WorldWideScience

Sample records for bayard-alpert gages

  1. Low pressure gage type VM-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High vacuum systems became an important element of many applied technologies, from gas analysers to rocket engines. An intelligent apparatus for pressure measurement in the range of 10-3 - 10-8 mbar, with incorporated INTEL 80C51 microcontroller is presented. Based on a Bayard-Alpert hot cathode gage, equally developed in our institute, the pressure gage allows the displaying of different operation parameters and also of the error codes for different kinds of malfunctioning, as for instance missing of grid voltage, grid-collector breakdown, pressure increasing above 10-3 mbar. Its operation is based on a microcontroller assembly language program especially worked out and introduced in the central units EPROM memory. The gage characteristics for different gases are also introduced in an EPROM memory, and the type of the gas is selected by the operator from the front panel. One can select also from the front panel the pressure unit (mbar, torr, Pa). If a remote control is necessary, this can be done by means of a PC, with a program written in the LabVIEW graphical programming language. The pressure gage was tested and calibrated in relation with an EDWARDS vacuum measuring system and provided a good accuracy (better than 25%). Its field of application is both laboratory and industrial measurements. Its main features are: - supply voltage, 220 V ac / 50 Hz; - power consumption, 30 W; - gage's grid supply voltage, 160 V; grid current, 2 mA / p = 10 -5...10-8 mbar and 0.2 mA / p = 10-3...10-5 mbar; - cathode heating current, max. 3 A; - measuring range, 10-3...10-8 mbar; - error of measurement, ±35%; - remote control, according to the RS232 standard; - size, 320 x 200 x 100 mm; - weight, 3.5 Kg. (authors)

  2. Streamflow Gaging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  3. Storage Gage Precipitation Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A storage gage is a precipitation gage that requires reading and maintenance only monthly or seasonal intervals. This library includes reports from such gages,...

  4. NOVA 201 ultrasonic thickness gage (NOVA Gage)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garecht, Diane

    1990-01-01

    The measurement integrity of the NOVA 201 digital ultrasonic thickness gage (NOVA gage) was demonstrated by comparing the NOVA gage measurements to the thickness gage measurements, and determining the bias and uncertainty of the NOVA gage when measuring redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) hardware per engineering test plans (ETP). The NOVA gage was tested by three different operators on steel and aluminum RSRM hardware for wall thickness. The results show that the measurement bias is not consistent. The uncertainty of the bias is caused by the heterogeneous material properties of the RSRM components that influence the time of flight of ultrasonic waves. The measurement uncertainty inherent to the design and operation of the NOVA gage is less in comparison to the uncertainty of the bias. The total measurement uncertainty cannot be substantially reduced by taking more than one measurement. There is no correlation between bias and the surface finish range of this test unless 3-in-One oil is used as a couplant, in which case there appears to be a slight trend. There is no correlation between uncertainty and the surface finish range. The measurement uncertainty of the NOVA gage can be reduced using 3-in-One oil as a couplant.

  5. Strain gage balances and buffet gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, A. T.

    1983-01-01

    One-piece strain gage force balances were developed for use in the National Transonic Facility (NTF). This was accomplished by studying the effects of the cryogenic environment on materials, strain gages, cements, solders, and moisture proofing agents, and selecting those that minimized strain gage output changes due to temperature. In addition, because of the higher loads that may be imposed by the NTF, these balances are designed to carry a larger load for a given diameter than conventional balances. Full cryogenic calibrations were accomplished, and wind tunnel results that were obtained from the Langley 0-3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel were used to verify laboratory test results.

  6. GAGES-II: Geospatial Attributes of Gages for Evaluating Streamflow

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset, termed "GAGES II", an acronym for Geospatial Attributes of Gages for Evaluating Streamflow, version II, provides geospatial data and classifications...

  7. Development of reversible strain gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-temperature strain gage which can be peeled after taking required apparent strain measurements in a furnace and can be attached reverse-side-up at the point of interest on a test structure was developed. Using the ''reversible'' strain gage with selected room-temperature curing type polyester adhesive, one can expect to measure thermal strain accurately, especially for on large structures, at the first test in temperature up to 250 deg C. The repeatability of apparent strains for about 100 reversible gages was within 50 microstrains of difference at 250 deg C (within 30 microstrains of difference for 80 % of the test gages). (author)

  8. Low-g propellant gaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, George

    1987-09-01

    A program to develop and demonstrate technology for low gravity propellant gaging on future geostationary satellites is described. Evaluations were performed to select four gaging concepts for ground tests and low gravity tests in the NASA KC-135 aircraft. The selected concepts were: (1) an ultrasonic point sensor system, (2) a nucleonic gaging system, (3) an ultrasonic torsional wave guide, and (4) an ultrasonic flowmeter. As a result of successful ground and KC-135 tests, two concepts (the ultrasonic point sensor and the nucleonic systems) were selected for orbital test in a shuttle Get-Away-Special experiment.

  9. GAGES-II: Geospatial Attributes of Gages for Evaluating Streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, James A.

    2011-01-01

    This dataset, termed "GAGES II", an acronym for Geospatial Attributes of Gages for Evaluating Streamflow, version II, provides geospatial data and classifications for 9,322 stream gages maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). It is an update to the original GAGES, which was published as a Data Paper on the journal Ecology's website (Falcone and others, 2010b) in 2010. The GAGES II dataset consists of gages which have had either 20+ complete years (not necessarily continuous) of discharge record since 1950, or are currently active, as of water year 2009, and whose watersheds lie within the United States, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. Reference gages were identified based on indicators that they were the least-disturbed watersheds within the framework of broad regions, based on 12 major ecoregions across the United States. Of the 9,322 total sites, 2,057 are classified as reference, and 7,265 as non-reference. Of the 2,057 reference sites, 1,633 have (through 2009) 20+ years of record since 1950. Some sites have very long flow records: a number of gages have been in continuous service since 1900 (at least), and have 110 years of complete record (1900-2009) to date. The geospatial data include several hundred watershed characteristics compiled from national data sources, including environmental features (e.g. climate – including historical precipitation, geology, soils, topography) and anthropogenic influences (e.g. land use, road density, presence of dams, canals, or power plants). The dataset also includes comments from local USGS Water Science Centers, based on Annual Data Reports, pertinent to hydrologic modifications and influences. The data posted also include watershed boundaries in GIS format. This overall dataset is different in nature to the USGS Hydro-Climatic Data Network (HCDN; Slack and Landwehr 1992), whose data evaluation ended with water year 1988. The HCDN identifies stream gages which at some point in their history had

  10. Propellant gaging for geostationary satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazietti, A. J.; Orton, G. F.; Schreib, R.

    1986-06-01

    Evaluations were performed to select four gaging concepts for ground tests and low-g tests in the NASA KC-135 aircraft. The selected concepts were an ultrasonic point sensor system, a nucleonic gaging system, an ultrasonic torsional wave guide, and an ultrasonic flowmeter. The first three systems provide a direct measurement of propellant quantity remaining, while the fourth system integrates (totalizes) the propellant flow to the engines and infers propellant remaining based on a known initial propellant load. As a result of successful ground and KC-135 tests, two concepts (the ultrasonic point sensor and nucleonic systems) were selected for orbital test in a Shuttle Get-Away-Special experiment. These systems offer high end-of-life accuracy potential, are nonintrusive (external to the tanks and feedlines), and are low in risk because of their good technology base. The Shuttle Get-Away-Special experiment has been assembled and passed flight certification testing in late April 1986.

  11. Low TCR nanocomposite strain gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Otto J. (Inventor); Chen, Ximing (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A high temperature thin film strain gage sensor capable of functioning at temperatures above 1400.degree. C. The sensor contains a substrate, a nanocomposite film comprised of an indium tin oxide alloy, zinc oxide doped with alumina or other oxide semiconductor and a refractory metal selected from the group consisting of Pt, Pd, Rh, Ni, W, Ir, NiCrAlY and NiCoCrAlY deposited onto the substrate to form an active strain element. The strain element being responsive to an applied force.

  12. Streamflow Gaging Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  13. Neutron moisture gage for bulk material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desing and operation of neutron moisture gage of bulk materials intended for the determination of moisture of coke, agglomerated charge, and iron ore concentrate in black metallurgy is described. The moisture gage operates both under ''measurement'' and ''calibration'' conditions, contains a fast neutron source, and two groups of slow neutron detectors. Technical and economic efficiency of the moisture gage utilization consists in the improved accuracy of moisture detection at the expense of more accurate calibration, optimum arrangement of the carriage in a hopper, and stabilization of detector temperature. The device service is also simplified

  14. 46 CFR 197.458 - Gages and timekeeping devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gages and timekeeping devices. 197.458 Section 197.458... § 197.458 Gages and timekeeping devices. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) Each depth gage and timekeeping device is tested or calibrated against a master reference gage or time-keeping...

  15. Dual active surface heat flux gage probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1995-02-01

    A unique plug-type heat flux gage probe was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 2x9 turbulent flow duct facility. The probe was fabricated by welding a miniature dual active surface heat flux gage body to the end of a hollow metal cylindrical bolt containing a metal inner tube. Cooling air flows through the inner tube, impinges onto the back of the gage body and then flows out through the annulus formed between the inner tube and the hollow bolt wall. Heat flux was generated in the duct facility with a Huels arc heater. The duct had a rectangular cross section and one wall was fabricated from 2.54 centimeter thick thermal insulation rigid surface material mounted onto an aluminum plate. To measure heat flux, the probe was inserted through the plate and insulating materials with the from of the gage located flush with the hot gas-side insulation surface. Absorbed heat fluxes measured with the probe were compared with absorbed heat fluxes measured with six water-cooled reference calorimeters. These calorimeters were located in a water-cooled metal duct wall which was located across from the probe position. Correspondence of transient and steady heat fluxes measured with the reference calorimeters and heat flux gage probe was generally within a satisfactory plus or minus 10 percent. This good correspondence was achieved even though the much cooler probe caused a large surface temperature disruption of 1000K between the metal gage and the insulation. However, this temperature disruption did not seriously effect the accuracy of the heat flux measurement. A current application for dual active surface heat flux gages is for transient and steady absorbed heat flux, surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the surface of an oxidizer turbine inlet deflector operating in a space shuttle test bed engine.

  16. Transient temperature response of strain gages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When an electrical resistance strain gage bonded to a material is subjected to a temperature change, the resistance of the strain gage changes even though the material is free of stress. This temperature-induced resistance change is generally expressed in strain units and is commonly called apparent strain or thermal output. The thermal expansion coefficients and the temperature coefficient of resistance are temperature-dependent quantities and not necessarily linearly related to temperature. For transient temperature conditions, the two temperatures are different. The magnitude and effect of this temperature difference on apparent strain is studied

  17. The tale of Phineas Gage, digitally remastered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratiu, Peter; Talos, Ion-Florin; Haker, Steven; Lieberman, Daniel; Everett, Peter

    2004-05-01

    The injury of Phineas Gage has fueled research on and fascination with the localization of cerebral functions in the past century and a half. Most physicians and anatomists believed that Gage sustained a largely bilateral injury to the frontal lobes. However, previous studies seem to have overlooked a few less obvious, but essential details. This has led us to reanalyze the injury using three-dimensional reconstruction and quantitative computer-aided techniques and to propose a new biomechanical model, in order to determine the location and extent of the injury and explain Gage's improbable survival. Unlike previous studies on this subject, our findings are based on computer-generated three-dimensional reconstructions of a thin-slice computed tomography scan (CAT) of Phineas Gage's skull. The results of our image analysis were corroborated with the clinical findings, thoroughly recorded by Dr. Harlow in 1848, as well as with a systematic examination of the original skull specimen. Our results show that the cerebral injury was limited to the left frontal lobe, did not extend to the contralateral side, did not affect the ventricular system, and did not involve vital intracranial vascular structures. Although modern neuroscience has perhaps outgrown the speculations prompted by this famous case, it is still a living part of the medical folklore and education. Setting the record straight based on clinical reasoning, observation of the physical evidence, and sound quantitative computational methods is more than mere minutia and of interest for the broad medical community. PMID:15165371

  18. Radiation used to temperature compensate semiconductor strain gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, C.

    1966-01-01

    Exposure to high energy electron radiation reduces the temperature coefficients of resistance and gage factor of a range of resistivities of n- and p-type semiconductor silicon strain gages. After irradiation, the gages are heated to a high temperature for a 24-hour period to stabilize their temperature coefficients.

  19. Radioisotope gage for automatic control of cotton wool package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is given of research work and in-service tests carried out on radiometric gages for on-line control in bandage industry. A special type of thickness gage based on beta absorption measurements restricts the weight fluctuations of ready cotton wool packages to less than +- 2 per cent. Economic effectiveness of the gage is evaluated

  20. Palladium-chromium static strain gages for high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jih-Fen

    1992-01-01

    An electrical resistance strain gage that can provide accurate static strain measurement to a temperature of 1500 F or above is being developed both in fine wire and thin film forms. The gage is designed to be temperature compensated on any substrate material. It has a dual element: the gage element is a special alloy, palladium-13wt percent chromium (PdCr), and the compensator element is platinum (Pt). Earlier results of a PdCr based wire gage indicated that the apparent strain of this gage can be minimized and the repeatability of the apparent strain can be improved by prestabilizing the gage on the substrate for a long period of time. However, this kind of prestabilization is not practical in many applications and therefore the development of a wire gage which is prestabilized before installation on the substrate is desirable. This paper will present our recent progress in the development of a prestabilized wire gage which can provide meaningful strain data for the first thermal cycle. A weldable PdCr gage is also being developed for field testing where conventional flame-spraying installation can not be applied. This weldable gage is narrower than a previously reported gage, thereby allowing the gage to be more resistant to buckling under compressive loads. Some preliminary results of a prestabilized wire gage flame-sprayed directly on IN100, an engine material, and a weldable gage spot-welded on IN100 and SCS-6/(beta)21-S Titanium Matrix Composite (TMC), a National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) structure material, will be reported. Progress on the development of a weldable thin film gage will also be addressed. The measurement technique and procedures and the lead wire effect will be discussed.

  1. Evaluation of OTT PLUVIO Precipitation Gage versus Belfort Universal Precipitation Gage 5-780 for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumbusch, Mary L.

    2003-01-01

    The National Atmospheric Deposition Program, a cooperative effort supported by Federal, State, and local agencies, and Indian Tribes, was established in 1977 to study atmospheric deposition and its impact on the environment. The program's National Trends Network now includes wet-deposition networks at more than 250 sites across the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Precipitation amounts are currently measured using a Belfort Universal Precipitation Gage 5-780, which involves technology that is more than 50 years old. In 1999, a three-phase study was begun to evaluate several weighing, all-weather precipitation gages to find a possible replacement for the Belfort Universal Precipitation Gage 5-780. One gage that performed consistently well in phase I and II testing was the OTT PLUVIO Precipitation Gage. Phase III of the study, discussed herein, was to determine the accuracy and comparability of the data sets collected by the OTT PLUVIO Precipitation Gages and the existing Belfort Universal Precipitation Gage 5-780. Seven OTT PLUVIO Precipitation Gages were installed at six National Trends Network sites across the country for a data-collection period of approximately 18 months. The NovaLynx Model 260-2510 Standard Rain and Snow Gage also was used, as a reference, at two of the sites. Paired t-tests analysis showed no significant differences in precipitation measurements between the Belfort Universal Precipitation Gage 5-780 and the OTT PLUVIO Precipitation Gages at three of the six sites. When the false positives were removed from the precipitation-event data sets, the gages at all sites were in agreement and the paired t-tests showed the gage measurements were not significantly different. A false positive is defined as a zero response from the Belfort Universal Precipitation Gage 5-780 concurrent with a recorded response from the OTT PLUVIO Precipitation Gage.

  2. Assessment of current high-temperature strain gages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term stability tests for systematic drift and strain sensitivity (gage factor) were conducted on two types of capacitive strain gages - the Boeing differential-capacitance gage and the CERL-Planer variable gap capacitive strain transducer - and on the Ailtech SG-425 resistance gage. Results for tests of durations up to 12,000 hr are presented and compared with similar tests reported by others. The stability and repeatability of the capacitive systems were verified. In addition, two short-term investigations were made on Ailtech weldable-resistance gages to address areas of uncertainty related to special applications. Data from these tests are also presented and interpreted. Advantages and limitations of the various systems are identified, and conclusions and recommendations are presented. Descriptions of the gage systems and problems encountered in the use of capacitive gages are given in appendices

  3. High temperature static strain gage development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, C. O.; Bailey, R. S.; Grant, H. P.; Anderson, W. L.; Przybyszewski, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    Final results are presented from a program to develop a thin film static strain gage for use on the blades and vanes of running, test stand gas turbine engines with goals of an 3 x 3 mm gage area and total errors of less than 10 pct. of + or - 2,000 microstrain after 50 hrs at 1250 K. Pd containing 13 Wt. pct. Cr was previously identified as a new strain sensor alloy that appeared to be potentially usable to 1250 K. Subsequently, it was discovered, in contrast with its behavior in bulk, that Pd-13Cr suffered from oxidation attack when prepared as a 4.5 micron thick thin film. Continuing problems with electrical leakage to the substrate and the inability of sputtered alumina overcoats to prevent oxidation led to the discovery that sputtered alumina contains appreciable amounts of entrapped argon. After the argon has been exsolved by heating to elevated temperatures, the alumina films undergo a linear shrinkage of about 2 pct. resulting in formation of cracks. These problems can be largely overcome by sputtering the alumina with the substrate heated to 870 K. With 2 micron thick hot sputtered alumina insulation and overcoat films, total 50 hr drifts of about 100 microstrain (2 tests) and about 500 microstrain (1 test) were observed at 1000 and 1100 K, respectively. Results of tests on complete strain gage systems on constant moment bend bars with Pd temperature compensation grids revealed that oxidation of the Pd grid was a major problem even when the grid was overcoated with a hot or cold sputtered alumina overcoat.

  4. 49 CFR 179.400-19 - Valves and gages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves and gages. 179.400-19 Section 179.400-19...-19 Valves and gages. (a) Valves. Manually operated shut-off valves and control valves must be... liquid flow rates. All valves must be made from approved materials compatible with the lading and...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  6. 46 CFR 197.318 - Gages and timekeeping devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gages and timekeeping devices. 197.318 Section 197.318... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.318 Gages and timekeeping devices... timekeeping device must be at each dive location....

  7. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Streamflow Gaging Stations of the United States 201403 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  8. Gage of 6.5 per cent Si-Fe sheet is chemically reduced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, A.; Pavlovic, D. M.

    1966-01-01

    Chemical milling process aids the production of 6.5 percent silicon-iron soft magnetic-alloy sheets to very thin gages. Following conventional rolling to safe gage limits, the material is chemically reduced to the desired gage.

  9. Theory and Practice of Shear/Stress Strain Gage Hygrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Fenner, Ralph L.

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical hygrometry has progressed during the last several decades from crude hygroscopes to state-of-the art strain-gage sensors. The strain-gage devices vary from different metallic beams to strain-gage sensors using cellulose crystallite elements, held in full shear restraint. This old technique is still in use but several companies are now actively pursuing development of MEMS miniaturized humidity sensors. These new sensors use polyimide thin film for water vapor adsorption and desorption. This paper will provide overview about modern humidity sensors.

  10. Manual for leveling at gaging stations in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.O.; Jackson, N.M.

    1981-01-01

    This manual was prepared to serve several purposes in the U.S. Geological Survey North Carolina District. This manual sets forth District policy as to frequency of levels, accuracy criteria, procedures for checking the datum and setting of the various types of gages, general rules to follow in establishing the original datum of a gage, and contains sample notes to be used as guides in level notekeeping. The manual also serves as a training tool in that the reasoning behind District policy is explained and reasons are given for following the recommended techniques to assist in a better understanding of the purpose of levels and maintaining gage datum.

  11. The role of GAGE cancer/testis antigen in metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten Frier; Terp, Mikkel Green; Hansen, Malene Bredahl;

    2016-01-01

    metastatic (M4A4) and moderately metastatic clones (LM3), stable downregulation of GAGE expression did not affect the ability of CL16 cells to establish primary tumors and form metastasis in the lungs of immunodeficient mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that GAGE proteins per se do not support...... isogenic cell lines, which are equally tumorigenic in immunodeficient mice, but differ with their ability to generate metastases in the lungs and lymph nodes. RESULTS: Although GAGE proteins were strongly upregulated in the highly metastatic clone (CL16) compared to non-metastatic (NM2C5), weakly...

  12. Speckle reduction methods for laser line gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Kevin G.

    1997-12-01

    Speckle caused by the use of laser sources is a well known phenomena. For some applications, the presence of the speckle is used as part of the method, but in others it is purely a source of noise. In the case of line based laser gages, speckle is typically of considerable concern. Certainly, using white light sources or LEDs with short coherence is one way around this problem, but such methods also loose some of the valuable properties of laser line projection such as very narrow lines, the ability to create multiple lines by diffraction, and high signal to background through the use of bandpass filters to view only the laser wavelength. There have been a number of valuable tools introduced that help reduce the problem of speckle from laser sources, without giving up all the advantages of the laser itself. This paper reviews the pros and cons of a number of these methods, and suggests a specific set of tools that are specific to laser line projection.

  13. NASA LaRC Strain Gage Balance Design Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Ray D.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been designing strain-gage balances for more than fifty years. These balances have been utilized in Langley's wind tunnels, which span over a wide variety of aerodynamic test regimes, as well as other ground based test facilities and in space flight applications. As a result, the designs encompass a large array of sizes, loads, and environmental effects. Currently Langley has more than 300 balances available for its researchers. This paper will focus on the design concepts for internal sting mounted strain-gage balances. However, these techniques can be applied to all force measurement design applications. Strain-gage balance concepts that have been developed over the years including material selection, sting, model interfaces, measuring, sections, fabrication, strain-gaging and calibration will be discussed.

  14. Evaluation test on stability of high temperature strain gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with the results on a stability test of high temperature strain gage which is utilized for development of the Stethoscope for OGL - 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Services (ab. SOCETS). The test has proved that the weldable strain gage (KHC - 20 - G5) exhibits excellent stability at 5000C during 3000 to 4000 hours service and can be applied sufficiently to evaluate integrity of OGL - 1 high temperature pipings and others. (author)

  15. 49 CFR 213.355 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.355... Higher § 213.355 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs... distance between the gage line of a frog to the guard line 1 of its guard rail or guarding face,...

  16. Strain gage selection in loads equations using a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Traditionally, structural loads are measured using strain gages. A loads calibration test must be done before loads can be accurately measured. In one measurement method, a series of point loads is applied to the structure, and loads equations are derived via the least squares curve fitting algorithm using the strain gage responses to the applied point loads. However, many research structures are highly instrumented with strain gages, and the number and selection of gages used in a loads equation can be problematic. This paper presents an improved technique using a genetic algorithm to choose the strain gages used in the loads equations. Also presented are a comparison of the genetic algorithm performance with the current T-value technique and a variant known as the Best Step-down technique. Examples are shown using aerospace vehicle wings of high and low aspect ratio. In addition, a significant limitation in the current methods is revealed. The genetic algorithm arrived at a comparable or superior set of gages with significantly less human effort, and could be applied in instances when the current methods could not.

  17. Investigation of factors affecting the calibration of strain gage based transducers ('Goodzeit gages') for SSC magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These transducers are designed to measure stresses on SSC collared coils. They are individually calibrated with a bonded ten-stack of SSC inner coil cable by applying a known load and reading corresponding output from the gages. The transducer is supported by a notched 'backing plate' that allows for bending of the gage beam during calibration or in use with an actual coil. Several factors affecting the calibration and use of the transducers are: the number of times a 'backing plate' is used, the similarities or differences between bonded ten-stacks, and the differences between the ten-stacks and the coil they represent. The latter is probably the most important because a calibration curve is a model of how a transducer should react within a coil. If the model is wrong, the calibration curve is wrong. Information will be presented regarding differences in calibrations between Brookhaven National Labs (also calibrating these transducers) and Fermilab - what caused these differences, the investigation into the differences between coils and ten-stacks, and how they relate to transducer calibration, and some suggestions for future calibrations

  18. Investigation of factors affecting the calibration of strain gage based transducers (''Goodzeit gages'') for SSC magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These transducers are designed to measure stresses on SSC collared coils. They are individually calibrated with a bonded ten-stack of SSC inner coil cable by applying a known load and reading corresponding output from the gages. The transducer is supported by a notched ''backing plate'' that allows for bending of the gage beam during calibration or in use with an actual coil. Several factors affecting the calibration and use of the transducers are: the number of times a ''backing plate'' is used, the similarities or difficulties between bonded ten-stacks, and the differences between the ten-stacks and the coil they represent. The latter is probably the most important because a calibration curve is a model of how a transducer should react within a coil. If the model is wrong, the calibration curve is wrong. Information will be presented regarding differences in calibrations between Brookhaven National Labs (also calibrating these transducers) and Fermilab -- what caused these differences, the investigation into the differences between coils and ten-stacks and how they relate to transducer calibration, and some suggestions for future calibrations

  19. Restriction of GAGE protein expression to subpopulations of cancer cells is independent of genotype and may limit the use of GAGE proteins as targets for cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, M F; Johansen, L E; Nielsen, O;

    2006-01-01

    The GAGE cancer testis antigen gene family encodes products that can be recognized by autologous T cells, and GAGE proteins have been suggested as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Analysis of GAGE expression in tumours has primarily been performed at the level of gene transcription...

  20. Skin Friction Gage for Measurements in Hypersonic Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francois Falempin; Marat Goldfeld; Roman Nestoulia

    2003-01-01

    A description and results of tests of a new small-scale gage for direct measurement of skin friction force are presented in the paper. The gage design provides separated measurement of longitudinal and transversal component of friction force. Application of this scheme provides high sensitivity and necessary high-frequency response of the gage. The tests of the gage were carried out in a blow down wind tunnel at Mach numbers of 2 and 4 within the range of Reynolds numbers Rex from 0.8 to 5 million and in the hot-shot wind tunnel at Mach number 6 and Reynolds numbers Rex= 2.5-10 million. The measurements of skin friction were carried out on a flat plate and on a ramp beyond the shock wave. Simultaneously with the direct measurement of friction in the blow down wind tunnel, the measurements of profiles of average velocities and mass flow rate pulsations were realised. Analysis of measurement errors has shown that the friction gage permits to measure skin friction coefficient on a flat plate with mistake not more than 10%.

  1. Streamflow gaging in a remote area using cellular telephone telemetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a case study is presented describing the utilization of cellular phone technology in a remote sensing situation. Because expected annual energy estimates are vital in planning small hydroelectric projects, it is important that the flow data from river gaging stations provide reliable information to the engineer. When the project is situated in a remote area where gaging stations are unavailable. such as on an island or in emerging nations, the design engineer may need to provide the flow data himself. The problem of transmitting the flow data from a remote mountain stream away from any roads and telephone lines, to the office for computer analysis was solved by using an innovative method utilizing cellular telephones to access raw data from solar powered data loggers and pressure transducer gaging instruments

  2. Development of a high temperature static strain gage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this program is to develop electrical resistance strain gages which will permit the measurement of static strains on nickel and cobalt superalloy parts inside gas turbine engines running on a test stand. The specific goal is to develop a complete system able to make strain measurements up to plus or minus 2000 mu strain with a total error of no more than plus or minus 10 percent over a 50 hour period at 1250 K. The initial part of this work consisted of a strain gage alloy development effort in which a variety of alloys were evaluated after being prepared by drop-casting or splat cooling

  3. Determination of residual stress profile using a strain gage technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple beam theory analysis is presented for the determination of residual stress patterns in beams or plates using a strain gage technique. The analysis is valid for a general stress distribution which need not be symmetric with respect to the neutral axis. The experimental approach consists of attaching a strain gage on the surface of a beam or a plate and then grinding off the other side. The recorded strain vs thickness ground off data can be used to determine the corresponding stress profile

  4. Gage measures total radiation, including vacuum UV, from ionized high-temperature gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A. D.

    1969-01-01

    Transient-heat transfer gage measures the total radiation intensity from vacuum ultraviolet and ionized high temperature gases. The gage includes a sensitive piezoelectric crystal that is completely isolated from any ionized flow and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation.

  5. Development and characterization of PdCr temperature-compensated wire resistance strain gage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jih-Fen

    1989-10-01

    A temperature-compensated resistance static strain gage with potential to be used to 600 C was recently developed. Gages were fabricated from specially developed palladium-13 w/o chromium (Pd-13Cr) wire and platinum (Pt) compensator. When bonded to high temperature Hastelloy X, the apparent strain from room temperature to 600 C was within 400 microstrain for gages with no preheat treatment and within 3500 microstrain for gages with 16 hours prestabilization at 640 C. The apparent strain versus temperature relationship of stabilized PdCr gages were repeatable with the reproducibility within 100 microstrain during three thermal cycles to 600 C and an 11 hours soak at 600 C. The gage fabrication, construction and installation is described. Also, the coating system used for this compensated resistance strain gage is explained. The electrical properties of the strain sensing element and main characteristics of the compensated gage including apparent strain, drift and reproducibility are discussed.

  6. Simplified atmospheric diffusion calculations with slide-rule gage points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gage points are given with the help of which the most commonly required atmospheric diffusion calculations can be carried out rapidly using a simple slide-rule setting; e.g. maximum ground concentration, its distance, and the corresponding effective stack height as functions of the prevailing type of meteorological condition. (author)

  7. Polymer deformation gage measures thickness change in tensile tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyles, H. F.; Broyles, H. H.

    1966-01-01

    Lightweight deformation gage attached to a polymer specimen determines the thickness changes undergone by the specimen during the testing of its tensile and elongation properties. Mechanical noise from outside sources is dampened when the assembly is hung on a light rubber band.

  8. High temperature strain gage technology for gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtel, Edward J.; McDaniel, Amos D.

    1994-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of a six month study that addressed specific issues to transfer the Pd-13Cr static strain sensor to a gas turbine engine environment. The application issues that were addressed include: (1) evaluation of a miniature, variable potentiometer for use as the ballast resistor, in conjunction with a conventional strain gage signal conditioning unit; (2) evaluation of a metal sheathed, platinum conductor leadwire assembly for use with the three-wire sensor; and (3) subjecting the sensor to dynamic strain cyclic testing to determine fatigue characteristics. Results indicate a useful static strain gage system at all temperature levels up to 1350 F. The fatigue characteristics also appear to be very promising, indicating a potential use in dynamic strain measurement applications. The procedure, set-up, and data for all tests are presented in this report. This report also discusses the specific strain gage installation technique for the Pd-13Cr gage because of its potential impact on the quality of the output data.

  9. Evaluation of candidate rain gages for upgrading precipitation measurement tools for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John D.

    2003-01-01

    The National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) was established in 1977 to investigate atmospheric deposition and its effects on the environment. Since its establishment, precipitation records have been obtained at all NADP sites using a gage developed approximately 50 years ago-the Belfort 5-780 mechanical rain gage. In 1998 and 1999, a study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate four recently developed, technologically advanced rain gages as possible replacement candidates for the mechanical gage currently (2002) in use by the NADP. The gage types evaluated were the Belfort 3200, Geonor T-200, ETI Noah II, and the OTT PLUVIO. The Belfort 5-780 was included in the study to compare the performance of the rain gage currently (2002) used by NADP to the performance of the more recently developed gages. As a reference gage, the NovaLynx Model 260-2510 National Weather Service type stick gage also was included in the study. Two individual gages of each type were included in the study to evaluate precision between gages of the same type. A two-phase evaluation was completed. Phase I consisted of indoor bench tests with known amounts of simulated rainfall applied in 20 individual tests. Phase II consisted of outdoor testing by collecting precipitation during a 26-week period near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. The ETI Noah II, OTT PLUVIO, and NovaLynx stick gages consistently recorded depths more commensurate with the amounts of applied simulated rainfall in Phase I testing than the Geonor T-200, Belfort 5-780, and Belfort 3200 gages. Gages where both the median difference between the measured and applied simulated rainfall and the interquartile range of all of their measured minus applied simulated rainfall differences were small (less than or equal to 0.01 inch) were judged to have performed very well in Phase I testing. The median and interquartile-range values were 0.01 inch or less for each of the ETI Noah II gages, OTT PLUVIO gages, and NovaLynx stick

  10. 49 CFR 213.143 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.143... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.143 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs shall be within the...

  11. HOLEGAGE 1.0 - STRAIN GAGE HOLE DRILLING ANALYSIS PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    There is no simple and perfect way to measure residual stresses in metal parts that have been welded or deformed to make complex structures such as pressure vessels and aircraft, yet these locked-in stresses can contribute to structural failure by fatigue and fracture. However, one proven and tested technique for determining the internal stress of a metal part is to drill a test hole while measuring the relieved strains around the hole, such as the hole-drilling strain gage method described in ASTM E 837. The program HOLEGAGE processes strain gage data and provides additional calculations of internal stress variations that are not obtained with standard E 837 analysis methods. The typical application of the technique uses a three gage rosette with a special hole-drilling fixture for drilling a hole through the center of the rosette to produce a hole with very small gage pattern eccentricity error. Another device is used to control the drilling and halt the drill at controlled depth steps. At each step, strains from all three strain gages are recorded. The influence coefficients used by HOLEGAGE to compute stresses from relieved hole strains were developed by published finite element method studies of thick plates for specific hole sizes and depths. The program uses a parabolic fit and an interpolating scheme to project the coefficients to other hole sizes and depths. Additionally, published experimental data are used to extend the coefficients to relatively thin plates. These influence coefficients are used to compute the stresses in the original part from the strain data. HOLEGAGE will compute interior planar stresses using strain data from each drilled hole depth layer. Planar stresses may be computed in three ways including: a least squares fit for a linear variation with depth, an integral method to give incremental stress data for each layer, or by a linear fit to the integral data (with some surface data points omitted) to predict surface stresses before

  12. Standard test method for ambient temperature fatigue life of metallic bonded resistance strain gages

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a uniform procedure for the determination of strain gage fatigue life at ambient temperature. A suggested testing equipment design is included. 1.2 This test method does not apply to force transducers or extensometers that use bonded resistance strain gages as sensing elements. 1.3 Strain gages are part of a complex system that includes structure, adhesive, gage, leadwires, instrumentation, and (often) environmental protection. As a result, many things affect the performance of strain gages, including user technique. A further complication is that strain gages, once installed, normally cannot be reinstalled in another location. Therefore, it is not possible to calibrate individual strain gages; performance characteristics are normally presented on a statistical basis. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices ...

  13. Strain-gage applications in wind tunnel balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, P. J.

    1990-10-01

    Six-component balances used in wind tunnels for precision measurements of air loads on scale models of aircraft and missiles are reviewed. A beam moment-type balance, two-shell balance consisting of an outer shell and inner rod, and air-flow balances used in STOL aircraft configurations are described. The design process, fabrication, gaging, single-gage procedure, and calibration of balances are outlined, and emphasis is placed on computer stress programs and data-reduction computer programs. It is pointed out that these wind-tunnel balances are used in applications for full-scale flight vehicles. Attention is given to a standard two-shell booster balance and an adaptation of a wind-tunnel balance employed to measure the simulated distributed launch loads of a payload in the Space Shuttle.

  14. Palladium-chromium static strain gage for high temperature propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jih-Fen

    1991-01-01

    The present electrical strain gage for high temperature static strain measurements is in its fine-wire and thin-film forms designed to be temperature-compensated on any substrate material. The gage element is of Pd-Cr alloy, while the compensator is of Pt. Because the thermally-induced apparent strain of this compensated wire strain gage is sufficiently small, with good reproducibility between thermal cycles to 800 C, output figures can be corrected within a reasonable margin of error.

  15. Strain Gage Measurement System to Determine Cryogenic Propellant Tank Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; St.Cyr, William W.; VanDyke, David; McVay, Greg; Mitchell, Mark; Langford, Lester

    2003-01-01

    Measurement of tank level, particularly for cryogenic propellants, has proven to be a difficult proposition. Current methods based on differential pressure, capacitance sensors, temperature sensors, etc.; do not provide sufficiently accurate or robust measurements, especially at run time. This paper describes a simple, but effective method to determine propellant volume by measuring very small deformations of the structure supporting the tank. Results of a laboratory study to validate the method, and experimental data from a deployed system are presented. A comparison with an existing differential pressure sensor shows that the strain gage system provides a very good quality signal even during pressurization.

  16. Alfred P. Gage and the Introductory Physics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2016-03-01

    This article is about a late 19th-century teacher of secondary school physics. I was originally interested in the apparatus that he sold. This led me to the physics books that he wrote, and these took me to his unusual ideas about ways to use laboratory time to introduce students to the phenomena of physics. More than 100 years later educational ideas have now come full circle, and it is time to bring Gage and his texts and ideas to 21st-century physics teachers.

  17. In-situ shear stress indicator using heated strain gages at the flow boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chi-An; Yang, Fuling

    2011-11-01

    This work borrows the concept of hot-wire anemometry and sketch a technique that uses local heat transfer to infer the flow field and the corresponding stress. Conventional strain gages were mounted at the flow solid boundary as the heat source and acrylic boundary was chosen for its low thermal conductivity ensuring heat accumulation when a gage is energized. The gage would now work in slightly overheated state and its self-heating leads to an additional thermal strain. When exposed to a flow field, heat is brought away by local forced convection, resulting in deviations in gage signal from that developed in quiescent liquid. We have developed a facility to achieve synchronous gage measurements at different locations on a solid boundary. Three steady flow motions were considered: circular Couette flow, rectilinear uniform flow, and rectilinear oscillating flow. Preliminary tests show the gage reading does respond to the imposed flow through thermal effects and greater deviation was measured in flows of higher shear strain rates. The correlation between the gage signals and the imposed flow field is further examined by theoretical analysis. We also introduced a second solid boundary to the vicinity of the gage in the two rectilinear flows. The gage readings demonstrate rises in its magnitudes indicating wall amplification effect on the local shear strain, agreeing to the drag augmentation by a second solid boundary reported in many multiphase flow literatures.

  18. Use of encapsulated high-temperature strain gages at temperatures up to 315 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of the use of two types of encapsulated strain gage to measure strains in West Germany nuclear power stations during start up and service. Gage calibration was performed using a clamping device rather than spot welding. Of the two types of encapsulated strain gages available for measurement up to 315 C, one is a quarter-bridge gage with an NiCr measuring element; the other is a half-bridge gage with a PtW measuring element. Factors considered were: apparent strain, zero shift, change of apparent strain, creep and lifetime. It is recommended that NiCr gages be used for static measurements up to about 260 C only. For temperatures higher than 260 degrees, PtW strain gages must be used; these seem to be much more stable at temperatures of 260-315 C. Tests are under way to determine the maximum temperature for these gages; all that is certain now is that they fail at 530 C when the cables separate. 6 references

  19. An evaluation of Idaho stream-gaging networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillian, E.W.; Harenberg, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Network Analysis for Regional Information (NARI) and the Cost-Effectiveness Procedure were tested by applying them to stream-gaging networks in Idaho. NARI was used to determine network design strategies that would maximize the value of additional data. Value of data was measured as the decrease in the probable true standards error of regional regression equations. NARI indicated that no significant decrease in regression error can be achieved by the collection of additional data and that better models should be sought. No major modifications to NARI are necessary to make it widely applicable. The Cost-Effectiveness Procedure was used to determine optimal network operation strategies. It showed network uncertainty can be reduced when six- or one-visit per year minimum constraints are in force. Sensitivity to various cost factors was examined. Attempts to model networks that included sites for collection of groundwater and water-quality data were unsuccessful. (USGS)

  20. Strain gage sting balance 204-6. Calibration report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaettler, Heinz

    1986-12-01

    The strain gage sting balance 204-6 was developed for aerodynamic measurements on rocket models in the transonic and supersonic wind tunnel. Data are: X = +/- 50 (N); Y = +/- 150 (N); Z = +/- 400 (N); Mx = +/- 1.5 (Nm); My = +/- 20 (Nm); and Mz = +/- 10 (Nm). Compared to the existing balances of same size the ratio Y/Z is changed from 1:8 to 1:3.75. This change of specifications was introduced with regard to measurements to be taken with a sting providing automatic roll positioning around the X-axis. The resistance module was separately constructed and prestressed by a factor of 0.5, and connected to the model and sting part of the balance by electron-beam welding.

  1. Influence of Primary Gage Sensitivities on the Convergence of Balance Load Iterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Norbert Manfred

    2012-01-01

    The connection between the convergence of wind tunnel balance load iterations and the existence of the primary gage sensitivities of a balance is discussed. First, basic elements of two load iteration equations that the iterative method uses in combination with results of a calibration data analysis for the prediction of balance loads are reviewed. Then, the connection between the primary gage sensitivities, the load format, the gage output format, and the convergence characteristics of the load iteration equation choices is investigated. A new criterion is also introduced that may be used to objectively determine if the primary gage sensitivity of a balance gage exists. Then, it is shown that both load iteration equations will converge as long as a suitable regression model is used for the analysis of the balance calibration data, the combined influence of non linear terms of the regression model is very small, and the primary gage sensitivities of all balance gages exist. The last requirement is fulfilled, e.g., if force balance calibration data is analyzed in force balance format. Finally, it is demonstrated that only one of the two load iteration equation choices, i.e., the iteration equation used by the primary load iteration method, converges if one or more primary gage sensitivities are missing. This situation may occur, e.g., if force balance calibration data is analyzed in direct read format using the original gage outputs. Data from the calibration of a six component force balance is used to illustrate the connection between the convergence of the load iteration equation choices and the existence of the primary gage sensitivities.

  2. Steel strain gage on steel shaft liner: Installation and monitoring procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangential and axial strains will be measured in the steel shaft liner component using steel strain gages (SSGs). These gages are vibrating wire strain gages welded directly to the steel liner. The primary objective of the overall monitoring program of which these gages constitute one part, is to define the stress-deformation behavior of the linings, seals, and foundations during and after construction. For this purpose, it is necessary to consider the SSGs welded to the liners as one element of an integrated program of monitoring the mechanical and thermomechanical response of the shaft. Other instruments which form part of this program include extensometers, concrete strain gages, convergence gages, concrete stress gages, piezometers, joint meters, and temperature detectors. The selection of these instrument types and their locations is based on a unified concept of behavior of the lining/rock structure and on how such a model of behavior will be deduced from the results of all instrumentation at an array. 9 refs., 5 figs

  3. Cost effectiveness of the U.S. Geological Survey's stream-gaging program in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.F.; Osen, L.L.; Hughes, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the results of a three-step evaluation of the stream-gaging program in Wisconsin. First, data uses and funding sources were identified for the 89 continuous-record gaging stations operated during the 1984 water year. Next, alternative methods of streamflow estimation were examined for three stations. A flow-routing model was used for two of the stations and a statistical model was used for the third. The modeled discharges did not compare well enough with observed discharges to warrant elimination of any of the stations. Finally, an optimization model was used to assess the cost effectiveness of the stream-gaging process.

  4. Experiments to study strain gage load calibrations on a wing structure at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, R. C.; Fields, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to study changes in strain-gage bridge load calibrations on a wing structure heated to temperatures of 200 F, 400 F, and 600 F. Data were also obtained to define the experimental repeatability of strain-gage bridge outputs. Experiments were conducted to establish the validity of the superposition of bridge outputs due to thermal and mechanical loads during a heating simulation of Mach 3 flight. The strain-gage bridge outputs due to load cycle at each of the above temperature levels were very repeatable. A number of bridge calibrations were found to change significantly as a function of temperature. The sum of strain-gage bridge outputs due to individually applied thermal and mechanical loads compared well with that due to combined or superimposed loads. The validity of superposition was, therefore, established.

  5. Problems Associated with Attaching Strain Gages to Titanium Alloy Ti-61-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J. M.; Lemcoe, M. M.

    1977-01-01

    Weldable strain gages have shown excellent high temperature characteristics for supersonic cruise aircraft application. The spotwelding attachment method, however, has resulted in serious reductions in the fatigue life of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) fatigue specimens. The reduction is so severe that the use of weldable strain gages on operational aircraft must be prohibited. The cause of the fatigue problem is thought to be a combination of the microstructure changes in the material caused by spotwelding and the presence of the flange of the stain gage. Brazing, plating, and plasma spraying were investigated as substitutes for spotwelding. The attachment of a flangeless gage by plasma spraying provided the most improvement in the fatigue life of the titanium.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey Stream Gages located in the Central Valley, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the locations of, and links to USGS gages on the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central...

  7. Technical manual, data reduction software for gage comparison experiments in the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual describes the software developed for use by the HP9845 Desktop Computer to check, transfer, convert, and dump data taken on the gage comparison experiments in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

  8. Six-component strain gage block scale 167-6B. Part 1: Calibration, September 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, C.

    1983-11-01

    The calibration of a six-component strain gage block balance for measurements in wind tunnels is described. The temperature dependance is considered. An error estimation is given. Calibration measurements are presented.

  9. Drainage basin delineations for selected USGS streamflow-gaging stations in Virginia (Drainage_Basin)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Drainage_Basin polygon feature class was created as a digital representation of drainage basins for more than 1,650 continuous-record streamflow-gaging...

  10. Performance evaluation of the Enraf-Nonius Model 872 radar gage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.J.; Park, W.R.

    1992-12-01

    There are indications that the Enraf-Nonius Radar Gage installed in Tank 241-SY-101 may not be providing an accurate reading of the true surface level in the waste tank. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) performed an initial study to determine the effect of the following items on the distance read by the gage: Tank riser; Material permittivity and conductivity Foam; Proportion of supernatant to solid material in the field of view of the instrument; Physical geometry of the supernatant and solid material changing in the field of view with respect to time; and Varying water content in the solid material. The results of the tests indicate that distance measured by the radar gage is affected by the permittivity, conductivity, and angle of the target surface. These parameters affect the complex input impedance of the signal received by the radar gage to measure the distance to the target. In Tank 101-SY, the radar gage is placed on top of a 12 in. diameter riser. The riser affects the field of view of the instrument, and a much smaller target surface is detected when the radar beam propagates through a riser. In addition, the riser acts as a waveguide, and standing waves are enhanced between the target surface and the radar gage. The result is a change in the level measured by the radar gage due to changing properties of the target surface even when the distance to the target does not change. The test results indicate that the radar will not detect dry crust or foam. However, if the crust or foam is stirred so that it becomes wet, then the crust or foam became detectable. The level read using the radar gage decreased as the moisture in the crust or foam evaporated.

  11. Electrical properties of materials for elevated temperature resistance strain gage application. Ph.D. Thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to study the electrical resistances of materials that are potentially useful as resistance strain gages at 1000 C. Transition metal carbides and nitrides, boron carbide and silicon carbide were selected for the experimental phase of this research. Due to their low temperature coefficient of resistance and good stability, TiC, ZrC, B sub 4 C and beta-SiC are suggested as good candidates for high temperature resistance strain gage applications

  12. Application of Temperature Sensitivities During Iterative Strain-Gage Balance Calibration Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.

    2011-01-01

    A new method is discussed that may be used to correct wind tunnel strain-gage balance load predictions for the influence of residual temperature effects at the location of the strain-gages. The method was designed for the iterative analysis technique that is used in the aerospace testing community to predict balance loads from strain-gage outputs during a wind tunnel test. The new method implicitly applies temperature corrections to the gage outputs during the load iteration process. Therefore, it can use uncorrected gage outputs directly as input for the load calculations. The new method is applied in several steps. First, balance calibration data is analyzed in the usual manner assuming that the balance temperature was kept constant during the calibration. Then, the temperature difference relative to the calibration temperature is introduced as a new independent variable for each strain--gage output. Therefore, sensors must exist near the strain--gages so that the required temperature differences can be measured during the wind tunnel test. In addition, the format of the regression coefficient matrix needs to be extended so that it can support the new independent variables. In the next step, the extended regression coefficient matrix of the original calibration data is modified by using the manufacturer specified temperature sensitivity of each strain--gage as the regression coefficient of the corresponding temperature difference variable. Finally, the modified regression coefficient matrix is converted to a data reduction matrix that the iterative analysis technique needs for the calculation of balance loads. Original calibration data and modified check load data of NASA's MC60D balance are used to illustrate the new method.

  13. A mechanical and histomorphometric analysis of bone bonding by hydroxyapatite-coated strain gages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D L; Szivek, J A; Anderson, P L; Miera, V L; Battraw, G A

    1998-01-01

    Identification of the strains controlling bone remodeling is important for determining ways to prevent bone loss due to load deprivation, or implant placement. Long-term monitoring of strains can potentially provide the best information. Glues are resorbed within 2-3 weeks. Two formulations of microcrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) were used to attach strain gages to rat femora to assess their long-term in vivo strain measurement capability. Seven male rats received HA-coated gages, and 2 animals underwent a sham procedure. The gages were prepared using a published technique and placed on the antero-lateral aspect of the left femora. After 6-7 weeks, the animals were euthanized and both femora explanted. Gages were attached to the right femora with cyanoacrylate. All femora were tested in cantilever bending, then embedded, sectioned, and stained with mineralized bone stain. The undecalcified sections were examined using transmitted and ultraviolet light microscopy. Mechanical testing showed one HA formulation provided 70-100% bonding. Histology showed intimate contact between the gage and bone surface. Histomorphometry indicated increased bone activity under the gage compared to the remaining bone, the controls, and the shams. The results indicate that microcrystalline HAs bond to bone quickly and can allow long term in vivo measurements. PMID:9659635

  14. Overcoring and calibration of IRAD GAGE stressmeters at the Spent Fuel Test in Climax granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRAD GAGE vibrating-wire stressmeters were installed in the Spent Fuel Facility at the Nevada Test Site to measure the change in in-situ stress during the Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C). Although extensive pre-installation laboratory tests were conducted, they were generic in nature. Unfortunately the degree of gage-rock contact has a strong influence on gage sensitivity and cannot be predicted before installation. This report discusses the results of removing a cylindrical section of rock and gages as a unit through overcoring and the subsequent post test calibrations of the stressmeters in the laboratory. With the assumption that the gage-rock contact was not disturbed by the overcoring, the results from these calibrations compensate for varying gage-rock contact. The estimated in-situ stresses based on post test calibration data are quite consistent with those directly measured in nearby holes. The magnitude of stress change calculated from pre-installation test data is generally much smaller than that estimated from post test calibration data

  15. Concrete strain gage in concrete shaft lining: Installation and monitoring procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cast-in-place concrete or concrete block preliminary lining component and a cast-in-place final concrete lining form part of the shaft lining system. Strain measurements within the cast-in-place concrete linings will be obtained using a concrete strain gage (CSG). This gage consists of a vibrating wire sensor and anchors embedded in the concrete during casting CSGs will be installed in both exploratory shafts. The primary objective of the overall monitoring program, of which these gages constitute one part, is to define the stress-deformation behavior of the shaft lining, seals, and foundations during and after construction. For this purpose it is necessary to consider the CSG embedded in the concrete as one element of an integrated program of monitoring the mechanical and thermomechanical response of the shaft. Other instruments that form part of this program include concrete stress meters, steel strain gages on the steel shaft liner, convergence gages, piezometers, joint meters, bitumen pressure gages, temperature detectors, and extensometers. For a justification and basis for design of the instrument arrays which form part of the Shaft Mechanical and Thermal Response Monitoring, refer to the Draft Shaft Study Plan. 8 figs

  16. Design and development of a miniature column-based interface (MCBI) stress gage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Denis D.

    1993-04-01

    Tests are routinely conducted to evaluate the survivability, under simulated battlefield conditions, of buried military structures subjected to high-explosive loadings. The survivability assessments require the measurement of dynamic normal stresses induced at soil/structure interfaces. Stresses in excess of 10,000 psi and accelerations greater than 100,000 g's may be applied at interface locations. Normal-incidence interface stress gages currently used in such tests are incapable of accurately measuring stresses above 5,000 psi, and are sensitive to lateral accelerations and structure-transmitted stresses which distort the measurement. This study explores the design, development, and testing of a miniature, column-based, interface (MCBI) stress gage. The MCBI gage is designed to measure normal stresses up to 35,000 psi. Laboratory tests indicate that the gage produces a linear output due to applied pressure and is virtually insensitive to lateral stresses. Explosive tests have shown the MCBI gage compares favorably to commonly-used interface stress gages at stresses up to 3,000 psi and is survivable at stresses up to 25,000 psi.

  17. Improved Regression Analysis of Temperature-Dependent Strain-Gage Balance Calibration Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.

    2015-01-01

    An improved approach is discussed that may be used to directly include first and second order temperature effects in the load prediction algorithm of a wind tunnel strain-gage balance. The improved approach was designed for the Iterative Method that fits strain-gage outputs as a function of calibration loads and uses a load iteration scheme during the wind tunnel test to predict loads from measured gage outputs. The improved approach assumes that the strain-gage balance is at a constant uniform temperature when it is calibrated and used. First, the method introduces a new independent variable for the regression analysis of the balance calibration data. The new variable is designed as the difference between the uniform temperature of the balance and a global reference temperature. This reference temperature should be the primary calibration temperature of the balance so that, if needed, a tare load iteration can be performed. Then, two temperature{dependent terms are included in the regression models of the gage outputs. They are the temperature difference itself and the square of the temperature difference. Simulated temperature{dependent data obtained from Triumph Aerospace's 2013 calibration of NASA's ARC-30K five component semi{span balance is used to illustrate the application of the improved approach.

  18. Hidden Connections between Regression Models of Strain-Gage Balance Calibration Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Hidden connections between regression models of wind tunnel strain-gage balance calibration data are investigated. These connections become visible whenever balance calibration data is supplied in its design format and both the Iterative and Non-Iterative Method are used to process the data. First, it is shown how the regression coefficients of the fitted balance loads of a force balance can be approximated by using the corresponding regression coefficients of the fitted strain-gage outputs. Then, data from the manual calibration of the Ames MK40 six-component force balance is chosen to illustrate how estimates of the regression coefficients of the fitted balance loads can be obtained from the regression coefficients of the fitted strain-gage outputs. The study illustrates that load predictions obtained by applying the Iterative or the Non-Iterative Method originate from two related regression solutions of the balance calibration data as long as balance loads are given in the design format of the balance, gage outputs behave highly linear, strict statistical quality metrics are used to assess regression models of the data, and regression model term combinations of the fitted loads and gage outputs can be obtained by a simple variable exchange.

  19. Calibration of high temperature strain gages. Kalibrierung von Hochtemperatur-Dehnungsmessstreifen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstoetter; Weichsel

    1983-01-01

    Two procedures are examined for the calibration of the high temperature strain gages SG 125 and MG 125 manufactured by Eaton. The separation method developed by KWU and the modified damping method introduced by TUeV-Rheinland is tested up to temperatures of 315/sup 0/C. Both methods are well suited to limit the error interval for the SG 125 strain gages to about +- 30 ..mu..m/m in contrast to an error interval of +- 110 ..mu..m/m as reported by the manufacturer. The two methods, however, cannot be used in combination. In the case of the MG 125 strain gages with a shorter measuring length the results are not so promising. 38 figs.

  20. A new strain gage method for measuring the contractile strain ratio of Zircaloy tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved strain gage method for determining the contractile strain ratio (CSR) of Zircaloy tubing was developed. The new method consists of a number of load-unload cyclings at approximately 0.2% plastic strain interval. With this method the CSR of Zircaloy-4 tubing could be determined accurately because it was possible to separate the plastic strains from the elastic strain involvement. The CSR values determined by use of the new method were in good agreement with those calculated from conventional post-test manual measurements. The CSR of the tubing was found to decrease with the amount of deformation during testing because of uneven plastic flow in the gage section. A new technique of inscribing gage marks by use of a YAG laser is discussed. (orig.)

  1. Detection of Bi-Directionality in Strain-Gage Balance Calibration Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    An indicator variable was developed for both visualization and detection of bi-directionality in wind tunnel strain-gage balance calibration data. First, the calculation of the indicator variable is explained in detail. Then, a criterion is discussed that may be used to decide which gage outputs of a balance have bi- directional behavior. The result of this analysis could be used, for example, to justify the selection of certain absolute value or other even function terms in the regression model of gage outputs whenever the Iterative Method is chosen for the balance calibration data analysis. Calibration data of NASA s MK40 Task balance is analyzed to illustrate both the calculation of the indicator variable and the application of the proposed criterion. Finally, bi directionality characteristics of typical multi piece, hybrid, single piece, and semispan balances are determined and discussed.

  2. Stabilization of measuring channel of reflective gamma thickness gage by light pulses from additional scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possibility for using a sodium iodide scintillator as a reference signal source is considered. Experimental data on studying the performance of a gamma thickness gage with an additional scintillator are given. Results of experimental investigations of a thickness gage dummy proved practical expediency of the principle being considered. It is established, in particular, that the device is ready to operate without warm-up with a constant sensitivity, the deviation not exceeding 0.5%, in the ambient temperature range of 15-25 deg C

  3. GAGE cancer-germline antigens are recruited to the nuclear envelope by germ cell-less (GCL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Rösner, Heike I; Pedersen, Christina B;

    2012-01-01

    metazoan transcriptional regulator, Germ cell-less (GCL), as an interaction partner of GAGE12I. GCL directly binds LEM-domain proteins (LAP2β, emerin, MAN1) at the nuclear envelope, and we found that GAGE proteins were recruited to the nuclear envelope inner membrane by GCL. Based on yeast two...

  4. Expression, purification and characterization of the cancer-germline antigen GAGE12I: a candidate for cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Besir, Hüseyin; Larsen, Martin R;

    2010-01-01

    GAGE cancer-germline antigens are frequently expressed in a broad range of different cancers, while their expression in normal tissues is limited to the germ cells of the immune privileged organs, testis and ovary. GAGE proteins are immunogenic in humans, which make them promising targets for imm...

  5. An overview of the GAGE cancer/testis antigen family with the inclusion of newly identified members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, M F; Ditzel, H J

    2008-01-01

    cell biology. When expressed in tumor cells, GAGE proteins can elicit both cellular and humoral immune responses, indicating that they are appropriate targets for cancer immunotherapy. The potential use of GAGE proteins in cancer immunotherapy, including possible limitations, is also discussed....

  6. Silicon strain gages bonded on stainless steel using glass frit for strain sensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a steel pressure sensor using strain gages bonded on a 17–4 PH stainless steel (SS) diaphragm based on glass frit technology is proposed. The strain gages with uniform resistance are obtained by growing an epi-silicon layer on a single crystal silicon wafer using epitaxial deposition technique. The inorganic glass frits are used as the bonding material between the strain gages and the 17–4 PH SS diaphragm. Our results show that the output performances of sensors at a high temperature of 125 °C are almost equal those at room temperature, which indicates that the glass frit bonding is a good method and may lead to a significant advance in the high temperature applicability of silicon strain gage sensors. Finally, the microstructure of the cured organic adhesive and the fired glass frit are compared. It may be concluded that the defects of the cured organic adhesive deteriorate the hysteresis and repeatability errors of the sensors. (paper)

  7. Silicon strain gages bonded on stainless steel using glass frit for strain sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongyang; Cheng, Xingguo; Leng, Yi; Cao, Gang; Liu, Sheng

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a steel pressure sensor using strain gages bonded on a 17-4 PH stainless steel (SS) diaphragm based on glass frit technology is proposed. The strain gages with uniform resistance are obtained by growing an epi-silicon layer on a single crystal silicon wafer using epitaxial deposition technique. The inorganic glass frits are used as the bonding material between the strain gages and the 17-4 PH SS diaphragm. Our results show that the output performances of sensors at a high temperature of 125 °C are almost equal those at room temperature, which indicates that the glass frit bonding is a good method and may lead to a significant advance in the high temperature applicability of silicon strain gage sensors. Finally, the microstructure of the cured organic adhesive and the fired glass frit are compared. It may be concluded that the defects of the cured organic adhesive deteriorate the hysteresis and repeatability errors of the sensors.

  8. Iterative Strain-Gage Balance Calibration Data Analysis for Extended Independent Variable Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Norbert Manfred

    2011-01-01

    A new method was developed that makes it possible to use an extended set of independent calibration variables for an iterative analysis of wind tunnel strain gage balance calibration data. The new method permits the application of the iterative analysis method whenever the total number of balance loads and other independent calibration variables is greater than the total number of measured strain gage outputs. Iteration equations used by the iterative analysis method have the limitation that the number of independent and dependent variables must match. The new method circumvents this limitation. It simply adds a missing dependent variable to the original data set by using an additional independent variable also as an additional dependent variable. Then, the desired solution of the regression analysis problem can be obtained that fits each gage output as a function of both the original and additional independent calibration variables. The final regression coefficients can be converted to data reduction matrix coefficients because the missing dependent variables were added to the data set without changing the regression analysis result for each gage output. Therefore, the new method still supports the application of the two load iteration equation choices that the iterative method traditionally uses for the prediction of balance loads during a wind tunnel test. An example is discussed in the paper that illustrates the application of the new method to a realistic simulation of temperature dependent calibration data set of a six component balance.

  9. Resampling Gaged Networks to Provide Uncertainty Estimates for Daily Streamflow Predictions in Ungaged Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, W. H.; Over, T. M.; Vogel, R. M.; Archfield, S. A.; Kiang, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    In ungaged basins, predictions of daily streamflow are essential to responsible and effective management and design of water resources systems. Transfer-based methods are widely used for prediction in ungaged basins (PUB) within a gaged network. Such methods rely on the transfer of information from an index gage to an ungaged site. In what is known as the nearest-neighbor algorithm, the index gage is selected based on geospatial proximity. The predictions offered by any PUB method can be highly uncertain, and it is often difficult to characterize this uncertainty. In the development of predicted streamflow records, understanding the uncertainty of estimates would greatly improve water resources management in ungaged basins. It is proposed that by resampling the sites of the gaged network, with replacement, a set of equally-probable streamflow predictions can be produced for any ungaged site. For a particular day in the record, the percentiles of the distribution of the resampled, predicted streamflows can be used to estimate confidence intervals of the original daily streamflow predictions. This approach is explored in the Southeast United States with a nearest-neighbor application of non-linear spatial interpolation using flow duration curves (QPPQ), a common PUB method. Though some interval re-centering is required to ensure that the best-case prediction falls within the confidence intervals, it is shown that this technique provides a reasonable first-order approximation of prediction uncertainty. Still, the best estimated confidence intervals are shown to consistently under-estimate the nominal confidence. It is hypothesized that this interval contraction is a result of temporal and spatial correlation within the gaged network. Additionally, implications of prediction uncertainty are explored and alternative estimators are considered.

  10. Design, Analysis, and Initial Testing of a Fiber-Optic Shear Gage for 3D, High-Temperature Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Orr, Matthew William

    2004-01-01

    Design, Analysis, and Initial Testing of a Fiber-Optic Shear Gage for 3D, High-Temperature Flows Matthew W. Orr Dr. Joseph A. Schetz, Chairman Aerospace Engineering Abstract This investigation concerns the design, analysis, and initial testing of a new, two-component wall shear gage for 3D, high-temperature flows. This gage is a direct-measuring, non-nulling design with a round head surrounded by a small gap. Two flexure wheels are used to allow small motions of the flo...

  11. Channel stability downstream from a dam assessed using aerial photographs and stream-gage information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, K.E.

    2000-01-01

    The stability of the Neosho River channel downstream from John Redmond Dam, in southeast Kansas, was investigated using multiple-date aerial photographs and stream-gage information. Bankfull channel width was used as the primary indicator variable to assess pre- and post-dam channel change. Five six-mile river reaches and four stream gages were used in the analysis. Results indicated that, aside from some localized channel widening, the overall channel change has been minor with little post-dam change in bankfull channel width. The lack of a pronounced postdam channel change may be attributed to a substantial reduction in the magnitude of the post-dam annual peak discharges in combination with the resistance to erosion of the bed and bank materials. Also, the channel may have been overwidened by a series of large floods that predated construction of the dam, including one with an estimated 500-year recurrence interval.

  12. High temperature static strain gage development contract, tasks 1 and 2. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented for the first two tasks to develop resistive strain gage systems for use up to 1250 K on blades and vanes in gas turbine engines under tests. The objective of these two tasks was to further improve and evaluate two static strain gage alloys identified as candidates in a previous program. Improved compositions were not found for either alloy. Further efforts on the Fe-11.9Al-10.6Cr weigth percent alloy were discontinued because of time dependent drift problems at 1250 K in air. When produced as a 6.5 micrometer thick sputtered film, the Pd-13Cr weight percent alloys is not sufficiently stable for this use in air at 1250 K and a protective overcoat system will need to be developed

  13. Utilizing Photogrammetry and Strain Gage Measurement to Characterize Pressurization of an Inflatable Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Gerard D.; Selig, Molly; Litteken, Doug; Oliveras, Ovidio

    2012-01-01

    This paper documents the integration of a large hatch penetration into an inflatable module. This paper also documents the comparison of analytical load predictions with measured results utilizing strain measurement. Strain was measured by utilizing photogrammetric measurement and through measurement obtained from strain gages mounted to selected clevises that interface with the structural webbings. Bench testing showed good correlation between strain measurement obtained from an extensometer and photogrammetric measurement especially after the fabric has transitioned through the low load/high strain region of the curve. Test results for the full-scale torus showed mixed results in the lower load and thus lower strain regions. Overall strain, and thus load, measured by strain gages and photogrammetry tracked fairly well with analytical predictions. Methods and areas of improvements are discussed.

  14. Utilizing Photogrammetry and Strain Gage Measurement to Characterize Pressurization of Inflatable Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Anil

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on integrating a large hatch penetration into inflatable modules of various constructions. This paper also compares load predictions with test measurements. The strain was measured by utilizing photogrammetric methods and strain gages mounted to select clevises that interface with the structural webbings. Bench testing showed good correlation between strain data collected from an extensometer and photogrammetric measurements, even when the material transitioned from the low load to high load strain region of the curve. The full-scale torus design module showed mixed results as well in the lower load and high strain regions. After thorough analysis of photogrammetric measurements, strain gage measurements, and predicted load, the photogrammetric measurements seem to be off by a factor of two.

  15. Combined Load Diagram for a Wind Tunnel Strain-Gage Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.

    2010-01-01

    Combined Load Diagrams for Direct-Read, Force, and Moment Balances are discussed in great detail in the paper. The diagrams, if compared with a corresponding combined load plot of a balance calibration data set, may be used to visualize and interpret basic relationships between the applied balance calibration loads and the load components at the forward and aft gage of a strain-age balance. Lines of constant total force and moment are identified in the diagrams. In addition, the lines of pure force and pure moment are highlighted. Finally, lines of constant moment arm are depicted. It is also demonstrated that each quadrant of a Combined Load Diagram has specific regions where the applied total calibration force is at, between, or outside of the balance gage locations. Data from the manual calibration of a Force Balance is used to illustrate the application of a Combined Load Diagram to a realistic data set.

  16. New approach for calibration and interpretation of IRAD GAGE vibrating-wire stressmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRAD GAGE vibrating-wire stressmeters were installed in the Spent Fuel Facility at the Nevada Test Site to measure the change in in-situ stress during the Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C). This paper discusses the results of removing a cylindrical section of rock and gages as a unit through overcoring, and the subsequent post-test calibration of the stressmeters in the laboratory. The estimated in-situ stresses based on post test calibration data are quite consistent with those directly measured in nearby holes. The magnitude of stress change calculated from pre-test calibration data is generally much smaller than that estimated from post test calibration data. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  17. High temperature static strain gage development contract, tasks 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, C. O.; Bailey, R. S.; Grant, H. P.; Przybyszewski, J. S.

    1987-07-01

    Results are presented for the first two tasks to develop resistive strain gage systems for use up to 1250 K on blades and vanes in gas turbine engines under tests. The objective of these two tasks was to further improve and evaluate two static strain gage alloys identified as candidates in a previous program. Improved compositions were not found for either alloy. Further efforts on the Fe-11.9Al-10.6Cr weigth percent alloy were discontinued because of time dependent drift problems at 1250 K in air. When produced as a 6.5 micrometer thick sputtered film, the Pd-13Cr weight percent alloys is not sufficiently stable for this use in air at 1250 K and a protective overcoat system will need to be developed.

  18. Improving the reliability of high pressure reciprocating compressors by strain gage measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a combined experimental and numerical investigation of the structure of two high pressure reciprocating compressors. The experimental work was done by strain gage measurements. Its purpose was to put in evidence the place where the dangerous stresses occured and to validate FE models. These ones were used to find solutions to reduce the peak of the stresses, minimizing in this way failure risk of compressors body. (orig.)

  19. Strain gage balance for half models 302-6. Calibration report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaettler, Heinz

    1986-02-01

    A six-component strain gage balance for half models 302-6 for the transonic wind tunnel was developed and calibrated. The calibration was executed with a special lever, so that forces and moments could be loaded at the point of attack of the model. Point 8 (for recording buffering) was also measured. The balance is conceived for: X = +/- 100 (N); Mx = +/- 200 (Nm); Y = +/- 200 (N); My = +/- 35 (Nm); Z = +/- 1000 (N); and Mz = +/- 30 (Nm).

  20. Application of capsule type strain gage and fiber optic grating strain sensor for measurement of strain under irradiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, in-pile strain measurement techniques have been developing by using JMTR. In order to evaluate the performance of capsule type strain gage and fiber optic grating sensor under irradiation environment, the heat-up tests in electric furnace before irradiation and in-pile tests were performed. As for capsule type strain gage, it is found that gage factor almost did not change and both its electric resistance and strain output decreased by irradiation effect. A correlation was found between the change ratio of the electric resistance of the capsule type strain gage and fast neutron fluence. As for fiber optic grating sensor, it is possible to measure strain under irradiation environment below 1x1023 n/m2 (E>1 MeV) by this sensor, because in-pile temperature characteristic was in agreement with out-of-pile test results. (author)

  1. Design, analysis, and initial testing of a fiber-optic shear gage for three-dimensional, high-temperature flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Matthew W.

    This investigation concerns the design, analysis, and initial testing of a new, two-component wall shear gage for 3D, high-temperature flows. This gage is a direct-measuring, non-nulling design with a round head surrounded by a small gap. Two flexure wheels are used to allow small motions of the floating head. Fiber-optic displacement sensors measure how far the polished faces of counterweights on the wheels move in relation to a fixed housing as the primary measurement system. No viscous damping was required. The gage has both fiber-optic instrumentation and strain gages mounted on the flexures for validation of the newer fiber optics. The sensor is constructed of Haynes RTM 230RTM, a high-temperature nickel alloy. The gage housing is made of 316 stainless steel. All components of the gage in pure fiber-optic form can survive to a temperature of 1073 K. The bonding methods of the backup strain gages limit their maximum temperature to 473 K. The dynamic range of the gage is from 0--500 Pa (0--10g) and higher shears can be measured by changing the floating head size. Extensive use of finite element modeling was critical to the design and analysis of the gage. Static structural, modal, and thermal analyses were performed on the flexures using the ANSYS finite element package. Static finite element analysis predicted the response of the flexures to a given load, and static calibrations using a direct force method confirmed these results. Finite element modal analysis results were within 16.4% for the first mode and within 30% for the second mode when compared with the experimentally determined modes. Vibration characteristics of the gage were determined from experimental free vibration data after the gage was subjected to an impulse. Uncertainties in the finished geometry make this level of error acceptable. A transient thermal analysis examined the effects of a very high heat flux on the exposed head of the gage. The 100,000 W/m2 heat flux used in this analysis is

  2. Strain-gage balance calibration of a magnetic suspension and balance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul W.; Tcheng, Ping

    1987-01-01

    A load calibration of the NASA 13-in magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) is described. The calibration procedure was originally intended to establish the empirical relationship between the coil currents and the external loads (forces and moments) applied to a magnetically suspended calibrator. However, it was discovered that the performance of a strain-gage balance is not affected when subjected to the magnetic environment of the MSBS. The use of strain-gage balances greatly reduces the effort required to perform a current-vs.-load calibration as external loads can be directly inferred from the balance outputs while a calibrator is suspended in MSBS. It is conceivable that in the future such a calibration could become unnecessary, since an even more important application for the use of a strain-gage balance in MSBS environment is the acquisition of precision aerodynamic force and moment data by telemetering the balance outputs from a suspended model/core/balance during wind tunnel tests.

  3. Strain-gage balance calibration of a magnetic suspension and balance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul W.; Tcheng, Ping

    A load calibration of the NASA 13-in magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) is described. The calibration procedure was originally intended to establish the empirical relationship between the coil currents and the external loads (forces and moments) applied to a magnetically suspended calibrator. However, it was discovered that the performance of a strain-gage balance is not affected when subjected to the magnetic environment of the MSBS. The use of strain-gage balances greatly reduces the effort required to perform a current-vs.-load calibration as external loads can be directly inferred from the balance outputs while a calibrator is suspended in MSBS. It is conceivable that in the future such a calibration could become unnecessary, since an even more important application for the use of a strain-gage balance in MSBS environment is the acquisition of precision aerodynamic force and moment data by telemetering the balance outputs from a suspended model/core/balance during wind tunnel tests.

  4. Fiber-Optic Strain-Gage Tank Level Measurement System for Cryogenic Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Mitchell, Mark; Langford, Lester

    2004-01-01

    Measurement of tank level, particularly for cryogenic propellants, has proven to be a difficult problem. Current methods based on differential pressure, capacitance sensors, temperature sensors, etc.; do not provide sufficiently accurate or robust measurements, especially at run time. These methods are designed to measure tank-level, but when the fluids are in supercritical state, the liquid-gas interface disappears. Furthermore, there is a need for a non-intrusive measurement system; that is, the sensors should not require tank modifications and/or disturb the fluids. This paper describes a simple, but effective method to determine propellant mass by measuring very small deformations of the structure supporting the tank. Results of a laboratory study to validate the method, and experimental data from a deployed system are presented. A comparison with an existing differential pressure sensor shows that the strain gage system provides a much better quality signal across all regimes during an engine test. Experimental results also show that the use of fiber optic strain gages (FOSG) over classic foil strain gages extends the operation time (before the system becomes uncalibrated), and increases accuracy. Finally, a procedure is defined whereby measurements from the FOSG mounted on the tank supporting structure are compensated using measurements of a FOSG mounted on a reference plate and temperature measurements of the structure. Results describing the performance of a deployed system that measures tank level during propulsion tests are included.

  5. A New Load Residual Threshold Definition for the Evaluation of Wind Tunnel Strain-Gage Balance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.; Volden, T.

    2016-01-01

    A new definition of a threshold for the detection of load residual outliers of wind tunnel strain-gage balance data was developed. The new threshold is defined as the product between the inverse of the absolute value of the primary gage sensitivity and an empirical limit of the electrical outputs of a strain{gage. The empirical limit of the outputs is either 2.5 microV/V for balance calibration or check load residuals. A reduced limit of 0.5 microV/V is recommended for the evaluation of differences between repeat load points because, by design, the calculation of these differences removes errors in the residuals that are associated with the regression analysis of the data itself. The definition of the new threshold and different methods for the determination of the primary gage sensitivity are discussed. In addition, calibration data of a six-component force balance and a five-component semi-span balance are used to illustrate the application of the proposed new threshold definition to different types of strain{gage balances. During the discussion of the force balance example it is also explained how the estimated maximum expected output of a balance gage can be used to better understand results of the application of the new threshold definition.

  6. Ionization gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ionization manometer is proposed which contains a transducer consisting of an anode, a directly heated cathode and a collector, a power source, a cathode emission current stabilizer, an ionic current amplifier connected to a recorder, and a cathode emission current modulator. To increase the accuracy of measurements under conditions of vacuum evaporation of materials, the modulator has been designed to comprise a source of controlling electric unipolar pulses of a specified duration and frequency and a blocking device connected to the collector. The output of the source of controlling electric unipolar pulses is connected to the emission current stabilizer and to the second input of the blocking device whose output is connected to the ionic current amplifier. The amount of pressure exerted in the vacuum chamber is estimated from the magnitude of the variable constituent of the collector signal

  7. Development of a six component flexured two shell internal strain gage balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, P. J.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a new wind tunnel balance designed to meet the load requirements of the new advanced aircraft. Based on the floating frame or two-shell concept, the Flexured Balance incorporates a separate axial element, thus allowing for higher load per unit diameter, reduced primary load interaction, and greater flexibility in load range selection. Described is the design process, fabrication, gaging, calibration results, and performance during tunnel testing of the first prototype balance. Supporting data and accuracies are provided.

  8. Development and Ground Testing of Direct Measuring Skin Friction Gages for High Enthalpy Supersonic Flight Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Theodore Brooke

    2001-01-01

    A series of direct-measuring skin friction gages were developed for a high-speed, high-temperature environment of the turbulent boundary layer in flows such as that in supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) engines, with a progression from free-jet ground tests to a design for an actual hypersonic scramjet-integrated flight vehicle. The designs were non-nulling, with a sensing head that was flush with the model wall and surrounded by a small gap. Thus, the shear force due to the flow along...

  9. A curvature based approach using long-gage fiber optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Kaitlyn; Glisic, Branko

    2016-04-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors offer a significant advantage for structural health monitoring due to their ability to simultaneously monitor both static and dynamic strain while being durable, lightweight, capable of multiplexing, and immune to electro-magnetic interference. Drawing upon the benefits of FBG sensors, this research explores the use of a series of long-gage fiber optic sensors for damage detection of a structure through dynamic strain measurements and curvature analysis. Typically structural monitoring relies upon detecting structural changes through frequency and acceleration based analysis. However, curvature and strain based analysis may be a more reliable means for structural monitoring as they show more sensitivity to damage compared to modal parameters such as displacement mode shapes and natural frequency. Additionally, long gage FBG strain sensors offer a promising alternative to traditional dynamic measurement methods as the curvature can be computed directly from the FBG strain measurements without the need for numerical differentiation. Small scale experimental testing was performed using an aluminum beam instrumented with a series of FBG optical fiber sensors. Dynamic strain measurements were obtained as the aluminum beam was subjected to various loading and support conditions. From this, a novel normalized parameter based on the curvature from the dynamic strain measurements has been identified as a potential damage sensitive feature. Theoretical predictions and experimental data were compared and conclusions carried out. The results demonstrated the potential of the novel normalized parameter to facilitate dynamic monitoring at both the local and global scale, thus allowing assessment of the structures health.

  10. Tide Gage Records of Two Large XIX Century Tsunamis Originated in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, S. E.; Ward, S. N.

    2008-12-01

    Two large earthquakes took place in the later part of the XIX century in southern Peru and northern Chile, these are the August 13, 1868, and the May 9, 1877 (local time), events. Their estimated magnitudes are of the order of 9 rupturing contiguous segments of nearly 500 km each. Both of them accommodated the convergence between Nazca and South American plates producing large seafloor and coastal elevation changes generating significant tsunamis that affected most of the coastlines of the Pacific basin. Reported local runups reached 20 m. Both trans-pacific tsunamis were recorded at one tide gage in Fort Point, in the Presidio area of San Francisco Bay, California. Records at Sausalito (approximately 6 km away from Fort Point) for the 1877 event mimic the signal recorded at Fort Point. Here we report on the characteristics of these tide gage records and compare them to the recent record of the June 2001 Mw=8.4 earthquake that ruptured a fraction of the 1868 event. Numerical simulations of the tsunamis have been constructed. The area to the south of the 2001 event and north of Antofagasta - Tocopilla in Chile (17°S-22°S), has not been subjected to large earthquakes since the 1868-1877 sequence.

  11. Strain-gage signal-conditioning system for use in the LCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strain-gage signal-conditioning system, providing wide-band noise rejection and isolation from high voltages that occur during emergency coil discharges, has been developed and tested. The multichannel system combines double-shielded transformers, neutralizing networks, and bandpass filters (with commercial 3-kHz carrier amplifier modules to isolate the strain gages to 5000 V) eliminate thermoelectric effects, and provide a signal bandwidth of 200 Hz. Common-mode interference occurs primarily as a result of beat-note effects between the carrier and the superimposed noise at frequencies near the odd harmonics of the carrier. The common-mode rejection of the test circuit was measured to be 120 dB for noise at 2750 and 3250 Hz, 135 dB at 3 kHz, and 135 dB and better at the odd harmonics of 9 kHz and above. The system has been successfully used in strain measurements on the toroidal field coils of the ISX-B tokamak and will be used in the Large Coil Test Facility to monitor strains in the energized coil conductors

  12. Gage cookbook: Tools and techniques to measure stresses and motions on explosive experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Technology Dept.

    1996-01-01

    Tools and techniques developed to measure stresses and motions on underground nuclear and high explosive tests in the tuff geologies at the Nevada Test Site are described in this document. The thrust of the measurements was to understand containment phenomenology. The authors concentrate on the fluid-coupled ytterbium gage; it was fielded to measure dynamic stress in the 0.2 to 20 kilobar range and the subsequent, low amplitude residual stress. Also described are accelerometer packages; their traces were integrated to obtain particle motion. Various cable survival techniques were investigated with field measurements for they wished to extend the measurements to late-time. Field measurements were also made to address the gage inclusion problem. Work to date suggests that the problem is a minimum when the stress level is above the yield strength of the host rock and grout. Below the yield level stress amplitudes in the grouted hole can range from 60 to 200% of the stress in the host rock.

  13. Stress Measurement around a Circular Role in a Cantilever Beam under Bending Moment Using Strain Gage and Reflective Photoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to study on the stress concentration experimentally, which is the main reason to avoid mechanical dilapidation and failure, when designing a mechanical structure. Stress concentration factor of a specimen of cantilever beam with a circular hole in the center was measured using both strain gage and photoelastic methods in this paper. In strain-gage measurement, three strain gages along the line near a hole of the specimen were installed and maximum strain was extrapolated from three measurements. In photoelastic measurement, two methods were employed. First, the Babinet-Soleil compensation method was used to measure the maximum strain. Secondly, photoelastic 4-step phase shilling method was applied to observe the strain distribution around the hole. Measurements obtained by different experiments were comparable within the range of experimental error

  14. MAGE-A1, GAGE and NY-ESO-1 cancer/testis antigen expression during human gonadal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Kock, Kirsten; Nielsen, Ole;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are expressed in several cancers and during normal adult male germ cell differentiation. Little is known about their role in fetal development of human germ cells. METHODS: We examined expression of the CTAs MAGE-A1, GAGE and NY-ESO-1 in fetal gonads...... by single and double immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: We found that GAGE was expressed in the primordial germ cells of the gonadal primordium, whereas MAGE-A1 and NY-ESO-1 were first detected in germ cells of both testis and ovary after sexual differentiation was initiated. The number of positive germ...... cells and the staining intensity of all three CTAs peaked during the second trimester and gradually decreased towards birth in both male and female germ cells. In oocytes, MAGE-A1 expression terminated around birth, whereas NY-ESO-1 expression persisted through the neonatal stage and GAGE expression...

  15. Strain gages as a tool for experimental residual stress measurement. Dehnungsmessstreifen als Hilfsmittel zur experimentellen Ermittlung von Eigenspannungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keil, S.

    1989-09-01

    Residual stress in structural components can be experimentally determined with the aid of strain gages. Different experimental methods are available for this purpose which however all rely on the same principle of an external mechanical impact changing the inherent state of equilibrium of the component. The strain gages measure the relative elongation changes induced at the surface due to the new equilibrium state, and these data give information on the original residual stress in the workpiece. The article in hand describes the different methods that can be applied for inducing the desired change of equilibrium state and discusses practical examples. (orig.).

  16. From Gaged to Ungaged- Predicting Long-term Environmental Flows, and Ecosystems Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, A.; Adams, S. K.; Stein, E. D.; Mazor, R.; Bledsoe, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Modern management needs, such as water supply, quality, and ecosystem protection place numerous demands on instream flows. Many regions are interested in developing numeric flow criteria as a way of ensuring maintenance of flow patterns that protect biological resources while meeting other demands. Developing flow criteria requires the capacity to generate reliable time series of the daily flow at any stream reach of interest and to relate flow patterns to biological indicators of stream health. Most stream reaches are not gaged, and it is impractical to develop detailed models for all reaches where flow alteration needs to be evaluated. We present a novel mechanistic approach to efficiently predict flows and flow alteration at all ungaged stream locations within a region of interest. We used an "ensemble approach" whereby a series of regionally representative models were developed and calibrated. New sites of interest are assigned to one of the ensemble models based on similarity of catchment properties. For southern California, we selected 43 gaged sites representing the range of geomorphology, and watershed characteristics of streams in the region. For each gaged site, we developed a hydrologic model (HEC-HMS) to predict daily flows for a period representing dry, wet and normal precipitation. The final goal is to relate flow alterations to ecological responses, the models were calibrated to three separate performance metrics that reflect conditions important for instream biological communities- proportion of low flow days, flashiness and Nash Sutcliffe efficiency for overall model performance. We cross-validated the models using a "jack-knife" approach. Models were assigned to novel 840 bioassessment sites based on the results of a Random Forest model that identified catchment properties that most affected the runoff patterns. Daily flow data for existing and "reference conditions" was simulated for a 23-year period for current and reference (undeveloped

  17. Review of Trackside Monitoring Solutions: From Strain Gages to Optical Fibre Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouroussis, Georges; Caucheteur, Christophe; Kinet, Damien; Alexandrou, Georgios; Verlinden, Olivier; Moeyaert, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    A review of recent research on structural monitoring in railway industry is proposed in this paper, with a special focus on stress-based solutions. After a brief analysis of the mechanical behaviour of ballasted railway tracks, an overview of the most common monitoring techniques is presented. A special attention is paid on strain gages and accelerometers for which the accurate mounting position on the track is requisite. These types of solution are then compared to another modern approach based on the use of optical fibres. Besides, an in-depth discussion is made on the evolution of numerical models that investigate the interaction between railway vehicles and tracks. These models are used to validate experimental devices and to predict the best location(s) of the sensors. It is hoped that this review article will stimulate further research activities in this continuously expanding field. PMID:26287207

  18. Review of Trackside Monitoring Solutions: From Strain Gages to Optical Fibre Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Kouroussis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent research on structural monitoring in railway industry is proposed in this paper, with a special focus on stress-based solutions. After a brief analysis of the mechanical behaviour of ballasted railway tracks, an overview of the most common monitoring techniques is presented. A special attention is paid on strain gages and accelerometers for which the accurate mounting position on the track is requisite. These types of solution are then compared to another modern approach based on the use of optical fibres. Besides, an in-depth discussion is made on the evolution of numerical models that investigate the interaction between railway vehicles and tracks. These models are used to validate experimental devices and to predict the best location(s of the sensors. It is hoped that this review article will stimulate further research activities in this continuously expanding field.

  19. A Universal Tare Load Prediction Algorithm for Strain-Gage Balance Calibration Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm is discussed that may be used to estimate tare loads of wind tunnel strain-gage balance calibration data. The algorithm was originally developed by R. Galway of IAR/NRC Canada and has been described in the literature for the iterative analysis technique. Basic ideas of Galway's algorithm, however, are universally applicable and work for both the iterative and the non-iterative analysis technique. A recent modification of Galway's algorithm is presented that improves the convergence behavior of the tare load prediction process if it is used in combination with the non-iterative analysis technique. The modified algorithm allows an analyst to use an alternate method for the calculation of intermediate non-linear tare load estimates whenever Galway's original approach does not lead to a convergence of the tare load iterations. It is also shown in detail how Galway's algorithm may be applied to the non-iterative analysis technique. Hand load data from the calibration of a six-component force balance is used to illustrate the application of the original and modified tare load prediction method. During the analysis of the data both the iterative and the non-iterative analysis technique were applied. Overall, predicted tare loads for combinations of the two tare load prediction methods and the two balance data analysis techniques showed excellent agreement as long as the tare load iterations converged. The modified algorithm, however, appears to have an advantage over the original algorithm when absolute voltage measurements of gage outputs are processed using the non-iterative analysis technique. In these situations only the modified algorithm converged because it uses an exact solution of the intermediate non-linear tare load estimate for the tare load iteration.

  20. Assessment of the Uniqueness of Wind Tunnel Strain-Gage Balance Load Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.

    2016-01-01

    A new test was developed to assess the uniqueness of wind tunnel strain-gage balance load predictions that are obtained from regression models of calibration data. The test helps balance users to gain confidence in load predictions of non-traditional balance designs. It also makes it possible to better evaluate load predictions of traditional balances that are not used as originally intended. The test works for both the Iterative and Non-Iterative Methods that are used in the aerospace testing community for the prediction of balance loads. It is based on the hypothesis that the total number of independently applied balance load components must always match the total number of independently measured bridge outputs or bridge output combinations. This hypothesis is supported by a control volume analysis of the inputs and outputs of a strain-gage balance. It is concluded from the control volume analysis that the loads and bridge outputs of a balance calibration data set must separately be tested for linear independence because it cannot always be guaranteed that a linearly independent load component set will result in linearly independent bridge output measurements. Simple linear math models for the loads and bridge outputs in combination with the variance inflation factor are used to test for linear independence. A highly unique and reversible mapping between the applied load component set and the measured bridge output set is guaranteed to exist if the maximum variance inflation factor of both sets is less than the literature recommended threshold of five. Data from the calibration of a six{component force balance is used to illustrate the application of the new test to real-world data.

  1. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-4, Angle Measurement Instruments, Optical Projections and Surface Texture Gages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleck, Ben; Espy, John

    This fourth in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology describes the universal bevel protractor and the sine bar, the engineering microscope and optical projector, and several types of surface texture gages. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3)…

  2. Expression of tumor-specific antigen MAGE, GAGE and BAGE in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To observe mRNA expression of tumor-specific antigen MAGE, BAGE and GAGE in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines, to explore the relationship between gene expression and diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of ovarian cancer, and to evaluate the feasibility of their gene products as markers, and an immunotherapy target for ovarian cancer. Methods mRNA expression of MAGE-1, MAGE-3, GAGE-1/2 and BAGE were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR in 14 cases of normal ovarian tissue, 20 cases of ovarian benign tumor specimens, 41 cases of ovarian cancer specimens, and ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3, A2780, and COC1. Results MAGE, GAGE and BAGE genes were not expressed in normal ovarian tissue. In benign tumors, only the MAGE gene was expressed; the expression rate of this gene in benign tumors was 15% (3/20. In ovarian cancer tissues, MAGE-1 and MAGE-3 was highly expressed, with expression rates of 53.7% (22/41 and 36.6% (15/41, while GAGE-1/2 and BAGE had relatively low expression, with rates of 26.8% (11/41 and 14.6% (6/41. In metastatic lesions of ovarian cancer, only MAGE-1 and BAGE were expressed, with expression rates of 28.6% (2/7 and 14.3% (1/7. The positive expression rates of MAGE-1 and MAGE-3 in serous cystadenocarcinoma were significantly higher than that in other types of ovarian cancer (P P Conclusion Tumor-specific antigen MAGE, BAGE and GAGE may play a role in the occurrence and development of ovarian cancer. These genes can be used as one of the important indicators for early diagnosis, efficacy evaluation and prognostic determination of ovarian cancer.

  3. Expression of tumor-specific antigen MAGE, GAGE and BAGE in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe mRNA expression of tumor-specific antigen MAGE, BAGE and GAGE in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines, to explore the relationship between gene expression and diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of ovarian cancer, and to evaluate the feasibility of their gene products as markers, and an immunotherapy target for ovarian cancer. mRNA expression of MAGE-1, MAGE-3, GAGE-1/2 and BAGE were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 14 cases of normal ovarian tissue, 20 cases of ovarian benign tumor specimens, 41 cases of ovarian cancer specimens, and ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3, A2780, and COC1. MAGE, GAGE and BAGE genes were not expressed in normal ovarian tissue. In benign tumors, only the MAGE gene was expressed; the expression rate of this gene in benign tumors was 15% (3/20). In ovarian cancer tissues, MAGE-1 and MAGE-3 was highly expressed, with expression rates of 53.7% (22/41) and 36.6% (15/41), while GAGE-1/2 and BAGE had relatively low expression, with rates of 26.8% (11/41) and 14.6% (6/41). In metastatic lesions of ovarian cancer, only MAGE-1 and BAGE were expressed, with expression rates of 28.6% (2/7) and 14.3% (1/7). The positive expression rates of MAGE-1 and MAGE-3 in serous cystadenocarcinoma were significantly higher than that in other types of ovarian cancer (P < 0.05). Gene expression rate was not correlated with menopause or lymph node metastasis. Positive expression of MAGE-1 and MAGE-3 was positively correlated with tumor differentiation and the clinical stage of the ovarian cancer. In addition, the positive expression rate of BAGE was significantly higher in ovarian cancer patients with ascites (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression profiles of MAGE, GAGE and BAGE in ovarian carcinoma cell lines SKOV3, A2780 and COC1 varied, but there was at least one gene expressed in each cell line. Tumor-specific antigen MAGE, BAGE and GAGE may play a role in the occurrence and development of ovarian cancer

  4. Stream gage descriptions and streamflow statistics for sites in the Tigris River and Euphrates River Basins, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Dina K.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical summaries of streamflow data for all long-term streamflow-gaging stations in the Tigris River and Euphrates River Basins in Iraq are presented in this report. The summaries for each streamflow-gaging station include (1) a station description, (2) a graph showing annual mean discharge for the period of record, (3) a table of extremes and statistics for monthly and annual mean discharge, (4) a graph showing monthly maximum, minimum, and mean discharge, (5) a table of monthly and annual mean discharges for the period of record, (6) a graph showing annual flow duration, (7) a table of monthly and annual flow duration, (8) a table of high-flow frequency data (maximum mean discharge for 3-, 7-, 15-, and 30-day periods for selected exceedance probabilities), and (9) a table of low-flow frequency data (minimum mean discharge for 3-, 7-, 15-, 30-, 60-, 90-, and 183-day periods for selected non-exceedance probabilities).

  5. A stream-gaging network analysis for the 7-Day, 10-year annual low flow in New Hampshire streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    The 7-day, 10-year (7Q10) low-flow-frequency statistic is a widely used measure of surface-water availability in New Hampshire. Regression equations and basin-characteristic digital data sets were developed to help water-resource managers determine surface-water resources during periods of low flow in New Hampshire streams. These regression equations and data sets were developed to estimate streamflow statistics for the annual and seasonal low-flow-frequency, and period-of-record and seasonal period-of-record flow durations. generalized-least-squares (GLS) regression methods were used to develop the annual 7Q10 low-flow-frequency regression equation from 60 continuous-record stream-gaging stations in New Hampshire and in neighboring States. In the regression equation, the dependent variables were the annual 7Q10 flows at the 60 stream-gaging stations. The independent (or predictor) variables were objectively selected characteristics of the drainage basins that contribute flow to those stations. In contrast to ordinary-least-squares (OLS) regression analysis, GLS-developed estimating equations account for differences in length of record and spatial correlations among the flow-frequency statistics at the various stations. A total of 93 measurable drainage-basin characteristics were candidate independent variables. On the basis of several statistical parameters that were used to evaluate which combination of basin characteristics contribute the most to the predictive power of the equations, three drainage-basin characteristics were determined to be statistically significant predictors of the annual 7Q10: (1) total drainage area, (2) mean summer stream-gaging station precipitation from 1961 to 90, and (3) average mean annual basinwide temperature from 1961 to 1990. To evaluate the effectiveness of the stream-gaging network in providing regional streamflow data for the annual 7Q10, the computer program GLSNET (generalized-least-squares NETwork) was used to analyze the

  6. Flight Test Results from the Rake Airflow Gage Experiment on the F-15B Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Michael A.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.

    2011-01-01

    The Rake Airflow Gage Experiment involves a flow-field survey rake that was flown on the Propulsion Flight Test Fixture at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center using the Dryden F-15B research test bed airplane. The objective of this flight test was to ascertain the flow-field angularity, local Mach number profile, total pressure distortion, and dynamic pressure at the aerodynamic interface plane of the Channeled Centerbody Inlet Experiment. This new mixed-compression, supersonic inlet is planned for flight test in the near term. Knowledge of the flow-field characteristics at this location underneath the airplane is essential to flight test planning and computational modeling of the new inlet, anairplane, flying at a free-stream Mach number of 1.65 and a pressure altitude of 40,000 ft, would achieve the desired local Mach number for the future inlet flight test. Interface plane distortion levels of 2 percent and a local angle of attack of -2 deg were observed at this condition. Alternative flight conditions for future testing and an exploration of certain anomalous data also are provided.

  7. A preliminary biomechanical assessment of a polymer composite hip implant using an infrared thermography technique validated by strain gage measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougherara, Habiba; Rahim, Ehsan; Shah, Suraj; Dubov, Anton; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Rad

    2011-07-01

    With the resurgence of composite materials in orthopaedic applications, a rigorous assessment of stress is needed to predict any failure of bone-implant systems. For current biomechanics research, strain gage measurements are employed to experimentally validate finite element models, which then characterize stress in the bone and implant. Our preliminary study experimentally validates a relatively new nondestructive testing technique for orthopaedic implants. Lock-in infrared (IR) thermography validated with strain gage measurements was used to investigate the stress and strain patterns in a novel composite hip implant made of carbon fiber reinforced polyamide 12 (CF/PA12). The hip implant was instrumented with strain gages and mechanically tested using average axial cyclic forces of 840 N, 1500 N, and 2100 N with the implant at an adduction angle of 15 deg to simulate the single-legged stance phase of walking gait. Three-dimensional surface stress maps were also obtained using an IR thermography camera. Results showed almost perfect agreement of IR thermography versus strain gage data with a Pearson correlation of R(2) = 0.96 and a slope = 1.01 for the line of best fit. IR thermography detected hip implant peak stresses on the inferior-medial side just distal to the neck region of 31.14 MPa (at 840 N), 72.16 MPa (at 1500 N), and 119.86 MPa (at 2100 N). There was strong correlation between IR thermography-measured stresses and force application level at key locations on the implant along the medial (R(2) = 0.99) and lateral (R(2) = 0.83 to 0.99) surface, as well as at the peak stress point (R(2) = 0.81 to 0.97). This is the first study to experimentally validate and demonstrate the use of lock-in IR thermography to obtain three-dimensional stress fields of an orthopaedic device manufactured from a composite material.

  8. Selected Discharge Measurements at Stream-Gaging Stations on Lower Platte River near Ashland, Duncan, Leshara, Louisville, and North Bend, Nebraska, 1934-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The accompanying "Lower_Platte_GAGES5" data release consists of two parts, a spatial data layer composed of a vector point data set representing five USGS...

  9. Evaluation of a strain-gage load calibration on a low-aspect-ratio wing structure at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Lawrence F.

    1989-01-01

    The environmental aspect of elevated temperature and its relationship to the science of strain gage calibrations of aircraft structures are addressed. A section of a wing designed for a high-speed aircraft structure was used to study this problem. This structure was instrumented with strain gages calibrated at both elevated and room temperatures. Load equations derived from a high-temperature load calibration were compared with equations derived from an identical load calibration at room temperature. The implications of the high temperature load calibration were studied from the viewpoint of applicability and necessity. Load equations derived from the room temperature load calibration resulted in generally lower equation standard errors than equations derived from the elevated temperature load calibration. A distributed load was applied to the structure at elevated temperature and strain gage outputs were measured. This applied load was then calculated using equations derived from both the room temperature and elevated temperature calibration data. It was found that no significant differences between the two equation systems existed in terms of computing this applied distributed load, as long as the thermal shifts resulting from thermal stresses could be identified. This identification requires a heating of the structure. Therefore, it is concluded that for this structure, a high temperature load calibration is not required. However, a heating of the structure is required to determine thermal shifts.

  10. Estimating Low-Flow Frequency Statistics and Hydrologic Analysis of Selected Streamflow-Gaging Stations, Nooksack River Basin, Northwestern Washington and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Christopher A.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2009-01-01

    Low-flow frequency statistics were computed at 17 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations and 8 miscellaneous measurement sites in and near the Nooksack River basin in northwestern Washington and Canada, including the 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 60 consecutive-day low flows with recurrence intervals of 2 and 10 years. Using these low-flow statistics, 12 regional regression equations were developed for estimating the same low-flow statistics at ungaged sites in the Nooksack River basin using a weighted-least-squares method. Adjusted R2 (coefficient of determination) values for the equations ranged from 0.79 to 0.93 and the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) expressed as a percentage ranged from 77 to 560 percent. Streamflow records from six gaging stations located in mountain-stream or lowland-stream subbasins of the Nooksack River basin were analyzed to determine if any of the gaging stations could be removed from the network without significant loss of information. Using methods of hydrograph comparison, daily-value correlation, variable space, and flow-duration ratios, and other factors relating to individual subbasins, the six gaging stations were prioritized from most to least important as follows: Skookum Creek (12209490), Anderson Creek (12210900), Warm Creek (12207750), Fishtrap Creek (12212050), Racehorse Creek (12206900), and Clearwater Creek (12207850). The optimum streamflow-gaging station network would contain all gaging stations except Clearwater Creek, and the minimum network would include Skookum Creek and Anderson Creek.

  11. The Future of the Plate Boundary Observatory in the GAGE Facility and beyond 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, G. S.; Bendick, R. O.; Foster, J. H.; Freymueller, J. T.; La Femina, P. C.; Miller, M. M.; Rowan, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and Earthscope (GAGE) Facility, which operates the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), builds on UNAVCO's strong record of facilitating research and education in the geosciences and geodesy-related engineering fields. Precise positions and velocities for the PBO's ~1100 continuous GPS stations and other PBO data products are used to address a wide range of scientific and technical issues across North America. A large US and international community of scientists, surveyors, and civil engineers access PBO data streams, software, and other on-line resources daily. In a global society that is increasingly technology-dependent, consistently risk-averse, and often natural resource-limited, communities require geodetic research, education, and infrastructure to make informed decisions about living on a dynamic planet. The western U.S. and Alaska, where over 95% of the PBO sensor assets are located, have recorded significant geophysical events like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunami. UNAVCO community science provides first-order constraints on geophysical processes to support hazards mapping and zoning, and form the basis for earthquake and tsunami early warning applications currently under development. The future of PBO was discussed at a NSF-sponsored three-day workshop held in September 2014 in Breckenridge, CO. Over 40 invited participants and community members, including representatives from interested stakeholder groups, UNAVCO staff, and members of the PBO Working Group and Geodetic Infrastructure Advisory Committee participated in workshop, which included retrospective and prospective plenary presentations and breakout sessions focusing on specific scientific themes. We will present some of the findings of that workshop in order to continue a dialogue about policies and resources for long-term earth observing networks. How PBO fits into the recently released U.S. National Plan for Civil Earth Observations will also be

  12. Internships and UNAVCO: Training the Future Geoscience Workforce Through the NSF GAGE Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. R.; MacPherson-Krutsky, C. C.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Bartel, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Facilities are uniquely positioned to both serve a broad, national audience and provide unique workforce experience to students and recent graduates. Intentional efforts dedicated to broadening participation in the future geoscience workforce at the NSF GAGE (Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope) Facility operated by UNAVCO, are designed to meet the needs of the next generation of students and professionals. As a university-governed consortium facilitating research and education in the geosciences, UNAVCO is well-situated to both prepare students for geoscience technical careers and advanced research positions. Since 1998, UNAVCO has offered over 165 student assistant or intern positions including engineering, data services, education and outreach, and business support. UNAVCO offers three formal programs: the UNAVCO Student Internship Program (USIP), Research Experiences in Solid Earth Science for Students (RESESS), and the Geo-Launchpad (GLP) internship program. Interns range from community college students up through graduate students and recent Masters graduates. USIP interns gain real-world work experience in a professional setting, collaborate with teams toward a common mission, and contribute their knowledge, skills, and abilities to the UNAVCO community. RESESS interns conduct authentic research with a scientist in the Front Range area as well as participate in a structured professional development series. GLP students are in their first 2 years of higher education and work alongside UNAVCO technical staff gaining valuable work experience and insight into the logistics of supporting scientific research. UNAVCO's efforts in preparing the next generation of scientists largely focuses on increasing diversity in the geosciences, whether continuing academic studies or moving into the workforce. To date, well over half of our interns and student assistants come from backgrounds historically underrepresented in the geosciences. Over 80% of former interns

  13. High mass resolution time of flight mass spectrometer for measuring products in heterogeneous catalysis in highly sensitive microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Jensen, Robert; Christensen, M. K.;

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a combined microreactor and time of flight system for testing and characterization of heterogeneous catalysts with high resolution mass spectrometry and high sensitivity. Catalyst testing is performed in silicon-based microreactors which have high sensitivity and fast thermal...... response. Gas analysis is performed with a time of flight mass spectrometer with a modified nude Bayard-Alpert ionization gauge as gas ionization source. The mass resolution of the time of flight mass spectrometer using the ion gauge as ionization source is estimated to m∕Δm > 2500. The system design...

  14. Instrumentation, methods of flood-data collection and transmission, and evaluation of streamflow-gaging network in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatfelter, D.R.; Butch, G.K.

    1994-01-01

    Floods are the number one natural disaster in the Nation, based on loss of life and property. In Indiana, several major floods have occurred during this century. Flooding can occur at any time in any geographic area in Indiana. The degree of flooding can vary from a minor inconvenience to major flooding that results in loss of life and extensive damage. In this study, the existing streamflow-gaging networks in Indiana are evaluated on the basis of meeting flood-data needs of various governmental agencies.

  15. 电阻应变计用UV胶盖面方案浅析%Shallowly talking about using spraying UV cured resin to encapsulate the stain gage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁昌锐

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays when people produce resistance strain gages, the encapsulating process is very complex, and to cure the encapsulating resin using the clip will produce internal stress, will take a long time to be released. Our new concept using spraying UV cured resin to encapsulate the strain gage facilitates the automation of production, not only greatly enhance the production efficiency, reduce the cost, but also can reduce the internal stress of the strain gage. Choosing good UV cured resin can also improve the protective performance of the encapsulated strain gage, improve the quality of strain gage.%现在生产电阻应变计盖面时工艺很复杂,而且固化时要上夹子会产生应力,需要一定的时日才能释放出来,新概念改用喷Uv胶的方法盖面,便于自动化大生产,不仅大大提高了生产效率,降低了成本,还可以减小盖面时应变计的内部应力,选择良好的Uv胶还可以改进盖面胶的防护性能,提高应变计的质量。

  16. Distinct GAGE and MAGE-A expression during early human development indicate specific roles in lineage differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten; Harkness, Linda; Kassem, Moustapha;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Expression of cancer/testis-associated proteins (CTAs) has traditionally been considered to be restricted to germ cells in normal tissues and to different types of malignancies. We have evaluated the potential role of CTAs in early human development. METHODS: Using immunohistochemistr...... development of various types of somatic cells, and suggest that they are implicated in specific differentiation processes.......BACKGROUND: Expression of cancer/testis-associated proteins (CTAs) has traditionally been considered to be restricted to germ cells in normal tissues and to different types of malignancies. We have evaluated the potential role of CTAs in early human development. METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry...... with expression of the neuroectodermal markers beta-tubulin 3, Pax6 and nestin. A widespread expression of MAGE-A was also observed in neurons of the early developing central nervous system and peripheral nerves. G antigen (GAGE) expression was present in the early ectoderm of embryos, including cells...

  17. The development of a bearing spectral analyzer and algorithms to detect turbopump bearing wear from deflectometer and strain gage data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Carol L.

    1992-07-01

    Over the last several years, Rocketdyne has actively developed condition and health monitoring techniques and their elements for rocket engine components, specifically high pressure turbopumps. Of key interest is the development of bearing signature analysis systems for real-time monitoring of the cryogen-cooled turbopump shaft bearings, which spin at speeds up to 36,000 RPM. These system elements include advanced bearing vibration sensors, signal processing techniques, wear mode algorithms, and integrated control software. Results of development efforts in the areas of signal processing and wear mode identification and quantification algorithms based on strain gage and deflectometer data are presented. Wear modes investigated include: inner race wear, cage pocket wear, outer race wear, differential ball wear, cracked inner race, and nominal wear.

  18. Evaluating a slope-stability model for shallow rain-induced landslides using gage and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatheendradas, S.; Kirschbaum, D.; Baum, Rex L.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    Improving prediction of landslide early warning systems requires accurate estimation of the conditions that trigger slope failures. This study tested a slope-stability model for shallow rainfall-induced landslides by utilizing rainfall information from gauge and satellite records. We used the TRIGRS model (Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Regional Slope-stability analysis) for simulating the evolution of the factor of safety due to rainfall infiltration. Using a spatial subset of a well-characterized digital landscape from an earlier study, we considered shallow failure on a slope adjoining an urban transportation roadway near the Seattle area in Washington, USA.We ran the TRIGRS model using high-quality rain gage and satellite-based rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Preliminary results with parameterized soil depth values suggest that the steeper slope values in this spatial domain have factor of safety values that are extremely close to the failure limit within an extremely narrow range of values, providing multiple false alarms. When the soil depths were constrained using a back analysis procedure to ensure that slopes were stable under initial condtions, the model accurately predicted the timing and location of the landslide observation without false alarms over time for gage rain data. The TRMM satellite rainfall data did not show adequately retreived rainfall peak magnitudes and accumulation over the study period, and as a result failed to predict the landslide event. These preliminary results indicate that more accurate and higher-resolution rain data (e.g., the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission) are required to provide accurate and reliable landslide predictions in ungaged basins.

  19. Influence of the Testing Gage Length on the Strength, Young's Modulus and Weibull Modulus of Carbon Fibres and Glass Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Pardini

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fibres and glass fibres are reinforcements for advanced composites and the fiber strength is the most influential factor on the strength of the composites. They are essentially brittle and fail with very little reduction in cross section. Composites made with these fibres are characterized by a high strength/density ratio and their properties are intrisically related to their microstructure, i.e., amount and orientation of the fibres, surface treatment, among other factors. Processing parameters have an important role in the fibre mechanical behaviour (strength and modulus. Cracks, voids and impurities in the case of glass fibres and fibrillar misalignments in the case of carbon fibres are created during processing. Such inhomogeneities give rise to an appreciable scatter in properties. The most used statistical tool that deals with this characteristic variability in properties is the Weibull distribution. The present work investigates the influence of the testing gage length on the strength, Young's modulus and Weibull modulus of carbon fibres and glass fibres. The Young's modulus is calculated by two methods: (i ASTM D 3379M, and (ii interaction between testing equipment/specimen The first method resulted in a Young modulus of 183 GPa for carbon fibre, and 76 GPa for glass fibre. The second method gave a Young modulus of 250 GPa for carbon fibre and 50 GPa for glass fibre. These differences revelead differences on how the interaction specimen/testing machine can interfere in the Young modulus calculations. Weibull modulus can be a tool to evaluate the fibre's homogeneity in terms of properties and it is a good quality control parameter during processing. In the range of specimen gage length tested the Weibull modulus for carbon fibre is ~ 3.30 and for glass fibres is ~ 5.65, which indicates that for the batch of fibres tested, the glass fibre is more uniform in properties.

  20. Strain Gage Load Calibration of the Wing Interface Fittings for the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flap Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric J.; Holguin, Andrew C.; Cruz, Josue; Lokos, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The safety-of-flight parameters for the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) flap experiment require that flap-to-wing interface loads be sensed and monitored in real time to ensure that the structural load limits of the wing are not exceeded. This paper discusses the strain gage load calibration testing and load equation derivation methodology for the ACTE interface fittings. Both the left and right wing flap interfaces were monitored; each contained four uniquely designed and instrumented flap interface fittings. The interface hardware design and instrumentation layout are discussed. Twenty-one applied test load cases were developed using the predicted in-flight loads. Pre-test predictions of strain gage responses were produced using finite element method models of the interface fittings. Predicted and measured test strains are presented. A load testing rig and three hydraulic jacks were used to apply combinations of shear, bending, and axial loads to the interface fittings. Hardware deflections under load were measured using photogrammetry and transducers. Due to deflections in the interface fitting hardware and test rig, finite element model techniques were used to calculate the reaction loads throughout the applied load range, taking into account the elastically-deformed geometry. The primary load equations were selected based on multiple calibration metrics. An independent set of validation cases was used to validate each derived equation. The 2-sigma residual errors for the shear loads were less than eight percent of the full-scale calibration load; the 2-sigma residual errors for the bending moment loads were less than three percent of the full-scale calibration load. The derived load equations for shear, bending, and axial loads are presented, with the calculated errors for both the calibration cases and the independent validation load cases.

  1. Quantification of uncertainties in the 100-year flow at an ungaged site near a gaged station and its application in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Huidae; Bones, Emma

    2016-08-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency has introduced the concept of the "1-percent plus" flow to incorporate various uncertainties in estimation of the 100-year or 1-percent flow. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no clear directions for calculating the 1-percent plus flow have been defined in the literature. Although information about standard errors of estimation and prediction is provided along with the regression equations that are often used to estimate the 1-percent flow at ungaged sites, uncertainty estimation becomes more complicated when there is a nearby gaged station because regression flows and the peak flow estimate from a gage analysis should be weighted to compute the weighted estimate of the 1-percent flow. In this study, an equation for calculating the 1-percent plus flow at an ungaged site near a gaged station is analytically derived. Also, a detailed process is introduced for calculating the 1-percent plus flow for an ungaged site near a gaged station in Georgia as an example and a case study is performed. This study provides engineers and practitioners with a method that helps them better assess flood risks and develop mitigation plans accordingly.

  2. On the resistance behaviour of high elongation strain gages. Pt. 1. Physical foundations; Zur Widerstandsaenderung von Dehnungsmessstreifen bei grossen Deformationen. T. 1. Physikalische Grundlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockmann, M. [Technische Univ. Chemnitz-Zwickau, Chemnitz (Germany). Experimentelle Mechanik; Naumann, J. [Technische Univ. Chemnitz-Zwickau, Chemnitz (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Maschinenbau und Verfahrenstechnik; Bormann, P. [Technische Univ. Chemnitz-Zwickau, Chemnitz (Germany). Experimentelle Mechanik; Pelz, F. [Technische Univ. Chemnitz-Zwickau, Chemnitz (Germany). Experimentelle Mechanik

    1996-04-01

    The technique of strain measurements by electrical strain gages is one of the most essential methods in experimental analysis of mechanical loads. The precise investigation of high elongation strain requests the consideration of nonlinear behaviour, which is not covered by standard equipment. Theory and experimental verifications of the nonlinear effects are presented. (orig.)

  3. Streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana: Chapter E in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2016-04-05

    Chapter E of this Scientific Investigations Report documents results from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality and the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, to provide an update of statewide streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana. Streamflow characteristics are presented for 408 streamflow-gaging stations in Montana and adjacent areas having 10 or more years of record. Data include the magnitude and probability of annual low and high streamflow, the magnitude and probability of low streamflow for three seasons (March–June, July–October, and November–February), streamflow duration statistics for monthly and annual periods, and mean streamflows for monthly and annual periods. Streamflow is considered to be regulated at streamflow-gaging stations where dams or other large-scale human modifications affect 20 percent or more of the contributing drainage basin. Separate streamflow characteristics are presented for the unregulated and regulated periods of record for streamflow-gaging stations with sufficient data.

  4. Analysis of GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 cancer/testis antigen expression in early stage non-small cell lung carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Pøhl, Mette; Olsen, Karen E;

    2013-01-01

    NSCLC has shown promising results. However, little is known about the expression of other cancer/testis antigens in NSCLC. In the present study the expression of cancer/testis antigens GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 was investigated in patients with completely resected, early stage, primary NSCLC....

  5. Hydrography - HYDROGRAPHY_HIGHRES_POINT_NHD_USGS: Gaging Stations, Gates, Lock Chambers, Reservoirs, Springs, Seeps, Sinks, Rises, Waterfalls, and Wells in Watersheds of Indiana (U.S. Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — HYDROGRAPHY_HIGHRES_POINT_NHD_USGS.SHP is a point shapefile that contains locations of gaging stations, gates, lock chambers, reservoirs, springs, seeps, sinks,...

  6. Pre-Test Assessment of the Use Envelope of the Normal Force of a Wind Tunnel Strain-Gage Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between the aerodynamic lift force generated by a wind tunnel model, the model weight, and the measured normal force of a strain-gage balance is investigated to better understand the expected use envelope of the normal force during a wind tunnel test. First, the fundamental relationship between normal force, model weight, lift curve slope, model reference area, dynamic pressure, and angle of attack is derived. Then, based on this fundamental relationship, the use envelope of a balance is examined for four typical wind tunnel test cases. The first case looks at the use envelope of the normal force during the test of a light wind tunnel model at high subsonic Mach numbers. The second case examines the use envelope of the normal force during the test of a heavy wind tunnel model in an atmospheric low-speed facility. The third case reviews the use envelope of the normal force during the test of a floor-mounted semi-span model. The fourth case discusses the normal force characteristics during the test of a rotated full-span model. The wind tunnel model's lift-to-weight ratio is introduced as a new parameter that may be used for a quick pre-test assessment of the use envelope of the normal force of a balance. The parameter is derived as a function of the lift coefficient, the dimensionless dynamic pressure, and the dimensionless model weight. Lower and upper bounds of the use envelope of a balance are defined using the model's lift-to-weight ratio. Finally, data from a pressurized wind tunnel is used to illustrate both application and interpretation of the model's lift-to-weight ratio.

  7. A biomechanical assessment of modular and monoblock revision hip implants using FE analysis and strain gage measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papini Marcello

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bone loss associated with revision surgery or pathology has been the impetus for developing modular revision total hip prostheses. Few studies have assessed these modular implants quantitatively from a mechanical standpoint. Methods Three-dimensional finite element (FE models were developed to mimic a hip implant alone (Construct A and a hip implant-femur configuration (Construct B. Bonded contact was assumed for all interfaces to simulate long-term bony ongrowth and stability. The hip implants modeled were a Modular stem having two interlocking parts (Zimmer Modular Revision Hip System, Zimmer, Warsaw, IN, USA and a Monoblock stem made from a single piece of material (Stryker Restoration HA Hip System, Stryker, Mahwah, NJ, USA. Axial loads of 700 and 2000 N were applied to Construct A and 2000 N to Construct B models. Stiffness, strain, and stress were computed. Mechanical tests using axial loads were used for Construct A to validate the FE model. Strain gages were placed along the medial and lateral side of the hip implants at 8 locations to measure axial strain distribution. Results There was approximately a 3% average difference between FE and experimental strains for Construct A at all locations for the Modular implant and in the proximal region for the Monoblock implant. FE results for Construct B showed that both implants carried the majority (Modular, 76%; Monoblock, 66% of the 2000 N load relative to the femur. FE analysis and experiments demonstrated that the Modular implant was 3 to 4.5 times mechanically stiffer than the Monoblock due primarily to geometric differences. Conclusions This study provides mechanical characteristics of revision hip implants at sub-clinical axial loads as an initial predictor of potential failure.

  8. Merenje torzionih oscilacija pomoću mernih traka / Measurement of torsional vibrations by using strain gages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Trifković

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available U ovom radu prikazan je metod merenja torzionih oscilacija mehaničkih sistema na osnovu merenja torzionog napona pomoću mernih traka. Ovaj metod naročito je pogodan za proveru nivoa naprezanja elemenata sistema, koji prenose promenljive obrtne momente i torziono osciluju. Osim toga, mogu se određivati i kritične brzine obrtanja elemenata sistema, pri kojima se javljaju rezonantna naprezanja i otkazi sistema, kao što su: pojačana buka, trošenje zupčanika, zamor materijala, oštećenja i lomovi vratila, spojnica i si. Predložen je merni lanac u kojem centralno mesto zauzima suvremeni mobilni merni sistem Spider 8, koji omogućava merenje, obradu i prikaz rezultata pomoću računara. / In this work the measuring method of torsion vibrations is presented according to the measurement of torsion stress using strain gages. This method is particularly suitable in checking the system elements strain level that transfers changeable torsion moments and oscillate torsionally. Besides that, the system elements critical velocity rotation can be estimated, folio-wed by the resonant strain and problems in the function of that system such as: amplified noise, -wearing-out of gears, fatigue crack, damage and break of shafts and junctions etc. The measuring chain is proposed in -which the central part is a contemporary mobile system Spider 8, -which enables measurement, processing and displays measured results on a computer.

  9. Peak-Flow Frequency Estimates Based on Data through Water Year 2001 for Selected Streamflow-Gaging Stations in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Parrett, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Numerous users, including the South Dakota Department of Transportation, have continuing needs for peak-flow information for the design of highway infrastructure and many other purposes. This report documents results from a cooperative study between the South Dakota Department of Transportation and the U.S. Geological Survey to provide an update of peak-flow frequency estimates for South Dakota. Estimates of peak-flow magnitudes for 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals are reported for 272 streamflow-gaging stations, which include most gaging stations in South Dakota with 10 or more years of systematic peak-flow records through water year 2001. Recommended procedures described in Bulletin 17B were used as primary guidelines for developing peak-flow frequency estimates. The computer program PEAKFQ developed by the U.S. Geological Survey was used to run the frequency analyses. Flood frequencies for all stations were initially analyzed by using standard Bulletin 17B default procedures for fitting the log-Pearson III distribution. The resulting preliminary frequency curves were then plotted on a log-probability scale, and fits of the curves with systematic data were evaluated. In many cases, results of the default Bulletin 17B analyses were determined to be satisfactory. In other cases, however, the results could be improved by using various alternative procedures for frequency analysis. Alternative procedures for some stations included adjustments to skew coefficients or use of user-defined low-outlier criteria. Peak-flow records for many gaging stations are strongly influenced by low- or zero-flow values. This situation often results in a frequency curve that plots substantially above the systematic record data points at the upper end of the frequency curve. Adjustments to low-outlier criteria reduced the influence of very small peak flows and generally focused the analyses on the upper parts of the frequency curves (10- to 500-year

  10. Adjusted peak-flow frequency estimates for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana based on data through water year 2011: Chapter D in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; Sando, Roy; McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    The climatic conditions of the specific time period during which peak-flow data were collected at a given streamflow-gaging station (hereinafter referred to as gaging station) can substantially affect how well the peak-flow frequency (hereinafter referred to as frequency) results represent long-term hydrologic conditions. Differences in the timing of the periods of record can result in substantial inconsistencies in frequency estimates for hydrologically similar gaging stations. Potential for inconsistency increases with decreasing peak-flow record length. The representativeness of the frequency estimates for a short-term gaging station can be adjusted by various methods including weighting the at-site results in association with frequency estimates from regional regression equations (RREs) by using the Weighted Independent Estimates (WIE) program. Also, for gaging stations that cannot be adjusted by using the WIE program because of regulation or drainage areas too large for application of RREs, frequency estimates might be improved by using record extension procedures, including a mixed-station analysis using the maintenance of variance type I (MOVE.1) procedure. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Transportation and the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, completed a study to provide adjusted frequency estimates for selected gaging stations through water year 2011.The purpose of Chapter D of this Scientific Investigations Report is to present adjusted frequency estimates for 504 selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana based on data through water year 2011. Estimates of peak-flow magnitudes for the 66.7-, 50-, 42.9-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities are reported. These annual exceedance probabilities correspond to the 1.5-, 2-, 2.33-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals, respectively.The at-site frequency estimates were

  11. Improving Streamflow Simulation in Gaged and Ungaged Areas Using a Multi-Model Synthesis Combined with Remotely-Sensed Data and Estimates of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, J.; Hay, L.

    2015-12-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a National Hydrologic Model (NHM) to support coordinated, comprehensive and consistent hydrologic model development, and facilitate the application of hydrologic simulations within the conterminous United States (CONUS). More than 1,700 gaged watersheds across the CONUS were modeled to test the feasibility of improving streamflow simulations in gaged and ungaged watersheds by linking statistically- and physically-based hydrologic models with remotely-sensed data products (i.e. - snow water equivalent) and estimates of uncertainty. Initially, the physically-based models were calibrated to measured streamflow data to provide a baseline for comparison. As many stream reaches in the CONUS are either not gaged, or are substantially impacted by water use or flow regulation, ancillary information must be used to determine reasonable parameter estimations for streamflow simulations. In addition, not all ancillary datasets are appropriate for application to all parts of the CONUS (e.g. - snow water equivalent in the southeastern U.S., where snow is a rarity). As it is not expected that any one data product or model simulation will be sufficient for representing hydrologic behavior across the entire CONUS, a systematic evaluation of which data products improve simulations of streamflow for various regions across the CONUS was performed. The resulting portfolio of calibration strategies can be used to guide selection of an appropriate combination of simulated and measured information for model development and calibration at a given location of interest. In addition, these calibration strategies have been developed to be flexible so that new data products or simulated information can be assimilated. This analysis provides a foundation to understand how well models work when streamflow data is either not available or is limited and could be used to further inform hydrologic model parameter development for ungaged areas.

  12. Development of separated typed extensometer system for direct strain measurement of specimen's gage length in high temperature and high pressure water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental fatigue test is conducted in high temperature and high pressure water environment to simulate the environment of operating nuclear power plant. In addition, FEM (Finite Element Method) and direct strain measurement method have been used to measure the strain of specimen in a closed system. This study has developed a separated typed extensometer system that can directly measure the displacement of specimen's gage length for simulating more realistic test environment. Each part of separated extensometer are attached to upper and lower part of the specimen's gage length and measures the strain through LVDT sensor, which is individually connected with extensometer. Separated typed extensometer system is a smaller size of existing single typed extensometer system, which have been developed during previous study, and have complemented the disadvantage of usage and structural defects. This device can be applied to variety of material testings in high temperature and high pressure environments, replace the existing extensometer, and is expected to greatly contribute on acquiring more detailed test data.

  13. 一种车灯装饰罩检具的设计方法%The design of hub car light's gage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗建国; 马超

    2011-01-01

    车灯装饰罩作为塑料外观件,不仅其表面和轮廓精度有控制要求,其功能性检查同样需要。通过对该零部件的检具设计过程的阐述,总结了塑料件检具的基本设计思路和方法。探讨如何在检验器具层面,保障此类零部件的品质。%Hub Car Light is made of plastics, not only its outer surface and outline will be controled,but its function will also be verified .We summarize the main methodology of gage design in this paper according to ausarbeitung design process of Hub Car Light's check tool.How to ensure this kind of part's quality at the lavel of gage design is the objective of this paper.

  14. 一款微型汽车塑料保险杠专用检具通用化设计%Universal design A miniature car plastic bumper special gage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄好; 谭克京

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the basis of a miniature car plastic rear bumper special gage, combined with the inspection requirements of the new rear bumper design, universal design and alteration for the existing special gage to meet the gage design and manufacturing requirements, shorten new product development cycle, reduce the cost of new product develop- ment%本文重点分析了在现有的一款微型汽车塑料后保险杠专用检具的基础上,结合新设计的保险杠产品检测要求,对现有的专用检具进行通用化设计和改造,满足检具的设计和制造要求,缩短新产品开发周期,降低新产品开发成本。

  15. Temporal trends and stationarity in annual peak flow and peak-flow timing for selected long-term streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana through water year 2011: Chapter B in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Sando, Roy; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    A large-scale study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Transportation and the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, was done to investigate general patterns in peak-flow temporal trends and stationarity through water year 2011 for 24 long-term streamflow-gaging stations (hereinafter referred to as gaging stations) in Montana. Hereinafter, all years refer to water years; a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is designated by the year in which it ends. The primary focus of the study was to identify general patterns in peak-flow temporal trends and stationarity that are relevant to application of peak-flow frequency analyses within a statewide gaging-station network.

  16. Practical testing of capacitive strain gages for measuring of creep at 530 to 600deg C. Praktische Erprobung kapazitiver Dehnungsmessstreifen zur Messung von Kriechdehnungen bei 530deg C bis 600deg C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstoetter, P.

    1989-11-01

    In conventional power stations, capacitive strain gages are gaining more and more significance in in-service creep rate measurements at 530deg C. The evaluation of 17 measurements under way in RWE power stations, of associated and further laboratory tests as well as supplementary laboratory tests at 520 to 575deg C provided ample details of the technique with regard to quality, stability, accuracy, laboratory tests recommended to be made and practical application. From the evaluation it followed that creep measurements can be taken even at temperatures above 550deg C as long as the stability of each single gage has been tested in the laboratory beforehand. (orig.).

  17. Tsunami modelling and source constraints from regional tide-gages and tilt measurements for the 2008 M=7.5, Tocopilla subduction earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, H.; Boudin, F.; Bernard, P.; Peyrat, S.; Bejarpi, M.

    2008-12-01

    We focus on the small tsunami (a few tens of cm) generated by the November 2007, M=7.5 Tocopilla earthquake, which ruptured about 140 km of the southernmost part of the major, 1000 km long seismic gap of the northern Chile subduction. We first use the available regional tide-gage records, within 1000 km, at coastal stations and on nearby DART buoys (source of data: SHOA, Chile; University of Hawai; NOAA/NBDC) , to constrain the offshore, up-dip extension of the rupture, poorly constrained by the on-land records (GPS, InSAR, accelerograms). For this purpose, various source models, compatible with the geodetic/seismological data, are used as input for numerical calculations, including the best-fit, minimal seismological and geodetic inverted models. The vertical static displacement of the ocean floor is calculated using uniform, instantaneous dislocations in an elastic half-space. The tsunami wave is calculated using a finite-difference scheme solving the hydrodynamic equations, under the non linear shallow water assumption. Bathymetric data derived from the 1' GEBCO dataset are used. The time and amplitude of the first oscillations at the closest tide-gages constrain the offshore part of the source. The later part of the signal is persistent during more than one day, with dominant period of 40 to 45 minutes. Numerical simulation correctly reproduces these spectral characteristic as well as the persistence of the waves, which appear to be trapped within a narrow band (50 to 70 km wide) along at least the 800 km long coastline of the model, suggesting a very efficient trapping by the shallow area between the trench and the coast. This characteristic period was already present for previous tsunamis in this area (2001,1995,1877 major earthquakes) . At 200 to 300 km north to the epicentral area, tilt records from a long base tiltmeter and from broad-band seismometers (STS2) of the IPOC array, installed at short distances from the coast (3 to 25 km), show a clear signal

  18. Estimating peak-flow frequency statistics for selected gaged and ungaged sites in naturally flowing streams and rivers in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Molly S.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Skinner, Kenneth D.; Veilleux, Andrea G.

    2016-06-27

    -central Idaho (average standard error of prediction=46.4 percent; pseudo-R2>92 percent) and region 5 in central Idaho (average standard error of prediction=30.3 percent; pseudo-R2>95 percent). Regression model fit was poor for region 7 in southern Idaho (average standard error of prediction=103 percent; pseudo-R2<78 percent) compared to other regions because few streamgages in region 7 met the criteria for inclusion in the study, and the region’s semi-arid climate and associated variability in precipitation patterns causes substantial variability in peak flows.A drainage area ratio-adjustment method, using ratio exponents estimated using generalized least-squares regression, was presented as an alternative to the regional regression equations if peak-flow estimates are desired at an ungaged site that is close to a streamgage selected for inclusion in this study. The alternative drainage area ratio-adjustment method is appropriate for use when the drainage area ratio between the ungaged and gaged sites is between 0.5 and 1.5.The updated regional peak-flow regression equations had lower total error (standard error of prediction) than all regression equations presented in a 1982 study and in four of six regions presented in 2002 and 2003 studies in Idaho. A more extensive streamgage screening process used in the current study resulted in fewer streamgages used in the current study than in the 1982, 2002, and 2003 studies. Fewer streamgages used and the selection of different explanatory variables were likely causes of increased error in some regions compared to previous studies, but overall, regional peak‑flow regression model fit was generally improved for Idaho. The revised statistical procedures and increased streamgage screening applied in the current study most likely resulted in a more accurate representation of natural peak-flow conditions.The updated, regional peak-flow regression equations will be integrated in the U.S. Geological Survey StreamStats program to allow

  19. Development of the Water Thickness Gaging Technique in the Horizontal Tube by Immersion UT Technology with the Special Shoes Design of the Outside Shape of the Bellows Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most engineering materials can be measured ultrasonically, including metals, plastic, ceramics, composites, epoxies, and glass, as well as liquid levels and the thickness of certain biological specimens. Precision ultrasonic thickness gauges for liquid levels usually operate at frequencies between 500 KHz and 100 MHZ, using piezoelectric transducers to generate bursts of sound waves when excited by electrical pulses. In this experiment, residual water level gaging in a bellow tube is measured by appling the immersion ultrasonic technique. The bellow tube is located in complex structures. Since it is located at far deep distance, it is difficult to approach from outside working area to the bellow tube, which has some residual water level after drainage of water in it, because the structure like the bellow has peak and mold shape.

  20. Comparison of concurrent strain gage- and pressure transducer-measured flight loads on a lifting reentry vehicle and correlation with wind tunnel predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, M. H.; Sefic, W. J.; Sheldon, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    Concurrent strain gage and pressure transducer measured flight loads on a lifting reentry vehicle are compared and correlated with wind tunnel-predicted loads. Subsonic, transonic, and supersonic aerodynamic loads are presented for the left fin and control surfaces of the X-24B lifting reentry vehicle. Typical left fin pressure distributions are shown. The effects of variations in angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and Mach number on the left fin loads and rudder hinge moments are presented in coefficient form. Also presented are the effects of variations in angle of attack and Mach number on the upper flap, lower flap, and aileron hinge-moment coefficients. The effects of variations in lower flap hinge moments due to changes in lower flap deflection and Mach number are presented in terms of coefficient slopes.

  1. Two BASIC computer programs for the determination of in situ stresses using the CSIRO hollow inclusion stress cell and the USBM borehole deformation gage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W.K.

    1982-01-01

    The mathematical method of determining in-situ stresses by overcoring, using either the U.S. Bureau of Mines Borehole Deformation Gage or the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Hollow Inclusion Stress Cell, is summarized, and data reduction programs for each type of instrument, written in BASIC, are presented. The BASIC programs offer several advantages over previously available FORTRAN programs. They can be executed on a desk-top microcomputer at or near the field site, allowing the investigator to assess the quality of the data and make decisions on the need for additional testing while the crew is still in the field. Also, data input is much simpler than with currently available FORTRAN programs; either English or SI units can be used; and standard deviations of the principal stresses are computed as well as those of the geographic components.

  2. Peak data for U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations, Texas network and computer program to estimate peak-streamflow frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, R.M.; Asquith, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    About 23,000 annual peak streamflows and about 400 historical peak streamflows exist for about 950 stations in the surface-water data-collection network of Texas. These data are presented on a computer diskette along with the corresponding dates, gage heights, and information concerning the basin, and nature or cause for the flood. Also on the computer diskette is a U.S. Geological Survey computer program that estimates peak-streamflow frequency based on annual and historical peak streamflow. The program estimates peak streamflow for 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence intervals and is based on guidelines established by the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data. Explanations are presented for installing the program, and an example is presented with discussion of its options.

  3. Adjusted peak-flow frequency estimates for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana based on data through water year 2011: Chapter D in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; Sando, Roy; McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    The climatic conditions of the specific time period during which peak-flow data were collected at a given streamflow-gaging station (hereinafter referred to as gaging station) can substantially affect how well the peak-flow frequency (hereinafter referred to as frequency) results represent long-term hydrologic conditions. Differences in the timing of the periods of record can result in substantial inconsistencies in frequency estimates for hydrologically similar gaging stations. Potential for inconsistency increases with decreasing peak-flow record length. The representativeness of the frequency estimates for a short-term gaging station can be adjusted by various methods including weighting the at-site results in association with frequency estimates from regional regression equations (RREs) by using the Weighted Independent Estimates (WIE) program. Also, for gaging stations that cannot be adjusted by using the WIE program because of regulation or drainage areas too large for application of RREs, frequency estimates might be improved by using record extension procedures, including a mixed-station analysis using the maintenance of variance type I (MOVE.1) procedure. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Transportation and the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, completed a study to provide adjusted frequency estimates for selected gaging stations through water year 2011.The purpose of Chapter D of this Scientific Investigations Report is to present adjusted frequency estimates for 504 selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana based on data through water year 2011. Estimates of peak-flow magnitudes for the 66.7-, 50-, 42.9-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities are reported. These annual exceedance probabilities correspond to the 1.5-, 2-, 2.33-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals, respectively.The at-site frequency estimates were

  4. Annual Peak-Flow Frequency Characteristics and (or) Peak Dam-Pool-Elevation Frequency Characteristics of Dry Dams and Selected Streamflow-Gaging Stations in the Great Miami River Basin, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltun, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study to determine frequency characteristics of postregulation annual peak flows at streamflow-gaging stations at or near the Lockington, Taylorsville, Englewood, Huffman, and Germantown dry dams in the Miami Conservancy District flood-protection system (southwestern Ohio) and five other streamflow-gaging stations in the Great Miami River Basin further downstream from one or more of the dams. In addition, this report describes frequency characteristics of annual peak elevations of the dry-dam pools. In most cases, log-Pearson Type III distributions were fit to postregulation annual peak-flow values through 2007 (the most recent year of published peak-flow values at the time of this analysis) and annual peak dam-pool storage values for the period 1922-2008 to determine peaks with recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 500 years. For one streamflow-gaging station (03272100) with a short period of record, frequency characteristics were estimated by means of a process involving interpolation of peak-flow yields determined for an upstream and downstream gage. Once storages had been estimated for the various recurrence intervals, corresponding dam-pool elevations were determined from elevation-storage ratings provided by the Miami Conservancy District.

  5. Design of a sediment-monitoring gaging network on ephemeral tributaries of the Colorado River in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Ronald E.; Topping, David J.; Anderson, Robert S.; Hancock, Gregory S.; Melis, Theodore S.

    2014-01-01

    Management of sediment in rivers downstream from dams requires knowledge of both the sediment supply and downstream sediment transport. In some dam-regulated rivers, the amount of sediment supplied by easily measured major tributaries may overwhelm the amount of sediment supplied by the more difficult to measure lesser tributaries. In this first class of rivers, managers need only know the amount of sediment supplied by these major tributaries. However, in other regulated rivers, the cumulative amount of sediment supplied by the lesser tributaries may approach the total supplied by the major tributaries. The Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon has been hypothesized to be one such river. If this is correct, then management of sediment in the Colorado River in the part of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area downstream from the dam and in Grand Canyon National Park may require knowledge of the sediment supply from all tributaries. Although two major tributaries, the Paria and Little Colorado Rivers, are well documented as the largest two suppliers of sediment to the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, the contributions of sediment supplied by the ephemeral lesser tributaries of the Colorado River in the lowermost Glen Canyon, and Marble and Grand Canyons are much less constrained. Previous studies have estimated amounts of sediment supplied by these tributaries ranging from very little to almost as much as the amount supplied by the Paria River. Because none of these previous studies relied on direct measurement of sediment transport in any of the ephemeral tributaries in Glen, Marble, or Grand Canyons, there may be significant errors in the magnitudes of sediment supplies estimated during these studies. To reduce the uncertainty in the sediment supply by better constraining the sediment yield of the ephemeral lesser tributaries, the U.S. Geological Survey Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center established eight sediment-monitoring gaging

  6. Peak-flow frequency analyses and results based on data through water year 2011 for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana: Chapter C in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    Chapter C of this Scientific Investigations Report documents results from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Transportation and the Montana Department of Natural Resources, to provide an update of statewide peak-flow frequency analyses and results for Montana. The purpose of this report chapter is to present peak-flow frequency analyses and results for 725 streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana based on data through water year 2011. The 725 streamflow-gaging stations included in this study represent nearly all streamflowgaging stations in Montana (plus some from adjacent states or Canadian Provinces) that have at least 10 years of peak-flow records through water year 2011. For 29 of the 725 streamflow-gaging stations, peak-flow frequency analyses and results are reported for both unregulated and regulated conditions. Thus, peak-flow frequency analyses and results are reported for a total of 754 analyses. Estimates of peak-flow magnitudes for 66.7-, 50-, 42.9-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities are reported. These annual exceedance probabilities correspond to 1.5-, 2-, 2.33-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals.

  7. "Fuel Gage" for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Gas-emmission and time-integrated-current measurements indicate battery charge state. Tests indicate possibility of monitoring state of charge of lead/acid batteries at any stage in charging cycle by measuring charging current and either gas evolution or electrode potential. Data then processed by microcomputer. Uses include cell voltage, cell pressure, cell temperature and rate of gas recombination on catalyst.

  8. 基于纳米晶软磁合金的电感式应变计的研究%Research on Inductance Strain-Gage Based on Nanocrystalline Soft Magnetic Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石延平; 范书华; 藏勇

    2012-01-01

    利用纳米晶软磁合金良好的压磁特性,设计了一种用于测量平面应力的电感式应变计.首先,介绍了这种应变计的结构和工作原理,并推导出其输出数学模型.其次,进行了可行性试验.试验表明,应变计每一测量轴的输出电压主要取决于该测量方向的应变,其灵敏度可达3.86 mV/με,线性度为1.03%F.S,重复误差与迟滞误差均小于1% F.S.在平面应力状态时,不同方向应变相互耦合对测量精度的影响,通过标定补偿灵敏度系数对应变计的输出加以修正.与传统的电阻式应变计相比,这种电感式应变计具有结构简单,工作可靠,使用寿命长,适应性强,灵敏度和测量精度较高等特点.%A new strain-gage which can be used for measuring two-dimensional stress based on inductance principle was discussed, and it was made of nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy. The principle and structure of the strain-gage were presented, and its output characteristic equation was derived. By making a measuring experiment, It is show that the output voltage in any gauging spindle of the strain-gage be decided by strain in same direction with gauging spindle,and its measuring sensitivity and linearity is respectively 3. 86mV/με, 1. 03% F. S. When it was used to measure two-dimensional stress,the effect on measurement accuracy from mutual interaction in difference direction strain can be revised by demarcating a sensitivity compensation coefficient. Comparing with a resistance strain gauge,the inductance strain gage has some characteristic as simple structure,reliable performance,long life,strong adaptability, higher sensitivity and accuracy.

  9. Analysis of Flood-Magnitude and Flood-Frequency Data for Streamflow-Gaging Stations in the Delaware and North Branch Susquehanna River Basins in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Mark A.; Stuckey, Marla H.

    2007-01-01

    The Delaware and North Branch Susquehanna River Basins in Pennsylvania experienced severe flooding as a result of intense rainfall during June 2006. The height of the flood waters on the rivers and tributaries approached or exceeded the peak of record at many locations. Updated flood-magnitude and flood-frequency data for streamflow-gaging stations on tributaries in the Delaware and North Branch Susquehanna River Basins were analyzed using data through the 2006 water year to determine if there were any major differences in the flood-discharge data. Flood frequencies for return intervals of 2, 5, 10, 50, 100, and 500 years (Q2, Q5, Q10, Q50, Q100, and Q500) were determined from annual maximum series (AMS) data from continuous-record gaging stations (stations) and were compared to flood discharges obtained from previously published Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) and to flood frequencies using partial-duration series (PDS) data. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to determine any statistically significant differences between flood frequencies computed from updated AMS station data and those obtained from FIS. Percentage differences between flood frequencies computed from updated AMS station data and those obtained from FIS also were determined for the 10, 50, 100, and 500 return intervals. A Mann-Kendall trend test was performed to determine statistically significant trends in the updated AMS peak-flow data for the period of record at the 41 stations. In addition to AMS station data, PDS data were used to determine flood-frequency discharges. The AMS and PDS flood-frequency data were compared to determine any differences between the two data sets. An analysis also was performed on AMS-derived flood frequencies for four stations to evaluate the possible effects of flood-control reservoirs on peak flows. Additionally, flood frequencies for three stations were evaluated to determine possible effects of urbanization on peak flows. The results of the Wilcoxon signed

  10. Study on Damage Location of Steel Beam Based on Long-Gage Fiber Grating Sensor%基于长标距光纤光栅传感器的钢梁损伤定位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田石柱; 温科; 王大鹏

    2013-01-01

    It has important and practical significance to establish a complete set of health monitoring system for massive project structure. Damage detection is one of the core technologies for structural health identification. Although a variety of damage identification methods have been developed, accurately measuring the response of the structural information is the premise of the effectiveness of damage identification. Damage inside the structure cannot be predicted, so it is not advisable for health monitoring by means of strain gauges. We use quasi-distributed long-gage optical fiber Bragg grating based on glass-fiber reinforced composite material package (GFRP-FBG) and combine it with the damage detection application in simply supported steel beam to verify the performance of the quasi-distributed long-gage GFRP-FBG strain sensor. The test results show that using quasi-distributed long-gage GFRP-FBG strain sensor can effectively perform damage fore-warning and damage location, and estimate the damage degree of bending stiffness.%为重大工程结构建立一套健康监测系统具有重要的现实意义.损伤识别是结构健康诊断的核心技术之一,虽然已发展出多种损伤识别方法,但准确地测量结构的响应信息是损伤识别方法有效性的前提.由于结构荷载的复杂性致使结构损伤具有不可预见性,如果采用电阻应变片技术,其准确性和工程量对于工程应用来说是不可取的.采用准分布式长标距基于玻璃纤维增强复合材料封装的光纤布拉格光栅(GFRP FBG)应变传感器,并结合其在简支钢梁中损伤识别的应用以验证其性能.实验结果表明,利用准分布式长标距GFRP-FBG应变传感器可有效地预警损伤、定位损伤和判断抗弯刚度损伤程度.

  11. Estimating flood magnitude and frequency at gaged and ungaged sites on streams in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada, based on data through water year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet H.; Barth, Nancy A.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Ourso, Robert T.

    2016-03-16

    -based geographic information system application that facilitates retrieval of streamflow statistics and associated information. StreamStats retrieves published data for gaged sites and, for user-selected ungaged sites, delineates drainage areas from topographic and hydrographic data, computes basin characteristics, and computes flood frequency estimates using the regional regression equations.

  12. Spinning rotor gauge based vacuum gauge calibration system at the Institute for Plasma Research (IPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Steady-state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is an indigenously built medium sized fusion device at IPR designed for plasma duration of 1000 seconds. It consists of two large vacuum chambers – Vacuum Vessel (16 m3) and Cryostat (39 m3) which will be pumped to UHV and HV pressures respectively using a set of turbo molecular pumps, Cryo-pumps and Roots pumps. The total as well as the partial pressure measurement in these chambers will be carried out using a set of Pirani gauges, Bayard Alpert type gauges, Capacitance manometers and Residual Gas Analyzers (RGA). A reliable and accurate pressure measurement is essential for successful operation of SST-1 machine. For this purpose a gauge calibration system is set up in SST-1 Vacuum laboratory based on Spinning Rotor Gauge which can measure absolute pressure in the range 1.0 mbar to 1.0 × 10−7 mbar. This system is designed to calibrate up to five gauges simultaneously for different gases in different operating pressure ranges of the gauges. This paper discusses the experimental set-up and the procedure adopted for the calibration of such vacuum gauges.

  13. High mass resolution time of flight mass spectrometer for measuring products in heterogeneous catalysis in highly sensitive microreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate a combined microreactor and time of flight system for testing and characterization of heterogeneous catalysts with high resolution mass spectrometry and high sensitivity. Catalyst testing is performed in silicon-based microreactors which have high sensitivity and fast thermal response. Gas analysis is performed with a time of flight mass spectrometer with a modified nude Bayard-Alpert ionization gauge as gas ionization source. The mass resolution of the time of flight mass spectrometer using the ion gauge as ionization source is estimated to m/Δm > 2500. The system design is superior to conventional batch and flow reactors with accompanying product detection by quadrupole mass spectrometry or gas chromatography not only due to the high sensitivity, fast temperature response, high mass resolution, and fast acquisition time of mass spectra but it also allows wide mass range (0–5000 amu in the current configuration). As a demonstration of the system performance we present data from ammonia oxidation on a Pt thin film showing resolved spectra of OH and NH3.

  14. High mass resolution time of flight mass spectrometer for measuring products in heterogeneous catalysis in highly sensitive microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, T.; Jensen, R.; Christensen, M. K.; Pedersen, T.; Hansen, O.; Chorkendorff, I.

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrate a combined microreactor and time of flight system for testing and characterization of heterogeneous catalysts with high resolution mass spectrometry and high sensitivity. Catalyst testing is performed in silicon-based microreactors which have high sensitivity and fast thermal response. Gas analysis is performed with a time of flight mass spectrometer with a modified nude Bayard-Alpert ionization gauge as gas ionization source. The mass resolution of the time of flight mass spectrometer using the ion gauge as ionization source is estimated to m/Δm > 2500. The system design is superior to conventional batch and flow reactors with accompanying product detection by quadrupole mass spectrometry or gas chromatography not only due to the high sensitivity, fast temperature response, high mass resolution, and fast acquisition time of mass spectra but it also allows wide mass range (0-5000 amu in the current configuration). As a demonstration of the system performance we present data from ammonia oxidation on a Pt thin film showing resolved spectra of OH and NH3.

  15. High mass resolution time of flight mass spectrometer for measuring products in heterogeneous catalysis in highly sensitive microreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, T.; Jensen, R.; Christensen, M. K.; Chorkendorff, I. [Department of Physics, Danish National Research Foundation' s Center for Individual Nanoparticle Functionality (CINF), Technical University of Denmark, Building 312, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Pedersen, T.; Hansen, O. [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2012-07-15

    We demonstrate a combined microreactor and time of flight system for testing and characterization of heterogeneous catalysts with high resolution mass spectrometry and high sensitivity. Catalyst testing is performed in silicon-based microreactors which have high sensitivity and fast thermal response. Gas analysis is performed with a time of flight mass spectrometer with a modified nude Bayard-Alpert ionization gauge as gas ionization source. The mass resolution of the time of flight mass spectrometer using the ion gauge as ionization source is estimated to m/{Delta}m > 2500. The system design is superior to conventional batch and flow reactors with accompanying product detection by quadrupole mass spectrometry or gas chromatography not only due to the high sensitivity, fast temperature response, high mass resolution, and fast acquisition time of mass spectra but it also allows wide mass range (0-5000 amu in the current configuration). As a demonstration of the system performance we present data from ammonia oxidation on a Pt thin film showing resolved spectra of OH and NH{sub 3}.

  16. High mass resolution time of flight mass spectrometer for measuring products in heterogeneous catalysis in highly sensitive microreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, T; Jensen, R; Christensen, M K; Pedersen, T; Hansen, O; Chorkendorff, I

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrate a combined microreactor and time of flight system for testing and characterization of heterogeneous catalysts with high resolution mass spectrometry and high sensitivity. Catalyst testing is performed in silicon-based microreactors which have high sensitivity and fast thermal response. Gas analysis is performed with a time of flight mass spectrometer with a modified nude Bayard-Alpert ionization gauge as gas ionization source. The mass resolution of the time of flight mass spectrometer using the ion gauge as ionization source is estimated to m/Δm > 2500. The system design is superior to conventional batch and flow reactors with accompanying product detection by quadrupole mass spectrometry or gas chromatography not only due to the high sensitivity, fast temperature response, high mass resolution, and fast acquisition time of mass spectra but it also allows wide mass range (0-5000 amu in the current configuration). As a demonstration of the system performance we present data from ammonia oxidation on a Pt thin film showing resolved spectra of OH and NH(3). PMID:22852722

  17. The LHC Vacuum Pilot Sectors Project

    CERN Document Server

    Henrist, B; Bregliozzi, G; Chiggiato, P

    2014-01-01

    The operation of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at nominal beam parameters is expected for the next years. Increased synchrotron-radiation stimulated-desorption and electron-cloud build-up are expected. A deep understanding of the interactions between the proton beams and the beam pipe wall is mandatory to control the anticipated beam-induced pressure rise. A Vacuum Pilot Sector (VPS) has been designed to monitor the performance of the vacuum system with time. The VPS is installed along a double LHC room temperature vacuum sector (18 m long, 80 mm inner diameter beam pipes) and includes 8 standard modules, 1.4 m long each. Such modules are equipped with residual gas analysers, Bayard-Alpert gauges, photon and electron flux monitors etc. The chosen modular approach opens the possibility of studying different configurations and implementing future modifications. This contribution will describe the apparatus, the control system designed to drive measurements and possible applications during the LHC Run 2.

  18. LHC : The World's Largest Vacuum Systems being commissioned at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, J M

    2008-01-01

    When it switches on in 2008, the 26.7 km Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, will have the world's largest vacuum system operating over a wide range of pressures and employing an impressive array of vacuum technologies. This system is composed by 54 km of UHV vacuum for the circulating beams and 50 km of insulation vacuum around the cryogenic magnets and the liquid helium transfer lines. Over the 54 km of UHV beam vacuum, 48 km of this are at cryogenic temperature (1.9 K). The remaining 6 km of beam vacuum containing the insertions for "cleaning" the proton beams, radiofrequency cavities for accelerating the protons as well as beam-monitoring equipment is at ambient temperature and uses non-evaporable getter (NEG) coatings - a vacuum technology that was born and industrialized at CERN. The pumping scheme is completed using 780 ion pumps to remove noble gases and to provide pressure interlocks to the 303 vacuum safety valves. Pressure readings are provided by 170 Bayard-Alpert gauges and 1084 gauges (Pirani a...

  19. Impact excited strain gage for multiwire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for measuring multiwire chamber tension by impact excitation of mechanical oscillations and measuring their periods is described. A flowsheet of an automated electron gaugeis presented; the gauge provides high efficiency and possibility for measurements under conditions of difficult availability of the multiwire chamber system. The range of tension measurements is 0.5-70 g for gilded tugsten wires of 20 μm in diameter and 60 cm length

  20. Internal strain gage balances for cryogenic windtunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, K.; Ewald, B.; Graewe, E.

    The five cryogenic wind-tunnel balances which were built and calibrated as part of the cryogenic balance program initiated in 1979 by the German Ministry of Research and Technology are described. Particular attention is given to factors affecting the calibration of cryogenic balances, such as the changes in the temperature and temperature gradients in the balance body caused by changes in the tunnel temperature. It is shown that it is possible to have a cryogenic wind-tunnel balance with the same accuracy and repeatability as a conventional balance. The effect of temperature gradients can be minimized by a new design of the axial-force element and an advanced calibration, and the zero shift can be reduced by matching procedures and calibration.

  1. Use of embedded strain gages for the in-vitro study of proximal tibial cancellous bone deformation during knee flexion-extension movement: development, reproducibility and preliminary results of feasibility after frontal low femoral osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Sint Jan Serge

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports the development of an in-vitro technique allowing quantification of relative (not absolute deformations measured at the level of the cancellous bone of the tibial proximal epiphysis (CBTPE during knee flexion-extension. This method has been developed to allow a future study of the effects of low femoral osteotomies consequence on the CBTPE. Methods Six strain gages were encapsulated in an epoxy resin solution to form, after resin polymerisation, six measurement elements (ME. The latter were inserted into the CBTPE of six unembalmed specimens, just below the tibial plateau. Knee motion data were collected by three-dimensional (3D electrogoniometry during several cycles of knee flexion-extension. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was estimated on one specimen for all MEs. Intra-specimen repeatability was calculated to determine specimen's variability and the error of measurement. A varum and valgum chirurgical procedure was realised on another specimen to observed CBTPE deformation after these kind of procedure. Results Average intra-observer variation of the deformation ranged from 8% to 9% (mean coefficient of variation, MCV respectively for extension and flexion movement. The coefficient of multiple correlations (CMC ranged from 0.93 to 0.96 for flexion and extension. No phase shift of maximum strain peaks was observed. Inter-observer MCV averaged 23% and 28% for flexion and extension. The CMC were 0.82 and 0.87 respectively for extension and flexion. For the intra-specimen repeatability, the average of mean RMS difference and the mean ICC were calculated only for flexion movement. The mean RMS variability ranged from 7 to 10% and the mean ICC was 0.98 (0.95 - 0.99. A Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated showing that RMS was independent of signal intensity. For the chirurgical procedure, valgum and varum deviation seems be in agree with the frontal misalignment theory. Conclusions

  2. Device for rapid statistic processing of radioisotope thickness gage data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device operation for statistic data processing being a part of the system for rapid control of the tubes wall thickness at the hot finishing outlet of pilger aggreate is described. The device permits to obtain at the light board the wall thickness distribution and in digital form data on average value of the thickness and its spread at each tube. The presence of the described equipment guarantees high accuracy of rolled tubes

  3. ASR4, 4-Gage Anelastic Strain Recovery Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: ASR4 is a nonlinear least-squares regression of Anelastic Strain Recovery (ASR) data for the purpose of determining in situ stress orientations and magnitudes. ASR4 fits the viscoelastic model of Warpinski and Teufel to measure ASR data, calculates the stress orientations directly, and stress magnitudes if sufficient input data are available. The code also calculates the stress orientation using strain-rosette equations, and it calculates stress magnitudes using Blanton's approach, assuming sufficient input data are available. 2 - Method of solution: The viscoelastic analysis models the time- dependent response, fitting the model to the experimental data, and calculating stress and material property information. The actual experimental data are least-squares fit using a modified Levenberg-Marquardt procedure

  4. 49 CFR 213.110 - Gage restraint measurement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...). c=Coefficient of friction between rail/tie which is assigned a nominal value of (0.4). V=Actual... correlation between measurements made on the ground and those recorded by the instrumentation with respect to... the PTLF. PLG24 58 inches GWR 0.75 inches 1 Definitions for the GRMS parameters referenced in...

  5. Alfred P. Gage and the Introductory Physics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This article is about a late 19th-century teacher of secondary school physics. I was originally interested in the apparatus that he sold. This led me to the physics books that he wrote, and these took me to his unusual ideas about ways to use laboratory time to introduce students to the phenomena of physics. More than 100 years later educational…

  6. Wireless Zigbee strain gage sensor system for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Abdi, Frank; Miraj, Rashid; Dang, Chau; Takahashi, Tatsuya; Sauer, Bruce

    2009-05-01

    A compact cell phone size radio frequency (ZigBee) wireless strain measurement sensor system to measure the structural strain deformation was developed. The developed system provides an accurate strain measurement data stream to the Internet for further Diagnostic and Prognostic (DPS) correlation. Existing methods of structural measurement by strain sensors (gauges) do not completely satisfy problems posed by continuous structural health monitoring. The need for efficient health monitoring methods with real-time requirements to bidirectional data flow from sensors and to a commanding device is becoming critical for keeping our daily life safety. The use of full-field strain measurement techniques could reduce costly experimental programs through better understanding of material behavior. Wireless sensor-network technology is a monitoring method that is estimated to grow rapidly providing potential for cost savings over traditional wired sensors. The many of currently available wireless monitoring methods have: the proactive and constant data rate character of the data streams rather than traditional reactive, event-driven data delivery; mostly static node placement on structures with limited number of nodes. Alpha STAR Electronics' wireless sensor network system, ASWN, addresses some of these deficiencies, making the system easier to operate. The ASWN strain measurement system utilizes off-the-shelf sensors, namely strain gauges, with an analog-to-digital converter/amplifier and ZigBee radio chips to keep cost lower. Strain data is captured by the sensor, converted to digital form and delivered to the ZigBee radio chip, which in turn broadcasts the information using wireless protocols to a Personal Data Assistant (PDA) or Laptop/Desktop computers. From here, data is forwarded to remote computers for higher-level analysis and feedback using traditional cellular and satellite communication or the Ethernet infrastructure. This system offers a compact size, lower cost, and temperature insensitivity for critical structural applications, which require immediate monitoring and feedback.

  7. Standard test methods for performance characteristics of metallic bonded resistance strain gages

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 The purpose of this standard is to provide uniform test methods for the determination of strain gauge performance characteristics. Suggested testing equipment designs are included. 1.2 Test Methods E 251 describes methods and procedures for determining five strain gauge parameters: Section Part I—General Requirements 7 Part II—Resistance at a Reference Temperature 8 Part III—Gauge Factor at a Reference Temperature 9 Part IV—Temperature Coefficient of Gauge Factor\t10 Part V—Transverse Sensitivity\t11 Part VI—Thermal Output\t12 1.3 Strain gauges are very sensitive devices with essentially infinite resolution. Their response to strain, however, is low and great care must be exercised in their use. The performance characteristics identified by these test methods must be known to an acceptable accuracy to obtain meaningful results in field applications. 1.3.1 Strain gauge resistance is used to balance instrumentation circuits and to provide a reference value for measurements since all data are...

  8. International Students' Social Network: Network Mapping to Gage Friendship Formation and Student Engagement on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFaul, Susannah

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the importance of international student engagement on campus and creating friendships with host-country nationals during their time abroad, this small-scale study explores the question of, "Are there trends in how or through what means international students are making connections with co-national, multi-national, or host-national…

  9. Productive Discomfort: Dialogue, Reproductive Choice and Social Justice Education at the Matilda Joslyn Gage Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch Wagner, Sally; Eckler, Tori; Leighton, Maxinne Rhea

    2013-01-01

    Museums in the past have been static institutions, exhibiting their collections as public displays. Today, the public has come to expect more from these institutions, seeing them as safe havens where conversations can begin. As reproductive rights have moved to the forefront of political and social debate, dialogue seems to be a step in the right…

  10. Long time high temperature strain gage measurements on pipes and dissimilar welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the dissimilar weld program, a pipe consisting of several ferritic (X20 CrMoV 121) and Austenitic (X10 NiCrAlTi 32 20) pipe sections with dissimilar welds is exposed to combined internal pressure temperature loads. In long tern experiments lasting 20,000 hours, both capacitative high temperature strain gauges and resistance HT DMS are used to measure strain. There is then a check of the long term stability of the measuring system. The experiments are carried out for proving the integrity of the water/steam circuit of an HTR. (DG)

  11. Stress gage system for measuring very soft materials under high rates of deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soft materials have seen continued growth in industrial importance, but are difficult to test at relevant, particularly at high, rates of deformation and relevant temperatures. This is mainly due to the low stresses supported by these materials, which mean that very sensitive force measurements are required. In this paper, a split-Hopkinson pressure bar method for testing very soft materials and elastomers at high rates of deformation is presented and applied. Experiments are conducted in compression on hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene, a very soft rubber, at strain rates of about 2000 s−1. Titanium alloy bars are used, and in addition to the usual strain gauges on the bars, forces at both ends of the specimen are measured using a piezoelectric material, lead zirconium titanate (PZT), which is much more sensitive than the quartz crystal gauges typically used in previous literature. The piezoelectric constant of PZT ranges between 290–630 × 10−12 C N−1, making it 100 times more sensitive than quartz crystal (2.3 × 10−12 C N−1). Results obtained from the experiments show that the gauges are able to measure the forces on both ends of the specimen with excellent signal to noise ratios. (paper)

  12. Water resource inventory and assessment, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1989 stream discharge gaging data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This progress report provides an accounting of the accomplishments made during the second year of a multi-year water resource inventory in the coastal plain (1002...

  13. Jean-Marie Boëglin, le passeur sans (ba)gages

    OpenAIRE

    Challier, Tatsiana Kuchyts

    2015-01-01

    Il est des passionnés d’art qui refusent la création tangible au profit de celle éphémère ; il est des amoureux de justice qui, dans leur lutte contre l’iniquité, se font passeurs de créations des autres. L’un deux s’appelle Jean-Marie Boëglin : metteur en scène et homme politique de l’ombre, adhérent de la révolution algérienne inspiré par l’idée de « l’homme nouveau ». En 1963, ce disciple de Brecht monte, au Théâtre National Algérien, L’Exception et la Règle adaptée à la nouvelle réalité d...

  14. THE IMPORTANCE OF GAGE R&R FOR IMPLEMENTING SIX SIGMA PROJECTS IN SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Adina Andreea OHOTA; Iordache, Vlad

    2011-01-01

    The difference between the economic agents that offer similar products or services is made based on quality. Consumers are too poor to accept poor quality goods. Ant the other external pressures accentuate the importance of quality as competitive advantage, in relation with increasing organization’s performance, mainly in small and medium enterprises sector. The tailor measures twice and cuts once. Similar, a decision must be assessed and all relevant aspects must be considered before its imp...

  15. Standard test method for determining residual stresses by the hole-drilling strain-gage method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 Residual Stress Determination: 1.1.1 This test method specifies a hole-drilling procedure for determining residual stress profiles near the surface of an isotropic linearly elastic material. The test method is applicable to residual stress profile determinations where in-plane stress gradients are small. The stresses may remain approximately constant with depth (“uniform” stresses) or they may vary significantly with depth (“non-uniform” stresses). The measured workpiece may be “thin” with thickness much less than the diameter of the drilled hole or “thick” with thickness much greater than the diameter of the drilled hole. Only uniform stress measurements are specified for thin workpieces, while both uniform and non-uniform stress measurements are specified for thick workpieces. 1.2 Stress Measurement Range: 1.2.1 The hole-drilling method can identify in-plane residual stresses near the measured surface of the workpiece material. The method gives localized measurements that indicate the...

  16. Mechanical pressure gages under difficult conditions; Mechanische Druckmessgeraete unter schwierigen Einsatzbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieswandt, T. [Wika Alexander Wiegand GmbH und Co. KG, Klingenberg (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    In spite of electronic solutions, mechanical pressure meters still find their place in reliable in-situ process pressure monitoring without external influences. Planners and users often have difficulties selecting the optimum meter for a given application, especially where difficult operating conditions are concerned. The contribution presents a neutral and practical guide. (orig.)

  17. A fatigue study of electrical discharge machine (EDM) strain-gage balance materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Ray D.

    1989-01-01

    A fatigue study was undertaken to determine how much electrical-discharge-machine (EDM) processing affected the fatigue life of balance materials: EDM and regular milling-machine (MM) samples were compared. Simulation of a typical balance stress configuration was devised for the fatigue testing in order to obtain results more closely related to balance situations. The fatigue testing of the EDM and MM specimens has indicated that the EDM technique does indeed reduce the fatigue life of 15-5PH steel, the first balance material tested. This conclusion was based on comparisons of the specimen fatigue lives with theoretical and manufacturer's data. Hence the EDM surface effects are detrimental to the fatigue life of this balance material.

  18. ELECTROHYDRAULIC SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATIC GAGE CONTROL (AGC FOR TANDEM COLD MILL PLANT IN SARTID SMEDEREVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Stefanovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electro hydraulic servosystem for the AGC has better characteristics than electromechanic (fivetimesgreater speed of rolling, greater speed of positioning ,smaller dead–zone, smaller time of roll gap adjusting start, smaller time of maximum speed reaching,greater unloading speed.

  19. Estimating peak-flow frequency statistics for selected gaged and ungaged sites in naturally flowing streams and rivers in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Molly S.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Skinner, Kenneth D.; Veilleux, Andrea G.

    2016-06-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Idaho Transportation Department, updated regional regression equations to estimate peak-flow statistics at ungaged sites on Idaho streams using recent streamflow (flow) data and new statistical techniques. Peak-flow statistics with 80-, 67-, 50-, 43-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities (1.25-, 1.50-, 2.00-, 2.33-, 5.00-, 10.0-, 25.0-, 50.0-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals, respectively) were estimated for 192 streamgages in Idaho and bordering States with at least 10 years of annual peak-flow record through water year 2013. The streamgages were selected from drainage basins with little or no flow diversion or regulation. The peak-flow statistics were estimated by fitting a log-Pearson type III distribution to records of annual peak flows and applying two additional statistical methods: (1) the Expected Moments Algorithm to help describe uncertainty in annual peak flows and to better represent missing and historical record; and (2) the generalized Multiple Grubbs Beck Test to screen out potentially influential low outliers and to better fit the upper end of the peak-flow distribution. Additionally, a new regional skew was estimated for the Pacific Northwest and used to weight at-station skew at most streamgages. The streamgages were grouped into six regions (numbered 1_2, 3, 4, 5, 6_8, and 7, to maintain consistency in region numbering with a previous study), and the estimated peak-flow statistics were related to basin and climatic characteristics to develop regional regression equations using a generalized least squares procedure. Four out of 24 evaluated basin and climatic characteristics were selected for use in the final regional peak-flow regression equations.Overall, the standard error of prediction for the regional peak-flow regression equations ranged from 22 to 132 percent. Among all regions, regression model fit was best for region 4 in west-central Idaho (average standard error of prediction=46.4 percent; pseudo-R2>92 percent) and region 5 in central Idaho (average standard error of prediction=30.3 percent; pseudo-R2>95 percent). Regression model fit was poor for region 7 in southern Idaho (average standard error of prediction=103 percent; pseudo-R2statistical procedures and increased streamgage screening applied in the current study most likely resulted in a more accurate representation of natural peak-flow conditions.The updated, regional peak-flow regression equations will be integrated in the U.S. Geological Survey StreamStats program to allow users to estimate basin and climatic characteristics and peak-flow statistics at ungaged locations of interest. StreamStats estimates peak-flow statistics with quantifiable certainty only when used at sites with basin and climatic characteristics within the range of input variables used to develop the regional regression equations. Both the regional regression equations and StreamStats should be used to estimate peak-flow statistics only in naturally flowing, relatively unregulated streams without substantial local influences to flow, such as large seeps, springs, or other groundwater-surface water interactions that are not widespread or characteristic of the respective region.

  20. Magnitude, frequency, and trends of floods at gaged and ungaged sites in Washington, based on data through water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Tecca, Alison E.

    2016-09-20

    An investigation into the magnitude and frequency of floods in Washington State computed the annual exceedance probability (AEP) statistics for 648 U.S. Geological Survey unregulated streamgages in and near the borders of Washington using the recorded annual peak flows through water year 2014. This is an updated report from a previous report published in 1998 that used annual peak flows through the water year 1996. New in this report, a regional skew coefficient was developed for the Pacific Northwest region that includes areas in Oregon, Washington, Idaho and western Montana within the Columbia River drainage basin south of the United States-Canada border, the coastal areas of Oregon and western Washington, and watersheds draining into Puget Sound, Washington. The skew coefficient is an important term in the Log Pearson Type III equation used to define the distribution of the log-transformed annual peaks. The Expected Moments Algorithm was used to fit historical and censored peak-flow data to the log Pearson Type III distribution. A Multiple Grubb-Beck test was employed to censor low outliers of annual peak flows to improve on the frequency distribution. This investigation also includes a section on observed trends in annual peak flows that showed significant trends (p-value publication of this report. StreamStats is the interactive Web-based map tool created by the U.S. Geological Survey to allow the user to choose a streamgage and obtain published statistics or choose ungaged locations where the program automatically applies the regional regression equations and computes the estimates of the AEP statistics.

  1. Strain Gage Test Results of Band-Type Locking Rings for a Typical Drum Type Radioactive Material Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band type closure rings are commonly used for securing the drum lid on radioactive material packages of lower weight classifications. Lid installation is achieved by placing the band around the perimeter of the lidded drum and tightening the single bolt in stages until a designated torque value is obtained. The band is subjected to heavy rapping with a soft hammer during installation to equilibrate the band strains around the drum perimeter. The study described here investigated the strain distributions in the band throughout the installation process. The results show that a uniform strain distribution is achieved during installation and that the hammering of the band aids in achieving the uniform distribution. The results of the strain levels after the drop test indicate that the locking rings maintain some pre-tension, even after severe targeted drops that crush a portion of the drum top

  2. Obtaining of sensitive elements for strain gage sensors on the basis of Ge1-xSix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The representing electromechanical resonator on elastic vibrations of monocrystals strings from semiconductor materials rather simple in manufacturing of string in tenzoconverter on the basis of monocrystals is described. The examples of such class of converters using in concrete designs of devices for measurement of various physical parameters are reported

  3. Stream-gage locations where streamflow gains/losses were quantified along the Central Valley surface-water network

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the name and location for the diversions from the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central...

  4. Continuous Tidal Streamflow and Gage-Height Data for Bass and Cinder Creeks on Kiawah Island, South Carolina, September 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul A.; Erbland, John W.

    2009-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of Bass and Cinder Creeks on Kiawah Island, South Carolina, was developed to evaluate methodologies for determining fecal coliform total maximum daily loads for shellfish waters. To calibrate the model, two index-velocity sites on the creeks were instrumented with continuous acoustic velocity meters and water-level sensors to compute a 21-day continuous record of tidal streamflows. In addition to monitoring tidal cycles, streamflow measurements were made at the index-velocity sites, and tidal-cycle streamflow measurements were made at the mouth of Bass Creek and on the Stono River to characterize the streamflow dynamics near the ocean boundary of the three-dimensional model at the beginning, September 6, 2007, and end, September 26, 2007, of the index-velocity meter deployment. The maximum floodtide and ebbtide measured on the Stono River by the mouth of Bass Creek for the two measurements were -155,000 and 170,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). At the mouth of Bass Creek, the maximum floodtide and ebbtide measurements during the 2 measurement days were +/-10,200 ft3/s. Tidal streamflows for the 21-day deployment on Bass Creek ranged from -2,510 ft3/s for an incoming tide to 4,360 ft3/s for an outgoing tide. On Cinder Creek, the incoming and outgoing tide varied from -2,180 to 2,400 ft3/s during the same period.

  5. 75 FR 12674 - Amendment of Jet Routes and VOR Federal Airways in the Vicinity of Gage, OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, via El Paso, TX; INT El Paso 070 and Pinon, NM, 219 radials; Pinon; Chisum, NM... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565,...

  6. Magnitude, frequency, and trends of floods at gaged and ungaged sites in Washington, based on data through water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Tecca, Alison E.

    2016-09-20

    An investigation into the magnitude and frequency of floods in Washington State computed the annual exceedance probability (AEP) statistics for 648 U.S. Geological Survey unregulated streamgages in and near the borders of Washington using the recorded annual peak flows through water year 2014. This is an updated report from a previous report published in 1998 that used annual peak flows through the water year 1996. New in this report, a regional skew coefficient was developed for the Pacific Northwest region that includes areas in Oregon, Washington, Idaho and western Montana within the Columbia River drainage basin south of the United States-Canada border, the coastal areas of Oregon and western Washington, and watersheds draining into Puget Sound, Washington. The skew coefficient is an important term in the Log Pearson Type III equation used to define the distribution of the log-transformed annual peaks. The Expected Moments Algorithm was used to fit historical and censored peak-flow data to the log Pearson Type III distribution. A Multiple Grubb-Beck test was employed to censor low outliers of annual peak flows to improve on the frequency distribution. This investigation also includes a section on observed trends in annual peak flows that showed significant trends (p-value based map tool created by the U.S. Geological Survey to allow the user to choose a streamgage and obtain published statistics or choose ungaged locations where the program automatically applies the regional regression equations and computes the estimates of the AEP statistics.

  7. Estimating flood magnitude and frequency at gaged and ungaged sites on streams in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada, based on data through water year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet H.; Barth, Nancy A.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Ourso, Robert T.

    2016-03-16

    Estimates of the magnitude and frequency of floods are needed across Alaska for engineering design of transportation and water-conveyance structures, flood-insurance studies, flood-plain management, and other water-resource purposes. This report updates methods for estimating flood magnitude and frequency in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada. Annual peak-flow data through water year 2012 were compiled from 387 streamgages on unregulated streams with at least 10 years of record. Flood-frequency estimates were computed for each streamgage using the Expected Moments Algorithm to fit a Pearson Type III distribution to the logarithms of annual peak flows. A multiple Grubbs-Beck test was used to identify potentially influential low floods in the time series of peak flows for censoring in the flood frequency analysis.For two new regional skew areas, flood-frequency estimates using station skew were computed for stations with at least 25 years of record for use in a Bayesian least-squares regression analysis to determine a regional skew value. The consideration of basin characteristics as explanatory variables for regional skew resulted in improvements in precision too small to warrant the additional model complexity, and a constant model was adopted. Regional Skew Area 1 in eastern-central Alaska had a regional skew of 0.54 and an average variance of prediction of 0.45, corresponding to an effective record length of 22 years. Regional Skew Area 2, encompassing coastal areas bordering the Gulf of Alaska, had a regional skew of 0.18 and an average variance of prediction of 0.12, corresponding to an effective record length of 59 years. Station flood-frequency estimates for study sites in regional skew areas were then recomputed using a weighted skew incorporating the station skew and regional skew. In a new regional skew exclusion area outside the regional skew areas, the density of long-record streamgages was too sparse for regional analysis and station skew was used for all estimates. Final station flood frequency estimates for all study streamgages are presented for the 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities.Regional multiple-regression analysis was used to produce equations for estimating flood frequency statistics from explanatory basin characteristics. Basin characteristics, including physical and climatic variables, were updated for all study streamgages using a geographical information system and geospatial source data. Screening for similar-sized nested basins eliminated hydrologically redundant sites, and screening for eligibility for analysis of explanatory variables eliminated regulated peaks, outburst peaks, and sites with indeterminate basin characteristics. An ordinary least‑squares regression used flood-frequency statistics and basin characteristics for 341 streamgages (284 in Alaska and 57 in Canada) to determine the most suitable combination of basin characteristics for a flood-frequency regression model and to explore regional grouping of streamgages for explaining variability in flood-frequency statistics across the study area. The most suitable model for explaining flood frequency used drainage area and mean annual precipitation as explanatory variables for the entire study area as a region. Final regression equations for estimating the 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability discharge in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada were developed using a generalized least-squares regression. The average standard error of prediction for the regression equations for the various annual exceedance probabilities ranged from 69 to 82 percent, and the pseudo-coefficient of determination (pseudo-R2) ranged from 85 to 91 percent.The regional regression equations from this study were incorporated into the U.S. Geological Survey StreamStats program for a limited area of the State—the Cook Inlet Basin. StreamStats is a national web-based geographic information system application that facilitates retrieval of streamflow statistics and

  8. Measured and estimated monthly precipitation values for precipitation gages in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, water years 1931-98

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset provides monthly precipitation data for 94 precipitation stations in the Black Hills area of South Dakota. The dataset contains measured values for...

  9. Annual Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  10. Pile-ou-face et mise-en-gage de bit quantique : bornes optimales, constructions pratiques et sécurité calculatoire

    OpenAIRE

    Chailloux, André

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computing allows us to revisit the study of quantum cryptographic primitives with information theoretic security. In 1984, Bennett and Brassard presented a protocol of quantum key distribution. In this protocol, Alice and Bob cooperate in order to share a common secret key k, which has to be unknown for a third party that has access to the communication channel. They showed how to perform this task quantumly with an information theoretic security; which is impossible classically.In my...

  11. Average Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  12. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_1: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 12,000 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  13. Towards the determination of deformation rates - pinch-and-swell structures as a natural and simulated paleo-strain rate gage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Max; Poulet, Thomas; Karrech, Ali; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Herwegh, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Layered rocks deformed under viscous deformation conditions frequently show boudinage, a phenomenon that results from differences in effective viscosity between the involved layers. In the case of continuous necking of a mechanically stiffer layer embedded in a weaker matrix, symmetric boudins are interpreted as the result of dominant visco-plastic deformation (Goscombe et al., 2004). However, information on the physical conditions, material properties and deformation processes are yet unknown. Natural samples deformed under low-grade (Tphysical deformation conditions by either grain growth or grain size reduction following the Paleowattmeter of Austin and Evans (2007) combined with the thermodynamic approach of Regenauer-Lieb and Yuen (2004). Depending on the dissipated energy, grain sizes in these domains vary substantially in space and time. While low strain rates (low stresses) in the swells favor grain growth and GSI dominated deformation, high strain rates in the pinches provoke dramatic grain size reduction with an increasing contribution of GSS as a function of decreasing grain size. The development of symmetric necks observed in nature thus seems to coincide with the transition from dislocation to diffusion creep dominated flow with continuous grain size reduction and growth from swell to neck at relatively high extensional strains. REFERENCES Austin, N. and Evans, B. (2007). Paleowattmeters: A scaling relation for dynamically recrystallized grain size. Geology, 35. Goscombe, B.D., Passchier, C.W. and Hand, M. (2004). Boudinage classification: End-member boudin types and modified boudin structures, Journal of Structural Geology, 26. Herwegh, M., Poulet, T., Karrech, A. and Regenauer-Lieb, K. (in press). From transient to steady state deformation and grain size: A thermodynamic approach using elasto-visco-plastic numerical modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research. Karrech, A., Regenauer-Lieb, K. and Poulet, T. (2011a). A Damaged visco-plasticity model for pressure and temperature sensitive geomaterials. Journal of Engineering Science 49. Regenauer-Lieb, K. and Yuen, D. (2004). Positive feedback of interacting ductile faults from coupling of equation of state, rheology and thermal-mechanics. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 142. Schmalholz, S.M. and Maeder, X. (2012). Pinch-and-swell structure and shear zones in viscoplastic layers. Journal of Structural Geology, 34.

  14. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_7: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 46,800 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  15. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_2: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 15,000 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  16. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_4: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 27,900 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  17. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_8: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 62,300 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  18. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_3: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 21,450 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  19. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_6: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 39,900 at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  20. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_5: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 33,900 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  1. Baking enables McLeod gauge to measure in ultrahigh vacuum range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisman, W. S.

    1965-01-01

    Accurate measurements in the ultrahigh vacuum range by a conventional McLeod gage requires degassing of the gage's glass walls. A closed system, in which mercury is forced into the gage by gravity alone, and in which the gage components are baked out for long periods, is used to achieve this degassing.

  2. DS-777 Spatial Location of Gages with Total Flow and estimated Base Flow, for the Predevelopment Simulation Period for the Northern High Plains Groundwater-Flow Model in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Baseflow is the portion of streamflow derived from groundwater flow. It is an important component of the groundwater budget, and can be estimated using known total...

  3. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_4b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 27,900 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  4. Point Locations of 849 Continuous Record Streamflow Gages Used to Estmate Annual and Average Values of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  5. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_8b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 62,300 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  6. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_3b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 21,450 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  7. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_5b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 33,900 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  8. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_1b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 12,000 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  9. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_7b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 46,800 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  10. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_6b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 39,900 at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  11. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_2b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 15,000 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  12. Development of brush holder pressure gage for locomotive traction motor%机车牵引电机刷握压力电子检测仪的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单国庆

    2008-01-01

    对内燃机车牵引电机刷握压力检测误差大及检测精度低的原因进行了分析,介绍了新研制的机车牵引电机刷握压力电子检测仪的结构和特点.新检测仪提高了电机刷握压力检测的准确度,解决了内燃机车牵引电机刷握压力检测的工艺技术难题.

  13. Pressure measurements of nonplanar stress waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A useful gage has been developed for measuring pressure of nonplanar or obliquely incident stress waves. The measurements made with these gages are not as precise as direct strain gage measurements, but are very good considering the conditions under which these gages are used. We feel a need to further develop our ability to measure nonplanar stress waves in the 0 to 10 kbar range. Carbon or ytterbium will probably be chosen for the sensing element

  14. Microcomputer Checks Butt-Weld Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clisham, W.; Garner, W.; Cohen, C.; Beal, J.; Polen, R.; Lloyd, J.

    1982-01-01

    Electrical gage and microcomputer eliminate time-consuming manual measurements. Alinement and angle of plates on either side of butt weld are measured and recorded automatically by hand-held gage and desk-top microcomputer. Gage/micro-computer quickly determine whether weld is within dimensional tolerances or whether reworking is needed. Microcomputer prints out measurements while operator moves gage from point to point along weld. Out-of-tolerance measurements are marked by an asterisk on printout.

  15. Technical procedures for water resources, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Volume 1: Environmental Field Program: Final draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This volume contains Technical Procedures pursuant to the Water Resources Site Study Plan including, determination of basin topographic characteristics, determination of channel and playa lake characteristics, operation of a stream gaging station, operation of a playa lake stage gaging system, and processing of data from a playa lake stage gaging system.

  16. Technical procedures for water resources, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Volume 1: Environmental Field Program: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains Technical Procedures pursuant to the Water Resources Site Study Plan including, determination of basin topographic characteristics, determination of channel and playa lake characteristics, operation of a stream gaging station, operation of a playa lake stage gaging system, and processing of data from a playa lake stage gaging system

  17. Instrumentation of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories had the responsibility for the experimental activities at the WIPP and fielded several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The instrumentation of these tests involved the placement of over 4,200 gages including room closure gages, borehole extensometers, stress gages, borehole inclinometers, fixed reference gages, borehole strain gages, thermocouples, thermal flux meters, heater power gages, environmental gages, and ventilation gages. Most of the gages were remotely read instruments that were monitored by an automated data acquisition system, but manually read instruments were also used to provide early deformation information and to provide a redundancy of measurement for the remote gages. Instruments were selected that could operate in the harsh environment of the test rooms and that could accommodate the ranges of test room responses predicted by pretest calculations. Instruments were tested in the field prior to installation at the WIPP site and were modified to improve their performance. Other modifications were made to gages as the TSI tests progressed using knowledge gained from test maintenance. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of instrumentation including calibration, installation, and maintenance. The instrumentation performed exceptionally well and has produced a large quantity of quality information

  18. Instrumentation of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Div.; Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship, D.A.; DeYonge, W.F.; Schiermeister, D.M. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, R.L.; Baird, G.T. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories had the responsibility for the experimental activities at the WIPP and fielded several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The instrumentation of these tests involved the placement of over 4,200 gages including room closure gages, borehole extensometers, stress gages, borehole inclinometers, fixed reference gages, borehole strain gages, thermocouples, thermal flux meters, heater power gages, environmental gages, and ventilation gages. Most of the gages were remotely read instruments that were monitored by an automated data acquisition system, but manually read instruments were also used to provide early deformation information and to provide a redundancy of measurement for the remote gages. Instruments were selected that could operate in the harsh environment of the test rooms and that could accommodate the ranges of test room responses predicted by pretest calculations. Instruments were tested in the field prior to installation at the WIPP site and were modified to improve their performance. Other modifications were made to gages as the TSI tests progressed using knowledge gained from test maintenance. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of instrumentation including calibration, installation, and maintenance. The instrumentation performed exceptionally well and has produced a large quantity of quality information.

  19. Tandem pressure measurements in a hostile environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thick disc quartz gages have long been accepted by the defense community for recording shock stress. A unique combination of characteristics, however, make the carbon stress gage suitable for many weapon test applications. Both carbon gages and quartz gages were calibrated with gas guns utilizing thin flyers. Experiments are described which compare the response of the two types of gages to a nonplaner stress pulse generated by the detonation of an explosive, silver acetylide-silver nitrate (SASN). It was concluded from 18 pairs of gages tested at three impulse levels that detonation of the explosive at no less than 100 points/cm2 would produce equal peak stress currents from the two types of gages within 25%. Impulse derived by integrating the pressure-time profile from the carbon gages mounted on quartz gages did not agree with ballistic pendulum impulse data, possibly because of early cracking of quartz beneath the carbon gage. However, similar integration of the pressure profile of carbon gages mounted on flat aluminum, extrapolated for long times along a theoretical curve, gave an impulse practically equal to the directly measured impulse

  20. DS-777 Spatial Location of Gages with Total Flow and estimated Base Flow, organized by Seasonal Stress Periods for the Development Simulation Period for the Northern High Plains Groundwater-Flow Model in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Baseflow is the portion of streamflow derived from groundwater flow. It is an important component of the groundwater budget, and can be estimated using known total...

  1. Summary of hydrologic conditions in Kansas, 2013 water year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Arin J.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Kansas Water Science Center (KSWSC), in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, maintains a long-term network of hydrologic monitoring gages in the State of Kansas. These include 195 real-time streamflow-gaging stations (herein gages) and 12 real-time reservoir-level monitoring stations. These data and associated analysis, accumulated for many years, provide a unique overview of hydrologic conditions and help improve our understanding of our water resources.

  2. Myocardial wall-thickness transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, C.; Lewis, G. W.; Silver, R. H.; Culler, V. H.

    1976-01-01

    Device consists of highly compliant circular beam attached to piezoresistive strain gage and barbed needle. Radial deflection of myocardium is measured with minimal disturbance of normal heart functions.

  3. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Handling Efficiency Improvement Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project determined specific performance metrics and discrete technology development goals with which to gage proposed investments in ground propellant systems...

  4. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.149 Type C supplied-air respirator... pounds per square inch gage), the respirator shall be equipped with a pressure-release mechanism that... exceeding 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage). (2) The pressure-release mechanism shall be set...

  5. Finding the Effective Mass and Spring Constant of a Force Probe from Simple Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nathaniel R.; Gill, Tom; Eyerly, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Force probes are versatile tools in the physics lab, but their internal workings can introduce artifacts when measuring rapidly changing forces. The Dual-Range Force Sensor by Vernier uses strain gage technology to measure force, based on the bending of a beam. Strain gages along the length of the beam change resistance as the beam bends. The…

  6. 49 CFR 213.333 - Automated vehicle inspection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inspections to continuously compare loaded track gage to unloaded gage under a known loading condition. The... with a minimum cut-off frequency of 25 Hz. The sample rate for wheel force data shall be at least 250... feet away from the contact point of wheels carrying a vertical load of no less than 10,000 pounds...

  7. 77 FR 60169 - Safety Advisory 2012-04; Worn Rail Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... rail with severe rail head wear and rolling contact fatigue (RCF) conditions. FRA is issuing this... significant vertical head loss (rail head wear) and gage-side-oriented RCF. This notice contains... these types of trains. Rail head wear occurs primarily on the gage-side face when the rail is located...

  8. Low-cost piezoresistive silicon load cell independent of force distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijze, Robert A.F.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Krijnen, Gijs J.M.; Lammerink, Theo S.J.; Elwenspoek, Miko

    1999-01-01

    A silicon load cell (force sensor) is presented which is based on a new operating principle. The force is measured by compressing a meander like strain gage. A second strain gage which is not loaded, is used for temperature compensation and for compensation of bending and stretching stresses in the

  9. Low-cost piezoresistive silicon load cell independent of force ditribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijze, Robert A.F.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Krijnen, Gijs J.M.; Lammerink, Theo S.J.; Elwenspoek, Miko

    2000-01-01

    A silicon load cell (force sensor) that is based on a new operating principle is presented. The force is measured by compressing a meander-like strain gage. A second strain gage, which is not loaded, is used for temperature compensation and for compensation of bending and stretching stresses in the

  10. High force 10 kN piezoresistive silicon force sensor with output independent of force distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijze, R.A.F.; Wiegerink, R.J.; Krijnen, G.J.M.; Berenschot, J.W.; Boer, de M.J.; Elwenspoek, M.C.; Peeters, Eric; Paul, Oliver

    2000-01-01

    A 10kN silicon force sensor is realized in which the force is measured by compressing a meander shaped polysilicon strain gage. A second gage which is not loaded, is used for temperature compensation, for compensation of bending and stretching stresses in the chip and for common changes in zero load

  11. Uncommonly Taught Languages: Another Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard T.

    1971-01-01

    This article, a reply to William Gage's "Uncommonly Taught Languages" (ED 042 163), takes issue with Gage's assertion that "there is no generally recognized source of guidance for determining needs and priorities for the allocation of the scarce resources in the uncommonly taught languages, but...that a number of useful tools of access for many…

  12. Water resources data for Hawaii and other Pacific areas, water year 1989. Volume 2. Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, federated states of Micronesia, Palau, and American Samoa. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1988-30 September 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, R.A.; Kunishige, V.E.; Lum, M.G.

    1996-05-01

    Water-resources data for the 1989 water year for other Pacific areas consist of records of discharge, and water quality of streams and stage of a lake and reservoir; water levels and water quality in wells; stage in a tide gage; and rainfall. This report volume 2 contains discharge records for 26 gaging stations; stage only for 2 gaging stations; water quality at 11 gaging stations, one streamflow partial record station, and 54 wells; water levels for 28 observations wells; and tide stages for one tide gage station. Also included are 2 crest-stage partial record stations, 4 miscellaneous partial-record stations, 15 low-flow partial-record stations, and 19 rainfall stations.

  13. Annual Maximum Stages and Discharges of Selected Streams in Virginia through 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Samuel H.; Wiegand, Ute

    2009-01-01

    Annual maximum stages and discharges for continuous-record and partial-record streamflow-gaging stations in Virginia are summarized through the 2007 water year. Data are included for over 500 active and discontinued streamflow-gaging stations operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, and other agencies for which 2 or more years of record are available. Additional information is provided for each station, including a brief description of gage location, drainage area, type of gage, vertical datum if known, method of development of the stage-discharge relation, bankfull stage if known, degree of regulation upstream from each gage, and pertinent remarks about historical data or local conditions that may affect peak flows.

  14. Solid Precipitation Measurement Intercomparison in Bismarck, North Dakota, from 1988 through 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Emerson, Douglas G.; Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    A solid precipitation measurement intercomparison was recommended by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and was initiated after approval by the ninth session of the Commission for Instruments and Methods of Observation. The goal of the intercomparison was to assess national methods of measuring solid precipitation against methods whose accuracy and reliability were known. A field study was started in Bismarck, N. Dak., during the 1988-89 winter as part of the intercomparison. The last official field season of the WMO intercomparison was 1992-93; however, the Bismarck site continued to operate through the winter of 1996-97. Precipitation events at Bismarck were categorized as snow, mixed, or rain on the basis of descriptive notes recorded as part of the solid precipitation intercomparison. The rain events were not further analyzed in this study. Catch ratios (CRs) - the ratio of the precipitation catch at each gage to the true precipitation measurement (the corrected double fence intercomparison reference) - were calculated. Then, regression analysis was used to develop equations that model the snow and mixed precipitation CRs at each gage as functions of wind speed and temperature. Wind speed at the gages, functions of temperature, and upper air conditions (wind speed and air temperature at 700 millibars pressure) were used as possible explanatory variables in the multiple regression analysis done for this study. The CRs were modeled by using multiple regression analysis for the Tretyakov gage, national shielded gage, national unshielded gage, AeroChem gage, national gage with double fence, and national gage with Wyoming windshield. As in earlier studies by the WMO, wind speed and air temperature were found to influence the CR of the Tretyakov gage. However, in this study, the temperature variable represented the average upper air temperature over the duration of the event. The WMO did not use upper air conditions in its analysis. The national shielded and

  15. Numerical Analysis of a Radiant Heat Flux Calibration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shanjuan; Horn, Thomas J.; Dhir, V. K.

    1998-01-01

    A radiant heat flux gage calibration system exists in the Flight Loads Laboratory at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. This calibration system must be well understood if the heat flux gages calibrated in it are to provide useful data during radiant heating ground tests or flight tests of high speed aerospace vehicles. A part of the calibration system characterization process is to develop a numerical model of the flat plate heater element and heat flux gage, which will help identify errors due to convection, heater element erosion, and other factors. A 2-dimensional mathematical model of the gage-plate system has been developed to simulate the combined problem involving convection, radiation and mass loss by chemical reaction. A fourth order finite difference scheme is used to solve the steady state governing equations and determine the temperature distribution in the gage and plate, incident heat flux on the gage face, and flat plate erosion. Initial gage heat flux predictions from the model are found to be within 17% of experimental results.

  16. Basin Centroid Points for Unregulated Streamgagages in and near West Virginia 1930-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Correlation of flows at pairs of streamgages were evaluated using a Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient to better identify gages that can be used as index...

  17. Streamflow Correlation Map Grids in and near West Virginia 1930-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Correlation of flows at pairs of streamgages were evaluated using a Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient to better identify gages that can be used as index...

  18. Summary of Activities for Health Monitoring of Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels Updated January 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skow, Miles G.

    2014-01-01

    This three year project (FY12-14) will design and demonstrate the ability of new Magnetic Stress Gages for the measurement of stresses on the inner diameter of a Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel overwrap.

  19. Rating of new outlet structures for MacFarlane Reservoir

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum explaining the new work on the outlet structure at MacFarlane Reservoir. Flow measurements were taken at different staff gage elevations and this data is...

  20. 46 CFR 58.50-5 - Gasoline fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (all incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 58.03-1) Thickness in inches and gage numbers 1 vs. tank... from, but adjacent to the engineroom or machinery space. Fuel tanks for auxiliaries shall be located...

  1. USGS data that is publicly available from their website

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data are mean daily discharge data at United States Geological Survey gages. Once column provides the date (mm/dd/yyyy) and the other column provides the mean...

  2. U.S. Hourly Precipitation Data Publication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This publication contains hourly precipitation amounts obtained from recording rain gages located at National Weather Service, Federal Aviation Administration, and...

  3. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 1:1,000,000-Scale Hydrographic Geodatabase of the United States - Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands 201403 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase contains streams, waterbodies and wetlands, streamflow gaging stations, and coastlines for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The streams are...

  4. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 1:1,000,000-Scale Hydrographic Geodatabase of the United States 201403 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase contains streams, waterbodies and wetlands, streamflow gaging stations, and coastlines for the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin...

  5. Surface-water data and statistics from U.S. Geological Survey data-collection networks in New Jersey on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Robert G.; Watson, Kara M.; Chang, Ming; Nieswand, Steven P.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with other Federal, State, and local agencies, operates and maintains a variety of surface-water data-collection networks throughout the State of New Jersey. The networks include streamflow-gaging stations, low-flow sites, crest-stage gages, tide gages, tidal creststage gages, and water-quality sampling sites. Both real-time and historical surface-water data for many of the sites in these networks are available at the USGS, New Jersey District, web site (http://nj.usgs.gov/), and water-quality data are available at the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) web site (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/). These data are an important source of information for water managers, engineers, environmentalists, and private citizens.

  6. Real Time River Forecasting Center Quantitative Precipitation Estimate

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Radar indicated-rain gage verified and corrected hourly precipitation estimate on a corrected ~4km HRAP grid. This archive contains hourly estimates of...

  7. River Forecasting Center Quantitative Precipitation Estimate Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Radar indicated-rain gage verified and corrected hourly precipitation estimate on a corrected ~4km HRAP grid. This archive contains hourly estimates of...

  8. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 1:1,000,000-Scale Hydrographic Geodatabase of the United States - Conterminous United States 201403 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase contains streams, waterbodies and wetlands, streamflow gaging stations, and coastlines for the conterminous United States. The streams are...

  9. Two-directional skin friction measurement utilizing a compact internally mounted thin-liquid-film skin friction meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Jeffrey A.; Hornung, Hans G.

    1993-01-01

    A new, compact oil film skin friction meter capable of measuring skin friction in two directions has been designed and constructed. The instrument allows the thin liquid film technique to now be applied in flight and in a wider variety of laboratory conditions. The instrument was tested by comparing measurements with those given by a floating element gage in laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary layers with zero pressure gradient. Both instruments agreed satisfactorily with each other and with the expected curves for the laminar and turbulent boundary layers. Significant differences were at first seen between the oil film meter and two floating element gages in the case of a favorable pressure gradient, but when a correction is applied to account for the normal force acting on the pendulum-type gage, the three instruents are much closer. The directional sensitivity of the oil film gage is also demonstrated.

  10. Flow-Angle and Airspeed Sensor System (FASS) Using Flush-Mounted Hot-Films Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Micron-thin surface hot-film gages are used to develop flow-angle and airspeed sensor system (FASS). Unlike Pitot-static and other pressure-based devices, which...

  11. History of U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging on the Souris River in and near Minot, North Dakota, 1903–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kevin K.; Robinson, Steven M.

    2016-09-07

    The U.S. Geological Survey began collecting streamflow data, in cooperation with the North Dakota State Water Commission, on the Souris River in and near Minot, North Dakota, in April 1903. The gage was started up to better understand the water resources available in North Dakota. Currently (2016), water availability is still important as well as the flood monitoring and forecasting that has become an important component of this gage. Gage-height and streamflow data for the Souris River in and near Minot have been collected at five different streamgage locations during the years. This fact sheet describes the history of streamgaging (locations, gage-height data, and streamflow data) and flooding on the Souris River in and near Minot since 1903.

  12. Composite Structure Monitoring using Direct Write Sensors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Direct Write (DW) sensors deposited directly and precisely on to complex (3D) components are proposed. Sensors proposed include strain gages and thermocouples,...

  13. SOME REMARKS ABOUT THE AREA-PRESERVING CONVEX CURVE FLOW IN THE PLANE%保面积平面凸曲线流的若干注记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮玲

    2004-01-01

    Using Picard's theorem and the Leray-Schauder fixed point theorem to reinvestigate the area-preserving convex curve flow in the plane which is considered as a coupled system and thus different from the setting handled by Gage.

  14. SOME REMARKS ABOUT THE AREA-PRESERVING CONVEX CURVE FLOW IN THE PLANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PiLing

    2004-01-01

    Using Picard's theorem and the l.eray-Schauder fixed point theorem to reinvestigate the area-preserving convex curve flow in the plane which is considered as a coupled system and thus different from the setting handled by Gage.

  15. Mounting technique for pressure transducers minimizes measurement interferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanham, R. N.; Taylor, C. E.; Balmer, C. E.; Hwang, C.

    1975-01-01

    Miniaturized transducers are fabricated from commercially available four-arm semiconductor gages; transducers are connected as bridge circuit and mounted on internal face of small diaphragm. Jacket made of conductive plastic may be needed to avoid buildup or static charges.

  16. Hawaii StreamStats; a web application for defining drainage-basin characteristics and estimating peak-streamflow statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Sarah N.; Oki, Delwyn S.

    2010-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the magnitude and frequency of floods are necessary for the safe and efficient design of roads, bridges, water-conveyance structures, and flood-control projects and for the management of flood plains and flood-prone areas. StreamStats provides a simple, fast, and reproducible method to define drainage-basin characteristics and estimate the frequency and magnitude of peak discharges in Hawaii?s streams using recently developed regional regression equations. StreamStats allows the user to estimate the magnitude of floods for streams where data from stream-gaging stations do not exist. Existing estimates of the magnitude and frequency of peak discharges in Hawaii can be improved with continued operation of existing stream-gaging stations and installation of additional gaging stations for areas where limited stream-gaging data are available.

  17. WATSTORE Stream Flow Basin Characteristics File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Stream Flow Basin Characteristics file contains information about the drainage basins of selected USGS gaging stations. Data elements of this file were...

  18. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 1:1,000,000-Scale Hydrographic Geodatabase of the United States - Alaska 201403 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase contains streams, waterbodies and wetlands, streamflow gaging stations, and coastlines for Alaska. The streams are incorporated into a geometric...

  19. Detection and location of metal fragments in the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. L.; Neuschaefer, R. W.

    1970-01-01

    Portable electronic device, based on the design of an eddy current gage, detects ferrous and nonferrous metal fragments. Device is more easily transported than X-ray equipment and does not present a radiation hazard.

  20. 33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., flood control, stream regulation, generation of power, irrigation, water supply, and recreation uses. (2... streamflow and channel conditions at gages named in paragraphs (a)(2) and (a)(4)(i) of this section....

  1. Optical Fiber Fabry-Perot Interferometer based Sensor Instrumentation System for Low Magnetic Field Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Ki Dong

    1997-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a miniaturized optical fiber based sensor system for the measurement of 3-dimensional vector magnetic fields. The operation of the sensor system is based on the detection of magnetostrictive dimensional changes in the sensor gage using a modified extrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer configuration. Because of the magnetostrictive reflector the gap length depends on the magnetic fields applied to the sensor. Since the diameter of the magnetostrictive sensor gage is...

  2. Citizen Hydrology and Compressed-Air Hydropower for Rural Electrification in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    At the present time, only one in eight residents of Haiti has access to electricity. Two recent engineering and statistical innovations have the potential for vastly reducing the cost of installation of hydropower in Haiti and the rest of the developing world. The engineering innovation is that wind, solar and fluvial energy have been used to compress air for generation of electricity for only 20 per megawatt-hour, in contrast to the conventional World Bank practice of funding photovoltaic cells for 156 per megawatt-hour. The installation of hydropower requires a record of stream discharge, which is conventionally obtained by installing a gaging station that automatically monitors gage height (height of the water surface above a fixed datum). An empirical rating curve is then used to convert gage height to stream discharge. The multiple field measurements of gage height and discharge over a wide range of discharge values that are required to develop and maintain a rating curve require a manpower of hydrologic technicians that is prohibitive in remote and impoverished areas of the world. The statistical innovation is that machine learning has been applied to the USGS database of nearly four million simultaneous measurements of gage height and discharge to develop a new classification of rivers so that a rating curve can be developed solely from the stream slope, channel geometry, horizontal and vertical distances to the nearest upstream and downstream confluences, and two pairs of discharge - gage height measurements. The objective of this study is to organize local residents to monitor gage height at ten stream sites in the northern peninsula of Haiti over a one-year period in preparation for installation of hydropower at one of the sites. The necessary baseline discharge measurements and channel surveying are being carried out for conversion of gage height to discharge. Results will be reported at the meeting.

  3. QA/QC Issues Related to Data From Volunteer Citizen Scientist Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, G. C.; Crimmins, M.; Vazquez, R.; Rupprecht, C.

    2007-12-01

    Earth science researchers increasingly are using field data gathered by volunteer citizen scientists, particularly where there is a need for dense or far-flung networks of instruments, or qualitative observations of environmental conditions (e.g., drought-caused plant stress, bird migration, spring ice break-up). Precipitation monitoring is a popular form of citizen science, with hundreds of local networks, and two regional networks - CoCoRaHS with observers in over 20 states, and RainLog, with over 1,200 observers in the Southwestern U.S. Dense networks of rain gages are especially valuable for capturing localized, convective storm events, with the data used for multiple purposes, including research, flood early warning, drought monitoring, and weather reporting. Researchers may be hesitant to use data collected by citizen scientists because of Quality Assurance/Quality Control issues associated with networks of volunteers. Gages vary in precision and accuracy, and citizen scientists have different levels of skill and experience. Backyard gages are not always ideally sited with respect to buildings and trees. Data entry issues include delays in reporting and input errors. Missing data are not only more prevalent than for official gages, the missing data are non-random. Spatial patterns of volunteers' gages reflect development patterns and socio-demographic factors, resulting in clusters and voids in gage distribution. Current interpolation methodologies do not handle these gage patterns well. RainLog is systematically quantifying these QA/QC issues, and where possible, developing procedures to mitigate them. Citizen scientists are kept informed and engaged and informed through a variety of web-based data visualization approaches. Automated monthly data reviews glean missing data and offer an opportunity to check outlier values. Various statistical approaches are used to estimate accuracy and precision for each gage. Finally, we are developing and implementing more

  4. The effect of temperature and moisture on electrical resistance, strain sensitivity and crack sensitivity of steel fiber reinforced smart cement composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teomete, Egemen

    2016-07-01

    Earthquakes, material degradations and other environmental factors necessitate structural health monitoring (SHM). Metal foil strain gages used for SHM have low durability and low sensitivity. These factors motivated researchers to work on cement based strain sensors. In this study, the effects of temperature and moisture on electrical resistance, compressive and tensile strain gage factors (strain sensitivity) and crack sensitivity were determined for steel fiber reinforced cement based composite. A rapid increase of electrical resistance at 200 °C was observed due to damage occurring between cement paste, aggregates and steel fibers. The moisture—electrical resistance relationship was investigated. The specimens taken out of the cure were saturated with water and had a moisture content of 9.49%. The minimum electrical resistance was obtained at 9% moisture at which fiber-fiber and fiber-matrix contact was maximum and the water in micro voids was acting as an electrolyte, conducting electrons. The variation of compressive and tensile strain gage factors (strain sensitivities) and crack sensitivity were investigated by conducting compression, split tensile and notched bending tests with different moisture contents. The highest gage factor for the compression test was obtained at optimal moisture content, at which electrical resistance was minimum. The tensile strain gage factor for split tensile test and crack sensitivity increased by decreasing moisture content. The mechanisms between moisture content, electrical resistance, gage factors and crack sensitivity were elucidated. The relations of moisture content with electrical resistance, gage factors and crack sensitivities have been presented for the first time in this study for steel fiber reinforced cement based composites. The results are important for the development of self sensing cement based smart materials.

  5. Sea Level did not Accelerate in the Last Quarter of the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, C.

    2004-12-01

    The Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL)collects quality-controlled sea levels from tide gages on all seas, and tabulates them at www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/psmsl(underline)individual(underline)stations.html. I examined annual average sea levels (Ra in column 6) for generally open-coast tide gages having data at the years defining quarter points in the 20th century: 1900, 1925, 1950, 1975, 2000. Gages lacking data for a given date, say 1975, were assumed to qualify if they had data for one year, plus or minus, of the missing data, i. e., for 1974 or 1976 in this example. This examination of data from gages on all seas identified 54 gages with data for the last three of the five dates, which included 26 gages with data for the last four of the five dates, which included 7 gages with data for all five dates. This means that sea-level change during the last quarter (Q4) of the 20th century could be compared at 54 sites with sea-level change in Q3, at 26 sites with sea- level change in Q2, and at 7 sites with sea-level change in Q1, providing 87 tests of the widely reported acceleration in rate of sea-level rise at the end of the 20th century. If sea level is rising at an accelerating rate, then sea-level rise during Q4 should almost always exceed sea-level rises in Q1, Q2, and Q3 of the 20th century. Of the 87 tests, 44 showed more sea-level rise in Q4, and 43 showed less sea-level rise in Q4, compared to the earlier quarters. Thus there is no evidence for an accelerating rise in sea level at the end of the 20th century from these quality-controlled data. The data do indicate that sea-level changes are synchronized over long reaches of shoreline (Sturges, 1990), and sites where gages are imbedded in deposits of clastic sediment have higher apparent sea-level rise attributable to sediment compaction. Beach erosion on the East Coast of the U.S. is widely attributed to the acceleration of sea-level rise, yet all 8 long-term gages at this coast show significantly LESS

  6. Analysis of Sting Balance Calibration Data Using Optimized Regression Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.; Bader, Jon B.

    2010-01-01

    Calibration data of a wind tunnel sting balance was processed using a candidate math model search algorithm that recommends an optimized regression model for the data analysis. During the calibration the normal force and the moment at the balance moment center were selected as independent calibration variables. The sting balance itself had two moment gages. Therefore, after analyzing the connection between calibration loads and gage outputs, it was decided to choose the difference and the sum of the gage outputs as the two responses that best describe the behavior of the balance. The math model search algorithm was applied to these two responses. An optimized regression model was obtained for each response. Classical strain gage balance load transformations and the equations of the deflection of a cantilever beam under load are used to show that the search algorithm s two optimized regression models are supported by a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the applied calibration loads and the measured gage outputs. The analysis of the sting balance calibration data set is a rare example of a situation when terms of a regression model of a balance can directly be derived from first principles of physics. In addition, it is interesting to note that the search algorithm recommended the correct regression model term combinations using only a set of statistical quality metrics that were applied to the experimental data during the algorithm s term selection process.

  7. Air intake shaft performance tests (Shaft 5): In situ data report (May 1988--July 1995). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Thermal/Structural Interactions Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.; Hoag, D.L.; Ball, J.R. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baird, G.T.; Jones, R.L. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Data are presented from the Air Intake Shaft Test, an in situ test fielded at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The construction of this shaft, well after the initial three access shafts, presented an unusual opportunity to obtain valuable detailed data on the mechanical response of a shaft for application to seal design. These data include selected fielding information, test configuration, instrumentation activities, and comprehensive results from a large number of gages. Construction of the test began in December 1987; gage data in this report cover the period from May 1988 through July 1995, with the bulk of the data obtained after obtaining access in November, 1989 and from the heavily instrumented period after remote gage installation between May, 1990, and October, 1991.

  8. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1998. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin; and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agajanian, J.; Rockwell, G.L.; Hayes, P.D.; Anderson, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 157 gaging stations and 13 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 21 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 1 station, water quality for 22 streamflow-gaging stations and 14 partialrecord stations, and precipitation data for 3 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  9. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1996. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, G.L.; Hayes, P.D.; Agajanian, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1996 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 149 gaging stations and 6 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 21 lakes and reservoirs, gage height records for 1 station, water quality for 19 streamflow-gaging stations and 17 partial record stations, and precipitation data for 4 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  10. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1997. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, P.D.; Agajanian, J.A.; Rockwell, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1997 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 151 gaging stations and 16 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 21 lakes and reservoirs, gage height records for 1 station, water quality for 23 streamflow-gaging stations and 10 partialrecord stations, and precipitation data for 5 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Califomia.

  11. Water Resources Data--California, Water Year 2002, Volume 1, Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, G.L.; Pope, G.L.; Agajanian, J.; Caldwell, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 188 gaging stations and 10 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 19 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 2 stations, water quality for 39 streamflow-gaging stations and 11 partial-record stations, and precipitation data for 1 station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  12. Water Resources Data--California, Water Year 2000, Volume 1, Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S.W.; Agajanian, J.; Rockwell, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 175 gaging stations and 13 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 20 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 2 stations, water quality for 27 streamflow-gaging stations and 3 partial-record stations, and precipitation data for 4 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  13. Water Resources Data--California, Water Year 2001, Volume 1, Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agajanian, J.; Rockwell, G.L.; Anderson, S.W.; Pope, G.L.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 180 gaging stations and 13 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 20 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 2 stations, water quality for 37 streamflow-gaging stations and 2 partial-record stations, and precipitation data for 3 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  14. Water Resources Data -- California, Water Year 2003, Volume 1, Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, G.L.; Agajanian, J.; Caldwell, L.A.; Rockwell, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 193 gaging stations and 11 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 22 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 2 stations, water quality for 47 streamflow-gaging stations and 12 partial-record stations, and precipitation data for 1 station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  15. Water resources data, California, water year 2004, volume 1. southern Great Basin from Mexican border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agajanian, J.; Caldwell, L.A.; Rockwell, G.L.; Pope, G.L.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 195 gaging stations and 10 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 25 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 2 stations, water quality for 47 streamflow-gaging stations and 7 partial-record stations, and precipitation data for 5 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  16. Estimation of rainfall using remote sensing for Riyadh climate, KSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHassoun, Saleh A.

    2013-05-01

    Rainfall data constitute an important parameter for studying water resources-related problems. Remote sensing techniques could provide rapid and comprehensive overview of the rainfall distribution in a given area. Thus, the infrared data from the LandSat satellite in conjunction with the Scofield-oliver method were used to monitor and model rainfall in Riyadh area as a resemble of any area in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia(KSA). Four convective clouds that covered two rain gage stations were analyzed. Good estimation of rainfall was obtained from satellite images. The results showed that the satellite rainfall estimations were well correlated to rain gage measurements. The satellite climate data appear to be useful for monitoring and modeling rainfall at any area where no rain gage is available.

  17. Fatigue-loaded fiber optic strain gauges performance in reinforced concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Marten J.; Nasta, Manish H.; Claus, Richard O.; Masri, Sami F.

    1994-02-01

    This paper reports the performance of short gage length optical fiber sensors embedded in a reinforced concrete specimen for the quantitative measurement of periodic strain. We report the use of practical, short gage length relative and absolute strain sensors for the measurement of strain in a reinforced concrete specimen. Both types of fiber sensors were attached to steel reinforcement rods prior to filling with concrete, and were collocated with conventional foil strain gages to allow direct comparison of output signals. The relative fiber sensors were of the extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric type operating at a wavelength of 1300 nm and the absolute strain sensors used wavelength information to measure absolute strain. The results of this work show that such optical fiber elements may be considered for long term quantitative evaluation of civil structure components.

  18. Apparatus for pre-stress-straining rod-type specimens in tension for in-situ passive fracture testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John Jy-an; Liu, Ken C.; Feng, Zhili

    2013-07-31

    A stress-strain testing apparatus imposes a stress-strain on a specimen while disposed in a controlled environment. Each end of the specimen is fastened to an end cap and a strain gage is attached to the specimen. An adjusting mechanism and a compression element are disposed between the end caps forming a frame for applying forces to the end caps and thereby stress-straining the specimen. The adjusting mechanism may be extended or retracted to increase or decrease the imposed stress-strain on the specimen, and the stress-strain is measured by the strain gage on the specimen while the apparatus is exposed to an environment such as high pressure hydrogen. Strain gages may be placed on the frame to measure stress-strains in the frame that may be caused by the environment.

  19. Use of 3000 Bragg Grating Strain Sensors Distributed on Four Eight-meter Optical Fibers During Static Load Tests of a Composite Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Brooks A.; Froggatt, Mark E.; Allison, Sidney G.; Moore, Thomas C., Sr.; Hare, David A.; Batten, Christopher F.; Jegley, Dawn C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a fiber optic system to measure strain at thousands of locations along optical fibers where weakly reflecting Bragg gratings have been photoetched. The optical fibers were applied to an advanced composite transport wing along with conventional foil strain gages. A comparison of the fiber optic and foil gage systems used for this test will be presented including: a brief description of both strain data systems; a discussion of the process used for installation of the optical fiber; comparative data from the composite wing test; the processes used for the location and display of the high density fiber optic data. Calibration data demonstrating the potential accuracy of the fiber optic system will also be presented. The opportunities for industrial and commercial applications will be discussed. The fiber optic technique is shown to be a valuable augmentation to foil strain gages providing insight to structural behavior previously requiring reliance on modeling.

  20. Montana StreamStats—A method for retrieving basin and streamflow characteristics in Montana: Chapter A in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.; Sando, Steven K.; Sando, Roy

    2016-04-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides streamflow characteristics and other related information needed by water-resource managers to protect people and property from floods, plan and manage water-resource activities, and protect water quality. Streamflow characteristics provided by the USGS, such as peak-flow and low-flow frequencies for streamflow-gaging stations, are frequently used by engineers, flood forecasters, land managers, biologists, and others to guide their everyday decisions. In addition to providing streamflow characteristics at streamflow-gaging stations, the USGS also develops regional regression equations and drainage area-adjustment methods for estimating streamflow characteristics at locations on ungaged streams. Regional regression equations can be complex and often require users to determine several basin characteristics, which are physical and climatic characteristics of the stream and its drainage basin. Obtaining these basin characteristics for streamflow-gaging stations and ungaged sites traditionally has been time consuming and subjective, and led to inconsistent results.StreamStats is a Web-based geographic information system application that was created by the USGS to provide users with access to an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resource planning and management. StreamStats allows users to easily obtain streamflow and basin characteristics for USGS streamflow-gaging stations and user-selected locations on ungaged streams. The USGS, in cooperation with Montana Department of Transportation, Montana Department of Environmental Quality, and Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, completed a study to develop a StreamStats application for Montana, compute streamflow characteristics at streamflow-gaging stations, and develop regional regression equations to estimate streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites. Chapter A of this Scientific Investigations Report describes the Montana Stream

  1. Cylinder valve packing nut studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, S.C. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The design, manufacture, and use of cylinder valve packing nuts have been studied to improve their resistance to failure from stress corrosion cracking. Stress frozen photoelastic models have been analyzed to measure the stress concentrations at observed points of failure. The load effects induced by assembly torque and thermal expansion of stem packing were observed by strain gaging nuts. The effects of finishing operations and heat treatment were studied by the strain gage hole boring and X-ray methods. Modifications of manufacturing and operation practices are reducing the frequency of stress corrosion failures.

  2. Nokia and mobile gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Martini, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the game market segments, size, and growth. Nokia’s participation in this market with its N-Gage product and N-Gage platform is examined in detail. Following is an industry analysis that produces a summary of the types of forces that affect Nokia’s ability to operate in this market. The value chain investigation looks at the inputs that make up the mobile game market and how Nokia uses these inputs to bring mobile gaming to the target market. The first recommendation f...

  3. Analysis of Directional Spectra and Reflection Coefficients in Incident and Reflected Wave Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳淑学; 俞聿修

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the modified Bayesian method for the analysis of directional wave spectra and reflection coefficients is verified by numerical and physical simulation of waves. The results show that the method can basically separate the incident and reflected directional spectra. In addition, the effect of the type of wave gage arrays, the number of measured wave properties, and the distance between the wave gage array and the reflection line on the resolution of the method are investigated. Some suggestions are proposed for practical application.

  4. Low-cost piezoresistive silicon load cell independent of force distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Zwijze, Robert A.F.; Remco J. Wiegerink; Krijnen, Gijs J.M.; Lammerink, Theo S.J.; Elwenspoek, Miko

    1999-01-01

    A silicon load cell (force sensor) is presented which is based on a new operating principle. The force is measured by compressing a meander like strain gage. A second strain gage which is not loaded, is used for temperature compensation and for compensation of bending and stretching stresses in the chip. Also, same changes in zero load resistor values are eliminated. It is shown that the output of the bridge is a linear function of the total force and independent of the force distribution on ...

  5. Static tensile and tensile creep testing of four boron nitride coated ceramic fibers at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coguill, Scott L.; Adams, Donald F.; Zimmerman, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    Six types of uncoated ceramic fibers were static tensile and tensile creep tested at various elevated temperatures. Three types of boron nitride coated fibers were also tested. Room temperature static tensile tests were initially performed on all fibers, at gage lengths of 1, 2, and 4 inches, to determine the magnitude of end effects from the gripping system used. Tests at one elevated temperature, at gage lengths of 8 and 10 inches, were also conducted, to determine end effects at elevated temperatures. Fiber cross sectional shapes and areas were determined using scanning electron microscopy. Creep testing was typically performed for 4 hours, in an air atmosphere.

  6. Numerical analysis of the first static calibration of the RSRA helicopter active-isolator rotor balance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The helicopter version of the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) is designed to make simultaneous measurements of all rotor forces and moments in a manner analogous to a wind-tunnel balance. Loads are measured by a combination of load cells, strain gages, and hydropneumatic active isolators with built-in pressure gages. Complete evaluation of system performance requires calibration of the rotor force- and moment-measurement system when installed in the aircraft. Derivations of calibration corrections for various combinations of calibration data are discussed.

  7. Preliminary results of the first static calibration of the RSRA helicopter active-isolator rotor balance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The helicopter version of the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) is designed to make simultaneous measurements of all rotor forces and moments in flight analogous to a wind tunnel balance. Loads are measured by a combination of load cells, strain gages, and hydropneumatic active isolators which use pressure gages to measure loads. Complete evaluation of system performance required calibration of the rotor force and moment measuring system when installed in the aircraft. Measurement system responses to rotor loads obtained during the first static calibration of the RSRA helicopter are plotted and discussed. Plots of the raw transducer data are included.

  8. Flood of June 22-24, 2006, in North-Central Ohio, With Emphasis on the Cuyahoga River Near Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, James M.; Ebner, Andrew D.; Koltun, G.F.; Astifan, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy rains caused severe flooding on June 22-24, 2006, and damaged approximately 4,580 homes and 48 businesses in Cuyahoga County. Damage estimates in Cuyahoga County for the two days of flooding exceed $47 million; statewide damage estimates exceed $150 million. Six counties (Cuyahoga, Erie, Huron, Lucas, Sandusky, and Stark) in northeast Ohio were declared Federal disaster areas. One death, in Lorain County, was attributed to the flooding. The peak streamflow of 25,400 cubic feet per second and corresponding peak gage height of 23.29 feet were the highest recorded at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging station Cuyahoga River at Independence (04208000) since the gaging station began operation in 1922, exceeding the previous peak streamflow of 24,800 cubic feet per second that occurred on January 22, 1959. An indirect calculation of the peak streamflow was made by use of a step-backwater model because all roads leading to the gaging station were inundated during the flood and field crews could not reach the station to make a direct measurement. Because of a statistically significant and persistent positive trend in the annual-peak-streamflow time series for the Cuyahoga River at Independence, a method was developed and applied to detrend the annual-peak-streamflow time series prior to the traditional log-Pearson Type III flood-frequency analysis. Based on this analysis, the recurrence interval of the computed peak streamflow was estimated to be slightly less than 100 years. Peak-gage-height data, peak-streamflow data, and recurrence-interval estimates for the June 22-24, 2006, flood are tabulated for the Cuyahoga River at Independence and 10 other USGS gaging stations in north-central Ohio. Because flooding along the Cuyahoga River near Independence and Valley View was particularly severe, a study was done to document the peak water-surface profile during the flood from approximately 2 miles downstream from the USGS streamflow-gaging station at

  9. Hydrologic Record Extension of Water-Level Data in the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) Using Artificial Neural Network Models, 2000-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul A.; Roehl, Edwin A.

    2007-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of real-time water-level gaging stations, ground-elevation models, and water-surface models designed to provide scientists, engineers, and water-resource managers with current (2000-present) water-depth information for the entire freshwater portion of the greater Everglades. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystem Science provides support for EDEN and the goal of providing quality assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. To increase the accuracy of the water-surface models, 25 real-time water-level gaging stations were added to the network of 253 established water-level gaging stations. To incorporate the data from the newly added stations to the 7-year EDEN database in the greater Everglades, the short-term water-level records (generally less than 1 year) needed to be simulated back in time (hindcasted) to be concurrent with data from the established gaging stations in the database. A three-step modeling approach using artificial neural network models was used to estimate the water levels at the new stations. The artificial neural network models used static variables that represent the gaging station location and percent vegetation in addition to dynamic variables that represent water-level data from the established EDEN gaging stations. The final step of the modeling approach was to simulate the computed error of the initial estimate to increase the accuracy of the final water-level estimate. The three-step modeling approach for estimating water levels at the new EDEN gaging stations produced satisfactory results. The coefficients of determination (R2) for 21 of the 25 estimates were greater than 0.95, and all of the estimates (25 of 25) were greater than 0.82. The model estimates showed good agreement with the measured data. For some new EDEN stations with limited measured data, the record extension

  10. Limited SP17 expression within tumors diminishes its therapeutic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, M F; Ditzel, H J

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated the expression of the tumor antigen sperm protein 17 (SP17) in a large panel of human cancers and compared it with the expression of two well-characterized families of tumor antigens, melanoma-associated antigen-A (MAGE-A) and G antigen (GAGE). We found that SP17...... positive tumors in contrast to MAGE-A and GAGE proteins, which were homogenously expressed in large foci. Our results suggest that SP17 may not be an optimal target for cancer vaccines....

  11. 7. colloquium on technical applications of radioisotopes in mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    19 contributions are presented as titles with abstracts dealing with the following topics: 1) radiometric gages, 2) radiotracers, 3) neutron activation analysis, 4) radioisotope-excited X-ray fluorescence analysis, and 5) radiation protection. Some of the papers will be published later and abstracted for the INIS database

  12. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative High Speed Shaft Tapered Roller Bearing Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.; Guo, Y.; McNiff, B.

    2013-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) is a project investigating gearbox reliability primarily through testing and modeling. Previous dynamometer testing focused upon acquiring measurements in the planetary section of the test gearbox. Prior to these tests, the strain gages installed on the planetary bearings were calibrated in a load frame.

  13. College Textbook Reading Attitude Survey: The Development of an Attitude Measuring Tool and Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension's Impact on Student Teachers' Attitudes and Perceptions Concerning College Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, James E.; Becker, Melisa; Lamb, Holy; McGregor, Jenifer

    2009-01-01

    Attitude toward reading has long proven to be of importance in learning. This study designed a survey instrument for college teachers to gage future teachers, college students' attitudes toward the reading of textbooks. College students (n = 64) responded to two instruments, the newly created survey called the College Textbook Reading Attitude…

  14. 24 CFR 3280.607 - Plumbing fixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... locations shall be not less than No. 20 Brown and Sharpe gage seamless drawn-brass tubing or other approved pipe or tubing materials. Inaccessible fixture connections shall be constructed according to the... tanks shall be fitted with an overflow pipe large enough to prevent flooding at the maximum flow rate...

  15. Whitey SCHe Ball Valves Provide Test Port Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-09-15

    These valves are 1/4 inch ball valves fabricated of 316 stainless steel. Packing is TFE (standard). They are used as normally closed isolation valves for test ports in the SCHe System between the gage root valve and the pressure indicator.

  16. Characteristics of ground motion and threshold values for colluvium slope displacement induced by heavy rainfall: a case study in northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Ching-Jiang; Sue, Dar-Zen

    2016-06-01

    The Huafan University campus is located in the Ta-lun Shan area in northern Taiwan, which is characterized by a dip slope covered by colluvium soil of various depths. For slope disaster prevention, a monitoring system was constructed that consisted of inclinometers, tiltmeters, crack gages, groundwater level observation wells, settlement and displacement observation marks, rebar strain gages, concrete strain gages, and rain gages. The monitoring data derived from hundreds of settlement and displacement observation marks were analyzed and compared with the displacement recorded by inclinometers. The analysis results revealed that the maximum settlement and displacement were concentrated on the areas around the Hui-Tsui, Zhi-An, and Wu-Ming buildings and coincided with periods of heavy rainfall. The computer program STABL was applied for slope stability analysis and modeling of slope failure. For prevention of slope instability, a drainage system and tieback anchors with additional stability measures were proposed to discharge excess groundwater following rainfall. Finally, threshold value curves of rainfall based on slope displacement were proposed. The curves can be applied for predicting slope stability when typhoons are expected to bring heavy rainfall and should be significant in slope disaster prevention.

  17. Developing a data acquisition system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's in situ tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico as an R and D facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes from US defense programs. The in situ tests associated with this facility (659 m below the surface) address technical issues of thermal/structural interaction, waste package performance, and plugging and sealing. Data from these tests are collected by a Data Acquisition System (DAS) consisting of two distinct entities that use the IEEE-488 bus for communication. Up to 5000 data channels can be recorded every 4 hr from extensometers, stressmeters, thermocouples, closure gages, and other special gages. The DAS consists of a multitasking and multiuser ModComp computer housed in a surface trailer that converts the data to engineering units, stores the data in raw and converted form, and provides quick-look plots and data listings. The other part of the DAS consists of the seven underground remote enclosed instrument stations (sheds) located near each test room and up to 1800 m from the surface trailer that contains the instruments and signal conditioning to operate and monitor the tests. The ModComp system manages data acquisition and supports concurrently 12 on-line terminals and two dial-up access lines for data access, gage diagnostics, data handling and updating, and software development. Data are currently acquired from over 4000 gages with 15,000 defined measurands; the system can be expanded to 65,534 measurands. 4 refs., 7 figs

  18. A NEW HYSTERESIS COMPENSATION METHOD FOR LOAD CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuZijian; ChenRenwen

    2002-01-01

    A new hysteresis compensation method is presented.After analyzing the characteristics of strain-gage based load cells under loading & unloading conditions, mathe-matical models are established.A solution to compensate the hysteresis of the load cell by the experiments.It is shown that the method is reliable and can effectively re-duce the hysteresis.

  19. Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

  20. 33 CFR 117.527 - Kennebunk River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... board gages in accordance with 33 CFR 118.160, of this chapter. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kennebunk River. 117.527 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maine § 117.527 Kennebunk River. The Dock...

  1. Longitudinally Jointed Edge-wise Compression Honeycomb Composite Sandwich Coupon Testing and FE Analysis: Three Methods of Strain Measurement, and Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokh, Babak; AbdulRahim, Nur Aida; Segal, Ken; Fan, Terry; Jones, Justin; Hodges, Ken; Mashni, Noah; Garg, Naman; Sang, Alex; Gifford, Dawn; Froggatt, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Three means (i.e., typical foil strain gages, fiber optic sensors, and a digital image correlation (DIC) system) were implemented to measure strains on the back and front surfaces of a longitudinally jointed curved test article subjected to edge-wise compression testing, at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, according to ASTM C364. The Pre-test finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted to assess ultimate failure load and predict strain distribution pattern throughout the test coupon. The predicted strain pattern contours were then utilized as guidelines for installing the strain measurement instrumentations. The strain gages and fiber optic sensors were bonded on the specimen at locations with nearly the same strain values, as close as possible to each other, so that, comparisons between the measured strains by strain gages and fiber optic sensors, as well as the DIC system are justified. The test article was loaded to failure (at approximately 38 kips), at the strain value of approximately 10,000mu epsilon As a part of this study, the validity of the measured strains by fiber optic sensors is examined against the strain gage and DIC data, and also will be compared with FEA predictions.

  2. 49 CFR 192.557 - Uprating: Steel pipelines to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress less than 30 percent of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pit cast pipe with a bursting tensile strength of 11,000 p.s.i. (76 MPa) gage and a modulus of rupture... the increased pressure; (4) Reinforce or anchor offsets, bends and dead ends in pipe joined by compression couplings or bell and spigot joints to prevent failure of the pipe joint, if the offset, bend,...

  3. Experimental stress analysis and fatigue tests of five 12-in. NPS ANSI Standard B16.9 tees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tees, designated as ORNL tees T-4, T-6, T-7, T-8, and T-15, were tested under subcontract at Southwest Research Institute, and the data were analyzed at ORNL. Experimental stress analyses were conducted for 13 individual loadings on each tee, including internal pressure and 3 mutually perpendicular force and moment loads on the branch and on the run. Each test model was instrumented with approx. 220, 1/16-in. three-gage, 450 strain rosettes on the body of the tee, and approx. 10, 1/16-in. two-gage, strain rosettes on the pipe extensions. Dial indicators, mounted on a special nonflexible holding frame, were used to measure deflections and rotations of the pipe extensions. Normalized maximum stress intensities for each loading condition on each tee are summarized in the text. Complete sets of strain-gage data, normalized stresses, and displacement measurements for each tee are given on microfiche in the appendixes. Following completion of the strain-gage tests, each tee was tested to failure in a fully reversed displacement-controlled low-cycle fatigue test with an alternating transverse load applied to the branch pipe. The load was directed out of plane for T-4, T-6, T-8, and T-15; and in plane for T-7. A constant internal pressure equal to the nominal design pressure was maintained during the fatigue tests. Failure data from the fatigue tests are summarized in the text

  4. Instrument evaluation, calibration, and installation for the heater experiments at Stripa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borehole instrumentation for the measurement of temperature, displacement, and stress was evaluated, modified, calibrated, and installed in an underground site at Stripa, Sweden where experiments are currently underway to investigate the suitability of granite as a storage medium for nuclear waste. Three arrays of borehole instrumentation measure the thermomechanical effects caused by electrical heaters which simulate the thermal output of canisters of radioactive waste. Because most rock mechanics investigations are carried out at modest temperatures, a sustained operating temperature as high as 2000C was an unusual and most important criterion governing the instrumentation program. Extensive laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effect of high temperature on instrument behavior and also to develop calibration and data-reduction procedures. The rod extensometers were tested for anchor creep, the selection of a suitable high-temperature pressurizing fluid, and the thermal stability of the grout. Four temperature corrections are incorporated into the data reduction of the USBM borehole deformation measurement: the bridge voltage offset correction, the change in calibration factor induced by temperature, and the thermal expansion of the gage and of the rock. The vibrating wire gages were calibrated in the laboratory by loading gages installed in a granite block at pressures up to 13 MPa and at temperatures ranging from 200 to 2000C. Both the slope and offset of the response equation are corrected for temperature effects. Most thermocouples were calibrated in an oven at the field site. Thermocouples were emplaced with individual gages and into holes backfilled with sand or grout

  5. Rainfall estimation using raingages and radar — A Bayesian approach: 1. Derivation of estimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, D.-J.; Smith, J. A.

    1991-03-01

    Procedures for estimating rainfall from radar and raingage observations are constructed in a Bayesian framework. Given that the number of raingage measurements is typically very small, mean and variance of gage rainfall are treated as uncertain parameters. Under the assumption that log gage rainfall and log radar rainfall are jointly multivariate normal, the estimation problem is equivalent to lognormal co-kriging with uncertain mean and variance of the gage rainfall field. The posterior distribution is obtained under the assumption that the prior for the mean and inverse of the variance of log gage rainfall is normal-gamma 2. Estimate and estimation variance do not have closed-form expressions, but can be easily evaluated by numerically integrating two single integrals. To reduce computational burden associated with evaluating sufficient statistics for the likelihood function, an approximate form of parameter updating is given. Also, as a further approximation, the parameters are updated using raingage measurements only, yielding closed-form expressions for estimate and estimation variance in the Gaussian domain. With a reduction in the number of radar rainfall data in constructing covariance matrices, computational requirements for the estimation procedures are not significantly greater than those for simple co-kriging. Given their generality, the estimation procedures constructed in this work are considered to be applicable in various estimation problems involving an undersampled main variable and a densely sampled auxiliary variable.

  6. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management, Appendices A to E. [in southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Important data were compiled for use with the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) remote sensing project in coastal zone land use and marine resources management, and include RICHEL climatological data and sources, a land use inventory, topographic and soil maps, and gaging records for RICHEL surface waters.

  7. Theoretical high-energy physics. Progress report, May 1, 1982-April 30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in theoretical high-energy physics research at Columbia University is briefly described. Areas of research include lattice gauge theory, long-range interactions, SU(3) gauge theory on a lattice, discrete quantum mechanics, gravity on a random lattice, particle production and distribution in QCD jets, the question of universality in SU(2) lattice gage theories, and magnetic monopoles

  8. Practical Considerations regarding Implementation of Wind Power Applications into Real-Time Hardware-In-The-Loop Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lennart; Iov, Florin

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the system implementation of voltage control architecture in wind power plants into a Real-Time Hardware-In-The-Loop framework. The increasing amount of wind power penetration into the power systems has en-gaged the wind power plants to take over the responsibility for adequa...

  9. Water‐Data Report 432139084024201 SHIAWASSEE RIVER AT JAMES TOWNSHIP MI ON SHIAWASSEE NWR-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 43o21’38” N, long. 84o02’18’’W, approximately 4 miles southwest of Saginaw, MI, Saginaw County. Gage is located on Shiawassee National Wildlife...

  10. Water‐Data Report 432139084024201 SHIAWASSEE RIVER AT JAMES TOWNSHIP MI ON SHIAWASSEE NWR-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 43o21’38” N, long. 84o02’18’’W, approximately 4 miles southwest of Saginaw, MI, Saginaw County. Gage is located on Shiawassee National Wildlife...

  11. Water‐Data Report 394031093062801 ELK CREEK NEAR ROTHVILLE MO, STUTMAN RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39040’31”N, Long. 9306’28”W, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillicothe, MO, Charlton County. Gage is located at southwest corner of bridge crossing on...

  12. Water‐Data Report 393937093090901 TURKEY CREEK NR SUMNER MO, FULBRIGHT RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39 deg 39’ 37”N, long. 93 deg 9’ 9”W, 23 miles east southeast of Chillicothe, MO, Charlton County. Gage is on the right bank, 75 feet south of bridge...

  13. Water‐Data Report 394031093062801 ELK CREEK NEAR ROTHVILLE MO, STUTMAN RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39040’31”N, Long. 9306’28”W, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillicothe, MO, Charlton County. Gage is located at southwest corner of bridge crossing on...

  14. Water‐Data Report 393937093090901 TURKEY CREEK NR SUMNER MO, FULBRIGHT RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39 deg 39’ 37”N, long. 93 deg 9’ 9”W, 23 miles east southeast of Chillicothe, MO, Charlton County. Gage is on the right bank, 75 feet south of bridge...

  15. Water‐Data Report 393619093074801 YELLOW CREEK NR MENDON MO, HWY CC ON SWAN LAKE NWR-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39036’19”N, long. 9307’48”W near Swan Lake NWR, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillicothe, MO, in Charlton County. Gage is mounted 9 feet off the ground on...

  16. Water‐Data Report 394031093062801 ELK CREEK NEAR ROTHVILLE MO, STUTMAN RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39040’31”N, Long. 9306’28”W, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillicothe, MO, Charlton County. Gage is located at southwest corner of bridge crossing on...

  17. Water‐Data Report 393937093090901 TURKEY CREEK NR SUMNER MO, FULBRIGHT RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39 deg 39’ 37”N, long. 93 deg 9’ 9”W, 23 miles east southeast of Chillicothe, MO, Charlton County. Gage is on the right bank, 75 feet south of bridge...

  18. Electrothermal fracturing of tensile specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinn, H. O.; Hanks, J. G.; Perkins, H. P.

    1970-01-01

    Pulling device consisting of structural tube, connecting rod, spring-loaded nuts, loading rod, heating element, and three bulkheads fractures tensile specimens. Alternate heating and cooling increases tensile loading by increments until fracturing occurs. Load cell or strain gage, applied to pulling rod, determines forces applied.

  19. 21 CFR 113.40 - Equipment and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... controllers should have adequate filter systems to ensure a supply of clean, dry air. (3) Pressure gages. Each... least 2 inches without a separable well or sleeve. The mercury thermometer—not the recorder chart—shall... control bulb. Air-operated temperature controllers should have adequate filter systems to ensure a...

  20. Ionizing radiation in industrial measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of instruments for industrial measurements have been extensively reviewed. Especially the measuring systems for control and automation as well as industrial radiometric gages have been presented and their application in Poland and other countries have been shown. The future developing trends in the interesting branch has been discussed

  1. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, D.E.

    1983-08-01

    Research programs on lead-acid batteries are reported that cover active materials utilization, active material integrity, and some technical support projects. Processing problems were encountered and corrected. Components and materials, a lead-plastic composite grid, cell designs, and deliverables are described. Cell testing is discussed, as well as battery subsystems, including fuel gage, thermal management, and electrolyte circulation. (LEW)

  2. Water‐Data Report 411214091070601 Lake Odessa at Schafer Landing nr Wapello Iowa - 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Location is Lat. 41° 12 ’14” N Long. 91° 7’ 6” W near Wapello, Iowa in Wapello County at Schafer Landing near Port Louisa National Wildlife Refuge. Gage is mounted...

  3. Surface water data at Los Alamos National Laboratory: 2008 water year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, David; Cata, Betsy; Kuyumjian, Gregory

    2009-09-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 69 stream-gage stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs— two that flow into Cañon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon.

  4. Surface water data at Los Alamos National Laboratory: 2009 water year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, David; McCullough, Betsy

    2010-05-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 73 stream-gage stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs— two that flow into Cañon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon.

  5. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Form L-3 (Revised October 1975)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for the required reading of such gages and for the adequate rating of such stations; and shall install... other beneficial public uses, including recreational purposes, and the Licensee shall release water from... for the construction, maintenance, and operation of such reasonable recreational facilities,...

  6. Integrator for on-line measurement of buffet signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, C. N.

    1970-01-01

    Device determines average rms value of buffet signals by integrating rms signals from strain gages for preselected period of time. System measures average rms value of other transient data, and the upper frequency limit depends on the frequency response of the amplifiers.

  7. Nuclear and radiation techniques - state of art and development trends; Techniki jadrowe i radiacyjne - stan obecny oraz kierunki rozwoju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A.G. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The state of art and development trends of nuclear and radiation techniques in Poland and worldwide have been presented. Among them the radiometric gages, radiation technologies, radiotracer methods and measuring systems for pipeline and vessels, brightness control have been described and their applications in industry, agriculture, health and environment protection have been shown and discussed. 35 refs, 1 fig.

  8. Water‐Data Report 393619093074801 YELLOW CREEK NR MENDON MO, HWY CC ON SWAN LAKE NWR-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39036’19”N, long. 9307’48”W near Swan Lake NWR, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillicothe, MO, in Charlton County. Gage is mounted 9 feet off the ground on...

  9. Water‐Data Report 393619093074801 YELLOW CREEK NR MENDON MO, HWY CC ON SWAN LAKE NWR-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39036’19”N, long. 9307’48”W near Swan Lake NWR, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillicothe, MO, in Charlton County. Gage is mounted 9 feet off the ground on...

  10. Water‐Data Report 393556093132501 ELK CREEK NR SUMNER MO, DS ON SWAN LAKE REFUGE-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 390 35’ 56.0” N, long. 930 13’ 25” W, at Swan Lake NWR, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillecothe, MO, in Charlton County. Gage is located near abandoned...

  11. Le labyrinthe de la cité radieuse. Les pérégrinations de Bérenger chez Ionesco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satijn, Nicolaas Alexander Gerardus

    1982-01-01

    In this study we have made an analysis of the Bérenger-cycle, and more in particular of Tueur sans gages, focussed on some elements which seem to us of essential importance for the study of any literary text. In the order in which they are dealt with these elements are: space, time, language and com

  12. Specification of rock instrumentation locations and orientations for Full-Scale Heater Test No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrument installed locations and orientations are given for Full-Scale Heater Test number-sign 2 conducted at the Near-Surface Test Facility. Location specifications are given for the original installation of all thermocouples, Multiple-Position Borehole Extensometers, US Bureau of Mines Borehole Deformation Gages, and Vibrating Wire Stressmeters. 3 figs

  13. Specification of rock intrumentation locations and orientations for Full-Scale Heater Test No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrument installed locations and orientations are given for Full-Scale Heater Test number-sign 1 conducted at the Near Surface Test Facility. Location specifications are given for the original installation of all thermocouples, Multiple-Position Borehole Extensometers, US Bureau of Mines Borehole Deformation Gages, and Vibrating Wire Stressmeters. 3 figs

  14. Precipitation Depth-Duration-Frequency Analysis for the Nevada National Security Site and Surrounding Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Li [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States). Division of Hydrologic Sciences; Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States). Division of Hydrologic Sciences

    2016-08-01

    Accurate precipitation frequency data are important for Environmental Management Soils Activities on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are important for environmental assessments performed for regulatory closure of Soils Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Sites, as well as engineering mitigation designs and post-closure monitoring strategies to assess and minimize potential contaminant migration from Soils CAU Sites. Although the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Atlas 14 (Bonnin et al., 2011) provides precipitation frequency data for the NNSS area, the NNSS-specific observed precipitation data were not consistent with the NOAA Atlas 14 predicted data. This is primarily due to the NOAA Atlas 14 products being produced from analyses without including the approximately 30 NNSS precipitation gage records, several of which approach or exceed 50 year of record. Therefore, a study of precipitation frequency that incorporated the NNSS precipitation gage records into the NOAA Atlas 14 dataset, was performed specifically for the NNSS to derive more accurate site-specific precipitation data products. Precipitation frequency information, such as the depth-duration-frequency (DDF) relationships, are required to generate synthetic standard design storm hydrographs and assess actual precipitation events. In this study, the actual long-term NNSS precipitation gage records, some of which are the longest gage records in southern and central Nevada, were analyzed to allow for more accurate precipitation DDF estimates to be developed for the NNSS. Gridded maps of precipitation frequency for the NNSS and surrounding areas were then produced.

  15. Fracture behavior of low-density replicated aluminum alloy foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam, E.; Goodall, R.; Mortensen, A.; Onck, P. R.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2008-01-01

    Tensile tests have been performed on replicated aluminum alloy foams of relative density between 4.5% and 8%. During the test the electrical resistance was measured with a four-point set-up and the displacements along the gage section were measured using a digital image correlation (DIC) technique.

  16. 16 CFR 1630.31 - Reasonable and representative tests and recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE SURFACE FLAMMABILITY OF CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 1-70) Rules and Regulations § 1630.31 Reasonable and representative tests and recordkeeping requirements... method, gage, pile levels, pile height, average pile thickness, pile weight, pile yarn, total...

  17. 16 CFR 1631.31 - Reasonable and representative tests and recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE SURFACE FLAMMABILITY OF SMALL CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 2-70) Rules and Regulations § 1631.31 Reasonable and representative tests and recordkeeping requirements... method, gage, pile levels, pile height, average pile thickness, pile weight, pile yarn, total...

  18. 77 FR 3500 - Reading Powder Coatings, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks and Beyond Employment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... November 3, 2011 (76 FR 68220). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration Reading Powder Coatings, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks and Beyond Employment Services and Gage Personnel Reading, PA; Amended Certification...

  19. Fast recovery strain measurements in a nuclear test environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recovery of early-time (50 μs or less) strain gage data on structural response experiments in underground nuclear tests has been a continuing problem for experimenters at the Nevada Test Site. Strain measurement is one of the primary techniques used to obtain experimental data for model verification and correlation with predicted effects. Peak strains generally occur within 50 to 100 μs of the radiation exposure. Associated with the exposure is an intense electromagnetic impulse that produces potentials of kilovolts and currents of kiloamperes on the experimental structures. For successful operation, the transducer and associated recording system must recover from the initial noise overload and accurately track the strain response within about 50 μs of the nuclear detonation. A gaging and fielding technique and a recording system design that together accomplish these objectives are described. Areas discussed include: (1) noise source model; (2) experimental cassette design, gage application, grounding, and shielding; (3) cable design and shielding between gage and recorder; (4) recorder design including signal conditioner/amplifier, digital encoder, buffer memory, and uphole data transmission; and (5) samples of experimental data

  20. 49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) No person may operate a segment of a high pressure distribution system at a pressure that exceeds the... segment of a distribution system otherwise designed to operate at over 60 p.s.i. (414 kPa) gage, unless..., particularly known corrosion and the actual operating pressures. (b) No person may operate a segment...

  1. 46 CFR 52.01-110 - Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure gauges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....) (1) Each boiler, except those of the forced circulation type with no fixed water line and steam line... boiler shall be fitted with two steam gages, one on either end on the boiler. (g) Salinometer cocks. In... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General...

  2. A Suggested Set of Job and Task Sheets for Machine Shop Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This set of job and task sheets consists of three multi-part jobs that are adaptable for use in regular vocational industrial education programs for training machinists and machine shop operators. After completing the sheets included in this volume, students should be able to construct a planer jack, a radius cutter, and a surface gage. Each job…

  3. Monitoring of stage and velocity, for computation of discharge in the Summit Conduit near Summit, Illinois, 2010-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin K.; Goodwin, Greg E.

    2013-01-01

    Lake Michigan diversion accounting is the process used by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers to quantify the amount of water that is diverted from the Lake Michigan watershed into the Illinois and Mississippi River Basins. A network of streamgages within the Chicago area waterway system monitor tributary river flows and the major river flow on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal near Lemont as one of the instrumental tools used for Lake Michigan diversion accounting. The mean annual discharges recorded by these streamgages are used as additions or deductions to the mean annual discharge recorded by the main stream gaging station currently used in the Lake Michigan diversion accounting process, which is the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal near Lemont, Illinois (station number 05536890). A new stream gaging station, Summit Conduit near Summit, Illinois (station number 414757087490401), was installed on September 23, 2010, for the purpose of monitoring stage, velocity, and discharge through the Summit Conduit for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in accordance with Lake Michigan diversion accounting. Summit Conduit conveys flow from a small part of the lower Des Plaines River watershed underneath the Des Plaines River directly into the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal. Because the Summit Conduit discharges into the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal upstream from the stream gaging station at Lemont, Illinois, but does not contain flow diverted from the Lake Michigan watershed, it is considered a flow deduction to the discharge measured by the Lemont stream gaging station in the Lake Michigan diversion accounting process. This report offers a technical summary of the techniques and methods used for the collection and computation of the stage, velocity, and discharge data at the Summit Conduit near Summit, Illinois stream gaging station for the 2011 and 2012 Water Years. The stream gaging station Summit Conduit near Summit, Illinois (station number 414757087490401) is an

  4. Instrumentation signal conditioning for the Large Coil Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signal conditioning for the LCTF sensors varied with sensor types. The sensors are divided into two areas: coil diagnostics, and facility. The types of sensors used on each of the test coils, and on the facility, are similar; the main difference is the signal conditioning for each. Five types of signals are conditioned: coil voltages, temperature, strain, displacement, and magnetic fields. Voltage tap signal conditioning will provide two functions: coil diagnostics, to determine the cryostability limits, and coil protection by monitoring the IR level of the coil conductor. The signal conditioning will provide high voltage isolation, filtering, analog subtraction of the di/dt signals, detection of a normal zone, and outputs for coil protection. Temperature sensors consist of the resistance type and type E thermocouples. Signal conditioning provides for high voltage isolation, with constant current sources. The thermocouple signals are conditioned through an analog signal scanner system. Strain gages with dummy temperature compensating gages are installed on the coil and supporting structures. An ac carrier system allows for more accurate measurements. A dc excitation system provides for gages that are not at critical locations. Displacements are monitored by either a full bridge strain gage or a moving slug displacement transducer (MSDT). The full bridge strain system is conditioned through a standard strain gage scanner, while the MSDT sensor is excited by a 2 megahertz oscillator/demodulator system. Magnetic field measurements are made using hall probes, copper magnetic resistance probes, and pickup coils. Constant current sources provide the required stimulus. The detected analog signals are conditioned either by a high voltage isolation amplifier or by a low voltage A/D converter

  5. Cosmic-ray exposure ages and origin of iron meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of the cosmic-ray exposure ages of iron meteorites by the 41K/40K method has been continued. The ages of more than 60 iron meteorites have been obtained to date. Medium and fine octahedrites of the Ga-Ge group III were essentially produced in two major collisions about 600 x 106 and 700 x 106 yr ago, and fine octahedrites of the Ga-Ge group IVa in one collision about 400 x 106 yr ago. These three events alone already supplied about 50% of all iron meteorites. Hexahedrites, coarse octahedrites of the Ga-Ge group I and nickel-rich ataxites reveal age distributions which appear to be rather continuous. The differences in the statistics of meteorite production events for different meteorite classes indicate that fundamental dissimilarities may exist in the parent iron masses and parent celestial bodies. Hence, the following models for the origin of iron meteorites have been developed: Rather compact and large nickel-iron masses, perhaps fragments of asteroidal nickel-iron cores, are considered as being the parent masses of the fine octahedrites and medium octahedrites of the Ga-Ge groups III and IVa. The meteorites of each age group have been produced either when such a nickel-iron mass as a projectile hit another asteroid, or when a comet hit the nickel-iron mass. The hexahedrites, coarse octahedrites of the Ga-Ge group I, and the nickel-rich ataxites are, on the other hand, considered as being fragments of a multiplicity of nickel-iron inclusions ('pools' according to Urey) within the surface layers of Moon, Mars and asteroids (Mars asteroids), respectively. The fragments, together with stone meteorites, have been produced in a multiplicity of crater-forming impacts by comets on Moon, Mars or asteroids. (author)

  6. Engineering evaluation of alternatives: Managing the assumed leak from single-shell Tank 241-T-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At mid-year 1992, the liquid level gage for Tank 241-T-101 indicated that 6,000 to 9,000 gal had leaked. Because of the liquid level anomaly, Tank 241-T-101 was declared an assumed leaker on October 4, 1992. SSTs liquid level gages have been historically unreliable. False readings can occur because of instrument failures, floating salt cake, and salt encrustation. Gages frequently self-correct and tanks show no indication of leak. Tank levels cannot be visually inspected and verified because of high radiation fields. The gage in Tank 241-T-101 has largely corrected itself since the mid-year 1992 reading. Therefore, doubt exists that a leak has occurred, or that the magnitude of the leak poses any immediate environmental threat. While reluctance exists to use valuable DST space unnecessarily, there is a large safety and economic incentive to prevent or mitigate release of tank liquid waste into the surrounding environment. During the assessment of the significance of the Tank 241-T-101 liquid level gage readings, Washington State Department of Ecology determined that Westinghouse Hanford Company was not in compliance with regulatory requirements, and directed transfer of the Tank 241-T-101 liquid contents into a DST. Meanwhile, DOE directed WHC to examine reasonable alternatives/options for safe interim management of Tank 241-T-101 wastes before taking action. The five alternatives that could be used to manage waste from a leaking SST are: (1) No-Action, (2) In-Tank Stabilization, (3) External Tank Stabilization, (4) Liquid Retrieval, and (5) Total Retrieval. The findings of these examinations are reported in this study

  7. U.S. Geological Survey external quality-assurance project report to the National Atmospheric Deposition Program / National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Chesney, Tanya A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used six distinct programs to provide external quality-assurance monitoring for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program / National Trends Network (NTN) and Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) during 2007-08. The field-audit program assessed the effects of onsite exposure, sample handling, and shipping on the chemistry of NTN samples, and a system-blank program assessed the same effects for MDN. Two interlaboratory-comparison programs assessed the bias and variability of the chemical analysis data from the Central Analytical Laboratory (CAL), Mercury (Hg) Analytical Laboratory (HAL), and 12 other participating laboratories. A blind-audit program was also implemented for the MDN to evaluate analytical bias in HAL total Hg concentration data. A co-located-sampler program was used to identify and quantify potential shifts in NADP data resulting from replacement of original network instrumentation with new electronic recording rain gages (E-gages) and prototype precipitation collectors. The results indicate that NADP data continue to be of sufficient quality for the analysis of spatial distributions and time trends of chemical constituents in wet deposition across the U.S. NADP data-quality objectives continued to be achieved during 2007-08. Results also indicate that retrofit of the NADP networks with the new E-gages is not likely to create step-function type shifts in NADP precipitation-depth records, except for sites where annual precipitation depth is dominated by snow because the E-gages tend to catch more snow than the original NADP rain gages. Evaluation of prototype precipitation collectors revealed no difference in sample volumes and analyte concentrations between the original NADP collectors and modified, deep-bucket collectors, but the Yankee Environmental Systems, Inc. (YES) collector obtained samples of significantly higher volumes and analyte concentrations than the standard NADP collector.

  8. Flood-inundation maps for Lake Champlain in Vermont and in northern Clinton County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.; Hayes, Laura

    2016-06-30

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an approximately100-mile length of Lake Champlain in Addison, Chittenden, Franklin, and Grand Isle Counties in Vermont and northern Clinton County in New York were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the International Joint Commission (IJC). The flood-inundationmaps, which can be accessed through the International Joint Commission (IJC) Web site at http://www.ijc.org/en_/, depict estimates of the areal extent flooding correspondingto selected water levels (stages) at the USGS lake gage on the Richelieu River (Lake Champlain) at Rouses Point, N.Y. (station number 04295000). In this study, wind and seiche effects (standing oscillating wave with a long wavelength) were not taken into account and the flood-inundation mapsreflect 11 stages (elevations) for Lake Champlain that are static for the study length of the lake. Near-real-time stages at this lake gage, and others on Lake Champlain, may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at the Richelieu River (Lake Champlain) at Rouses Point.Static flood boundary extents were determined for LakeChamplain in Addison, Chittenden, Franklin, and Grand Isle Counties in Vermont and northern Clinton County in New York using recently acquired (2013–2014) lidar (light detection and ranging) and may be referenced to any of the five USGS lake gages on Lake Champlain. Of these five lakgages, USGS lake gage 04295000, Richelieu River (Lake Champlain) at Rouses Point, N.Y., is the only USGS lake gage that is also a National Weather Service prediction location. Flood boundary extents for the Lake Champlain static flood-inundation map corresponding to the May 201 flood(103.2 feet [ft], National Geodetic Vertical Datum [NGVD] 29) were evaluated by comparing these boundary

  9. Performance evaluation of laser guided leveler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Hoque

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI farm on clay loam soil during Rabi season of 2010-2011. The treatments consisted of laser land leveling (T1 and control (non-leveled (T2. A preliminary field survey was done using staff gage. Initially a base station was established to dispense laser ray uniformly. The laser ray erected from base station guided the sensor of the stuff gage and the leveler. Elevation data was collected from the different points of the field and made an average. The maximum gage reading were 247.0 cm and the minimum gage reading was 219.2 cm. Average gage readings of the laser leveled plot was 235.66 cm that was settled for auto adjustment. Therefore, huge amount of soils (16.46 cm high was cut from the highest point and subsequently had to fill to the low points. Finally, an equal gage reading of 235.66 cm was observed after leveling the plot. The laser leveler (Leica MLS700 was used hitching with a TAFE tractor. The field was leveled with manual control initially and finally it was operated with auto adjustment. Two operators, 25 litter diesels and total 6 hours time were required during this leveling. Wheat was cultivated in leveled land (T1 and non-leveled land (T2. Laser leveling was insured for improvement in nutrient use efficiencies, option for precision farming, reduces weed problems, and improves uniformity of crop maturity. There was better distribution of water in leveled plot, which helped to reduce irrigation application time 1 hour. Due to uniformity of moisture content improved germination and crop establishment was found which reflected in higher plant population (239 m-2. Maximum yield (3.41 t ha-1 was obtained in T1 due to longer panicle (10.89 cm, more grain per plant (27.47 and 1000 grain weight (47.38 g compared to yield of T2 (2.62 t ha-1.

  10. Time Series Analysis for the Drac River Basin (france)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Castro, K.; Donado-Garzon, L. D.; Rodriguez, E.

    2013-12-01

    This research is based on analyzing of discharge time-series in four stream flow gage stations located in the Drac River basin in France: (i) Guinguette Naturelle, (ii) Infernet, (iii) Parassat and the stream flow gage (iv) Villard Loubière. In addition, time-series models as the linear regression (single and multiple) and the MORDOR model were implemented to analyze the behavior the Drac River from year 1969 until year 2010. Twelve different models were implemented to assess the daily and monthly discharge time-series for the four flow gage stations. Moreover, five selection criteria were use to analyze the models: average division, variance division, the coefficient R2, Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE) and the Nash Number. The selection of the models was made to have the strongest models with an important level confidence. In this case, according to the best correlation between the time-series of stream flow gage stations and the best fitting models. Four of the twelve models were selected: two models for the stream flow gage station Guinguette Naturel, one for the station Infernet and one model for the station Villard Loubière. The R2 coefficients achieved were 0.87, 0.95, 0.85 and 0.87 respectively. Consequently, both confidence levels (the modeled and the empirical) were tested in the selected model, leading to the best fitting of both discharge time-series and models with the empirical confidence interval. Additionally, a procedure for validation of the models was conducted using the data for the year 2011, where extreme hydrologic and changes in hydrologic regimes events were identified. Furthermore, two different forms of estimating uncertainty through the use of confidence levels were studied: the modeled and the empirical confidence levels. This research was useful to update the used procedures and validate time-series in the four stream flow gage stations for the use of the company Électricité de France. Additionally, coefficients for both the models and

  11. Flood-Inundation Maps for a 1.6-Mile Reach of Salt Creek, Wood Dale, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, David T.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 1.6-mile reach of Salt Creek from upstream of the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific Railroad to Elizabeth Drive, Wood Dale, Illinois, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the DuPage County Stormwater Management Division. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (gage heights) at the USGS streamgage on Salt Creek at Wood Dale, Illinois (station number 05531175). Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/usa/nwis/uv?05531175. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional unsteady flow Full EQuations (FEQ) model. The unsteady flow model was verified by comparing the rating curve output for a September 2008 flood event to discharge measurements collected at the Salt Creek at Wood Dale gage. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 14 water-surface profiles for gage heights at 0.5-ft intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from less than bankfull to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a Geographic Information System (GIS) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data) in order to delineate the area flooded at each water level. The areal extent of the inundation was verified with high-water marks from a flood in July 2010 with a peak gage height of 14.08 ft recorded at the Salt Creek at Wood Dale gage. The availability of these maps along with Internet information regarding current gage height from USGS streamgages provide emergency management personnel and residents with information that is critical for flood response activities such as

  12. Rain rate and modeled fade distributions at 20 GHz and 30 GHz derived from five years of network rain gauge measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Krichevsky, Vladimir; Gebo, Norman

    1992-01-01

    Five years of rain rate and modeled slant path attenuation distributions at 20 GHz and 30 GHz derived from a network of 10 tipping bucket rain gages was examined. The rain gage network is located within a grid 70 km north-south and 47 km east-west in the Mid-Atlantic coast of the United States in the vicinity of Wallops Island, Virginia. Distributions were derived from the variable integration time data and from one minute averages. It was demonstrated that for realistic fade margins, the variable integration time results are adequate to estimate slant path attenuations at frequencies above 20 GHz using models which require one minute averages. An accurate empirical formula was developed to convert the variable integration time rain rates to one minute averages. Fade distributions at 20 GHz and 30 GHz were derived employing Crane's Global model because it was demonstrated to exhibit excellent accuracy with measured COMSTAR fades at 28.56 GHz.

  13. Index of surface-water stations in Texas, January 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Jack; Carrillo, E.R.; Buckner, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    As of January 1, 1989, the surface-water data-collection network in Texas included 373 continuous-streamflow, 75 continuous or daily reservoir-content, 37 gage-height, 15 crest-stage partial-record, 200 data collection platform, 7 periodic discharge through range, 27 flood-hydrograph partial-record, 27 low-flow partial-record, 43 daily chemical-quality, 17 continuous-recording water quality, 87 periodic biological, 11 lake survey, 159 period organic and (or) nutrient, 2 periodic insecticide, 28 periodic pesticide, 19 automatic sampler, 137 periodic minor element, 126 periodic chemical-quality, 75 periodic physical organic, 17 continuous-recording temperature, and 29 national stream-gaging accounting network stations. Plate 1 shows the location of surface-water streamflow or reservoir-content and chemical-quality or sediment stations in Texas. Plate 2 shows the location of partial-record surface-water stations. (USGS)

  14. Changes in high-flow frequency and channel geometry of the Neosho River downstream from John Redmond Dam, southeastern Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studley, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    The streamflow regimen of the Neosho River downstream from John Redmond Dam in southeastern Kansas has changed significantly since the dam's completion in 1964. The controlled releases from the dam have decreased the magnitudes of peak discharges and increased the magnitudes of low discharges. The trends in river stage for selected discharges also have changed at two of the streamflow-gaging stations--those closest to the dam. There is a significant downward trend in the stages associated with the median annual peak discharges, but no significant trend in the stages associated with the annual mean discharges, which indicates that the river channel is increasing in width but not depth or that the hflow velocity has increased at the streamflow-gaging stations. Because there were not significant trends present in precipitation, mean annual discharge, or annual peak discharge, the changes are attributed to John Redmond Dam.

  15. Geochemical and hydrologic data for San Marcos Springs recharge characterization near San Marcos, Texas, November 2008--December 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Cassi L.

    2012-01-01

    During 2008–10, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, collected geochemical and hydrologic data in Bexar, Comal, and Hays Counties, Texas, to define and characterize the sources of recharge to San Marcos Springs. Precipitation samples were collected for stable isotope analysis at 1 site and water-quality samples were collected at 7 springs, 21 wells, and 9 stream sites in the study area between November 2008 and December 2010. Continuous water-quality monitors were installed in three springs, two wells, and at one stream site. Three continuous stream-gaging stations were installed to measure gage height and a stagedischarge rating was developed at two of the three sites. Depth to water below land surface was continuously measured in two wells.

  16. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1990. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin; and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J.C.; Jensen, R.M.; Hoffman, E.B.

    1991-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1990 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 157 streamflow-gaging stations, 16 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations, and 2miscellaneous measurement stations; stage and contents records for 16 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality records for 19 streamflow-gaging stations, 2 partial-record stations; and precipitation records for 13 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  17. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1995. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin; and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agajanian, J.A.; Rockwell, G.L.; Hayes, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1995 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains (1) discharge records for 141 streamflow-gaging stations, 6 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations; (2) stage and contents records for 20 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water quality records for 21 streamflow-gaging stations and 3 partial-record stations; and (4) precipitation records for 1 station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  18. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1993. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, J.R.; Hayes, P.D.; Agajanian, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1993 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains (1) discharge records for 156 streamflow-gaging stations, 12 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations, and 5 miscellaneous measurement stations; (2) stage and contents records for 26 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water-quality records for 17 streamflow-gaging stations and 6 partial-record stations; and (4) precipitation records for 10 stations . These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  19. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1989. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin; and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, E.B.; Bowers, J.C.; Jensen, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1989 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 137 gaging stations; stage and contents for 15 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 25 streams; and precipitation for 8 gaging stations. Also included are 15 crest-stage partial-record stations, 7 miscellaneous measurement sites, and 5 water-quality partial record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  20. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1994. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, P.D.; Agajanian, J.A.; Rockwell, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1994 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains (1) discharge records for 143 streamflow-gaging stations, 15 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations; (2) stage and contents records for 20 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water quality records for 19 streamflow-gaging stations and 2 partial-record stations; and ( 4) precipitation records for 8 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  1. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1991. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin; and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R.M.; Hoffman, E.B.; Bowers, J.C.; Mullen, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains dischrage records for 171 streamflow-gaging stations, 16 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations, and 3 miscellaneous measurement stations; stage and contents records for 24 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality records for 23 streamflow-gaging stations, 4 partial-record stations; and precipitation records for 16 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U,S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  2. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin; and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, E.B.; Bowers, J.C.; Mullen, J.R.; Hayes, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1992 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains (1) discharge records for 161 streamflow-gaging stations, 15 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations, and 5 miscellaneous measurement stations; (2) stage and contents records for 26 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water-quality records for 23 streamflow-gaging stations and 3 partialrecord stations; and ( 4) precipitation records for 11 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  3. APPLICATION OF PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIAL FILM PVDF (Polyvinylidene Flouride AS LIQUID VISCOSITY SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hananto F. S, Santoso D.R., Julius

    2012-03-01

    Research was done by taking 10 samples of oil and 3 different size ofPVDF film and a strain gage,that are: 1 cm x 3 cm (PVDF1; 1 cm x 2 cm (PVDF2; 1 cm x 1 cm (PVDF3. Results showed that the resolution of  PVDF1,  PVDF2 and PVDF3 are  4.6  mv/cPois;  3.1  mv/cPois and 1.5  mv/cPois respectively, while the strain gage produce a resolution of 1.2  mv/cPois. The average resolution of PVDF is 1.53 mv.cPois-1.cm-2, which means that every 1 cm2   PVDF film area and the increase of 1 cPois of viscosity of the material will produce 1.53 millivolts.

  4. An Analysis of Shock-Compression in Mo-Si Powder Mixtures Using Recovery and Time-Resolved Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersall, Kevin S.; Thadhani, Naresh N.

    1999-06-01

    The densification and reaction characteristics in the Mo-Si system were investigated utilizing recovery experiments as well as time resolved measurements with in-situ stress gages. The starting sample in all cases consisted of statically pressed Mo + 2 Si powder mixtures ( ~55% TMD). The recovery experiments were performed using the Sandia Momma Bear and Momma Bear A fixtures with baratol and composition B explosives respectively. The instrumented experiments were performed in a capsule design similar to that of the Momma Bear, but modified to incorporate poly-vinyl di-flouride (PVDF) stress gages at the front and rear surfaces of the powder. These experiments were performed using a single stage gas gun in the velocity range of 500 m/s to 1 km/s. The instrumented experiments allow the crush strength, densification history, and reaction threshold to be mapped at increasing pressure to correlate with reaction observed in the recovery experiments.

  5. Rock Springs Site 12 hydraulic/explosive true in situ oil shale fracturing experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, R.L.; Boade, R.R.; Stevens, A.L.; Long, A. Jr.; Turner, T.F.

    1980-06-01

    The experiment plan involved the creation and characterization of three horizontal hydraulic fractures, followed by the insertion and simultaneous detonation of slurry explosive in the two lower fractures. Core analyses, wellbore logging, and airflow and /sup 85/Kr tracer tests were used for site characterization and assessment of the hydraulic and explosive fracturing. Tiltmeters, wellhead pressure and flow gages, and in-formation pressure, flow and crack-opening sensors were used to monitor hydrofracture creation and explosive insertion. Explosive detonation diagnostic data were taken with stress and time-of-arrival gages and surface and in-formation accelerometers. The post-fracturing assessments indicated that: (1) hydrofracture creation and explosive insertion and detonation were accomplished essentially as planned; (2) induced fractures were randomly distributed through the shale with no extensively fractured regions or dislocation of shale; and (3) enhancement of permeability was limited to enlargement of the explosive-filled fractures.

  6. Internally mounted thin-liquid-film skin-friction meter - Comparison with floating element method with and without pressure gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Hans; Seto, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    A new, robust oil film skin friction meter was designed and constructed. This enables skin friction measurements remotely and from within the model, as well as avoiding the need to know the location of the leading edge of the film. The instrument was tested by comparing measurements with those given by a floating element gage in a zero pressure gradient flat plate turbulent boundary layer. Both instruments agreed satisfactorily with the well-known curve for this case. Significant discrepancies between the two instruments were observed in the case of adverse and favorable pressure gradients. The discrepancies were of opposite sign for opposite-sign pressure gradients as is consistent with the error expected from floating-element gages. Additional confidence in the oil film technique is supplied by the good agreement of the behavior of the film profile with predictions from lubrication theory.

  7. A calibration device for digital goniometers%数显式角度仪校准装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢敏剑

    2015-01-01

    分析传统角度校准装置的特点,设计出一种新型的数显式角度仪校准装置,介绍了校准装置的测量原理和测量方法,与传统角度块的校准方式进行比较,验证了新型角度仪校准装置的有效性.%This paper analyzed the characteristics of calibration devices for conventional angular gage blocks, and designed a new calibration device for digital goniometers introduced its measuring principle and measuring methods. By comparing the calibration result with conventional angle gage block, it veriifed the effectiveness of the new calibration device.

  8. Evaluation of multi-brush anode systems in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Lanas, Vanessa

    2013-11-01

    The packing density of anodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was examined here using four different graphite fiber brush anode configurations. The impact of anodes on performance was studied in terms of carbon fiber length (brush diameter), the number of brushes connected in parallel, and the wire current collector gage. MFCs with different numbers of brushes (one, three or six) set perpendicular to the cathode all produced similar power densities (1200±40mW/m2) and coulombic efficiencies (60%±5%). Reducing the number of brushes by either disconnecting or removing them reduced power, demonstrating the importance of anode projected area covering the cathode, and therefore the need to match electrode projected areas to maintain high performance. Multi-brush reactors had the same COD removal as single-brush systems (90%). The use of smaller Ti wire gages did not affect power generation, which will enable the use of less metal, reducing material costs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. On the spring and mass of the Dirac oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, James P.

    1993-01-01

    The Dirac oscillator is a relativistic generalization of the quantum harmonic oscillator. In particular, the square of the Hamiltonian for the Dirac oscillator yields the Klein-Gordon equation with a potential of the form: (ar(sub 2) + b(L x S)), where a and b are constants. To obtain the Dirac oscillator, a 'minimal substitution' is made in the Dirac equation, where the ordinary derivative is replaced with a covariant derivative. However, an unusual feature of the covariant derivative in this case is that the potential is a non-trivial element of the Clifford algebra. A theory which naturally gives rise to gage potentials which are non-trivial elements of the Clifford algebra is that based on local automorphism invariance. An exact solution of the automorphism gage field equations which reproduces both the potential term and the mass term of the Dirac oscillator is presented.

  10. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin: Statewide project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Ohio each water year. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, 95 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and content records for 5 streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality for 40 streamflow-gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and (4) water levels for 431 observation wells.

  11. Methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of peak streamflows at ungaged sites in and near the Oklahoma Panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. Jerrod; Lewis, Jason M.; Graves, Grant M.

    2015-09-28

    This report presents the results of a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Department of Transportation to estimate the magnitude and frequency of peak streamflows from regional regression equations for ungaged stream sites in and near the Oklahoma Panhandle. These methods relate basin characteristics (physiographic and climatic attributes) to selected peak streamflow frequency statistics with the 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities. These relations were developed based on data from 32 selected streamflow-gaging stations in the Oklahoma Panhandle and in neighboring parts of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, and Texas. The basin characteristics for the selected streamflow-gaging stations were determined by using a geographic information system and the Oklahoma StreamStats application. Peak-streamflow frequency statistics were computed from annual peak-streamflow records from the irrigated period of record from water year 1978 through water year 2014.

  12. Tensile Split Hopkinson Bar Technique: Numerical Analysis of the Problem of Wave Disturbance and Specimen Geometry Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panowicz Robert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A method of tensile testing of materials in dynamic conditions based on a slightly modified compressive split Hopkinson bar system using a shoulder is described in this paper. The main goal was to solve, with the use of numerical modelling, the problem of wave disturbance resulting from application of a shoulder, as well as the problem of selecting a specimen geometry that enables to study the phenomenon of high strain-rate failure in tension. It is shown that, in order to prevent any interference of disturbance with the required strain signals at a given recording moment, the positions of the strain gages on the bars have to be correctly chosen for a given experimental setup. Besides, it is demonstrated that - on the basis of simplified numerical analysis - an appropriate gage length and diameter of a material specimen for failure testing in tension can be estimated.

  13. Variation of froude number with discharge for large-gradient steams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Kenneth L.

    1993-01-01

    Under chemical-control conditions, the Froude number (f) for a cross-section can be approximated as a function of the ratio R2/ 3/d 1/2 , where R is the hydraulic radius and d is the average depth. For cross sections where the ratio increases with increasing depth, F can also increase with depth Current-meter measurement data for 433 streamflow gaging stations in Colorado were reviewed, and 62 stations were identified at which F increases with depth of flow. Data for four streamflow gaging stations are presented. In some cases, F approaches 1 as the discharge approaches the magnitude of the median annual peak discharge. The data also indicate that few actual current meter measurement have been made at the large discharges where velocities can be supercritical.

  14. Helmet blastometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, William C; King, Michael J

    2015-03-24

    A helmet blastometer for characterizing the direction, speed, magnitude, and duration of a blast event to determine the likelihood of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (biTBI). Time of arrival (TOA) gage sensors are mounted on a rigid outer shell of the helmet each producing a TOA signal in response to a fast rising blast induced positive pressure change above a predetermined threshold. A receiver analyzes the positive pressure changes from the gages to determine direction, speed, and magnitude of a blast. Other TOA gauge sensors can be used to produce a TOA signal in response to a negative pressure change below a predetermined threshold. The positive and negative pressure change TOA signals are used to determine blast duration. A second set of internal contact pressure sensors is connected to an inner liner of the helmet to detect contact pressure on a user's head to determine if biTBI has been sustained.

  15. Effects of light wavelength and coherence in structured light sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Kevin; Ramamurthy, Rajesh; Zhai, Zirong; Han, Jie; Yang, Dongmin

    2016-05-01

    Structured light methods are used by many commercial products on the market today. Many such systems using white light projectors while many line gages use standard red laser diodes. However, in recent years there has been much claimed about using blue light, polarized light and partially coherent systems to obtain better performance. Unlike interferometers, moving from red to blue light for a system using only geometric shape information does not gain an automatic advantage from the shorter wavelength. The sensitivity metric does not have a wavelength component to it. But there are other factors that can improve gage performance. The ability to measure some feature is also a function of other parameters such as signal to noise ratio, reflectivity variations, and depth-of-field over which a clear pattern can be seen. This paper will explore the theoretical and experimental data relating to what works and what can be expected from variations on the old methods.

  16. Occurrence and transport of selected constituents in streams near the Stibnite mining area, Central Idaho, 2012–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Alexandra B.

    2015-12-07

    Mining of stibnite (antimony sulfide), tungsten, gold, silver, and mercury near the town of Stibnite in central Idaho has left a legacy of trace element contamination in local streams. Water-quality and streamflow monitoring data from a network of five streamflow-gaging stations were used to estimate trace-element and suspended-sediment loads and flow-weighted concentrations in the Stibnite mining area between 2012 and 2014. Measured concentrations of arsenic exceeded human health-based water-quality criteria at each streamflow-gaging station, except for Meadow Creek (site 2), which was selected to represent background conditions in the study area. Measured concentrations of antimony exceeded human health-based water-quality criteria at sites 3, 4, and 5.

  17. Radial explosion strain and its fracture effect from confined explosion with charge of cyclonite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国元; 段乐珍; 古德生; 闫长斌

    2004-01-01

    Instrumented experiments were conducted in concrete models to study the explosion-induced radial strain and fracture effect of rock-like media under confined explosion with a charge of cyclonite. As a charge was exploded,two different radial strain waves were sequentially recorded by a strain gage at a distance of 80 mm from the center of charge. Through the attenuation formula of the maximum compressive strain(εrmax ), the distribution of εrmax and its strain rate(ε) between the charge and gage were obtained. The effect of the two waves propagating outwards on the radial fracture of surrounding media was discussed. The results show that the two waves are pertinent to the loading of shock energy (Es) and bubble energy (Eb) against concrete surrounding charge, respectively. The former wave lasts for much shorter time than the latter. The peak values of εrmax and ε of the former are higher than those of the latter, respectively.

  18. Development of Rainfall-Discharge Model for Future NPP candidate Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Ji-hong; Yee, Eric [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    By this study, most suitable model for future nuclear power plant site in Yeongdeok to be used to predict peak amount of riverine flooding was developed by examining historical rainfall and discharge data from the nearest gage station which is Jodong water level gage station in Taehwa basin. Sitting a nuclear power plant (NPP) requires safety analyses that include the effects of extreme events such as flooding or earthquake. In light of South Korean government's 15-year power supply plan that calls for the construction of new nuclear power station in Yeongdeok, it becomes more important to site new station in a safe area from flooding. Because flooding or flooding related accidents mostly happen due to extremely intense rainfall, it is necessary to find out the relationship between rainfall and run-off by setting up feasible model to figure out the peak flow of the river around nuclear related facilities.

  19. Evaluation of multi-brush anode systems in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanas, Vanessa; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-11-01

    The packing density of anodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was examined here using four different graphite fiber brush anode configurations. The impact of anodes on performance was studied in terms of carbon fiber length (brush diameter), the number of brushes connected in parallel, and the wire current collector gage. MFCs with different numbers of brushes (one, three or six) set perpendicular to the cathode all produced similar power densities (1200 ± 40 mW/m(2)) and coulombic efficiencies (60% ± 5%). Reducing the number of brushes by either disconnecting or removing them reduced power, demonstrating the importance of anode projected area covering the cathode, and therefore the need to match electrode projected areas to maintain high performance. Multi-brush reactors had the same COD removal as single-brush systems (>90%). The use of smaller Ti wire gages did not affect power generation, which will enable the use of less metal, reducing material costs. PMID:24063821

  20. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  1. A computer program for plotting stress-strain data from compression, tension, and torsion tests of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, A.; Baker, D. J.; Davis, J. G., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program for plotting stress-strain curves obtained from compression and tension tests on rectangular (flat) specimens and circular-cross-section specimens (rods and tubes) and both stress-strain and torque-twist curves obtained from torsion tests on tubes is presented in detail. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 language for the Control Data 6000 series digital computer with the SCOPE 3.0 operating system and requires approximately 110000 octal locations of core storage. The program has the capability of plotting individual strain-gage outputs and/or the average output of several strain gages and the capability of computing the slope of a straight line which provides a least-squares fit to a specified section of the plotted curve. In addition, the program can compute the slope of the stress-strain curve at any point along the curve. The computer program input and output for three sample problems are presented.

  2. Ground-water levels and precipitation data at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site near Morehead, Kentucky, October 1988-September 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettwoch, Douglas D.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet--Department for Environmental Protection--Division of Waste Management, has an ongoing program to monitor water levels at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site near Morehead, Kentucky. Ground-water-level and precipitation data were collected from 112 wells and 1 rain gage at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site during October 1988-September 2000. Data were collected on a semi-annual basis from 62 wells, continuously from 6 wells, and monthly or bimonthly from 44 wells (13 of which had continuous recorders installed for the period October 1998-September 2000). One tipping-bucket rain gage was used to collect data at the Maxey Flats site for the period October 1988-September 2000.

  3. Comparison of radar data versus rainfall data

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa, B.; T.V. Hromadka II; Perez, R.

    2015-01-01

    Doppler radar data are increasingly used in rainfall-runoff synthesis studies, perhaps due to radar data availability, among other factors. However, the veracity of the radar data are often a topic of concern. In this paper, three Doppler radar outcomes developed by the United States National Weather Service at three radar sites are examined and compared to actual rain gage data for two separate severe storm events in order to assess accuracy in the published radar estimates of rainfall. Beca...

  4. Remarks about massive and massless particles in supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketov, S. V.; Kim, Y.-S.

    1993-01-01

    The internal space-time symmetry and simple supersymmetry of relativistic particles are briefly discussed in terms of the little group of the Poincare group. The little group generators in a finite-dimensional matrix representation of the N = 1 super-Poincare algebra are explicitly constructed. The supergeometry of a massive case continuously becomes that of a massless case in the infinite-momentum limit. The origin of the gage transformations associated with the massless supermultiplets becomes transparent in that limit.

  5. 顎整形力による上顎骨後方移動時のCorticotomyの効果に関する研究

    OpenAIRE

    吉川, 仁育

    1987-01-01

    The author performed corticotomy in combination with posterior transfer of the maxilla in 4 male Japanese monkeys and compared maxillary skeletal changes mor-phologically and histologically between the experimental group and 2 control animals. In addition, strain experiments were carried out on the dry skull using a strain gage. 1. Posterior transfer was negligible in the control group but marked in the experimental group. 2. At the site of suture, active remodelling of the bone was observed ...

  6. Experimental Development of a Novel Stress Sensor for in situ Stress Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polsky, Yarom [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Mattus, Catherine H [ORNL; Daniels, Ryan J [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    This paper will describe ongoing work to adapt a previously demonstrated method for measuring stress in ceramics to develop a borehole deployed in situ stress sensor. The method involves the use of a cementitious material which exhibits a strong piezo-spectroscopic stress response as a downhole stress gage. A description of the conceptual approach will be provided along with preliminary analysis and proof-of-concept laboratory results.

  7. Instrument evaluation, calibration, and installation for the heater experiments at Stripa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrauf, T.; Pratt, H.; Simonson, E.; Hustrulid, W.; Nelson, P.; DuBois, A.; Binnall, E.; Haught, R.

    1979-12-01

    Borehole instrumentation for the measurement of temperature, displacement, and stress was evaluated, modified, calibrated, and installed in an underground site at Stripa, Sweden where experiments are currently underway to investigate the suitability of granite as a storage medium for nuclear waste. Three arrays of borehole instrumentation measure the thermomechanical effects caused by electrical heaters which simulate the thermal output of canisters of radioactive waste. Because most rock mechanics investigations are carried out at modest temperatures, a sustained operating temperature as high as 200/sup 0/C was an unusual and most important criterion governing the instrumentation program. Extensive laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effect of high temperature on instrument behavior and also to develop calibration and data-reduction procedures. The rod extensometers were tested for anchor creep, the selection of a suitable high-temperature pressurizing fluid, and the thermal stability of the grout. Four temperature corrections are incorporated into the data reduction of the USBM borehole deformation measurement: the bridge voltage offset correction, the change in calibration factor induced by temperature, and the thermal expansion of the gage and of the rock. The vibrating wire gages were calibrated in the laboratory by loading gages installed in a granite block at pressures up to 13 MPa and at temperatures ranging from 20/sup 0/ to 200/sup 0/C. Both the slope and offset of the response equation are corrected for temperature effects. Most thermocouples were calibrated in an oven at the field site. Thermocouples were emplaced with individual gages and into holes backfilled with sand or grout.

  8. Transonic steady- and unsteady-pressure measurements on a high-aspect-ratio supercritical-wing model with oscillating control surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, M. C.; Ricketts, R. H.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A supercritical wing with an aspect ratio of 10.76 and with two trailing-edge oscillating control surfaces is described. The semispan wing is instrumented with 252 static orifices and 164 in situ dynamic-pressure gages for studying the effects of control-surface position and motion on steady- and unsteady-pressures at transonic speeds. Results from initial tests conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at two Reynolds numbers are presented in tabular form.

  9. The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) surface-water model, version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telis, Pamela A.; Xie, Zhixiao; Liu, Zhongwei; Li, Yingru; Conrads, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of water-level gages, interpolation models that generate daily water-level and water-depth data, and applications that compute derived hydrologic data across the freshwater part of the greater Everglades landscape. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science provides support for EDEN in order for EDEN to provide quality-assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan.

  10. A Research on the Relationship Between Staff Cognitive Style and Innovative Behavior——Mediating Effect of Staff Psychological Innovative Climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Jin-lian; WANG Ya-bin; ZHONG Jing

    2010-01-01

    In the dynamic environment, staff has become the basic working unit when the organizations en-gaged in innovative activities, and the major influencing factors on innovation behavior of organization members have become a hot spot. However, there is still lack of empirical study support in the cur-rent researches of synthesis influence of staff cognitive style and staff psychological innovative climate on staff innovative behavior.

  11. Instrumentation of a prestressed concrete containment vessel model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessheimer, M.F.; Rightley, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matsumoto, T. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    A series of static overpressurization tests of scale models of nuclear containment structures is being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation of Japan and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. At present, two tests are being planned: a test of a model of a steel containment vessel (SCV) that is representative of an improved, boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II design; and a test of a model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). This paper discusses plans and the results of a preliminary investigation of the instrumentation of the PCCV model. The instrumentation suite for this model will consist of approximately 2000 channels of data to record displacements, strains in the reinforcing steel, prestressing tendons, concrete, steel liner and liner anchors, as well as pressure and temperature. The instrumentation is being designed to monitor the response of the model during prestressing operations, during Structural Integrity and Integrated Leak Rate testing, and during test to failure of the model. Particular emphasis has been placed on instrumentation of the prestressing system in order to understand the behavior of the prestressing strands at design and beyond design pressure levels. Current plans are to place load cells at both ends of one third of the tendons in addition to placing strain measurement devices along the length of selected tendons. Strain measurements will be made using conventional bonded foil resistance gages and a wire resistance gage, known as a {open_quotes}Tensmeg{close_quotes}{reg_sign} gage, specifically designed for use with seven-wire strand. The results of preliminary tests of both types of gages, in the laboratory and in a simulated model configuration, are reported and plans for instrumentation of the model are discussed.

  12. Instrumentation of a prestressed concrete containment vessel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of static overpressurization tests of scale models of nuclear containment structures is being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation of Japan and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. At present, two tests are being planned: a test of a model of a steel containment vessel (SCV) that is representative of an improved, boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II design; and a test of a model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). This paper discusses plans and the results of a preliminary investigation of the instrumentation of the PCCV model. The instrumentation suite for this model will consist of approximately 2000 channels of data to record displacements, strains in the reinforcing steel, prestressing tendons, concrete, steel liner and liner anchors, as well as pressure and temperature. The instrumentation is being designed to monitor the response of the model during prestressing operations, during Structural Integrity and Integrated Leak Rate testing, and during test to failure of the model. Particular emphasis has been placed on instrumentation of the prestressing system in order to understand the behavior of the prestressing strands at design and beyond design pressure levels. Current plans are to place load cells at both ends of one third of the tendons in addition to placing strain measurement devices along the length of selected tendons. Strain measurements will be made using conventional bonded foil resistance gages and a wire resistance gage, known as a open-quotes Tensmegclose quotes reg-sign gage, specifically designed for use with seven-wire strand. The results of preliminary tests of both types of gages, in the laboratory and in a simulated model configuration, are reported and plans for instrumentation of the model are discussed

  13. Assessment of wind turbine load measurement instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfiadakis, E.; Papadopoulos, K. [CRES (Greece); Borg, N. van der [ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Petersen, S.M. [Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Seifert, H. [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    In the framework of Sub-Task3 `Wind turbine load measurement instrumentation` of EU-project `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development`, the load measurement techniques have been assessed by laboratory, full scale and numerical tests. The existing methods have been reviewed with emphasis on the strain gage application techniques on composite materials and recommendations are provided for the optimisation of load measurement techniques. (au) EU. 14 refs.

  14. Design and Laboratory Validation of a Capacitive Sensor for Measuring the Recession of Thin-Layered Ablator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noffz, Gregory K.; Bowman, Michael P.

    1996-01-01

    Flight vehicles are typically instrumented with subsurface thermocouples to estimate heat transfer at the surface using inverse analysis procedures. If the vehicle has an ablating heat shield, however, temperature time histories from subsurface thermocouples no longer provide enough information to estimate heat flux at the surface. In this situation, the geometry changes and thermal energy leaves the surface in the form of ablation products. The ablation rate is required to estimate heat transfer to the surface. A new concept for a capacitive sensor has been developed to measure ablator depth using the ablator's dielectric effect on a capacitor's fringe region. Relying on the capacitor's fringe region enables the gage to be flush mounted in the vehicle's permanent structure and not intrude into the ablative heat shield applied over the gage. This sensor's design allows nonintrusive measurement of the thickness of dielectric materials, in particular, the recession rates of low-temperature ablators applied in thin (0.020 to 0.060 in. (0.05 to 0.15 mm)) layers. Twenty capacitive gages with 13 different sensing element geometries were designed, fabricated, and tested. A two-dimensional finite-element analysis was performed on several candidate geometries. Calibration procedures using ablator-simulating shims are described. A one-to-one correspondence between system output and dielectric material thickness was observed out to a thickness of 0.055 in. (1.4 mm) for a material with a permittivity about three times that of air or vacuum. A novel method of monitoring the change in sensor capacitance was developed. This technical memorandum suggests further improvements in gage design and fabrication techniques.

  15. Measurements of hydrodynamic forces on the impeller of the HPOTP of the SSME

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, Ron; Arndt, Norbert

    1986-01-01

    The references [1-4] provide a complete description of the facility. Briefly, the dynamometer, composed of two parallel plates connected by four strain gaged posts, is mounted between the impeller and the drive shaft. It measures the six components of a generalized hydrodynamic force vector {F} acting on the impeller. The impeller can be subject to whirling motion in an orbit eccentric to the volute center, in addition to the normal impeller rotation. Since the eccentric motion is in the late...

  16. Analýza konkurenceschopnosti podniku EkoTerm - Servis spol. s.r.o.

    OpenAIRE

    Lukeš, Ondřej

    2013-01-01

    The topic of my bachelor's thesis is "Analysis of company competion of EkoTerm -- Servis, spol. s. r. o.'' The main target is to analysis company to compare his company competion to his biggest competitors. The thesis is splited to two parts. Teoretical part analyzes, what does competiton mean, definition of company competion, how can we gage the company competiton. Company is going to be analyze by strategic analysis of makro and mikro surroundings. Strategic analysis of mikro surroundings s...

  17. Ensayos de resistencia de pórticos de concreto a escala, reforzados con CFRP en los nudos

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Duque; Ingrid Amazo; Daniel Ruiz

    2011-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of four scale concrete frames (1:2) subjected to monotonic load are presented. The four frames were designed and constructed without confinement zones in the joints and considering only the gravitational load. Two of the four concrete frames of concrete were reinforced in the joints with a confinement with polymers reinforced with carbon fiber (CFRP). The instrumentation of the tests consisted of a load cell, analogous deformimeters and strain gages in the...

  18. Enhance International Cooperation to Promote Technology Supervision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Helin; Terry Qin

    1995-01-01

    @@ Tubular Goods Research Center(TGRC) is not only a scientific research institution of CNPC, but also the Tubular goods Quality Supervising, Inspection and Testing Center, the OCTG Thread Gage Measurement and Certification Agency, the secretariat of Tubular Goods Technical Committee of China Petroleum Standardization Committee,the National Laboratory of OCTG Certification for China Administration of Import and Export Commodity Inspection, Oil field Tubular Goods and Equipment Subcenter of Failure Analysis and Prevention Center of China Science Association.

  19. Multistate nonvolatile straintronics controlled by a lateral electric field

    OpenAIRE

    Iurchuk, V.; Doudin, B.; Kundys, B.

    2014-01-01

    We present a multifunctional and multistate permanent memory device based on lateral electric field control of a strained surface. Sub-coercive electrical writing of a remnant strain of a PZT substrate imprints stable and rewritable resistance changes on a CoFe overlayer. A proof-of-principle device, with the simplest resistance strain gage design, is shown as a memory cell exhibiting 17-memory states of high reproducibility and reliability for nonvolatile operations. Magnetoresistance of the...

  20. GOES data-collection system instrumentation, installation, and maintenance manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blee, J.W.; Herlong, H.E.; Kaufmann, C.D., Jr.; Hardee, J.H.; Field, M.L.; Middelburg, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the manual is to describe the installation, operation, and maintenance of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data collection platforms (DCP's) and associated equipment. This manual is not a substitute for DCP manufacturers ' manuals but is additional material that describes the application of data-collection platforms in the Water Resources Division. Power supplies, encoders, antennas, Mini Monitors, voltage analog devices, and the installation of these at streamflow-gaging stations are discussed in detail. (USGS)

  1. Comparison of Different Culture Mode for Long-term Expansion of Neural Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 Introduction The mammalian central nervous system(CNS) is incredibly complex and possesses only a limited ability to recover from damage~([1]). Fortunately, the discovery of self-renewing stem cell populations within the fetal and adult CNS has opened promising lines of inquiry. Neural stem cells (NSCs) can be cultured in two modes in vitro, suspension and monolayer. Reynolds~([2]) and other groups culture NSCs as neurospheres in suspension. Alternatively Gage cultured NSCs in monolayer. There is little s...

  2. A catchment scale water balance model for FIFE

    OpenAIRE

    Famiglietti, J.S.; E. F. Wood; Sivapalan, M.; Thongs, D. J

    1992-01-01

    A catchment scale water balance model is presented and used to predict evaporation from the King's Creek catchment at the First ISLSCP Field Experiment site on the Konza Prairie, Kansas. The model incorporates spatial variability in topography, soils, and precipitation to compute the land surface hydrologie fluxes. A network of 20 rain gages was employed to measure rainfall across the catchment in the summer of 1987. These data were spatially interpolated and used to drive the model during st...

  3. Improving remote sensing flood assessment using volunteered geographical data

    OpenAIRE

    Schnebele, E.; Cervone, G.

    2013-01-01

    A new methodology for the generation of flood hazard maps is presented fusing remote sensing and volunteered geographical data. Water pixels are identified utilizing a machine learning classification of two Landsat remote sensing scenes, acquired before and during the flooding event as well as a digital elevation model paired with river gage data. A statistical model computes the probability of flooded areas as a function of the number of adjacent pixels classified as water. Volunteered data ...

  4. Development of a Phantom Tissue for Blood Perfusion Measurements and Noninvasive Blood Perfusion Estimation in Living Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Mudaliar, Ashvinikumar

    2007-01-01

    A convenient method for testing and calibrating surface perfusion sensors has been developed. A phantom tissue model is used to mimic the non-directional blood flow of tissue perfusion. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was constructed in Fluent to design the phantom tissue and validate the experimental results. The phantom perfusion system was used with a perfusion sensor based on the clearance of thermal energy. A heat flux gage measures the heat flux response of tissue whe...

  5. Assessment of the Repeatability and Sensitivity of the Thermoelectric Perfusion Probe

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Brent Earl

    2006-01-01

    The Thermoelectric Perfusion Probe is a completely electronic system that cyclically heats and cools tissue to measure blood perfusion. The probe produces the thermal event with a thermoelectric cooler and then measures the resulting heat flux and temperatures: the arterial temperature and the sensor temperature (the temperature between the heat flux gage and the skin). The Thermoelectric Perfusion Probe was validated and calibrated on a phantom tissue test stand, a system that simulates pe...

  6. Technique for estimating depth of 100-year floods in Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Charles R.; Lewis, James G.

    1977-01-01

    Preface: A method is presented for estimating the depth of the loo-year flood in four hydrologic areas in Tennessee. Depths at 151 gaging stations on streams that were not significantly affected by man made changes were related to basin characteristics by multiple regression techniques. Equations derived from the analysis can be used to estimate the depth of the loo-year flood if the size of the drainage basin is known.

  7. Expression Patterns of Cancer-Testis Antigens in Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Their Cell Derivatives Indicate Lineage Tracks

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Gordeeva; Tatyana Yakovleva; Galina Poljanskaya; Tatyana Krylova; Anna Koltsova; Nadya Lifantseva

    2011-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into various lineages but undergo genetic and epigenetic changes during long-term cultivation and, therefore, require regular monitoring. The expression patterns of cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) MAGE-A2, -A3, -A4, -A6, -A8, -B2, and GAGE were examined in undifferentiated human embryonic stem (hES) cells, their differentiated derivatives, teratocarcinoma (hEC) cells, and cancer cell lines of neuroectodermal and mesodermal origin. Undifferentiated hES ce...

  8. Test and Analysis Correlation for a Y-Joint Specimen for a Composite Cryotank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Brian H.; Sleight, David W.; Grenoble, Ray

    2015-01-01

    The Composite Cryotank Technology Demonstration (CCTD) project under NASA's Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) developed space technologies using advanced composite materials. Under CCTD, NASA funded the Boeing Company to design and test a number of element-level joint specimens as a precursor to a 2.4-m diameter composite cryotank. Preliminary analyses indicated that the y-joint in the cryotank had low margins of safety; hence the y-joint was considered to be a critical design region. The y-joint design includes a softening strip wedge to reduce localized shear stresses at the skirt/dome interface. In this paper, NASA-developed analytical models will be correlated with the experimental results of a series of positive-peel y-joint specimens from Boeing tests. Initial analytical models over-predicted the experimental strain gage readings in the far-field region by approximately 10%. The over-prediction was attributed to uncertainty in the elastic properties of the laminate and a mismatch between the thermal expansion of the strain gages and the laminate. The elastic properties of the analytical model were adjusted to account for the strain gage differences. The experimental strain gages also indicated a large non-linear effect in the softening strip region that was not predicted by the analytical model. This non-linear effect was attributed to delamination initiating in the softening strip region at below 20% of the failure load for the specimen. Because the specimen was contained in a thermally insulated box during cryogenic testing to failure, delamination initiation and progression was not visualized during the test. Several possible failure initiation locations were investigated, and a most likely failure scenario was determined that correlated well with the experimental data. The most likely failure scenario corresponded to damage initiating in the softening strip and delamination extending to the grips at final failure.

  9. Maine StreamStats: a water-resources web application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Maine StreamStats is a tool that any user with Internet access can use to delineate a basin on the fly and estimate a wide variety of streamflow statistics for ungaged sites on rivers and streams in Maine. Estimates are based on regression equations or are from data from similar gaged locations on the stream. Maine StreamStats is based on a national StreamStats application that can be used for streamflow estimates in many other states across the country.

  10. Variety of the Wave Change in Compound Muscle Action Potential in an Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    ITO, ZENYA; Imagama, Shiro; Ando, Kei; Muramoto, Akio; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Kenyu; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Tsushima, Mikito; Matsumoto, Akiyuki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Morozumi, Masayoshi; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Animal study. Purpose To review the present warning point criteria of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and investigate new criteria for spinal surgery safety using an animal model. Overview of Literature Little is known about correlation palesis and amplitude of spinal cord monitoring. Methods After laminectomy of the tenth thoracic spinal lamina, 2-140 g force was delivered to the spinal cord with a tension gage to create a bilateral contusion injury. The study morpho...

  11. Modification of creep and low cycle fatigue behaviour induced by welding

    OpenAIRE

    A. Carofalo; V. Dattoma; R. Nobile; F.W. Panella; G. Alfeo; A. Scialpi; G.P. Zanon

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the mechanical properties of Waspaloy superalloy have been evaluated in case of welded repaired material and compared to base material. Test program considered flat specimens on base and TIG welded material subjected to static, low-cycle fatigue and creep test at different temperatures. Results of uniaxial tensile tests showed that the presence of welded material in the gage length specimen does not have a relevant influence on yield strength and UTS. However, elonga...

  12. Evaluation of Accuracy of Direct Transfer Snapon Impression Coping Closed Tray Impression Technique and Direct Transfer Open Tray Impression Technique: An In Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    T Balamurugan; Manimaran, P.

    2012-01-01

    Accuracy of the implant impression technique is one of the key factor determining the strain free fit of the prosthesis fabricated which influences the treatment success. Two implant impression techniques namely the closed tray technique with transfer coping and open tray technique were evaluated for accuracy with stone casts obtained from them. Casts were evaluated using a custom constructed bar on strain gage (SYSCOM) and abutment coordinates using Coordinate Measuring Machine (TESA micro-H...

  13. Analysis of uncertainties, associated to the calculating hypothesis, in discharge tables for high flows estimating, based on mathematics models for calculating water surface profiles fore steady gradually varied flow; Analisis de las incertidumbres, asociadas a las hipotesis de calculo, en la estimacion de curvas de gasto para crcidas, basada en el empleo de modelo matematico de calculo hidraulico en regimen permanente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldana Valverde, A. L.; Gonzalez Rodriguez, J. C.

    1999-08-01

    In this paper are analyzed some of the most important factors which can influence on the results of calculating water surface profiles for steady gradually varied flow. In this case, the objective of this kind of modeling, has been the estimation of discharges tables for high flows of river station gages connected to the hydrologic automatic information system (SAIH) of the Confederacion Hidrografica del Sur de Espana, system named red Hidrosur. (Author) 3 refs

  14. Rupture Process of the April 18, 1906 California Earthquake from near-field Tsunami Waveform Inversion

    OpenAIRE

    Lorito, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Piatanesi, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Lomax, A.; ALomax Scientific

    2007-01-01

    The April 18, 1906 M8 California earthquake generated a small local tsunami that was recorded in the near-field by the Presidio, San Francisco tide-gage, located near the Golden Gate. We investigate the causative, tsunamigenic seismic source by forward modeling and nonlinear inversion of the Presidio marigram. We use existing seismological and geological observations to fix the fault system geometry and the surface slip on the onland portions of the San Andreas fault (SAF). We perform synthe...

  15. Effets du taux de déformation sur la rupture ductile des aciers à haute performance : Expériences et modélisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dunand, Matthieu

    2013-01-01

    The automotive industry has widely incorporated Advanced High Strength Steels sheets (AHSS) in vehicle structures due to their high strength to weight ratio: they are used to improve the vehicle safety or to reduce the vehicle weight through the use of thinner gages. At the same time, new vehicle design relies heavily on virtual prototyping practices. In the specific example of automotive structures, both the engineering of the production process and of the final product require reliable mode...

  16. Damage detection of concrete masonry structures by enhancing deformation measurement using DIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhassani, Mohammad; Rajaram, Satish; Hamid, Ahmad A.; Kontsos, Antonios; Bartoli, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on deformability and damage detection of a concrete masonry wall. It employed point-to-point traditional strain gages and full-field measurement technique using digital image correlation (DIC) to investigate the damage and deformability of a partially grouted (PG) reinforced masonry wall. A set of ungrouted and grouted assemblages and full-scale concrete masonry shear wall were constructed and tested under displacement control loading. The wall was constructed according with masonry standards joint committee (MSJC 2013) and tested under constant vertical compression load and horizontal lateral load using quasi-static displacement procedure. The DIC method was used to determine non-uniform strain contours on the assemblages. This method was verified by comparing strains along the selected directions with traditional TML gage results. After a successful comparison, the method was used to investigate the state of damage and deformability of the wall specimen. Panel deformation, crack pattern, displacement at the top, and the base strain of the wall were captured using full-field measurement and results were in a good agreement with traditional strain gages. It is concluded that full-filed measurements using DIC is promising especially when the test specimens experience inelastic deformation and high degree of damage. The ability to characterize and anticipate failure mechanisms of concrete masonry systems by depicting strain distribution, categorizing structural cracks and investigating their effects on the behavior of the wall were also shown using DIC. In addition to monitoring strains across the gage length, the DIC method provided full-field strain behavior of the test specimens and revealed strain hotspots at locations that corresponded to failure.

  17. Declining streamflows reveal nonstationary orographic precipitation enhancement driven by reduced westerly flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Charles; Abatzoglou, John; Holden, Zachary

    2016-04-01

    Although orographic enhancement of precipitation lends mountains an important role in water resources, they are dramatically undersampled by long-term precipitation gages. This has led to the widespread practice of extrapolating trends in low-elevation precipitation gage networks to high elevations via simple climatological precipitation ratios developed from isohyetal maps. An implicit assumption in such a process is non-stationarity in orographic precipitation enhancement, an assumption that can lead to large errors in trend detection and attribution of climate change effects. We show an example from the Northwestern United States where streamflows from mountain watersheds show substantial declines over the last 60 years, even while long-term precipitation gage networks in the region show no trend. We demonstrate that these observed streamflow declines are driven by previously unexplored differential trends in precipitation. November to March westerly winds are strongly correlated with high-elevation precipitation but weakly correlated with low-elevation precipitation. Decreases in winter westerlies across the region from 1950 to 2012 are hypothesized to have reduced orographic precipitation enhancement, yielding differential trends in precipitation across elevations leading to the apparent paradox. Climate projections show continued weakening meridional pressure gradients and westerly flow across the region under greenhouse forcing, highlighting an additional stressor that is relevant for climate change impacts on water resources. This study also reveals the potential of wind speed data from circulation reanalysis products to better inform historical precipitation reconstructions.

  18. Particle Velocity Measurement for Spherical Wave in Solid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xue-feng; WANG Zhan-jiang; LIN Jun-de; SHEN Jun-yi

    2006-01-01

    An experimental technique for research on spherical divergent wave propagation in a solid has been developed,in which the source of generating spherical wave is a center initiating explosive charge designed in a mini-spherical shape with yield equivalent to 0.125 g and 0. 486 g TNT and a set of circular electromagnetic particle velocity gages is used to record the particle velocity histories. By using the circular electromagnetic particle velocity gages, the signal outputs not only are unattenuated due to the geometrical divergence, but also represent the average of the measured dynamic states of the medium over a circle on the wavefront. The distinctive features of this technique are very useful for the study of spherical divergent wave propagation in a solid, especially in an inhomogeneous solid, and the corresponding material dynamics.Many experimental measurements were conducted in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and granite by means of the technique, and the reproducibility of tests was shown to be good. The measurement technique of the circular electromagnetic particle velocity gages is also suitable to the case of cylindrical wave.

  19. Self-monitoring Application of Asphalt Concrete Containing Graphite and Carbon Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaoming; WU Shaopeng; LI Ning; GAO Bo

    2008-01-01

    The self-monitoring application of asphalt concrete containing graphite and carbon fibers using indirect tensile test and wheel rolling test were introduced. The experiment results indicate that this kind of pitch-based composite is effective for strain/stress self-monitoring. In the indirect tensile test, for a completely conductive asphalt concrete specimen, the piezoresistivity was very weak and slightly positive,which meant the resistivity increase with the increment of tensile strain at all stress/strain amplitudes, with the gage factor as high as 6. The strain self-sensing ability was superior in the case of higher graphite content.However, when the conductive concrete was embedded into common asphalt concrete specimen as a partial structure function, the piezoresistivity was positive at all stress/strain amplitudes and with the gage factor of 13,which was much higher than that of completely conductive specimen. Thus, the strain self-sensing ability was superior when conductive asphalt concrete was taken in as a partial structure function. In the wheel-rolling test,the piezoresistivity was highly positive. At any stress amplitude, the piezoresistivity was strong, with the gage factor as high as 100, which was higher for a stress amplitude of 0.7 MPa than that of 0.5 MPa.

  20. Magnitude and frequency of high flows of unregulated streams in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Information on high flow magnitude and frequency is needed for hydrologic evaluation of such factors as flood control storage and dam safety. High flow information given in this report is for streamflows unaffected by major regulation, such as by large reservoirs. High flow magnitude and frequency data are given for 91 streamflow gaging stations throughout Kansas. Results of frequency calculations are given for durations of high flow of 1 , 3, 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 183 consecutive days. Accuracy of the magnitude-frequency values is influenced by the variability of flow, the number of years of flow record, and the recurrence interval calculated. High flow magnitude and frequency for ungaged sites can be estimated from regression equations using significant drainage basin characteristics of contributing-drainage area; 50-yr, 24-hr rainfall; and free-water-surface evaporation. Standard errors of estimate for ungaged sites on ungaged streams range from 31% to 49%, generally increasing with recurrence interval. If an ungaged site is near a gaging station having 10 or more yr of record on the same stream, the data for the gaging station may be used to improve the regression estimates. (Author 's abstract)

  1. Regional regression equations to estimate peak-flow frequency at sites in North Dakota using data through 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2015-08-06

    Annual peak-flow frequency data from 231 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in North Dakota and parts of Montana, South Dakota, and Minnesota, with 10 or more years of unregulated peak-flow record, were used to develop regional regression equations for exceedance probabilities of 0.5, 0.20, 0.10, 0.04, 0.02, 0.01, and 0.002 using generalized least-squares techniques. Updated peak-flow frequency estimates for 262 streamflow-gaging stations were developed using data through 2009 and log-Pearson Type III procedures outlined by the Hydrology Subcommittee of the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data. An average generalized skew coefficient was determined for three hydrologic zones in North Dakota. A StreamStats web application was developed to estimate basin characteristics for the regional regression equation analysis. Methods for estimating a weighted peak-flow frequency for gaged sites and ungaged sites are presented.

  2. Streamflow and sediment data collected to determine the effects of a controlled flood in March and April 1996 on the Colorado River between Lees Ferry and Diamond Creek, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczki, Alice D.; Graf, Julia B.; Carpenter, Michael C.

    1997-01-01

    An 8-day period of planned release of water at 1,275 cubic meters per second from Glen Canyon Dam in March and April 1996 provided an opportunity to collect data on river stage, streamflow, water chemistry, and sediment transport at discharges above powerplant releases. The U.S. Geological Survey collected data at five streamflow-gaging stations on the mainstem of the Colorado River and four on tributaries during the controlled flood. River-stage data were collected at an additional 29 locations, and suspended-sediment data were collected at 4 of the 5 mainstem streamflow-gaging stations. In addition, measurements of reach-average flow velocity were made using a dye tracer, and water-surface slope was measured in reaches adjacent to three of the streamflow-gaging stations. Sand-storage changes caused by the controlled flood were documented by measuring bed elevation of the channel at cross sections before and after the controlled releases at the network of 120 monumented locations. This report presents selected data in tabular and graphical form. The data presented in the report are available in electronic form.

  3. Thermal Output of WK-Type Strain Gauges on Various Materials at Cryogenic and Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalkowski, Matthew K.; Rivers, H. Kevin; Smith, Russell W.

    1998-01-01

    Strain gage apparent strain (thermal output) is one of the largest sources of error associated with the measurement of strain when temperatures and mechanical loads are varied. In this paper, experimentally determined apparent strains of WK-type strain gages, installed on both metallic and composite-laminate materials of various lay-ups and resin systems for temperatures ranging from -450 F to 230 F are presented. For the composite materials apparent strain in both the 0 ply orientation angle and the 90 ply orientation angle were measured. Metal specimens tested included: aluminum-lithium alloy (Al-LI 2195-T87), aluminum alloy (Al 2219-T87), and titanium alloy. Composite materials tested include: graphite-toughened-epoxy (IM7/997- 2), graphite-bismaleimide (IM7/5260), and graphite-K3 (IM7/K3B). The experimentally determined apparent strain data are curve fit with a fourth-order polynomial for each of the materials studied. The apparent strain data and the polynomials that are fit to the data are compared with those produced by the strain gage manufacturer, and the results and comparisons are presented. Unacceptably high errors between the manufacture's data and the experimentally determined data were observed (especially at temperatures below - 270-F).

  4. Residual stresses and stress corrosion cracking in pipe fittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residual stresses can play a key role in the SCC performance of susceptible materials in PWR primary water applications. Residual stresses are stresses stored within the metal that develop during deformation and persist in the absence of external forces or temperature gradients. Sources of residual stresses in pipe fittings include fabrication processes, installation and welding. There are a number of methods to characterize the magnitude and orientation of residual stresses. These include numerical analysis, chemical cracking tests, and measurement (e.g., X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, strain gage/hole drilling, strain gage/trepanning, strain gage/section and layer removal, and acoustics). This paper presents 400 C steam SCC test results demonstrating that residual stresses in as-fabricated Alloy 600 pipe fittings are sufficient to induce SCC. Residual stresses present in as-fabricated pipe fittings are characterized by chemical cracking tests (stainless steel fittings tested in boiling magnesium chloride solution) and by the sectioning and layer removal (SLR) technique

  5. Global energy and water cycle experiment (GEWEX) continental-scale international project (GCIP); reference data sets CD-ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Alan; Cederstrand, Joel R.

    1994-01-01

    The data sets on this compact disc are a compilation of several geographic reference data sets of interest to the global-change research community. The data sets were chosen with input from the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-Scale International Project (GCIP) Data Committee and the GCIP Hydrometeorology and Atmospheric Subpanels. The data sets include: locations and periods of record for stream gages, reservoir gages, and meteorological stations; a 500-meter-resolution digital elevation model; grid-node locations for the Eta numerical weather-prediction model; and digital map data sets of geology, land use, streams, large reservoirs, average annual runoff, average annual precipitation, average annual temperature, average annual heating and cooling degree days, hydrologic units, and state and county boundaries. Also included are digital index maps for LANDSAT scenes, and for the U.S. Geological Survey 1:250,000, 1:100,000, and 1:24,000-scale map series. Most of the data sets cover the conterminous United States; the digital elevation model also includes part of southern Canada. The stream and reservoir gage and meteorological station files cover all states having area within the Mississippi River Basin plus that part of the Mississippi River Basin lying within Canada. Several data-base retrievals were processed by state, therefore many sites outside the Mississippi River Basin are included.

  6. Neutronic method of soil moisture measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutronic method is first outlined: analysis of neutron-nucleus interaction phenomena shows that the neutronic parameters of damp soils depend on the water itself, then on the dry density and the total chemical composition. A physical model representing the neutron moisture gage is worked out next, which leads to the establishment of a simple new mathematical expression applicable to two-dimensional geometry using the multigroup theory diffusion approximation. Following a brief description of the principle and technology of moisture gages two essential problems are dealt with: the calibration curve established by a quick and reliable method involving direct measurement of the thermal neutron constants of soils, and the measurement volume which must be approached by the use of a two-dimensional physical model to describe the geometrical conditions correctly. The problem of the vertical and horizontal resolution power of the neutron probe and the limiting case of surface measurements are discussed. Some possibilities offered by epithermal and fast neutron detection are suggested: epicadmic information represents a step forward as a complement to the thermal measurement since it supplies the principle of a moisture-gage independent of the dry density and allows the calibration curves of conventional instruments to be determined in situ. An experimental study of fast neutron space-energy distribution is described extended and specified by a physical model constructed on a Monte Carlo code; this gives the basis of a technique to measure water contents by fast neutron transmission

  7. Results from simulated remote-handled transuranic waste experiments at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-year, simulated remote-handled transuranic waste (RH TRU, nonradioactive) experiments are being conducted underground in the Waste Isolation Pilot-Plant (WIPP) facility. These experiments involve the near-reference (thermal and geometrical) testing of eight full size RH TRU test containers emplaced into horizontal, unlined rock salt boreholes. Half of the test emplacements are partially filled with bentonite/silica-sand backfill material. All test containers were electrically heated at about 115 W/each for three years, then raised to about 300 W/each for the remaining time. Each test borehole was instrumented with a selection of remote-reading thermocouples, pressure gages, borehole vertical-closure gages, and vertical and horizontal borehole-diameter closure gages. Each test emplacements was also periodically opened for visual inspections of brine intrusions and any interactions with waste package materials, materials sampling, manual closure measurements, and observations of borehole changes. Effects of heat on borehole closure rates and near-field materials (metals, backfill, rock salt, and intruding brine) interactions were closely monitored as a function of time. This paper summarizes results for the first five years of in situ test operation with supporting instrumentation and laboratory data and interpretations. Some details of RH TRU waste package materials, designs, and assorted underground test observations are also discussed. Based on the results, the tested RH TRU waste packages, materials, and emplacement geometry in unlined salt boreholes appear to be quite adequate for initial WIPP repository-phase operations

  8. The Guayas Estuary and sea level corrections to calculate flooding areas for climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreano, H. R.; Paredes, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Guayas estuary is the inner area of the Gulf of Guayaquil, it holds a water body of around 5000 km2 and the Puna island divides the water flow in two main streams : El Morro and Estero Salado Channel (length: 90 Km.) and Jambeli and Rio Guayas Channel (length: 125km.). The geometry of the estuarine system with the behavior of the tidal wave (semidiurnal) makes tidal amplitude higher at the head than at the mouth, whereas the wave crest at the head is delayed from one and a half to two hours from that at the mouth and sea level recorded by gages along the estuary are all different because of the wave propagation and mean sea level (msl) calculated for each gage show differences with that of La Libertad which is the base line for all altitudes on land (zero level). A leveling and calculations were made to correct such differences in a way that all gages (msl) records were linked to La Libertad and this in turn allowed a better estimates of flooding areas and draw them on topographic maps where zero level corresponds to the mean sea level at La Libertad. The procedure and mathematical formulation could be applied to any estuary or coastal area and it is a useful tool to calculate such areas especially when impacts are on people or capital goods and related to climate change scenarios.

  9. Standard guide for high-temperature static strain measurement

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the selection and application of strain gages for the measurement of static strain up to and including the temperature range from 425 to 650°C (800 to 1200°F). This guide reflects some current state-of-the-art techniques in high temperature strain measurement, and will be expanded and updated as new technology develops. 1.2 This practice assumes that the user is familiar with the use of bonded strain gages and associated signal conditioning and instrumentation as discussed in Refs. (1) and (2). The strain measuring systems described are those that have proven effective in the temperature range of interest and were available at the time of issue of this practice. It is not the intent of this practice to limit the user to one of the gage types described nor is it the intent to specify the type of system to be used for a specific application. However, in using any strain measuring system including those described, the proposer must be able to demonstrate the capability of the proposed sy...

  10. Processing and Characterization of a Novel Distributed Strain Sensor Using Carbon Nanotube-Based Nonwoven Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Dai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of an innovative carbon nanotube-based non-woven composite sensor that can be tailored for strain sensing properties and potentially offers a reliable and cost-effective sensing option for structural health monitoring (SHM. This novel strain sensor is fabricated using a readily scalable process of coating Carbon nanotubes (CNT onto a nonwoven carrier fabric to form an electrically-isotropic conductive network. Epoxy is then infused into the CNT-modified fabric to form a free-standing nanocomposite strain sensor. By measuring the changes in the electrical properties of the sensing composite the deformation can be measured in real-time. The sensors are repeatable and linear up to 0.4% strain. Highest elastic strain gage factors of 1.9 and 4.0 have been achieved in the longitudinal and transverse direction, respectively. Although the longitudinal gage factor of the newly formed nanocomposite sensor is close to some metallic foil strain gages, the proposed sensing methodology offers spatial coverage, manufacturing customizability, distributed sensing capability as well as transverse sensitivity.

  11. Peak-flow characteristics of Virginia streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Samuel H.; Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Wiegand, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Peak-flow annual exceedance probabilities, also called probability-percent chance flow estimates, and regional regression equations are provided describing the peak-flow characteristics of Virginia streams. Statistical methods are used to evaluate peak-flow data. Analysis of Virginia peak-flow data collected from 1895 through 2007 is summarized. Methods are provided for estimating unregulated peak flow of gaged and ungaged streams. Station peak-flow characteristics identified by fitting the logarithms of annual peak flows to a Log Pearson Type III frequency distribution yield annual exceedance probabilities of 0.5, 0.4292, 0.2, 0.1, 0.04, 0.02, 0.01, 0.005, and 0.002 for 476 streamgaging stations. Stream basin characteristics computed using spatial data and a geographic information system are used as explanatory variables in regional regression model equations for six physiographic regions to estimate regional annual exceedance probabilities at gaged and ungaged sites. Weighted peak-flow values that combine annual exceedance probabilities computed from gaging station data and from regional regression equations provide improved peak-flow estimates. Text, figures, and lists are provided summarizing selected peak-flow sites, delineated physiographic regions, peak-flow estimates, basin characteristics, regional regression model equations, error estimates, definitions, data sources, and candidate regression model equations. This study supersedes previous studies of peak flows in Virginia.

  12. Strain measurement on a compact nuclear reactor steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaldaferri, Denis Henrique Bianchi; Gomes, Paulo de Tarso Vida; Mansur, Tanius Rodrigues, E-mail: dhbs@cdtn.b, E-mail: gomespt@cdtn.b, E-mail: tanius@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Pozzo, Renato del, E-mail: delpozzo@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil); Mola, Jairo [Unitecnica Engenharia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents the strain measurement procedures applied to a compact nuclear reactor steam generator, during a hydrostatic test, using strain gage technology. The test was divided in two steps: primary side test and secondary side test. In the primary side test twelve points for strain measurement using rectangular rosettes, three points (two external and one internal) for temperature measurement using special strain gages and one point for pressure measurement using a pressure transducer were monitored. In the secondary side test 18 points for strain measurement using rectangular rosettes, four points (two external and two internal) for temperature measurement using special strain gages and one point for pressure measurement using a pressure transducer were monitored. The measurement points on both internal and external pressurizer walls were established from pre-calculated stress distribution by means of numerical approach (finite elements modeling). Strain values using a quarter Wheatstone bridge circuit were obtained. Stress values, from experimental strain were determined, and to numerical calculation results were compared. (author)

  13. The Relationship of Endoscopic Proficiency to Educational Expense for Virtual Reality Simulator Training Amongst Surgical Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raque, Jessica; Goble, Adam; Jones, Veronica M; Waldman, Lindsey E; Sutton, Erica

    2015-07-01

    With the introduction of Fundamentals of Endoscopic Surgery, training methods in flexible endoscopy are being augmented with simulation-based curricula. The investment for virtual reality simulators warrants further research into its training advantage. Trainees were randomized into bedside or simulator training groups (BED vs SIM). SIM participated in a proficiency-based virtual reality curriculum. Trainees' endoscopic skills were rated using the Global Assessment of Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Skills (GAGES) in the patient care setting. The number of cases to reach 90 per cent of the maximum GAGES score and calculated costs of training were compared. Nineteen residents participated in the study. There was no difference in the average number of cases required to achieve 90 per cent of the maximum GAGES score for esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 13 (SIM) versus11 (BED) (P = 0.63), or colonoscopy 21 (SIM) versus 4 (BED) (P = 0.34). The average per case cost of training for esophagogastroduodenoscopy was $35.98 (SIM) versus $39.71 (BED) (P = 0.50), not including the depreciation costs associated with the simulator ($715.00 per resident over six years). Use of a simulator appeared to increase the cost of training without accelerating the learning curve or decreasing faculty time spent in instruction. The importance of simulation in endoscopy training will be predicated on more cost-effective simulators.

  14. Evaluation of a Hopkinson bar fly-away technique for high amplitude shock accelerometer calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togami, T.C.; Bateman, V.I.; Brown, F.A.

    1997-11-01

    A split Hopkinson bar technique has been developed to evaluate the performance of accelerometers that measure large amplitude pulses. An evaluation of this technique has been conducted in the Mechanical Shock Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to determine its use in the practical calibration of accelerometers. This evaluation consisted of three tasks. First, the quartz crystal was evaluated in a split Hopkinson bar configuration to evaluate the quartz gage`s sensitivity and frequency response at force levels of 18,000, 35,000 and 53,000 N at ambient temperature, {minus}48 C and +74 C. Secondly, the fly away technique was evaluated at shock amplitudes of 50,000, 100,000, 150,000 and 200,000 G (1 G = 9.81 m/s{sup 2}) at ambient temperature, {minus}48 C and +74 C. Lastly, the technique was performed using a NIST calibrated reference accelerometer. Comparisons of accelerations calculated from the quartz gage data and the measured acceleration data have shown very good agreement. Based on this evaluation, the authors expect this split Hopkinson fly away technique to be certified by the SNL Primary Standards Laboratory.

  15. Static and dynamic force/moment measurements in the Eidetics water tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1994-01-01

    Water tunnels have been utilized in one form or another to explore fluid mechanics and aerodynamics phenomena since the days of Leonardo da Vinci. Water tunnel testing is attractive because of the relatively low cost and quick turn-around time to perform flow visualization experiments and evaluate the results. The principal limitation of a water tunnel is that the low flow speed, which provides for detailed visualization, also results in very small hydrodynamic (aerodynamic) forces on the model, which, in the past, have proven to be difficult to measure accurately. However, the advent of semi-conductor strain gage technology and devices associated with data acquisition such as low-noise amplifiers, electronic filters, and digital recording have made accurate measurements of very low strain levels feasible. The principal objective of this research effort was to develop a multi-component strain gage balance to measure forces and moments on models tested in flow visualization water tunnels. A balance was designed that allows measuring normal and side forces, and pitching, yawing and rolling moments (no axial force). The balance mounts internally in the model and is used in a manner typical of wind tunnel balances. The key differences between a water tunnel balance and a wind tunnel balance are the requirement for very high sensitivity since the loads are very low (typical normal force is 0.2 lbs), the need for water proofing the gage elements, and the small size required to fit into typical water tunnel models.

  16. A comparative evaluation of in-plane shear test methods for laminated graphite-epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, John; Ho, Henjen

    1992-01-01

    The objectives were to evaluate popular shear test methods for various forms of graphite-epoxy composite materials and to determine the shear response of graphite-epoxy composites with various forms of fiber architecture. Numerical and full-field experimental stress analyses were performed on four shear test configurations for unidirectional and bidirectional graphite-epoxy laminates to assess the uniformity and purity of the shear stress (strain) fields produced in the specimen test section and to determine the material in-plane shear modulus and shear response. The test methods were the 10 deg off-axis, the +/- 45 deg tension, the Iosipescu V-notch, and a compact U-notch specimen. Specimens were prepared from AS4/3501-6 graphite-epoxy panels, instrumented with conventional strain gage rosettes and with a cross-line moire grating, and loaded in a convenient testing machine. The shear responses obtained for each test method and the two methods of specimen instrumentation were compared. In a second phase of the program the shear responses obtained from Iosipescu V-notch beam specimens were determined for woven fabric geometries of different weave and fiber architectures. Again the responses of specimens obtained from strain gage rosettes and moire interferometry were compared. Additional experiments were performed on a bidirectional cruciform specimen which was also instrumented with strain gages and a moire grating.

  17. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  18. Current Developments in Future Planetary Probe Sensors for TPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ed; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Oishu, Tomo

    2003-01-01

    In-situ Thermal Protection System (TPS) sensors are required to provide traceability of TPS performance and sizing tools. Traceability will lead to higher fidelity design tools, which in turn will lead to lower design safety margins, and decreased heatshield mass. Decreasing TPS mass will enable certain missions that are not otherwise feasible, and directly increase science payload. NASA Ames is currently developing two flight measurements as essential to advancing the state of TPS traceability for material modeling and aerothermal simulation: heat flux and surface recession (for ablators). The heat flux gage is applicable to both ablators and non-ablators and is therefore the more generalized sensor concept of the two with wider applicability to mission scenarios. This paper describes the development of a microsensor capable of surface and in-depth temperature and heat flux measurements for TPS materials appropriate to Titan, Neptune, and Mars aerocapture, and direct entry. The thermal sensor will be monolithic solid state devices composed of thick film platinum RTD on an alumina substrate. Choice of materials and critical dimensions are used to tailor gage response, determined during calibration activities, to specific (forebody vs. aftbody) heating environments. Current design has maximum operating temperature of 1500 K, and allowable constant heat flux of q=28.7 watts per square centimeter, and time constants between 0.05 and 0.2 seconds. The catalytic and radiative response of these heat flux gages can also be changed through the use of appropriate coatings. By using several co-located gages with various surface coatings, data can be obtained to isolate surface heat flux components due to radiation, catalycity and convection. Selectivity to radiative heat flux is a useful feature even for an in-depth gage, as radiative transport may be a significant heat transport mechanism for porous TPS materials in Titan aerocapture. This paper also reports on progress to

  19. Land-margin ecosystem hydrologic data for the coastal Everglades, Florida, water years 1996-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gordon H.; Smith, Thomas J.; Balentine, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    , as a response for a more interdisciplinary science approach to understanding the coastal Everglades ecological system, the SOFL-GCC hydrology project was integrated into the “Dynamics of Land-Margin Ecosystems: Historical Change, Hydrology, Vegetation, Sediment, and Climate” study (Smith and others, 2002). Data from the ongoing study has been useful in providing an empirical hydrologic baseline for the greater Everglades ecosystem restoration science and management needs. The hydrology network consisted of 13 hydrologic gaging stations installed in the southwestern coastal region of Everglades National Park along three transects: Shark River (Shark or SH) transect, Lostmans River (Lostmans or LO) transect, and Chatham River (Chatham or CH) transect (fig. 1). There were five paired surface-water/groundwater gaging stations on the Shark transect (SH1, SH2, SH3, SH4, and SH5) and one stage gaging station (BSC) in the Big Sable Creek; four paired surface-water/groundwater gaging stations on the Lostmans transect (LO1, LO2, LO3, and LO4); and three paired surface-water/groundwater gaging stations on the Chatham transect (CH1, CH2, and CH3). Both surface-water and groundwater levels, salinities, and temperatures were monitored at the paired gaging stations. Rainfall was recorded at marsh and open canopy gaging stations. This report details the study introduction, method, and description of data collected, which are accessible through the final instantaneous hydrologic dataset stored in the USGS South Florida Information Access (SOFIA) South Florida Hydrology Database website, http://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/sfl_hydro_data/location.html#brdlandmargin.

  20. Water-resources data network evaluation for Monterey County, California; Phase 2, northern and coastal areas of Monterey County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, W.E.; Smith, P.E.; DeBortoli, M.L.; Schluter, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of water- resources data-collection networks in the northern and coastal areas of Monterey County, California. This evaluation was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Monterey County Flood Control and Water Conservation District to evaluate precipitation, surface water, and ground water monitoring networks. This report describes existing monitoring networks in the study areas and areas where possible additional data-collection is needed. During this study, 106 precipitation-quantity gages were identified, of which 84 were active; however, no precipitation-quality gages were identified in the study areas. The precipitaion-quantity gages were concentrated in the Monterey Peninsula and the northern part of the county. If the number of gages in these areas were reduced, coverage would still be adequate to meet most objectives; however, additional gages could improve coverage in the Tularcitos Creek basin and in the coastal areas south of Carmel to the county boundary. If collection of precipitation data were expanded to include monitoring precipitation quality, this expanded monitoring also could include monitoring precipitation for acid rain and pesticides. Eleven continuous streamflow-gaging stations were identified during this study, of which seven were active. To meet the objectives of the streamflow networks outlined in this report, the seven active stations would need to be continued, four stations would need to be reactivated, and an additional six streamflow-gaging stations would need to be added. Eleven stations that routinely were sampled for chemical constituents were identified in the study areas. Surface water in the lower Big Sur River basin was sampled annually for total coli- form and fecal coliform bacteria, and the Big Sur River was sampled monthly at 16 stations for these bacteria. Routine sampling for chemical constituents also was done in the Big Sur River basin. The Monterey County Flood

  1. Floods of Selected Streams in Arkansas, Spring 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, Jaysson E.; Eng, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Floods can cause loss of life and extensive destruction to property. Monitoring floods and understanding the reasons for their occurrence are the responsibility of many Federal agencies. The National Weather Service, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. Geological Survey are among the most visible of these agencies. Together, these three agencies collect and analyze floodflow information to better understand the variety of mechanisms that cause floods, and how the characteristics and frequencies of floods vary with time and location. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored and assessed the quantity of streamflow in our Nation's streams since the agency's inception in 1879. Because of ongoing collection and assessment of streamflow data, the USGS can provide information about a range of surface-water issues including the suitability of water for public supply and irrigation and the effects of agriculture and urbanization on streamflow. As part of its streamflow-data collection activities, the USGS measured streamflow in multiple streams during extreme flood events in Arkansas in the spring of 2008. The analysis of streamflow information collected during flood events such as these provides a scientific basis for decision making related to resource management and restoration. Additionally, this information can be used by water-resource managers to better define flood-hazard areas and to design bridges, culverts, dams, levees, and other structures. Water levels (stage) and streamflow (discharge) currently are being monitored in near real-time at approximately 150 locations in Arkansas. The streamflow-gaging stations measure and record hydrologic data at 15-minute or hourly intervals; the data then are transmitted through satellites to the USGS database and displayed on the internet every 1 to 4 hours. Streamflow-gaging stations in Arkansas are part of a network of over 7,500 active streamflow-gaging stations operated by the USGS throughout the United

  2. Forward Skirt Structural Testing on the Space Launch System (SLS) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrer, J. D.; Wright, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    tested to failure by increasing the ascent loads. Failure occurred in the forward skirt thrust post radius. The forward skirts on FSTA-1 and FSTA-2 had nearly identical failure modes. FSTA-1 failed at 1.72 times limit load and FSTA-2 failed at 1.62 times limit load. This difference is primarily attributed to variation in material properties in the thrust post region. Test data were obtained from strain gages, deflection gages, ARAMIS digital strain measurement, acoustic emissions, and high-speed video. Strain gage data and ARAMIS strain were compared to finite element (FE) analysis predictions. Both the forward skirt and tooling were modeled. This allows the analysis to simulate the loading as close as possible to actual test configuration. FSTA-1 and FSTA-2 were instrumented with over 200 strain gages to ensure all possible failure modes could be captured. However, it turned out that three gages provided critical strain data. One was located in the post bore and two on the post radius. More gages were not specified due to space limitations and the desire to not interfere with the use of the ARAMIS system on the post radius. Measured strains were compared to analysis results for the load cycle to failure. Note that FSTA-1 gages were lost before failure was reached. FSTA-2 gages made it to the failure load but one of the radius gages was lost before testing began. This gage was not replaced because of the time and cost associated with disassembly of the test structure. Correlation to analysis was excellent for FSTA-1. FSTA-2 was not quite as good because there was more residual strain from previous load cycles. FSTA-2 was loaded and unloaded with 12 liftoff cases and two ascent cases before taking the skirt to failure. FSTA-1 only had two liftoff cases and one ascent case before taking the skirt to failure. The ARAMIS system was used to determine strain at the post radius by processing digital images of a speckled paint pattern. Digital cameras recorded images of the

  3. Updated one-dimensional hydraulic model of the Kootenai River, Idaho-A supplement to Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5110

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Christiana R.; Barton, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    The Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, in cooperation with local, State, Federal, and Canadian agency co-managers and scientists, is assessing the feasibility of a Kootenai River habitat restoration project in Boundary County, Idaho. The restoration project is focused on recovery of the endangered Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population, and simultaneously targets habitat-based recovery of other native river biota. River restoration is a complex undertaking that requires a thorough understanding of the river and floodplain landscape prior to restoration efforts. To assist in evaluating the feasibility of this endeavor, the U.S. Geological Survey developed an updated one-dimensional hydraulic model of the Kootenai River in Idaho between river miles (RMs) 105.6 and 171.9 to characterize the current hydraulic conditions. A previously calibrated model of the study area, based on channel geometry data collected during 2002 and 2003, was the basis for this updated model. New high-resolution bathymetric surveys conducted in the study reach between RMs 138 and 161.4 provided additional detail of channel morphology. A light detection and ranging (LIDAR) survey was flown in the Kootenai River valley in 2005 between RMs 105.6 and 159.5 to characterize the floodplain topography. Six temporary gaging stations installed in 2006-08 between RMs 154.1 and 161.2, combined with five permanent gaging stations in the study reach, provided discharge and water-surface elevations for model calibration and verification. Measured discharges ranging from about 4,800 to 63,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) were simulated for calibration events, and calibrated water-surface elevations ranged from about 1,745 to 1,820 feet (ft) throughout the extent of the model. Calibration was considered acceptable when the simulated and measured water-surface elevations at gaging stations differed by less than (+/-)0.15 ft. Model verification consisted of simulating 10 additional events with

  4. No-source tsunami forecasting for Alaska communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkova, E.; Nicolsky, D.; Suleimani, E.

    2014-12-01

    The presented tsunami forecasting technique employs observations of the approaching tsunami at DART stations near the Aleutian trench to provide fast local forecasts for the Alaska communities. The suggested technique yields a prediction independent of the tsunami source estimate; increases forecast accuracy by using observations close to the target area; allows for checking the accuracy of the inversion-based forecast before the wave hits the coast. We demonstrate this forecasting technology, introduced in (Power and Tolkova, 2013, Ocean Dynamics, 63(11), 1213-1232), with imitating real-time forecasts of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami at several coastal sites in Alaska (to be compared with the gage records). The coastal forecasts are generated as the wave is registered at regional DART stations (46402, 46043, 46409, 46410). Note that while the DART array spans the Pacific Rim, the inversion-based forecasting methodologies can incorporate data from only 1-3 stations in the vicinity of the tsunami origin. We present a forecasting method which complements existing forecasting tools by using tsunami observations in a region to generate regional predictions independent of the tsunami source estimate. This method allows to utilize observing capabilities of the DART array, as well as tsunami detectors in cabled underwater networks (e.g. NEPTUNE in Canada). Future instrumentation on submarine communication cables will supply larger selection of open-ocean measurements and many more opportunities for this method. Figure: (Top) record of the 2012/10/28 Haida Gwaii tsunami at DART 46411; (Bottom) the tsunami record at Monterey tide gage (red) and its forecast (blue). The forecast is been made as the wave is been registered at the DART one hour before arriving at the gage (Power and Tolkova, 2013).

  5. 高温应变片在高温下的性能特性%The performance characteristics of high temperature strain gauge under high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹福炎

    2011-01-01

    近十几年来,高温称重传感器在冶金工业部门的应用越来越普遍。但是,由于高温称重传感器所用的高温应变片和高温胶粘剂等的特殊性,在制作过程中必须经繁杂的处理和测试工序,使产品生产效率降低、成本提高。人们试图改变这种状态,但是由于有关高温应变片在高温下性能的系统资料甚少,给工作带来不少困难。为了增加人们对传感器用高温应变片的了解,现根据日本TML公司的产品,就高温应变片在高温下的性能特性加以介绍,以供参考。%Over the last decade, high temperature load cell plays an important role in metallurgical industry. But as high temperature strain gage and high temperature adhesive has specificity, we must adopt complex processing and testing procedures in manufacturing process, this method products less efficient and increased cost. People try to change this state, as the information of high temperature strain gage is less, the work has some trouble. In order to increase the understanding of high temperature strain gage, this article introduces performance characteristics of high temperature strain gauge under high temperature, based on the production of Japan TML Corporation, for reference.

  6. Analysis of regional rainfall-runoff parameters for the Lake Michigan Diversion hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, David T.; Over, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    The Lake Michigan Diversion Accounting (LMDA) system has been developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District (USACE-Chicago) and the State of Illinois as a part of the interstate Great Lakes water regulatory program. The diverted Lake Michigan watershed is a 673-square-mile watershed that is comprised of the Chicago River and Calumet River watersheds. They originally drained into Lake Michigan, but now flow to the Mississippi River watershed via three canals constructed in the Chicago area in the early twentieth century. Approximately 393 square miles of the diverted watershed is ungaged, and the runoff from the ungaged portion of the diverted watershed has been estimated by the USACE-Chicago using the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) program. The accuracy of simulated runoff depends on the accuracy of the parameter set used in the HSPF program. Nine parameter sets comprised of the North Branch, Little Calumet, Des Plaines, Hickory Creek, CSSC, NIPC, 1999, CTE, and 2008 have been developed at different time periods and used by the USACE-Chicago. In this study, the U.S. Geological Survey and the USACE-Chicago collaboratively analyzed the parameter sets using nine gaged watersheds in or adjacent to the diverted watershed to assess the predictive accuracies of selected parameter sets. Six of the parameter sets, comprising North Branch, Hickory Creek, NIPC, 1999, CTE, and 2008, were applied to the nine gaged watersheds for evaluating their simulation accuracy from water years 1996 to 2011. The nine gaged watersheds were modeled by using the three LMDA land-cover types (grass, forest, and hydraulically connected imperviousness) based on the 2006 National Land Cover Database, and the latest meteorological and precipitation data consistent with the current (2014) LMDA modeling framework.

  7. Modeling and Mapping Oyster Norovirus Outbreak Risks in Gulf of Mexico Using NASA MODIS Aqua Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.; Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Norovirus is a highly infectious virus and the leading cause of foodborne disease outbreaks such as oyster norovirus outbreaks. Currently, there is no vaccine to prevent norovirus infection and no drug to treat it. This paper presents an integrated modeling and mapping framework for predicting the risk of norovirus outbreaks in oyster harvesting waters in the Northern Gulf of Mexico coast. The framework involves (1) the construction of three novel remote sensing algorithms for the retrieval of sea surface salinity, sea surface temperature, and gage height (tide level) using NASA MODIS Aqua data; (2) the development of probability-based Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for the prediction of oyster norovirus outbreak risk, and (3) the application of the Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) for mapping norovirus outbreak risks in oyster harvesting areas in the Northern Gulf of Mexico using the remotely sensed NASA data, retrieved data from the three remote sensing algorithms, and the ANN model predictions. The three remote sensing algorithms are able to correctly retrieve 94.1% of sea surface salinity, 94.0% of sea surface temperature, and 77.8% of gage height observed along the US coast, including the Pacific coast, the Gulf of Mexico coast, and the Atlantic coast. The gage height, temperature, and salinity are the three most important explanatory variables of the ANN model in terms of spatially distributed input variables. The ANN model is capable of hindcasting/predicting all oyster norovirus outbreaks occurred in oyster growing areas along the Gulf of Mexico coast where environmental data are available. The integrated modeling and mapping framework makes it possible to map daily risks of norovirus outbreaks in all oyster harvesting waters and particularly the oyster growing areas where no in-situ environmental data are available, greatly improving the safety of seafood and reducing outbreaks of foodborne disease.

  8. Base flow separation: A comparison of analytical and mass balance methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Darline A.; Stewart, Mark T.

    2016-04-01

    Base flow is the ground water contribution to stream flow. Many activities, such as water resource management, calibrating hydrological and climate models, and studies of basin hydrology, require good estimates of base flow. The base flow component of stream flow is usually determined by separating a stream hydrograph into two components, base flow and runoff. Analytical methods, mathematical functions or algorithms used to calculate base flow directly from discharge, are the most widely used base flow separation methods and are often used without calibration to basin or gage-specific parameters other than basin area. In this study, six analytical methods are compared to a mass balance method, the conductivity mass-balance (CMB) method. The base flow index (BFI) values for 35 stream gages are obtained from each of the seven methods with each gage having at least two consecutive years of specific conductance data and 30 years of continuous discharge data. BFI is cumulative base flow divided by cumulative total discharge over the period of record of analysis. The BFI value is dimensionless, and always varies from 0 to 1. Areas of basins used in this study range from 27 km2 to 68,117 km2. BFI was first determined for the uncalibrated analytical methods. The parameters of each analytical method were then calibrated to produce BFI values as close to the CMB derived BFI values as possible. One of the methods, the power function (aQb + cQ) method, is inherently calibrated and was not recalibrated. The uncalibrated analytical methods have an average correlation coefficient of 0.43 when compared to CMB-derived values, and an average correlation coefficient of 0.93 when calibrated with the CMB method. Once calibrated, the analytical methods can closely reproduce the base flow values of a mass balance method. Therefore, it is recommended that analytical methods be calibrated against tracer or mass balance methods.

  9. Tsunami waveform inversion by numerical finite-elements Green’s functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Piatanesi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years, the steady increase in the quantity and quality of the data concerning tsunamis has led to an increasing interest in the inversion problem for tsunami data. This work addresses the usually ill-posed problem of the hydrodynamical inversion of tsunami tide-gage records to infer the initial sea perturbation. We use an inversion method for which the data space consists of a given number of waveforms and the model parameter space is represented by the values of the initial water elevation field at a given number of points. The forward model, i.e. the calculation of the synthetic tide-gage records from an initial water elevation field, is based on the linear shallow water equations and is simply solved by applying the appropriate Green’s functions to the known initial state. The inversion of tide-gage records to determine the initial state results in the least square inversion of a rectangular system of linear equations. When the inversions are unconstrained, we found that in order to attain good results, the dimension of the data space has to be much larger than that of the model space parameter. We also show that a large number of waveforms is not sufficient to ensure a good inversion if the corresponding stations do not have a good azimuthal coverage with respect to source directivity. To improve the inversions we use the available a priori information on the source, generally coming from the inversion of seismological data. In this paper we show how to implement very common information about a tsunamigenic seismic source, i.e. the earthquake source region, as a set of spatial constraints. The results are very satisfactory, since even a rough localisation of the source enables us to invert correctly the initial elevation field.

  10. Wadter Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin and Statewide Project Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synaptic sites, and partial-record sites; and (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake- and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures ga through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two to three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  11. Micromechanical finite-element modeling and experimental characterization of the compressive mechanical properties of polycaprolactone-hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds prepared by selective laser sintering for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi, Shaun; Das, Suman

    2012-08-01

    Bioresorbable scaffolds with mechanical properties suitable for bone tissue engineering were fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL) and hydroxyapatite (HA) by selective laser sintering (SLS) and modeled by finite-element analysis (FEA). Both solid gage parts and scaffolds having 1-D, 2-D and 3-D orthogonal, periodic porous architectures were made with 0, 10, 20 and 30 vol.% HA. PCL:HA scaffolds manufactured by SLS had nearly full density (99%) in the designed solid regions and had excellent geometric and dimensional control. Through optimization of the SLS process, the compressive moduli for our solid gage parts and scaffolds are the highest reported in the literature for additive manufacturing. The compressive moduli of solid gage parts were 299.3, 311.2, 415.5 and 498.3 MPa for PCL:HA loading at 100:0, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30, respectively. The compressive effective stiffness tended to increase as the loading of HA was increased and the designed porosity was lowered. In the case of the most 3-D porous scaffold, the compressive modulus more than doubled from 14.9 to 36.2 MPa when changing the material from 100:0 to 70:30 PCL:HA. A micromechanical FEA model was developed to investigate the reinforcement effect of HA loading on the compressive modulus of the bulk material. Using a first-principles based approach, the random distribution of HA particles in a solidified PCL matrix was modeled for any HA loading to predict the bulk mechanical properties of the composites. The bulk mechanical properties were also used for FEA of the scaffold geometries. The results of the FEA were found to be in good agreement with experimental mechanical testing. The development of patient- and site-specific composite tissue-engineering constructs with tailored properties can be seen as a direct extension of this work on computational design, a priori modeling of mechanical properties and direct digital manufacturing.

  12. Multi-gauge Calibration for modeling the Semi-Arid Santa Cruz Watershed in Arizona-Mexico Border Area Using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraula, Rewati; Norman, Laura A.; Meixner, Thomas; Callegary, James B.

    2012-01-01

    In most watershed-modeling studies, flow is calibrated at one monitoring site, usually at the watershed outlet. Like many arid and semi-arid watersheds, the main reach of the Santa Cruz watershed, located on the Arizona-Mexico border, is discontinuous for most of the year except during large flood events, and therefore the flow characteristics at the outlet do not represent the entire watershed. Calibration is required at multiple locations along the Santa Cruz River to improve model reliability. The objective of this study was to best portray surface water flow in this semiarid watershed and evaluate the effect of multi-gage calibration on flow predictions. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated at seven monitoring stations, which improved model performance and increased the reliability of flow, in the Santa Cruz watershed. The most sensitive parameters to affect flow were found to be curve number (CN2), soil evaporation and compensation coefficient (ESCO), threshold water depth in shallow aquifer for return flow to occur (GWQMN), base flow alpha factor (Alpha_Bf), and effective hydraulic conductivity of the soil layer (Ch_K2). In comparison, when the model was established with a single calibration at the watershed outlet, flow predictions at other monitoring gages were inaccurate. This study emphasizes the importance of multi-gage calibration to develop a reliable watershed model in arid and semiarid environments. The developed model, with further calibration of water quality parameters will be an integral part of the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM), an online decision support tool, to assess the impacts of climate change and urban growth in the Santa Cruz watershed.

  13. Pyroshock data acquisition-historical developments using piezoelectric accelerometers and other transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himelblau, Harry

    2002-05-01

    For nearly 50 years, P/E accelerometers have been used for acquiring pyroshock data with mixed results. For longer distances between the explosive source and the transducer location (e.g., two feet or more), valid data of lesser shock magnitude were usually obtained. However, for shorter distances, a variety of problems were often encountered, causing erroneous results. It was subsequentially determined that most problems were caused by measurement system nonlinearities, i.e., the nonlinear resonant response of the accelerometer, or exceeding the linear amplitude range of the signal conditioner and recorder. In the earlier years, it was erroneously assumed that subsequent low pass filtering of the signal would remove the nonlinearities, hopefully leading to valid data. This only masked the invalid results. Eventually, improved P/E accelerometers were developed with higher natural frequencies and larger amplitude limits that caused substantially fewer problems and allowed measurements closer to the explosive sources. Shortly thereafter, the high frequency noncontact laser doppler vibrometer became available which circumvented the accelerometer resonance problem. However, this velocity transducer is almost always limited to laboratory tests in order to constrain the motion of the laser head by a very rigid and massive support foundation compared to the flexible structure which is attached to the laser target. Other LDV measurement problems have been encountered that must be avoided to achieve valid data. Conventional strain gages have been successfully used to measure pyroshock strain. However, due to the short wavelength of direct and bending pyroshock waves at high frequencies, small strain gages are usually required to avoid spatial averaging over the length of the gage.

  14. Water Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding Project Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synoptic sites, and partial-record sit -aid (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake-and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures 8a through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two or three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  15. Cancer-testis antigen expression in digestive tract carcinomas: frequent expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao-Tseng; Panarelli, Nicole C; Piotti, Kathryn C; Yantiss, Rhonda K

    2014-05-01

    Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are attractive tumor antigens for cancer immunotherapy. They comprise a group of proteins normally expressed in germ cells and aberrantly activated in a variety of human cancers. The protein expression of eight cancer-testis antigens [MAGEA, NY-ESO-1, GAGE, MAGEC1 (CT7), MAGEC2 (CT10), CT45, SAGE1, and NXF2] was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 61 esophageal carcinomas (40 adenocarcinoma and 21 squamous cell carcinoma), 50 gastric carcinomas (34 diffuse and 16 intestinal type), and 141 colorectal carcinomas. The highest frequency of expression was found in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas: Positive staining for MAGEA, CT45, CT7, SAGE1, GAGE, NXF2, NY-ESO-1, and CT10 was observed in 57%, 38%, 33%, 33%, 29%, 29%, 19%, and 14% of squamous cell carcinomas, respectively. Similar staining patterns were observed in squamous dysplasias. Expression frequencies of cancer-testis antigens were seen in 2% to 24% of gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas and were not significantly different between adenocarcinomas of the stomach versus the esophagus, or between diffuse and intestinal types of gastric adenocarcinomas. Colorectal cancers did not express NY-ESO-1, CT7, CT10, or GAGE, and only infrequently expressed SAGE1 (0.7%) MAGEA (1.4%), CT45 (3.5%), and NXF2 (8.5%). We conclude that cancer-testis antigens are frequently expressed in esophageal squamous neoplasms. Although cancer-testis antigens are generally considered to be expressed later in tumor progression, they are found in squamous dysplasias, suggesting a potential diagnostic role for cancer-testis antigens in the evaluation of premalignant squamous lesions.

  16. A real-time structural parametric identification system based on fiber optic sensing and neural network algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhishen; Xu, Bin

    2003-07-01

    A structural parametric identification strategy based on neural networks algorithms using dynamic macro-strain measurements in time domain from a long-gage strain sensor by fiber optic sensing technique such as Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor is developed. An array of long-gage sensors is bounded on the structure to measure reliably and accurately macro-strains. By the proposed methodology, the structural parameter of stiffness can be identified. A beam model with known mass distribution is considered as an object structure. Without any eigenvalue analysis or optimization computation, the structural parameter of stiffness can be identified. First an emulator neural network is presented to identify the beam structure in current state. Free vibration macro-strain responses of the beam structure are used to train the emulator neural network. The trained emulator neural network can be used to forecast the free vibration macro-strain response of the beam structure with enough precision and decide the difference between the free vibration macro-strain responses of other assumed structure with different structural parameters and those of the original beam structure. The root mean square (RMS) error vector is presented to evaluate the difference. Subsequently, corresponding to each assumed structure with different structural parameters, the RMS error vector can be calculated. By using the training data set composed of the structural parameters and RMS error vector, a parametric evaluation neural network is trained. A beam structure is considered as an existing structure, based on the trained parametric evaluation neural network, the stiffness of the beam structure can be forecast. It is shown that the parametric identification strategy using macro-strain measurement from long-gage sensors has the potential of being a practical tool for a health monitoring methodology applied to civil engineering structures.

  17. Intrinsic Embedded Sensors for Polymeric Mechatronics: Flexure and Force Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif P. Jentoft

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available While polymeric fabrication processes, including recent advances in additive manufacturing, have revolutionized manufacturing, little work has been done on effective sensing elements compatible with and embedded within polymeric structures. In this paper, we describe the development and evaluation of two important sensing modalities for embedding in polymeric mechatronic and robotic mechanisms: multi-axis flexure joint angle sensing utilizing IR phototransistors, and a small (12 mm, three-axis force sensing via embedded silicon strain gages with similar performance characteristics as an equally sized metal element based sensor.

  18. Analysis of Round Robin Test for Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement of Wall Thinned Pipe in Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Joon; Lee, Joon-Hyun; Lee, Sung-Ho

    2008-02-01

    It is well recognized that one of the most serious problems on the maintenance of piping system in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) is the wall thinning of carbon steel pipe components. The objective of this research is to verify confidence of wall thinning measurement system by conducting Round Robin Test (RRT). 23 specimens with different size and shape of pipe were used according to standard practice in RRT. The gage R&R analysis was introduced for each sigma quality level, so that repeatability and reproducibility can be estimated from RRT results.

  19. Load-displacement measurement and work determination in three-point bend tests of notched or precracked specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzard, R. J.; Fisher, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    Suggestions for testing of notched or cracked three-point bend specimens are presented that (1) correct displacement measurement errors resulting from misalignment between the load applicator and specimen; (2) account for coincidental strains not associated with the work of crack extension; (3) simplify record analysis and processing; and (4) extend displacement gage range without sacrifice of sensitivity or accuracy. These testing details are particularly applicable to procedures in which the crack extension force J(I) is determined from the work done on the specimen.

  20. 切欠き板試験片の弾塑性ひずみ挙動の研究 : 1.鋼材に引張り荷重作用の場合

    OpenAIRE

    真谷, 捷郎

    1996-01-01

    The test to investigate the elastic-plastic strain behavior ahead of notch in plate specimen with notches made of steel by using strain gages under tensile monotonic load is conducted. Two kind of specimens made of SS400 material are used. One kind of specimen is specimens with three kind of notch root radius and constant notch depth. Another kind of specimen is those with three kind of notch depth and constant notch root radius. From test result, we show the relation between strain and dista...

  1. Pressure transducers for cryogenic liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovskyy I. V.; Kutrakov A. P.; Maryamova I. I.; Druzhinin A. A.

    2007-01-01

    The developed universal construction of tensoresistive pressure transducer for cryogenic liquids (liquid nitrogen and liquid helium) is described. The study of strain gauges characteristics on the basis of p-type Si whiskers with different boron concentration, mounted on the invar spring elements (beams), in the wide ranges of strain ε=±1,2·10-3 and temperature 4,2-300 К for transducers simulation were carried out. It was shown that using heavily doped silicon strain gages gives the possibili...

  2. Ionizing radiations for non-destructive evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A state of the art of major non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques based on ionising radiations is presented. These techniques are broadly classified into three categories, namely, radiography, radiation gaging and analytical applications. The basic principles behind each method are explained and salient features of each technique which make it suitable for a particular task are described. Several illustrative applications drawn from the nuclear industry are given. The monograph is intended to serve as an introductory guide to scientist and engineers engaged in NDT activities. (M.G.B.). 32 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs

  3. A New Orthodontic Appliance with a Mini Screw for Upper Molar Distalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a new upper molar distalization appliance called Cise distalizer designed as intraoral device supported with orthodontic mini screw for upper permanent molar distalization. The new appliance consists of eight main components. In order to understand the optimum force level, the appliance under static loading is tested by using strain gage measurement techniques. Results show that one of the open coils produces approximately 300 gr distalization force. Cise distalizer can provide totally 600 gr distalization force. This range of force level is enough for distalization of upper first and second molar teeth. PMID:27528796

  4. Water Resources Data for California, water year 1981: Vol. 1. Colorado River basin, Southern Great basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1982-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1981 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 169 gaging stations; stage and contents for 19 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 42 streams and 21 wells; water levels for 169 observation wells. Also included are 10 crest-stage partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  5. Venusian atmospheric turbulence evaluated from cloud brightness distribution in VEX UV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraguchi, T.; Kasaba, Y.; Hoshino, N.; Sato, T. M.; Takahashi, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Yamada, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Kouyama, T.; Titov, D.; Markiewicz, W.

    2011-10-01

    This study suggested following points: (1) The power spectra mostly contained the inflection. The slope at lower wavenumbers was steeper than that at higher wavenumbers. Such a feature agrees with the characteristics in the kinetic energy spectra shon Earth (Nastrom et al., 1984; Nastrom and Gage, 1985). (2) The slopes at planetary wavenumbers K Matsuda (2006) suggested that the inflection point at 330 - 1000km can be a border between 2D and 3D turbulences. Our result indicates a possibility to have enstrophy forward cascade in 2D turbulence at lower wavenumbers and the energy forward cascade in 3D turbulence at higher wavenumbers.

  6. Steady- and unsteady-pressure measurements on a supercritical-wing model with oscillating control surfaces at subsonic and transonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, M. C.; Ricketts, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    A high aspect ratio supercritical wing with oscillating control surfaces is described. The semispan wing model was instrumented with 252 static pressure orifices and 164 in situ dynamic pressure gages for studying the effects of control surface position and sinusoidal motion on steady and unsteady pressures. Results from the present test (the third in a series of tests on this model) were obtained in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.60, 0.78, and 0.86 and are presented in tabular form.

  7. An initial abstraction and constant loss model, and methods for estimating unit hydrographs, peak streamflows, and flood volumes for urban basins in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Streamflow data, basin characteristics, and rainfall data from 39 streamflow-gaging stations for urban areas in and adjacent to Missouri were used by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Metropolitan Sewer District of St. Louis to develop an initial abstraction and constant loss model (a time-distributed basin-loss model) and a gamma unit hydrograph (GUH) for urban areas in Missouri. Study-specific methods to determine peak streamflow and flood volume for a given rainfall event also were developed.

  8. Measurement of Gear Tooth Dynamic Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebbechi, Brian; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of dynamic friction forces at the gear tooth contact were undertaken using strain gages at the root fillets of two successive teeth. Results are presented from two gear sets over a range of speeds and loads. The results demonstrate that the friction coefficient does not appear to be significantly influenced by the sliding reversal at the pitch point, and that the friction coefficient values found are in accord with those in general use. The friction coefficient was found to increase at low sliding speeds. This agrees with the results of disc machine testing.

  9. Bathymetry of the Hong and Luoc River Junction, Red River Delta, Vietnam, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Paul J.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Toan, Duong Duc; Thanh, Mung Dinh; Shimizu, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Water Resources University in Hanoi, Vietnam, conducted a bathymetric survey of the junction of the Hong and Luoc Rivers. The survey was done to characterize the channel morphology of this delta distributary network and provide input for hydrodynamic and sediment transport models. The survey was carried out in December 2010 using a boat-mounted multibeam echo sounder integrated with a global positioning system. A bathymetric map of the Hong and Luoc River junction was produced which was referenced to the datum of the Trieu Duong tide gage on the Luoc River.

  10. Role of ferrite and phosphorus plus sulphur in the crack sensitivity of autogenously welded type 309 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Jr., F. J.

    1976-07-01

    A study on autogenous welding of Type 309 thin stainless steel sheet was made after experiencing cracking difficulties on several commercial heats. A relationship exists between the sum of the phosphorus plus sulfur, the ferrite control of the weld metal, and the crack sensitivity of autogenously made welds. A new simple weld test for thin-gage sheet is utilized for studying the susceptibility to cracking. A chemistry modification is suggested to alleviate possible weld cracking when autogenously welding this grade. The principles of crack sensitivity prediction could apply to other austenitic stainless steel types where chemistry limits are such that ferrite is possible.

  11. Structural performance of the first SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] Design B dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first Design B Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipole magnet has been successfully tested. This magnet was heavily instrumented with temperature and strain gage sensors in order to evaluate its adherence to design constraints and design calculations. The instrumentation and associated data acquisition system allowed monitoring of the magnet during cooldown, warmup, and quench testing. This paper will focus on the results obtained from structural measurements on the suspension system during normal and rapid cooldowns and during quench studies at full magnet current. 4 refs., 9 figs

  12. Water Resources Data, California Water Year 1982, Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J.C.; Butcher, M.T.; Lamb, C.E.; Singer, J.A.; Smith, G.B.

    1984-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1982 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 160 gaging stations; stage and contents for 19 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 20 streams and 20 wells; water levels for 174 observation wells. Also included are 10 crest-stage partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  13. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1988. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinoski, K.G.; Hoffman, E.B.; Smith, G.B.; Bowers, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1988 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 134 gaging stations; stage and contents for 17 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality for 24 streams. Also included are 10 crest-stage partial-record stations, 5 miscellaneous measurement sites, and 16 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  14. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1986. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J.C.; McConaughy, C.E.; Polinoski, K.G.; Smith, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1986 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 144 gaging stations; stage and contents for 15 lakes and reservoirs; watet quality for 21 streams. Also included are crest-stage partial-record stations, 3 miscellaneous measurement sites, and 5 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  15. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1987. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J.C.; McConaughy, C.E.; Polinoski, K.G.; Smith, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1987 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 134 gaging stations; stage and contents for 16 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality for 16 streams. Also included are 10 crest-stage partial-record stations, 3 miscellaneous measurement sites, and 10 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  16. Water Resources Data for California, 1983. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J.C.; Butcher, M.T.; Lamb, C.E.; Singer, J.A.; Smith, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1983 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 154 gaging stations; stage and contents for 18 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 20 streams and 18 wells; water levels for 165 observation wells. Also included are 10 crest-stage partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and federal agencies in California.

  17. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1985. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J.C.; McConaughy, C.E.; Polinoski, K.G.; Smith, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1985 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 150 gaging stations; stage and contents for 17 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 23 streams. Also included are 10 crest-stage partial-record stations, three miscellaneous measurement sites, and one waterquality partial-record station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  18. Water resources data for California, water year 1980; Volume 1, Colorado River basin, Southern Great Basin from Mexican border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1981-01-01

    Volume 1 of water resources data for the 1980 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lake and reservoirs; and water levels in wells. This report contains discharge records for 174 gaging stations; stage and contents for 18 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 51 stations; water levels for 165 observation wells. Also included are 9 crest-stage partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  19. A study of fatigue crack closure using electric potential and compliance techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, C. K.; Cassatt, G. C.

    1976-01-01

    Compared are closure data produced on the same specimen by the crack tip compliance gage and electric potential techniques. Experiments on 7075-T651 aluminum center cracked panels produced equivalent results on closure using the two techniques. The results also indicated that closure is a function of stress ratio, specimen thickness and maximum applied stress intensity. Maximum stress intensity had a strong effect on closure in the range of applied stresses used. This dependence of closure on specimen thickness and maximum stress intensity accounts for many of the discrepencies in closure behavior reported in the literature.

  20. Long term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the solaron (air) solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The test procedures and the results obtained during the evaluation test program on the Solaron Corporation air-type solar collector are presented. The tests were performed under simulated conditions, following long-term exposure to natural weathering conditions. The Solaron Model 2001, air-type solar collector has a gross area of 19 square feet and the weight is 160 pounds. The absorber plate is made of 24-gage steel, the coating is baked-on black paint, the cover consists of two sheets of 1/8-inch low-iron tempered glass, and the insulation is one thickness of 3 5/8-inch fiberglass batting.