrite and no other phases were present. Significant increase in line broadening of the XRD patterns was observed indicating a decrease of grain size. The samples exhibit well defined crystallization; all of them are hexagonal platelet grains. As the substitution level increased x = 0.2-0.8 mol%, the grains are agglomerated and the average diameter increased. The H{sub c} decreases remarkably with increasing Ni and Zr ions content. It was found that the particle size could be effectively decreased and coercivity H{sub c} could easily be controlled by varying the concentration (x) without significantly decreasing saturation magnetization. In particular, Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12-2x}Ni{sub x}Zr{sub x}O{sub 19} with x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mol% has suitable magnetic characteristics with particle size small enough for high-density magnetic recording applications.

  13. Tailoring structure and magnetic characteristics of strontium hexaferrite via Al doping engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.Z.; Hai, Y.N. [State Key Lab of High Power Semiconductor Laser of Changchun University Science and Technology, Changchun University Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Yao, B., E-mail: binyao@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Superhard Materials and Department of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Xu, Y. [School of Physics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Shan, L. [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry and Department of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Xu, L.; Tang, J.L.; Wang, Q.H. [State Key Lab of High Power Semiconductor Laser of Changchun University Science and Technology, Changchun University Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Emerging structure and magnetic properties of Al{sup 3+}-modified SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} M-type hexaferrite system (SrAl{sub x}Fe{sub 12−x}O{sub 19}) had been studied in detail via doping engineering. With Al{sup 3+} ion nominal content ranging from 0 to 4 (0≤x≤4), the lattice parameters decrease due to the substitution of Fe{sup 3+} ions by smaller Al{sup 3+} ions, and the magnetization shows a continuous reduction with the increasing of Al content. For the coercivity, its value initially increases, reaching a maximum value of 16,876.9 Oe at x=3, and then reduces with the Al content further increase. When all the Fe{sup 3+} ions (x=4) are replaced by Al{sup 3+} ions, the net magnetic moment will be closed to zero, that will weaken the exchange interaction between Fe{sup 3+} ions, resulting in decrease of coercivity sharply and transformation ferrimagnetism into antiferromagnetism. The mechanism of the improvement of the magnetic properties induced by Al doping is discussed in the present work. - Highlights: • The coercivity reach a maximum value at x=3 in the SrAl{sub x}Fe{sub 12−x}O{sub 19}. • The coercivity of SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} increases due to nonmagnetic Al doping. • The saturation magnetization of SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} decreases due to nonmagnetic Al doping. • The transformation ferrimagnetism into antiferromagnetism by nonmagnetic Al doping.

  14. Growing barium hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) thin films using chemical solution deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budiawanti, Sri, E-mail: awanty77@yahoo.com [Graduate Program of Materials Science, Department of Physics, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia); Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Sebelas Maret University (Indonesia); Soegijono, Bambang [Multiferroic Laboratory, Department of Physics, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Barium hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}, or simply known as BaM) thin films has been recognized as a potential candidate for microwave-based devices, magnetic recording media and data storage. To grow BaM thin films, chemical solution deposition is conducted using the aqueous solution of metal nitrates, which involves spin coatings on Si substrates. Furthermore, Thermal Gravimeter Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) are applied to evaluate the decomposition behavior, structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of BaM thin films. Additionally, the effects of number of layers variation are also investigated. Finally, magnetic properties analysis indicates the isotropic nature of the films.

  15. Growing barium hexaferrite (BaFe_1_2O_1_9) thin films using chemical solution deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiawanti, Sri; Soegijono, Bambang

    2016-01-01

    Barium hexaferrite (BaFe_1_2O_1_9, or simply known as BaM) thin films has been recognized as a potential candidate for microwave-based devices, magnetic recording media and data storage. To grow BaM thin films, chemical solution deposition is conducted using the aqueous solution of metal nitrates, which involves spin coatings on Si substrates. Furthermore, Thermal Gravimeter Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) are applied to evaluate the decomposition behavior, structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of BaM thin films. Additionally, the effects of number of layers variation are also investigated. Finally, magnetic properties analysis indicates the isotropic nature of the films.

  16. Gigantic terahertz magnetochromism via electromagnons in the hexaferrite magnet Ba2Mg2Fe12O22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, N.; Kumakura, S.; Ishiwata, S.; Taguchi, Y.; Tokura, Y.

    2011-02-01

    Effects of temperature (6-225 K) and magnetic field (0-7 T) on the low-energy (1.2-5 meV) electrodynamics of the electromagnon, the magnetic resonance driven by the light electric field, have been investigated for a hexaferrite magnet Ba2Mg2Fe12O22 by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. We find the gigantic terahertz magnetochromism via electromagnons; the magnetochromic change, as defined by the difference of the absorption intensity with and without magnetic field, exceeds 500% even at 0.6 T. The results arise from the fact that the spectral intensity of the electromagnon critically depends on the magnetic structure. With changing the conical spin structures in terms of the conical angle θ from the proper screw (θ=0°) to the ferrimagnetic (θ=90°) through the conical spin-ordered phases (0°origin of this electromagnon is argued in terms of the exchange-striction mechanism.

  17. Nanofiber production of poly (vinylidene fluoride) / hexaferrite, obtained by Blow Spinning Technique; Producao de nanofibras de poli (fluoreto de vinilideno)/hexaferrita, obtidos pela tecnica Blow Spinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, G.C.; Zadorosny, L.; Malmonge, J.A.; Malmonge, L.F., E-mail: gabriel.fct@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In this study, fibrous films of poly (vinylidene fluoride) - PVDF with barium hexaferrite particles were obtained by Solution Blow Spinning technique. In such technique, the polymer solution is injected through an inner nozzle which experiences the action of an accelerated flux of gas that drags and stretches the jet solution forming the nanofibers. The films were obtained from solutions of PVDF/DMF (30% w/v), which was incorporated into barium hexaferrite particles in proportions of 1, 3 and 5% (w / w). The results of the micrographs revealed the formation of a fibrous film with good dispersion of the particles. Xray analyzes showed the predominance of the β crystalline phase of PVDF. The increase of the amount of particles induces the appearance of a characteristic peak of PVDF. EDX measurements confirmed the presence of particles in the films. (author)

  18. Impacts of MnZn doping on the structural and magnetic properties of M-type SrCaLa hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yujie; Shao, Juxiang; Wang, Fanhou; Huang, Duohui [Yibin University, Computational Physics Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Yibin (China); Liu, Xiansong [Anhui University, Engineering Technology Research Center of Magnetic Materials, Anhui Province, School of Physics and Materials Science, Hefei (China)

    2017-05-15

    M-type hexaferrites with chemical compositions of Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.2}La{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 12.0-2x} (MnZn){sub x} O{sub 19} (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) were synthesized by the traditional ceramic method. The crystal structure of M-type hexaferrite samples was examined by X-ray diffraction. The structural analyses reveal that all samples are in single M-type hexagonal phase and no secondary phase is present. A physical property measurement system-vibrating sample magnetometer was used to measure the magnetic properties of M-type hexaferrite samples. The saturation magnetization (M{sub s}), remanent magnetization (M{sub r}) and coercivity (H{sub c}) were calculated from magnetic hysteresis loops. M{sub s} first increases with MnZn content (x) from 0.0 to 0.1, and then decreases with MnZn content (x) from 0.1 to 0.5. While, M{sub r} decreases with MnZn content (x) from 0.0 to 0.2, and then increases with MnZn content (x) from 0.2 to 0.5. H{sub c} first decreases with MnZn content (x) from 0.0 to 0.2, and then increase with MnZn content (x) from 0.2 to 0.5. (orig.)

  19. Enhancement of soft magnetic properties of La–Zn co-doped nanocrystalline Ni{sub 2}Y hexaferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinkhan Nejad, Ehsan, E-mail: ehsanhkhani66@gmail.com [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farzin, Yousef Alizad [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-553, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Heydari, Mohammad Ali [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Azad University of Saveh, Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    The La-Zn substituted nanocrystalline Sr{sub 2−x}La{sub x}Ni{sub 2}Fe{sub 12−x}Zn{sub x}O{sub 22} (with x=0.0, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9) hexaferrites were prepared using sol-gel auto-combustion method to investigate the microstructure and magnetic properties. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra showed two main absorption bands at 429 and 594 cm{sup −1} corresponding to the stretching and vibration of tetrahedral and octahedral groups in S blocks. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the phase formation of Y-type hexaferrite with R-3 m space group which also provided the lattice constants and crystallite sizes of each product. Furthermore, the crystallite size (D) was found to be in the range of 31.4–43.1 nm. Field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) images confirmed that the grain size was reduced from 600 to 150 nm due to the increase of dopant cations and, subsequently, caused soft magnetic properties to improve. By performing a thorough investigation on the M–H hysteresis loops, it was found that the magnetization first increased up to x=0.7 and then decreased, while coercivity monotonously decreased from 1313 to 569 Oe. This behavior can be attributed to the migration of Fe3+ ions from spin-down to spin-up, local strains, deviation of spin arrangement and strength of superexchange interactions. - Highlights: • A systematic study was done on the effect of La–Zn substitution of Ni{sub 2}Y. • The crystallite size of this ferrites is in the range of 31.4–41.3 nm. • Coercivity of synthesis samples monotonously decreased from 1313 to 569 Oe. • The magnetization and the coercivity strongly depend on La–Zn substitution. • The soft magnetic properties of ferrites improved by increasing of dopant cations.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of magnetically tunable metal-semiconductor schottky diode using barium hexaferrite thin film on gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jotinder; Sharma, Vinay; Sharma, Vipul; Veerakumar, V.; Kuanr, Bijoy K.

    2016-05-01

    Barium Hexaferrite (BaM) is an extensively studied magnetic material due to its potential device application. In this paper, we study Schottky junction diodes fabricated using gold and BaM and demonstrate the function of a spintronic device. Gold (50 nm)/silicon substrate was used to grow the BaM thin films (100-150 nm) using pulsed laser deposition. I-V characteristics were measured on the Au/BaM structure sweeping the voltage from ±5 volts. The forward and reverse bias current-voltage curves show diode like rectifying characteristics. The threshold voltage decreases while the output current increases with increase in the applied external magnetic field showing that the I-V characteristics of the BaM based Schottky junction diodes can be tuned by external magnetic field. It is also demonstrated that, the fabricated Schottky diode can be used as a half-wave rectifier, which could operate at high frequencies in the range of 1 MHz compared to the regular p-n junction diodes, which rectify below 10 kHz. In addition, it is found that above 1 MHz, Au/BaM diode can work as a rectifier as well as a capacitor filter, making the average (dc) voltage much larger.

  1. Magnetic properties of in-plane oriented barium hexaferrite thin films prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaozhi; Yue, Zhenxing, E-mail: yuezhx@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Meng, Siqin; Yuan, Lixin [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-12-28

    In-plane c-axis oriented Ba-hexaferrite (BaM) thin films were prepared on a-plane (112{sup ¯}0) sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates by DC magnetron sputtering followed by ex-situ annealing. The DC magnetron sputtering was demonstrated to have obvious advantages over the traditionally used RF magnetron sputtering in sputtering rate and operation simplicity. The sputtering power had a remarkable influence on the Ba/Fe ratio, the hematite secondary phase, and the grain morphology of the as-prepared BaM films. Under 80 W of sputtering power, in-plane c-axis highly oriented BaM films were obtained. These films had strong magnetic anisotropy with high hysteresis loop squareness (M{sub r}/M{sub s} of 0.96) along the in-plane easy axis and low M{sub r}/M{sub s} of 0.03 along the in-plane hard axis. X-ray diffraction patterns and pole figures revealed that the oriented BaM films grew via an epitaxy-like growth process with the crystallographic relationship BaM (101{sup ¯}0)//α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(112{sup ¯}0)//Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(112{sup ¯}0)

  2. High quality Y-type hexaferrite thick films for microwave applications by an economical and environmentally benign crystal growth technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Bolin; Chen, Yajie, E-mail: y.chen@neu.edu; Gillette, Scott; Su, Zhijuan; Harris, Vincent G. [Center for Microwave Magnetic Materials and Integrated Circuits and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Wolf, Jason; McHenry, Michael E. [Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2014-02-17

    Thick barium hexaferrite Ba{sub 2}Zn{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} (i.e., Zn{sub 2}Y) films having thicknesses of ∼100 μm were epitaxially grown on MgO (111) substrates using an environmentally benign ferrite-salt mixture by vaporizing the salt. X-ray diffraction pole figure analyses showed (00l) crystallographic alignment with little in plane dispersion confirming epitaxial growth. Saturation magnetization, 4πM{sub s}, was measured for as-grown films to be 2.51 ± 0.1 kG with an out of plane magnetic anisotropy field H{sub A} of 8.9 ± 0.1 kOe. Ferromagnetic resonance linewidth, as the peak-to-peak power absorption derivative at 9.6 GHz, was measured to be 62 Oe. These properties demonstrate a rapid, convenient, cost-effective, and nontoxic method of growing high quality thick crystalline ferrite films which could be used widely for microwave device applications.

  3. Synthesis and electrical behavior of Ni-Ti substituted Y-type hexaferrites for high frequency application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Bashir; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem; Mumtaz, Saleem; Ali, Irshad; Najam-Ul-Haq, Muhmmad; Sadiq, Imran

    2018-04-01

    This article reports the fabrication of Ni-Ti doped derivatives of Sr2Co2Fe12-2xO22 by economical Sol-gel method. At room temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of powder was obtained after sintering at 1050 °C. The XRD analysis revealed the formation of pure Sr-Y hexaferrite phase. It was found that the observed values of dielectric parameters decreased with increasing Ni-Ti substitution. The higher values of dielectric constants and dielectric loss factor at lower frequency were owing to surface charge polarization. In all the samples the resonance peaks were also observed. The observed room temperature DC electrical resistivity found to increase from 1.8x106 to 4.9x109 ohm cm. The observed activation energies values of the fabricated materials are found in 0.52-0.82 eV range. The decrease in dielectric parameters and increase in resistivity of the fabricated samples with substituents suggest these materials have worth application in micro-wave devices as such devices required highly resistive materials.

  4. A promising lightweight multicomponent microwave absorber based on doped barium hexaferrite/calcium titanate/multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afghahi, Seyyed Salman Seyyed [Imam Hossein University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafarian, Mojtaba, E-mail: m.jafarian@srbiau.ac.ir [Islamic Azad University, Young Researchers and Elite Club, Science and Research Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Atassi, Yomen [Higher Institute for Applied Sciences and Technology, Department of Applied Physics (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2016-07-15

    We present the design of a microwave absorber in the X band based on ternary nanocomposite of doped barium hexaferrite (Ba-M)/calcium titanate (CTO)/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in epoxy matrix. The hydrothermal method has been used to synthesize Ba-M and CTO nanopowder. The phase identification has been investigated using XRD patterns. Scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, vibrating sample magnetometer, and vector network analyzer are used to analyze the morphology of the different components and the magnetic, electromagnetic, and microwave absorption properties of the final composite absorbers, respectively. As far as we know, the design of this type of multicomponent microwave absorber has not been investigated before. The results reveal that the combination of these three components with their different loss mechanisms has a synergistic effect that enhances the attenuation properties of the final composite. The absorber of only 2.5-mm thickness and 35 wt% of loading ratio exhibits a minimum reflection loss of −43 dB at 10.2 GHz with a bandwidth of 3.6 GHz, while the corresponding absorber based on pure (Ba-M) shows a minimum reflection loss of −34 dB at 9.8 GHz with a bandwidth of 0.256 GHz and a thickness of 4 mm.Graphical Abstract.

  5. Template synthesis and magnetic properties of highly aligned barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Boneng; Li, Congju; Wang, Jiaona

    2013-01-01

    Using electrospun poly(ethylene terephthalate)/citric acid (PET/CA) microfibers as the template, highly aligned barium hexaferrite (BaFe 12 O 19 ) nanofibers with diameters of ca. 800 nm and lengths up to 2 cm were synthesized by sol–gel precursor coating technique and subsequent high temperature calcination. Structural and morphological investigations revealed that individual BaFe 12 O 19 nanofibers were composed of numerous nanocrystallites stacking alternatively along the nanofiber axis, the average grain size was ca. 225 nm and the single crystallites on each BaFe 12 O 19 nanofibers were of random orientations. The formation mechanism of aligned BaFe 12 O 19 nanofibers was proposed based on experiment. The magnetic measurement revealed that the aligned BaFe 12 O 19 nanofibers exhibited orientation-dependent magnetic behavior with respect to the applied magnetic field. The magnetic anisotropy with the easy magnetizing axis along the length of the nanofibers was due to the shape anisotropy. Such aligned magnetic nanofibers can find relevance in application requiring an orientation-dependent physical response. - Highlights: ► A simple method was used to synthesize the aligned BaFe 12 O 19 nanofibers. ► The aligned BaFe 12 O 19 nanofibers display an obvious orientation-dependent magnetic behavior. ► The method can be readily applied to other aligned one-dimensional inorganic nanomaterials

  6. Effect of preparation conditions on fractal structure and phase transformations in the synthesis of nanoscale M-type barium hexaferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashkova, E.V. [V.I. Vernadskii Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, 32/34 Prospect Palladina, Kyiv-142, 03680 (Ukraine); Solovyova, E.D., E-mail: solovyovak@mail.ru [V.I. Vernadskii Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, 32/34 Prospect Palladina, Kyiv-142, 03680 (Ukraine); Kotenko, I.E., E-mail: Hab2420@yahoo.com [National Technical University of Ukraine ' KPI' , Pr. Pobedy, 37, Kyiv-57 (Ukraine); Kolodiazhnyi, T.V., E-mail: kolodiazhnyi.taras@nims.go.jp [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Belous, A.G., E-mail: belous@ionc.kar.net [V.I. Vernadskii Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, 32/34 Prospect Palladina, Kyiv-142, 03680 (Ukraine)

    2011-10-15

    The conditions of the synthesis of carbonate-hydroxide precursors (pH of FeOOH precipitation and heat treatment regimes) were studied in terms of their effect on the fractal structure and physical-chemical properties of precursors. Phase transformations which occur during the synthesis of nanosize M-type barium hexaferrite (BHF) were studied as well. The first structural level of precursors' aggregation for mass fractals, the correlation between fractal dimension and precursors' activity during the synthesis of BHF were determined. Synthesis parameters for the precursors with the optimal fractal structure were determined. These data permit an enhancement of the filtration coefficient of the precipitates by a factor of 4-5, obtaining substantial decrease in the temperature required for synthesis of a single-phase BHF, and monodispersed plate-like nanoparticles (60 nm diameter) with the shape anisotropy and good magnetic characteristics (saturation magnetization (M{sub s})=68,7 emu/g and coercitivity (H{sub c})=5440 Oe). - Highlights: > The nanosize M-type BHF obtained by precipitation of hydroxicarbonates technique. > Optimal fractal structure of a precursor for nanosize M-type BHF has been determined. > The precursor precipitated at pH 4.3 allows getting monodisperse particles of BHF.

  7. Effect of thickness on microwave absorptive behavior of La-Na doped Co-Zr barium hexaferrites in 18.0–26.5 GHz band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Amit [D.A.V. Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jalandhar (India); Narang, Sukhleen Bindra, E-mail: sukhleen2@yahoo.com [Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (India); Pubby, Kunal [Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (India)

    2017-02-01

    In this research, the microwave properties of Lanthanum-Sodium doped Cobalt-Zirconium barium hexaferrites, intended as microwave absorbers, are analyzed on Vector Network Analyzer in K-band. The results indicate that the doping has resulted in lowering of real permittivity and enhancement of dielectric losses. Real permeability has shown increase while magnetic losses have shown decrease in value with doping. All these four properties have shown very small variation with frequency in the scanned frequency range which indicates the relaxation type of behavior. Microwave absorption characteristics of these compositions are analyzed with change in sample thickness. The results demonstrate that the matching frequency of the microwave absorber shifts towards lower side of frequency band with increase in thickness. The complete analysis of the prepared microwave absorbers shows a striking achievement with very low reflection loss and wide absorption bandwidth for all the six compositions in 18–26.5 GHz frequency band. - Highlights: • Electromagnetic Characterization of M-hexaferrites in K-band (18–26.5 GHz) • Variation of absorption properties with thickness of sample. • Satisfaction of quarter-wavelength condition for absorption properties • Results of double-layer absorbers (not reports till day by anyone).

  8. The Semi-Quantitative Study of Magnetization Process on Milling and Reannealing of Barium Hexaferrite (BaO.6Fe2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Barium hexaferrite (BaO.6Fe2O3 is as a hard magnetic material with good chemical stability which has been intensively used as permanent magnet components. Many works have been done in order to improve their magnetic properties either through chemical process or powders metallurgy technique. In this work, commercial BaO.6Fe2O3 was milled using high-energy milling machine for 10, 20 and 30 hours and followed by reannealing for 3 hours at 1000⁰C in air. X-ray diffraction pattern indicate no phase decomposition occurred caused the mill processing, annealing of milled powders recovered the crystal system and promoted crystallite growth. The magnetic hysteresis curve measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM shows the coercivity of annealed BaO.6Fe2O3 increases to two times higher than the original one. By using Jiles-Atherton model, all the hysteresis parameters Ms, k, α, a and c, have been determined adopted to the Genetic Algorithm (GA. The analyzed hysteretic parameters obtained from this work is congruent to the change of magnetic properties of as-milled and annealed powders of barium hexaferrite.

  9. Manufacture of barium hexaferrite (BaO3.98Fe2O3) from iron oxide waste of grinding process by using calcination process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idayanti, N.; Dedi; Kristiantoro, T.; Mulyadi, D.; Sudrajat, N.; Alam, G. F. N.

    2018-03-01

    The utilization of iron oxide waste of grinding process as raw materials for making barium hexaferrite has been completed by powder metallurgy method. The iron oxide waste was purified by roasting at 800 °C temperature for 3 hours. The method used varying calcination temperature at 1000, 1100, 1200, and 1250 °C for 3 hours. The starting iron oxide waste (Fe2O3) and barium carbonate (BaCO3) were prepared by mol ratio of Fe2O3:BaCO3 from the formula BaO3.98Fe2O3. Some additives such as calcium oxide (CaO), silicon dioxide (SiO2), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were added after calcination process. The samples were formed at the pressure of 2 ton/cm2 and sintered at the temperature of 1250 °C for 1 hour. The formation of barium hexaferrite compounds after calcination is determined by X-Ray diffraction. The magnetic properties were observed by Permagraph-Magnet Physik with the optimum characteristic at calcination temperature of 1250 °C with the induction of remanence (Br) = 1.38 kG, coercivity (HcJ) = 4.533 kOe, product energy maximum (BHmax) = 1.086 MGOe, and density = 4.33 g/cm3.

  10. Epitaxial growth of 100-μm thick M-type hexaferrite crystals on wide bandgap semiconductor GaN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Bolin; Su, Zhijuan; Bennett, Steve; Chen, Yajie, E-mail: y.chen@neu.edu; Harris, Vincent G. [Center for Microwave Magnetic Materials and Integrated Circuits and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Thick barium hexaferrite BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (BaM) films having thicknesses of ∼100 μm were epitaxially grown on GaN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates from a molten-salt solution by vaporizing the solvent. X-ray diffraction measurement verified the growth of BaM (001) textured growth of thick films. Saturation magnetization, 4πM{sub s}, was measured for as-grown films to be 4.6 ± 0.2 kG and ferromagnetic resonance measurements revealed a microwave linewidth of ∼100 Oe at X-band. Scanning electron microscopy indicated clear hexagonal crystals distributed on the semiconductor substrate. These results demonstrate feasibility of growing M-type hexaferrite crystal films on wide bandgap semiconductor substrates by using a simple powder melting method. It also presents a potential pathway for the integration of ferrite microwave passive devices with active semiconductor circuit elements creating system-on-a-wafer architectures.

  11. Magneto-optical properties of BaCryFe12-yO19 (0.0 ≤ y ≤ 1.0) hexaferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiri, S.; Güner, S.; Korkmaz, A. D.; Amir, Md.; Batoo, K. M.; Almessiere, M. A.; Gungunes, H.; Sözeri, H.; Baykal, A.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, nanocrystalline BaCryFe12-yO19 (0.0 ≤ y ≤ 1.0) hexaferrite powders were prepared by sol-gel auto combustion method and the effect of Cr3+ ion substitution on morphology, structure, optic and magnetic properties of Barium hexaferrite were investigated. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses confirmed the purity of all samples. The XRD data shows that the average crystallite size lies between 60.95 nm and 50.10 nm and same was confirmed by Transmission electron microscopy. Transmission electron and scanning electron microscopy analyses presented the hexagonal morphology of all products. The characteristic hysteresis (σ-H) curves proved the ferromagnetic feature of as grown nanoparticle samples. Specific saturation magnetization (σs) drops from 46.59 to 34.89 emu/g with increasing Cr content while the coercive field values lie between 770 and 1652 Oe. The large magnitude of the magnetocrystalline (intrinsic) anisotropy field, (Ha) between 11.0 and 12.6 kOe proves that all products are magnetically hard. The energy band gap values decrease from 2.0 eV to 1.84 eV with increasing Cr content. From 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, the variation in line width, isomer shift, quadrupole splitting and hyperfine magnetic field values were determined and discussed.

  12. Sr hexaferrite/Ni ferrite nanocomposites: Magnetic behavior and microwave absorbing properties in the X-band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobo, Silvia E. [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, LAFMACEL-INTECIN, Paseo Colón 850, C1063EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bercoff, Paula G., E-mail: bercoff@famaf.unc.edu.ar [Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, IFEG, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA Córdoba (Argentina); Herme, Carlos A. [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, LAFMACEL-INTECIN, Paseo Colón 850, C1063EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vives, Leandro A. [División Antenas, Instituto de Investigaciones Científicas para la Defensa CITEDEF, Ministerio de Defensa, San Juan Bautista de La Salle 4397, Villa Martelli, B1603ALO Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-05-01

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by a self-combustion method over nanocrystalline powders of Nd–Co substituted strontium hexaferrite with nominal composition Sr{sub 0.5}Nd{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 10.5}O{sub 19}, at different mass relations. The samples were structurally characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The M vs. H loops of the composites were determined with a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and the interaction with the X-band microwave radiation of the nanocomposites dispersed in epoxy resin was measured with a vector network analyzer (VNA). The hysteresis loops showed strong exchange-coupling between the two magnetic phases for the 30:70 and 50:50 Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Nd{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 10.5}O{sub 19}/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites, while a weak interaction was observed for the 70:30 mass ratio. The nanocomposite with an equal amount of hard and soft phase shows the highest performance both in reflectivity and in bandwidth, reaching a maximum in reflectivity of −34.4 dB at 11.1 GHz while the bandwidth below −10 dB is 3.5 GHz. - Highlights: • Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Nd{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 10.5}O{sub 19}/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites were synthesized at different mass ratios. • The systems were structurally and magnetically characterized. • The X-band microwave radiation of the composites was evaluated. • Enhancement in reflectivity is related to exchange interaction between hard and soft phases.

  13. Magneto-optical properties BaBi{sub x}La{sub x}Fe{sub 12−2x}O{sub 19} (0.0≤x≤0.5) hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auwal, I.A. [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, 34500 B.Çekmece, İstanbul (Turkey); Baykal, A., E-mail: hbaykal@fatih.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, 34500 B.Çekmece, İstanbul (Turkey); Güner, S. [Department of Physics, Fatih University, 34500 B.Çekmece, İstanbul (Turkey); Sertkol, M. [Department of Physics Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); Sözeri, H. [TUBITAK-UME, National Metrology Institute, P.O. Box 54, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2016-07-01

    BaBi{sub x}La{sub x}Fe{sub (12−2x)}O{sub 19} (0.0≤x≤0.5) hexaferrites were synthesized by solid state synthesis route and the effects of Bi, La substitutions on structural, magnetic and optical properties were investigated. X-ray powder diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy, Vibrating sample magnetometer, and Percent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were used to study the physical properties. Room temperature specific magnetization (M–H) curves revealed the ferromagnetic nature of all products. The increasing Bi, La compositions increased the magnetic properties at different magnitudes with respect to undoped BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} sample. The maximum values of remnant specific magnetization (M{sub r}=30.3 emu/g), extrapolated specific saturation magnetization (M{sub s}=62.12 emu/g), and magneton number (n{sub B}=16.27) were recorded from BaBi{sub 0.2}La{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 11.4}O{sub 19} hexaferrite. The average crystallite size varies in a range of (37.35–51.36) nm. The coercive field (H{sub c}) of undoped hexaferrites is 1180 Oe and increased to maximum 2320 Oe belonging to BaBi{sub 0.4}La{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 11.2}O{sub 19}. Magnetic anisotropy was confirmed as uniaxial and calculated effective anisotropy constants (K{sub eff}) are between 4.27×10{sup 5} Ergs/g and 5.05×10{sup 5} Ergs/g. The high magnitudes of magnetocrystalline anisotropy (H{sub a}) above than 16,200 Oe revealed that all samples are magnetically hard materials. The Tauc plots were drawn to extrapolate the direct optical energy band gap (E{sub g}) of hexaferrites. The E{sub g} values decreased from 1.76 eV to 1.47 eV with increasing Bi, La compositions. - Highlights: • BaBi{sub x}La{sub x}Fe{sub (12−2x)}O{sub 19} (0.0≤x≤0.5) hexaferrites were synthesized by solid state synthesis route. • The E{sub g} values decreased from 1.76 eV to 1.47 eV with increasing Bi, La compositions. • BaBi{sub xx}La{sub xx}Fe{sub 12-2x}O{sub 19} hexaferrites good candidate for potential applications

  14. Structural and magnetic properties of Nd–Mn substituted Y-type hexaferrites synthesized by microemulsion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtaza, G.; Ahmad, R.; Hussain, T.; Ayub, R.; Ali, Irshad; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Akhtar, Majid Niaz

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis via a chemical route microemulsion method. • Samples were characterized with XRD, SEM, AFM, FTIR, Dielectric Measurements and VSM. • Single phase patterns were recorded. • A marked decrease in coercivity has been observed with the substitution of Nd–Mn. • These ferrites are suitable for multi-layer chip components in hyper-frequency. - Abstract: Nd–Mn substituted hexaferrites of composition Sr 2−x Nd x Ni 0.5 Co 1.5 Fe 12−y Mn y O 22 (x = 0.0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, y = 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75) were synthesized using microemulsion method. The synthesized materials are characterized using different techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Inductance capacitance resistance (LCR) meter and Vibrating sample magnetic magnetometer (VSM). For all samples, a single Y-type phase was established and the lattice constants have been calculated. XRD patterns reveal the significant increase in line broadening which indicates a decrease of grain size. The samples exhibit well defined crystallization; all of them are hexagonal platelet grains. With the increasing substitution level of Nd–Mn, the average grain diameter decreases. The dielectric constant ε ′ and dielectric loss factor ε″ are found to decrease initially with an increase in frequency and reached a constant value at higher frequency, exhibiting a frequency-independent behavior at higher frequencies. The dielectric loss tangent tanδ was found to decrease with an increase in the frequency. The H c decreases remarkably with increasing Nd and Mn ions content. It was found that the particle size could be effectively decreased and coercivity H c could easily be controlled by varying the concentration (x) without significantly decreasing saturation magnetization

  15. Structural and magnetic properties of Nd–Mn substituted Y-type hexaferrites synthesized by microemulsion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murtaza, G., E-mail: gm_rai786@yahoo.com [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Ahmad, R.; Hussain, T.; Ayub, R. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Ali, Irshad [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan (Pakistan); Khan, Muhammad Azhar [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Akhtar, Majid Niaz [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Synthesis via a chemical route microemulsion method. • Samples were characterized with XRD, SEM, AFM, FTIR, Dielectric Measurements and VSM. • Single phase patterns were recorded. • A marked decrease in coercivity has been observed with the substitution of Nd–Mn. • These ferrites are suitable for multi-layer chip components in hyper-frequency. - Abstract: Nd–Mn substituted hexaferrites of composition Sr{sub 2−x}Nd{sub x}Ni{sub 0.5}Co{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 12−y}Mn{sub y}O{sub 22} (x = 0.0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, y = 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75) were synthesized using microemulsion method. The synthesized materials are characterized using different techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Inductance capacitance resistance (LCR) meter and Vibrating sample magnetic magnetometer (VSM). For all samples, a single Y-type phase was established and the lattice constants have been calculated. XRD patterns reveal the significant increase in line broadening which indicates a decrease of grain size. The samples exhibit well defined crystallization; all of them are hexagonal platelet grains. With the increasing substitution level of Nd–Mn, the average grain diameter decreases. The dielectric constant ε{sup ′} and dielectric loss factor ε″ are found to decrease initially with an increase in frequency and reached a constant value at higher frequency, exhibiting a frequency-independent behavior at higher frequencies. The dielectric loss tangent tanδ was found to decrease with an increase in the frequency. The H{sub c} decreases remarkably with increasing Nd and Mn ions content. It was found that the particle size could be effectively decreased and coercivity H{sub c} could easily be controlled by varying the concentration (x) without significantly decreasing saturation magnetization.

  16. Effect of annealing in reduced oxygen pressure on the structure and magnetic properties of M-type hexaferrite bulk and film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Kyoung-Seok; Yang, Dae-Jin; Lee, Sang-Eui [Materials R& D Center, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, 16677 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Myongji University, 17058 Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young-Min, E-mail: ymkang@ut.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, 27469 Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The Ca-La-Co SrM decomposed into the three different ferrite phases after N{sub 2} annealing at 1200 °C. • The charge-imbalance substitution of La{sup 3+}-Co{sup 2+} into SrM induces the phase instability. • The SrM films showed significantly increased M{sub S} with reduced H{sub C} after vacuum annealing. - Abstract: The Ca-La-Co-doped M-type Sr-hexaferrite (Sr{sub 0.1}Ca{sub 0.45}La{sub 0.45}Fe{sub 11.7}Co{sub 0.3}O{sub 19}) decomposed into three different phases of orthorhombic, spinel, and hexagonal structures after annealing at 1200 °C in nitrogen atmosphere while the non-substituted SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} maintained the hexagonal structure after annealing at the same condition. It is suggested that the charge-imbalance substitution of La{sup 3+}/Co{sup 2+} = 1.5 induces phase instability of the M-type structure and it causes the phase transformation during the N{sub 2} annealing. In film experiment, polycrystalline Sr-hexaferrite films (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) have been prepared by pulsed laser deposition and post-annealing processes. When the film was annealed in vacuum at 500 °C, the magnetization value at the magnetic field H = 15 kOe increased by ∼80% and the coercivity decreased significantly without microstructural change.

  17. Influence of La content on magnetic properties of Cu doped M-type strontium hexaferrite: Structural, magnetic, and Mossbauer spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, M.; Yoon, S.; Wang, L.; Neupane, D.; Alam, J.; Mishra, S. R.

    2018-05-01

    The present study investigates the influence of Cu2+ and La3+-Cu2+ doping on the magnetic properties of Sr1-xLaxFe12-xCuxO19 (x = 0.0-0.5) hexaferrite (SrM) compounds. The samples were prepared via facile autocombustion technique followed by sintering. X-ray powder diffraction patterns show the formation of the pure phase of M-type hexaferrite for all x. Invariance in lattice parameters was observed with only Cu2+ substitution while lattice contraction along c-axis was observed with co-doping La3+-Cu2+ in SrM. The magnetic property of these compounds is explained based on Cu2+ occupancy in the absence and presence of La3+ in SrM magnetoplumbite structure. The Cu2+ doped SrFe12-xCuxO19 sample showed a monotonic decrease in Ms value while La3+-Cu2+ showed a noticeable increase in Ms value with x. Furthermore, while coercivity of Cu2+ doped SrM reduced with x, the coercivity of La3+-Cu2+ doped SrM showed a marked 12% increase in coercivity at x = 0.1 (Hc = 4391 Oe) from that of x = 0.0 (3918 Oe). Interestingly, Cu2+ doped SrM displayed invariance in Tc ∼ 458.6 °C with x, while La3+-Cu2+ doping reduced Tc by 5% from its x = 0 (Tc = 451.9 °C) to 429.6 °C. The room temperature Mossbauer spectral analysis confirmed a Cu2+ preference for the 12k site and its occupancy is observed to be influenced by the presence of La3+ ion at the Sr2+ site.

  18. Effect of calcination temperature on microstructure, dielectric, magnetic and optical properties of Ba0.7La0.3Fe11.7Co0.3O19 hexaferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Talwinder; Kaur, Barjinder; Bhat, Bilal H.; Kumar, Sachin; Srivastava, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    M-type barium hexaferrite Ba 0.7 La 0.3 Fe 11.7 Co 0.3 O 19 (BaLCM) powder, synthesized using sol gel auto combustion method, heat treated at 700, 900, 1100 and 1200 °C. X ray diffraction (XRD) powder patterns of heat treated samples show the formation of pure phase of M-type hexaferrite after 700 °C. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) reveals that the weight loss of BaLCM becomes constant after 680 °C. The presence of two prominent peaks, at 432 cm −1 and 586 cm −1 in Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra, gives the idea of formation of M-type hexaferrites. The M–H curve obtained from Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) were used to calculate saturation magnetization (M S ), retentivity (M r ), squareness ration (SR) and coercivity (H c ). The maximum value of coercivity (5602 Oe) is found at 900 °C. The band gap dependency on temperature was studied using UV–vis NIR spectroscopy. The dielectric constant has been found to be high at low frequency but it decreases with increase in frequency. Such kind of dielectric behavior is explained on the basis of Koop's phenomenological theory and Maxwell Wagner theory

  19. Modulation of electromagnetic and absorption properties in 18-26.5 GHz frequency range of strontium hexaferrites with doping of cobalt-zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pubby, Kunal; Narang, Sukhleen Bindra; Kaur, Prabhjyot; Chawla, S. K.

    2017-05-01

    Hexaferrite nano-particles of stoichiometric composition {{Sr}}{({{CoZr}})_x}{{F}}{{{e}}_{12 - 2x}}{{{O}}_{19}}, with x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 were prepared using sol-gel auto-combustion route owing to its advantages such as low sintering temperature requirement, homogeneity and uniformity of grains. Tartaric acid as a fuel was utilized to complete the chemical reaction. The goal of this study is to analyse the effect of co-substitution of cobalt and zirconium on the electromagnetic and absorption properties of pure {{SrF}}{{{e}}_{12}}{{{O}}_{19}} hexaferrite. The properties were measured on the rectangular pellets of thickness 2.5 mm for K-frequency band using Vector Network Analyzer. The doping of Co-Zr has resulted in increase in real as well as imaginary parts of permittivity. The values of real permittivity lie in the range 3.6-7.0 for all the composition. The real part of permeability remains in range 0.7-1.6 in the studied frequency band for all the samples and shows slightly increasing trend with frequency. The maximum values of dielectric loss tangent peak (3.04) and magnetic loss tangent peak (2.34), among all the prepared compositions, have been observed for composition x = 0.2. Compositions with x = 0.6 and x = 0.0 also have high dielectric and magnetic loss peaks. Dielectric loss peaks are attributed to dielectric resonance and magnetic loss peaks are attributed to natural resonance. Experimentally determined reflection loss results show that all six compositions of prepared series have high values of absorption to propose them as single-layer absorbers in 18-26.5 GHz frequency range. The composition with x = 0.2 has maximum absorption capacity with reflection loss peak of -37.2 dB at 24.3 GHz frequency. The undoped composition also has high absorption peak (-25.46 dB), but -10 dB absorption bandwidth is minimum (2.2 GHz) out of the present series. Maximum absorption bandwidth is obtained for x = 1.0 (4.1 GHz). Other doped compositions also

  20. Structural, magnetic and microwave absorption behavior of Co-Zr substituted strontium hexaferrites prepared using tartaric acid fuel for electromagnetic interference suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Prabhjyot, E-mail: prabhjyot.2525@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Advanced Studies-I, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Chawla, S.K., E-mail: sschawla118@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Advanced Studies-I, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Narang, Sukhleen Bindra, E-mail: sukhleen2@yahoo.com [Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Pubby, Kunal, E-mail: kunalpubby02@gmail.com [Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)

    2017-01-15

    Strontium hexaferrites, doped with varying Co-Zr content (x) have been synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion route using tartaric acid as fuel at 800 °C. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform Infra-red have been carried out to confirm the phase formation, particle size (average 21.9–36.8 nm) and the bond formation respectively. Magnetic properties are scrutinized using vibrating sample magnetometer. Techniques like scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive scattering have been employed to explore the surface morphology, particle size and composition of the nano-powders. Electromagnetic characterization of the prepared ferrites has been done using Vector Network Anlyzer in 12.4–18 GHz frequency range. The effect of calcination temperature (500–1000 °C) on the structure, morphology and magnetic properties has also been studied for x=0.2 and 800 °C has been found to be the most suitable temperature with the best magnetic properties. Increase in doping has resulted in resonance peaks in dielectric and magnetic loss spectra, leading to microwave absorption peaks. Ferrites with x=0.2, 0.8 and 1.0 have appropriate reflection loss less than −10 dB and bandwidth in Ku-band, hence can be used as effective absorbers in suppression of electromagnetic interference (EMI). The governance of impedance matching in deciding the absorption properties has been proved by using input impedance calculations. - Highlights: • Co-Zr doped strontium hexaferrite nanopowders have been prepared by sol-gel route. • 800 °C was most suitable temperaturewith best structural and magnetic properties. • Samples have M-type hexagonal structure with an average particle size of 36.47 nm. • Samples x=0.2, 0.8 and 1.0 are suitable for suppression of EM waves in Ku-band. • The origin of absorption peaks: impedance matching and losses has been explained.

  1. Effects of La{sup 3+}-Zn{sup 2+} doping on the structure, magnetic, electrical, and dielectric properties of low temperature sintered Sr-hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Long, E-mail: penglong@cuit.edu.cn [Sichuan Province Key Laboratory of Information Materials and Devices Application, College of Optoelectronic Technology, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610225 (China); Li, Lezhong; Zhong, Xiaoxi [Sichuan Province Key Laboratory of Information Materials and Devices Application, College of Optoelectronic Technology, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610225 (China); Hu, Yuebin [Chengdu Industrial Vocational and Technical College, Chengdu 610213 (China); Chen, Sanming [Sichuan Province Key Laboratory of Information Materials and Devices Application, College of Optoelectronic Technology, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610225 (China)

    2017-04-15

    The Sr{sub 1-x}La{sub x}Fe{sub 12-x}Zn{sub x}O{sub 19} (x=0–0.3) hexaferrites with Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} additive were prepared by microwave sintering method at low sintering temperatures, and their crystal structure, microstructure, magnetic, electrical, and dielectric properties were studied. The results show that the pure M-type phase is obtained for the ferrites with x≤0.2. With x further increasing to 0.3, the multiphase structure is inevitably formed, where the LaFeO{sub 3} phase coexists with the M-type phase. In the single phase region, the varied magnetic, electrical, and dielectric properties with La{sup 3+}-Zn{sup 2+} doping amount are well explained by the occupancy effects of La{sup 3+} and Zn{sup 2+} in magnetoplumbite structure. It is suggested that the Zn{sup 2+} ions replace the Fe{sup 3+} ions at 4f{sub 1} site with x≤0.15, but the substitution of Zn{sup 2+} for Fe{sup 3+} occurs at 2b site preferentially when the La{sup 3+}-Zn{sup 2+} doping amount exceeds 0.15. - Highlights: • The low temperature sintered Sr{sub 1-x}La{sub x}Fe{sub 12-x}Zn{sub x}O{sub 19} (x=0–0.3) hexaferrites are successfully prepared. • The La{sup 3+}-Zn{sup 2+} ions partially substitute the Sr{sup 2+}-Fe{sup 3+} ions in a doping region of x≤0.2. • Effects of La{sup 3+}-Zn{sup 2+} doping on the magnetic, electrical and polarization properties are revealed. • The substitution of Zn{sup 2+} for Fe{sup 3+} occurs at 4f{sub 1} site and 2b site before and after x=0.15, respectively.

  2. Modulation of electromagnetic and absorption properties in 18-26.5 GHz frequency range of strontium hexaferrites with doping of cobalt-zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pubby, Kunal; Narang, Sukhleen Bindra [Guru Nanak Dev University, Department of Electronics Technology, Amritsar (India); Kaur, Prabhjyot; Chawla, S.K. [Guru Nanak Dev University, Department of Chemistry, Centre for Advanced Studies-I, Amritsar (India)

    2017-05-15

    Hexaferrite nano-particles of stoichiometric composition Sr(CoZr){sub x}Fe{sub 12-2x}O{sub 19}, with x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 were prepared using sol-gel auto-combustion route owing to its advantages such as low sintering temperature requirement, homogeneity and uniformity of grains. Tartaric acid as a fuel was utilized to complete the chemical reaction. The goal of this study is to analyse the effect of co-substitution of cobalt and zirconium on the electromagnetic and absorption properties of pure SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} hexaferrite. The properties were measured on the rectangular pellets of thickness 2.5 mm for K-frequency band using Vector Network Analyzer. The doping of Co-Zr has resulted in increase in real as well as imaginary parts of permittivity. The values of real permittivity lie in the range 3.6-7.0 for all the composition. The real part of permeability remains in range 0.7-1.6 in the studied frequency band for all the samples and shows slightly increasing trend with frequency. The maximum values of dielectric loss tangent peak (3.04) and magnetic loss tangent peak (2.34), among all the prepared compositions, have been observed for composition x = 0.2. Compositions with x = 0.6 and x = 0.0 also have high dielectric and magnetic loss peaks. Dielectric loss peaks are attributed to dielectric resonance and magnetic loss peaks are attributed to natural resonance. Experimentally determined reflection loss results show that all six compositions of prepared series have high values of absorption to propose them as single-layer absorbers in 18-26.5 GHz frequency range. The composition with x = 0.2 has maximum absorption capacity with reflection loss peak of -37.2 dB at 24.3 GHz frequency. The undoped composition also has high absorption peak (-25.46 dB), but -10 dB absorption bandwidth is minimum (2.2 GHz) out of the present series. Maximum absorption bandwidth is obtained for x = 1.0 (4.1 GHz). Other doped compositions also have high absorption bandwidth

  3. Low-loss Z-type barium hexaferrite composites from nanoscale ZnAl2O4 addition for high-frequency applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zongliang; Feng, Quanyuan; Harris, Vincent G.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, nanocrystalline ZnAl2O4 (ZA) were introduced to Z-type barium hexaferrite (Co2Z) and the effects of ZA addition upon the crystal-phase composition, microstructure, permeability and permittivity as well as losses characteristics over a wide frequency range of 10 MHz-1 GHz have been systematically investigated. With increasing ZA content (x) from 0 to 15 wt%, the permeability μ' at low frequencies decreased from 12.0 to 4.3, while the permittivity ɛ' was decreased from 27.4 to 10.7. Correspondingly, the frequency stability of permeability and permittivity were improved and the losses were effectively reduced. When x is in the range of 5-10 wt%, the magnetic loss tan δμ is in the order of 10-2 and the dielectric loss tan δɛ is in the order of 10-3 at 300 MHz, which is lower by one order of magnitude compared with that of undoped Co2Z. The modified magnetic and dielectric properties are closely related to the changing phase composition and microstructure.

  4. Effects of magnetic pre-alignment of nano-powders on formation of high textured barium hexa-ferrite quasi-single crystals via a magnetic forming and liquid participation sintering route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Junliang; Zeng, Yanwei; Zhang, Xingkai; Zhang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Highly textured barium hexa-ferrite quasi-single crystal with narrow ferromagnetic resonance line-width is believed to be a potential gyromagnetic material for self-biased microwave devices. To fabricate barium hexa-ferrite quasi-single crystal with a high grain orientation degree, a magnetic forming and liquid participation sintering route has been developed. In this paper, the effects of the pre-alignment of the starting nano-powders on the formation of barium quasi-single crystal structures have been investigated. The results indicated that: the crystallites with large sizes and small specific surfaces were easily aligned for they got higher driving forces and lower resistances during magnetic forming. The average restricting magnetic field was about 4.647 kOe to overcome the average friction barrier between crystallites. The pre-aligned crystallites in magnetic forming acted as the “crystal seeds” for oriented growth of the un-aligned crystallites during liquid participation sintering to achieve a high grain orientation. To effectively promote the grain orientation degrees of the sintered pellets, the grain orientation degrees of the green compacts must be higher than a limited value of 15.0%. Barium hexa-ferrite quasi-single crystal with a high grain orientation degree of 98.6% was successfully fabricated after sintering the green compact with its grain orientation degree of 51.1%. - Highlights: • Aligned particles acted as “crystal seeds” for un-aligned ones' oriented growth. • Magnetic field of 4.647 kOe was needed to overcome crystallites' friction barrier. • GOD dramatically increased after sintering if starting GOD exceeded to 15.0%. • Quasi-single crystal was prepared by sintering green compact with GOD of 51.1%

  5. Effects of magnetic pre-alignment of nano-powders on formation of high textured barium hexa-ferrite quasi-single crystals via a magnetic forming and liquid participation sintering route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Junliang, E-mail: liujunliang@yzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmental Materials and Engineering of Jiangsu Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Zeng, Yanwei [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Zhang, Xingkai [Key Laboratory of Environmental Materials and Engineering of Jiangsu Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Zhang, Ming [Key Laboratory of Environmental Materials and Engineering of Jiangsu Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Testing Center of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highly textured barium hexa-ferrite quasi-single crystal with narrow ferromagnetic resonance line-width is believed to be a potential gyromagnetic material for self-biased microwave devices. To fabricate barium hexa-ferrite quasi-single crystal with a high grain orientation degree, a magnetic forming and liquid participation sintering route has been developed. In this paper, the effects of the pre-alignment of the starting nano-powders on the formation of barium quasi-single crystal structures have been investigated. The results indicated that: the crystallites with large sizes and small specific surfaces were easily aligned for they got higher driving forces and lower resistances during magnetic forming. The average restricting magnetic field was about 4.647 kOe to overcome the average friction barrier between crystallites. The pre-aligned crystallites in magnetic forming acted as the “crystal seeds” for oriented growth of the un-aligned crystallites during liquid participation sintering to achieve a high grain orientation. To effectively promote the grain orientation degrees of the sintered pellets, the grain orientation degrees of the green compacts must be higher than a limited value of 15.0%. Barium hexa-ferrite quasi-single crystal with a high grain orientation degree of 98.6% was successfully fabricated after sintering the green compact with its grain orientation degree of 51.1%. - Highlights: • Aligned particles acted as “crystal seeds” for un-aligned ones' oriented growth. • Magnetic field of 4.647 kOe was needed to overcome crystallites' friction barrier. • GOD dramatically increased after sintering if starting GOD exceeded to 15.0%. • Quasi-single crystal was prepared by sintering green compact with GOD of 51.1%.

  6. Single and double-layer composite microwave absorbers with hexaferrite BaZn{sub 0.6}Zr{sub 0.3}X{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 10.8}O{sub 19} (X = Ti, Ce, Sn) powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afghahi, Seyyed Salman Seyyed [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Imam Hossein University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafarian, Mojtaba, E-mail: m.jafarian@srbiau.ac.ir [Young Researchers and Elites Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Atassi, Yomen [Department of Applied Physics, Higher Institute for Applied Sciences and Technology, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Stergiou, Charalampos A. [Lab. of Inorganic Materials, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 57001, Thermi (Greece)

    2017-01-15

    In the present study, substituted barium hexaferrites with the composition BaZn{sub 0.6}Zr{sub 0.3} × {sub 0.3}Fe{sub 10.8}O{sub 19} (where X = Ti, Ce, Sn) are prepared with the solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and network analysis techniques are used to analyze the crystal phases, morphology, static magnetic and microwave absorption properties, respectively. Based on the recorded results, barium hexaferrite is the major phase obtained after milling of the powders for 20 h, followed by calcination at 1000 °C for 5 h. The morphology of the particles of the substituted ferrite samples is plate-like with hexagonal shape. The microwave absorption in the X-band of epoxy composites loaded with the ferrite fillers, either separately, in pairs or all together, has been extensively investigated. Multicomponent composites filled with the new hexaferrites under study are promising candidates for electromagnetic absorbers in the 8–12 GHz range. It is found that single-layer absorbers of 5 mm thickness with 45 wt% of a binary (Sn and Ti-doped hexaferrite) or ternary filler mixture exhibit the maximum bandwidth of 2.7 GHz at the level of −10 dB or maximum losses of 26.4 dB at 10.8 GHz, respectively. - Highlights: • Preparation of substituted hexaferrites via mechanical activation. • We designed a broad band microwave absorber with mixing powders. • We designed single layer absorber with RL{sub min} = −26.4 dB and 1.6 GHz bandwidth. • We designed double layer absorbers, as monoband absorbers at a matching frequency.

  7. An investigation on the microstructures and magnetic properties of the Sr0.35−xBaxCa0.30La0.35Fe11.71Co0.29O19 hexaferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yujie; Liu, Xiansong

    2014-01-01

    M-type hexaferrite Sr 0.35−x Ba x Ca 0.30 La 0.35 Fe 11.71 Co 0.29 O 19 (0≤x≤0.35) magnetic powders and magnets were prepared by the solid-state reaction. The phase compositions of the magnetic powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the hexagonal single phase is obtained in all samples. The micrographs of the magnets were observed by a field emission scanning electron microscopy. All magnets have formed hexagonal structures and the particles are distributed evenly. Magnetic properties of the magnets were measured by a magnetic properties test instrument. The remanence, intrinsic coercivity, magnetic induction coercivity and maximum energy product of the magnets continuously decrease with increasing barium content (x). - Highlights: • Hexaferrites Sr 0.35−x Ba x Ca 0.30 La 0.35 Fe 11.71 Co 0.29 O 19 were prepared by the solid-state reaction. • The hexagonal single phase is obtained in all magnetic powders. • B r , H cj , H cb and (BH) max of the magnets continuously decrease with increasing barium content

  8. Synthesis and characterization of the Y-type barium hexaferrite (Ba_2CoZnFe_1_2O_2_2) obtained by ultrasonic interdispersion of chemical precitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junior, E.S.G.; Santos, M.R.C.; Jardim, P.M.; Ogasawara, T.; Almeida, L.H.

    2011-01-01

    This work is to study the synthesis and characterization of the Y-type barium hexaferrite powder (Ba2CoZnFe12O22) by chemical precipitation of the precursor materials Fe(OH)3, Co(OH)2, Zn(OH)2 and Ba(OH)2 separately and ultrasonic inter-dispersion, followed by drying and calcining. The study shows that the phase formation of the Y-type barium hexaferrite begins to emerge already at a temperature of 900 ° C with further phases still present, characterized by X-ray diffraction, the grain growth of the final product of the synthesis as a function of calcination temperature is visible by SEM, the measured magnetic of the powder through the hysteresis curve confirms that the material is magnetically soft at room temperature. The synthesis method developed in this research is an option to achieve the results that would be obtained if the co-precipitation of the ferric hydroxides, of cobalt, zinc and barium were thermodynamically possible. (author)

  9. Room-temperature multiferroic and magnetocapacitance effects in M-type hexaferrite BaFe{sub 10.2}Sc{sub 1.8}O{sub 19}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Rujun, E-mail: tangrj@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: yanghao@nuaa.edu.cn; Zhou, Hao; You, Wenlong [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Thin Films, College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Yang, Hao, E-mail: tangrj@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: yanghao@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211106 (China)

    2016-08-22

    The room-temperature multiferroic and magnetocapacitance (MC) effects of polycrystalline M-type hexaferrite BaFe{sub 10.2}Sc{sub 1.8}O{sub 19} have been investigated. The results show that the magnetic moments of insulating BaFe{sub 10.2}Sc{sub 1.8}O{sub 19} can be manipulated by the electric field at room temperature, indicating the existence of magnetoelectric coupling. Moreover, large MC effects are also observed around the room temperature. A frequency dependence analysis shows that the Maxwell-Wagner type magnetoresistance effect is the dominant mechanism for MC effects at low frequencies. Both the magnetoelectric-type and non-magnetoelectric-type spin-phonon couplings contribute to the MC effects at high frequencies with the former being the dominant mechanism. The above results show that the hexaferrite BaFe{sub 10.2}Sc{sub 1.8}O{sub 19} is a room-temperature multiferroic material that can be potentially used in magnetoelectric devices.

  10. Morphological and magnetic properties of sol-gel synthetized meso and macroporous spheres of barium hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Cadenas, S., E-mail: storres_c@hotmail.com [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas y Materiales, UMSNH, Edificio U, Ciudad Universitaria, Santiago Tapia 403, Colonia Centro, 58030 Morelia (Mexico); Reyes-Gasga, José, E-mail: jreyes@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Circuito de la Investigación s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Coyoacán, México, D.F. (Mexico); Bravo-Patiño, A., E-mail: brapal@hotmail.com [Centro Multidisciplinario de Estudios en Biotecnología (CMEB) de la FMVZ, UMSNH, Posta Zootécnica, km. 8.5 carretera Morelia-Zinapecuaro, C.P. 58890 col. La Palma, Tarimbaro, Michoacán (Mexico); Betancourt, I., E-mail: israelb@iim.unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Ciudad de México C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Contreras-García, M.E., E-mail: eucontre@gmail.com [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas y Materiales, UMSNH, Edificio U, Ciudad Universitaria, Santiago Tapia 403, Colonia Centro, 58030 Morelia (Mexico)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • 1.5 µm porous spheres of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} were synthetized by the sol-gel method. • Surfactant Tween20 (C{sub 58}H{sub 114}O{sub 26}) enabled the creation of the mesoporous structure. • Polystyrene spheres (PS) were used as the template for the formation of macropores. • Spheres resembled a nest or ball-of-yarn type of elongated BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} crystals. • Magnetic properties are evaluated as function of the calcination temperature. - Abstract: Porous spherical aggregates of barium hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) with 1.5 µm in diameter were synthetized by the surfactant-assisted sol-gel method. The surfactant Tween20 (C{sub 58}H{sub 114}O{sub 26}), which enables mesoporous structures, as well as polystyrene spheres (PS), as the template agent for the formation of macropores, were used. Two synthetic routes (hereafter named A and B), whose difference was the absence or presence of PS, were followed for synthesis. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in high resolution mode (HRTEM) were used for characterization. Size and morphology of the spheres were similar in both cases and they resemble a nest or ball-of-yarn type structure. Pore size and BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} crystal size produced by the two routes are different. The magnetic properties of the spheres were evaluated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) as function of the calcination temperature. The spheres present ferromagnetic behavior in both routes.

  11. Morphological and magnetic properties of sol-gel synthetized meso and macroporous spheres of barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Cadenas, S.; Reyes-Gasga, José; Bravo-Patiño, A.; Betancourt, I.; Contreras-García, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 1.5 µm porous spheres of BaFe 12 O 19 were synthetized by the sol-gel method. • Surfactant Tween20 (C 58 H 114 O 26 ) enabled the creation of the mesoporous structure. • Polystyrene spheres (PS) were used as the template for the formation of macropores. • Spheres resembled a nest or ball-of-yarn type of elongated BaFe 12 O 19 crystals. • Magnetic properties are evaluated as function of the calcination temperature. - Abstract: Porous spherical aggregates of barium hexaferrite (BaFe 12 O 19 ) with 1.5 µm in diameter were synthetized by the surfactant-assisted sol-gel method. The surfactant Tween20 (C 58 H 114 O 26 ), which enables mesoporous structures, as well as polystyrene spheres (PS), as the template agent for the formation of macropores, were used. Two synthetic routes (hereafter named A and B), whose difference was the absence or presence of PS, were followed for synthesis. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in high resolution mode (HRTEM) were used for characterization. Size and morphology of the spheres were similar in both cases and they resemble a nest or ball-of-yarn type structure. Pore size and BaFe 12 O 19 crystal size produced by the two routes are different. The magnetic properties of the spheres were evaluated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) as function of the calcination temperature. The spheres present ferromagnetic behavior in both routes.

  12. Effect of Mg{sup 2+} and Ti{sup 4+} dopants on the structural, magnetic and high-frequency ferromagnetic properties of barium hexaferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shams, Mohammad H. [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jarib Street, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rozatian, Amir S.H., E-mail: a.s.h.rozatian@phys.ui.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jarib Street, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yousefi, Mohammad H. [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jarib Street, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Valíček, Jan [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Mining and Geology, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17. Listopadu 15, 70833 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Šepelák, Vladimir [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 45, 04001 Košice (Slovakia)

    2016-02-01

    The doped barium hexaferrite, BaFe{sub 12−x}(Mg{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}){sub x}O{sub 19} with 1≤x≤5, is synthesized by a solid state ceramic method. Its crystalline structure, morphology, as well as static and dynamic magnetic properties are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometry, and vector network analysis, respectively. The cation distribution of Mg{sup 2+} and Ti{sup 4+} in the hexagonal structure of BaFe{sub 12−x}(Mg{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}){sub x}O{sub 19} is investigated by {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The effect of Mg{sup 2+} and Ti{sup 4+} dopants on static and high-frequency magnetic properties of the ferrite is studied. - Highlights: • The BaFe{sub 12−x}(MgTi){sub 0.5x}O{sub 19} (x =1– 5) are synthesized by a solid state reaction method. • The Mg{sup 2+} and Ti{sup 4+} dopants take positions 12k for x=1 and 4f{sub 1} and 4f{sub 2} for x=5. • The coercivity and magnetization are decreased with an increase in Mg–Ti content. • The ferromagnetic resonance frequency is decreased with increase of x. • The FMR is shifted to lower frequencies due to the reduction of the anisotropy field.

  13. Room temperature magneto-electric coupling in La-Zn doped Ba{sub 1-x}La{sub x}Fe{sub 12-x}Zn{sub x}O{sub 19} (x = 0.0-0.4) hexaferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pawan; Gaur, Anurag [National Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Kurukshetra (India)

    2017-12-15

    Barium hexaferrite powder samples with substitution of La{sup +3} at Ba{sup +2} and Zn{sup +2} at Fe{sup +3} site, according to the series formula Ba{sub 1-x}La{sub x}Fe{sub 12-x}Zn{sub x}O{sub 19} (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) have been prepared by the co-precipitation method. These samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, Polarization versus electric field loop tracer and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques. XRD patterns and Rietveld refinement indicate the single-phase formation of the magneto-plumbite barium hexaferrite for all the samples. Significant changes in dielectric properties are obtained by the different doping concentration of La and Zn. Ferroelectric loop for all the samples shows the lossy ferroelectric behaviour. Large spontaneous polarization is observed for x = 0.2 sample at room temperature. With increasing La and Zn doping content, the value of saturation magnetization and retentivity increases, and reaches a maximum value of 40.0 emu/gm and 24.0 emu/gm, respectively, for x = 0.2 sample and then decreases. To confirm the magneto-electric coupling, the second-order magneto-electric coupling coefficient β is measured through the dynamic method with the maximum value of ∝ 1.69 x 10{sup -6} mV/cm.Oe{sup 2} for x = 0.2 sample at room temperature. The observations of room temperature magneto-electric coupling in these samples are useful for evolution of new multifunctional devices. (orig.)

  14. Effect of calcination temperature on microstructure, dielectric, magnetic and optical properties of Ba{sub 0.7}La{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 11.7}Co{sub 0.3}O{sub 19} hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Talwinder [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144411 (India); Kaur, Barjinder [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar 144011 (India); Bhat, Bilal H. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, 190006 (India); Kumar, Sachin [Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Srivastava, A.K., E-mail: srivastava_phy@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144411 (India)

    2015-01-01

    M-type barium hexaferrite Ba{sub 0.7}La{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 11.7}Co{sub 0.3}O{sub 19} (BaLCM) powder, synthesized using sol gel auto combustion method, heat treated at 700, 900, 1100 and 1200 °C. X ray diffraction (XRD) powder patterns of heat treated samples show the formation of pure phase of M-type hexaferrite after 700 °C. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) reveals that the weight loss of BaLCM becomes constant after 680 °C. The presence of two prominent peaks, at 432 cm{sup −1} and 586 cm{sup −1} in Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra, gives the idea of formation of M-type hexaferrites. The M–H curve obtained from Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) were used to calculate saturation magnetization (M{sub S}), retentivity (M{sub r}), squareness ration (SR) and coercivity (H{sub c}). The maximum value of coercivity (5602 Oe) is found at 900 °C. The band gap dependency on temperature was studied using UV–vis NIR spectroscopy. The dielectric constant has been found to be high at low frequency but it decreases with increase in frequency. Such kind of dielectric behavior is explained on the basis of Koop's phenomenological theory and Maxwell Wagner theory.

  15. Evolution of structure and magnetic properties for BaFe{sub 11.9}Al{sub 0.1}O{sub 19} hexaferrite in a wide temperature range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trukhanov, A.V., E-mail: truhanov86@mail.ru [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninsky Prospekt, 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); SSPA “Scientific and Practical Materials Research Centre of NAS of Belarus”, P. Brovki str., 19, 220072 Minsk, Belorussia (Belarus); Trukhanov, S.V. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninsky Prospekt, 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); SSPA “Scientific and Practical Materials Research Centre of NAS of Belarus”, P. Brovki str., 19, 220072 Minsk, Belorussia (Belarus); Panina, L.V.; Kostishyn, V.G. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninsky Prospekt, 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kazakevich, I.S. [SSPA “Scientific and Practical Materials Research Centre of NAS of Belarus”, P. Brovki str., 19, 220072 Minsk, Belorussia (Belarus); Trukhanov, An.V. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninsky Prospekt, 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); SSPA “Scientific and Practical Materials Research Centre of NAS of Belarus”, P. Brovki str., 19, 220072 Minsk, Belorussia (Belarus); Trukhanova, E.L.; Natarov, V.O. [SSPA “Scientific and Practical Materials Research Centre of NAS of Belarus”, P. Brovki str., 19, 220072 Minsk, Belorussia (Belarus); Turchenko, V.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie Str., 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Donetsk Institute of Physics and Technology named after A.A. Galkin of the NAS of Ukraine, 72 R.Luxemburg Str., 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Salem, M.M. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninsky Prospekt, 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); and others

    2017-03-15

    M-type BaFe{sub 11.9}Al{sub 0.1}O{sub 19} hexaferrite was successfully synthesized by solid state reactions. Precision investigations of crystal and magnetic structures of BaFe{sub 11.9}Al{sub 0.1}O{sub 19} powder by neutron diffraction in the temperature range 4.2–730 K have been performed. Magnetic and electrical properties investigations were carried out in the wide temperature range. Neutron powder diffraction data were successfully refined in approximation for both space groups (SG): centrosymmetric #194 (standard non-polar phase) and non-centrosymmetric #186 (polar phase). It has been shown that at low temperatures (below room temperature) better fitting results (value χ{sup 2}) were for the polar phase (SG: #186) or for the two phases coexistence (SG: #186 and SG: #194). At high temperatures (400–730 K) better fitting results were for SG: #194. It was established coexistence of the dual ferroic properties (specific magnetization and spontaneous polarization) at room temperature. Strong correlation between magnetic and electrical subsystems was demonstrated (magnetoelectrical effect). Temperature dependences of the spontaneous polarization, specific magnetization and magnetoelectrical effect were investigated.

  16. Structural, magneto-optical properties and cation distribution of SrBi{sub x}La{sub x}Y{sub x}Fe{sub 12−3x}O{sub 19} (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.33) hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auwal, I.A. [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, 34500 B. Çekmece, İstanbul (Turkey); Güngüneş, H. [Department of Physics, Hitit University, 19030 Çevre Yolu Bulvarı, Çorum (Turkey); Güner, S. [Department of Physics, Fatih University, 34500 B. Çekmece, İstanbul (Turkey); Shirsath, Sagar E. [Spin Device Technology Center, Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu University, 380-8553 Nagano (Japan); Sertkol, M. [Department of Physics Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Maslak (Turkey); Baykal, A., E-mail: hbaykal@fatih.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, 34500 B. Çekmece, İstanbul (Turkey)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • SrBi{sub x}La{sub x}Y{sub x}Fe{sub 12−3x}O{sub 19} (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.33) hexaferrites have been prepared by sol-gel autocombustion. • XRD patterns show that SrBi{sub x}La{sub x}Y{sub x}Fe{sub 12−3x}O{sub 19} (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.33) hexaferrites exhibit hexagonal structure. • The intrinsic coercivity (H{sub ci}) above 15000 Oe reveals that all samples are magnetically hard materials. - Abstract: SrBi{sub x}La{sub x}Y{sub x}Fe{sub 12−3x}O{sub 19} (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.33) hexaferrites were produced via sol-gel auto combustion. XRD patterns show that all the samples are single-phase M-type strontium hexaferrite (SrM). The magnetic hysteresis (σ-H) loops revealed the ferromagnetic nature of nanoparticles (NPs). The coercive field decreases from 4740 Oe to 2720 Oe with increasing ion content. In particular, SrBi{sub x}La{sub x}Y{sub x}Fe{sub 12−3x}O{sub 19} NPs with x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2 have suitable magnetic characteristics (σ{sub s} = 62.03–64.72 emu/g and H{sub c} = 3105–4740 Oe) for magnetic recording. The intrinsic coercivity (H{sub ci}) above 15000 Oe reveals that all samples are magnetically hard materials. Tauc plots were used to specify the direct optical energy band gap (E{sub g}) of NPs. The E{sub g} values are between 1.76 eV and 1.85 eV. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy data, the variation in line width, isomer shift, quadrupole splitting, relative area and hyperfine magnetic field values on Bi{sup 3+} La{sup 3+} and Y{sup 3+} substitutions have been determined.

  17. Study of the effects of additives on structural properties of the Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} hexaferrite; Estudo do efeito de aditivos nas propriedades estruturais da hexaferrita Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Y.S.; Pereira, C.A.; Farias, F.C.; Mello, P.S.; Alves, A.G.; Pereira, F.M.; Barroso, M.B., E-mail: yuri.link2@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Cariri (UFCA), Juazeiro do Norte, CE (Brazil); Saraiva, I.R.; Conde, W.S. [DeVry Fanor, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Sombra, A.B. [Laboratorio de Telecomunicacoes e Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais (LOCEM/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The Hexaferrites are magnetic ceramic materials chemically and thermally stable, low-cost and easy processing. The objective of this work was to study the effects of SiO2 and CaO additives on structural properties of hexaferrite Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19}. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and quantified by the Rietveld method. The doped samples showed no structural change. With the concentration of dopant employed, there was a decrease in the sintering temperature of all samples Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} 1100 °C/5h to 1000 °C/2h. After addition of dopants, it was observed that the growth of the grains in the samples did not occur uniformly. This uneven growth can is being influenced by the concentrations of Ba and Sr atoms present in the samples, as well as some sort of reaction with the dopant elements. (author)

  18. Moessbauer spectroscopic determination of magnetic moments of Fe3+ and Co2+ in substituted barium hexaferrite, Ba(Co,Ti)xFe(12-2x)O19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.M.; Adetunji, J.; Gregori, M.

    2000-01-01

    We report the distribution of magnetic moments of Fe 3+ and Co 2+ in Co 2+ -, Ti 4+ -substituted M-type barium hexaferrite, Ba(Co,Ti) x Fe (12-2x) O 19 , as a function of doping rate, x. The substitution, x, for iron has been varied with x=0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.70 and 0.85. The magnetic moments of Fe 3+ and Co 2+ were calculated from the combined results of Moessbauer measurements for Fe 3+ ions in the sublattices and neutron diffraction data for the total moments of Fe 3+ and Co 2+ . A comparison of the signs of the magnetic moments of Fe 3+ and Co 2+ ions enabled us to attribute spin directions of the Co 2+ ions in the sublattices of the substituted ferrite samples. The spin directions of Co 2+ are opposite to those of Fe 3+ in the 4f 2 and 2b sublattices. They are reversed from the original directions in the 4f 1 and 12K sublattices when the value of x≥0.70. A quantitative analysis shows that Co 2+ and Ti 4+ ions are preferably substituted into 4f 2 and 12K sublattices, respectively. In addition, while the hyperfine field of Fe 3+ in the 2b sublattice gives rise to the 2b-4f 2 interaction it is the partially substituted Co 2+ ions in the 4f 1 and 12K sublattices that contribute to the near neighbour 2a-4f 1 and 2b-12K types of interaction

  19. Arsenic removal by magnetic nanocrystalline barium hexaferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Hasmukh A.; Byun, Jeehye; Yavuz, Cafer T., E-mail: yavuz@kaist.ac.kr [Graduate School of EEWS, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Nanoscale magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) (<15 nm) is known to remove arsenic efficiently but is very difficult to separate or require high magnetic fields to separate out from the waste water after treatment. Anisotropic hexagonal ferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}, BHF) is a well-known permanent magnet (i.e., fridge magnets) and attractive due to its low cost in making large quantities. BHF offers a viable alternative to magnetite nanocrystals for arsenic removal since it features surfaces similar to iron oxides but with much enhanced magnetism. Herein, we employ BHF nanocrystalline materials for the first time in arsenic removal from wastewater. Our results show better (75 %) arsenic removal than magnetite of the similar sizes. The BHF nanoparticles, 6.06 {+-} 0.52 nm synthesized by thermolysis method at 320 Degree-Sign C do not show hexagonal phase, however, subsequent annealing at 750 Degree-Sign C produced pure hexagonal BHF in >200 nm assemblies. By using BHF, we demonstrate that nanoparticle removal is more efficient and fixed bed type cartridge applications are more possible.

  20. Arsenic removal by magnetic nanocrystalline barium hexaferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Hasmukh A.; Byun, Jeehye; Yavuz, Cafer T.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) ( 12 O 19 , BHF) is a well-known permanent magnet (i.e., fridge magnets) and attractive due to its low cost in making large quantities. BHF offers a viable alternative to magnetite nanocrystals for arsenic removal since it features surfaces similar to iron oxides but with much enhanced magnetism. Herein, we employ BHF nanocrystalline materials for the first time in arsenic removal from wastewater. Our results show better (75 %) arsenic removal than magnetite of the similar sizes. The BHF nanoparticles, 6.06 ± 0.52 nm synthesized by thermolysis method at 320 °C do not show hexagonal phase, however, subsequent annealing at 750 °C produced pure hexagonal BHF in >200 nm assemblies. By using BHF, we demonstrate that nanoparticle removal is more efficient and fixed bed type cartridge applications are more possible.

  1. Preliminary assessment of an S.G.H.W. type research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicevskis, A.; Chapman, A.G.; Hesse, E.W.

    1970-08-01

    A preliminary design study has been made of a research reactor, based on the enriched S.G.H.W.R. concept, to be used for power reactor fuel irradiation, isotope production, basic research, and training in nuclear technology. A reactor physics assessment established a core size which would allow uninterrupted operation for the required irradiation period consistent with low capital and operating costs. A design was selected with 24 channels, a D 2 O calandria diameter of 2.7 m and an overall core height of 4.0 m. The capital cost was estimated as $750,000 for the fuel and $1,600,000 for the moderator, the refuelling cost being $340,000 per annum. A thermal design study showed that the fission heat of 65 MW could be transmitted to pressurised light water at 200 lb/in 2 abs. and rejected to sea water in two conventional U-tube heat exchangers. The basic design is flexible and can be adapted to meet many special requirements. (author)

  2. Synthesis and orientation of barium hexaferrite ceramics by magnetic alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autissier, Denis

    1990-01-01

    Particles of Ba 2Mn xZn 2- xFe 12O 22 with planar structure were prepared by chemical precipitation. They were processed by sleep casting in presence of a magnetic field. The degree of alignment was improved by a special sintering treatment. By this procedure an alignment as high as 99.9% is obtained.

  3. Thermal expansion of Ti-substituted barium hexaferrite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Gomez, P.; Francisco, de C.; Brabers, V.A.M.; Dalderop, J.H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Thermal expansion measurements in the range of 20–500 °C were carried out on both poly- and single crystalline samples of the hexagonal magnetoplumbite ferrite with composition BaTiFe11O19. The continuous scanning of the thermal expansion reveals the existence of a -type anomaly near the Curie

  4. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In addition heat treatments are also carried out in the microwave oven of the power rating of 760 W. The powders thus produced have been characterized by SEM, EPMA, VSM, XRD and thermal analysis techniques. As a forward step towards EL nano-composite coatings, Ni-P- ( = BaZn2- CoFe16O27) coatings with ...

  5. Microwave absorption properties of reduced graphene oxide strontium hexaferrite/poly(methyl methacrylate) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sanghamitra; Ray, J.; Patro, T. U.; Alegaonkar, Prashant; Datar, Suwarna

    2018-03-01

    The key factors to consider when designing microwave absorber materials for eradication of electromagnetic (EM) pollution are absorption of incident EM waves and good impedance matching. By keeping these things in mind, flexible microwave absorber composite films can be fabricated by simple gel casting techniques using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and strontium ferrite (SF) in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix. SF nanoparticles are synthesized by the well known sol-gel method. Subsequently, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and SF nanocomposite (RGOSF) are prepared through a chemical reduction method using hydrazine. The structure, morphology, chemical composition, thermal stability and magnetic properties of the nanocomposite are characterized in detail by various techniques. The SF particles are found to be nearly 500 nm and decorated on RGO sheets as revealed by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis. Fourier transform infrared and and Raman spectroscopy clearly show the presence of SF in the graphene sheet by the lower peak positions. Finally, ternary polymer composites of RGO/SF/PMMA are prepared by an in situ polymerization method. Magnetic and dielectric studies of the composite reveal that the presence of RGO/SF/PMMA lead to polarization effects contributing to dielectric loss. Also, RGO surrounding SF provides a conductive network in the polymer matrix which is in turn responsible for the magnetic loss in the composite. Thus, the permittivity as well as the permeability of the composite can be controlled by an appropriate combination of RGO and SF in PMMA. More than 99% absorption efficiency is achieved by a suitable combination of magneto-dielectric coupling in the X-band frequency range by incorporating 9 wt% of RGO and 1 wt% of SF in the polymer matrix.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and microwave characteristics of ternary nanocomposite of MWCNTs/doped Sr-hexaferrite/PANI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyyed Afghahi, Seyyed Salman [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Imam Hossein University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Peymanfar, Reza; Javanshir, Shahrzad [Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Atassi, Yomen [Department of Applied Physics, Higher Institute for Applied Sciences and Technology, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Jafarian, Mojtaba, E-mail: m.jafarian@srbiau.ac.ir [Young Researchers and Elites Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    Substituted strontium ferrite (sub-SF) nanoparticles are prepared by a sol-gel method and added to functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The ternary nanocomposite of MWCNTs/sub-SF/polyaniline (PANI) is prepared by in-situ polymerization of aniline on MWCNTs/sub-SF reaction mixture. The morphology, structure and magnetic properties of the nanocomposites are investigated by SEM, XRD, FTIR and VSM, respectively. The microwave characteristics are measured using a vector network analyzer. The XRD patterns exhibit representative diffraction peaks corresponding to hexagonal structure, and the structure of the MWCNTs is not distorted. SEM micrographs show that sub-SF nanoparticles and PANI chains are uniformly dispersed on the surface of MWCNTs. The MWCNTs/sub-SF/PANI exhibit a minimum reflection loss of −26 dB at 10 GHz with 3 GHz bandwidth and a matching thickness of 5 mm. This excellent microwave characteristic indicates the synergistic effect of the three components to enhance the impedance matching and improve the microwave absorption properties of the composite. - Highlights: • Novel ternary nanocomposite of MWCNTs/sub-SF/polyaniline (PANI) is prepared by in-situ polymerization. • The prepared single composite absorber are lightweight with 20 wt% filler content in parafin. • Composites with a combination of magnetic and dielectric fillers exhibit wider reflection loss peaks. • Composite absorber exhibit a minimum reflection loss of −26 dB at 10 GHz with 3 GHz bandwidth with a matching thickness of 5 mm.

  7. Characteristics of Barium Hexaferrite Nanoparticles Prepared by Temperature-Controlled Chemical Coprecipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Jun Young; Lee, Choong Sub; Kim, Don; Kim, Yeong Il

    2012-01-01

    Ba-ferrite (BaFe 12 O 19 ) nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical coprecipitation method in an aqueous solution. The particle size and the crystallization temperature of the Ba-ferrite nanoparticles were controlled varying the precipitation temperature. The precipitate that was prepared at 0 .deg. C showed the crystal structure of Ba-ferrite in X-ray diffraction when it was calcined at the temperature above 580 .deg. C, whereas what was prepared at 50 .deg. C showed the crystallinity when it was calcined at the temperature higher than about 700 .deg. C. The particle sizes of the synthesized Ba-ferrite were in a range of about 20-30 nm when it was prepared by being precipitated at 0 .deg. C and calcined at 650 .deg. C. When the precipitation temperature increased, the particle size also increased even at the same calcination temperature. The magnetic properties of the Ba-ferrite nanoparticles were also controlled by the synthetic condition of precipitation and calcination temperature. The coercive force could be appreciably lowered without a loss of saturation magnetization when the Ba-ferrite nanoparticles were prepared by precipitation and calcination both at low temperatures

  8. Preparation and properties of yttria doped tetragonal zirconia polycrystal/Sr-doped barium hexaferrite ceramic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shanshan; Zhang, Chao; Guo, Ruisong; Liu, Lan; Yang, Yuexia; Li, Kehang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The 3Y-TZP/Sr-doped barium ferrite composites were prepared. • The saturation magnetization was improved by 15% with Sr-doping. • The dispersion coefficient p could reflect the microscopic lattice variation. • The composite with x = 0.5 had the maximum fracture toughness of 8.3 MPa m 1/2 . - Abstract: The effects of substitution of Ba 2+ by Sr 2+ on the magnetic property of barium ferrite and addition barium ferrite secondary phase to the 3 mol% yttria-doped tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) matrix on the mechanical property of composites were investigated. The Sr-doped barium ferrite (Ba 1−x Sr x Fe 12 O 19 , x = 0, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75) was synthesized by solid-state reaction in advance. Then 3Y-TZP/20 wt% Sr-doped barium ferrite composites were prepared by means of conventional ceramic method. It was found that a moderate amount of Sr added to barium ferrite could boost the saturation magnetization by 15% compared with the composites without Sr-doping. Besides, the composite with x = 0.50 possessed the best mechanical properties, such as 11.5 GPa for Vickers hardness and 8.3 MPa m 1/2 for fracture toughness, respectively. It was demonstrated that magnetic and mechanical properties of the composites could be harmonized by the incorporation of barium ferrite secondary phase

  9. Cold Heat Storage Characteristics of O/W-type Latent Heat Emulsion Including Continuum Phase of Water Treated with a Freezing Point Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hideo; Morita, Shin-Ichi

    This paper deals with flow and cold heat storage characteristics of the oil (tetradecane, C14H30, freezing point 278.9 K, Latent heat 229 kJ/kg)/water emulsion as a latent heat storage material having a low melting point. The test emulsion includes a water-urea solution as a continuum phase. The freezing point depression of the continuum phase permits enhancement of the heat transfer rate of the emulison, due to the large temperature difference between the latent heat storage material and water-urea solution. The velocity of emulsion flow and the inlet temperature of coolant in a coiled double tube heat exchanger are chosen as the experimental parameters. The pressure drop, the heat transfer coefficient of the emulsion in the coiled tube are measured in the temperture region over solid and liquid phase of the latent heat storage material. The finishing time of the cold heat storage is defined experimentally in the range of sensible and latent heat storage. It is clarified that the flow behavior of the emulsion as a non-Newtonian fluid has an important role in cold heat storage. The useful nondimentional correlation equations for the additional pressure loss coefficient, the heat transfer coefficient and the finishing time of the cold heat storage are derived in terms of Dean number and heat capacity ratio.

  10. Effect of annealing temperature and substitution of Zr-Cu on magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem [Department of Chemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan (Pakistan); Hernandez-Gomez, Pablo, E-mail: mjiqauchem@yahoo.co [Dpto. Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, 47071 Valladolid (Spain)

    2009-03-01

    ZnTe and ZnTe:Cr films were prepared onto glass substrates using the thermal evaporation method. Structural properties of the prepared samples were analyzed using X-ray diffractometry, and the presence of a ZnCrTe phase was identified along with poor crystallinity. Composition analysis was done using XPS and the Cr content in the film was found to be 0.05 atomic percent. Transmittance spectra were recorded using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The valence state of Cr in ZnTe:Cr film is determined to be +2 using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Magnetic moment data as a function of magnetic field were recorded using a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer at temperatures of 5, 77 and 300 K. The results showed minority ferromagnetic behavior even at room temperature. Magnetic domains were observed using Magnetic Force Microscopy and the average domain size is 3.7 nm.

  11. The crystalline and magnetic properties of Zn doped strontium Z-type hexaferrite synthesized by polymerizable complex method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Tae Lim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline samples of Sr3Co2-xZnxFe24O41 (x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 were synthesized by a polymerizable complex method. The crystallographic, and magnetic properties of samples were investigated using x-ray diffractometer (XRD, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The crystal structures of all samples were determined to be hexagonal with the space group P63/mmc. The hysteresis curves under 10 kOe at 295 K showed that all samples were not saturated due to the high planar anisotropy of Sr ions. In addition, the coercivity (Hc of samples decreased with increasing Zn ion contents. Mössbauer spectra of all samples were obtained at 295 K, and least-squares fitted below TC as six distinguishable sextets (4fIV, 4fIV*, 12kVI*, 4fVI*+ 4eIV, 12kVI, and 2dV + 2aVI + 4fVI + 4eVI.

  12. Topology and symmetry analysis of rare earth borocarbides structural family, analogy to hexaferrites and relation to properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belokoneva, E.L.; Mori, Takao

    2009-01-01

    The topology and symmetry analysis was applied to a series of rare earth borocarbide compounds, which have been gaining increasing interest due to their magnetic and thermoelectric properties. Using principles of OD theory, the crystal structures were deconvoluted into L(1) (B 12 icosahedra and C-B-C chain) layers and L(2) (rare earth and B 6 octahedral) layers. The arrangement of B 12 icosahedra in the L(1) layer is equal to close packed spheres, however, symmetry of the B 12 block lowers symmetry of the resulting layer from P 6/mmm to P 3m1. Both layers, L(1) and L(2) possess symmetry P 3m1 and the conjugation of L(1) with L(2) layers occurs in accordance with the symmetry elements. No disorder may appear here because of equal symmetry of single layers and layer pairs and it is not a classical OD family. Only the increasing of the amount of one type of layers, namely L(1), provides the structural variations. Close analogy to the hexagonal ferrites family has been found. Topology and symmetry analysis reveals principles in the building up of the structural family, gives an insight into the particular order-disorder formation mechanism/criteria of these homologous borocarbide compounds and as the result relation to the properties (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Temperature effect on the magnetic property and ferroelectricity in hexaferrite SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Gang; Lu, Xiaowen; Cui, Xiaopeng; Deng, Dongmei; Kang, Baojuan; Cao, Shixun; Zhang, Jincang [Shanghai University, Materials Genome Institute and Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Jin, Yuan [Shanghai University, Materials Genome Institute and Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Hengdain Group DMEGC Magnetics Co.LTD., Hengdian (China); Yang, Wuguo [Hengdain Group DMEGC Magnetics Co.LTD., Hengdian (China)

    2016-07-15

    We studied the temperature effect on magnetic and electrical properties in bulk SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} prepared by conventional ceramic technique. The jumping behavior of magnetization has been observed under the zero-field-cooling mode, but disappeared under the field-cooled cooling mode. The spin moment of iron ions reorients below 50 K leading to the magnetic structure changes. Magnetic parameters, saturation magnetization (Ms) and coercivity field (Hc), show opposite tendency with temperature throughout the measuring range, which is mainly ascribed to the Fe{sup 3+} ions situated at 4f{sub 2} and 2b sites. The curves of electrical polarization P vs temperature T under different external magnetic field indicate the existence of ferroelectricity and magnetoelectric coupling effect at low temperature, and the transition temperature T{sub P} is about 120 K. (orig.)

  14. Epitaxial growth and electronic structure of a layered zinc pnictide semiconductor, β-BaZn2As2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Zewen; Ran, Fan-Yong; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo; Kamiya, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    BaZn 2 As 2 is expected for a good p-type semiconductor and has two crystalline phases of an orthorhombic α phase and a higher-symmetry tetragonal β phase. Here, we report that high-quality epitaxial films of the tetragonal β-BaZn 2 As 2 were grown on single-crystal MgO (001) substrates by a reactive solid-phase epitaxy technique. Out-of-plane and in-plane epitaxial relationships between the film and the substrate were BaZn 2 As 2 (00 l)//MgO (001) and BaZn 2 As 2 [200]//MgO [200], respectively. The full-widths at half maximum were 0.082° for a 008 out-of-plane rocking curve and 0.342° for a 200 in-plane rocking curve. A step-and-terrace structure was observed by atomic force microscopy. The band gap of β-BaZn 2 As 2 was evaluated to be around 0.2 eV, which is much smaller than that of a family compound LaZnOAs (1.5 eV). Density functional theory calculation using the Heyd–Scuseria–Ernzerhof hybrid functionals supports the small band gap. - Highlights: • High-quality epitaxial β-BaZn 2 As 2 films were obtained. • The band gap of β-BaZn 2 As 2 was evaluated to around 0.2 eV. • Hybrid Heyd–Scuseria–Ernzerhof calculation supports the small band gap

  15. Magnetocaloric effect in multiferroic Y-type hexaferrite Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2(Fe0.92Al0.0812O22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfei Xu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetocaloric effect is investigated in multiferroic Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2(Fe0.92Al0.0812O22 ceramic with Y-type hexagonal system. Three magnetic transitions, from alternating longitudinal conical to mixed conical at ∼240 K, to ferrimagnetic at ∼297 K, further to paramagnetic at ∼702 K, are unambiguously determined. Furthermore, obvious MCE is shown, and the maximum values of the magnetic entropy change and relative cooling power are evaluated to be 1.53 JKg−1K−1 and 280 JKg−1 for a field change of 7 T, respectively. In addition, inverse MCE is also observed, which might be associated with the first-order magnetic phase transition between two incommensurate longitudinal conical phases.

  16. In situ and Ex situ Annealing Studies of Hydrothermally Synthesized SrFe12O19 Nano Platelets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Frederik; Saura-Múzquiz, Matilde; Ahlburg, Jakob

    Strontium hexaferrite is a chemically stable and cheap magnetic compound, free of rare-earth metals. Previous studies have shown that nanostructuring can improve the magnetic performance of strontium hexaferrite, both as a powder and after pellet compaction, which allows for better bulk magnets f...

  17. The microwave magnetic performance of Sm3+ doped BaCo2Fe16O27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lixi; Song Jie; Zhang Qitu; Huang Xiaogu; Xu Naicen

    2009-01-01

    W-type barium hexaferrites doped with Sm 3+ , Ba 1-x Sm x Co 2 Fe 16 O 27 (x = 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2) were prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction. The structure and electromagnetic properties of the calcined samples were studied using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and network analyzer (Agilent 8722ET). All the XRD patterns showed the single phase of the magnetoplumbite barium ferrite without other intermediate phase when x ≤ 0.15. The microwave electromagnetic properties of the samples have been studied at the frequency range from 2 GHz to 18 GHz. It was shown that ε' and ε'' increased slightly, and the maximum of ε'' shifted to low frequency position with Sm 3+ ions doping. The μ'' and μ' values were improved significantly when x = 0.15, and the peak value of μ'' was about 1.6 at 7 GHz and 1.75 at 18 GHz position, respectively, exhibiting excellent microwave magnetic performance. Furthermore, the reasons have also been discussed using electromagnetic theory. Ba 0.85 Sm 0.15 Co 2 Fe 16 O 27 powders (85% by weight) were mixed with epoxy resin to form compound coating materials with different thicknesses, the reflection loss values of which were also measured. It is shown that the reflection loss value increases with the increase of the coating thickness under our experimental range. The maximum of reflection loss reached about -23 dB and it was below -10 dB at the frequency range from 8 GHz to 18 GHz, when the thickness was 1.8 mm.

  18. The impact of Co/La ratios on microstructure and magnetic properties of the Sr0.75−xCa0.25LaxFe12−yCoyO19 hexaferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yujie; Wang, Fanhou; Shao, Juxiang; Huang, Duohui; Liu, Xiansong; Feng, Shuangjiu; Wen, Cuie

    2015-01-01

    Hexagonal ferrite Sr 0.75−x Ca 0.25 La x Fe 12−y Co y O 19 magnetic powder and magnets were synthesized according to a ceramic process. The phase compositions of the magnetic powder samples were determined by X-ray diffraction. There is a single magnetoplumbite phase in the samples with y/x from 0.3 to 0.6, and when y/x>0.6, the CoFe 2 O 4 phase is observed. The micrographs of the sintered magnets were observed by a field emission scanning electron microscopy. The magnets have formed the hexagonal structures and the particles are distributed inhomogeneously. The impact of Co/La ratios on magnetic properties of the magnets was studied systematically. The remanence, magnetic induction coercivity and maximum energy product of the magnets first increase with y/x from 0.3 to 0.6, and then decrease when y/x>0.6. However, the intrinsic coercivity of the magnets first increases with y/x from 0.3 to 0.9, and decreases when y/x>0.9. The rectangularity of the demagnetizing curves for the magnets decreases with increasing y/x. - Highlights: • Sr 0.75−x Ca 0.25 La x Fe 12−y Co y O 19 hexagonal ferrites were synthesized according to a ceramic process. • There is a single magnetoplumbite phase in the samples with y/x from 0.3 to 0.6, and when y/x is above 0.7, the CoFe 2 O 4 phase is observed. • B r , H cb and (BH) max of the magnets first increase with y/x from 0.3 to 0.6, and then, decrease when y/x continues to increase. • H cj of the magnets first increases with y/x from 0.3 to 0.9, and then, decreases when y/x is above 0.9. • The rectangularity of the demagnetizing curves for the magnets decreases with the increase of y/x

  19. Structural, magnetic and magneto-optical properties of SrFe.sub.12-x./sub.Al.sub.x./sub.O.sub.19./sub. hexaferrite thin films prepared by laser ablation deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heczko, O.; Gerber, R.; Šimša, Zdeněk

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 358, - (2000), s. 206-214 ISSN 0040-6090 Grant - others:GB(GB) Royal Society Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.160, year: 2000

  20. Magnetic, ferroelectric, and spin phonon coupling studies of Sr{sub 3}Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 24}O{sub 41} multiferroic Z-type hexaferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, N.; Shravan Kumar Reddy, S.; Ramesh, J.; Gopal Reddy, Ch.; Yadagiri Reddy, P., E-mail: yadagirireddy@yahoo.com; Rama Reddy, K. [Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad-500007 (India); Sathe, V. G.; Raghavendra Reddy, V. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore-452001 (India)

    2016-08-07

    The magnetic, Raman, ferroelectric, and in-field {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer studies of polycrystalline multiferroic Sr{sub 3}Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 24}O{sub 41} are reported in this paper. From the magnetization studies, it is observed that the sample is soft magnetic in nature with low temperature magnetic spin transitions like longitudinal to transverse conical structure around 130 K and change in magnetic crystalline anisotropy from conical to planar structure at 250 K. Ferroelectric studies of the sample exhibit the spontaneous polarization at low temperature. Strong spin phonon and spin lattice coupling is observed through low temperature Raman spectroscopy. From the in-field {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, spin up and spin down site occupations of Fe ions are calculated in the unit cell.

  1. Electromagnon in the Z-type hexaferrite (Ba.sub.x./sub.Sr.sub.1-x./sub.).sub.3./sub.Co.sub.2./sub.Fe.sub.24./sub.O.sub.41./sub.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Filip; Kadlec, Christelle; Vít, Jakub; Borodavka, Fedir; Kempa, Martin; Prokleška, J.; Buršík, Josef; Uhrecký, Róbert; Rols, S.; Chai, Y.S.; Zhai, K.; Sun, Y.; Drahokoupil, Jan; Goian, Veronica; Kamba, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 2 (2016), 1-8, č. článku 024419. ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15014; GA ČR GA15-08389S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-18392S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : electromagnon * THz spectroscopy * multiferroics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; CA - Inorganic Chemistry (UACH-T) Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  2. Características microestructurales de varistores del sistema ZnO-BaO-P2O5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández, J. F.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic materials based on the system ZnO-BaO show a great potential for varistor applications. However, the BaO rich phase located at the grain boundaries shows high solubility in water which causes severe damage of the materials. In order to overcome this problem, doping with P2O5 to form BaZn2(PO42 and Zn3(PO42 has been studied. The resistance of these materials to degradation by moisture has been evaluated by lixiviation experiments. Sintering has been followed by means of dilatometric technique and microstructure was analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy, SEM. The electrical properties of these materials evidence a varistor behaviour similar to that observed for materials in the system ZnO-BaO.Los materiales basados en el sistema ZnO-BaO presentan unas propiedades de gran interés para su aplicación como varistores. Sin embargo, la fase rica en BaO localizada en el borde de grano exhibe una solubilidad elevada en agua que origina una rápida degradación del material. Para soslayar este problema se ha estudiado la incorporación adicional de P2O5 con el objeto de formar las fases BaZn2(PO42 y Zn3(PO42. La estabilidad de estos nuevos materiales frente a la humedad se ha evaluado mediante ensayos de lixiviación. La sinterización se ha seguido mediante dilatometría y la microestructura de los materiales sinterizados se ha analizado por Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido, MEB. La respuesta eléctrica de los materiales muestra un comportamiento varistor comparable al que se observa en los del sistema binario ZnO-BaO.

  3. Influence of dysprosium addition on the structural, morphological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave absorption properties of hexaferrite (70 wt%)–acrylic resin. (30 wt%) composites ... the RE ions were substituted for Sr (Ba) or Fe, taking into accounts the .... general the RE substitutions weaken the super exchange interactions ...

  4. Sonochemical assisted synthesis of SrFe12O19 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, R L; Bolarín Miró, A M; Tenorio, F N; Sánchez De Jesús, F; Cortés Escobedo, C A; Ammar, S

    2016-03-01

    We present the synthesis of M-type strontium hexaferrite by sonochemistry and annealing. The effects of the sonication time and thermal energy on the crystal structure and magnetic properties of the obtained powders are presented. Strontium hexagonal ferrite (SrFe12O19) was successfully prepared by the ultrasonic cavitation (sonochemistry) of a complexed polyol solution of metallic acetates and diethylene glycol. The obtained materials were subsequently annealed at temperatures from 300 to 900 °C. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the sonochemical process yields an amorphous phase containing Fe(3+), Fe(2+) and Sr(2+) ions. This amorphous phase transforms into an intermediate phase of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) at 300 °C. At 500 °C, the intermediate species is converted to hematite (α-Fe2O3) by a topotactic transition. The final product of strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19) is generated at 800 °C. The obtained strontium hexaferrite shows a magnetization of 62.3 emu/g, which is consistent with pure hexaferrite obtained by other methods, and a coercivity of 6.25 kOe, which is higher than expected for this hexaferrite. The powder morphology is composed of aggregates of rounded particles with an average particle size of 60 nm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Crystallisation of Ba1-xSrxZn2Si2O7 from BaO/SrO/ZnO/SiO2 glass with different ZrO2 and TiO2 concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladislavova, Liliya; Kracker, Michael; Zscheckel, Tilman; Thieme, Christian; Rüssel, Christian

    2018-04-01

    The effect of different nucleation agents such as ZrO2 and TiO2 was investigated for a first time with respect to their crystallisation behaviour in the glass system BaO-SrO-ZnO-SiO2. In all studied glasses, a Ba1-xSrxZn2Si2O7 (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.9) solid solution crystallized. This phase was first described in 2015 to possess a similar structure as the high temperature phase of BaZn2Si2O7 and a thermal expansion close to zero or even negative. It may find applications e.g. as cook panels, telescope mirrors, and furnace windows. Kinetic parameters of the crystallisation process were determined by supplying different heating rates in a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The results were evaluated using the equations of Ozawa and Kissinger with respect to the activation energies. Furthermore, the Ozawa method was used for the determination of Avrami parameters, which provides further information on the nucleation and crystallisation processes. Scanning electron microscopy including electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to characterise the microstructure, to determine the crystallite size and the crystal orientation. For the characterisation of the occurring crystalline phases, X-ray diffraction was used.

  6. Magnetic and microstructural properties of the BaFe(12-(4/3)x)SnxO19 ceramic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino-Castellanos, P.A.; Somarriba-Jarque, J.C.; Anglada-Rivera, J.

    2005-01-01

    The magnetic and microstructural properties of the M-type Sn 4+ -doped barium hexaferrite according to the stoichiometric formulation BaFe (12-(4/3)x) Sn x O 19 (x=0, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) have been studied. The XRD and magnetic analysis, using a rotating sample magnetometer, reveal that a correlation exists between the variation of the host lattice parameters and the decrease in the values of saturation magnetization, remnant magnetization and magnetic anisotropy with Sn 4+ content. This makes it possible to connect the microstructural properties to the magnetic behavior of doped barium hexaferrite at both microscopic and macroscopic levels

  7. Dielectric, magnetic and lattice dynamics properties of Y-type hexaferrite Ba.sub.0.5./sub.Sr.sub.1.5./sub.Zn.sub.2./sub.Fe.sub.12./sub.O.sub.22./sub.. Comparison of ceramics and single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamba, Stanislav; Goian, Veronica; Savinov, Maxim; Buixaderas, Elena; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Maryško, Miroslav; Kempa, Martin; Bovtun, Viktor; Hlinka, Jiří; Knížek, Karel; Vaněk, Přemysl; Novák, Pavel; Buršík, Josef; Hiraoka, Y.; Kimura, T.; Kouřil, K.; Štěpánková, H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 10 (2010), 104109/1-104109/7 ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08059; GA AV ČR IAA100100803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : multiferroics * infrared spectroscopy * phonons * magnon Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.064, year: 2010

  8. Analyse des structures planaires multicouches à ferrite par la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finite element analysis of multi-layer planar structures with Ferrite. Electromagnetic Analysis of microwave integrated circuits is an attractive subject do to the recent development and use of new materials such as magnetic anisotropic materials (hexaferrite, ...). These materials are used in many microwave components ...

  9. Synthesis and characterization of biocompatible hydroxyapatite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/boms/026/07/0655-0660. Keywords. Bioceramics; hyperthermia; ferrite; biocompatible coating. Abstract. Ferrite particles coated with biocompatible phases can be used for hyperthermia treatment of cancer. We have synthesized substituted calcium hexaferrite, which is not stable on its own ...

  10. P N Kotru

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 33 Issue 4 August 2010 pp 377-382 Electrical Properties. Dielectric and thermal studies on gel grown strontium tartrate pentahydrate crystals ... High resolution X-ray diffraction studies on unirradiated and irradiated strontium hexaferrite crystals · Balwinder Kaur Monita Bhat F Licci Ravi Kumar K K Bamzai P N Kotru.

  11. High resolution X-ray diffraction studies on unirradiated

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction technique, employing a three-crystal monochromator–collimator combination is used to study the irradiation induced defects in flux grown Sr-hexaferrite crystals irradiated with 50 MeV Li3+ ion beams at room temperature with a fluence value of 1 × 1014 ions/cm2. The diffraction curves of the ...

  12. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 5. Structure and magnetic properties of Zr–Mn substituted strontium hexaferrite Sr(Zr,Mn) x Fe 12 − 2 x O 19 nanoparticles synthesized by sol–gel auto-combustion method. S ALAMOLHODA S M MIRKAZEMI Z GHIAMI M NIYAIFAR. Volume 39 Issue 5 ...

  13. Petrologie a mineralogie porcelanitů mostecké pánve - produktů fosilních požárů neogenní hnědouhelné sloje

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žáček, V.; Skála, Roman; Dvořák, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2010), s. 1-32 ISSN 1211-0329 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : porcellanite * buchite * pyrometamorphism * esseneite * kirschsteinite * srebdoloskite * barium hexaferrite * cordierite * spinels * Most Basin (Czech Republic) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  14. Dual ferroic properties of hexagonal ferrite ceramics BaFe_1_2O_1_9 and SrFe_1_2O_1_9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostishyn, V.G.; Panina, L.V.; Timofeev, A.V.; Kozhitov, L.V.; Kovalev, A.N.; Zyuzin, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    Dual ferroic properties of a strong magnetism and large ferroelectricity have been observed in barium BaFe_1_2O_1_9 and strontium SrFe_1_2O_1_9 hexaferrite ceramics. The samples were fabricated by a modified ceramic technique from highly purified raw materials with addition of boron oxide allowing the control of grain size and enhancement of bulk resistivity. Whereas the samples of PbFe_1_2O_1_9 fabricated by the same technological method did not have sufficient electric resistivity to support an electric field and did not exhibit the ferroelectric properties. The structure of the samples examined by X-ray diffraction is consistent with a single hexagonal phase. The grains are randomly oriented with the average grain size of 300–400 nm coated with boron oxide. The magnetic properties are characterised by standard ferrimagnetic behavior with the Neel temperature of about 450 °C. Large spontaneous polarization was observed with the maximal values of 45–50 μC/cm"2 under an applied electric field of 100–300 kV/m. A strong coupling between magnetic and electric ordering was confirmed by measuring the magnetoelectric (ME) parameter and magnetodielectric ratio. These ME characteristics are more advanced than those for well-known room temperature multiferroic BiFeO_3. Furthermore, by applying an electric field, the manipulation of magnetization in the range of up to 9% was observed, which is even greater than in some substituted hexaferrites with a non-collinear magnetic structure. The obtained results on electrical polarization are similar to the values reported for the corresponding hexaferrites sintered by polymer precursor technique. This suggests a promising potential of M-type hexaferrite ceramics in devices utilizing magnetoelectric coupling. - Highlights: • Ba(Sr)Fe_1_2O_1_9-hexaferrites show large room-temperature multiferroic properties. • Small addition of B_2O_3 increases the hexaferrite resistivity by 4 orders of magnitude. • Large spontaneous

  15. Soft magnetic nanoparticles of BaFe sub 1 sub 2 O sub 1 sub 9 fabricated under mild conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Che Shan; Chen Qian Wang

    2003-01-01

    Nanoparticles of barium hexaferrite, with an average size of 12 nm, were prepared by a hydrothermal route at relatively low temperatures (140-180 deg C). The effects of reaction temperature and time on the particle size and magnetic properties were discussed. The nanoparticles show a soft magnetic feature with a saturation magnetization of 1.1 emu g sup - sup 1 and coercivity of 221.0 Oe, rather than the hard magnetic characteristic that the corresponding bulk material exhibits. Annealing treatment in air at 800 deg C led to an order-of-magnitude increase of the saturation magnetization (67.3 emu g sup - sup 1) and coercive force (4511 Oe). It is suggested that the oxygen vacancies should be responsible for the soft magnetic characteristic that appeared for the as-prepared barium hexaferrite nanoparticles. (letter to the editor)

  16. Magnetic and structural properties of Sr0.75La0.25FexCu0.20O19 (10.40≤x≤11.80) hexagonal ferrites prepared by the solid-state reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yujie; Shao, Juxiang; Wang, Fanhou; Liu, Xiansong; Feng, Shuangjiu; Huang, Duohui; Yang, Junsheng; Jin, Chengguo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the hexaferrite magnetic powders and magnets according to the formula Sr 0.75 La 0.25 Fe x Cu 0.20 O 19 , where x ranging from 10.40 to 11.80 with a step of 0.2 were prepared by the solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction was performed to investigate the microstructures of the magnetic powders. The results show that a single magnetoplumbite phase is obtained for the magnetic powders with Fe content (10.60≤x≤11.60). For the magnetic powders with Fe content (x) of 10.40 or 11.80, magnetic impurities appear in the structure. A field emission scanning electron microscopy was hired to explore the micrographs of the magnets. The hexaferrite magnets are formed of hexagonal-shaped crystals. A magnetic properties test instrument was used in order to study the magnetic properties of the magnets. The remanence and maximum energy product first increase with Fe content (x) from 10.40 to 11.00 and then begin to decrease when Fe content (x) continues to increase. While the intrinsic coercivity and magnetic induction coercivity first increase with Fe content (x) from 10.40 to 11.20 and then decrease when Fe content (x)>11.20. - Highlights: • The hexaferrite Sr 0.75 La 0.25 Fe x Cu 0.20 O 19 (10.40≤x≤11.80) magnetic powders and magnets were synthesized by the solid-state reaction. • The hexaferrite magnets are formed of hexagonal-shaped crystals. • At Fe content (x)=11.00, B r and (BH) max for the magnets reach the maximum values. At Fe content (x)=11.20, H cj and H cb for the magnets reach the maximum values.

  17. Epitaxial Garnets and Hexagonal Ferrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-20

    guide growth of the epitaxial YIG films. Aluminum or gallium substitu- tions for iron were used in combination with lanthanum substitutions for yttrium... gallate spinel sub- strates. There was no difficulty with nucleation in the melt and film quality appeared to be similar to that observed previously...hexagonal ferrites. We succeeded in growing the M-type lead hexaferrite (magnetoplumbite) on gallate spinel substrates. We found that the PbO-based

  18. Mechanism and microstructural evolution of polyol mediated synthesis of nanostructured M-type SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenorio Gonzalez, F.N.; Bolarín Miró, A.M. [Área Académica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, UAEH, Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, C.P. 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Sánchez De Jesús, F., E-mail: fsanchez@uaeh.edu.mx [Área Académica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, UAEH, Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, C.P. 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Cortés Escobedo, C.A. [Centro de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica del IPN, Cda. CECATI S/N, Col. Sta. Catarina, C. P. 02250 Azcapotzalco, D. F. (Mexico); Ammar, S. [Université Paris Diderot, Paris 7, Laboratoire Interfaces, Traitements, Organisation et Dynamiqué des Systéme UMR, 7086, Paris (France)

    2016-06-01

    The synthesis mechanism of nanostructured M-type strontium hexaferrite SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} with high coercivity (5.7 kOe) obtained by a polyol process and annealing is proposed. The results show that the hexaferrite is synthesized through the formation of a complex with diethylene glycol during the hydrolysis and solvation stage, followed by the condensation of magnetite and strontium oxide. The results of the monitoring of the process by X-ray diffraction (XRD) of synthesized powders, magnetization hysteresis loops and micromorphology are presented and discussed. The proposed mechanism suggests the intermediate formation of the magnetite phase, which shows coercivity near zero at room temperature and confirms the nanoscale of the particles. Results of thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis indicate that this phase is followed by the formation of the hematite phase after a heat treatment up to 543 °C in an oxidizing atmosphere. Finally, the hexagonal phase is obtained after application of annealing at 836 °C through the reaction between hematite and strontium oxide. - Highlights: • SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} was successfully obtained by a polyol-assisted synthesis. • Magnetite nanoparticles have been obtained as intermediate phase. • A synthesis mechanism for the growing stage of magnetite is proposed. • A reaction sequence and the synthesis mechanism to obtain hexaferrite is presented.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of M-type barium hexferrite by ultrasonic inter-dispersion of chemical precipitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Junior, E.S.; Gomes Junior, G.G.; Ogasawara, T.

    2010-01-01

    This work is concerned with the study the synthesis and characterization of M-type barium hexaferrite powder by chemical precipitation type and ultrasonic interdispersion of precursor materials Fe(OH) 3 and Ba(OH) 2 ,separately and ultrasonic inter-dispersion, followed by drying and calcining. In order to guide the experimental work was carried out a preliminary thermodynamic analysis of the system Ba-Fe-H 2 O at 25 deg C. The study shows that the phase formation of M-type barium hexaferrite is obtained at a calcination at 1000 deg C, characterized by X-ray diffraction, the grain growth of the final product of synthesis depending on the calcination temperature is visible by SEM. The synthesis method developed in this research is an option to achieve the results that would be obtained if the co-precipitation of ferric and barium hydroxide was thermodynamically possible, where you can get crystallization of barium hexaferrite in a calcination at 1000 deg C. (author)

  20. Mechanism and microstructural evolution of polyol mediated synthesis of nanostructured M-type SrFe12O19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenorio Gonzalez, F.N.; Bolarín Miró, A.M.; Sánchez De Jesús, F.; Cortés Escobedo, C.A.; Ammar, S.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis mechanism of nanostructured M-type strontium hexaferrite SrFe 12 O 19 with high coercivity (5.7 kOe) obtained by a polyol process and annealing is proposed. The results show that the hexaferrite is synthesized through the formation of a complex with diethylene glycol during the hydrolysis and solvation stage, followed by the condensation of magnetite and strontium oxide. The results of the monitoring of the process by X-ray diffraction (XRD) of synthesized powders, magnetization hysteresis loops and micromorphology are presented and discussed. The proposed mechanism suggests the intermediate formation of the magnetite phase, which shows coercivity near zero at room temperature and confirms the nanoscale of the particles. Results of thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis indicate that this phase is followed by the formation of the hematite phase after a heat treatment up to 543 °C in an oxidizing atmosphere. Finally, the hexagonal phase is obtained after application of annealing at 836 °C through the reaction between hematite and strontium oxide. - Highlights: • SrFe 12 O 19 was successfully obtained by a polyol-assisted synthesis. • Magnetite nanoparticles have been obtained as intermediate phase. • A synthesis mechanism for the growing stage of magnetite is proposed. • A reaction sequence and the synthesis mechanism to obtain hexaferrite is presented.

  1. Magnetic enhancement of ferroelectric polarization in a self-grown ferroelectric-ferromagnetic composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Narayan, Bastola; Pachat, Rohit; Ranjan, Rajeev

    2018-02-01

    Ferroelectric-ferromagnetic multiferroic composites are of great interest both from the scientific and technological standpoints. The extent of coupling between polarization and magnetization in such two-phase systems depends on how efficiently the magnetostrictive and electrostrictive/piezoelectric strain gets transferred from one phase to the other. This challenge is most profound in the easy to make 0-3 ferroelectric-ferromagnetic particulate composites. Here we report a self-grown ferroelectric-ferromagnetic 0-3 particulate composite through controlled spontaneous precipitation of ferrimagnetic barium hexaferrite phase (BaF e12O19 ) amid ferroelectric grains in the multiferroic alloy system BiFe O3-BaTi O3 . We demonstrate that a composite specimen exhibiting merely ˜1% hexaferrite phase exhibits ˜34% increase in saturation polarization in a dc magnetic field of ˜10 kOe. Using modified Rayleigh analysis of the polarization field loop in the subcoercive field region we argue that the substantial enhancement in the ferroelectric switching is associated with the reduction in the barrier heights of the pinning centers of the ferroelectric-ferroelastic domain walls in the stress field generated by magnetostriction in the hexaferrite grains when the magnetic field is turned on. Our study proves that controlled precipitation of the magnetic phase is a good strategy for synthesis of 0-3 ferroelectric-ferromagnetic particulate multiferroic composite as it not only helps in ensuring a good electrical insulating character of the composite, enabling it to sustain high enough electric field for ferroelectric switching, but also the factors associated with the spontaneity of the precipitation process ensure efficient transfer of the magnetostrictive strain/stress to the surrounding ferroelectric matrix making domain wall motion easy.

  2. Ferroic materials synthesis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Virk, Hardev Singh

    2015-01-01

    Ferroics is the generic name given to the study of ferromagnets, ferroelectrics, and ferroelastics. The basis of this study is to understand the large changes in physical characteristics that occur over a very narrow temperature range. In recent years, a new class of ferroic materials has been attracting increased interest. These multiferroics exhibit more than one ferroic property simultaneously in a single phase. The present volume: ""Ferroic Materials: Synthesis and Applications"" has ten Chapters, spread over areas as diverse as Magnetic Oxide Nanomaterials, Ferrites Synthesis, Hexaferrite

  3. Structural and Magnetic Characterization of BaFe12O19 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhage, Vinod N.; Mane, M. L.; Shirsath, Sagar E.; Jadhav, S. P.; Gunjal, R. P.; Jadhav, K. M.

    2011-07-01

    Barium hexaferrite nanoparticles have been synthesized successfully by using sol-gel auto-combustion technique. In this process dextrose and citric acid both used as a fuel separately. The ratio of cation to both the fuel was maintained at 1:3 whereas the pH of the sample was kept constant at 8. The particle size for dextrose and citric acid sample is 34 nm and 45 nm respectively. The room temperature hysteresis curve gives maximum magnetization (48.46 emu/g) and coercivity (1.350 kOe) values for dextrose used sample. The dextrose used sample gives better results than that of citric acid used sample.

  4. Processing, structure and magnetic properties correlation in co-precipitated Ca-ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abasht, Behzad, E-mail: abasht@gmail.com [Space Thruster Research Institute, Iranian Space Research Center, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Beitollahi, Ali; Mirkazemi, Seyyed Mohammad [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    La-substituted hexagonal calcium ferrite, Ca{sub 1−X}La{sub X}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (x varies from 0 to 0.6 with the step of 0.2), was synthesized by applying co-precipitation method, in which the molar ratio of Fe{sup 3+}/(Ca{sup 2+}+La{sup 2+}) was 11. The ferrite precursors were prepared from aqueous solution of calcium nitrate, ferric nitrate and lanthanum nitrate by co-precipitation of calcium, iron and lanthanum ions by using an aqueous base of sodium hydroxide (1.5 M) at the pH of 14 and at room temperature. These precursors were calcinated with different amount of La at different temperature of 700, 1100 and 1200 °C for constant calcination time of 1 h in a static air atmosphere. Some tests such as simultaneous thermal analysis (STA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were carried out to investigate the thermal behavior, crystallographic properties, morphology and magnetic properties of the precursor powders which were calcinated at different temperatures. The powder XRD patterns of samples which consisted of La as dopant and were calcinated at 1200 °C for 1 h, indicates the formation of calcium hexaferrite and also α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} besides Magnetoplumbite-phase (M-phase). However, the results showed that CaFe{sub 4}O{sub 7} and α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases were formed in the sample with the same condition but without using any dopant. The results of SEM showed that the calcium hexaferrite particle were regular hexagonal platelets with the size range of 1–2 µm. The magnetic properties such as maximum magnetization (M{sub Max}), remanent magnetization (M{sub r}) and coercivity (H{sub c}) were measured from the hysteresis loops. Low values of coercive field (16.3 kA m{sup −1}) and maximum magnetization (50.6 A m{sup 2} kg{sup −1}) were obtained from calcium hexaferrite particle in optimum amount of La (X=0.4) which calcinated at the temperature of 1200 °C. - Highlights: • In this

  5. Mutations of the interferon sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) correlate with the complexity of hypervariable region (HVR)-1 in the Japanese variant of hepatitis C virus (HCV) type 1b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Isao; Fukuda, Yoshihide; Katano, Yoshiaki; Toyoda, Hidenori; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Kumada, Takashi; Nakano, Satoshi

    2004-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b comprises mainly two subtypes in Japan, each named for its geographic prevalence (Japan-specific, J type; worldwide, W type). Because the newly identified subtypes have not been fully characterized, the present study directed this issue from virological viewpoints such as hypervariable region (HVR)-1 as well as interferon (IFN) sensitivity-determining region (ISDR). Fifty chronic hepatitis patients with HCV 1b (31 men and 19 women; mean age 50.5 years) were enrolled, and J/W type was determined according to envelope 1 (E1) sequence as described previously (23 J type and 27 W type). Correlations between age, number of HVR-1 clones, HVR-1 diversity, and ISDR mutations were analyzed in J and W type patients independently. In addition, the sequences of the three HCV regions obtained for the determination of the above genetic factors were studied phylogenetically. The number of HVR-1 clones was significantly higher for J type in comparison with W type (P = 0.044). In the J type-infected patients, the ISDR mutation number was correlated inversely with HVR-1 clone number (P = 0.0001, r = -0.734) and HVR-1 diversity (P = 0.0001, r = -0.722). However, this correlation was not observed in the W type patients. W type patients showed a significant correlation between age and HVR-1 clone number (P = 0.015, r = 0.462). Phylogenetic study revealed that the nonstructural (NS) 5A sequence, which is obtained for ISDR type determination, can distinguish between J and W types. The inverse correlation in J type patients between ISDR mutations and HVR-1 complexity may explain the usefulness of the ISDR for prediction of IFN response only in Japanese patients. This suggests that the ISDR is not directly related to IFN responsiveness, but the degree of HVR-1 complexity may be more important.

  6. M-type barium hexa ferrite magnetic material for anti radar materials at s band frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priyono; Azwar Manaf

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, preparation and characteristic evaluation of microwave absorber materials of BaFe_1_2_-_2_x Mn_x Ti _xO_1_9 (x = 0,0 - 1,5) compositions are discussed. The absorber material was obtained by a co-substitution of Mn and Ti to Fe in a Barium Hexaferrite (BaO.6Fe_2O_3 ) basic compound through a mechanical alloying process. In this respect, a co-substitution of Mn and Ti ions for Fe was applied to Fe_2O_3 component at a temperature ~ 1,300 °C. The substituted alloy component was further alloyed mechanically with BaCO_3 to form M-Type hexaferrite after the solid state reaction. Identification of X-ray diffraction peaks for the mechanically alloyed materials indicates confidently that a single phase BaFe_1_2_-_x_-_yMn_x Ti_yO_1_9 material was formed. Materials characterization is covering the average grain sizes and absorption of microwaves in the frequency range 1-6 GHz. Absorption with a relatively high coefficient at frequencies ~ 2,000 MHz and ~ 3,500 MHz within the available frequency range was obtained. It is shown that the co-substitution of Mn and Ti ion able to widen the absorption frequency especially in the frequencies of about 3,500 MHz. (author)

  7. VISCOSE BASED MAGNETIC YARNS – PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GROSU Marian-Cătălin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the rapid growth in the number of electrical and electronic devices and accessories that emit electromagnetic energy in different frequency bands we present and characterize here several magnetic functionalized viscose twisted yarns. A 100% viscose twisted staple yarn was covered through an in-house developed process with a polymeric solution containing micrometric sized barium hexaferrite magnetic powder. The in-house developed process allows deposition of micrometric thickness polymeric paste layer on the yarn surface. Barium hexaferrite is a hard magnetic material exhibiting high chemical stability and corrosion resistivity, relatively large saturation and residual magnetization and microwave absorbing properties. Five different percentages of the magnetic powder in the polymer solution were used, i.e. ranging from 15 wt% to 45 wt%. Physical characterization shows a very good adherence between the highly hygroscopic viscose staple fibers and the polymeric solution that contains polyvinyl acetate and polyurethane as binders. SEM images evidenced the fact that the polymeric solution penetrated more than 1/3 of the yarn diameter. The concentration of magnetic powder in the polymeric solution has a direct influence on the coating amount, diameter and density. The mechanical characterization of the coated yarns revealed that the breaking force is increasing with increasing magnetic powder content up to o certain value and then decreased because the magnetic layer became stiffer. At the same time, the elongation at brake is decreasing.

  8. Roles of coercivity and remanent flux density of permanent magnet in interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) performance for electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Hoyun; Hong, Yang-Ki; Lee, Woncheol; Choi, Minyeong

    2018-05-01

    We used four rotor topologies of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) to investigate the effects of remanent flux density (Br) and coercivity (Hc) of permanent magnet on motor performance. Commercial strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19: energy product, (BH)max, of 4.62 MGOe) and Nd-Fe-B ((BH)max of 38.2 MGOe) magnets were used for the rotor designs. The same machine specifications and magnet volume keep constant, while the Hc and Br vary to calculate torque and energy efficiency with the finite-element analysis. A combination of high Hc and low Br more effectively increased maximum torque of IPMSM when the hexaferrite magnet was used. For Nd-Fe-B magnet, the same combination did not affect maximum torque, but increased energy efficiency at high speed. Therefore, the Hc value of a permanent magnet is more effective than the Br in producing high maximum torque for SrM-magnet based IPMSM and high energy efficiency at high speed for Nd-Fe-B magnet based IPMSM.

  9. Suitability of Sr{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5-x}Ce{sub x}Fe{sub 12-y}Ni{sub y}O{sub 19} co-precipitated nanomaterials for inductor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed, E-mail: mjiqauchem@yahoo.co [Surface and Solid State Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Farooq, Saima [Surface and Solid State Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2010-03-18

    The present investigation deals with the synthesis and characterization of Ce-Ni ions substituted nanocrystalline strontium-barium hexaferrites (Sr{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) by the chemical co-precipitation method, with focus on the optimization of annealing temperature for the hexagonal phase development. The synthesis involves co-precipitation of aqueous solutions of water-soluble salts of strontium, barium and iron, at pH 9 using an ammonium hydroxide solution as a precipitating agent. The optimum temperature of annealing, necessary for the hexagonal phase development, is determined on the basis of thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The co-precipitate is annealed at a temperature of 1323 K for 6 h, to produce a single magnetoplumbite phase of Sr-Ba hexaferrites, with the corresponding average crystallite size ranging from 36 to 48 nm. Observed changes in the lattice structure determined by the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies are not in contradiction with the results of TGA. DC-electrical resistivity increases from 1.8 x 10{sup 10} to 12.5 x 10{sup 10} {Omega} cm, whereas the drift mobility, dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent decrease with increasing the Ce-Ni content of the samples. Material of above-mentioned characteristics is considered to be suitable for applications in the microwave and surface mount devices (SMD) for fabricating the multilayer chip inductors (MLCI).

  10. Effect of Co substitution on absorption properties of SrCoxFe12-xO19 hexagonal ferrites based nanocomposites in X-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Soma; Bhattacharyya, Nidhi Saxena; Bhattacharyya, Satyajib

    2017-12-01

    Cobalt doped M-type strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles (SrCoxFe12-xO19, x = 0.2-1.2) is synthesized and used as inclusions in Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) matrix for developing nano-composites with 60 wt% of these nanoparticles. Absorption performance of the developed nano-composites is evaluated in the X-band. The thickness optimization is carried out for obtaining maximum reflection loss by using the transmission line model (TLM), with measured values of permittivity and permeability of the composite. The best reflection loss is observed experimentally for x = 0.8 with an absorber thickness of 3 mm for which a wide -10 dB bandwidth covering almost the entire X-band is obtained. The composites are light weight and not affected by exposure to water.

  11. Radiation losses in the microwave Ku band in magneto-electric nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talwinder Kaur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A study on radiation losses in conducting polymer nanocomposites, namely La–Co-substituted barium hexaferrite and polyaniline, is presented. The study was performed by means of a vector network analyser, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy and a vibrating sample magnetometer. It is found that the maximum loss occurs at 17.9 GHz (−23.10 dB, 99% loss which is due to the composition of a conducting polymer and a suitable magnetic material. A significant role of polyaniline has been observed in ESR. The influence of the magnetic properties on the radiation losses is explained. Further studies revealed that the prepared material is a nanocomposite. FTIR spectra show the presence of expected chemical structures such as C–H bonds in a ring system at 1512 cm−1.

  12. Effects of Al substitution and thermal annealing on magnetoelectric Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2Fe12O22 investigated by the enhancement factor of 57Fe nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sangil; Kang, Byeongki; Kim, Changsoo; Jo, Euna; Lee, Soonchil; Chai, Yi Sheng; Chun, Sae Hwan; Kim, Kee Hoon

    2014-04-09

    The magnetoelectric properties of hexaferrite Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2Fe12O22 are significantly improved by Al substitution and thermal annealing. Measuring the enhancement factor of 57Fe NMR, we found direct microscopic evidence that the magnetic moments of the L and S blocks are rotated by a magnetic field in such a way as to increase the net magnetic moment of a magnetic unit, even after the field is removed. Al substitution makes magnetoelectric property arise easily by suppressing the easy-plane anisotropy. The effect of thermal annealing is to stabilize the multiferroic state by reducing the number of pinning sites and the electron spin fluctuation. The transverse conic structure gradually changes to the alternating longitudinal conic structure where spins fluctuate more severely.

  13. Synthesis of SrCo {sub x} Ti {sub x} Fe{sub (12-2{sub x})}O{sub 19} through sol-gel auto-ignition and its characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Simon [Chemistry and Physics, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Clifton, Nottingham, NG11 8NS (United Kingdom); Shirtcliffe, Neil J. [Chemistry and Physics, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Clifton, Nottingham, NG11 8NS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: neil.shirtcliffe@ntu.ac.uk; O' Keefe, Eoin S. [QinetiQ, Farnborough, Hampshire (United Kingdom); Appleton, Steve [QinetiQ, Farnborough, Hampshire (United Kingdom); Perry, Carole C. [Chemistry and Physics, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Clifton, Nottingham, NG11 8NS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: carole.perry@ntu.ac.uk

    2005-04-15

    Cobalt-titanium-doped strontium hexaferrites SrCo {sub x} Ti {sub x} Fe{sub (12-2{sub x})}O{sub 19} were synthesised via a sol-gel route using two different complexing agents (ethylene glycol and citric acid). Both routes led to quite pure undoped Sr ferrites, but the citric acid route formed purer doped materials. All synthesised materials consisted of particles smaller than 1 {mu}m, which is the size of a single magnetic domain, and various doping levels were achieved with the final elemental composition being within the bounds of experimental error. The materials synthesised using citric acid were compared with materials synthesised by a solid-state route using ferromagnetic resonance measurements and they were identical within experimental error. Citrate auto-ignition synthesis is more rapid and less prone to contamination than the standard solid-state method and doping levels can be easily varied between runs.

  14. X-ray and Moessbauer investigations of isotropic barium ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirichok, P.P.; Pashchenko, V.A.; Dem'yaniv, T.O.; Ryabova, G.N.; Lisovskij, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Using the methods of X-ray and γ-resonance spectroscopy the crystal chemical and magnetic structure of isotropic barium hexaferrites is studied. compacting pressure the lattice parameter c of ferrite of the BaOx5.7Fe 2 O 3 is decreased and the diffraction line width on its X-ray p attern is increased. Due to increasing the isoststical compacting pressure quadrupole splitting of the γ-resonance absorption spectrum of 57 Fe nuclei in tetrahedral positions 4f 1 and in positions 2a decreases. The sintering temperature growth leads to increasing the lattice parameter c and diffraction line widths and decreasing the effeutive field values and isomeric s hifts on 57 Fe nuclei. Isostatical compacting pressure does not affect the electron configuration of iron ions

  15. Electromagnon Resonance at Room Temperature with Gigantic Magnetochromism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishikura, H.; Tokunaga, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Masuda, R.; Taguchi, Y.; Kaneko, Y.; Tokura, Y.

    2018-04-01

    The elementary excitation characteristic of magnetoelectric (ME) multiferroics is a magnon endowed with electric activity, which is referred to as an electromagnon. The electromagnon resonance mediated by the bilinear exchange coupling potentially exhibits strong terahertz light-matter interaction with optical properties different from the conventional magnon excitation. Here we report the robust electromagnon resonance on helimagnetic Y -type hexaferrites in a wide temperature range including room temperature. Furthermore, the efficient magnetic field controls of the electromagnon are demonstrated on the flexible spin structure of these compounds, leading to the generation or annihilation of the resonance as well as the large resonance energy shift. These terahertz characteristics of the electromagnon exemplify the versatile magneto-optical functionality driven by the ME coupling in multiferroics, paving a way for possible terahertz applications as well as terahertz control of a magnetic state of matter.

  16. A simple process to obtain anisotropic self-biased magnets constituted of stacked barium ferrite single domain particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Jean-Luc; Le, Cong Nha; Chevalier, Alexis; Maalouf, Azar; Noutehou, Nathan; Queffelec, Patrick; Laur, Vincent

    2018-04-01

    An efficient and inexpensive process is presented that produces highly oriented bulk compacts made of BaM particles. Barium hexaferrite particles (BaM, nominal composition BaFe11O19) were prepared by a chemical coprecipitation method, using different rates and types of precipitating agents (NaOH and Na2CO3). It was demonstrated that when a large excess of Na2CO3 is used, a noteworthy packing of hexagonal BaM platelets is obtained, after mechanical compaction and firing at moderate temperature (1140 °C), without including any more steps than those required for a conventional sintering process. The hysteresis loop displays a very competitive squareness of 0.88 (normalized remanent magnetization) and a coercivity of 215 kA/m, which make this BaM bulk ferrite suitable for self-biased applications.

  17. Electromagnetic properties of photodefinable barium ferrite polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholiyi, Olusegun; Lee, Jaejin; Williams, John D.

    2014-07-01

    This article reports the magnetic and microwave properties of a Barium ferrite powder suspended in a polymer matrix. The sizes for Barium hexaferrite powder are 3-6 μm for coarse and 0.8-1.0 μm for the fine powder. Ratios 1:1 and 3:1 (by mass) of ferrite to SU8 samples were characterized and analyzed for predicting the necessary combinations of these powders with SU8 2000 Negative photoresist. The magnetization properties of these materials were equally determined and were analyzed using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The Thru, Reflect, Line (TRL) calibration technique was employed in determining complex relative permittivity and permeability of the powders and composites with SU8 between 26.5 and 40 GHz.

  18. Electromagnetic characterization of strontium ferrite powders in series 2000, SU8 polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholiyi, Olusegun; Williams, John

    2014-01-01

    In this article, electromagnetic characterization of strontium hexaferrite powders and composites with SU8 was carried out to determine their compatibility with micro and millimeter wave fabrications. The structures of both powders and their composites were scanned with electron microscope to produce the SEM images. Two powder sizes (0.8–1.0 μm and 3–6 μm), were mixed with SU8, spin cast and patterned on wafer, and then characterized using energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and vibrating sample magnetometry. In this investigation, FMRs of the samples were determined at 60 GHz while their complex permittivity and permeability were determined using rectangular waveguide method of characterization between 26.5 and 40 GHz frequency range. The results obtained show no adverse effects on the electromagnetic properties of the composites except some slight shift in the resonant frequencies due to anisotropic field of the samples. (paper)

  19. Electromagnetic properties of photodefinable barium ferrite polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Sholiyi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the magnetic and microwave properties of a Barium ferrite powder suspended in a polymer matrix. The sizes for Barium hexaferrite powder are 3–6 μm for coarse and 0.8–1.0 μm for the fine powder. Ratios 1:1 and 3:1 (by mass of ferrite to SU8 samples were characterized and analyzed for predicting the necessary combinations of these powders with SU8 2000 Negative photoresist. The magnetization properties of these materials were equally determined and were analyzed using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM. The Thru, Reflect, Line (TRL calibration technique was employed in determining complex relative permittivity and permeability of the powders and composites with SU8 between 26.5 and 40 GHz.

  20. Electromagnetic characterization of strontium ferrite powders in series 2000, SU8 polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholiyi, Olusegun; Williams, John

    2014-12-01

    In this article, electromagnetic characterization of strontium hexaferrite powders and composites with SU8 was carried out to determine their compatibility with micro and millimeter wave fabrications. The structures of both powders and their composites were scanned with electron microscope to produce the SEM images. Two powder sizes (0.8-1.0 μm and 3-6 μm), were mixed with SU8, spin cast and patterned on wafer, and then characterized using energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and vibrating sample magnetometry. In this investigation, FMRs of the samples were determined at 60 GHz while their complex permittivity and permeability were determined using rectangular waveguide method of characterization between 26.5 and 40 GHz frequency range. The results obtained show no adverse effects on the electromagnetic properties of the composites except some slight shift in the resonant frequencies due to anisotropic field of the samples.

  1. A comparative study on the magnetic and electrical properties of MFe12O19 (M=Ba and Sr)/BiFeO3 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. A.; Mansour, S. F.; Ismael, H.

    2015-03-01

    M-type hexaferrite (MFe12O19), M=Ba or Sr nanoparticles with hexagonal crystal structure have been successfully synthesized by a citrate auto-combustion method. BiFeO3 (BFO) was prepared by the flash auto-combustion technique. Different nanocomposites were prepared according to the formula [(1-X) MFe12O19+XBiFeO3; M=Ba or Sr, X=0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6]. The structure and morphology of the obtained nanocomposites have been determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). From the results, it is observed that the value of saturation magnetization decreases with increasing BFO content, which was mainly due to the contribution of the volume of the weak-magnetic BFO to the total sample volume.

  2. In-situ PXRD Study on the Annealing of SrFe12O19 Nano Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Frederik; Saura-Múzquiz, Matilde; Christensen, Mogens

    Nano sized strontium hexaferrite is synthesized using a hydrothermal flow synthesis, at temperature and pressure above waters critical point. The nano particles are hexagonal platelets, with the easy axis of magnetization along the short c-axis of the platelet. The nano powders are normally pressed...... and annealed to form mechanically stable pellets. This study uses In-situ Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD) to examine the particle growth during annealing of the powder, with emphasis on the ratio between the axes of the platelets (a/c-ratio). By applying an external magnetic field before annealing......, the particles will align along the field lines of the external magnet, and the contact surfaces along the c-axis should increase. It will be examined whether the external magnetic field increases the growth along the c-axis relative to the a/b-axis, compared to annealing without prior magnetization....

  3. BaCO3 mediated modifications in structural and magnetic properties of natural nanoferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widanarto, W.; Jandra, M.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Effendi, M.; Cahyanto, W. T.

    2015-04-01

    Preparing M-type barium hexaferrite and improving the magnetic response of natural ferrites by incorporating barium carbonate (BaCO3) is ever-demanding. Series of barium carbonate doped ferrites with composition (100-x)Fe3O4·xBaCO3 (x=0, 10, 20, 30 wt%) are prepared through solid state reaction method and sintered gradually at temperatures of 800 and 1000 °C. Nanoparticles of natural ferrite and commercial BaCO3 are used as raw materials. Impacts of BaCO3 on structural and magnetic properties of these synthesized ferrites are inspected. The obtained ferrites are characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature. Uniform barium hexaferrite particles in terms of both morphology and size are not achieved. The average crystallite size of BaFe12O19 is observed to be within 30-600 nm. The sintering process results phase transformation from Fe3O4 (magnetite) to α-Fe2O3 (hematite) and the formation of hexagonal barium ferrite crystals. The occurrence of barium crystal is found to enhance with the increase of BaCO3 concentrations up to 20 wt% and suddenly drop at 30 wt%. Saturation and remanent magnetization of the doped ferrites are significantly augmented up to 16.37 and 8.92 emu g-1, respectively compared to their pure counterpart. Furthermore, the coercivity field is slightly decreased as BaCO3 concentrations are increased. BaCO3 mediated improvements in the magnetic response of natural ferrites are demonstrated.

  4. Efficient schemes for deterministic joint remote preparation of an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hao Fu

    2017-06-02

    Jun 2, 2017 ... Keywords. Joint remote state preparation; arbitrary four-qubit W-type entangled state; four- and two-qubit ... nificant application of quantum entanglement, namely ..... Alice's first results are the other 15 cases in the basis. {|λ. (i).

  5. Efficient schemes for deterministic joint remote preparation of an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present three schemes for the joint remote state preparation (JRSP) of an arbitrary four-qubit W-type entangled state with complex coefficients via four and two three-qubit GHZ states as the quantum channel. In these schemes, two senders (or N senders) share the original state which they wish to help the receiver to ...

  6. (Diethyl ether{1-[2-(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl-κN3-1,1-diphenylethyl]-(1,2,3,3a,7a-η-indenyl}lithium(I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Borzov

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Li(C27H23N2(C4H10O], the Li atom possesses a nearly planar trigonal coordination environment (assuming the cyclopentadienyl ring of the indenyl group occupies one coordination place. The diethyl ether ligand adopts a nearly planar W-type conformation.

  7. Microstructural and magnetic studies on BaMg{sub x}Zn{sub x}X{sub 2x}Fe{sub 12−4x}O{sub 19} (X=Zr,Ce,Sn) prepared via mechanical activation method to act as a microwave absorber in X-band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afghahi, Seyyed Salman Seyyed [Department of Engineering, Imam Hossein University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafarian, Mojtaba, E-mail: m.jafarian@iau-shahrood.ac.ir [Department of Material Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Atassi, Yomen [Department of Applied Physics, Higher Institute for Applied Sciences and Technology, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, doped barium hexaferrite with the composition of BaMg{sub x}Zn{sub x}X{sub 2x}Fe{sub 12−4x}O{sub 19} (where x= 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 and X= Zr, Ce, Sn) was prepared via mechanical activation. X-ray diffractometer (XRD), FTIR spectrophotometer, Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and vector network analyzer (VNA) were used to analyze its phases, structure, electromagnetic and microwave absorption properties respectively. Based on the results, single phase barium hexaferrite was obtained in all cases after milling the mixed powders for 20 h plus calcination at 1000 °C for 5 h. Morphology of the particles in all of the doped samples was completely hexagonal shape and they had an appropriate distribution. It was found that the sample of BaMg{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.9}Zr{sub 1.8}Fe{sub 8.4}O{sub 19} with saturation magnetization and coercive force of 37.3 emu/g and 94 Oe respectively possessed the maximum reflection loss of −19.3 dB at 12.3 GHz with 1.7 GHz bandwidth. - Highlights: • The mechanical activation method was used to prepare: BaMg{sub x}Zn{sub x}X{sub 2x}Fe{sub 12−4x}O{sub 19}(X=Zr, Ce, and Sn) with values of xequal to 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9. • Morphology of the particles in all of the doped samples was completely hexagonal shape and they had an appropriate distribution. • BaMg{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.9}Zr{sub 1.8}Fe{sub 8.4}O{sub 19} possesses the maximum reflection loss of −19.3 dB at 12.3 GHz with 1.7 GHz bandwidth.

  8. The effect of Bi substitution on the microstructure and magnetic properties of the Sr0.4Ba0.3La0.3Fe12−xBixO19 hexagonal ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yujie; Wang, Fanhou; Liu, Xiansong; Shao, Juxiang; Feng, Shuangjiu; Huang, Duohui; Li, Mingling

    2017-01-01

    Bi 3+ ions doped M-type hexaferrites, Sr 0.4 Ba 0.3 La 0.3 Fe 12−x Bi x O 19 (0≤x≤0.7), were prepared by the ceramic process. The phase components of the magnetic powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction. The results show that a single magnetoplumbite phase is obtained for the magnetic powders with x from 0 to 0.2, and BiFeO 3 as a second phase appears when Bi content (x)≥0.3. The micrographs of the sintered magnets were observed by a field emission scanning electron microscopy. The sintered magnets are formed of hexagonal-shaped crystals. The magnetic properties of the sintered magnets were measured at room temperature by a permanent magnetic measuring system. The remanence (B r ) first increases with x from 0 to 0.2, and then decreases when Bi content (x)≥0.2. The intrinsic coercivity (H cj ) and magnetic induction coercivity (H cb ) firstly decrease quickly with x from 0 to 0.1, and then increase linearly when Bi content (x)≥0.1. The maximum energy product [(BH) max ] increases with x from 0 to 0.3, and then decreases when Bi content (x)≥0.3. The ratio H k /H cj ratio first increases with Bi content (x) from 0 to 0.4. And the H k /H cj ratio decreases when x≥0.4. - Highlights: • Sr 0.4 Ba 0.3 La 0.3 Fe 12−x Bi x O 19 (0≤x≤0.7) hexaferrites were prepared by the ceramic process. • A single magnetoplumbite phase is obtained for the magnetic powders with x from 0 to 0.2. • B r first increases with x from 0 to 0.2, and then decreases when x≥0.2. • H cj and H cb firstly decrease quickly with x from 0 to 0.1, and then increase linearly when x≥0.1.

  9. BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} powder with high magnetization prepared by acetone-aided coprecipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hsuan-Fu, E-mail: hfyu@mail.tku.edu.tw

    2013-09-15

    BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} particles with high magnetization were produced using an acetone-aided coprecipitation process. An aqueous solution of iron and barium nitrates, in an Fe{sup 3+}/Ba{sup 2+} molar ratio of 12, was added in a stirred precipitation liquid medium composed of H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}(CO)CH{sub 3} and NH{sub 4}OH. After reacting metallic ions with ammonia, the precipitates were formed, centrifugally filtered, freeze dried and calcined. Effects of amount of the acetone in the precipitation liquid medium on the formation of crystalline BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} were investigated. The presence of acetone in the precipitation liquid medium can greatly promote formation of the crystalline BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} at temperature as low as 650 °C and can enhance magnetization of the derived particles. On the other hand, raising the calcination temperature can effectively accelerate development of crystallite morphology and magnetic characters of the barium hexaferrites. While the barium hexaferrite powder obtained without acetone additions and calcined at 1000 °C had magnetization (measured at 50 kOe; M(50 kOe)) of 63.5 emu/g, remanence magnetization (Mr) of 31.3 emu/g and coercivity (Hc) of 4.7 kOe, the single magnetic domain size BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} powder with M(50 kOe) of 70.6 emu/g, Mr of 34.4 emu/g and Hc of 3.7 kOe was produced at 1000 °C, using a precipitation liquid medium of 64 vol% acetone. - Highlights: • BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} with high magnetic characters was produced by an acetone-aided coprecipitation. • The effects of acetone addition in the precipitation on the formation of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} were studied. • Acetone presence in the precipitation liquid medium promoted BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} formation at ≥650 °C. • BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} with M(50 kOe) of 70.6 emu/g, Mr of 34.4 emu/g and Hc of 3.7 kOe was obtained.

  10. Optimization of multiroute synthesis for polyaniline-barium ferrite composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ghzaiel, Tayssir, E-mail: tayssir.ben-ghzaiel@satie.ens-cachan.fr [Université de Tunis El Manar Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, UR11ES18 Unité de Recherche de Chimie Minérale Appliquée, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); SATIE, ENS Cachan, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 61 av du Président Wilson, F-94230, Cachan (France); Dhaoui, Wadia [Université de Tunis El Manar Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, UR11ES18 Unité de Recherche de Chimie Minérale Appliquée, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Pasko, Alexander; Mazaleyrat, Frédéric [SATIE, ENS Cachan, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 61 av du Président Wilson, F-94230, Cachan (France)

    2016-08-15

    A comparative study of physicochemical and magnetic properties of Polyaniline-BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} composites prepared by Solid-Based Polymerization (SBP) and by Aqueous-Based Polymerization (ABP) is carried out. The composites obtained by the latter method underwent a grinding to study the influence of shear stress. Thus, in a systematic approach, an investigation of stirring effect was done by synthesizing these composites using aqueous-based polymerization but without mechanical stirring. Different mass ratio of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} was used to explore their impact on composites properties. X-ray diffraction, FTIR, SEM, TGA, conductivity and vibrating sample magnetometer measurements were performed. Structural and morphological investigations confirmed the presence of polyaniline and barium hexaferrite phase, which were in interaction in the composites regardless the polymerization route. The powder obtained by solid-based pathway revealed distinct particles with uniform distribution for various compositions (wt. %) of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} in Pani, while the composites obtained by aqueous-based polymerization presented agglomerated nanostructures. Thermogravimetric analysis exhibited an improved thermal stability for Pani-BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} obtained by solid-based route. The electric conductivity has displayed decreasing trend of DC conductivity with the increase of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} particles in the polymer matrix. Magnetic studies showed a ferromagnetic behaviour for all composites. The saturation magnetization monotonously increased with the increasing of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} amount. The magnetic properties of the powders were mainly related to the hexaferrite loading which was determined using measured magnetic data. These results revealed that magnetization saturation was dependant of volume fraction of ferrite in the composites which was significantly affected by the reaction medium and mechanical stirring. The powders obtained by solid

  11. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural and magnetic properties of CaMg2Fe16O27. P S Sawadh D K Kulkarni ... A new compound, CaMg2Fe16O27, is synthesized for the first time, in polycrystalline form, using stoichiometric mixture of oxides with standard ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction. It is found to have a hexagonal W-type ...

  12. Application of Bipartite and Tripartite Entangled State Representations in Quantum Teleportation of Continuous Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Hong-Chun; QI Kai-Guo

    2005-01-01

    We mostly investigate two schemes. One is to teleport a multi-mode W-type entangled coherent state using a peculiar bipartite entangled state as the quantum channel different from other proposals. Based on our formalism,teleporting multi-mode coherent state or squeezed state is also possible. Another is that the tripartite entangled state is used as the quantum channel of controlled teleportation of an arbitrary and unknown continuous variable in the case of three participators.

  13. Faithful Controlled Teleportation of an Arbitrary Unknown Two-Atom State via Special W-States and QED Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yahong; Song Heshan; Yu Changshui

    2008-01-01

    A scheme is proposed for the controlled teleportation of an arbitrary two-atom state via special W-type entangled states and QED cavity. The scheme does not involve the direct joint Bell-state-measurement (BSM). We show that the quantum information is split into two parts, thus the original atomic state cannot be perfectly restored by the receiver without the other agent's collaboration and classical communication. In addition, the physical realization of this scheme is not difficult

  14. A Bell inequality for a class of multilocal ring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Quantum networks with independent sources of entanglement (hidden variables) and nodes that execute joint quantum measurements can create strong quantum correlations spanning the breadth of the network. Understanding of these correlations has to the present been limited to standard Bell experiments with one source of shared randomness, bilocal arrangements having two local sources of shared randomness, and multilocal networks with tree topologies. We introduce here a class of quantum networks with ring topologies comprised of subsystems each with its own internally shared source of randomness. We prove a Bell inequality for these networks, and to demonstrate violations of this inequality, we focus on ring networks with three-qubit subsystems. Three qubits are capable of two non-equivalent types of entanglement, GHZ and W-type. For rings of any number N of three-qubit subsystems, our inequality is violated when the subsystems are each internally GHZ-entangled. This violation is consistently stronger when N is even. This quantitative even-odd difference for GHZ entanglement becomes extreme in the case of W-type entanglement. When the ring size N is even, the presence of W-type entanglement is successfully detected; when N is odd, the inequality consistently fails to detect its presence.

  15. A new genetic mechanism of natural gas accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengyu; Ni, Zhiyong; Wang, Tieguan; Chen, Zhonghong; Hong, Haitao; Wen, Long; Luo, Bing; Wang, Wenzhi

    2018-05-29

    Natural gas of organic origin is primarily biogenic or thermogenic; however, the formation of natural gas is occasionally attributed to hydrothermal activity. The Precambrian dolomite reservoir of the Anyue gas field is divided into three stages. Dolomite-quartz veins were precipitated after two earlier stages of dolomite deposition. Fluid inclusions in the dolomite and quartz are divided into pure methane (P-type), methane-bearing (M-type), aqueous (W-type), and solid bitumen-bearing (S-type) inclusions. The W-type inclusions within the quartz and buried dolomite homogenized between 107 °C and 223 °C. Furthermore, the trapping temperatures and pressures of the fluid (249 °C to 319 °C and 1619 bar to 2300 bar, respectively) are obtained from the intersections of the isochores of the P-type and the coeval W-type inclusions in the quartz. However, the burial history of the reservoir indicates that the maximum burial temperature did not exceed 230 °C. Thus, the generation of the natural gas was not caused solely by the burial of the dolomite reservoir. The results are also supported by the presence of paragenetic pyrobitumen and MVT lead-zinc ore. A coupled system of occasional invasion by hydrothermal fluids and burial of the reservoir may represent a new genetic model for natural gas accumulation in this gas field.

  16. Analysis of the magnetic properties in hard-magnetic nanofibers composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Ortíz, R.; Mirabal-García, M.; Martínez-Huerta, J. M.; Cabal Velarde, J. G.; Castaneda-Robles, I. E.; Lobo-Guerrero, A.

    2018-03-01

    The magnetic properties of the strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles were studied as they were embedded at different concentrations in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers. These nanoparticles were prepared using the Pechini method and a low frequency sonication process obtaining a 3.4 nm average diameter. The composite consisting of hard magnetic nanoparticles homogeneously dispersed in a polymeric matrix was fabricated using a homemade electrospinning with 25 kV DC power supply. The obtained nanofibers had an average diameter of 110 nm, and nanoparticles were arranged and distributed within the nanofibers under the influence of a strong electric field. The configuration of the magnetic nanoparticles in the PVA nanofibers was such that the interparticle exchange interaction became negligible, while the magnetostatic interaction turned out predominant. The results reveal a considerable improvement in the energy product (BHmax) and in the squareness ratio (Mr/Ms) for nanoparticle concentrations between 15 and 30% per gram of PVA. The nanoparticles arrangement occurred at densities below the percolation concentration enhanced the hard-magnetic properties of the nanofibers, which indicates that the organization of the particles along the fibers induces anisotropy from the magnetostatic interaction among the magnetic nanoparticles. Finally, we close the discussion analyzing the observed effect below the percolation threshold, where the induced anisotropy caused the reduction of the full-width at half-maximum of the switching field distribution curves.

  17. Synthesis and magnetic properties of single-crystalline BaFe12O19 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jiangying; Tang Shaolong; Zhai Lin; Shi Yangguang; Du Youwei

    2009-01-01

    Rod-like and platelet-like nanoparticles of simple-crystalline barium hexaferrite (BaFe 12 O 19 ) have been synthesized by the molten salt method. Both particle size and morphology change with the reaction temperature and time. The easy magnetization direction (0 0 l) of the BaFe 12 O 19 nanoparticles has been observed directly by performing X-ray diffraction on powders aligned at 0.5 T magnetic field. The magnetic properties of the BaFe 12 O 19 magnet were investigated with various sintering temperatures. The maximum values of saturation magnetization (σ s =65.8 emu/g), remanent magnetization (σ r =56 emu/g) and coercivity field (H ic =5251 Oe) of the aligned samples occurred at the sintering temperatures of 1100 deg. C. These results indicate that BaFe 12 O 19 nanoparticles synthesized by the molten salt method should enable detailed investigation of the size-dependent evolution of magnetism, microwave absorption, and realization of a nanodevice of magnetic media.

  18. Effects of Gd-Substitutions on the Microstructure, Electrical and Electromagnetic Behavior of M-Type Hexagonal Ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ishtiaq; Ahmad, Mahmood; Ali, Ihsan; Kanwal, M.; Awan, M. S.; Mustafa, Ghulam; Ahmad, Mukhtar

    2015-07-01

    A series of Gd-substituted Ba-Co-based (M-type) hexaferrites having the chemical compositions of Ba0.5Co0.5Gd x Fe12- x O19 ( x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) were prepared by co-precipitation method. The pellets formed by co-precipitated powder were calcined at a temperature of 1200°C for 20 h. Final sintering was done at 1320°C for 4 h. From the x-ray diffraction analysis, it was revealed that all the samples showed M-type hexagonal structure as a major phase. The scanning electron microscope was used to examine the morphology of the sintered ferrites. The average grain size estimated by the line intercept method was found to be in the range of 2.8-1.0 μm. The room temperature DC resistivity increases with increasing Gd-contents to make these ferrites useful for high frequency applications and microwave devices. Lower values of coercivity ( H c) and higher saturation magnetization ( M s) may be suitable to enhance the permeability of these ferrites, which is favorable for impedance matching in microwave absorption. In addition, reflection coefficients for a sample was also measured from a frequency of 1 MHz to 3 GHz and a reflection peak was observed at about 2.2 GHz.

  19. Anomalous behavior of chemically synthesized magneto plumbite strontium ferrite nano particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, G.; Nasir, S.; Awan, M.S.; Tariq, G.H.; Anis-ur-Rehman, M.

    2011-01-01

    Strontium hexa-ferrite nanoparticles were prepared successfully by simple co-precipitation method. The XRD analysis confirmed the formation of single phase MFe/sub 12/O/sub 19/ (M=Sr). Parameters such as crystallite size, lattice constant, X-ray density and porosity were calculated from the X-ray diffraction data. The crystallite sizes were in the range 12-26 nm. The temperature dependent dc electrical resistivity measurements showed that the material was highly. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor (tand) were measured in the frequency range 20Hz-3MHz. The anomalous behavior of dielectric loss revealed a very important behavior of the prepared sample of SrFe/sub 12/O/sub 19/ in different frequency regions and that could be used for new applications of this material. The magnetic properties were determined from the hystersis loop obtained from vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The Curie temperature was determined by susceptometer. This material is potentially suitable for use as a recording medium in identification cards and credit cards and for the fabrication of permanent magnets. (author)

  20. BENDING BEHAVIOUR OF MAGNETIC COTTON YARNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUPU Iuliana G.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic yarns are composite yarns, i.e. they combine elements of various natures and properties, with proven potential for electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding. In this paper, different mixtures of hard and soft magnetic powder were chosen to cover materials made of cotton yarn. The physical properties and bending behavior of the produced composite yarns were investigated in order to evaluate the yarns for further textile processing.The cotton yarn used as base material was covered with hard (barium hexaferrite BaFe12O19 and soft (Black Toner magnetic particles. An in-house developed laboratory equipment has been used to cover the twist cotton yarns with seven mixtures having different amounts of magnetic powder (30% – 50%. The bending behavior of the coated yarns was evaluated based on the average width of cracks which appeared on the yarn surface after repeated flexural tests. The obtained results revealed that usage of a polyurethane adhesive in the coating solution prevents crack formation on the surface of hard magnetic yarns after flexural tests. At the same time, the higher the mass percentage of hard magnetic powder in the mixture, the higher was the cracks’ width. The soft magnetic yarns are more flexible and a smaller crack width is observed on their surface. Both the coating solution composition and the powder diameter are expected to influence the bending behavior of coated yarns.

  1. Particle morphology and magnetic properties of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} powder calcined conventionally and by microwave heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanagesan, S., E-mail: kanagu1980@gmail.com [Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory (MSCL), Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, M. [Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory (MSCL), Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor (Malaysia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor (Malaysia); Jesurani, S. [Department of Physics, Jeyaraj Annapackium College for Women, Periyakulam 625601, Tamil Nadu (India); Kalaivani, T. [Center for material science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Tamil Nadu (India); Ismail, I.; Shafie, M.S.E. [Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory (MSCL), Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-12-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} by sol-gel technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystallization temperature is reduced to 900 Degree-Sign C due to the addition of D-Fructose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of conventional and microwave calcined samples are reported. - Abstract: Barium strontium hexaferrite (Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19}-BSF) has been prepared by sol-gel process involving use of D-Fructose as a fuel. The prepared precursor was calcined in two different calcinations techniques conventional and microwave furnace. X-ray powder diffraction studies confirmed the formation of single phase Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19}. HR-SEM results show the morphology of the particles is hexagonal structures in platelet form. The average particle size of conventionally calcined BSF powder is 100-250 nm and that of microwave calcined powder is 30-100 nm. The broad hysteresis loop reveals that powder is well crystallized and exhibits hard magnetic properties.

  2. Local manifestations of a static magnetoelectric effect in nanostructured BaTiO3-BaFe12O9 composite multiferroics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Harsh; Shvartsman, Vladimir V.; Lupascu, Doru C.; Medeiros, Marco S. A.; Pullar, Robert C.; Kholkin, Andrei L.; Zelenovskiy, Pavel; Sosnovskikh, Andrey; Shur, Vladimir Ya.

    2015-02-01

    A study on magnetoelectric phenomena in the barium titanate-barium hexaferrite (BaTiO3-BaFe12O19) composite system, using high resolution techniques including switching spectroscopy piezoresponse force microscopy (SSPFM) and spatially resolved confocal Raman microscopy (CRM), is presented. It is found that both the local piezoelectric coefficient and polarization switching parameters change on the application of an external magnetic field. The latter effect is rationalized by the influence of magnetostrictive stress on the domain dynamics. Processing of the Raman spectral data using principal component analysis (PCA) and self-modelling curve resolution (SMCR) allowed us to achieve high resolution phase distribution maps along with separation of average and localized spectral components. A significant effect of the magnetic field on the Raman spectra of the BaTiO3 phase has been revealed. The observed changes are comparable with the classical pressure dependent studies on BaTiO3, confirming the strain mediated character of the magnetoelectric coupling in the studied composites.

  3. Quantum percolation phase transition and magnetoelectric dipole glass in hexagonal ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, S. E.; Vojta, T.; Jones, A. T.; Guo, W.; Oliveira, J.; Morrison, F. D.; Lindfield, N.; Baggio Saitovitch, E.; Watts, B. E.; Scott, J. F.

    2017-07-01

    Hexagonal ferrites not only have enormous commercial impact (£2 billion/year in sales) due to applications that include ultrahigh-density memories, credit-card stripes, magnetic bar codes, small motors, and low-loss microwave devices, they also have fascinating magnetic and ferroelectric quantum properties at low temperatures. Here we report the results of tuning the magnetic ordering temperature in PbF e12 -xG axO19 to zero by chemical substitution x . The phase transition boundary is found to vary as TN˜(1-x /xc ) 2 /3 with xc very close to the calculated spin percolation threshold, which we determine by Monte Carlo simulations, indicating that the zero-temperature phase transition is geometrically driven. We find that this produces a form of compositionally tuned, insulating, ferrimagnetic quantum criticality. Close to the zero-temperature phase transition, we observe the emergence of an electric dipole glass induced by magnetoelectric coupling. The strong frequency behavior of the glass freezing temperature Tm has a Vogel-Fulcher dependence with Tm finite, or suppressed below zero in the zero-frequency limit, depending on composition x . These quantum-mechanical properties, along with the multiplicity of low-lying modes near the zero-temperature phase transition, are likely to greatly extend applications of hexaferrites into the realm of quantum and cryogenic technologies.

  4. Characterization of nanostructure ferrite material on gallium nitride on SiC substrate for millimeter wave integrated circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian O’Keefe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, for the first time, the characterization of spin-casted thick Barium nano-hexaferrite film on GaN-on-SiC substrate over a broad frequency range of 30-110 GHz is presented. Real and imaginary parts of both permittivity and permeability of the ferrite/polymer film are computed from transmittance data obtained by using a free space quasi-optical millimeter wave spectrometer. The spin-casted composite film shows strong resonance in the Q band, and mixing the powder with polymer slightly shifts the resonance frequency lower compared to pure powder. The high temperature compatibility of GaN substrate enables us to run burn-out tests at temperatures up to 900°C. Significant shortening phenomenon of resonance linewidth after heat treatment was found. Linewidth is reduced from 2.8 kOe to 1.7 kOe. Experiment results show that the aforementioned film is a good candidate in applications of non-reciprocal ferrite devices like isolators, phase shifters, and circulators.

  5. Key step in the synthesis of ultrafine strontium ferrite powders (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) by sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nga, Tran Thi Viet, E-mail: vietnga@itims.edu.vn; Duong, Nguyen Phuc; Loan, To Thanh; Hien, Than Duc

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The variations in the properties of SrM powders, resulting from different parameter. • Appropriate pH, R{sub M} ratio, and T{sub ca} were adjusted to producing a single-phase nanosized SrM. • The average particle sizes were evenly distributed in the range of 80° nm to 100° nm. - Abstract: Submicron strontium hexaferrite (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) particles were synthesized using the sol–gel route. Magnetic properties and structure of strontium ferrite powders were studied at various ranges of calcination temperature (T{sub ca}) (750–900 °C), calcination time (3 min–2 h), Fe/Sr molar ratios (R{sub M}) (10.5–12), and pH (1–8). The resultant particles were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. At 750 °C, the Sr–M phase could be obtained for 3 min in air. However, single-phase Sr–M, which had stabilized magnetic properties, was obtained at T{sub ca} of 850 °C for 2 h. In solutions at pH 1, magnetic properties of the obtained sample at R{sub M} = 10.5 were found to be optimal with maximum saturation magnetization of 56 emu/g and intrinsic coercive force of 6.7 kOe.

  6. SrFe12O19 based ceramics with ultra-low dielectric loss in the millimetre-wave band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuying; Zeng, Yang; Yang, Bin; Wylde, Richard; Donnan, Robert; Wu, Jiyue; Xu, Jie; Gao, Feng; Abrahams, Isaac; Reece, Mike; Yan, Haixue

    2018-04-01

    Non-reciprocal devices such as isolators and circulators, based mainly on ferromagnetic materials, require extremely low dielectric loss in order for strict power-link budgets to be met for millimetre (mm)-wave and terahertz (THz) systems. The dielectric loss of commercial SrFe12O19 hexaferrite was significantly reduced to below 0.002 in the 75-170 GHz band by thermal annealing. While the overall concentration of Fe2+ and oxygen vacancy defects is relatively low in the solid, their concentration at the surface is significantly higher, allowing for a surface sensitive technique such as XPS to monitor the Fe3+/Fe2+ redox reaction. Oxidation of Fe2+ and a decrease in oxygen vacancies are found at the surface on annealing, which are reflected in the bulk sample by a small change in the unit cell volume. The significant decrease in the dielectric loss property can be attributed to the decreased concentration of charged defects such as Fe2+ and oxygen vacancies through the annealing process, which demonstrated that thermal annealing could be effective in improving the dielectric performance of ferromagnetic materials for various applications.

  7. Effect of La-CO substitution on the crystal structure and magnetic properties of low temperature sintered Sr1-xLaxFe12-xCoxO19 (x=0-0.5) ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Long; Li, Lezhong; Wang, Rui; Hu, Yun; Tu, Xiaoqiang; Zhong, Xiaoxi

    2015-11-01

    The La-Co substituted Sr1-xLaxFe12-xCoxO19 (x=0-0.5) ferrites with appropriate Bi2O3 additive were prepared at a low sintering temperature of 890 °C compatible with LTCC (low temperature co-fired ceramics) systems, and the effect of La-Co substitution on their crystal structure and magnetic properties was investigated. The results show that the pure M-type phase is successfully obtained when the La-Co substitution amount x does not exceed 0.3. However, the single M-type phase structure transforms to multiphase structure with further increased x, where the α-Fe2O3 phase and La2O3 phase coexist with the M-type phase. Moreover, the saturation magnetization Ms, magnetic anisotropy field Ha, intrinsic coercivity Hci, and Curie temperature TC of the ferrites depend on the La-Co substitution amount strongly, which are suggested to be determined by the partially substitution of La3+-Co2+ ions for Sr2+-Fe3+ ions with x not higher than 0.3. It is found that the obtained Sr1-xLaxFe12-xCoxO19 (x=0.2 and 0.3) ferrites can provide improved magnetic properties (Ms>62 emu/g, Ha>1400 kA/m, and Hci>320 kA/m) as low temperature sintered M-type hexaferrites for microwave LTCC applications.

  8. Fabrication of BaCO3 Nano-Rods in Water/poly Vinyl Alcohol Mixed Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Motahare; Ataie, Abolghasem; Mokhtabad Amrei, Diba

    Barium carbonate nano-particles have been synthesized by a simple PVA-assisted precipitation method using hydrated barium chloride and sodium carbonate as the starting materials. Crystal structure and morphology of the products were evaluated by XRD and SEM techniques, respectively. XRD results indicated that under the identical experimental conditions, single phase BaCO3 was produced. SEM results showed that in the presence of PVA as guide reagent in the solution, nano-rods with regular (facet) surfaces were obtained. The results also showed that the concentration of PVA in the solution, reaction time and temperature have obvious influence on the agglomeration nature and mean particle size of the products. At high concentration of PVA less agglomerated nano size particles of BaCO3 were synthesized. Increasing the synthesis time and temperature resulted in increasing the average diameter of BaCO3 nano-rods. The performance of produced barium carbonate in the processing of barium hexaferrite ceramic magnet via conventional route has been approved.

  9. A comparative study on the magnetic and electrical properties of MFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (M=Ba and Sr)/BiFeO{sub 3} nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.A., E-mail: moala47@hotmail.com [Materials Science Lab (1), Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Mansour, S.F. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University (Egypt); Ismael, H. [Materials Science Lab (1), Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2015-03-15

    M-type hexaferrite (MFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}), M=Ba or Sr nanoparticles with hexagonal crystal structure have been successfully synthesized by a citrate auto-combustion method. BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) was prepared by the flash auto-combustion technique. Different nanocomposites were prepared according to the formula [(1−X) MFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}+XBiFeO{sub 3}; M=Ba or Sr, X=0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6]. The structure and morphology of the obtained nanocomposites have been determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). From the results, it is observed that the value of saturation magnetization decreases with increasing BFO content, which was mainly due to the contribution of the volume of the weak-magnetic BFO to the total sample volume. - Highlights: • M-type nanohexaferrite (MFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) as M=Ba and Sr powders were synthesized by the citrate autocombustion method. • The lattice parameters of composite were negligibly smaller than those of M-type. • FESEM showed that the samples were hexagonal plate-like shape. • M{sub s}, M{sub r}, μ{sub eff.} and H{sub C} were improved to be suitable for perpendicular high density recording media. • ε′ increased with BFO ratio which is useful in microwave devices.

  10. Quantum electric-dipole liquid on a triangular lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shi-Peng; Wu, Jia-Chuan; Song, Jun-Da; Sun, Xue-Feng; Yang, Yi-Feng; Chai, Yi-Sheng; Shang, Da-Shan; Wang, Shou-Guo; Scott, James F; Sun, Young

    2016-02-04

    Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations may prohibit the formation of long-range ordering even at the lowest temperature, and therefore liquid-like ground states could be expected. A good example is the quantum spin liquid in frustrated magnets. Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations can happen beyond magnetic systems. Here we propose that quantum electric-dipole liquids, analogues of quantum spin liquids, could emerge in frustrated dielectrics where antiferroelectrically coupled electric dipoles reside on a triangular lattice. The quantum paraelectric hexaferrite BaFe12O19 with geometric frustration represents a promising candidate for the proposed electric-dipole liquid. We present a series of experimental lines of evidence, including dielectric permittivity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity measured down to 66 mK, to reveal the existence of an unusual liquid-like quantum phase in BaFe12O19, characterized by itinerant low-energy excitations with a small gap. The possible quantum liquids of electric dipoles in frustrated dielectrics open up a fresh playground for fundamental physics.

  11. MAGNETIC WOVEN FABRICS - PHYSICAL AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GROSU Marian C

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A coated material is a composite structure that consists of at least two components: base material and coating layer. The purpose of coating is to provide special properties to base material, with potential to be applied in EMI shielding and diverse smart technical fields. This paper reports the results of a study about some physical and magnetic properties of coated woven fabrics made from cotton yarns with fineness of 17 metric count. For this aim, a plain woven fabric was coated with a solution hard magnetic polymer based. As hard magnetic powder, barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19 was selected. The plain woven fabric used as base has been coated with five solutions having different amounts of hard magnetic powder (15% - 45% in order to obtain five different magnetic woven fabrics. A comparison of physical properties regarding weight (g/m2, thickness (mm, degree of charging (% and magnetic properties of magnetic woven samples were presented. Saturation magnetizing (emu/g, residual magnetizing (emu/g and coercive force (kA/m of pure hard magnetic powder and woven fabrics have been studied as hysteresis characteristics. The magnetic properties of the woven fabrics depend on the mass percentage of magnetic powder from coating solution. Also, the residual magnetism and coercive field of woven fabrics represents only a part of bulk barium hexafferite residual magnetism and coercive field.

  12. Magnetic BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanofiber filter for effective separation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and removal of arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Jeehye; Patel, Hasmukh A.; Yavuz, Cafer T., E-mail: yavuz@kaist.ac.kr [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Graduate School of EEWS (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles are promising in applications where magnetic separation is intended, although material losses via leaching mechanisms are often inevitable. Magnetic separations with widely available permanent magnets can effectively trap particles, leading to a complete removal of used or waste particles. In this report, we first demonstrate the synthesis of the thinnest (112.7 ± 16.4 nm) and most magnetic (71.96 emu g{sup −1}) barium hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}, BHF—fridge magnet) via an organic solvent-free electrospinning procedure. When the fibers are then packed into a column, they clearly remove 12 nm magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles quantitatively. The same BHF cartridge also removes more than 99.9 % As-treated magnetite nanoparticles at capacities up to 70 times of its weight. As a result, one liter of 150 μg L{sup −1} As-contaminated water can be purified rapidly at a material cost of less than 2 US cents.

  13. Magnetic BaFe12O19 nanofiber filter for effective separation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and removal of arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Jeehye; Patel, Hasmukh A.; Yavuz, Cafer T.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are promising in applications where magnetic separation is intended, although material losses via leaching mechanisms are often inevitable. Magnetic separations with widely available permanent magnets can effectively trap particles, leading to a complete removal of used or waste particles. In this report, we first demonstrate the synthesis of the thinnest (112.7 ± 16.4 nm) and most magnetic (71.96 emu g −1 ) barium hexaferrite (BaFe 12 O 19 , BHF—fridge magnet) via an organic solvent-free electrospinning procedure. When the fibers are then packed into a column, they clearly remove 12 nm magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles quantitatively. The same BHF cartridge also removes more than 99.9 % As-treated magnetite nanoparticles at capacities up to 70 times of its weight. As a result, one liter of 150 μg L −1 As-contaminated water can be purified rapidly at a material cost of less than 2 US cents

  14. Efecto de la adición de Gd2O3 sobre las propiedades magnéticas de hexaferritas de estroncio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Ll., J. L.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The hexaferrites (AFe12O19, A = Ba, Sr have been used since years ago. Because of their low cost these materials continue in the market and they have not been substituted for other powerful magnets. The partial substitution of metallic elements or the use of additives in small proportions have been widely used for industrial processes in order to improve magnetic properties or the sintering process. Efforts had been made to determinate the effect of an important number of diamagnetic or paramagnetic cations on the microstructure and magnetic properties of the hexagonal ferrites. Previous studies have reported a remarkable increase in the coercitive field of the hexaferrites of barium with the substitution partial of that by La, Lu, Sm, Nd and Gd. In the present research a structural and magnetic study of sintered permanent magnets with the general formula Sr1-XGdX/2NaX/2Fe12O19 (0.00≤ X ≤0.10 was made. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry, scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis (EDAX. The dependency of the densification, the medium grain size, the cells parameters and the magnetic properties with the gadolinium oxide content is discussed.Las hexaferritas (AFe12O19, A = Ba, Sr se vienen utilizando desde hace varios años; debido a su bajo costo dominan el mercado y no han sido sustituidas por imanes permanentes más potentes. La sustitución parcial de los elementos metálicos o la utilización de aditivos en pequeña proporción ha sido ampliamente utilizada en la industria con el objeto de mejorar las propiedades magnéticas o facilitar el proceso de sinterización. Se han dedicado esfuerzos importantes para determinar el efecto de un número importante de iones diamagnéticos y paramagnéticos sobre la microestructura y las propiedades magnéticas de las ferritas hexagonales. Trabajos previos reportaron un aumento notable del campo coercitivo en hexaferritas de bario con substituci

  15. Effect of Eu–Ni substitution on electrical and dielectric properties of Co–Sr–Y-type hexagonal ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Irshad, E-mail: irshadalibzu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Islam, M.U. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem, E-mail: naeemashiqqau@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Khan, Hasan M. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Iqbal, M. Asif [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Nust College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, Islamabad (Pakistan); Najam-Ul-Haq, Muhammad [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Single phase nanostructured Sr{sub 2}Co{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x} Eu{sub y}Fe{sub 12−y}O{sub 22} were synthesized by the microemulsion method. • The materials show semiconducting behavior. • The high resistivity makes these materials useful for high frequency applications. • The Curie temperature decreases with the substituents. - Abstract: Single phase nanostructured Eu–Ni substituted Y-type hexaferrites with nominal composition Sr{sub 2}Co{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x} Eu{sub y}Fe{sub 12−y}O{sub 22} (x = 0.0–1, y = 0.0–0.1) were synthesized by the normal microemulsion method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was employed for phase analysis and indexing of each pattern corroborates that well defined Y-type crystalline phase is formed. It is observed that DC resistivity enhanced which is accredited to room temperature resistivity differences of dopant and host ions. The hopping of electrons and jumping of holes are responsible for conduction below Curie temperature (T{sub C}), whereas above Curie temperature is due to polaron hopping. The decrease in T{sub C} may be due to the fact that Eu–Fe interactions on the B sites are weaker than Fe–Fe interaction. The dispersion in the dielectric constant ε′(f) favor the occurrence of peaks in the tan δ(f). The extraordinary values of resistivity and small dielectric loss make these materials pre-eminent contestant for high frequency applications.

  16. The impact of the iron content on the microstructure and magnetic properties of M-type ferrites Sr0.45Ca0.25La0.30FexCo0.25O19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yujie; Liu, Xiansong; Jin, Dali

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sr 0.45 Ca 0.25 La 0.30 Fe x Co 0.25 O 19 (10.45 ≤ x ≤ 12.25) hexaferrites were prepared by a conventional ceramic method. • The hexagonal structure is observed for the magnets and the particles are distributed evenly. • B r , H cb , H cj , and (BH) max of the magnets first increase with iron content (x) ranging from 10.45 to 11.05 and then decrease when iron content (x) ≥ 11.05. • When iron content (x) = 11.05, B r , H cb , H cj , and (BH) max of the magnets reach the maximum values. - Abstract: M-type ferrite Sr 0.45 Ca 0.25 La 0.30 Fe x Co 0.25 O 19 (10.45 ≤ x ≤ 12.25) magnetic powders and magnets were prepared by a conventional ceramic method. Phase components of the magnetic powders were examined by X-ray diffraction. There is only the magnetoplumbite-type phase in magnetic powders with iron content (x) ranging from 10.45 to 11.65. When iron content (x) ≥ 11.85, hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) phase begins to occur. The morphology of the magnets was investigated by a field emission scanning electron microscopy. The magnets have formed a hexagonal structure and the particles are distributed evenly. Magnetic properties of the magnets and magnetic powders were measured by a permanent magnetic measuring equipment and a vibrating sample magnetometer, respectively. The remanence, intrinsic coercivity, magnetic induction coercivity, and maximum energy product first increase with iron content (x) of range 10.45–11.05 and then decrease when iron content (x) continues to increase. The magnetic properties at x = 11.05 reach the maximum values

  17. Influence of calcium content on the structural and magnetic properties of Sr0.70−xCaxLa0.30Fe11.75Zn0.25O19 hexagonal ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yujie; Wang, Fanhou; Shao, Juxiang; Liu, Xiansong; Feng, Shuangjiu; Yang, Junsheng

    2016-01-01

    Hexagonal ferrite Sr 0.70−x Ca x La 0.30 Fe 11.75 Zn 0.25 O 19 (0≤x≤0.70) magnetic powder and magnets were prepared by the ceramic process. The phase characterization of the calcined powders was investigated by X-ray diffraction. There is a single magnetoplumbite phase in the magnetic powders with x from 0 to 0.60, and for the magnetic powders with x of 0.70, the α-Fe 2 O 3 phase is observed. The morphology of the sintered magnets was examined by a field emission scanning electron microscopy. The magnets have formed the hexagonal structures and the particles are distributed evenly. Magnetic properties of the calcined powders and sintered magnets were measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer and a magnetic properties test instrument, respectively. The saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity of the magnetic powders increase with the increase of x from 0 to 0.2, and then begin to decrease when x>0.2. The remanence, intrinsic coercivity, magnetic induction coercivity and maximum energy product of the sintered magnets first increase with x from 0 to 0.20, and then, start to decrease when x continues to increase. The magnetic properties of the sintered magnet at x=0.20 reach the maximum values. - Highlights: • Sr 0.70-x Ca x La 0.30 Fe 11.75 Zn 0.25 O 19 hexaferrites were prepared by the ceramic process. • There is a single magnetoplumbite phase in the magnetic powders with x from 0 to 0.60. • B r , H cj , H cb and (BH) max of the magnets increase with x up to 0.20, and when x>0.20, start to decrease.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of BaFe12O19/Poly(aniline, pyrrole, ethylene terephthalate) Composites Coatings as Radar Absorbing Material (RAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasria, Nia; Ardhyananta, H.; Fajarin, R.; Widyastuti

    2017-07-01

    This research shows the processing and design of radar absorbing material (RAM) based on barium hexaferrite (BaM) and poly(aniline, pyrrole, ethylene terephthalate) (PAni,PPy,PET). BaM was prepared by sol gel method with Ni-Zn doping at mole fraction of 0. 4 to obtain soft magnetic material. BaM/(PAni,PPy) composites were synthesized by in-situ polymerization method at ˜0 °C. (BaM/PET) composite was prepared by melt compounding at 220°C. The composites were coated on A-grade AH36 steel using Dallenbach Layer, Salisbury Screen and Jaumann Layer methods with thickness of 2, 4, and 6 mm. The composites were evaluated using XRD, SEM, FTIR, VSM, LCM-meter and VNA. Results showed that doped BaM showed BaNixZnxFe12-2xO19 structure. BaM/(PAni,PPy,PET) composites possessed globular morphology with M-O and C-H bonds. BaNixZnxFe12-2xO19 exhibited the value of Ms and Hc, 56.6 emu/g and 60 Oe respectively. High electrical conductivity of 1.77744 × 10-5 S/cm was achieved of BaM/PAni composite. The maximum reflection loss (RL) was reached at - 48.720 dB and 8.1 GHz for BaM/PAni composite coating with 6 mm thickness at Jaumann Layer. These results indicated that BaM/PAni composite was a soft magnetic material with a high RL value that is suitable for RAM, which used in stealth technology on naval vessels.

  19. Influence of Ba/Fe mole ratios on magnetic properties, crystallite size and shifting of X-ray diffraction peaks of nanocrystalline BaFe12O19 powder, prepared by sol gel auto combu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suastiyanti, Dwita; Sudarmaji, Arif; Soegijono, Bambang

    2012-06-01

    Barium hexaferrite BaFe12O19 (BFO) is of great importance as permanent magnets, particularly for magnetic recording as well as in microwave devices. Nano-crystalline BFO powders were prepared by sol gel auto combustion method in citric acid - metal nitrates system. Hence the mole ratios of Ba/Fe were variated at 1:12; 1:11.5 and 1:11. Ratio of cation to fuel was fixed at 1:1. An appropriate amount of amonia solution was added dropwise to this solution with constant stirring until the PH reached 7 in all cases. Heating at 850oC for 10 hours for each sample to get final formation of BFO nanocrystalline. The data from XRD showing the lattice parameters a,c and the unit-cell volume V, confirm that BFO with ratio 1:12 has same crystall parameters with ratio 1:11. Ratio of Ba/Fe 1:12 and 1:11 have diffraction pattern similarly at almost each 2 θ for each samples. Ratio of Ba/Fe 1: 11.5 has the finest crystallite size 22 nm. Almost diffraction pattern peaks of Ba/Fe 1:11.5 move to the left from of Ba/Fe 1:12 then return to diffraction pattern of Ba/Fe 1:12 for Ba/Fe 1:11. SEM observations show the particle size less than 100 nm and the same shape for each sample. Ratio of Ba/Fe 1: 12 gives the highest intrinsic coercive Hc = 427.3 kA/m. The highest remanent magnetization is at ratio 1:11 with Mr = 0.170 T. BFO with mole ratio 1:11.5 has the finest grain 22 nm, good magnetic properties and the highest value of best FoM 89%.

  20. Investigating in vitro bioactivity and magnetic properties of the ferrimagnetic bioactive glass–ceramic fabricated using soda-lime–silica waste glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Zand Street, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, B., E-mail: hashemib@shirazu.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Zand Street, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrollahi, H. [Electroceramics Group, Materials Science and Engineering Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    The main purpose of the current research is the production and characterization of a ferrimagnetic bioactive glass–ceramic prepared through the solid-state reaction method using soda-lime–silica waste glass as the main raw material. In comparison with the conventional route, that is, the melt-quenching and subsequent heat treatment, the present work is an economical technique. Structural, thermal and magnetic properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The in vitro test was utilized to assess the bioactivity level of the samples by Hanks' solution as simulated body fluid (SBF). The apatite surface layer formation was examined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The calcium ion concentration in the solutions was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). VSM results revealed that with the addition of 5–20 wt% strontium hexaferrite to bioactive glass–ceramics, the ferrimagnetic bioactive glass–ceramics with hysteresis losses between 7024 and 75,852 erg/g were obtained. The in vitro test showed that the onset formation time of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of the samples was 14 days and after 30 days, this layer was completed. - Highlights: • A novel ferrimagnetic bioactive glass–ceramic was synthesized by an incorporation method. • The bioactive part was synthesized by the solid-state reaction method using soda-lime–silica waste glass. • The doping of SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} to Bioglass{sup ®} 45S5 glass–ceramic is likely to decrease bioactivity.

  1. Effects of Sr-substitution on the structural and magnetic behavior of Ba-based Y-type hexagonal ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mukhtar, E-mail: mukhtarahmad25@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Ali, Qasim; Ali, Ihsan; Ahmad, Ishtiaq [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Azhar Khan, M. [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Akhtar, Majid Niaz [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Murtaza, G. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, G.C. University, Lahore (Pakistan); Rana, M.U., E-mail: mazharrana@bzu.edu.pk [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •Sr-substituted Y-type hexaferrites synthesized by sol–gel method have been investigated. •Platelet grains with well defined hexagonal shape are suitable for microwave absorbers. •Saturation magnetization values were calculated by the law of approach to saturation. •Coercivity of a few hundred oersteds found for all samples is suitable for EM materials. -- Abstract: Sr-substituted samples of Y-type hexagonal ferrites with chemical formula Ba{sub 2−x}Sr{sub x}Ni{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) were synthesized using the sol–gel autocombustion method and were sintered at 1150 °C for 3 h. The samples were investigated by differential thermal and thermogravimetry analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that single phase samples can be achieved by substituting Sr{sup 2+} ions at Ba{sup 2+} sites in Y-type hexagonal ferrites. X-ray density and bulk density were observed to decrease whereas porosity increased with increasing Sr-concentration. All the samples show well defined hexagonal shape which is favorable for microwave absorbing purposes. The saturation magnetization values were calculated from M–H loops by the law of approach to saturation. The loops show low values of coercivity of a few hundred oersteds which is one of the necessary conditions for electromagnetic (EM) materials and is suitable for security, switching, sensing and high frequency applications.

  2. Effects of Sr-substitution on the structural and magnetic behavior of Ba-based Y-type hexagonal ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Mukhtar; Ali, Qasim; Ali, Ihsan; Ahmad, Ishtiaq; Azhar Khan, M.; Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Murtaza, G.; Rana, M.U.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Sr-substituted Y-type hexaferrites synthesized by sol–gel method have been investigated. •Platelet grains with well defined hexagonal shape are suitable for microwave absorbers. •Saturation magnetization values were calculated by the law of approach to saturation. •Coercivity of a few hundred oersteds found for all samples is suitable for EM materials. -- Abstract: Sr-substituted samples of Y-type hexagonal ferrites with chemical formula Ba 2−x Sr x Ni 2 Fe 12 O 22 (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) were synthesized using the sol–gel autocombustion method and were sintered at 1150 °C for 3 h. The samples were investigated by differential thermal and thermogravimetry analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that single phase samples can be achieved by substituting Sr 2+ ions at Ba 2+ sites in Y-type hexagonal ferrites. X-ray density and bulk density were observed to decrease whereas porosity increased with increasing Sr-concentration. All the samples show well defined hexagonal shape which is favorable for microwave absorbing purposes. The saturation magnetization values were calculated from M–H loops by the law of approach to saturation. The loops show low values of coercivity of a few hundred oersteds which is one of the necessary conditions for electromagnetic (EM) materials and is suitable for security, switching, sensing and high frequency applications

  3. Electromagnetic characterization of photo-definable ferrite loaded polymers and their applications in micro-rectangular coaxial phase shifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholiyi, Olusegun Samuel

    As the demand for smaller size, lighter weight, lower loss and cost of communications transmit and receive (T/R) modules increases, there is an urgent need to focus investigation to the major subsystem or components that can improve these parameters. Phase shifters contribute greatly to the cost of T/R modules, and thus this research investigation examines a new way to reduce the weight and cost by miniaturizing the phaser design. Characterization of hexaferrite powders compatible with the sequential multilayer micro-fabrication technology and numerical simulations of a novel rectangular micro-coaxial phase shifter are investigated. This effort aims to integrate ferrite material into a rectangular micro-coaxial waveguide at Ka-band using electromagnetic finite element numerical tools. The proposed technique exploits rectangular coaxial waveguide with a symmetrically placed inner signal conductor inside an outer conductor connected to the ground. Strontium ferrite-SU8 composite is used as an anisotropic material of choice in the modelled design. Numerical modeling is employed using High Frequency Structure Simulator, HFSS, a 3-D full wave electromagnetic solver for analyzing the performance of the device. Two model structures were designed for reciprocal and non-reciprocal applications. The first model (Model A) produced a tunable phase shift of almost 60 degrees /cm across 0 to 400 kA/m applied field and at 1800 Gauss. In model B, a non-reciprocal phase shift performance of 20 degrees /cm from a reference phase of 24 degrees at 0 A/m was realized at the same saturation magnetization. A return loss better than 20 dB and an insertion loss less than 1.5 dB were obtained for both models.

  4. Removal of diethyl phthalate from aqueous phase using magnetic poly(EGDMA-VP) beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuemay Oezer, Elif [Department of Chemistry, Uludag University, Bursa (Turkey); Osman, Bilgen, E-mail: bilgeno@uludag.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Uludag University, Bursa (Turkey); Kara, Ali; Besirli, Necati; Guecer, Seref [Department of Chemistry, Uludag University, Bursa (Turkey); Soezeri, Hueseyin [TUBITAK-UME, National Metrology Institute, PO Box 54 TR-41470, Gebze/Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic beads were prepared for removal of diethyl phthalate (DEP). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total capacity of the beads was determined as 98.9 mg DEP per gram polymer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic beads were regenerated easily and reused for DEP adsorption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics were elucidated. - Abstract: The barium hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) containing magnetic poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-vinyl pyridine), (mag-poly(EGDMA-VP)) beads (average diameter = 53-212 {mu}m) were synthesized and characterized. Their use as an adsorbent in the removal of diethyl phthalate (DEP) from an aqueous solution was investigated. The mag-poly(EGDMA-VP) beads were prepared by copolymerizing of 4-vinyl pyridine (VP) with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). The mag-poly(EGDMA-VP) beads were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms (BET), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and swelling studies. At a fixed solid/solution ratio, the various factors affecting the adsorption of DEP from aqueous solutions such as pH, initial concentration, contact time and temperature were analyzed. The maximum DEP adsorption capacity of the mag-poly(EGDMA-VP) beads was determined as 98.9 mg/g at pH 3.0, 25 Degree-Sign C. All the isotherm data can be fitted with both the Langmuir and the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The pseudo first-order, pseudo-second-order, Ritch-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were used to describe the adsorption kinetics. The thermodynamic parameters obtained indicated the exothermic nature of the adsorption. The DEP adsorption capacity did not change after 10 batch successive reactions, demonstrating the usefulness of the magnetic beads in applications.

  5. Multiferroic properties of microwave sintered PbFe{sub 12−x}O{sub 19−δ}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prathap, S. [Ceramic Composite Laboratory, Centre for Crystal Growth, SAS, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Madhuri, W., E-mail: madhuriw12@gmail.com [Ceramic Composite Laboratory, Centre for Crystal Growth, SAS, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); IFW, Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    The effect of iron deficiency on the structural, electrical, ferroelectric and magnetic properties of nano PbFe{sub 12-x}O{sub 19-δ} (where x=0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0) hexaferrites prepared by sol-gel auto combustion and processed by microwaves are investigated. X-ray analysis confirms single phase magneto-plumbite phase formation. The surface morphology is studied from Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope. Further, optical properties are investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared spectra and UV–visible spectra. AC electrical conductivity is estimated as a function of temperature and frequency in the range of room temperature (RT) to 500 °C and 100 Hz to 5MHz. AC electrical conduction analysis shows that conduction is mainly due to small polaron hopping mechanism. The variation of polarization with applied electric field exhibits hysteresis loop confirming the ferroelectric nature. The initial permeability studies with varying temperature reveals that the Curie transition temperature for the present series is around 400 °C. Variation of initial permeability with frequency ranging from 100 to 5 MHz shows a constant value (except for x=0.0) opening avenues for high frequency applications. - Highlights: • The nanoPbFe{sub 12-x}O{sub 19-δ} (x=0.0, -1.0) are prepared by sol-gel auto combustion and microwave heated. • The grain size is found to be varying between 40 nm and 80nm and crystallite size 11–45 nm. • The optical band gaps are found to be varying between 1.52 and 1.89 eV. • The highest saturation polarization (P{sub s}) of all the PMF is found to be ≈75 μC/cm{sup 2}.

  6. Switching field of partially exchange-coupled particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, M.I.; Bertorello, H.R.; Bercoff, P.G.

    2004-01-01

    The magnetization reversal of partially exchange-coupled particles is studied in detail. The starting point is the observation of a complicated phenomenology in the irreversible susceptibility and FORC distribution functions of Ba hexaferrite samples obtained by means of different sintering conditions. Several peaks in the first-order reversal curve (FORC) distribution functions were identified and associated with clusters with different number of particles. The switching fields of these clusters were related to an effective anisotropy constant Keff that depends on the number of particles in the cluster. Keff is linked to the exchange-coupled volume between two neighboring particles and as a weighted mean between the anisotropy constants of the coupled and uncoupled volumes. By using the modified Brown's equation αex=0.322 is obtained.In order to interpret these results, the switching field of a two-particle system with partial exchange coupling is studied. It is assumed that the spins reorientation across the contact plane between the particles is like a Bloch wall. The energy of the system is written in terms of the fraction of volume affected by exchange coupling and the switching fields for both particles are calculated. At small interaction volume fraction each particle inverts its magnetization independently from the other. As the fraction of exchange-coupled volume increases, cooperative effects appear and the two particles invert their magnetization in a cooperative way.The proposed model allows to interpret for the first time the empirical factor αex in terms of physical arguments and also explain the details observed in the FORC distribution function

  7. Microstructure and magnetic properties of M-type strontium hexagonal ferrites with Y-Co substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chaocheng [School of Physics and Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Liu, Xiansong, E-mail: xiansongliu@ahu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Engineering Technology Research Center of Magnetic Materials, School of Physics & Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Feng, Shuangjiu; Rehman, Khalid Mehmood Ur; Li, Mingling; Zhang, Cong; Li, Haohao; Meng, Xiangyu [School of Physics and Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • Y-Co substitution in strontium hexaferrites have been prepared and investigated systematically for the first time. • Lattice constants a and c for all the samples are very different with that of unsubstituted ferrites. • The M{sub s} and H{sub c} are very high, from which may provide an important significance of research and development of high performance products. - Abstract: According to the formula Sr{sub 0.95}Y{sub 0.05}Fe{sub 12−x}Co{sub x}O{sub 19} (x = 0.00, 0.08, 0.16, 0.24, 0.32, 0.40), the replacement of Y-Co in M-type strontium hexagonal ferrites have been successfully prepared by ceramic process for the first time. The phase compositions of magnetic powders were examined by X-ray diffraction. The results of XRD showed that the single phase was obtained in magnetic powders with the increase of Co content (x), and α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} occurred when x > 0.24. The morphology of the magnets was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The micro-morphology of the particles exhibited the uniform plane hexagonal structures of M-type ferrites with different Co content. Magnetic properties of the ferrite magnets were measured by a physical property measurement system-vibrating sample magnetometer (PPMS-VSM). The M{sub s} increases constantly with the increase of Co content. The H{sub c} first increases and then decreases with the increase of Co content, and the value of coercivity (H{sub c}) is up to 3774 Oe when x = 0.24.

  8. Hybrid entanglement concentration assisted with single coherent state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Rui; Zhou Lan; Sheng Yu-Bo; Gu Shi-Pu; Wang Xing-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid entangled state (HES) is a new type of entanglement, which combines the advantages of an entangled polarization state and an entangled coherent state. HES is widely discussed in the applications of quantum communication and computation. In this paper, we propose three entanglement concentration protocols (ECPs) for Bell-type HES, W-type HES, and cluster-type HES, respectively. After performing these ECPs, we can obtain the maximally entangled HES with some success probability. All the ECPs exploit the single coherent state to complete the concentration. These protocols are based on the linear optics, which are feasible in future experiments. (paper)

  9. On unitary representations of the exceptional non-linear N=7 and N=8 superconformal algebras in terms of free fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketov, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    The simplest free-field realizations of the exceptional non-linear (quadratically generated, or W-type) N=8 and N=7 superconformal algebras with Spin(7) and G 2 affine currents, respectively, are investigated. Both the N=8 and N=7 algebras are found to admit unitary and highest-weight irreducible representations in terms of a single free boson and free fermions in 8 of Spin(7) or 7 of G 2 , respectively, at level k=1 and the corresponding central charges c 8 =26/5 and c 7 =5. (orig.)

  10. Erosion of divertor materials in simulation experiments of ITEP thermonuclear reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, M.I.; Gureev, V.M.; Danelyan, L.S.; Kolbasov, B.N.; Korshunov, S.N.; Martynenko, Yu.V.; Petrov, V.B.; Stolyarova, V.G.; Khripunov, B.I.; Vasil'ev, V.I.; Strunnikov, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    The tungsten sputtering by the deuterium ions with the energy of 5 eV at the temperature of 1470 K with the sputtering coefficient of 1.5 x 10 -4 at/ion is identified. Comparison of the erosion degree of various W types and W + C coatings on W is carried out in the experiments on simulating the plasma break-away; W drops distribution by the diameters, depending on the collector drops position, is studied. W(111) tungsten is characterized by the minimal erosion and W-10% Re tungsten - by the maximum one [ru

  11. 低温潜熱物質を分散体としたO/W型エマルションを用いた蓄冷システムに関する基礎研究 : 第3報,空気-エマルション直接接触熱交換法による放冷特性

    OpenAIRE

    稲葉, 英男; 森田, 慎一

    1995-01-01

    The thermal properties, the flow and cold heat-storage characteristics of the O/W-type emulsion were reported in the first and the second report, respectively. This paper deals with cold heat-release characteristics of the oil (tetradecane, C_H_, freezing point 278.9K)/water emulsion as a latent heat-storage material having a low melting point. An air-emulsion direct contact heat exchange method was selected for the cold heat-release from the solidified emulsion layer. The temperature effecti...

  12. Study on the functional model of the commentation channel system of the HF station for U-70 synchrotron proton beam overbunching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balalykin, N.I.; Korenev, S.A.; Kostyuchenko, S.V.

    1989-01-01

    The description and test results for a functional of the system for commutation of the U-70 synchrotron overbunching HF station channels are given. In coaxial line the pass spark gap is located and in the T-joint-the short-circuit trigatron type one. The experiments were conducted at the impulse power of 100-300 kW. Types of spark gaps were selected and their characteristics were obtained. Carbon plastic proved to be the most perspective material for the electrodes. The experiments showed applicability of the layout suggested. 3 refs.; 4 figs

  13. Asymmetry of the El Nino-Spring Rainfall Relationship in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Jau-Ming, CHEN; Tim, LI; Ching-Feng, SHIH; Institute of Navigation Science and Technology, National Kaohsiung Marine University; International Pacific Research Center, University of Hawaii; Research and Development Center, Central Weather Bureau

    2008-01-01

    Spring rainfall in Taiwan can be either enhanced or suppressed by an El Nino event, revealing an asymmetric relationship. This observational study aims at examining this asymmetric relationship and associated large-scale dynamic processes. Analysis results disclose four major El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-spring rainfall relationship types during 1950-2003: El Nino-anomalous wet (EN-w) type, La Nina-anomalous dry (LN-d) type, El Nino-anomalous dry (EN-d) type, and La Nina-anomalous wet ...

  14. Rheological studies of creams. I. Rheological functions and structure of creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erös, I; Thaleb, A

    1994-05-01

    Large number of washable (o/w type) creams were prepared for rheological investigation. The rheological functions known from the literature were determined in our studies. Rheological constants were determined by measurements and calculations. From these, we selected those ones which were applicable to characterize the energy status of the coherent structure and which gave the most information for practical work, elaboration of composition and evaluation of stability. These functions and parameters are the following: flow curves, viscosity vs shear time and viscosity vs temperature functions, Bingham-type yield value, plastic viscosity, structure breakdown rate constant, activation energy.

  15. Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Bottom Shape on the Flow Field and Particle Suspension in a DTB Crystallizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the bottom shape on the flow field distribution and particle suspension in a DTB crystallizer was investigated by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD coupled with Two-Fluid Model (Eulerian model. Volume fractions of three sections were monitored on time, and effect on particle suspension could be obtained by analyzing the variation tendency of volume fraction. The results showed that the protruding part of a W type bottom could make the eddies smaller, leading to the increase of velocity in the vortex. Modulating the detailed structure of the W type bottom to make the bottom surface conform to the streamlines can reduce the loss of the kinetic energy of the flow fluid and obtain a larger flow velocity, which made it possible for the particles in the bottom to reach a better suspension state. Suitable shape parameters were also obtained; the concave and protruding surface diameter are 0.32 and 0.373 times of the cylindrical shell diameter, respectively. It is helpful to provide a theoretical guidance for optimization of DTB crystallizer.

  16. Fabrication of porous ethyl cellulose microspheres based on the acetone-glycerin-water ternary system: Controlling porosity via the solvent-removal mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Watanabe, Chie; Kurumado, Yu; Takama, Masashi

    2015-08-01

    Porous ethyl cellulose (EC) microspheres were prepared from the acetone-glycerin-water ternary system using an oil/water (O/W)-type emulsion solvent extraction method. The O/ W type emulsion was prepared using acetone dissolved ethyl cellulose as an oil phase and aqueous glycerin as a water phase. The effects of the different solvent extraction modes on the porosity of the microspheres were investigated. The specific surface area of the porous EC microspheres was estimated by the gas adsorption method. When the solvent was extracted rapidly by mixing the emulsion with water instantaneously, porous EC microspheres with a maximum specific surface area of 40.7±2.1 m2/g were obtained. On the other hand, when water was added gradually to the emulsion, the specific surface area of the fabricated microspheres decreased rapidly with an increase in the infusion period, with the area being 25-45% of the maximum value. The results of an analysis of the ternary phase diagram of the system suggested that the penetration of water and glycerin from the continuous phase to the dispersed phase before solidification affected the porosity of the fabricated EC microspheres.

  17. Quantum optical measurement with tripartite entangled photons generated by triple parametric down-conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Minhaeng

    2018-05-01

    Parametric down-conversion is a second-order nonlinear optical process annihilating a pump photon and creating a pair of photons in the signal and idler modes. Then, by using two parametric down-converters and introducing a path indistinguishability for the two generated idler modes, a quantum coherence between two conjugate signal beams can be induced. Such a double spontaneous or stimulated parametric down-conversion scheme has been used to demonstrate quantum spectroscopy and imaging with undetected idler photons via measuring one-photon interference between their correlated signal beams. Recently, we considered another quantum optical measurement scheme utilizing W-type tripartite entangled signal photons that can be generated by employing three spontaneous parametric down-conversion crystals and by inducing coherences or path-indistinguishabilities between their correlated idler beams and between quantum vacuum fields. Here, we consider an extended triple stimulated parametric down-conversion scheme for quantum optical measurement of sample properties with undetected idler and photons. Noting the real effect of vacuum field indistinguishability on the fringe visibility as well as the role of zero-point field energy in the interferometry, we show that this scheme is an ideal and efficient way to create a coherent state of W-type entangled signal photons. We anticipate that this scheme would be of critical use in further developing quantum optical measurements in spectroscopy and microscopy with undetected photons.

  18. Quantum optical measurement with tripartite entangled photons generated by triple parametric down-conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Minhaeng

    2018-05-14

    Parametric down-conversion is a second-order nonlinear optical process annihilating a pump photon and creating a pair of photons in the signal and idler modes. Then, by using two parametric down-converters and introducing a path indistinguishability for the two generated idler modes, a quantum coherence between two conjugate signal beams can be induced. Such a double spontaneous or stimulated parametric down-conversion scheme has been used to demonstrate quantum spectroscopy and imaging with undetected idler photons via measuring one-photon interference between their correlated signal beams. Recently, we considered another quantum optical measurement scheme utilizing W-type tripartite entangled signal photons that can be generated by employing three spontaneous parametric down-conversion crystals and by inducing coherences or path-indistinguishabilities between their correlated idler beams and between quantum vacuum fields. Here, we consider an extended triple stimulated parametric down-conversion scheme for quantum optical measurement of sample properties with undetected idler and photons. Noting the real effect of vacuum field indistinguishability on the fringe visibility as well as the role of zero-point field energy in the interferometry, we show that this scheme is an ideal and efficient way to create a coherent state of W-type entangled signal photons. We anticipate that this scheme would be of critical use in further developing quantum optical measurements in spectroscopy and microscopy with undetected photons.

  19. Multipartite entangled quantum states: Transformation, Entanglement monotones and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wei

    Entanglement is one of the fundamental features of quantum information science. Though bipartite entanglement has been analyzed thoroughly in theory and shown to be an important resource in quantum computation and communication protocols, the theory of entanglement shared between more than two parties, which is called multipartite entanglement, is still not complete. Specifically, the classification of multipartite entanglement and the transformation property between different multipartite states by local operators and classical communications (LOCC) are two fundamental questions in the theory of multipartite entanglement. In this thesis, we present results related to the LOCC transformation between multipartite entangled states. Firstly, we investigate the bounds on the LOCC transformation probability between multipartite states, especially the GHZ class states. By analyzing the involvement of 3-tangle and other entanglement measures under weak two-outcome measurement, we derive explicit upper and lower bound on the transformation probability between GHZ class states. After that, we also analyze the transformation between N-party W type states, which is a special class of multipartite entangled states that has an explicit unique expression and a set of analytical entanglement monotones. We present a necessary and sufficient condition for a known upper bound of transformation probability between two N-party W type states to be achieved. We also further investigate a novel entanglement transformation protocol, the random distillation, which transforms multipartite entanglement into bipartite entanglement ii shared by a non-deterministic pair of parties. We find upper bounds for the random distillation protocol for general N-party W type states and find the condition for the upper bounds to be achieved. What is surprising is that the upper bounds correspond to entanglement monotones that can be increased by Separable Operators (SEP), which gives the first set of

  20. Synthesis and characterization of hexagonal ferrite Sr{sub 1.8}Sm{sub 0.2}Co{sub 2}Ni{sub 1.50}Fe{sub 10.50}O{sub 22}/PST thin films for high frequency application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Irshad, E-mail: irshadalibzu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan P.O. 60800 (Pakistan); Islam, M.U. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan P.O. 60800 (Pakistan); Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem, E-mail: naeemashiqqau@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemical Science, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Asif Iqbal, M. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan P.O. 60800 (Pakistan); College of E & ME, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Karamat, Nazia [Institute of Chemical Science, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Azhar Khan, M. [Department of Physics, Islamia University, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Sadiq, Imran [Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of The Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan); Ijaz, Sana [Institute of Chemical Science, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Shakir, Imran [Sustainable Energy Technologies (SET) Center, College of Engineering, King Saud University (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-11-01

    Y-type hexagonal ferrite (Sr{sub 1.8}Sm{sub 0.2}Co{sub 2}Ni{sub 1.50} Fe{sub 10.50}O{sub 22}) was prepared by a normal microemulsion route. The ferrite/polymer composites thin films are formed at different ferrite ratios in pure polystyrene matrix. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows broad peak at low angles which is due to the PST and the peaks for Y-type ferrite are also observed in composite samples. The peaks become more intense and show less broadening with increasing concentration of ferrite which suggests that crystallinity is improved with the addition of ferrite. DC resistivity of the composites samples is lower than that of the pure PST and decreases by increasing ferrite filler into the polymer. This decrease of resistivity is mainly due to the addition of comparatively less resistive ferrite into the highly insulating polymer matrix of PST. The observed increase in the dielectric constant (permittivity) with increasing concentration ratio of ferrites is mainly due to the electron exchange between Fe{sup 2+}↔Fe{sup 3+}+e{sup −} which consequently results in enhancement of electric polarization as well as dielectric constant. The existence of resonances peaks in the dielectric loss tangent spectra is due to the fact when the external applied frequency becomes equal to the jumping frequency of electrons between Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The increasing behavior of the dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC conductivity with increasing ferrite ratio in PST matrix proposes their versatile use in different technological applications especially for electromagnetic shielding. - Highlights: • Y-type hexaferrites were synthesized by the microemulsion route. • AC activation is lower than DC activation energy. • Ferrite/polymer composites thin films are formed. • The peaks become more intense with increasing concentration of ferrite. • Values of “n” confirm the hopping mechanism in all thin films.

  1. A Study of elasto ferrite based on ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) and elastomer thermoplastic (ETP) and its mechanical, microstructure and magnetic characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudirman; Ridwan; Mujamilah; Budiman, Silviani; Eka Putri, Febriyanti

    2002-01-01

    In industrial application, the magnetic properties of the magnetic composites do not have to be too high In China. the omset of composite bascd on hcxafcrritc (US S 52 million) is higer than thc compositc based on NdFeB (US S 13.5 million The use of polymcr as binder in magnctic compositcs gives matcrials with cxccllcnt properties such as light, flexible and cheap Thc elasticity of the magnetic composites depends on the properties of the polymer matrix used in the materials. When hexafemtc powder is binded with an elastic polymer. elastoferrite is obtained In this study, hexaferrite SrO.6Fe 2 O 3 (SrM) and BaO.6Fe 2 O 3 (BaM) which was calsinated at 1200 o was used with EV A/ETP as binder These two materials were mixed in Labo Palstomill at 130 o C for 7 minutcs with rotation speed of 30 rpm The volume fraction of the hexafcmtc powder was varrlcd (30. 40 and 50%). The mixture was pressed to obtaIn sheets. The sheets were characterization to obtain: mechanical, magnetlcal and microstructure properties. The particle size and shape of SrM and BaM podwer were measured with SEM. The particle size of SrM and BaM are 1.6 um and I.2 um respectively The SrM shape is flaky and the BaM shape is nodular Mechanical properties of the composite based on EVA is better than that based on ETP At 30% volume faction. the tensile strength of EVA composite is 44.(,8 kg/cm 3 while the ETP composite is 19.72 kg/cm 3 The magnetic properties of both composites (EVA and ETP) were charactcrized. The result show that for EVA composites, the lowest energy value was 0.0400 MGOe (30% BaM volume fractIon) and the highest energy value was 0.21860 MGOe (50% SrM volume fraction). For ETP composites, the lowest energy value 0.0242 MGOe (30% SrM volume fractIon) and the hghest energy value was 02262 MGOe (40% BaM volume fraction)

  2. Structural and Magnetic Properties Evolution of Co-Nd Substituted M-type Hexagonal Strontium Ferrites Synthesized by Ball-Milling-Assisted Ceramic Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Wu, Wenwei; Zhou, Chong; Zhou, Shifang; Li, Miaoyu; Ning, Yu

    2018-03-01

    M-type hexagonal Sr1- x Co x Nd x Fe12- x O19 ( x = 0, 0.08, 0.16, and 0.24) has been synthesized by ball milling, followed by calcination in air. The calcined products have been characterized by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra, and vibrating sample magnetometry. XRD and SEM analyses confirm the formation of M-type Sr hexaferrite with platelet-like morphology when Sr1- x Co x Nd x Fe12- x O19 ( x = 0, 0.08, 0.16, and 0.24) precursors are calcined at 950°C in air for 2.5 h. Lattice parameters " a" and " c" values of Sr1- x Co x Nd x Fe12- x O19 reflect a very small variation after doping of Nd3+ and Co2+ ions. Average crystallite size of Sr1- x Co x Nd x Fe12- x O19 sample, calcined at 1150°C, decreased obviously after doping of Co2+ and Nd3+ ions. This is because the bond energy of Nd3+-O2- is much larger than that of Sr2+-O2-. Magnetic characterization indicates that all the samples exhibit good magnetic properties. Substitution of Sr2+ and Fe3+ ions by Nd3+ and Co2+ ions can improve the specific saturation magnetizations and remanence of Sr1- x Co x Nd x Fe12- x O19. Sr0.84Co0.16Nd0.16Fe11.84O19, calcined at 1050°C, has the highest specific saturation magnetization value (74.75 ± 0.60 emu/g), remanence (45.15 ± 0.32 emu/g), and magnetic moment (14.34 ± 0.11 μ B); SrFe12O19, calcined at 1150°C, has the highest coercivity value (4037.01 ± 42.39 Oe). These magnetic parameters make this material a promising candidate for applications such as high-density magnetic recording and microwave absorbing materials.

  3. Magnetic and microwave absorption properties of rare earth ions (Sm{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}) doped strontium ferrite and its nanocomposites with polypyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Juhua, E-mail: luojuhua@163.com [School of Materials Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051 (China); Xu, Yang; Mao, Hongkai [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-05-01

    M-type strontium ferrite substituted by RE (RE=Sm{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}) were prepared via a sol–gel method. Polypyrrole (PPy)/ferrite nanocomposites (with 20 wt% ferrite) were prepared by in situ polymerization method in the presence of ammonium persulfate. Effect of the substituted RE ions on structure, magnetic properties and microwave absorption properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and vector network analyzer. All XRD patterns show the single phase of strontium hexaferrite without other intermediate phases. The crystallite size of synthesized particle is within the range of 22.2–38.1 nm. The structural in character of the composites were investigated with FT-IR analysis. It shows that the ferrite successfully packed by PPy. TEM photographs show that the particle size had grown up to 50–100 nm after coating with PPy. In the magnetization for the PPy/SrSm{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 11.7}O{sub 19} (SrEr{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 11.7}O{sub 19}) composites, the coercivity (H{sub c}) of the composites both increased compared with the undoped composite while the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) appeared opposite change with different RE ions. Considering the electromagnetic loss and impedance matching comprehensively, the Er-doped ferrite/PPy composite got the better microwave absorption performance with the maximum RL value of −24.01 dB in 13.8 GHz at 3.0 mm. And its width (<−10 dB) has reached 7.2 GHz which has covered the whole Ku band. - Highlights: • The influence of RE ions on the structure of PPy/SrRE{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 11.7}O{sub 19} is discussed. • The influence of RE ions on the magnetic properties of PPy/SrRE{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 11.7}O{sub 19} is discussed. • The influence of RE ions on electromagnetic losses of PPy/SrRE{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 11.7}O{sub 19} is discussed. • PPy/SrEr{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 11.7}O{sub 19} possessed the excellent absorption property.

  4. Structural and magnetic behavior of Pr-substituted M-type hexagonal ferrites synthesized by sol–gel autocombustion for a variety of applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Waseem; Ahmad, Ishtiaq; Kanwal, M.; Murtaza, Ghulam; Ali, Ihsan [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Azhar Khan, Muhammad [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Akhtar, Majid Niaz [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Ahmad, Mukhtar, E-mail: ahmadmr25@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2015-01-15

    A series of M-type hexaferrites with chemical formula Ba{sub 0.25}Sr{sub 0.75}Pr{sub x}Fe{sub 12−x}O{sub 19} (x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25) were synthesized using sol–gel autocombustion method. The samples were pre-sintered at a temperature of 800 °C for 3 h and were finally sintered at 1200 °C for 1 h at the heating rate of 10 °C/min. The thermal properties of the specimen have been investigated by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. The structures and micrographs of the samples were systematically examined by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Vibrating sample magnetometer was also used in order to study the magnetic parameters of these ferrites. The hard magnetic behavior was confirmed by M–H loops for all the samples except for the sample with x=0.10 concentration which exhibits maximum saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) and a few hundred oersteds of coercivity (H{sub c}). Thus high M{sub s} and low H{sub c} cause to increase the permeability of the sample which is favorable for impedance matching in microwave absorption. - Highlights: • M-type ferrites Ba{sub 0.25}Sr{sub 0.75}Pr{sub x}Fe{sub 12−x}O{sub 19} were synthesized using sol–gel autocombustion. • The samples were finally sintered at 1200 °C for 1 h at the rate of 10 °C/min. • The sample with x=0.10 concentration exhibits maximum M{sub s} and a low coercivity (H{sub c}). • These parameters are favorable for impedance matching in microwave absorption. • Hard magnetic nature is revealed by other samples that are suitable for magnetic recording.

  5. New sacrificial material for ex-vessel core catcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komlev, Andrei A., E-mail: komlev@kth.se [Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH), AlbaNova University Centre, Nuclear Power Safety Division, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Almjashev, Vyacheslav I., E-mail: vac@mail.ru [A.P. Aleksandrov Research Institute of Technology, NITI, DSAR, Sosnovy Bor, 188540 (Russian Federation); Bechta, Sevostian V., E-mail: bechta@safety.sci.kth.se [Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH), AlbaNova University Centre, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Khabensky, Vladimir B., E-mail: vladimirkhabensky@gmail.com [A.P. Aleksandrov Research Institute of Technology, NITI, DSAR, Sosnovy Bor, 188540 (Russian Federation); Granovsky, Vladimir S., E-mail: gran@niti.ru [A.P. Aleksandrov Research Institute of Technology, NITI, DSAR, Sosnovy Bor, 188540 (Russian Federation); Gusarov, Victor V., E-mail: victor.v.gusarov@gmail.com [Ioffe Institute, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya Str., St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A new functional (sacrificial) material has been developed in the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SrO–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–CaO system based on strontium hexaferrite ceramic in concrete matrix. The method of producing SM has been advanced technologically; this technological effectiveness allows the SM to be used in ex-vessel core catchers with corium spreading as well as in crucible-type core catchers. Critical properties regarding the efficiency of SM in ex-vessel core catchers, such as porosity, pycnometric density, apparent density, solidus and liquidus temperatures, and water content have been measured. Suitable fractions of SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} and high alumina cement (HAC) were found in the SM based on thermodynamic analysis of the SM/corium interaction. The use of sacrificial steel as an additional heat adsorption component in the core catcher allowed us to increase the mass fraction range of SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} in the SM from 0.3−0.5 to 0.3–0.85. The activation temperature of the SM/corium interaction has been shown to correspond to the liquidus temperature of the local composition at the SM/corium interface. The calculated value of this temperature was 1716 °C. Analysis of phase transformations in the SrO–Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} system revealed advantages of the SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}–based sacrificial material compared with the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-contained material owing to the time proximity of SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} decomposition and corium interaction activation. - Highlights: • A sacrificial material (SM) was developed for ex-vessel core catcher. • Suitable proportions in the SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}·CaO–Fe system were determined. • Hydrogen release limitation was shown for ex-vessel corium retention with the SM. • Calculated temperature of the active initiation of corium/SM interaction is 1716 °C. • Functional properties of the SM were measured.

  6. Fully connected network of superconducting qubits in a cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsomokos, Dimitris I; Ashhab, Sahel; Nori, Franco

    2008-01-01

    A fully connected qubit network is considered, where every qubit interacts with every other one. When the interactions between the qubits are homogeneous, the system is a special case of the finite Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model. We propose a natural implementation of this model using superconducting qubits in state-of-the-art circuit QED. The ground state, the low-lying energy spectrum and the dynamical evolution are investigated. We find that, under realistic conditions, highly entangled states of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and W types can be generated. We also comment on the influence of disorder on the system and discuss the possibility of simulating complex quantum systems, such as Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) spin glasses, with superconducting qubit networks.

  7. Sumitomo's R and D activities for advanced USC boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Hidenori [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Okada, Hirokazu; Hirata, Hiroyuki; Semba, Hiroyuki; Igarashi, Masaaki [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Hyogo (Japan). Corporate R and D Labs.; Matsuo, Hiroshi [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Hyogo (Japan). Steel Tube Work

    2011-07-01

    Advanced Ni-base super alloys are strongly required for the advanced ultra-super critical (A-USC) power plants operated at steam temperatures above 700 C. The developed Ni base alloy HR6W with 23Cr-45Ni-7W, which is strengthened by Fe2W-type Laves phase and M23C6, is one of the candidate materials for thick wall pipe application. The stability of long-term creep strength and superior creep rupture ductility have been proved by creep rupture tests. A newly developed Ni-base alloy HR35 with 30r-50Ni-W alloy has been also proposed for thick wall piping application. (orig.)

  8. Microstructural characteristics of new type γ-γ` Co-9Al-9W cobalt-based superalloys in as-cast state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tomaszewska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented deals primary with the structure characteristics of a new type of cobalt-based superalloys Co-9Al-9W type, casted via induction melting process with partially dosing of Common problems described in literature are focused on difficulties in obtaining uniform distribution of tungsten, particularly in interdendritic areas. That was the reason for the modified casting process to be applied. The method of tungsten dosing into liquid melts of Co and Al allows to obtain microstructure characterized by considerably decreased microsegregation. The material obtained was analyzed by standard methods such as light and scanning microscopy with analysis of chemical composition in micro-areas. Additionally, the detailed analysis of the sub-grain level was made by S/TEM on thin foils collected from equiaxed grains zone of the ingot.

  9. Non-linear realizations of superconformal and W-algebras as embeddings of strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, S.

    1998-01-01

    We propose a simple method for constructing representations of (super)conformal and non-linear W-type algebras in terms of their subalgebras and corresponding Nambu-Goldstone fields. We apply it to N=2 and N=1 superconformal algebras and describe in this way various embeddings of strings and superstrings for which these algebras and their subalgebras define world-sheet symmetries. Besides reproducing the known examples, we present some new ones, in particular an embedding of the bosonic string with additional U(1) affine symmetry into N=2 superstring. We also apply our method to the non-linear W 3 (2) algebra and demonstrate that the linearization procedure worked out for it some time ago gets a natural interpretation as a kind of string embedding. All these embeddings include the critical ones as particular cases. (orig.)

  10. Nonlinear realizations of superconformal and W algebras as embeddings of strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, S.; Gribanov, V.; Ivanov, E.; Krivonos, S.; Pashnev, A.

    1997-07-01

    The authors propose a simple method for constructing representations of (super)conformal and nonlinear W -type algebras in terms of their subalgebras and corresponding Nambu-Goldstone fields. They apply it to N = 2 and N = 1 superconformal algebras and describe in this way various embeddings of strings and superstrings for which these algebras and their subalgebras define worked-sheet symmetries. Besides reproducing the known examples, they present some new ones, in particular an embedding of the bosonic string with additional U (1) affine symmetry into N = 2 superstring. They also apply their method to the nonlinear W 3 (2) algebra and demonstrate that the linearization procedure worked out for ti some time ago gets a natural interpretation as a kind of string embedding. All these embeddings include the critical ones as particular cases

  11. Effect of Bound Entanglement on the Convertibility of Pure States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaka, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    I show that bound entanglement strongly influences the quantum entanglement processing of pure states: If N distant parties share appropriate bound entangled states with positive partial transpose, all N-partite pure entangled states become inter-convertible by stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) at the single copy level. This implies that the Schmidt rank of a bipartite pure entangled state can be increased, and that two incomparable tripartite entanglement of the GHZ and W type can be inter-converted by the assistance of bound entanglement. Further, I propose the simplest experimental scheme for the demonstration of the corresponding bound-entanglement-assisted SLOCC. This scheme does not need quantum gates and is feasible for the current experimental technology of linear optics

  12. Extra-electron induced covalent strengthening and generalization of intrinsic ductile-to-brittle criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Haiyang; Chen, Xing-Qiu; Liu, Peitao; Xing, Weiwei; Cheng, Xiyue; Li, Dianzhong; Li, Yiyi

    2012-01-01

    Traditional strengthening ways, such as strain, precipitation, and solid-solution, come into effect by pinning the motion of dislocation. Here, through first-principles calculations we report on an extra-electron induced covalent strengthening mechanism, which alters chemical bonding upon the introduction of extra-valence electrons in the matrix of parent materials. It is responsible for the brittle and high-strength properties of Al(12)W-type compounds featured by the typical fivefold icosahedral cages, which are common for quasicrystals and bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). In combination with this mechanism, we generalize ductile-to-brittle criterion in a universal hyperbolic form by integrating the classical Pettifor's Cauchy pressure with Pugh's modulus ratio for a wide variety of materials with cubic lattices. This study provides compelling evidence to correlate Pugh's modulus ratio with hardness of materials and may have implication for understanding the intrinsic brittleness of quasicrystals and BMGs.

  13. AH Cancri: a contact binary in M67

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, J.A.J.; Worden, S.P.; Rucinski, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    The W UMa-type contact binary system AH Cnc, which is a member of the old galactic cluster M67, has been studied spectroscopically and photometrically. Estimates of masses, radii, effective temperature and luminosity of AH Cnc have been derived from these data and from cluster membership considerations. The results suggest that AH Cnc is a typical evolved W-type W UMa contact system, although whether the system has evolved as a contact system or has recently become so, could not be determined. The properties of AH Cnc are similar to those of TX Cnc in Praesepe. Information provided by the existence of a gap in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for M67 has been coupled with the AH Cnc results to provide further estimates of the chemical composition of M67. (author)

  14. The validity of METHUSELAH II in water moderated lattice calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.; Hopkins, D.R.

    1964-09-01

    An improved version of the METHUSELAH code has been developed, which embodies some refinements in the treatment of the thermal spectrum, improved cross-section data, and a neutron balance output. The changes in nuclear data and physical models are summarised in this report; a detailed description of the programme modifications will be published separately. In this report METHUSELAH II predictions are compared with published lattice reactivity and reaction rate data. The systems examined include British S.G.H.W. type lattices (with H 2 O and D 2 O moderation), Canadian natural uranium/D 2 0 experiments, U.S. low enrichment H 2 O systems, and the Hanford Pu A1/H 2 O experiments. In general the agreement is sufficiently good to demonstrate the value of METHUSELAH II as an assessment tool and to indicate clear improvements over METHUSELAH I. A number of discrepancies are, however, observed and are the subject of comment. (author)

  15. Grain boundary precipitation strengthening mechanism in W containing advanced creep resistant ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, T.; Hasegawa, Y. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Grain boundary precipitation strengthening is expected to be a decisive factor in developing ferritic creep resistant steels. This study examined the grain boundary precipitation strengthening mechanism extracting the effect of the tempered martensitic microstructure and precipitates on the high angle grain boundary in M{sub 23}C4{sub 6} type carbide and the Fe{sub 2}W type Laves phase effect of the creep deformation fixing the grain boundary according to transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation. A creep test was carried out at high temperature in order to evaluate the high angle boundary strengthening effect simulating the long-term creep deformation microstructure by the lath structure disappearance. The correlation of the creep rupture time and the grain boundary shielding ratio were found to be independent of precipitate type. The creep deformation model represents block boundary shielding by precipitates as the decisive factor for W containing ferritic creep resistant steels. (orig.)

  16. Optimal reducibility of all W states equivalent under stochastic local operations and classical communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Swapan; Parashar, Preeti [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 BT Road, Kolkata (India)

    2011-11-15

    We show that all multipartite pure states that are stochastic local operation and classical communication (SLOCC) equivalent to the N-qubit W state can be uniquely determined (among arbitrary states) from their bipartite marginals. We also prove that only (N-1) of the bipartite marginals are sufficient and that this is also the optimal number. Thus, contrary to the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) class, W-type states preserve their reducibility under SLOCC. We also study the optimal reducibility of some larger classes of states. The generic Dicke states |GD{sub N}{sup l}> are shown to be optimally determined by their (l+1)-partite marginals. The class of ''G'' states (superposition of W and W) are shown to be optimally determined by just two (N-2)-partite marginals.

  17. Creep properties and microstructure evaluation of weld joint of the pipe made of P92 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasl, Josef; Jandova, Dagmar; Chvostova, Eva [SKODA VYZKUM s.r.o., Plzen (Czech Republic); Folkova, Eva [SKODA POWER a.s., Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    One-side weld joint of W type was prepared from P92 type steel using GTAW and SMAW method. Creep test to the rupture of smooth cross-weld samples has been carried out at temperatures ranging from 575 to 650 C and at stresses from 70 to 240 MPa. Fractographic analysis, hardness measurement and detailed study of submicrostructure have been performed using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Changes of microstructure were correlated with the creep strength. Increase in size of secondary phases and cavities formation were evident after creep tests at temperatures above 575 C. Voids were concentrated in the fine prior austenite grain heat affected zones, where fracture occurred. In addition, a sporadic occurrence of individual cavities was found out in the base material and the weld metal after tests at 625 and 650 C. During creep exposures at temperatures above 600 C Laves phase precipitated. (orig.)

  18. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W entanglement witnesses for the noninteracting Fermi gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibian, Hessam; Clark, John W.; Behbood, Naeimeh; Hingerl, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The existence and nature of tripartite entanglement of a noninteracting Fermi gas (NIFG) is investigated. Three classes of parametrized entanglement witnesses (EWs) are introduced with the aim of detecting genuine tripartite entanglement in the three-body reduced density matrix and discriminating between the presence of the two types of genuine tripartite entanglement, W/B and GHZ/W (the convex set of B states is comprised of mixed states of product and biseparable states; that of W states is comprised of mixed states of B states and W-type pure entangled states; and the GHZ (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger) set contains generic mixtures of any kind for a tripartite system). By choosing appropriate EW operators, the problem of finding GHZ and W EWs is reduced to linear programming. Specifically, we devise W EWs based on a spin-chain model with periodic boundary conditions, and we construct a class of parametrized GHZ EWs by linearly combining projection operators corresponding to all the different state-vector types arising for a three-fermion system. A third class of EWs is provided by a GHZ stabilizer operator capable of distinguishing W/B from GHZ/B entanglement, which is not possible with W EWs. Implementing these classes of EWs, it is found that all states containing genuine tripartite entanglement are of W type, and hence states containing GHZ/W genuine tripartite entanglement do not arise. Some genuine tripartite entangled states that have a positive partial transpose (PPT) with respect to some bipartition are detected. Finally, it is demonstrated that a NIFG does not exhibit 'pure'W/B genuine tripartite entanglement: three-party entanglement without any separable or biseparable admixture does not occur.

  19. Deterministic Many-Resonator W Entanglement of Nearly Arbitrary Microwave States via Attractive Bose-Hubbard Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gangat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multipartite entanglement of large numbers of physically distinct linear resonators is of both fundamental and applied interest, but there have been no feasible proposals to date for achieving it. At the same time, the Bose-Hubbard model with attractive interactions (ABH is theoretically known to have a phase transition from the superfluid phase to a highly entangled nonlocal superposition, but observation of this phase transition has remained out of experimental reach. In this theoretical work, we jointly address these two problems by (1 proposing an experimentally accessible quantum simulation of the ABH phase transition in an array of tunably coupled superconducting circuit microwave resonators and (2 incorporating the simulation into a highly scalable protocol that takes as input any microwave-resonator state with negligible occupation of number states |0⟩ and |1⟩ and nonlocally superposes it across the whole array of resonators. The large-scale multipartite entanglement produced by the protocol is of the W type, which is well known for its robustness. The protocol utilizes the ABH phase transition to generate the multipartite entanglement of all of the resonators in parallel, and is therefore deterministic and permits an increase in resonator number without any increase in protocol complexity; the number of resonators is limited instead by system characteristics such as resonator-frequency disorder and inter-resonator coupling strength. Only one local and two global controls are required for the protocol. We numerically demonstrate the protocol with realistic system parameters and estimate that current experimental capabilities can realize the protocol with high fidelity for greater than 40 resonators. Because superconducting-circuit microwave resonators are capable of interfacing with other devices and platforms such as mechanical resonators and (potentially optical fields, this proposal provides a route toward large-scale W-type

  20. Dynamical evolution of entanglement of a three-qubit system driven by a classical environmental colored noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack, Lionel Tenemeza; Tchoffo, Martin; Fouokeng, Georges Collince; Fai, Lukong Cornelius

    2018-04-01

    The effects of 1/f^{α } (α =1,2) noise stemming from one or a collection of random bistable fluctuators (RBFs), on the evolution of entanglement, of three non-interacting qubits are investigated. Three different initial configurations of the qubits are analyzed in detail: the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-type states, W-type states and mixed states composed of a GHZ state and a W state (GHZ-W). For each initial configuration, the evolution of entanglement is investigated for three different qubit-environment (Q-E) coupling setups, namely independent environments, mixed environments and common environment coupling. With the help of tripartite negativity and suitable entanglement witnesses, we show that the evolution of entanglement is extremely influenced not only by the initial configuration of the qubits, the spectrum of the environment and the Q-E coupling setup considered, but also by the number of RBF modeling the environment. Indeed, we find that the decay of entanglement is accelerated when the number of fluctuators modeling the environment is increased. Furthermore, we find that entanglement can survive indefinitely to the detrimental effects of noise even for increasingly larger numbers of RBFs. On the other hand, we find that the proficiency of the tripartite entanglement witnesses to detect entanglement is weaker than that of the tripartite negativity and that the symmetry of the initial states is broken when the qubits are coupled to the noise in mixed environments. Finally, we find that the 1 / f noise is more harmful to the survival of entanglement than the 1/f2 noise and that the mixed GHZ-W states followed by the GHZ-type states preserve better entanglement than the W-type ones.

  1. [The content of mineral elements in Camellia olei fera ovary at pollination and fertilization stages determined by auto discrete analyzers and atomic absorption spectrophotometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Feng; Yuan, De-Yi; Gao, Chao; Liao, Ting; Chen, Wen-Tao; Han, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Lin

    2014-04-01

    In order to elucidate the nutrition of Camellia olei fera at pollination and fertilization stages, the contents of mineral elements were determined by auto discrete analyzers and atomic absorption spectrophotometer, and the change in the contents of mineral elements was studied and analysed under the condition of self- and cross-pollination. The results are showed that nine kinds of mineral elements contents were of "S" or "W" type curve changes at the pollination and fertilization stages of Camellia olei fera. N, K, Zn, Cu, Ca, Mn element content changes showed "S" curve under the self- and out-crossing, the content of N reaching the highest was 3.445 8 mg x g(-1) in self-pollination of 20 d; K content reaching the highest at the cross-pollination 20 d was 6.275 5 mg x g(-1); Zn content in self-pollination of 10 d reaching the highest was 0.070 5 mg x g(-1); Cu content in the cross-pollination of 5 d up to the highest was 0.061 0 mg x g(-1); Ca content in the cross-pollination of 15 d up to the highest was 3.714 5 mg x g(-1); the content of Mn reaching the highest in self-pollination 30 d was 2. 161 5 mg x g(-1). Fe, P, Mg element content changes was of "S" type curve in selfing and was of "W" type curve in outcrossing, Fe content in the self-pollination 10 d up to the highest was 0.453 0 mg x g(-1); P content in self-pollination of 20 d reaching the highest was 6.731 8 mg x g(-1); the content of Mg up to the highest in self-pollination 25 d was 2.724 0 mg x g(-1). The results can be used as a reference for spraying foliar fertilizer, and improving seed setting rate and yield in Camellia olei fera.

  2. Evaluation of the thermal efficiency and a cost analysis of different types of ground heat exchangers in energy piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Seok; Lee, Seung-Rae; Xue, Jianfeng; Zosseder, Kai; Go, Gyu-Hyun; Park, Hyunku

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We performed field TPT with W and coil-type GHEs in energy piles. • We evaluated heat exchange rates from TPT results. • Field TPT results were compared with numerical analysis. • Cost analysis with GSHP design method was conducted for each type of GHEs in energy piles. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental and numerical study of the results of a thermal performance test using precast high-strength concrete (PHC) energy piles with W and coil-type ground heat exchangers (GHEs). In-situ thermal performance tests (TPTs) were conducted for four days under an intermittent operation condition (8 h on; 16 h off) on W and coil-type PHC energy piles installed in a partially saturated weathered granite soil deposit. In addition, three-dimensional finite element analyses were conducted and the results were compared with the four-day experimental results. The heat exchange rates were also predicted for three months using the numerical analysis. The heat exchange rate of the coil-type GHE showed 10–15% higher efficiency compared to the W-type GHE in the energy pile. However, in considering the cost for the installation of the heat exchanger and cement grouting the additional cost of W-type GHE in energy pile was 200–250% cheaper than coil-type GHE under the condition providing equivalent thermal performance. Furthermore, the required lengths of the W, 3U and coil-type GHEs in the energy piles were calculated based on the design process of Kavanaugh and Rafferty. The additional cost for the W and 3U types of GHEs were also 200–250% lower than that of the coil-type GHE. However, the required number of piles was much less with the coil-type GHE as compared to the W and 3U types of GHEs. They are advantageous in terms of the construction period, and further, selecting the coil-type GHE could be a viable option when there is a limitation in the number of piles in consideration of the scale of the building.

  3. Four W Ursae Majoris contact binaries in the old galactic cluster NGC 188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baliunas, S.L.; Guinan, E.F.

    1984-01-01

    The authors calculated the cross-correlation coefficients between the spectra of the contact binaries and slowly-rotating template stars of approximately the same color in NGC 188 (stars I-32 and I-33). From the cross-correlation coefficients they measured the radial velocities of the W UMa stars near the expected phase of velocity crossing with respect to the two other cluster stars. The velocities of the W UMa systems are consistent with cluster membership. In three of the systems, the spectra were obtained at phases where individual stellar components were resolved. Two Gaussians were fit simultaneously to the most significant portion of the blended cross-correlation peaks. The mass ratios of these three systems were determined by assuming that the velocity of the center of mass is equal to the mean radial velocity of the two cluster reference stars. The mass ratios in these three systems suggest the binaries are similar to other short-period, field W UMa systems designated W-type

  4. Quantum optical measurements with undetected photons through vacuum field indistinguishability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Kyung; Yoon, Tai Hyun; Cho, Minhaeng

    2017-07-26

    Quantum spectroscopy and imaging with undetected idler photons have been demonstrated by measuring one-photon interference between the corresponding entangled signal fields from two spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) crystals. In this Report, we present a new quantum optical measurement scheme utilizing three SPDC crystals in a cascading arrangement; here, neither the detection of the idler photons which interact with materials of interest nor their conjugate signal photons which do not interact with the sample is required. The coherence of signal beams in a single photon W-type path-entangled state is induced and modulated by indistinguishabilities of the idler beams and crucially the quantum vacuum fields. As a result, the optical properties of materials or objects interacting with the idler beam from the first SPDC crystal can be measured by detecting second-order interference between the signal beams generated by the other two SPDC crystals further down the set-up. This gedankenexperiment illustrates the fundamental importance of vacuum fields in generating an optical tripartite entangled state and thus its crucial role in quantum optical measurements.

  5. Simulation of aspheric tolerance with polynomial fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Cen, Zhaofeng; Li, Xiaotong

    2018-01-01

    The shape of the aspheric lens changes caused by machining errors, resulting in a change in the optical transfer function, which affects the image quality. At present, there is no universally recognized tolerance criterion standard for aspheric surface. To study the influence of aspheric tolerances on the optical transfer function, the tolerances of polynomial fitting are allocated on the aspheric surface, and the imaging simulation is carried out by optical imaging software. Analysis is based on a set of aspheric imaging system. The error is generated in the range of a certain PV value, and expressed as a form of Zernike polynomial, which is added to the aspheric surface as a tolerance term. Through optical software analysis, the MTF of optical system can be obtained and used as the main evaluation index. Evaluate whether the effect of the added error on the MTF of the system meets the requirements of the current PV value. Change the PV value and repeat the operation until the acceptable maximum allowable PV value is obtained. According to the actual processing technology, consider the error of various shapes, such as M type, W type, random type error. The new method will provide a certain development for the actual free surface processing technology the reference value.

  6. A link between quantum entanglement, secant varieties and sphericity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicki, A; Tsanov, V V

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we shed light on the relations between three concepts studied in representation theory, algebraic geometry and quantum information theory. First—spherical actions of reductive groups on projective spaces. Second—secant varieties of homogeneous projective varieties, and the related notions of rank and border rank. Third—quantum entanglement. Our main result concerns the relation between the problem of the state reconstruction from its reduced one-particle density matrices and the minimal number of separable summands in its decomposition. More precisely, we show that sphericity implies that states of a given rank cannot be approximated by states of a lower rank. We call states for which such an approximation is possible exceptional states. For three, important from a quantum entanglement perspective, cases of distinguishable, fermionic and bosonic particles, we also show that non-sphericity implies the existence of exceptional states. Remarkably, the exceptional states belong to non-bipartite entanglement classes. In particular, we show that the W-type states and their appropriate modifications are exceptional states stemming from the second secant variety for three cases above. We point out that the existence of the exceptional states is a physical obstruction for deciding the local unitary equivalence of states by means of the one-particle-reduced density matrices. Finally, for a number of systems of distinguishable particles with a known orbit structure, we list all exceptional states and discuss their possible importance in entanglement theory. (paper)

  7. Application of FUZZY mathematics in the interpretation of logging data to evaluate high productivity oil-bearing formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, the construction of the mathematic models, membership function and the FUZZY matrix for a formation evaluation in the digital processing of well logging data are demonstrated. The study of FUZZY operators and an analysis of their effectiveness is emphasized. W type operators, FUZZY factors, and productivity equations for different geological conditions are also suggested in this paper. The programs given by the author, as expressed in this paper, can give as comprehensive evaluation of the oil-bearing formation and its geological parameters, and can give the productivity (ton/day), the type of the reservoir formation, locate the high productive formation and the degree of credit of such an evaluation, as well. All these will give bases for decision making. These results have been applied in the digital processing of well logging data interpretation in Nanhai, Dongpu, and Liahoe oil fields, and good results are obtained. Thus the designed process provides a new technique for the interpretation of a complex hydrocarbon bearing formation and the current technique of data processing of the logging data will be advanced to a new level.

  8. Seven-sphere and the exceptional N=7 and N=8 superconformal algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenaydin, M.; Ketov, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    We study realisations of the exceptional non-linear (quadratically generated, or W-type) N=8 and N=7 superconformal algebras with Spin(7) and G 2 affine symmetry currents, respectively. Both the N=8 and N=7 algebras admit unitary highest-weight representations in terms of a single boson and free fermions in 8 of Spin(7) and 7 of G 2 , with the central charges c 8 =26/5 and c 7 =5, respectively. Furthermore, we show that the general coset ansaetze for the N=8 and N=7 algebras naturally lead to the coset spaces SO(8) x U(1)/SO(7) and SO(7) x U(1)/G 2 , respectively, as the additional consistent solutions for certain values of the central charge. The coset space SO(8)/SO(7) is the seven-sphere S 7 , whereas the space SO(7)/G 2 represents the seven-sphere with torsion, S 7 T . The division algebra of octonions and the associated triality properties of SO(8) play an essential role in all these realisations. We also comment on some possible applications of our results to string theory. (orig.)

  9. Corrosion behavior of materials selected for FMIT lithium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazinet, G.D.; Down, M.G.; Matlock, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion program consisted of a multi-disciplinary approach utilizing the liquid lithium test resources and capabilities of several laboratories. Specific concerns associated with the overall objective of materials corrosion behavior were evaluated at each laboratory. Testing conditions included: approx. 3700 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230 0 C to 270 0 C and approx. 6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at an isothermal temperature of 270 0 C. Principal areas of investigation, to be discussed here briefly, included lithium corrosion effects on the following: (1) types 304 and 304L austenitic stainless steels, which are specified as reference materials for the FMIT lithium system; (2) type 304 stainless steel weldments (w/type 308 stainless steel filler) typical of specified tube and butt welds in the lithium system design; (3) titanium, zirconium and yttrium, which represent potential hot trap getter materials; (4) BNi4 braze alloy, used as a potential attachement method in the plug/seat fabrication of liquid lithium valves; and (5) type 321 stainless steel bellows, typical of bellows used in potential liquid lithium valve designs

  10. Corrosion behavior of materials selected for FMIT lithium system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazinet, G.D.; Down, M.G.; Matlock, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion program consisted of a multi-disciplinary approach utilizing the liquid lithium test resources and capabilities of several laboratories. Specific concerns associated with the overall objective of materials corrosion behavior were evaluated at each laboratory. Testing conditions included: approx. 3700 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230/sup 0/C to 270/sup 0/C and approx. 6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at an isothermal temperature of 270/sup 0/C. Principal areas of investigation, to be discussed here briefly, included lithium corrosion effects on the following: (1) types 304 and 304L austenitic stainless steels, which are specified as reference materials for the FMIT lithium system; (2) type 304 stainless steel weldments (w/type 308 stainless steel filler) typical of specified tube and butt welds in the lithium system design; (3) titanium, zirconium and yttrium, which represent potential hot trap getter materials; (4) BNi4 braze alloy, used as a potential attachement method in the plug/seat fabrication of liquid lithium valves; and (5) type 321 stainless steel bellows, typical of bellows used in potential liquid lithium valve designs.

  11. Innovative Natural Ingredients-Based Multiple Emulsions: The Effect on Human Skin Moisture, Sebum Content, Pore Size and Pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugne Cizauskaite

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The increased interest in natural cosmetics has resulted in a higher market demand for preservative-free products based on herbal ingredients. An innovative W/O/W type emulsions containing herbal extracts were prepared directly; its cation form was induced by an ethanolic rosemary extract and stabilized using weak herbal gels. Due to the wide phytochemical composition of herbal extracts and the presence of alcohol in the emulsion system, which can cause skin irritation, sensitization or dryness when applied topically, the safety of the investigated drug delivery system is necessary. The aim of our study was to estimate the potential of W/O/W emulsions based on natural ingredients for skin irritation and phototoxicity using reconstructed 3D epidermis models in vitro and to evaluate in vivo its effect on human skin moisture, sebum content and pigmentation by biomedical examination using a dermatoscopic camera and corneometer. According to the results obtained after in vitro cell viability test the investigated emulsion was neither irritant nor phototoxic to human skin keratinocytes. W/O/W emulsion did not cause skin dryness in vivo, despite the fact that it contained ethanol. We can conclude that the emulsion is safe for use as a leave-on product due to the positive effect on human skin characteristics or as a semisolid pharmaceutical base where active compounds could be encapsulated.

  12. Multiple ketolases involved in light regulation of canthaxanthin biosynthesis in Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpf, Lotte; Mautz, Jürgen; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2013-05-01

    In the genome of Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102, three functional β-carotene ketolase genes exist, one of the crtO and two of the crtW type. They were all expressed and their corresponding enzymes were functional inserting 4-keto groups into β-carotene as shown by functional pathway complementation in Escherichia coli. They all synthesized canthaxanthin but with different efficiencies. Canthaxanthin is the photoprotective carotenoid of N. punctiforme PCC 73102. Under high-light stress, its synthesis was enhanced. This was caused by up-regulation of the transcripts of two genes in combination. The first crtB-encoding phytoene synthase is the gate way enzyme of carotenogenesis resulting in an increased inflow into the pathway. The second was the ketolase gene crtW148 which in high light takes over β-carotene conversion into canthaxanthin from the other ketolases. The other ketolases were down-regulated under high-light conditions. CrtW148 was also exclusively responsible for the last step in 4-keto-myxoxanthophyll synthesis.

  13. Microstructure and mechanical properties of unirradiated low activation ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.Y.; Lechtenberg, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    Transmission electron micrographs of normalized and tempered 9Cr-2.5W-0.3V-0.15C low activation ferritic steel showed tempered lath-type martensite with precipitation of rod and plate-like carbides at lath and grain boundaries. X-ray diffraction analysis of the extracted replicas revealed nearly 100% M 23 C 6 carbides (a=1.064 nm), with no indication of Fe 2 W-type Laves phase even after thermal aging at 600 0 C/1000 h. Thermal aging increased the number density of rod-like M 23 C 6 along prior austenite grain boundaries and martensite lath boundaries. The elevated-temperature tensile strengths of this steel are about 10% higher than the average strengths of commercial heats of 9Cr-1Mo and modified 9Cr-1Mo steels up to 650 0 C, with equivalent uniform elongation and ∝50% decrease in total elongation. The DBTT was determined to be -25 0 C which is similar to other 9Cr-1Mo steels. Fractographic examination of tensile tested specimens shows a mixed mode of equiaxed and elongated dimples at test temperatures above 400 0 C. Modification of the Ga3X alloy composition for opimization of materials properties is discussed. However, the proposed low activation ferritic steel shows the promise of improved mechanical properties over 9Cr-1Mo steels. (orig.)

  14. UBVRc Ic ANALYSIS OF THE RECENTLY DISCOVERED TOTALLY ECLIPSING EXTREME MASS RATIO BINARY V1853 ORIONIS, AND A STATISTICAL LOOK AT 25 OTHER EXTREME MASS RATIO SOLAR-TYPE CONTACT BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samec, R. G.; Labadorf, C. M.; Hawkins, N. C.; Faulkner, D. R.; Van Hamme, W.

    2011-01-01

    We present precision CCD light curves, a period study, photometrically derived standard magnitudes, and a five-color simultaneous Wilson code solution of the totally eclipsing, yet shallow amplitude (A v ∼ 0.4 mag) eclipsing, binary V1853 Orionis. It is determined to be an extreme mass ratio, q = 0.20, W-type W UMa overcontact binary. From our standard star observations, we find that the variable is a late-type F spectral-type dwarf, with a secondary component of about 0.24 solar masses (stellar type M5V). Its long eclipse duration (41 minutes) as compared to its period, 0.383 days, attests to the small relative size of the secondary. Furthermore, it has reached a Roche lobe fill-out of ∼50% of its outer critical lobe as it approaches its final stages of binary star evolution, that of a fast spinning single star. Finally, a summary of about 25 extreme mass ratio solar-type binaries is given.

  15. Rare earth elements in sinters from the geothermal waters (hot springs) on the Tibetan Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jin-Liang; Zhao, Zhen-Hong; Chen, Feng; Hu, Hai-Ping

    2014-10-01

    The mineralogical and geochemical composition of sinters from the geothermal areas on the Tibetan Plateau was determined. They occur as siliceous, salty and calcareous sinters but biogenic siliceous sinters were also found. The analyses indicate that there are no distinct inter -element relationships between individual rare earth elements (REEs) and other elements. Formed from the same geothermal water, the mineralogical and chemical composition of the sinters is influenced by their genesis and formation conditions. The REE distributions depend on the origin of the sinters. Fe-Mn phases in sinters tend to scavenge more REEs from geothermal water. Neither the REE fractionation nor the Ce anomaly seems to be associated with Fe-Mn phases in the sinters. The fourth tetrads of some sinters display weak W-type (concave) effects. In contrast, the third tetrads present large effects in some sinters due to positive Gd anomalies. The origin of the positive Eu anomalies in some sinters seems to be caused by preferential dissolution of feldspars during water-rock interaction. The complexing ligands in geothermal water may contribute significantly to the fractionation of REEs in sinters. The dominant CO32- and HCO3- complexing in geothermal water favors enrichment of heavy REEs in calcareous sinters.

  16. NOTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN, WORLD, AND OLYMPIC BMX CYCLING RACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mateo-March

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were 1 to describe the technical requirements of different tracks where classifying points are disputed for the Olympics as the European continent tracks (E, world championship competitions tracks (W, and Olympic Games track - Beijing, 2008- (O; and 2 to compare and establish differences or similarities between the three previous contexts. The sample used for this study was made of the 8 best qualifying male athletes from each competition (n = 48 during the 2007 and 2008 seasons (pre-Olympic and Olympic years. A descriptive design was used, based on systematic structured observation of the competitions filmed on video, paying attention to the different techniques used (overtaking skills, complete pedalling cycles and registered effort times. The results show that aerial techniques predominate over non aerial techniques on O and W type tracks more than on E tracks by ~20% (p < 0.001, pedaling cycles predominate in E vs. W and O by 11.85 and 24.23% respectively (p < 0.05, and effort times predominate in O vs. W and E by 6.50 and 12.94% respectively (p < 0.01. In conclusion, O and W tracks stand out because of the aerial component and greater technical complexity in comparison to E tracks, which has a decisive effect on the way the riders train in relation to the type of championship they aim to compete in

  17. The first photometric investigation and orbital period variation analysis of the W UMa type binary IK Bootis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriwattanawong, Wichean; Sanguansak, Nuanwan; Maungkorn, Sakdawoot

    2017-08-01

    With new CCD observations of the W UMa type binary IK Boo, we present the first investigation of photometric parameters and orbital period change. The BVRc light curve fit shows that IK Boo is a W-type contact system with a mass ratio of q = 1.146 and a shallow contact with a fill-out factor of f = 2.22%. The orbital period decrease was found to be a rate of -3.28 × 10-7 d yr-1, corresponding to a mass transfer from the more massive to the less massive component with a rate of -2.83 × 10-6 M⊙ yr-1. The inner and outer critical Roche lobes will contract and cause the contact degree to increase. Therefore, IK Boo may evolve into a deeper contact system. Furthermore, a possible cyclic variation was found with a period of 9.74 yr, which could be explained by the light-travel time effect due to the existence of a third companion in the system.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: First analysis of the binary IK Boo (Kriwattanawong+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriwattanawong, W.; Sanguansak, N.; Maungkorn, S.

    2017-03-01

    With new CCD observations of the W UMa type binary IK Boo, we present the first investigation of photometric parameters and orbital period change. The BVRc light curve fit shows that IK Boo is a W-type contact system with a mass ratio of q=1.146 and a shallow contact with a fill-out factor of f=2.22%. The orbital period decrease is found at a rate of -3.28x10-7d/yr, corresponding to a mass transfer from the more massive to the less massive component with a rate of -2.83x10-6M_ȯ/yr. The inner and outer critical Roche lobes will contract and cause the contact degree to increase. Therefore, IK Boo may evolve into a deeper contact system. Furthermore, a possible cyclic variation is found to have a period of 9.74yr, that could be explained by the light-travel time effect, due to the existence of a third companion in the system. (2 data files).

  19. Problems of low-parameter equations of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrik, G. G.

    2017-11-01

    The paper focuses on the system approach to problems of low-parametric equations of state (EOS). It is a continuation of the investigations in the field of substantiated prognosis of properties on two levels, molecular and thermodynamic. Two sets of low-parameter EOS have been considered based on two very simple molecular-level models. The first one consists of EOS of van der Waals type (a modification of van der Waals EOS proposed for spheres). The main problem of these EOS is a weak connection with the micro-level, which raise many uncertainties. The second group of EOS has been derived by the author independently of the ideas of van der Waals based on the model of interacting point centers (IPC). All the parameters of the EOS have a meaning and are associated with the manifestation of attractive and repulsive forces. The relationship between them is found to be the control parameter of the thermodynamic level. In this case, EOS IPC passes into a one-parameter family. It is shown that many EOS of vdW-type can be included in the framework of the PC model. Simultaneously, all their parameters acquire a physical meaning.

  20. Corrosion of nickel-base heat resistant alloys in simulated VHTR coolant helium at very high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, Masami; Kondo, Tatsuo

    1976-01-01

    A comparative evaluation was made on three commercial nickel-base heat resistant alloys exposed to helium-base atmosphere at 1000 0 C, which contained several impurities in simulating the helium cooled very high temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR) environment. The choice of alloys was made so that the effect of elements commonly found in commercial alloys were typically examined. The corrosion in helium at 1000 0 C was characterized by the sharp selection of thermodynamically unstable elements in the oxidizing process and the resultant intergranular penetration and internal oxidation. Ni-Cr-Mo-W type solution hardened alloy such as Hastelloy-X showed comparatively good resistance. The alloy containing Al and Ti such as Inconel-617 suffered adverse effect in contrast to its good resistance to air oxidation. The alloy nominally composed only of noble elements, Ni, Fe and Mo, such as Hastelloy-B showed least apparent corrosion, while suffered internal oxidation due to small amount of active impurities commonly existing in commercial heats. The results were discussed in terms of selection and improvement of alloys for uses in VHTR and the similar systems. (auth.)

  1. Photovoltaic power generation field test at Industrial Technology Research Institute. Prefectural office building in a sunshine-rich district (Kanagawa Prefectural Industrial Technology Research Institute); Sangyo gijutsu sogo kenkyusho taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo (nissha ryoko chiku no kenchosha). Kanagawaken sangyo gijutsu sogo kenkyusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, H [Kanagawa Prefectural Government Office, Yokohama (Japan)

    1997-05-30

    The result of a photovoltaic power generation field test in fiscal 1996 on a prefectural office building in a sunshine-rich district is reported. It is a lighting power source installed in fiscal 1994 on the third-floor rooftop of the management information building of Kanagawa Prefectural Industrial Technology Research Institute. It has a capacity of 25kW, operating on system interconnection (no back flow), and has a single 15-series/26-parallel array (mono-crystal modules) facing 38deg westward from due south and inclined at an elevation angle of 20deg. From the 240000kWh insolation that contributed to power generation, a DC power output of 28000kWh was obtained, output of 25000kWh after conversion into AC. The module efficiency was 10.8-13.8%, higher when the daily mean temperature was lower. In the case of 3kW type expected to diffuse into the residential and commercial sector and household sector, one will output 3000kWh a year, which is an appropriate capacity as a locally distributed type power generating system in view of the monthly consumption of 2000kWh by a household in general in the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Ltd. service area. No problem is found in reliability of the tested system. Although the power it generates is less than what this office consumes, it is effective in enlightening people about resources saving and peak cut in summer

  2. Adriatic storm surges and related cross-basin sea-level slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Međugorac, Iva; Orlić, Mirko; Janeković, Ivica; Pasarić, Zoran; Pasarić, Miroslava

    2018-05-01

    Storm surges pose a severe threat to the northernmost cities of the Adriatic coast, with Venice being most prone to flooding. It has been noted that some flooding episodes cause significantly different effects along the eastern and western Adriatic coasts, with indications that the difference is related to cross-basin sea-level slope. The present study aims to determine specific atmospheric conditions under which the slope develops and to explore connection with increased sea level along the two coastlines. The analysis is based on sea-level time series recorded at Venice and Bakar over the 1984-2014 interval, from which 38 most intensive storm-surge episodes were selected, and their meteorological backgrounds (ERA-Interim) were studied. The obtained sea-level extremes were grouped into three categories according to their cross-basin sea-level slope: storm surges that slope strongly westward (W type), those that slope eastward (E type) and ordinary storm surges (O type). Results show that the slope is controlled by wind action only, specifically, by the wind component towards a particular coast and by the cross-basin shear of along-basin wind. Meteorological fields were used to force an oceanographic numerical model in order to confirm the empirically established connection between the atmospheric forcing and the slope. Finally, it has been found that the intensity of storm surges along a particular Adriatic coast is determined by an interplay of sea-level slopes in the along and cross-basin directions.

  3. A photometric analysis of the neglected EW-type binary V336 TrA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriwattanawong, W.; Sarotsakulchai, T.; Maungkorn, S.; Reichart, D. E.; Haislip, J. B.; Kouprianov, V. V.; LaCluyze, A. P.; Moore, J. P.

    2018-05-01

    This study presents an analysis of photometric light curves and absolute parameters for the EW-type binary V336 TrA. VRI imaging observations were taken in 2013 by using the robotic telescopes PROMPT 4 and PROMPT 5 at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), Chile. The observed light curves were fitted by using the Wilson-Devinney method. The results showed that V336 TrA is a W-type contact binary with a mass ratio of q = 1.396. The binary is a weak contact system with a fill-out factor of f = 15.69%. The system contains components with masses of 0.653 M⊙ and 0.912 M⊙ for the hotter and the cooler, respectively. The location of the secondary (less massive) component on the log M - log L diagram was found to be near the TAMS. The component has evolved to be oversize and overluminous. The orbital angular momentum of the binary was found to be log Jo = 51.61 cgs, less than all detached systems for same mass. The system has undergone angular momentum and/or mass loss, during the binary evolution from the detached to contact system.

  4. SuperWASP J015100.23-100524.2: A SPOTTED SHALLOW-CONTACT BINARY BELOW THE PERIOD LIMIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, S. B.; Zhang, B.; He, J. J.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L. Y.; Zhao, E. G.; Zhou, X.; Thawicharat, S. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China); Soonthornthum, B.; Rattanasoon, S.; Aukkaravittayapun, S., E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand, 191 Siriphanich Bldg., Huay Kaew Road, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2015-10-15

    SuperWASP J015100.23-100524.2 (hereafter J015100) is an eclipsing binary with an orbital period of 0.d2145 that is below the short-period limit of contact binary stars. Complete light curves of J015100 in B, V, R, and I bands are presented and are analyzed with the Wilson–Devinney method. It has been discovered that J015100 is a shallow-contact binary (f = 14.6(±2.7)%) with a mass ratio of 3.128. It is a W-type contact binary where the less massive component is about 130 K hotter than the more massive one. The asymmetries of light curves are explained as one dark spot on the more massive component. The detection of J015100 as a contact binary below the period limit suggests that contact binaries below this limit are not rapidly destroyed. This shallow-contact system may be formed from a detached short-period binary similar to DV Psc (Sp. = K4/K5; P = 0.d30855) via orbital shrinkage due to angular momentum loss through magnetic stellar wind.

  5. Resistant Starch Contents of Native and Heat-Moisture Treated Jackfruit Seed Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornanong S. Kittipongpatana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Native jackfruit seed starch (JFS contains 30% w/w type II resistant starch (RS2 and can potentially be developed as a new commercial source of RS for food and pharmaceutical application. Heat-moisture treatment (HMT was explored as a mean to increase RS content of native JFS. The effect of the conditions was tested at varied moisture contents (MC, temperatures, and times. Moisture levels of 20–25%, together with temperatures 80–110°C, generally resulted in increases of RS amount. The highest amount of RS (52.2% was achieved under treatment conditions of 25% MC and 80°C, for 16 h (JF-25-80-16. FT-IR peak ratio at 1047/1022 cm−1 suggested increases in ordered structure in several HMT-JFS samples with increased RS. SEM showed no significant change in the granule appearance, except at high moisture/temperature treatment. XRD revealed no significant change in peaks intensities, suggesting the crystallinity within the granule was mostly retained. DSC showed increases in Tg and, in most cases, ΔT, as the MC was increased in the samples. Slight but significant decreases in ΔH were observed in samples with low RS, indicating that a combination of high moisture and temperature might cause partial gelatinization. HMT-JFS with higher RS exhibited less swelling, while the solubility remained mostly unchanged.

  6. Spatial mode discriminator based on leaky waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Liu, Jialing; Shi, Hongkang; Chen, Yuntian

    2018-06-01

    We propose a conceptually simple and experimentally compatible configuration to discriminate the spatial mode based on leaky waveguides, which are inserted in-between the transmission link. The essence of such a spatial mode discriminator is to introduce the leakage of the power flux on purpose for detection. Importantly, the leaky angle of each individual spatial mode with respect to the propagation direction are different for non-degenerated modes, while the radiation patterns of the degenerated spatial modes in the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction are also distinguishable. Based on these two facts, we illustrate the operation principle of the spatial mode discriminators via two concrete examples; a w-type slab leaky waveguide without degeneracy, and a cylindrical leaky waveguide with degeneracy. The correlation between the leakage angle and the spatial mode distribution for a slab leaky waveguide, as well as differences between the in-plane radiation patterns of degenerated modes in a cylindrical leaky waveguide, are verified numerically and analytically. Such findings can be readily useful in discriminating the spatial modes for optical communication or optical sensing.

  7. Reliable four-point flexion test and model for die-to-wafer direct bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, T., E-mail: toshiyuki.tabata@cea.fr; Sanchez, L.; Fournel, F.; Moriceau, H. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble, France and CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-07

    For many years, wafer-to-wafer (W2W) direct bonding has been very developed particularly in terms of bonding energy measurement and bonding mechanism comprehension. Nowadays, die-to-wafer (D2W) direct bonding has gained significant attention, for instance, in photonics and microelectro-mechanics, which supposes controlled and reliable fabrication processes. So, whatever the stuck materials may be, it is not obvious whether bonded D2W structures have the same bonding strength as bonded W2W ones, because of possible edge effects of dies. For that reason, it has been strongly required to develop a bonding energy measurement technique which is suitable for D2W structures. In this paper, both D2W- and W2W-type standard SiO{sub 2}-to-SiO{sub 2} direct bonding samples are fabricated from the same full-wafer bonding. Modifications of the four-point flexion test (4PT) technique and applications for measuring D2W direct bonding energies are reported. Thus, the comparison between the modified 4PT and the double-cantilever beam techniques is drawn, also considering possible impacts of the conditions of measures such as the water stress corrosion at the debonding interface and the friction error at the loading contact points. Finally, reliability of a modified technique and a new model established for measuring D2W direct bonding energies is demonstrated.

  8. Influence of tube spinning on formability of friction stir welded aluminum alloy tubes for hydroforming application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.S. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Hu, Z.L., E-mail: zhilihuhit@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology of Automobile Parts, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (China); Yuan, S.J. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Hua, L. [Hubei Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology of Automobile Parts, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Due to economic and ecological reasons, the application of tailor-welded blanks of aluminum alloy has gained more and more attention in manufacturing lightweight structures for automotives and aircrafts. In the study, the research was aimed to highlight the influence of spinning on the formability of FSW tubes. The microstructural characteristics of the FSW tubes during spinning were studied by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The formability of the FSW tubes with different spinning reduction was assessed by hydraulic bulge test. It is found that the spinning process shows a grain refinement of the tube. The grains of the FSW tube decrease with increasing thickness reduction, and the effect of grain refinement is more obvious for the BM compared to that of the weld. The difference of grain size and precipitates between the weld and BM leads to an asymmetric W-type microhardness distribution after spinning. The higher thickness reduction of the tube, the more uniform distribution of grains and precipitates it shows, and consequently results in more significant increase of strength. As compared with the result of tensile test, the tube after spinning shows better formability when the stress state changes from uniaxial to biaxial stress state.

  9. Discussion on causes and geochemical Characteristics of lamprophyre with uranium mineralization at the west of Mianning country, Sichuan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yue; Li Juchu; Ding Jun; Yao Yifeng; Xiang Jie; Wang Zhanyong

    2014-01-01

    Moyite body of middle and late period is filled with normal lamprophyre and lamprophyre of uranium mineralization along cracks of Yan Mountain at the west of Mianning country, Sichuan Province. There are significant differences between the two types of lamprophyre, such as petrological characteristics, output location and scale, radioactive anomalies and geochemical characteristics. The main types of rocks are camptonite, mica-plagioclase lamprophyre and minette. Mineralized lamprophyre belongs to potassic-ultrapotassic lamprophyre according to macro-element analysis, while normal lamprophyre belongs to lamprophyre of calc-alkaline type. The transition elements allocation model are both mantle 'W' type with LILE (K, Rb, Ba) and HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf). The rare earth elements allocation model of normal lamprophyre is Rightist LREE with δEu value of 0.73∼0.87. The rare earth elements allocation model of mineralized lamprophyre is 'M' type with δEu value of 0.28∼0.48. It indicates that lamprophyre is the result of partial melting of enriched mantle, and mineralized lamprophyre can be changed obviously by fluid flow. In the area, the type of uranium mineralization is that of vein rock, which is strictly controlled by mineralization lamprophyre, that is a new type of uranium mineralization in China. (authors)

  10. Active workstation allows office workers to work efficiently while sitting and exercising moderately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Katja; Pišot, Rado; Šimunič, Boštjan

    2016-05-01

    To determine the effects of a moderate-intensity active workstation on time and error during simulated office work. The aim of the study was to analyse simultaneous work and exercise for non-sedentary office workers. We monitored oxygen uptake, heart rate, sweating stains area, self-perceived effort, typing test time with typing error count and cognitive performance during 30 min of exercise with no cycling or cycling at 40 and 80 W. Compared baseline, we found increased physiological responses at 40 and 80 W, which corresponds to moderate physical activity (PA). Typing time significantly increased by 7.3% (p = 0.002) in C40W and also by 8.9% (p = 0.011) in C80W. Typing error count and cognitive performance were unchanged. Although moderate intensity exercise performed on cycling workstation during simulated office tasks increases working task execution time with, it has moderate effect size; however, it does not increase the error rate. Participants confirmed that such a working design is suitable for achieving the minimum standards for daily PA during work hours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Determinations of its Absolute Dimensions and Distance by the Analyses of Light and Radial-Velocity Curves of the Contact Binary -I. V417 Aquilae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Woo Lee

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available New photometric and spectroscopic solutions of W-type overcontact binary V417 Aql were obtained by solving the UBV light curves of Samec et al. (1997 and radial-velocity ones of Lu & Rucinski (1999 with the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney binary code. In the light curve synthesis the light of a third-body, which Qian (2003 proposed, was considered and obtained about 2.7%, 2.2%, and 0.4% for U, B, and V bandpasses, respectively. The model with third-light is better fitted to eclipse parts than that with no third-light. Absolute dimensions of V417 Aql are determined from our solution as M1=0.53 M⊙, M2=1.45 M⊙, R1=0.84 R⊙ and R2=1.31 M⊙, and the distance to it is deduced as about 216pc. Our distance is well consistent with that (204pc derived from Rucinski & Duerbeck's (1997 relation, MV=MV(log P, B-V, but is more distant than that (131±40pc determined by the Hipparcos trigonometric parallax. The difference may result from the relatively large error of Hipparcos parallax for V417 Aql.

  12. Lower irritation microemulsion-based rotigotine gel: formulation optimization and in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Mu, Hong-Jie; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Ma, Peng-Kai; Lian, Sheng-Nan; Zhang, Feng-Pu; Chu, Sheng-Ying; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Wang, Ai-Ping; Wang, Wen-Yan; Sun, Kao-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Rotigotine is a potent and selective D1, D2, and D3 dopaminergic receptor agonist. Due to an extensive first-pass effect, it has a very low oral bioavailability (approximately 0.5% in rats). The present investigation aimed to develop a microemulsion-based hydrogel for transdermal rotigotine delivery with lower application site reactions. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to determine the region of oil in water (o/w)-type microemulsion. Central composite design was used to support the pseudoternary phase diagrams and to select homogeneous and stable microemulsions with an optimal amount of rotigotine permeation within 24 hours. In vitro skin permeation experiments were performed, using Franz diffusion cells, to compare rotigotine-loaded microemulsions with rotigotine solutions in oil. The optimized formulation was used to prepare a microemulsion-based hydrogel, which was subjected to bioavailability and skin irritancy studies. The selected formulations of rotigotine-loaded microemulsions had enhanced flux and permeation coefficients compared with rotigotine in oil. The optimum microemulsion contained 68% water, 6.8% Labrafil(®), 13.44% Cremophor(®) RH40, 6.72% Labrasol(®), and 5.04% Transcutol(®) HP; the drug-loading rate was 2%. To form a microemulsion gel, 1% Carbomer 1342 was added to the microemulsion. The bioavailability of the rotigotine-loaded microemulsion gel was 105.76%±20.52% with respect to the marketed rotigotine patch (Neupro(®)). The microemulsion gel irritated the skin less than Neupro. A rotigotine microemulsion-based hydrogel was successfully developed, and an optimal formulation for drug delivery was identified. This product could improve patient compliance and have broad marketability.

  13. Oil-in-water lipid emulsions: implications for parenteral and ocular delivering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamilvanan, S

    2004-11-01

    Lipid emulsions (LEs) are heterogenous dispersions of two immiscible liquids (oil-in-water or water-in-oil) and they are subjected to various instability processes like aggregation, flocculation, coalescence and hence eventual phase separation according to the second law of thermodynamics. However, the physical stability of the LE can substantially be improved with help of suitable emulsifiers that are capable of forming a mono- or multi-layer coating film around the dispersed liquid droplets in such a way to reduce interfacial tension or to increase droplet-droplet repulsion. Depending on the concentrations of these three components (oil-water-emulsifier) and the efficiency of the emulsification equipments used to reduce droplet size, the final LE may be in the form of oil-in-water (o/w), water-in-oil (w/o), micron, submicron and double or multiple emulsions (o/w/o and w/o/w). The o/w type LEs (LE) are colloidal drug carriers, which have various therapeutic applications. As an intravenous delivery system it incorporates lipophilic water non-soluble drugs, stabilize drugs that tend to undergo hydrolysis and reduce side effects of various potent drugs. When the LE is used as an ocular delivery systems they increase local bioavailability, sustain the pharmacological effect of drugs and decrease systemic side effects of the drugs. Thus, the rationale of using LE as an integral part of effective treatment is clear. Following administration of LE through these routes, the biofate of LE associated bioactive molecules are somehow related to the vehicles disposition kinetics inside blood or eyeball. However, the LE is not devoid from undergoing various bio-process while exerting their efficacious actions. The purpose of this review is therefore to give an implication of LE for parenteral and ocular delivering systems.

  14. FIRST PHOTOMETRIC INVESTIGATION OF THE NEWLY DISCOVERED W UMa-TYPE BINARY STAR MR Com

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, S.-B.; Liu, N.-P.; Liao, W.-P.; He, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Wang, J.-J.; Zhao, E.-G., E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China)

    2013-08-01

    By analyzing multi-color light curves of the newly discovered W UMa-type binary, MR Com, we discovered that it is a shallow-contact binary with a degree of contact factor of f = 10.0% {+-} 2.1%. Photometric solutions reveal that MR Com is a W-type system with a mass ratio of q = 3.9 where the less massive component is about 90 K hotter than the more massive one. By investigating all of the available times of minimum light, we found that the general trend of the Observed-Calculated (O - C) curve shows a downward parabolic variation while it undergoes a cyclic variation with a small amplitude of 0.0031 days and a period of 10.1 yr. The downward parabolic change corresponds to a long-term decrease in the orbital period at a rate of P-dot = -5.3 x 10{sup -7} days yr{sup -1} that may be caused by a combination of a mass transfer and an angular momentum loss (AML) via magnetic braking. Among the 16 shallow-contact systems with a decreasing orbital period, MR Com has the lowest mass ratio (e.g., 1/q = 0.26). The shallow-contact configuration, the low-mass ratio, and the long-term period decrease all suggest that systems similar to MR Com are on the AML-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian. They will oscillate around a critical mass ratio and evolve into a deep contact with a higher mass ratio. The small-amplitude cyclic change in the O - C curve was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of an extremely cool stellar companion.

  15. Intranasal delivery of paroxetine nanoemulsion via the olfactory region for the management of depression: formulation, behavioural and biochemical estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Yogendra Raj; Kumar, Shobhit; Gupta, Bijay Kumar; Ali, Javed; Baboota, Sanjula

    2016-01-01

    Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and is used for the treatment of depression and anxiety problems, but suffers from the drawback of poor oral bioavailability (less than 50%) due to its extensive first pass metabolism. The objective of the present study was to develop a paroxetine loaded nanoemulsion (o/w type) for direct nose-to-brain delivery. Nanoemulsions were prepared by the spontaneous emulsification technique using Capmul MCM, Solutol HS 15 and propylene glycol as oil phase, surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively, for delivery of drug directly to the brain through the nasal route for better management of depression. Formulations were studied for droplet size, polydispersity index (PDI), percentage transmittance, refractive index, viscosity, zeta potential, surface morphology and in vitro permeation study. TEM images of optimized formulation showed spherical droplets with a mean diameter of 58.47 ± 3.02 nm, PDI of 0.339 ± 0.007 and zeta potential values of −33 mV. The formulation showed good results for transmittance (100.60 ± 0.577%), refractive index (1.412 ± 0.003) and viscosity (40.85 ± 6.40 cP). Permeation studies revealed a 2.57-fold enhancement in permeation as compared to the paroxetine suspension. Behavioural studies such as the forced swimming test and locomotor activity test were done on Wistar rats to study the antidepressant effect of the optimized formulation. Treatment of depressed rats with paroxetine nanoemulsion (administered intranasally) significantly improved the behavioural activities in comparison to paroxetine suspension (orally administered). Biochemical estimation results revealed that the prepared nanoemulsion was effective in enhancing the depressed levels of glutathione and decreasing the elevated levels of TBARS. (paper)

  16. Intranasal delivery of paroxetine nanoemulsion via the olfactory region for the management of depression: formulation, behavioural and biochemical estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Yogendra Raj; Kumar, Shobhit; Gupta, Bijay Kumar; Ali, Javed; Baboota, Sanjula

    2016-01-01

    Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and is used for the treatment of depression and anxiety problems, but suffers from the drawback of poor oral bioavailability (less than 50%) due to its extensive first pass metabolism. The objective of the present study was to develop a paroxetine loaded nanoemulsion (o/w type) for direct nose-to-brain delivery. Nanoemulsions were prepared by the spontaneous emulsification technique using Capmul MCM, Solutol HS 15 and propylene glycol as oil phase, surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively, for delivery of drug directly to the brain through the nasal route for better management of depression. Formulations were studied for droplet size, polydispersity index (PDI), percentage transmittance, refractive index, viscosity, zeta potential, surface morphology and in vitro permeation study. TEM images of optimized formulation showed spherical droplets with a mean diameter of 58.47 ± 3.02 nm, PDI of 0.339 ± 0.007 and zeta potential values of -33 mV. The formulation showed good results for transmittance (100.60 ± 0.577%), refractive index (1.412 ± 0.003) and viscosity (40.85 ± 6.40 cP). Permeation studies revealed a 2.57-fold enhancement in permeation as compared to the paroxetine suspension. Behavioural studies such as the forced swimming test and locomotor activity test were done on Wistar rats to study the antidepressant effect of the optimized formulation. Treatment of depressed rats with paroxetine nanoemulsion (administered intranasally) significantly improved the behavioural activities in comparison to paroxetine suspension (orally administered). Biochemical estimation results revealed that the prepared nanoemulsion was effective in enhancing the depressed levels of glutathione and decreasing the elevated levels of TBARS.

  17. PHOTOMETRIC STUDIES OF THREE NEGLECTED SHORT-PERIOD CONTACT BINARIES GN BOOTIS, BL LEONIS, AND V1918 CYGNI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F.; Qian, S.-B.

    2013-01-01

    We present new photometry for three short-period contact binaries, GN Boo, BL Leo, and V1918 Cyg, observed from 2008 December to 2012 April using several small telescopes in China. Photometric models were deduced from new observations using the updated Wilson-Devinney Code. The results show that GN Boo and BL Leo are W-type contact binaries, while V1918 Cyg is an A-type one. The mass ratios and fill-out factors are q = 0.320(± 0.002) and f = 5.8(± 0.1)% for GN Boo, q = 0.476(± 0.005) and f = 21.3(± 1.1)% for BL Leo, q = 0.264(± 0.002), and f = 49.7(± 0.7)% for V1918 Cyg, respectively. From the (O – C) curves, it is discovered that the orbital periods of three binaries have varied in a complicated way, i.e., cyclic oscillation for GN Boo, long-term period decrease for BL Leo, and both for V1918 Cyg. The cyclic variations for GN Boo and V1918 Cyg may probably be attributed to the magnetic activity of the primary component or light-time effect due to the third body. Meanwhile, the secular period decreases for BL Leo and V1918 Cyg may result from mass transfer from the primary to the secondary, accompanying the mass and angular momentum loss from the central system. Finally, GN Boo, BL Leo, and V1918 Cyg will evolve into deep contact binaries. Additionally, a statistical study of 37 contact binaries with decreasing periods is given. We obtained the relations of q – f and q – dln P/dt, and preliminarily determined the mass loss rate of dln M/dt from the binary system.

  18. Intranasal delivery of paroxetine nanoemulsion via the olfactory region for the management of depression: formulation, behavioural and biochemical estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Yogendra Raj; Kumar, Shobhit; Gupta, Bijay Kumar; Ali, Javed; Baboota, Sanjula

    2016-01-15

    Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and is used for the treatment of depression and anxiety problems, but suffers from the drawback of poor oral bioavailability (less than 50%) due to its extensive first pass metabolism. The objective of the present study was to develop a paroxetine loaded nanoemulsion (o/w type) for direct nose-to-brain delivery. Nanoemulsions were prepared by the spontaneous emulsification technique using Capmul MCM, Solutol HS 15 and propylene glycol as oil phase, surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively, for delivery of drug directly to the brain through the nasal route for better management of depression. Formulations were studied for droplet size, polydispersity index (PDI), percentage transmittance, refractive index, viscosity, zeta potential, surface morphology and in vitro permeation study. TEM images of optimized formulation showed spherical droplets with a mean diameter of 58.47 ± 3.02 nm, PDI of 0.339 ± 0.007 and zeta potential values of -33 mV. The formulation showed good results for transmittance (100.60 ± 0.577%), refractive index (1.412 ± 0.003) and viscosity (40.85 ± 6.40 cP). Permeation studies revealed a 2.57-fold enhancement in permeation as compared to the paroxetine suspension. Behavioural studies such as the forced swimming test and locomotor activity test were done on Wistar rats to study the antidepressant effect of the optimized formulation. Treatment of depressed rats with paroxetine nanoemulsion (administered intranasally) significantly improved the behavioural activities in comparison to paroxetine suspension (orally administered). Biochemical estimation results revealed that the prepared nanoemulsion was effective in enhancing the depressed levels of glutathione and decreasing the elevated levels of TBARS.

  19. Postnatal development of resistance to short-term high-dose toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in TCDD-resistant and -semiresistant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanainen, Ulla; Tuomisto, Jouni T.; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Syrjaelae, Paula; Tuomisto, Jouko; Viluksela, Matti

    2004-01-01

    Despite great interspecies differences in adult 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) sensitivity, the toxic potency of TCDD is similar across species in fetal mortality. Han/Wistar (Kuopio; H/W) rats are exceptionally resistant to acute toxicity of TCDD, but show sensitivity to embryotoxicity and teratogenicity. The resistance of adult H/W rats to acute TCDD toxicity is based on a point mutation in the transactivation domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and to an unknown gene ''B''. This study investigated the time course of postnatal development of resistance to TCDD and the significance of genotypic variation in resistance development. H/W, line A (a new line with the H/W-type mutated AHR), and line B rats (a line with normal AHR but moderately resistant because of gene ''B'') were exposed to a single dose of TCDD 2-56 days after birth. H/W and line A rats received 1000 μg/kg; male and female B rats received 200 and 100 μg/kg, respectively. Survival was monitored for 42 days. Interestingly, although TCDD ceased growth and weight gain in all TCDD groups, the younger dosed animals did not seem to reach the body weight of the older dosed animals even in 100 days. The survival results after 42 days showed that line A rats are fairly resistant to TCDD immediately after birth, and their full TCDD resistance develops during the first week of life. The moderate resistance of line B rats develops approximately at the time of weaning. This difference in the time course of resistance development suggests that there are basic differences in pathways mediating resistance in lines A and B rats

  20. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL STABILITY ANALYSIS OF COSMETIC MULTI- PLE EMULSIONS LOADED WITH ASCORBYL PALMITATE AND SODIUM ASCORBYL PHOSPHATE SALTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hira; Akhtar, Naveed; Ali, Atif; Khan, Haji M Shoaib; Sohail, Muhammad; Naeem, Muhammad; Nawaz, Zarqa

    2016-09-01

    Stability of hydrophilic and lipophilic vitamin C derivatives for quenching synergistic antioxidant activities and to treat oxidative related diseases is a major issue. This study was aimed to encapsulate hydrophilic and lipophilic vitamin C derivatives (ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate) as functional ingredients in a newly formulated multiple emulsion of the W//W type to attain the synergistic antioxidant effects and the resultant system's long term physical and chemical stability. Several multiple emulsions using the same concentration of emulsifiers but different concentrations of ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate were developed. Three finally selected multiple emulsions (ME₁, ME₂ and ME₃) were evaluated for physical stability in terms of rheology, microscopy, conductivity, pH, and organoleptic characteristics under different storage conditions for 3 months. Chemical stability was determined by HPLC on Sykam GmbH HPLC system (Germany), equipped with a variable UV detector. Results showed that at accelerated storage conditions all the three multiple emulsions had shear thinning behavior of varying shear stress with no influence of location of functional ingredients in a carrier system. Conductivity values increased and pH values remained within the skin pH range for 3 months. Microscopic analysis showed an increase in globule size with the passage of time, especially at higher temperatures while decreased at low temperatures. Centrifugation test did not cause phase separation till the 45th day, but little effects after 2 months. Chemical stability analysis by HPLC at the end of 3 months showed that ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate were almost stable in all multiple emulsions with no influence of their location in a carrier system. Multiple emulsions were found a stable carrier for hydrophilic and lipophilic vitamin C derivatives to enhance their desired effects. Considering that many topical formulations

  1. Power Quality Improvement Of Grid Integrated Type I Wind Turbine Generation System Operating as DSTATCOM by d-q Control Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V S Phani Kumar.Ch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years with the excessive consumption of electrical energy, the incongruity between generation and demand, the irrational structure of World’s energy as well as the environmental pollution have become progressively more evident. It has become crucial for ecological development to reduce the consumption of conventional energy and to enhance the development and utilization of renewable energy. Wind energy and Solar are unlimited supply of renewable energy and it has no pollution. But this concept suffer from the power quality issues from grid and generator side, this paper presents a control strategy for achieving maximum benefits from these grid-interfacing inverter when installed in 3-phase 4-wire distribution systems. The inverter can be controlled to perform as a multi-function device by incorporating active power filter functionality. The inverter can thus be utilized as: 1 power converter to inject power generated from RES to the grid and 2 shunt APF (Active Power Filter to compensate current unbalance, load current harmonics, load reactive power demand and load neutral current. All of these functions may be accomplished either individually or simultaneously. With such a control, the combination of grid-interfacing inverter and the 3-phase 4-wire linear/non-linear unbalanced load at point of common coupling appears as balanced linear load to the grid. The Paper propose design of 500kW Type I Wind Generation System 250kW each with Four Leg Inverter Controlled by d-q technique operated as DSTATCOM connected to 415V 4 wire Grid and also the results are compared with conventional Unit Vector Control. The proposed d-q method reduces the %THD of system to 1.97% from 24.12% where Unit Vector Control is of 3.94% which was on higher side , this is simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  2. Hot Ductility Characterization of Sanicro-28 Super-Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, A.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A.; Abedi, H. R.

    2016-05-01

    The hot ductility behavior of a super-austenitic stainless steel has been studied using tensile testing method in the temperature range from 1073 K to 1373 K (800 °C to 1100 °C) under the strain rates of 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 s-1. The hot compression tests were also performed at the same deformation condition to identify the activated restoration mechanisms. At lower temperatures [ i.e., 1073 K and 1173 K (800 °C and 900 °C)], the serration of initial grain boundaries confirms the occurrence of dynamic recovery as the predominant restoration process. However, in the course of applied deformation, the initial microstructure is recrystallized at higher temperatures [ i.e., 1273 K and 1373 K (1000 °C and 1100 °C)]. In this respect, annealing the twin boundaries could well stimulate the recrystallization kinetic through initiation new annealing twins on prior annealing twin boundaries. The hot tensile results show that there is a general trend of increasing ductility by temperature. However, two regions of ductility drop are recognized at 1273 K and 1373 K (1000°C)/0.1s-1 and (1100°C)/0.01s-1. The ductility variations at different conditions of temperature and strain rate are discussed in terms of simultaneous activation of grain boundary sliding and restoration processes. The observed ductility troughs are attributed to the occurrence of grain boundary sliding and the resulting R-type and W-type cracks. The occurrence of dynamic recrystallization is also considered as the main factor increasing the ductility at higher temperatures. The enhanced ductility is primarily originated from the post-uniform elongation behavior, which is directly associated with the strain rate sensitivity of the experimental material.

  3. New Light Curves and Analysis of the Overcontact Binaries PP Lac and DK Sge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, S. J.; Hargis, J. R.; Bradstreet, D. H.

    2004-12-01

    As a by-product of the ongoing work with the Catalog and AtLas of Eclipsing Binaries database (CALEB; Bradstreet et al. 2004), several hundred eclipsing binary systems have been identified that have either unpublished or poor quality light curves. We present new V & Rc light curves for the overcontact systems PP Lac and DK Sge, both chosen because their deep eclipses (peak-to-peak amplitudes of nearly 0.7 mag) help constrain the light curve modelling. Data were obtained using the 41-cm telescope at the Eastern University Observatory equipped with an SBIG ST-10XME CCD. PP Lac (P= 0.40116 d) is a W-type contact binary with only one previously published light curve (Dumont & Maraziti 1990), but the data are sparse and almost non-existent at primary eclipse. Modelling of these data gave varying results; the published mass ratios differ by nearly 0.3. Our data confirms the noted differing eclipse depths but we find the primary eclipse to be total. We present a new light curve solution using Binary Maker 3 (Bradstreet & Steelman 2002) and Wilson-Devinney, finding the mass ratio to be well-constrained by the duration of total eclipse. A period study will be presented using previously existing and newly derived times of minimum light. DK Sge (P=0.62182 d) appears to be an A-type contact binary with no published light curve. The eclipses are partial, with the primary eclipse being deeper by about 0.08 mag. The maxima show evidence of a slight asymmetry, although the light curve appears to be repeatable over the 1 month of observations. We present the first light curve solution using Binary Maker 3 and Wilson-Devinney, but have limited mass ratio constraints due to the absence of radial velocity data. A period study will be presented using previously existing and newly derived times of minimum light.

  4. N-player quantum games in an EPR setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Chappell

    Full Text Available The N-player quantum games are analyzed that use an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR experiment, as the underlying physical setup. In this setup, a player's strategies are not unitary transformations as in alternate quantum game-theoretic frameworks, but a classical choice between two directions along which spin or polarization measurements are made. The players' strategies thus remain identical to their strategies in the mixed-strategy version of the classical game. In the EPR setting the quantum game reduces itself to the corresponding classical game when the shared quantum state reaches zero entanglement. We find the relations for the probability distribution for N-qubit GHZ and W-type states, subject to general measurement directions, from which the expressions for the players' payoffs and mixed Nash equilibrium are determined. Players' N x N payoff matrices are then defined using linear functions so that common two-player games can be easily extended to the N-player case and permit analytic expressions for the Nash equilibrium. As a specific example, we solve the Prisoners' Dilemma game for general N ≥ 2. We find a new property for the game that for an even number of players the payoffs at the Nash equilibrium are equal, whereas for an odd number of players the cooperating players receive higher payoffs. By dispensing with the standard unitary transformations on state vectors in Hilbert space and using instead rotors and multivectors, based on Clifford's geometric algebra (GA, it is shown how the N-player case becomes tractable. The new mathematical approach presented here has wide implications in the areas of quantum information and quantum complexity, as it opens up a powerful way to tractably analyze N-partite qubit interactions.

  5. Dispersive micro-solid phase extraction of aromatic amines based on an efficient sorbent made from poly(1,8-diaminonaphtalen) and magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Niloofar; Ebrahimzadeh, Homeira; Asgharinezhad, Ali Akbar

    2017-05-26

    In this work, the extraction of aromatic amines with an efficient magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes/Fe 3 O 4 @Poly(1,8-diaminonaphtalen) (MWCNTs/Fe 3 O 4 @PDAN) composite followed by HPLC-DAD was presented. Imprimis, the comparison among different magnetic nanosorbents including Fe 3 O 4 , MWCNTs/Fe 3 O 4 , Fe 3 O 4 @PDAN and MWCNTs/Fe 3 O 4 @PDAN was conducted. The obtained results, exhibited that the MWCNTs/Fe 3 O 4 @PDAN composite has the highest extraction efficiency for target analytes (3-nitroaniline, 4-chloroaniline, 4-bromoaniline and 3,4-dichloroaniline). This sorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray dispersive spectroscopy, thermogravimetry analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transition electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry and X-ray diffraction. Design of experiment approach was applied to find out the optimal experimental conditions. The optimal extraction conditions were: pH of the sample, 10; sorbent amount, 10mg; sorption time, 15min; salt concentration, 10% w/w; type and volume of the eluent, 0.01molL -1 HCl in acetonitrile, 145μL; elution time; 2min. Under the optimal extraction conditions detection limits and linear dynamic ranges were achieved in the range of 0.1-0.25μgL -1 and 0.25-500μgL -1 , respectively. The percent of extraction recovery and relative standard deviations (n=5) were in the range of 31.2-82.8% and 3.4-5.6%, respectively. Finally, the applicability of the method was successfully confirmed by the extraction and determination of target analytes in various water samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of Fe-Ni and Ni-base alloys without {gamma}' strengthening for advanced USC boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semba, Hiroyuki; Okada, Hirokazu; Igarashi, Masaaki; Hirata, Hiroyuki [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan). Corporate Research and Development Labs.; Yoshizawa, Mitsuru [Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan). Steel Tube Works

    2010-07-01

    An Fe-Ni base alloy, 23Cr-45Ni-7W alloy (HR6W) strengthened by Fe{sub 2}W-type Laves phase is one of the candidate materials for the piping application. Stability of long-term creep strength and superior creep rupture ductility have been proved by creep rupture tests up to 60000h at 650-800 C. The 10{sup 5}h extrapolated creep rupture strength at 700 C approved by TUV is 85MPa. It has also been confirmed that HR6W has excellent microstructural stability by means of microstructural observations after term creep tests and aging. A thick wall pipe of HR6W, which is 457mm in diameter and 60mm in wall thickness, has successfully been manufactured by the Erhart Push Bench press method. This trial production has shown that hot workability of HR6W is sufficient for manufacturing thick wall piping for A-USC plants. A new Ni-base alloy, 30r-50Ni-4W alloy (HR35) has been proposed for piping application having comparable creep rupture strength with Alloy 617 at 700 C. This alloy is not strengthened by {gamma}' phase but mainly by {alpha}-Cr phase. The 10{sup 5}h extrapolated creep rupture strength is estimated to be 114 MPa at 700 C. It has sufficient creep rupture ductility compared with Alloy 617. A thick wall pipe of HR35 has also been successfully manufactured. Capability of HR6W and HR35 as structural materials for A-USC plants has been examined in detail. They have high resistance to relaxation cracking after welding. It is, therefore, concluded that both the alloys are promising candidates especially for thick wall piping in A-USC power plants. (orig.)

  7. Period Study and Analyses of 2017 Observations of the Totally Eclipsing, Solar Type Binary, MT Camelopardalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Danny R.; Samec, Ronald G.; Caton, Daniel B.

    2018-06-01

    We report here on a period study and the analysis of BVRcIc light curves (taken in 2017) of MT Cam (GSC03737-01085), which is a solar type (T ~ 5500K) eclipsing binary. D. Caton observed MT Cam on 05, 14, 15, 16, and 17, December 2017 with the 0.81-m reflector at Dark Sky Observatory. Six times of minimum light were calculated from four primary eclipses and two secondary eclipses:HJD I = 24 58092.4937±0.0002, 2458102.74600±0.0021, 2458104.5769±0.0002, 2458104.9434±0.0029HJD II = 2458103.6610±0.0001, 2458104.7607±0.0020,Six times of minimum light were also calculated from data taken by Terrell, Gross, and Cooney, in their 2016 and 2004 observations (reported in IBVS #6166; TGC, hereafter). In addition, six more times of minimum light were taken from the literature. From all 18 times of minimum light, we determined the following light elements:JD Hel Min I=2458102.7460(4) + 0.36613937(5) EWe found the orbital period was constant over the 14 years spanning all observations. We note that TGC found a slightly increasing period. However, our results were obtained from a period study rather than comparison of observations from only two epochs by the Wilson-Devinney (W-D) Program. A BVRcIc Johnson-Cousins filtered simultaneous W-D Program solution gives a mass ratio (0.3385±0.0014) very nearly the same as TGC’s (0.347±0.003), and a component temperature difference of only ~40 K. As with TGC, no spot was needed in the modeling. Our modeling (beginning with Binary Maker 3.0 fits) was done without prior knowledge of TGC’s. This shows the agreement achieved when independent analyses are done with the W-D code. The present observations were taken 1.8 years later than the last curves by TGC, so some variation is expected.The Roche Lobe fill-out of the binary is ~13% and the inclination is ~83.5 degrees. The system is a shallow contact W-type W UMa Binary, albeit, the amplitudes of the primary and secondary eclipse are very nearly identical. An eclipse duration of ~21

  8. THE ECLIPSING SYSTEM EP ANDROMEDAE AND ITS CIRCUMBINARY COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Hinse, Tobias Cornelius; Park, Jang-Ho, E-mail: jwlee@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: tchinse@gmail.com, E-mail: pooh107162@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    We present new long-term CCD photometry for EP And acquired during the period 2007-2012. The light curves display total eclipses at primary minima and season-to-season light variability. Our synthesis for all available light curves indicates that the eclipsing pair is a W-type overcontact binary with parameters of q = 2.578, i = 83. Degree-Sign 3, {Delta}T = 27 K, f = 28%, and l{sub 3} = 2%-3%. The asymmetric light curves in 2007 were satisfactorily modeled by a cool spot on either of the eclipsing components from a magnetic dynamo. Including our 95 timing measurements, a total of 414 times of minimum light spanning about 82 yr was used for a period study. A detailed analysis of the eclipse timing diagram revealed that the orbital period of EP And has varied as a combination of an upward-opening parabola and two periodic variations, with cycle lengths of P{sub 3} = 44.6 yr and P{sub 4} = 1.834 yr and semi-amplitudes of K{sub 3} = 0.0100 days and K{sub 4} = 0.0039 days, respectively. The observed period increase at a fractional rate of +1.39 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} is in excellent agreement with that calculated from the W-D code and can be plausibly explained by some combination of mass transfer from the primary to the secondary star and angular momentum loss due to magnetic braking. The most reasonable explanation for both cycles is a pair of light-travel-time effects driven by the possible existence of a third and fourth component with projected masses of M{sub 3} = 0.25 M{sub Sun} and M{sub 4} = 0.90 M{sub Sun }. The more massive companion could be revealed using high-resolution spectroscopic data extending over the course of a few years and could also be a binary itself. It is possible that the circumbinary objects may have played an important role in the formation and evolution of the eclipsing pair, which would cause it to have a short initial orbital period and thus evolve into an overcontact configuration by angular momentum loss.

  9. Complete genome sequence, lifestyle, and multi-drug resistance of the human pathogen Corynebacterium resistens DSM 45100 isolated from blood samples of a leukemia patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Corynebacterium resistens was initially recovered from human infections and recognized as a new coryneform species that is highly resistant to antimicrobial agents. Bacteremia associated with this organism in immunocompromised patients was rapidly fatal as standard minocycline therapies failed. C. resistens DSM 45100 was isolated from a blood culture of samples taken from a patient with acute myelocytic leukemia. The complete genome sequence of C. resistens DSM 45100 was determined by pyrosequencing to identify genes contributing to multi-drug resistance, virulence, and the lipophilic lifestyle of this newly described human pathogen. Results The genome of C. resistens DSM 45100 consists of a circular chromosome of 2,601,311 bp in size and the 28,312-bp plasmid pJA144188. Metabolic analysis showed that the genome of C. resistens DSM 45100 lacks genes for typical sugar uptake systems, anaplerotic functions, and a fatty acid synthase, explaining the strict lipophilic lifestyle of this species. The genome encodes a broad spectrum of enzymes ensuring the availability of exogenous fatty acids for growth, including predicted virulence factors that probably contribute to fatty acid metabolism by damaging host tissue. C. resistens DSM 45100 is able to use external L-histidine as a combined carbon and nitrogen source, presumably as a result of adaptation to the hitherto unknown habitat on the human skin. Plasmid pJA144188 harbors several genes contributing to antibiotic resistance of C. resistens DSM 45100, including a tetracycline resistance region of the Tet W type known from Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus suis. The tet(W) gene of pJA144188 was cloned in Corynebacterium glutamicum and was shown to confer high levels of resistance to tetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline in vitro. Conclusions The detected gene repertoire of C. resistens DSM 45100 provides insights into the lipophilic lifestyle and virulence functions of this newly recognized

  10. 蛇床子乳剂的制备及体外抗阴道滴虫考察%Preparation of Cnidium monnieri Emulsion and Investigation of its in vitro Anti-trichomonas Vaginalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婧; 姜霁铭; 王锐

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To prepare o/w type emulsion with total coumarin from Cnidium monnieri, and investigate its in vitro anti-trichomonas vaginalis activity. Method: Total coumarin from C. monnieri was extracted by ultrasonic method with emulsification time, times and pressure, adding order of emulsifier as factors, single factor test was used to optimize preparation technology of C. monnieri emulsion, and its pharmacodynamic trial of in vitro anti-trichomonas vaginalis was investigated. Result; Preparation technology of C. monnieri emulsion was ascertained as follows; emulsification 3 times at 150 MPa, 15 min each time, adding order of emulsifier with oil phase added to aqueous phase; and this emulsion had good inhibition on trichomonas raginalis. Conclusion; This preparation technology was stable and feasible, minimum drug concentration of this emulsion had good inhibition effect to trichomonas vaginalis was 0. 15-0. 62 g - L-1.%目的:将蛇床子中的总香豆素制成o/w型乳剂,并考察其体外抗阴道滴虫药理活性.方法:采用超声法提取蛇床子中的总香豆素,选取乳化时间、乳化次数、乳化压力及乳化剂加入顺序为考察因素,通过单因素试验优选蛇床子乳剂的制备工艺,并考察其体外抗阴道滴虫药效学试验.结果:确定的蛇床子乳剂制备工艺为乳化时间15 min,乳化压力150 MPa,乳化3次,乳化剂加入顺序为油相加入到水相;确认其对临床分离的阴道滴虫有较好的抑制作用.结论:该制备工艺稳定可行,制备的乳剂对阴道滴虫产生抑制作用的最低药物质量浓度0.15 ~0.62 g·L-1.

  11. Axisymmetric general relativistic simulations of the accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdikamalov, E. B.; Ott, C. D.; Rezzolla, L.; Dessart, L.; Dimmelmeier, H.; Marek, A.; Janka, H.-T.

    2010-01-01

    distribution. In rapidly differentially rotating models whose precollapse masses are significantly larger than the Chandrasekhar mass, the resulting disk mass can be as large as ∼0.8M · . Slowly and/or uniformly rotating models that are limited to masses near the Chandrasekhar mass produce much smaller disks or no disk at all. Finally, we find that the postbounce cores of rapidly spinning white dwarfs can reach sufficiently rapid rotation to develop a gravitorotational bar-mode instability. Moreover, many of our models exhibit sufficiently rapid and differential rotation to become subject to recently discovered low-E rot /|W|-type dynamical instabilities.

  12. Experiences of a grid connected solar array energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagymássy, Zoltán; Vántus, András

    2015-04-01

    Solar energy possibilities of Hungary are higher than in Central Europe generally. The Institute for Land Utilisation, Technology and Regional Development of the University of Debrecen installed a photovoltaic (PV) system. The PV system is structured into 3 subsystems (fields). The first subsystem has 24 pieces of Kyocera KC 120 W type modules, the second subsystem has 72 pieces of Siemens ST 40W, and the remaining has 72 pieces of Dunasolar DS 40W In order to be operable independently of each other three inverter modules (SB 2500) had been installed. The recorder can be connected directly to a desktop PC. Operating and meteorological dates are recorded by MS Excel every 15 minutes. The power plant is connected to a weather station, which contents a PT 100 type temperature and humidity combined measuring instrument, a CM 11 pyranometer, and a wind speed measuring instrument. The produced DC, and AC power, together with the produced energy are as well, and the efficiency can be determined for each used PV technology. The measured operating and meteorological dates are collected by Sunny Boy Control, produced by the SMA. The energy productions of the subsystems are measured continually and the subsystems are measured separately. As an expected, the produced energy of polycrystalline -Si PV module and monocrystalline -Si PV was higher than amorphous-Si PV module. It is well known that energy analysis is more suitable for energy balance when we design a system. The air temperature and the temperature of the panels and the global irradiation conditions were measured. In summertime the panel temperature reaches 60-80 degrees in a sunny day. The panel temperatures are in a spring sunny day approximately 30-40 degrees. It can be concluded that the global irradiation is a major impact feature to influence the amount of energy produced. The efficiency depends on several parameters (spectral distribution of the incoming light, temperature values, etc.). The energy efficiency

  13. Experimental investigation of the U–Zr–Al ternary phase diagram: Isothermal sections at 673 K and 1073 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, C.; Désévédavy, F.; Noël, H.; Pasturel, M.; Gouttefangeas, F. [ISCR/CSM, Université de Rennes1, UMR-CNRS 6226, Campus de Beaulieu, 263 Avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France, (France); Dubois, S. [CEA/DEN/DEC, Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Stepnik, B. [AREVA/CERCA, 10 Rue Juliette Récamier, 69006 Lyon (France); Tougait, O., E-mail: tougait@univ-rennes1.fr [ISCR/CSM, Université de Rennes1, UMR-CNRS 6226, Campus de Beaulieu, 263 Avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France, (France); UCCS, UMR 8181 CNRS, Université Lille 1, ENSCL, Avenue Mendeleiev, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Isothermal sections of the U–Zr–Al system were investigated for 673 K and 1073 K. • The crystallographic properties of the equilibrium phases were checked. • The ternary extension of both unary and binary phases was determined. • The solubility of Al into UZr{sub 2} (δ-phase) was assessed by diffusion couples. • The microstructure of quenched alloys is discussed. - Abstract: Isothermal sections at 673 K and 1073 K of the ternary U–Zr–Al system were established in the whole concentration range, by means of powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis. All measured compositions and unit-cell refinements were performed at room temperature from quenched samples annealed at 1073 K and 673 K for four and eight weeks respectively. For both temperatures, the Al-rich corner of the phase diagram is characterized by extended homogeneity ranges due to mutual exchange between U and Zr in UAl{sub 3} (cubic, AuCu{sub 3}-type) and in the Laves phase UAl{sub 2} (cubic, MgCu{sub 2}-type). Minute U solubility in ZrAl{sub 2} (hexagonal, MgZn{sub 2}-type) and in Zr{sub 2}Al (hexagonal, Ni{sub 2}In-type) was evaluated to be of the order of 1 at.% U. For the other binary compounds, the solubility of the third component was found negligible. At 1073 K, the solid solution based on γU (cubic, W-type) which covers the U–Zr binary axis up to 95.5 at.% Zr, allows also some limited solubility of Al [maximum of 5 at.%]. For Al-content below 66 at.%, most of the phase relations comprise equilibria between the Zr–Al binaries and the γ(U,Zr,Al) solid solution. At 673 K, the U–Zr axis is found in agreement with the literature data and no Al solubility could be detected in αU, αZr and UZr{sub 2} (δ phase). The phase relations are mainly established between Zr–Al binaries and αU. For monolithic UMo fuel with a Zr diffusion barrier foil cladded with Al, the main interaction

  14. Long-term stability investigation of o/w cosmetic creams stabilized by mixed emulsifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đekić Ljiljana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyglyceryl-3 Methylglucose Distearate (PMD, TEGO® Care 450, Evonik, Germanyis natural (vegetable, non-ionic, PEG-free emulsifier, suitable for the formulation of oil-in-water (o/w cosmetic creams and lotions. The oil phase components can be selected from mineral oils, vegetable oils and synthetic esters, which enable different variety of application profile of these emulsions. It is possible to prepare stable emulsions using low-level concentration of the PMD (2-3% if lotions contain 10-25%, and creams 20-40 % of oil phase. PMD forms liquid crystal structure in the presence of stearic acid, glyceryl stearate, fatty alcohols, or their combinations. The o/w type creams, stabilized by these mixed emulsifiers are complex, multiphase systems. The aim of this work was to formulate, prepare and investigate long-term stability of the o/w creams stabilized by mixed emulsifier polyglyceryl-3 methylglucose distearate/glyceryl stearate/stearyl alcohol, depending on concentration levels of PMD (2% or 3% and oil:water phase ratio (20:80 and 30:70. The samples were prepared using hot/hot procedure. Organoleptic inspection, centrifugation test, rheological measurements, electric conductivity and pH value measurements were performed 72 h, 1, 3, 12 and 30 months after preparation. The prepared samples were apparently white and homogenous creams. The consistency and homogeneity were preserved after centrifugation of the creams after 72 h, 1, 3, 12 and 30 months storage, and no phase separation could be detected. The pH values obtained are suitable for skin application. Conductivity values (25.2-63.7 μS cm1, 72 h after preparation were attributed to the multiple phase o/w emulsions with high percentages of fixed water. Results of the rheological measurements have shown that the investigated creams exhibited non-Newtonian thyxotropic behavior. The concentration of emulsifier PMD and oil phase content had an influence on the rheological parameters of investigated

  15. Clonal replacement and expansion among invasive meningococcal isolates of serogroup W in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eva; Barret, Anne-Sophie; Terrade, Aude; Denizon, Mélanie; Antona, Denise; Aouiti-Trabelsi, Myriam; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Parent du Châtelet, Isabelle; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2018-02-01

    Neisseria meningitidis group W (NmW) belonging to the clonal complex ST-11 (NmW/cc11) spread in Europe and in France in 2000 and declined thereafter. In France, invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) due to NmW increased again in 2012 and thereafter since 2015. Several sub-lineages of NmW/cc11 are circulating worldwide with successive epidemic waves. We aimed to describe recent epidemiological trends of NmW in France and to explore the microbiological and epidemiological characteristics associated with different NmW/cc11 sub-lineages. The epidemiology of NmW was described based on data collected through mandatory notification of IMD and strain typing data for culture-confirmed and PCR-confirmed cases for the period 2000-2016. All culture-confirmed cases due to NmW from the period 2010-2016 were characterised by whole genome sequencing (WGS). A detailed epidemiological analysis was performed for culture-confirmed cases on the basis of WGS data. During the period 2010-2016, genotyping was obtained for 148 cases including all the 132 culture-confirmed cases, among which 127 were matched with epidemiological data, and 16 PCR-confirmed cases (out of a total of 47 PCR-confirmed cases). An increase in IMD was observed in 2012 and was linked to isolates belonging to the "Anglo-French-Hajj" sub-lineage. These isolates have decreased significantly since 2013 and have been replaced by NmW/cc11 isolates related to the "South American - UK" sub-lineage which caused a marked increase in the number of cases of NmW in 2016. In this sub-lineage, the "original UK strain" was first detected in 2012 and increased thereafter, followed by the recently described "UK 2013-strain". Isolates related to the "South American-UK" sub-lineage represented 45% of all NmW cultured isolates from the whole period 2010-2016 but were the most frequent isolates in 2016, representing 76% of the total NmW typed isolates and 94% of the typed NmW/cc11 isolates. A changing pattern in the epidemiology of Nm

  16. Late-Hercynian intrusion-related gold deposits: An integrated model on the Tighza polymetallic district, central Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Éric, Marcoux; Khadija, Nerci; Yannick, Branquet; Claire, Ramboz; Gilles, Ruffet; Jean-Jacques, Peucat; Ross, Stevenson; Michel, Jébrak

    2015-07-01

    radiogenic isotope studies. Nd and Sr isotope compositions of scheelite and granites suggest the participation of a juvenile component while lead isotopes demonstrate a major participation of the basement. Both gold mineralization and zoning suggest that the system developed at the end of the magmatic activity, accompanying a major transition in magmatic fluid composition. The morphology of the gold-bearing mineralization is dependent of the permeability and the reactivity of host-rocks: focus circulation of fluids through pre-existing tectonic corridors, reactivated by late-Hercynian intrusions favor the formation of large W-type gold veins, while infiltration of fluid within reactive stratigraphic layers gives rise to skarn mineralization. A 40Ar/39Ar date (W1 north vein: 291.8 ± 0.3 Ma) indicates that hydrothermal circulation predates gold and tungsten deposition in open fractures as well as Mine granite emplacement. The W-Au mineralization preceded the onset of a large convective hydrothermal cell around the intrusion that led to the formation of the Pb-Ag-Zn mined veins. The Tighza polymetallic district displays numerous similarities with the R-IRG model that was defined in the American Cordillera, such as thermal and zonation patterns, carbonic hydrothermal fluids and chronology of intrusion and related deposits, but also provides new insight to the R-IRG model such as wide Au-quartz veins instead of sheeted Au-veins, oxidation state of the magma, and Sr-Nd isotopic data. These results establish a major magmatic contribution and discard a direct genetic relationship between gold mineralization and major neighboring Pb-Ag-Zn veins. A large number of classic Pb-Zn district of the Western Hercynides belong to the same clan.

  17. An objective daily Weather Type classification for Iberia since 1850; patterns, trends, variability and impact in precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Lorenzo, M. N.; Vaquero, J. M.; Gallego, M. C.; Valente, M. A.; Gimeno, L.

    2009-04-01

    the winter precipitation amount, observed on a daily basis. On the other hand, the three wettest WTs, namely the Cyclonic (C), South-westerly (SW) and Westerly (W) types, together representing roughly a third of all winter days, do account for more than 60% of the observed daily precipitation. It is shown that the large inter-annual variability of precipitation in both cities is highly related with the corresponding inter-annual variability of the wet WTs. Ansell, T. J. et al. (2006) Daily mean sea level pressure reconstructions for the European - North Atlantic region for the period 1850-2003, Journal of Climate, 19, 2717-2742, doi: 10.1175/JCLI3775.1 Huth R., Beck C., Philipp A., Demuzere M, Ustrnul Z, Cahynová M., Kyselý J., Tveito O.E. (2008) Classifications of atmospheric circulation patterns: recent advances and applications. Trends and Directions in Climate Research: Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1146:, 105-152 Jones, P. D. , M. Hulme , K. R. Briffa. (1993) A comparison of Lamb circulation types with an objective classification scheme. Int. J. Climatol. 13: 655- 663. Lorenzo M.N., Taboada J.J. and Gimeno L. (2008) Links between circulation weather types and teleconnection patterns and their influence on precipitation patterns in Galicia (NW Spain). Int. J. Climatol. Published Online: Nov 12 2007 5:30AM DOI: 10.1002/joc.1646. Trigo R.M. and Da Camara C.C. (2000) Circulation weather types and their influence on the precipitation regime in Portugal. Int. J. Climatol., 20, 1559-1581.

  18. EDITORIAL: Van der Waals interactions in advanced materials, in memory of David C Langreth Van der Waals interactions in advanced materials, in memory of David C Langreth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyldgaard, Per; Rahman, Talat S.

    2012-10-01

    sufficiently close to any corrugated—and/or any smooth—surface and thus enforce a strong vdW-type adhesion; it exploits what is then essentially a contact force (dominated by the attraction exerted in the near-surface regions) to defy the pull of gravity on its own bulk. This Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter special issue is dedicated to the memory of David C Langreth. David is a dearly missed friend and mentor who inspired many of us. He was an outstanding condensed matter theorist and a scholar who greatly influenced us through his many-particle-physics based insights into density functional theory (DFT), surface science and related areas. His seminal works range from conserving formulations of interacting nonequilibrium transport [1] and formal-scattering theory [2] to an explicit formulation [3] of the exact DFT exchange-correlation energy in the adiabatic connection formula (ACF), the latter also being derived independently by Gunnarsson and Lundqvist [4]. David's portfolio also includes an analysis [5] that helped catalyze and guide the development of DFT from the local-density approximation (LDA) to the formulations of generalized gradient approximations (GGAs). Another salient contribution of David's is in the area of vdW interactions in materials. He was a key architect of the vdW density functional (vdW-DF) method [6, 7]. This method was developed in a long-standing Rutgers-Chalmers collaboration between David's group and that of Bengt I Lundqvist, later extending to a wider group of researchers on both sides of the Atlantic. Plasmons are collective excitations that depend on electron-density variation. The plasmon response can be seen as defining the nature of the LDA [4] and their description can thus also be seen as contributing to the success of GGA. The vdW-DF method is a regular constraint-based density functional (for ground-state DFT) which is derived within the ACF framework and which emphasizes the electrodynamical nature of the coupling between