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Sample records for bay scallops argopecten

  1. Effect of the Algaecide Palmitoleic Acid on the Immune Function of the Bay Scallop Argopecten irradians

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    Cheng Chi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Palmitoleic acid (PA, an algicidal compound, is used against the toxin producing dinofagelate Alexandrium tamarense, however, its impact on the edible bay scallop (Argopecten irradians is still unclear. Therefore, we investigated the impacts of effective algicidal concentrations (20, 40, and 80 mg/L of PA on immune responses in A. irradians. Various immune parameters including acid phosphatase (ACP activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD, lysozyme, phagocytic activity, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA level, and reactive oxygen species (ROS production and the expression of immune-related genes (PrxV, CLT-6, MT, and BD were measured at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h post-exposure (hpe to PA. Lysozyme activity was lower in scallops at 12–48 hpe to 80 mg/L. SOD, ACP activity, ROS production, the total protein, and MDA level was higher at 12 to 48 hpe with different concentrations of PA. Phagocytic activity increased at 6–12 hpe to 40–80 mg/L of PA, but decreased at 24–48 hpe. The expressions of genes PrxV, CLT-6, MT and BD down-regulated at 3 hpe were observed, while differential expressions from 6–48 hpe with different concentrations of PA. The present study demonstrated that immersing A. irradians in PA at effective concentrations could result in differential effects on non-specific immune responses and expressions of immune-related genes.

  2. Introduction, spat-rearing and experimental culture of bay scallop, Argopecten irradians lamarck

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    Zhang, Fusui; He, Yichao; Liu, Xiangsheng; Ma, Jianghu; Li, Shuying; Qi, Lingxin

    1991-06-01

    Bay scallops were introduced from the east coast of the U.S. into China to shorten the economic turn-over from 2 to 1 year. Parent scallops were carried to Qingdao on Dec. 20, 1982 and stocked in indoor tanks at controlled temperature and fed with a mixture of Phaeodictylum tricornutum, Pyramimonas sp. and Chlorella sp. They spawned on Jan. 26 of the next year. The larvae were reared at a temperature of 18 21°C and fed with Isochrysis galbana, Pyramimonas sp. and Chorella sp. In 4 weeks’ growing, the spats averaged 827 μm. They attained a height of 6.9 mm on May 9. In the middle of May, the seed scallops were transferred to Luoyuan Bay in Fujian Province, and Jiaozhou Bay, as well as the area off Taiping Jiao Cape, Qingdao, Shandong Province for experimental culture in plastic netcages suspended on a single line raft. Bay scallops cultured in Luoyuan Bay grew to an averaged shell height of 10.4 mm. In Jiaozhou Bay and the Taiping Jiao Cape culture area, they grew to 50 mm in average shell height (marketable size) and 26 g in average weight by late September; and attained 59 mm in average shell height (R. 39 75 mm) and 46 g in average weight in late December. The ovary and testis could be distinguished by color in August. In early September, eggs and sperms were collected for our laboratory where the second generation of seed scallops was successfully reared to suitable size for growing outdoor and breeding. This species can be harvested within a year after fertilization of the eggs, so we consider it suitable for culture in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. This is the first reported successful introduction of Atlantic mollusks to the China Seas.

  3. Diurnal Fluctuations in Acidification and Hypoxia Reduce Growth and Survival of Larval and Juvenile Bay Scallops (Argopecten irradians) and Hard Clams (Mercenaria mercenaria)

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    Gobler, Christopher J.; Clark, Hannah R.; Griffith, Andrew W.; Lusty, Mark W.

    2017-01-01

    Diurnal variations in pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are common seasonal phenomena in many eutrophic estuaries, yet few studies have investigated the concurrent effects of low pH and low DO on marine organisms inhabiting these coastal systems. Here, we assess the effects of diurnal variations in pH and DO on the early-life history of two bivalve species native to Northeast US estuaries, the bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) and hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria). In one set of ex...

  4. Studies on intercropping of Porphyra haitanensis T. J. Chang et B. F. Zheng with Bay Scallop Argopecten irradians Lamarck

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    Zheng, Baofu; Li, Shiying; Guan, Mingjin

    1993-03-01

    Results of the experiment of northward transplantation of Porphyra haitanensis showed that intercrop of P. haitanensis with Bay Scallop is feasible because the growth duration of both of them is about the same in August December. Full use of cultivating area, lowering its cost and increasing its product per unit area as well as improving the ecological environment are realized during intercrop.

  5. A consensus microsatellite-based linkage map for the hermaphroditic bay scallop (Argopecten irradians and its application in size-related QTL analysis.

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    Hongjun Li

    Full Text Available Bay scallop (Argopecten irradians is one of the most economically important aquaculture species in China. In this study, we constructed a consensus microsatellite-based genetic linkage map with a mapping panel containing two hybrid backcross-like families involving two subspecies of bay scallop, A. i. irradians and A. i. concentricus. One hundred sixty-one microsatellite and one phenotypic (shell color markers were mapped to 16 linkage groups (LGs, which corresponds to the haploid chromosome number of bay scallop. The sex-specific map was 779.2 cM and 781.6 cM long in female and male, respectively, whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 849.3 cM. The average resolution of integrated map was 5.9 cM/locus and the estimated coverage was 81.3%. The proportion of distorted markers occurred more in the hybrid parents, suggesting that the segregation distortion was possibly resulted from heterospecific interaction between genomes of two subspecies of bay scallop. The overall female-to-male recombination rate was 1.13:1 across all linked markers in common to both parents, and considerable differences in recombination also existed among different parents in both families. Four size-related traits, including shell length (SL, shell height (SH, shell width (SW and total weight (TW were measured for quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis. Three significant and six suggestive QTL were detected on five LGs. Among the three significant QTL, two (qSW-10 and qTW-10, controlling SW and TW, respectively were mapped on the same region near marker AiAD121 on LG10 and explained 20.5% and 27.7% of the phenotypic variance, while the third (qSH-7, controlling SH was located on LG7 and accounted for 15.8% of the phenotypic variance. Six suggestive QTL were detected on four different LGs. The linkage map and size-related QTL obtained in this study may facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS in bay scallop.

  6. Bay Scallop Habitat Suitability Models: Predictions over Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of Lagoon Pond, Martha’s Vineyard, MA, USA was conducted in September 2005 to determine the combination of habitat factors most highly correlated with bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) abundance.

  7. Cytological comparison of gametogenesis of scallops, Argopecten irradians and Chlamys farreri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xin-Hong; Liu, Bao-Zhong; Wu, Chang-Gong; Xiang, Jian-Hai

    2002-09-01

    Histological characteristics of gametogenesis of two kinds of scallops, gonochoric Chinese scallop, Chlamys farreri and hermaphroditic bay scallop, Argopecten irradians were investigated in this study. Spermatogenesis in C. farreri has different developmental stages: spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, second spermatocyte, spermatid and spermatozoon. A large number of same developmental stage spermatic cells converge at a definite area of the testis. Premeiotic, previtellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes can be found during oogenesis in C. farreri, where oocyte distribution is obviously irregular. The A. irradians gonad consists of two different parts in one individual: one part functions as testis, the other as ovary. Between these two parts is a special appearance area, where a large number of spermatic cells are bound with two layers of acellular substance with many oocytes in it.

  8. Feeding behaviour and growth of the Peruvian scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) under daily cyclic hypoxia conditions

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    Aguirre-Velarde, Arturo; Jean, Fred; Thouzeau, Gérard; Flye-Sainte-Marie, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    As a secondary consequence of the high productivity of the upwelling system, organisms inhabiting Peruvian coastal bays are frequently exposed to hypoxic conditions. The aim of the present paper was to investigate the effects of daily-cyclic-severe hypoxia on energetics of a species presenting little escape ability when facing hypoxia. For this purpose, juvenile Peruvian scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) were exposed to four experimental conditions: fed and starved, combined or not to nightly severe hypoxia (5% oxygen saturation) for ≈ 12 h over a 21-day experiment. In both fed conditions, clearance rate was measured by the mean of an open-flow system. Our results indicate that the Peruvian scallop is able to maintain an active filtration even at low oxygen saturation, at least during expositions up to 12 h. During the first phase of exposure to hypoxia, clearance rate decreased abruptly when oxygen saturation dropped below 10%, but rapidly recovered to values close to those found under normoxia. As a consequence of this ability to feed during hypoxia, no difference in soft tissue dry weight (digestive gland not included) was observed at the end of the experimental period between oxic conditions among fed scallops. However, shell growth was negatively affected by hypoxic condition. Starved individuals exhibited similar weight loss between hypoxic and normoxic conditions indicating no or little effect of oxic condition on maintenance costs. Considering the observed responses for feeding, growth and maintenance, we can hypothesize that this species presents metabolic/bioenergetic efficient adaptations to deal with hypoxic conditions that are recurrent in Peruvian coastal bays. We hypothesize that the small observed effects might be modelled in the context of the Dynamic Energy Budget theory as a restriction of reserve mobilization under hypoxic conditions.

  9. Sclerochronological records and daily microgrowth of the Peruvian scallop (Argopecten purpuratus, Lamarck, 1819) related to environmental conditions in Paracas Bay, Pisco, Peru

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    Aguirre Velarde, Arturo; Flye-Sainte-Marie, Jonathan; Mendo, Jaime; Jean, Fred

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the rhythm of micro-striae formation in the shell of Argopecten purpuratus and environmental influence on micro-growth increments by monitoring growth over a 98-day period between April and July 2007 under bottom and suspended culture (2 m above the bottom) rearing conditions. The transfer of individuals to the study site induced the formation of a notable growth mark that allowed us to count the number of micro-striae formed between transfer and sampling dates. Micro-striae counts showed a deposition rate of one stria per day independent of rearing condition. This result allowed us to analyse the relationships between growth increments and environmental conditions. We therefore examined the deviations between observed growth rates and growth rates predicted from a Von Bertalanffy growth function. Cross-correlation analysis revealed significant correlations, without time-lag, between these deviations and both particulate organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations in the bottom treatment. Additionally, we observed negative correlations with temperature and current speed at this depth with time-lags of 1 and 10 days respectively. In the suspended treatment, we observed a significant negative correlation with temperature, only with a 12-day lag-time. Our results show that growth response to environmental variability is not always instantaneous. This delay can be explained by the time delay over which metabolic processes need to be performed (e.g. digestion, use/movements of reserves, growth, reproduction). Further modeling studies could help to better understand these processes.

  10. Biomineralization changes with food supply confer juvenile scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) resistance to ocean acidification

    KAUST Repository

    Ramajo, Laura

    2015-12-08

    Future ocean acidification (OA) will affect physiological traits of marine species, with calcifying species being particularly vulnerable. As OA entails high energy demands, particularly during the rapid juvenile growth phase, food supply may play a key role in the response of marine organisms to OA. We experimentally evaluated the role of food supply in modulating physiological responses and biomineralization processes in juveniles of the Chilean scallop, Argopecten purpuratus, that were exposed to control (pH ~ 8.0) and low pH (pH ~ 7.6) conditions using three food supply treatments (high, intermediate, and low). We found that pH and food levels had additive effects on the physiological response of the juvenile scallops. Metabolic rates, shell growth, net calcification, and ingestion rates increased significantly at low pH conditions, independent of food. These physiological responses increased significantly in organisms exposed to intermediate and high levels of food supply. Hence, food supply seems to play a major role modulating organismal response by providing the energetic means to bolster the physiological response of OA stress. On the contrary, the relative expression of chitin synthase, a functional molecule for biomineralization, increased significantly in scallops exposed to low food supply and low pH, which resulted in a thicker periostracum enriched with chitin polysaccharides. Under reduced food and low pH conditions, the adaptive organismal response was to trade-off growth for the expression of biomineralization molecules and altering of the organic composition of shell periostracum, suggesting that the future performance of these calcifiers will depend on the trajectories of both OA and food supply. Thus, incorporating a suite of traits and multiple stressors in future studies of the adaptive organismal response may provide key insights on OA impacts on marine calcifiers.

  11. Homeopathy outperforms antibiotics treatment in juvenile scallop Argopecten ventricosus: effects on growth, survival, and immune response.

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    Mazón-Suástegui, José Manuel; García-Bernal, Milagro; Saucedo, Pedro Enrique; Campa-Córdova, Ángel; Abasolo-Pacheco, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    Mortality from vibriosis in mollusk production is attributed to pathogenic bacteria, particularly Vibrio alginolyticus. Use of increasingly potent antibiotics has led to bacterial resistance and increased pathogenicity. Alternatives in sanitation, safety, and environmental sustainability are currently under analysis. To-date, homeopathy has been investigated in aquaculture of freshwater fish, but not in marine mollusks. The effect of the homeopathic complexes in the growth, survival, and immune response of the Catarina scallop Argopecten ventricosus were assessed. A bioassay to assess the potential of homeopathy in improving cultivation of juvenile A. ventricosus was conducted for 21 days, with a final challenge of 120 h with V. alginolyticus. The experimental design included two homeopathic formulas The homeopathic complex Passival, consisting of Passiflora incarnata 30 CH, Valeriana officinalis 30 CH, Ignatia amara 30 CH and Zincum valerianicum 30 CH plus Phosphoricum acid 30 CH (treatment TH1) or Silicea terra 30 CH (TH2), two antibiotics (ampicillin = AMP, oxytetracycline = OXY), and two reference treatments (without homeopathic or antibiotic treatment = CTRL, ethanol 30° GL = ETH). Additionally, a negative control CTRL- (untreated/uninfected) is included in the challenge test. Juvenile scallops (4.14 ± 0.06 mm, 13.33 mg wet weight) were cultivated in 4 L tanks provided with aerated, filtered (1 μm), and UV-sterilized seawater that was changed every third day. They were fed a blend of the microalgae Isochrysis galbana and Chaetoceros calcitrans (150,000 cells mL -1 twice a day). All treatments were directly added to the tank water and then 500 mL challenge units were inoculated with 1 × 10 7  CFU/mL (LD 50 ) of V. alginolyticus. Juveniles grew significantly larger and faster in height and weight with TH2 compared to the ETH and CTRL (P homeopathy is a viable treatment for this mollusk to reduce use of antibiotics in scallops and its

  12. Economic assessment of hatchery production of Argopecten nucleus spat to support the development of scallop aquaculture in the wider Caribbean

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    Diego Valderrama

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many communities of fishermen throughout the Caribbean are facing economic difficulties due to the decline of marine resources following decades of overexploitation and poor governance of fish stocks. The farming of native species of scallops could provide an alternative path for a more sustainable utilization of marine resources in the region. This paper presents a cost–benefit analysis of a public scallop hatchery in the fishing village of Taganga, Colombian Caribbean, which has been producing spat of nucleus scallop (Argopecten nucleus since the early 2000s, and actively promoting scallop aquaculture among the community of local fishermen since 2010. Based on a projected annual output of 3.78 million spat, financial indicators were rather positive: the 20-year Internal Rate of Return (IRR was 25.5 percent and total production cost was USD 0.026 per 10-mm spat. Recent innovations in hatchery protocols during the settling stage have led to marked improvements in spat recovery rates, substantially lowering production costs and reducing the hatchery's initial reliance on subsidies. Because the hatchery seems able to produce spat at a much lower cost than other outfits that have operated in the Caribbean, it could potentially emerge as a regional supplier of high quality seed for the wider Caribbean. A major factor affecting competitiveness is the high electricity prices normally found in the Colombian Caribbean and elsewhere in the region. Further research on the economics of ocean growout technologies is warranted to better understand the potential of scallop aquaculture as a livelihood alternative for Caribbean fishing communities.

  13. Elimination of vibrio cholerae El Tor, in scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) by gamma radiation and product organoleptic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Z.; Bernuy, B.; Vivanco, M.; Kahn, G.

    1999-03-01

    V. cholerae D 10 value in scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) was determined in vivo. D 10 was found to be 0,143 kGy, requiring therefore the application of 8D in scallops, equivalent to a 1,14 kGy dose, the optimal dose for life span extension of samples kept under refrigeration conditions (0-1 o ), and examined periodically under different analytic method criteria. Life span for the appearance characteristic reaches the acceptability limit of 3, after 11 days for control samples, and 16 and 13 days for samples radiated at 1 and 2 kGy. Smell of control samples was accepted only until the 13 th day while samples radiated at 1 and 2 kGy went beyond this level, reaching 19 and 17 days respectively. In the same way, life span for the flavor characteristic was extended to 19 and 20 days for samples radiated at 1 and 2 kGy, respectively, while control samples only reached 15 days. Control sample texture remained within acceptable limits until the 18 th day, whereas samples radiated at 1 and 2 kGy reached 21 and 17 days, respectively. Use of ph and nitrogen volatile bases were also evaluated as quality indicators. (authors)

  14. Accumulation, Biotransformation, Histopathology and Paralysis in the Pacific Calico Scallop Argopecten ventricosus by the Paralyzing Toxins of the Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum

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    Escobedo-Lozano, Amada Y.; Estrada, Norma; Ascencio, Felipe; Contreras, Gerardo; Alonso-Rodriguez, Rosalba

    2012-01-01

    The dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces paralyzing shellfish poisons that are consumed and accumulated by bivalves. We performed short-term feeding experiments to examine ingestion, accumulation, biotransformation, histopathology, and paralysis in the juvenile Pacific calico scallop Argopecten ventricosus that consume this dinoflagellate. Depletion of algal cells was measured in closed systems. Histopathological preparations were microscopically analyzed. Paralysis was observed and the time of recovery recorded. Accumulation and possible biotransformation of toxins were measured by HPLC analysis. Feeding activity in treated scallops showed that scallops produced pseudofeces, ingestion rates decreased at 8 h; approximately 60% of the scallops were paralyzed and melanin production and hemocyte aggregation were observed in several tissues at 15 h. HPLC analysis showed that the only toxins present in the dinoflagellates and scallops were the N-sulfo-carbamoyl toxins (C1, C2); after hydrolysis, the carbamate toxins (epimers GTX2/3) were present. C1 and C2 toxins were most common in the mantle, followed by the digestive gland and stomach-complex, adductor muscle, kidney and rectum group, and finally, gills. Toxin profiles in scallop tissue were similar to the dinoflagellate; biotransformations were not present in the scallops in this short-term feeding experiment. PMID:22822356

  15. Accumulation, biotransformation, histopathology and paralysis in the Pacific calico scallop Argopecten ventricosus by the paralyzing toxins of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo-Lozano, Amada Y; Estrada, Norma; Ascencio, Felipe; Contreras, Gerardo; Alonso-Rodriguez, Rosalba

    2012-05-01

    The dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces paralyzing shellfish poisons that are consumed and accumulated by bivalves. We performed short-term feeding experiments to examine ingestion, accumulation, biotransformation, histopathology, and paralysis in the juvenile Pacific calico scallop Argopecten ventricosus that consume this dinoflagellate. Depletion of algal cells was measured in closed systems. Histopathological preparations were microscopically analyzed. Paralysis was observed and the time of recovery recorded. Accumulation and possible biotransformation of toxins were measured by HPLC analysis. Feeding activity in treated scallops showed that scallops produced pseudofeces, ingestion rates decreased at 8 h; approximately 60% of the scallops were paralyzed and melanin production and hemocyte aggregation were observed in several tissues at 15 h. HPLC analysis showed that the only toxins present in the dinoflagellates and scallops were the N-sulfo-carbamoyl toxins (C1, C2); after hydrolysis, the carbamate toxins (epimers GTX2/3) were present. C1 and C2 toxins were most common in the mantle, followed by the digestive gland and stomach-complex, adductor muscle, kidney and rectum group, and finally, gills. Toxin profiles in scallop tissue were similar to the dinoflagellate; biotransformations were not present in the scallops in this short-term feeding experiment.

  16. La bioénergétique du pétoncle péruvien (Argopecten purpuratus) dans un contexte environnemental limitant en oxygène

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre-Velarde , Arturo

    2016-01-01

    During the past two decades, the scallop (Argopecten Purpuratus) culture developed in the Peruvian coastal bays. The trophic availability linked to the upwelling system supports the production scallop. However, the Peruvian coasts are also known to have a high environmental variability especially in oceanic domain. Although scallop farms are vulnerable to production hazards (mortality, low growth), environmental variability in coastal bays of Peru and its effects on growth, reproduction and s...

  17. Morphological alterations in cryopreserved spermatozoa of scallop Argopecten purpuratus Alteraciones morfológicas en espermatozoides criopreservados de concha de abanico Argopecten purpuratus

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    Carlos Espinoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work identifies and quantifies the morphological alterations of scallop Argopecten purpuratus spermatozoa caused by long-term cryopreservation. Percentages of motility, fertilization and injured spermatozoa were quantified by optic microscopy and scanned electron microscopy. These parameters were evaluated in sperm without treatment (CTR, spermatozoa incubated in cryoprotective solution but not freezed (ICS and freezed-thawed spermatozoa (FTS. Spermatozoa of ICS treatment remained motile longer than those of CTR, whereas those of FTS treatment were lowest. Morphology of the spermatozoa was affected in several ways by the freeze-thawing treatment; some had their head deformed or swollen, others had their cell membrane folded or broken; acrosome reaction; anomalous positions or absence of mitochondria as well as broken, stiff or loss of lineal structure of tail. CTR and ICS treatments had higher percentages of undamaged sperm (87.7% and 79.0% respectively, while FTS samples had 14.2% of undamaged sperm. The tail was the spermatic structure most commonly injured in FTS (77.0%, the percentage of sperm with head injury was 55.1% and with acrosome reaction was 28.7%, whereas middle piece was affected in 23.9% of sperm. Percentages of fertilization were 68.3%, 67.9% and 58.2% for CTR, ICS and FTS respectively, which were not significantly different. There was a higher correlation between injuries and motility than between injuries and fertilization success. Correlation between motility and fertilization was low (0.605 and 0.668 with motility at 5 and 30 min, respectively.El presente trabajo identifica y cuantifica las alteraciones morfológicas en espermatozoides de concha de abanico A. purpuratus causadas por la criopreservación en nitrógeno líquido. Porcentajes de motilidad, fecundación de ovocitos frescos y espermatozoides lesionados (en cabeza, acrosoma, pieza media y flagelo fueron determinados bajo microscopía óptica y electr

  18. Effect of temperature on physiological responses of Peruvian scallop Argopecten purpuratus

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    Jhon Dionicio Acedo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of temperature on the clearance rate (CR, ingestion rate (IR and specific oxygen consumption (SOC in individuals of Argopecten purpuratus at different size groups were determined. The CR and IR tests were performed at a concentration of approximately 1x106 cel.mlL-1 of Chaetoceros calcitrans, two temperatures 17 and 22 °C were evaluated and different groups of average size were formed of 7.6 ± 0.265, and 0.058 ± 4.9 3.7 ± 0.173 cm. In SOC test the average size groups were 8.1 ± 0.351, 0.058 ± 5.6 and 4.3 ± 0.100 cm. The results show a significant effect of temperature in CR (Lh-1 and IR (cel.h-1 x 105 on the larger individuals (7.6 ± 0.265 cm, it was observed at 22 °C an average increase, about 17 °C, up to 250% to CR and 48% to IR. In addition, a direct relationship of body size with CR and IR in both temperatures was observed. The effect of temperature at 22 ° C on SOC in all groups was evaluated, with an increase of 239.8, 165.3 and 183.4% for size individuals of 8.1 ± 0.351, 0.058 ± 5.6 and 4.3 ± 0.100 respectively. Furthermore, in both evaluated temperatures, the results show an indirect relationship of body size with the SOC.

  19. Accumulation, Biotransformation, Histopathology and Paralysis in the Pacific Calico Scallop Argopecten ventricosus by the Paralyzing Toxins of the Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum

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    Rosalba Alonso-Rodriguez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces paralyzing shellfish poisons that are consumed and accumulated by bivalves. We performed short-term feeding experiments to examine ingestion, accumulation, biotransformation, histopathology, and paralysis in the juvenile Pacific calico scallop Argopecten ventricosus that consume this dinoflagellate. Depletion of algal cells was measured in closed systems. Histopathological preparations were microscopically analyzed. Paralysis was observed and the time of recovery recorded. Accumulation and possible biotransformation of toxins were measured by HPLC analysis. Feeding activity in treated scallops showed that scallops produced pseudofeces, ingestion rates decreased at 8 h; approximately 60% of the scallops were paralyzed and melanin production and hemocyte aggregation were observed in several tissues at 15 h. HPLC analysis showed that the only toxins present in the dinoflagellates and scallops were the N-sulfo-carbamoyl toxins (C1, C2; after hydrolysis, the carbamate toxins (epimers GTX2/3 were present. C1 and C2 toxins were most common in the mantle, followed by the digestive gland and stomach-complex, adductor muscle, kidney and rectum group, and finally, gills. Toxin profiles in scallop tissue were similar to the dinoflagellate; biotransformations were not present in the scallops in this short-term feeding experiment.

  20. Biomineralization changes with food supply confer juvenile scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) resistance to ocean acidification, supplement to: Ramajo, L; Marba, Núria; Prado, Luis; Peron, Sophie; Lardies, Marco A; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro; Vargas, C A; Lagos, Nelson A; Duarte, Carlos M (2016): Biomineralization changes with food supply confer juvenile scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) resistance to ocean acidification. Global Change Biology, 22(6), 2025-2037

    KAUST Repository

    Ramajo, L

    2016-01-01

    Future ocean acidification (OA) will affect physiological traits of marine species, with calcifying species being particularly vulnerable. As OA entails high energy demands, particularly during the rapid juvenile growth phase, food supply may play a key role in the response of marine organisms to OA. We experimentally evaluated the role of food supply in modulating physiological responses and biomineralization processes in juveniles of the Chilean scallop, Argopecten purpuratus, that were exposed to control (pH 8.0) and low pH (pH 7.6) conditions using three food supply treatments (high, intermediate, and low). We found that pH and food levels had additive effects on the physiological response of the juvenile scallops. Metabolic rates, shell growth, net calcification, and ingestion rates increased significantly at low pH conditions, independent of food. These physiological responses increased significantly in organisms exposed to intermediate and high levels of food supply. Hence, food supply seems to play a major role modulating organismal response by providing the energetic means to bolster the physiological response of OA stress. On the contrary, the relative expression of chitin synthase, a functional molecule for biomineralization, increased significantly in scallops exposed to low food supply and low pH, which resulted in a thicker periostracum enriched with chitin polysaccharides. Under reduced food and low pH conditions, the adaptive organismal response was to trade-off growth for the expression of biomineralization molecules and altering of the organic composition of shell periostracum, suggesting that the future performance of these calcifiers will depend on the trajectories of both OA and food supply. Thus, incorporating a suite of traits and multiple stressors in future studies of the adaptive organismal response may provide key insights on OA impacts on marine calcifiers.

  1. Site suitability analysis for Bay scallop aquaculture and implications for sustainable fisheries management in the Ha Long Bay archipelago, northern Vietnam

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    Pham Thi Khanh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mollusc culture if properly managed, may help decrease capture fisheries over-exploitation in Vietnam, and possibly become an alternative income for local fishermen. The definition and characterization of zones suitable for aquaculture is pivotal for its success and sustainable development, and this study aims at determining the suitability of Argopecten irradians (Bay scallop culture in the Ha Long Bay Archipelago. Temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, total suspended solid and bathymetry, were compiled in an environmental suitability model. Distance of culture sites from landing points and fish markets were instead grouped in an infrastructural suitability model. In both models, developed with Geographic Information Systems, the suitability scores were ranked on a scale from 1 (unsuitable to 6 (very-highly suitable. Results showed that 98 % of the studied area is environmentally suitable for such culture. However, overlaying the infrastructural factors the suitable zone decrease to 38 %. Advantages and disadvantages of two management options were then discussed: (a strengthening fisheries infrastructures or (b developing post harvesting processing plants.

  2. Reproductive and larval cycle of the scallop Argopecten purpuratus (Ostreoida: Pectinidae, during El Niño-La Niña events and normal weather conditions in Antofagasta, Chile

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    Miguel Avendaño

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality, amplitude, and magnitude of spawning events were determined for Argopecten purpuratus in the La Rinconada marine reserve, Antofagasta, Chile, between December 1995 and January 2004. During the same period, samples of scallop larvae were obtained in vertical plankton hauls recovered within this reserve in an area routinely exposed to circular, gyre-like currents which helped retain the larvae within the bay. The reproduction of this population in normal or cool (e.g. "La Niña", 1998-2000 years occurred throughout the year, with a more active period between September and April, declining in June and August; this contrasted with the warmer "El Niño" oceanographic period of 1997-98 in which reproductive activity was more intense and prolonged throughout the entire year. The reproductive events in this population were mostly synchronous, although one asynchronous period occurred each year following the more intense March to May spawnings. This reproductive activity generated a continuous presence of larvae in the area in which no strict relation could be found between the intensities of spawning and numbers of larvae in the water. Larval presence was, however, generally correlated with active spawning periods. Important increases in larval numbers recorded at the end of 1999 and the beginning of 2003 were correlated with census data showing a higher percentage presence of broodstock over 90 mm in shell length during these years. An adequate stock of this size class is needed for a successful seed capture program in the reserve (for mass culture. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1: 121-132. Epub 2008 March 31.Entre 1995 y 2004 se determinó, con el índice gonadosomático, el ciclo reproductivo de Argopecten purpuratus en La Rinconada, Antofagasta, Chile. Paralelamente se realizaron muestreos larvales mediante arrastres verticales de plancton. La reproducción, en años normales y fríos (La Niña, 1998-2000, ocurre todo el año, con un período m

  3. Asociación entre la tasa de autofecundación y la frecuencia de larvas malformadas en poblaciones cultivadas del ostión del norte Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 Association between self-fertilization rates and the frequency of malformed larvae in farmed populations of the northern scallop Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Concha

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El incremento de la frecuencia de malformaciones y la reducción de la viabilidad y fecundidad suelen ser las primeras manifestaciones de la depresión por consanguinidad en animales. El ostión del norte, Argopectenpurpuratus (Lamarck, 1819, es una especie hermnafrodita funcional con autofecundación parcial y durante la reproducción artificial puede presentar altos grados de autofecundación. En este trabajo se analizó la asociación de la tasa de autofecundación con la frecuencia de larvas malformadas y la supervivencia larval. Se desovaron adultos maduros y se recogieron separadamente los gametos femeninos del 5° pulso de liberación en adelante y los masculinos. Los ovocitos fueron fecundados con espermatozoides de otro individuo, formando familias de hermanos completos. La tasa de autofecundación se verificó por la proporción de ovocitos que entra en división en una muestra de ellos sin fecundar. La tasa de autofecundación varió entre familias de 0 a 100%, con distribución de frecuencias normal. La proporción de larvas malformadas se distribuyó al azar entre las familias analizadas, pero se correlacionó negativamente, en forma moderada pero significativa, con la tasa de autofecundación y la temperatura media del cultivo. Los datos sugieren que la autofecundación en las familias de ostiones puede favorecer una mayor homeostasis del desarrollo larval.Increased frequencies of malformations and the reduction of viability and fecundity are some of the first manifestations of inbreeding depression in animals. The northern scallop, Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819, is a functional hermaphrodite species with partial self-fertilization. During artificial reproduction, this species may present high degrees of self-fertilization. In this work, the association between the selfing rate and the frequency of larval malformations and survival were analyzed. Mature adults were spawned, and female and male gametes were collected

  4. Simulation model of the scallop (Argopecten purpuratus farming in northern Chile: some applications in the decision making process Modelo de simulación para el cultivo del ostión (Argopecten purpuratus en el norte de Chile: aplicaciones para la toma de decisiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Molina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture farming is a complex system integrating several disciplines, including biology, engineering and economics, all which need to be correctly intertwined to have a profitable and environmentally sustainable activity. During the past recent years, scallop (Argopectenpurpuratus farmers in northern Chile have come to comprehend the hard way that aquaculture producers operate in a complex and dynamic environment where natural and economic factors are in constant change. Thus, to keep a profitable and competitive business in today's world, aquaculture farm managers are in need of relatively easy to use tools for efficient and timely decision making. Harvest size and time, mortality and growth rates, stocking rates, costs and market prices are important variables and parameters to monitor, where decisions with respect to their levels or values have to be made. In this context, non-linear and dynamic quantitative bioeconomic models should become valuable tools, for periodic decision making in the aquaculture business. This paper shows how to emulate Chilean scallop farming using a simulation model that mimics some of the industry's features. The model presented here focuses on a scallop aquaculture center that uses the common technology approach of pearl net and lanterns of the northern region of Chile, and analyses the farming strategies based on harvesting size. Also, these strategies were subject to variations in the parameters in order to identify patterns and asses the sensibility of the model to input values.La acuicultura es un sistema complejo que integra varias disciplinas, incluyendo la biología, ingeniería y economía, las cuales deben ser correctamente entrelazadas para lograr una actividad rentable y ambientalmente sostenible. Durante los últimos anos, los cultivadores del ostión del norte (Argopecten purpuratus en Chile han comprendido de la peor manera, que las actividades de acuicultura operan en un entorno complejo y din

  5. Growth and Development of Larval Bay Scallops (Argopecten irradians) in Response to Early Exposure to High CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ocean   carbon   dioxide  concentrations  on  the  growth  and  survival  of...2010.  The  combined  effects  of   ocean   acidification ,  mixing,  and   respiration  on  pH  and   carbonate  saturation...J.  Gobler.  2010.  Effects  of  past,  present,  and  future   ocean   carbon   dioxide

  6. Balancing the edge effects budget: bay scallop settlement and loss along a seagrass edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, John M; Furman, Bradley T; Tettelbach, Stephen T; Peterson, Bradley J

    2012-07-01

    Edge effects are a dominant subject in landscape ecology literature, yet they are highly variable and poorly understood. Often, the literature suggests simple models for edge effects-positive (enhancement at the edge), negative (enhancement at the interior), or no effect (neutral)--on a variety of metrics, including abundance, diversity, and mortality. In the marine realm, much of this work has focused on fragmented seagrass habitats due to their importance for a variety of commercially important species. In this study, the settlement, recruitment, and survival of bay scallops was investigated across a variety of seagrass patch treatments. By simultaneously collecting settlers (those viable larvae available to settle and metamorphose) and recruits (those settlers that survive some period of time, in this case, 6 weeks) on the same collectors, we were able to demonstrate a "balance" between positive and negative edge effects, resulting in a net neutral effect. Scallop settlement was significantly enhanced along seagrass edges, regardless of patch type while survival was elevated within patch interiors. However, recruitment (the net result of settlement and post-settlement loss) did not vary significantly from edge to center, representing a neutral effect. Further, results suggest that post-settlement loss, most likely due to predation, appears to be the dominant mechanism structuring scallop abundance, not patterns in settlement. These data illustrate the complexity of edge effects, and suggest that the metric used to investigate the effect (be it abundance, survival, or other metrics) can often influence the magnitude and direction of the perceived effect. Traditionally, high predation along a habitat edge would have indicated an "ecological trap" for the species in question; however, this study demonstrates that, at the population level, an ecological trap may not exist.

  7. Modelling larval dispersal of the king scallop ( Pecten maximus) in the English Channel: examples from the bay of Saint-Brieuc and the bay of Seine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Amandine; Dumas, Franck; Foveau, Aurélie; Foucher, Eric; Thiébaut, Eric

    2013-06-01

    The king scallop ( Pecten maximus) is one of the most important benthic species of the English Channel as it constitutes the first fishery in terms of landings in this area. To support strategies of spatial fishery management, we develop a high-resolution biophysical model to study scallop dispersal in two bays along the French coasts of the English Channel (i.e. the bay of Saint-Brieuc and the bay of Seine) and to quantify the relative roles of local hydrodynamic processes, temperature-dependent planktonic larval duration (PLD) and active swimming behaviour (SB). The two bays are chosen for three reasons: (1) the distribution of the scallop stocks in these areas is well known from annual scallop stock surveys, (2) these two bays harbour important fisheries and (3) scallops in these two areas present some differences in terms of reproductive cycle and spawning duration. The English Channel currents and temperature are simulated for 10 years (2000-2010) with the MARS-3D code and then used by the Lagrangian module of MARS-3D to model the transport. Results were analysed in terms of larval distribution at settlement and connectivity rates. While larval transport in the two bays depended both on the tidal residual circulation and the wind-induced currents, the relative role of these two hydrodynamic processes varied among bays. In the bay of Saint-Brieuc, the main patterns of larval dispersal were due to tides, the wind being only a source of variability in the extent of larval patch and the local retention rate. Conversely, in the bay of Seine, wind-induced currents altered both the direction and the extent of larval transport. The main effect of a variable PLD in relation to the thermal history of each larva was to reduce the spread of dispersal and consequently increase the local retention by about 10 % on average. Although swimming behaviour could influence larval dispersal during the first days of the PLD when larvae are mainly located in surface waters, it has a

  8. De novo assembly and characterization of two transcriptomes reveal multiple light-mediated functions in the scallop eye (Bivalvia: Pectinidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autum N Pairett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The eye has evolved across 13 separate lineages of molluscs. Yet, there have been very few studies examining the molecular machinary underlying eye function of this group, which is due, in part, to a lack of genomic resources. The scallop (Bivalvia: Pectinidae represents a compeling molluscan model to study photoreception due to its morphologically novel and separately evolved mirror-type eye. We sequenced the adult eye transcriptome of two scallop species to: 1 identify the phototransduction pathway components; 2 identify any additional light detection functions; and 3 test the hypothesis that molluscs possess genes not found in other animal lineages. RESULTS: A total of 3,039 contigs from the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians and 26,395 contigs from the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus were produced by 454 sequencing. Targeted BLAST searches and functional annotation using Gene Ontology (GO terms and KEGG pathways identified transcripts from three light detection systems: two phototransduction pathways and the circadian clock, a previously unrecognized function of the scallop eye. By comparing the scallop transcriptomes to molluscan and non-molluscan genomes, we discovered that a large proportion of the transcripts (7,776 sequences may be specific to the scallop lineage. Nearly one-third of these contain transmembrane protein domains, suggesting these unannotated transcripts may be sensory receptors. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available from a single molluscan eye type. Candidate genes potentially involved in sensory reception were identified, and are worthy of further investigation. This resource, combined with recent phylogenetic and genomic data, provides a strong foundation for future investigations of the function and evolution of molluscan photosensory systems in this morphologically and taxonomically diverse phylum.

  9. THE USE OF REMOTE SENSING, REGRESSION QUANTILES, AND GIS APPROACHES FOR MODELING OF SCALLOP LARVAE: A Case Study in Funka Bay, Hokkaido, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Radiarta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the development of scallop cultivation in Japan, larvae collection and propagation become an important factor. Although the monitoring program has been conducted, modeling of species distribution is becoming an important tool for understanding the effects of environmental changes and resources management. This study was conducted to construct a model for providing estimation of the scallop larvae distribution in Funka Bay, Hokkaido, Japan using the integration of remote sensing, Regression Quantile (RQ and Geographic Information System (GIS-based model. Data on scallop larvae were collected during one year spawning season from April to July 2003. Environmental parameters were extracted from multi sensor remotely sensed data (chlorophyll-a and sea surface temperature and a hydrographic chart (water depth. These parameters together with larvae data were then analyzed using RQ. Finally, spatial models were constructed within a GIS by combining the RQ models with digital map of environmental parameters. The results show that the model was best explained by using only sea surface temperature. The highest larvae densities were predicted in a relatively broad distribution along with the shallow water regions (Toyoura and Sawara to Yakumo and the deeper water areas (center of the bay. The spatial model built from the RQ provided robust estimation of the scallop larvae distributions in the study area, as confirmed by model validation using independent data. These findings could contribute on the monitoring program in this region in order to distinguish the potential areas for an effective spat collection.

  10. The role of Argopecten purpuratus shells structuring the soft bottom community in shallow waters of southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomovasky, Betina J.; Gamero, Patricia A.; Romero, Leonardo; Firstater, Fausto N.; Gamarra Salazar, Alex; Hidalgo, Fernando; Tarazona, Juan; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2015-12-01

    Accumulation of Argopecten purpuratus shells often occurs after El Niño events in shallow waters of Independencia Bay (14°17‧S-76°10‧W; Pisco, Peru). Here we experimentally investigate the effects of their shell accumulation on macrobenthos assemblages in soft bottom, shallow areas of the bay. A field experiment (from May 2006 to May 2007), including four treatments with different coverage levels of empty shells of A. purpuratus, were randomly arranged in: (1) areas devoid of shells ("Empty" treatment: experimental control), (2) 50% of the plot area covered with shells haphazardly distributed over the bottom ("medium" treatment), (3) 100% of the plot area covered with shells, forming a 10 cm valve layer ("full" treatment) and (4) "natural control". We found a total of 124 taxa throughout the experiment. Polychaetes, crustaceans and mollusks were the most abundant groups in "natural controls", dominated by the gastropod Nassarius gayi and the polychaetes Prionospio peruana, Platynereis bicanaliculata and Mediomastus branchiferus. The abundance of individuals (N) and the species richness (S) were higher in the "medium" treatment, but only in one month under positive sea bottom thermal anomalies. Similarity analysis (Bray-Curtis) showed that "natural control", "empty" and "full" treatments were more similar among them than the "medium" treatment. Multidimensional analysis showed no clear species association among treatments and a higher grouping among the samplings of Jun-06, Aug-06 and Nov-06. Our results also showed that the commercial crab Romaleon polyodon and the polyplacophora Tonicia elegans were positively affected by shell accumulations ("medium" treatment), while the limpet Fissurella crassa was negatively affected. Our study shows that directly by changing habitat structure or indirectly by changing sediment characteristics, the addition of scallop shells to the soft bottom can modify the macrobenthic assemblage; however, the seasonal oceanographic

  11. Trophic and environmental drivers of the Sechura Bay Ecosystem (Peru) over an ENSO cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marc H.; Wolff, Matthias; Vadas, Flora; Yamashiro, Carmen

    2008-03-01

    Interannual environmental variability in Peru is dominated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The most dramatic changes are associated with the warm El Niño (EN) phase (opposite the cold La Niña phase), which disrupts the normal coastal upwelling and affects the dynamics of many coastal marine and terrestrial resources. This study presents a trophic model for Sechura Bay, located at the northern extension of the Peruvian upwelling system, where ENSO-induced environmental variability is most extreme. Using an initial steady-state model for the year 1996, we explore the dynamics of the ecosystem through the year 2003 (including the strong EN of 1997/98 and the weaker EN of 2002/03). Based on support from literature, we force biomass of several non-trophically-mediated ‘drivers’ (e.g. Scallops, Benthic detritivores, Octopus, and Littoral fish) to observe whether the fit between historical and simulated changes (by the trophic model) is improved. The results indicate that the Sechura Bay Ecosystem is a relatively inefficient system from a community energetics point of view, likely due to the periodic perturbations of ENSO. A combination of high system productivity and low trophic level target species of invertebrates (i.e. scallops) and fish (i.e. anchoveta) results in high catches and an efficient fishery. The importance of environmental drivers is suggested, given the relatively small improvements in the fit of the simulation with the addition of trophic drivers on remaining functional groups’ dynamics. An additional multivariate regression model is presented for the scallop Argopecten purpuratus, which demonstrates a significant correlation between both spawning stock size and riverine discharge-mediated mortality on catch levels. These results are discussed in the context of the appropriateness of trophodynamic modeling in relatively open systems, and how management strategies may be focused given the highly environmentally influenced marine

  12. Sea Scallop Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Sea Scallop Survey began in 1980 and has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey aims to determine the distribution and...

  13. Growth and survival larvae of Argopecten nucleus fed with different microalgae diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenia Katerine Carreño Hernández

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the diet on larval growth of the scallops Argopecten nucleus was studied, testing six microalgae diets composed by single-algae and mixed diets of the species Isochrysis galbana, Chaetoceros calcitrans y Tetraselmis suecica, handling a concentration per mL equivalent to 40000 cells of I. galbana and the response through the variables surviving, growth, appearance of the eye spot and state of condition (full, half-full and empty larvae was measured. The diets containing I. galbana showed greater results over all the measured variables, with regard to those where it was not present. In particular, the mixed diet I. galbana + C. calcitrans presented superiority over all variables, although in the most cases was statistically similar to I. galbana + C. calcitrans + T. suecica, I. galbana + T. suecica and I. galbana alone. For the opposite, the diets with the lowest results were C. calcitrans and C. calcitrans +T. suecica. The results obtained are principally attributed to the nutritional composition mainly of high unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA of each microalgae and each mixture supply, which is discussed in detail.

  14. Pycnogonids associated with the giant lion´s-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus (Sowerby) in Ojo de Liebre Bay, Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León-Espinosa, Angel; de León-González, Jesus A

    2015-01-01

    Five species of epibenthic pycnogonids collected on the giant lion´s-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus are recorded. A new species of Eurycyde, Eurycyde bamberi, is described. Of the 19 species known in this genus; the new species is closest to Eurycyde hispida Kroyer, 1844 but differs from it in the absence of plumose spines and the shapes of the lateral process, first coxa, and ocular tubercle. The new species represents the third member of Eurycyde from the eastern Pacific in addition to Eurycyde spinosa Hilton, 1916 and Eurycyde clitellaria Stock, 1955. Besides Eurycyde bamberi, the following species were collected: Nymphopsis duodorsospinosa Hilton, 1942c; Callipallene californiensis (Hall, 1913); Nymphon lituus Child, 1979; and Pycnogonum rickettsi Schmitt, 1934. Pycnogonum rickettsi is recorded for first time from Mexican waters, as is Nymphon lituus from the western coast of Baja California Peninsula. Each of these four species are re-described and re-illustrated in order to fill in existing gaps in the literature of the region.

  15. 50 CFR 648.56 - Scallop research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scallop research. 648.56 Section 648.56... Scallop Fishery § 648.56 Scallop research. (a) Annually, the Council and NMFS shall prepare and issue a Request for Proposals (RFP) that identifies research priorities for projects to be conducted by vessels...

  16. Comparación del crecimiento de Argopecten purpuratus entre cohortes obtenidas de captación de larvas en ambiente natural y de hatchery Comparison of growth among cohorts obtained Argopecten purpuratus larval recruitment in natural and hatchery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo P Pérez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En Chile los cultivos del ostión del norte Argopecten purpuratus han sido desarrollados intensivamente a partir de la captación de semillas en ambiente natural y desde principios de 1980 con semillas obtenidas en hatchery. Para aportar información sobre el desempeno de semillas de ostión del norte en este estudio se comparó, mediante ANCOVA, el crecimiento en longitud entre cohortes producidas a partir de semillas de ambiente natural y de hatchery en Tongoy, Chile. Se evaluó la consistencia de esta comparación en distintos anos y estaciones, comparándose parejas de cohortes producidas simultáneamente en los anos 2003 (primavera, 2005 (invierno y 2006 (verano. El análisis estadístico mostró que existen diferencias estadísticas significativas entre cohortes obtenidas en ambiente natural y aquellas obtenidas en hatchery. La prueba de Tukey evidenció diferencias significativas entre CN2003 y CH2003 como también entre CN2005 y CH2005, pero no así entre CN2006 y CH2006. Estas diferencias indican que las cohortes de semillas de ambiente natural crecieron más rápido que las de hatchery. La comparación interanual evidenció diferencias estadísticas significativas. Estos resultados son discutidos a la luz de dos factores: la temperatura de cultivo y la heterocigocidad de la población de cultivo.In Chile crops of the northern scallop Argopecten purpuratus have been developed intensively from seeds obtained in natural environment, and since 1980 from hatchery's seed, when this technique could be controlled and developed. In order to provide information on the performance of seeds of northern scallops in this study growth in length between cohorts produced from seeds obtained in natural environment (CN and hatchery (CH in Tongoy (Chile was compared using ANCOVA. We assessed the consistency of this comparison in different years and seasons. The compared cohorts are pairs of cohorts produced simultaneously in the years 2003 (spring, 2005

  17. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, R.

    1987-01-01

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas. (orig.) [de

  18. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, R.

    1987-07-01

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas.

  19. Characterization of novel polymorphic microsatellite markers from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    polymorphic microsatellite markers from the cDNA library of Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis and cross-species amplification in bay scallop ... Keywords. microsatellite markers; cDNA library; Mizuhopecten yessoensis; Argopecten irradians. .... EST databases as a source for molecular markers: lessons from.

  20. Cherry Scallop Shell Moth Pest Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Omer; Debra Allen-Reid

    1996-01-01

    The cherry scallop shell moth, Hydria prunivorata (Ferguson) is a defoliator of black cherry, and occasional other native cherries throughout its range in eastern North America. The moth?s name is derived from the pattern of alternating dark and light scalloped lines on the wings. The adults which emerge from late May to early August, have a wingspread of about 37mm....

  1. Sex Reversal and Analyses of Possible Involvement of Sex Steroids in Scallop Gonadal Development in Newly Established Organ-Culture Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Ayano; Nakajima, Tadaaki; Okumura, Tomomi; Fujii, Shiro; Tomooka, Yasuhiro

    2017-04-01

    Many molluscs perform sex reversal, and sex hormones may be involved in the process. In adult scallops, Patinopecten yessoensis, gonadotropin releasing hormone and 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) are involved in male sexual maturation, however, little is known about the effects of E 2 and testosterone (T) on the gonadal differentiation in young scallops. In the present study, scallop gonadal development was analyzed to determine the sex reversal stage in Funka bay, and effects of E 2 and T were examined. In Funka bay, almost all scallops were male at month 12. Scallops equipped with ambiguous gonads were 61.1% at month 16 and disappeared at month 18. Therefore, sex reversal in Funka bay occurs at around month 16. For establishment of organ culture systems for bivalves, Manila clam gonads were cultured in 15% L-15 medium diluted with HBSS containing 10% KSR on agarose gel at 10°C, and the gonads survived for 14 days. Scallop gonads were also able to be cultured in 30% L15 medium diluted with ASW containing 10% KSR on agarose gel for seven days. At mature stage, Foxl2 and Tesk were predominantly expressed in ovary and testis, respectively. When scallop gonads at sex reversal stage were organ-cultured, sex steroid treatment decreased Tesk expression in the majority of scallop gonads at sex reversal stage. However, no obvious change in Foxl2 and Tesk expression was detected in mature gonads in response to either E 2 or T in culture, suggesting sex steroid treatment might affect gonadal development at sex reversal stage.

  2. A genetic linkage map of Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-02-01

    Feb 1, 2012 ... scallop being released and remaining on the culture ground until harvesting and is more similar to the natural lifestyle of scallops (Maremi et al., 2005). Due to increasing demands on both quality and quantity traits, it is necessary to continue genetic im- provement of Japanese scallop with higher values.

  3. Scalloped electrodes for highly sensitive electrical measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez Rodriguez, Patricia; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2011-01-01

    by means of silicon fabrication techniques that sharpen them progressively and in a controlled manner. We will show that the use of the scalloped area achieves a great decrease in impedance, which is very significant for a reduction of noise in electrical measurements. The measured impedance reflects...

  4. What is hiding behind ontogenic d13C variations in mollusk shells: New insights from scallops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvaud, L.; Lorrain, A.; Gillikin, D. P.; Thebault, J.; Paulet, Y.; Strand, O.; Blamart, D.; Guarini, J.; Clavier, J.

    2008-12-01

    We examined d13Ccalcite variations along scallop shells (Pecten maximus) sampled in Norway, France and Spain. Time series of shell calcite d13C show a consistent pattern of decreasing d13C with age. This almost linear d13C trend reflects an increasing contribution of metabolic CO2 to skeletal carbonate throughout ontogeny. We have removed this ontogenic trend to try to extract other information from our shell calcite d13C dataset. Scallops from the Bay of Brest (western Brittany, France) were then used to interpret the data as many environmental parameters were available for this site. d13Ccalcite variations were compared to d13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and Chl a. The detrended calcite d13C profiles seem to follow a seasonal pattern, but surprisingly are inversely related to the d13C DIC and chlorophyll a concentrations measured within the water column. Theses results suggest that shell d13C variations are not controlled by isotopic variation of DIC. Since scallops eat phytoplankton and microphytobenthos cells, and, as a consequence respire organic mater largely depleted in 13C, we therefore suggest that in mollusk suspension feeders the shell d13Ccalcite might still be used to track the annual number of phytoplankton blooms when d13C values of calcite are detrended. We must consider this trend as a potential biological filter hiding precious environmental records.

  5. 77 FR 73957 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery; Closure of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    .... Targeting of scallops in the ETA at this time is likely to have negative impacts on recruitment in the short... of legal-size scallops in this area, there is much concern about discard and bycatch mortality of the abundant smaller scallops that could occur while vessels are targeting the larger scallops. Further, when...

  6. Preoperative scallop-by-scallop assessment of mitral prolapse using 2D-transthoracic echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonetti Stefania

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to assess the accuracy of harmonic imaging 2D-transthoracic echocardiography (2D-TTE segmental analysis compared to surgical findings, in degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR. Methods Seventy-seven consecutive patients with severe degenerative MR were prospectively enrolled. Preoperative 2D-TTE with precise localization of prolapsing or flailing scallops/segments was performed. All patients underwent mitral valve surgical repair. Surgical reports (SR, including valve description, were used as references for comparisons. A postoperative control 2D-TTE was performed. Results Out of 462 scallops/segments studied, surgical inspection identified 102 prolapses or flails (22%, 92 of which had previously been detected by 2D-TTE (90.2% sensitivity, 100% specificity. Agreement between preoperative 2D-TTE segmental analysis and SR was 97.8% (k = 0.93; p Conclusions 2D-TTE, performed by an experienced echo-lab, has very good diagnostic accuracy in localizing the scallops/segments involved in degenerative MR, particularly for the middle ones (P2-A2, which represent almost the totality of prolapses. More invasive, time consuming and expensive exams should be reserved to selected cases.

  7. A Coordinate-Based Proof of the Scallop Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Ishimoto, Kenta; Yamada, Michio

    2012-01-01

    We reconsider fluid dynamics for a self-propulsive swimmer in Stokes flow. With an exact definition of deformation of a swimmer, a coordinate-based proof is first given to Purcell's scallop theorem including the body rotation.

  8. Diet of scalloped hammerhead shark in eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile scalloped hammerhead sharks, Sphyrna lewini, were collected in northwest Florida to examine foraging ecology, bioenergetics, and trophic level (30-60 cm FL...

  9. A Marriage Of Larval Modeling And Empirical Data: Linking Adult, Larval And Juvenile Scallops In An Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, S.; Wahle, R.; Brooks, D. A.; Brady, D. C.

    2016-02-01

    The giant sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus, is a commercially valuable sedentary broadcast spawner that occupies offshore banks and coastal bays and estuaries in the Northwest Atlantic. Although area closures have helped repopulate depleted scallop populations, little is known about whether populations at densities that yield larvae supply local or distant populations. Surveying scallop populations in the Damariscotta River estuary in Maine during the 2013 and 2014 spawning seasons, and settling out spat bags to collect settling larvae along the gradient of the estuary, we were able to compare adult densities to newly settled juvenile (`spat') abundance. Using the location where we found a high density of adults, we incorporated previously published behavior, pelagic larval duration, wind and current data into a particle dispersal model within the estuary to determine likely sinks for larvae from the 2013 and 2014 spawning seasons. Preliminary model simulations demonstrate where in the estuary swimming is effective in affecting water column position for larvae, and that most larvae are retained much closer to the mouth of the estuary than previously expected. Combining larval dispersal modeling with empirical data on adult densities and spat settlement on the scale of an embayment or estuary may be helpful in determining sources, sinks and areas that are both sources and sinks for shellfish species that are endangered or economically critical. This may aid in determining small area closures or Marine Protected Areas along coastal regions in the Gulf of Maine and beyond.

  10. Evaluation of the 2b-RAD method for genomic selection in scallop breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Jinzhuang; Li, Xue; Fu, Qiang; Jiao, Wenqian; Li, Yangping; Li, Tianqi; Wang, Yangfan; Hu, Xiaoli; Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin

    2016-01-12

    The recently developed 2b-restriction site-associated DNA (2b-RAD) sequencing method provides a cost-effective and flexible genotyping platform for aquaculture species lacking sufficient genomic resources. Here, we evaluated the performance of this method in the genomic selection (GS) of Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) through simulation and real data analyses using six statistical models. Our simulation analysis revealed that the prediction accuracies obtained using the 2b-RAD markers were slightly lower than those obtained using all polymorphic loci in the genome. Furthermore, a small subset of markers obtained from a reduced tag representation (RTR) library presented comparable performance to that obtained using all markers, making RTR be an attractive approach for GS purpose. Six GS models exhibited variable performance in prediction accuracy depending on the scenarios (e.g., heritability, sample size, population structure), but Bayes-alphabet and BLUP-based models generally outperformed other models. Finally, we performed the evaluation using an empirical dataset composed of 349 Yesso scallops that were derived from five families. The prediction accuracy for this empirical dataset could reach 0.4 based on optimal GS models. In summary, the genotyping flexibility and cost-effectiveness make 2b-RAD be an ideal genotyping platform for genomic selection in aquaculture breeding programs.

  11. Antimicrobial characteristics of heated scallop shell powder and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Jun

    2011-09-01

    Scallop shells are used to make food additives and plastering and paving materials. However, most of the shell is considered commercial waste. In scallop-harvesting districts, large numbers of shells are heaped near the seaside, which creates problems such as offensive odors and soil pollution from heavy metals that leach out of the viscera. Therefore, new applications for scallop shells need to be developed. The main component of scallop shells is calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)), which is converted to calcium oxide (CaO) when heated. Heated scallop shell powder (HSSP) possesses broad antimicrobial action against the vegetative cells of bacteria, spores, and fungi. HSSP applied to fresh vegetables and processed foods reduces the number of viable bacterial cells. The use of HSSP in food processing provides a source of minerals and prolongs the shelf life of foodstuffs. Moreover, reducing the amount of scallop shell waste would reduce the related pollution problem. This report is a review of the antibacterial activity of HSSP and its application for the control of microbes.

  12. Estudio de la variabilidad genética en poblaciones de Argopecten purpuratus de Chile y Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Ysla Ch., Luis; Facultad de Pesquería, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).

    2009-01-01

    La concha de abanico (Argopecten purpuratus) se distribuye en la costa del Pacifico Sur desde Perú (Bahía de Sechura) hasta Chile (Bahía de Tongoy). El conocimiento de la estructura genética poblacional es de gran importancia para el manejo y conservación de este recurso compartido por ambos países. Para esto se estudiaron trespoblaciones de concha de abanico de cada país con el fin de compararlas, utilizando para ello electroforesis de aloenzimas. Las enzimas que tuvieron un mejor revelado f...

  13. A genetic linkage map of Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A genetic linkage map of the Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis was constructed based on 302 markers, including 263 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and 39 microsatellite (SSR) markers. The two parental maps were constructed according to the double pseudo-test cross strategy with an ...

  14. Feeding and energetics of the great scallop, Pecten maximus, through a DEB model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaud, Romain; Flye-Sainte-Marie, Jonathan; Jean, Fred; Emmery, Antoine; Strand, Øivind; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2014-11-01

    We developed a full life-cycle bioenergetic model for the great scallop Pecten maximus relying on the concepts of the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory. The covariation method was implemented to estimate the parameters of a standard DEB model. Such models are able to predict various metabolic processes from a food availability marker and temperature in the environment. However, suspension-feeders are likely to feed on various trophic sources, from microalgae cells to detritus. They are also able to sort and select food particles very efficiently, depending on their size, energetic value or quality. The present model includes a mechanistic description of the feeding processes, based on Kooijman's Synthesizing Unit principle which allows to deal with several food sources. Moreover we tested the hypothesis of a differential selectivity between two potential substrates (phytoplankton cell and the remaining particulate organic matter). Simulations of shell length, daily shell growth rate, dry weight and gonado-somatic index (GSI) variations were realized and compared to field data from a monitoring conducted in the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France) for six years. The model shows its capacity to efficiently reproduce all life history traits of the wild great scallops. Predicted length data were estimated to the nearest millimeter. The fit of simulated weights to observed data was very satisfactory. GSI predictions were also in accordance with observations but improvements are required to better capture the sharp increase of gametogenesis at the beginning of the year. Finally, results bring evidences that P. maximus is actually preferentially feed on living algae cells rather than on the rest of organic particles.

  15. Distribution and spatial trends of PCBs in commercial scallops from Galician littoral (NW, Spain). Possible influence of biometric parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M; Mouteira, A

    2012-04-01

    Levels and profiles of 10 individual congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied in 3 species of commercial scallops (Pecten maximus, Chlamys varia, and Chlamys opercularis) from several Rías in Galician littoral (NW, Spain). ΣPCBs levels ranged from 2.21 to 41.0 ng/g wet weight for P. maximus, from 13.9 to 24.9 ng/g wet weight for C. varia, and from 1.58 to 24.3 ng/g wet weight for C. opercularis. The possible influence between biometric parameters (lipid content, condition index, and shell size) and PCBs levels were studied using statistical analysis (ANOVA). No relationship between biometric parameters could be established in the studied samples. Multivariate analysis showed there were differences in bioaccumulation of some PCBs congeners. Principal component analysis classifies clearly the 3 studied Rías (Ría de Ferrol, Ría de Arousa, and Ría de Vigo) taking into account PCBs levels found in the shellfish. We investigated levels and profiles of 10 congeners of PCBs in 3 commercial scallop species from the Galician littoral zone. The influence of 3 biometric parameters on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) levels was also studied in order to assess results from the monitoring programs of production areas. According to PCBs levels, geographical differences were observed in commercial scallops from the 3 studied estuarine bays (Ría de Ferrol, Ría de Arousa, and Ría de Vigo). © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Assessment of vertebral scalloping in neurofibromatosis type 1 with plain radiography and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsirikos, A.I.; Ramachandran, M.; Lee, J.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com

    2004-11-01

    AIM: To evaluate vertebral scalloping in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) and spinal deformity using plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to determine the possible aetiological association with neurofibromas, dural ectasia and lateral meningocoeles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nineteen patients with NF-1, who had full spine radiographs and whole-spine MRI, were retrospectively reviewed. Dystrophic features and their relationship to the curve were recorded from radiographs. A comparison was then made between the dystrophic features evident on radiographs and adjacent soft-tissue abnormalities identified on MRI. RESULTS: Dystrophic changes were documented in 16 patients on plain radiographs and in all patients on MRI. Rib pencilling was the most common finding on radiographs. In 80% of the cases with scoliosis, scalloping was seen on the concavity of the curvature. In all patients with kyphoscoliosis, scalloping was contiguous to the apex of kyphosis. Twenty-four areas of scalloping were identified on MRI. Scalloping usually developed in the concavity of the scoliotic curve or at levels unrelated to the curve. Scalloping was evident in combination with dural ectasia or neurofibroma in 15 cases. The presence of dural ectasia was confirmed in 75% of the cases of posterior scalloping and in 25% of those of lateral scalloping. The presence of neurofibromas was recognized in 25% of the cases of anterior or lateral scalloping. Dural ectasia was identified in two patients without associated scalloping. Lateral meningocoeles were not related to the development of scalloping. CONCLUSION: Whereas posterior scalloping was commonly associated with dural ectasia, anterior and lateral scalloping were commonly the result of primary mesodermal dysplasia.

  17. 77 FR 28311 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery; Closure of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...'s Scallop Plan Development Team (PDT) meeting on January 5, 2012, staff from the Northeast Fisheries... area rotation program for future years. New Information Regarding Current Scallop Biomass Levels in CAI... this area is essential for the future success of area rotation to maximize yield and economic benefits...

  18. 76 FR 40674 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Scallops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ...-XA421 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Scallops AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... July 26, 1995. The scallop fisheries in the U.S exclusive economic zone off Alaska are jointly managed... alternatives evaluated to address this action, and the environmental, social, and economic impacts of the...

  19. 76 FR 43773 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery; Framework Adjustment 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ...., number of shucked scallop abductor muscles per lb) from that area and then subsequently divided by both...), writing on behalf of full- time limited access scallop fleet members; a member of the United National... with the industry. Response: NMFS recognizes that Framework 22 allocates open area DAS that are lower...

  20. Paradoxical scalloped placenta with polyhydramnios in twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmait, Ramen H; Rossi, A Cristina; Quintero, Rubén A

    2007-01-01

    To describe the paradoxical occurrence of a scalloped placenta in the presence of polyhydramnios and assess its clinical significance in pregnancies complicated by twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) treated with laser therapy. All patients who underwent laser therapy for TTTS between January 2003 and April 2004 were studied. TTTS was diagnosed and staged using the Quintero staging system. Normally the placenta is characterized by undulations of the fetal-placental surface visible by ultrasound (scalloped placenta). Patients with polyhydramnios will typically have a flattened, smooth, non-scalloped placenta. Operative tapes were reviewed and placental type assigned. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative characteristics of each study patient were obtained. Fifteen of 120 patients (12.5%) were noted to have a scalloped placenta despite having polyhydramnios. There was no difference in mean gestational age at laser treatment (20.3+/-0.5 vs. 19.6+/-0.6 weeks, p=0.66) or in stage (p=0.07) between the two groups. The median and range preoperative maximum vertical pocket (MVP) in the recipient gestational sac differed significantly between the scalloped and non-scalloped patients (8.3 (8-12) vs. 10.5 (8-17), p=0.001). All 15 patients (100%) with a scalloped placenta required an amnioinfusion to expose all vascular anastomoses, while amnioinfusion was necessary in only 28 of the 105 patients (26.7%, por=8 cm in the recipient sac. Most patients will have a flattened placenta as a result of polyhydramnios in this sac. Our data show that a paradoxical scalloped placenta may still be present in approximately 12.5% of patients. This preoperative sonographic finding alerts to the potential need for amnioinfusion during laser therapy for TTTS to disclose all vessels to avoid missing placental vascular anastomoses. Amniocenteses should be avoided if possible in patients considering laser therapy to minimize the likelihood of iatrogenic placental scalloping.

  1. 78 FR 73499 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Atlantic Sea Scallops Amendment 10 Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... for limited access scallop vessels; submission of access area compensation trip identification... trip declaration, trip termination, compensation trip identification, powerdown provision, 2 minutes.... Dated: December 2, 2013 Gwellnar Banks, Management Analyst, Office of the Chief Information Officer...

  2. Is an Apicomplexan Parasite Responsible for the Collapse of the Iceland Scallop (Chlamys islandica) Stock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristmundsson, Árni; Erlingsdóttir, Ásthildur; Freeman, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Due to the total and unexpected collapse of the Iceland scallop, Chlamys islandica, stocks around Iceland during the 2000s, a commercial fishing ban has been imposed on this valuable resource since 2003. Following the initial identification of an apicomplexan parasite in the scallops, a long-term surveillance program was established to evaluate the effect of the parasite on the population. The infections were highly prevalent in all shell sizes throughout the study. However, the parasite only impacts mature scallops where they cause severe macroscopic changes, characterized by an extensively diminished and abnormally coloured adductor muscle. A highly significant relationship was observed between infection intensity and gonad and adductor muscle indices. The first four years of the study, were characterized by high infection intensity and very poor condition of the adductor muscle and gonads, whilst during subsequent years, infections gradually decreased and the condition of the scallops improved. Histopathological changes were restricted to the presence of apicomplexan zoites which were widely distributed, causing varying degrees of pathology in all organs. In heavy infections, muscular and connective tissues were totally necrotized, destroying significant parts of numerous organs, especially the adductor muscle, digestive gland and gonads. The progression of the disease was in good synchrony with the mortality rates and the subsequent decline observed in the scallop stock and recruitment indices. Our findings strongly suggest that the apicomplexan parasite played a major role in the collapse of the Iceland scallop stock in Breidafjordur. In addition to causing mortality, the infections significantly impact gonad development which contributes further to the collapse of the stock in the form of lower larval recruitment. Furthermore, compelling evidence exists that this apicomplexan pathogen is causing serious disease outbreaks in other scallop populations. Similar

  3. Habitat characteristics predicting distribution and abundance patterns of scallops in D'Entrecasteaux Channel, Tasmania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Mendo

    Full Text Available Habitat characteristics greatly influence the patterns of distribution and abundance in scallops, providing structure for the settlement of spat and influencing predation risk and rates of survival. Establishing scallop-habitat relationships is relevant to understanding the ecological processes that regulate scallop populations and to managing critical habitats. This information is particularly relevant for the D'Entrecasteaux Channel, south-eastern Tasmania (147.335 W, 43.220 S, a region that has supported significant but highly variable scallop production over many years, including protracted periods of stock collapse. Three species of scallops are present in the region; the commercial scallop Pecten fumatus, the queen scallop Equichlamys bifrons, and the doughboy scallop Mimachlamys asperrima. We used dive surveys and Generalized Additive Modelling to examine the relationship between the distribution and abundance patterns of each species and associated habitat characteristics. The aggregated distribution of each species could be predicted as a function of sediment type and species-specific habitat structural components. While P. fumatus was strongly associated with finer sediments and E. bifrons with coarse grain sediments, M. asperrima had a less selective association, possibly related to its ability to attach on a wide range of substrates. Other habitat characteristics explaining P. fumatus abundance were depth, Asterias amurensis abundance, shell and macroalgae cover. Equichlamys bifrons was strongly associated with macroalgae and seagrass cover, whereas M. asperrima abundance was greatly explained by sponge cover. The models define a set of relationships from which plausible hypotheses can be developed. We propose that these relationships are mediated by predation pressure as well as the specific behavioural characteristics of each species. The findings also highlight the specific habitat characteristics that are relevant for spatial

  4. Ports and Waterways Safety Assessment Workshop Report for Passamaquoddy Bay, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-04

    Idea Times Risk Mitigation Categories • Improve alternate means of transportation … local highway … to move response equipment. 6 Other Actions... Ecotourism is increasing. • Extensive fisheries throughout of the Bay: − Commercial shell fishing, lobster, quahog, scallops; and fin fish…a year- round...activity. − Recreational fishing is very active. Trends: • Fishing and Ecotourism is increasing. • LNG ships increase will restrict the water and

  5. A geochemical record of environmental changes in sediments from Sishili Bay, northern Yellow Sea, China: Anthropogenic influence on organic matter sources and composition over the last 100 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yujue; Liu, Dongyan; Richard, Pierre; Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Increased TOC and TN in the sediment cores indicated a eutrophic trend since 1975. • Marine organic matter sources dominated in Sishili Bay. • Scallop culture displayed mitigation on eutrophication pressures in Sishili Bay. • Increased fertilizer use well matched eutrophic process in Sishili Bay in 1975. -- Abstract: Total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), δ 13 C and δ 15 N were measured in sediment cores at three sites in Sishili Bay, China, to track the impacts of anthropogenic activities on the coastal environment over the last 100 years. The increased TOC and TN in the upper section of sediment cores indicated a eutrophic process since 1975. In comparison, the TOC and TN in the sediment core near to a scallop aquaculture area displayed a much slower increase, indicating the contribution of scallop aquaculture in mitigating eutrophication. Combined information from δ 13 C, δ 15 N and TOC:TN indicated an increased terrestrial signal, although organic matter sources in Sishili Bay featured a mixture of terrestrial and marine sources, with phytoplankton being dominant. Increased fertilizer use since 1970s contributed to the eutrophic process in Sishili Bay since 1975, and increased sewage discharge from 1990s has added to this process

  6. Quantification of the indirect effects of scallop dredge fisheries on a brown crab fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öndes, Fikret; Kaiser, Michel J; Murray, Lee G

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to describe the characteristics of the by-catch of Cancer pagurus in king scallop dredges in the Isle of Man, and to determine the damage, immediate mortality and estimated mortality during fishing seasons associated with scallop dredges. Based on dredge surveys, spatial and seasonal variations were observed, with the highest number of crabs found off the west coast of the Isle of Man in the autumn when berried females crabs were most frequently caught. In general, female crabs comprised 84% of the catch. The damage levels of crabs was high with 45% of crabs recorded as crushed or dead or with severe damage, whilst 24% of crabs exhibited missing limbs. Estimates of the potential mortality associated with scallop dredging led to a lower and upper estimate of possible crab by-catch mortality of 15t and 24t respectively which represented 3.0-4.8% of the commercial landings of brown crab for the Isle of Man. Heaviest mortalities of crabs occurred in autumn to the west of the Isle of Man when female berried crabs move offshore into deeper water. The use of a temporary and spatially restricted scallop dredging closure could provide a simple solution to mitigate additional crab mortality in the event that scallop dredging increased beyond current levels in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Crecimiento y estructura demográfica de Argopecten purpuratus en la Reserva Marina La Rinconada, Antofagasta, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los parámetros de crecimiento L∞ = 120.38 mm y K = 0.9668 para el banco de Argopecten purpuratus de la Reserva Marina La Rinconada (Antofagasta, Chile, obtenidos entre marzo de 2001 y mayo de 2003 usando métodos de marcaje y recaptura de ejemplares. La elevada recaptura de individuos marcados (60–80% indica baja mortalidad natural y una conducta sedentaria del recurso. Las evaluaciones anuales realizadas para estimar el tamaño del banco confirmaron tal conducta, encontrándose la mayoría de los individuos agregados en el centro, con densidades que variaron entre años de 9 a 14.8 ind m–2. La abundancia de ejemplares también mostró variabilidad interanual, con cifras de 10.1 × 106 en 2001, 8.2 × 106 en 2002 y 12.4 × 106 en 2003. Estas evaluaciones mostraron, además, una disminución en la talla media de la estructura demográfica del banco entre un año y otro, reduciéndose de 75.8 mm en 2001 a 62.1 mm en 2002 y a 51.7 mm en 2003. Esta disminución también ocurrió con el número de ejemplares mayores o iguales a la talla mínima legal (90 mm, reduciéndose de 2.6 × 106 ejemplares presentes en 2001 a 3.7 × 105 ejemplares en 2003. La aplicación de los parámetros de crecimiento sobre la estructura poblacional del banco entre 2002 y 2003 señaló la integración de una nueva clase anual de 6.5 × 106 de ejemplares en 2002 y de 11.2 × 106 de individuos en 2003. El descuento de estas cifras, del número total de ejemplares presentes en ambos años, demuestra una pérdida cercana a los 8.4 × 106 de ostiones en 2002 y de cerca de 7.0 × 106 de individuos en 2003. Estas pérdidas correspondieron a ejemplares con tallas superiores a los 60 mm, lo cual es corroborado con el análisis de la curva de captura realizado con el programa Fisat, cuyos resultados señalan una mortalidad Z = 2.15 en 2002 para el segmento de la población entre 67.5 y 115.5 mm, y Z = 3.08 en 2003 para el segmento de 64.3 a 112.5 mm. Los

  8. Tracing the origin of paralytic shellfish toxins in scallop Patinopecten yessoensis in the northern Yellow Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Hua; Yu, Ren-Cheng; Gao, Yan; Kong, Fan-Zhou; Wang, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Qing-Chun; Kang, Zhen-Jun; Yan, Tian; Zhou, Ming-Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Some dinoflagellate species within the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium and Pyrodinium are well-known producers of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), which led to many poisoning incidents around the world. In the northern Yellow Sea, an important mariculture zone for scallop Patinopecten yessoensis, PST have been frequently detected from scallops. However, there is little knowledge concerning PST-producing microalgae in this region so far. In cruises carried out in 2011 and 2012, scallop and phytoplankton samples were collected from the northern Yellow Sea. PST were detected from scallops by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Toxin content and profile were remarkably different among the four tissues, i.e. viscera, adductor muscle, mantle and gonad, suggesting apparent toxin transfer and transformation in scallops. Viscera always had the highest content of PST dominated by low-potency N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins C1 and C2, which closely resembled the toxin profiles of net-concentrated phytoplankton samples in spring. Based on the morphological features, cells of Alexandrium spp. in net-concentrated phytoplankton samples were picked out and a partial sequence of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA) was amplified using a single-cell polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Cells of both toxic A. tamarense species complex and non-toxic A. affine were identified from the phytoplankton samples based on the partial LSU rDNA sequence information. According to these findings, it is implied that A. tamarense species complex is the major toxic species related to PST contamination in scallops of the northern Yellow Sea. The presence of both toxic and non-toxic Alexandrium spp. in this region requires for a species-specific method to monitor the distribution and dynamics of A. tamarense species complex.

  9. Immunotoxicity effect of benzo[α]pyrene on scallop Chlamys farreri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Pan, Luqing; Liu, Jing

    2009-03-01

    The toxic effects of benzo[ α]pyrene (B[ α]P) at different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1, 2.5 and 7.5 μgL-1) on scallop ( Chlamy farreri) immune system were studied. The results showed that B[ α]P had significant toxic effects on the haemocyte counts, neutral red uptake, phagocytosis, bacteriolytic and antibacterial activity ( P0.05). Thus, B[ α] has evident toxic effects on scallop immune system, which supports the view that a relationship exists between pollution and immunomodulation in aquatic organisms.

  10. Data on color and chemical composition of dried scallop (Mizuhopecten yessoensis produced in different areas of Hokkaido, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisaki Enda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dried scallop is used in Chinese, Japanese, and French cuisines for its unique flavor and taste. The quality of dried scallop is rated according to its clear, shiny brown color, developed by the Maillard reaction between sugars and amino acids. This article reports the colors, represented by L* and a* values, and chemical composition (water, salinity, Brix, proteins, and amino acids of dried scallop products. The dried scallops were produced in Tokoro, Sarufutsu, and Saroma in Hokkaido, Japan. The color of the dried scallops had values of 45.7–52.0 for L* and 2.31–5.08 for a*. The salinity of the products was 15.1–17.7%. The amino acid contents were 1350.8–1668.6 mg/100 g. The data collected here are provided in table format. The data can serve as a reference for commercial dried scallop products to determine product quality. Keywords: Quality of products, Dried scallop, Seasoning ingredient, Browning

  11. The Scallop's Eye--A Concave Mirror in the Context of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Waltner, Christine; Hopf, Martin; Wiesner, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    Teaching physics in the context of medicine or biology is a way to generate students' interest in physics. A more uncommon type of eye, the scallop's eye (an eye with a spherical concave mirror, which is similar to a Newtonian or Schmidt telescope) and the image-forming mechanism in this eye are described. Also, a simple eye model, which can…

  12. Visual Optics: Remarkable Image-Forming Mirrors in Scallop Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J

    2018-03-19

    For over half a century, the multitudinous mirror eyes of the lowly scallop have continuously amazed us with their visual eccentricities. The latest surprise is the mirror itself, which turns out to be an extraordinary optical wonder. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 76 FR 61996 - Fishery Management Plan for the Scallop Fishery Off Alaska; Amendment 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ...) and accountability measures (AMs) to prevent overfishing in the target fishery for weathervane... absence of a statewide estimate of spawning biomass for weathervane scallops, the overfishing level (OFL... the Magnuson-Stevens Act relative to preventing overfishing and establishing an ABC and ACL. The...

  14. Co-evolution of polygonal and scalloped terrains, southwestern Utopia Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigin, T. W.; Pollard, W. H.; Dutilleul, P.; Osinski, G. R.; Koponen, L.

    2014-02-01

    Thermal contraction crack polygons and scalloped depressions, two of the most common landforms found in Utopia Planitia, Mars, have previously been linked to the presence of ice-rich deposits in the subsurface. Although the formation and evolution of these features individually are relatively well understood, little to no effort has been directed towards elucidating possible interactions that occur between them during their development. Thus, the overarching goal of this research was to investigate if there is an evolutionary link between polygonal and scalloped terrains by correlating metrics representing polygon and scallop maturity. A variety of statistical analyses were performed using HiRISE and MOLA datasets to quantify interactions between four sets of polygonal and scalloped terrains. Our results demonstrate the existence of a negative relationship between polygonal subdivision and surface elevation, indicating that polygon networks become more ‘evolved’ as the surface subsides. These results suggest that the permafrost landscape in Utopia Planitia may once have been extremely ice-rich, and that multiple geomorphic processes may be responsible for its evolution. Ultimately, this work demonstrates that landscape reconstruction is more complete when a system approach is followed, quantifying interactions between landforms as opposed to examining an individual landform in isolation.

  15. Response to selection for shell length in the noble scallop, Chlamys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-05-03

    May 3, 2012 ... The noble scallop, Chlamys nobilis is one of the most economically important fishery and aquaculture species in the southern coast of ... the most flavorful sea foods in markets due to their delicious taste and abundant nutrition. ... Family selection for live weight resulted in an increase of 9.5% after only one ...

  16. Scalloped Implant-Abutment Connection Compared to Conventional Flat Implant-Abutment Connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starch-Jensen, Thomas; Christensen, Ann-Eva; Lorenzen, Henning

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to test the hypothesis of no difference in implant treatment outcome after installation of implants with a scalloped implant-abutment connection compared to a flat implant-abutment connection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase and Cochrane library search...

  17. 77 FR 52 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery; Framework Adjustment 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... one green sea turtle have also been observed to interact with scallop gear as well. Overall, data... top of the dredge frame must be less than or equal to 45 degrees. (3) All bale bars must be removed... a sea turtle passing under the dredge frame when the gear is on the seafloor, which could result in...

  18. Effect of longitudinal grooves of the scallop surface on aerodynamic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hun; Choi, Hae Cheon

    2008-01-01

    Some of the scallops like Amesium balloti have an excellent level-swimming ability, i.e. they can swim about 20m by single level swimming with a maximum swimming velocity of about 1.6m/s in the sea. On the other hand, some species like Patinopecten yessoensis have longitudinal grooves on the upper and lower surfaces and others do not. Therefore, in the present study, we measure the lift and drag forces on a real scallop model (Patinopecten yessoensis) in a wind tunnel. Experiments are performed at the Reynolds number of 75,000 based on the maximum chord length, which is within the swimming condition of real scallop (Re=30,000∼300,000). To see the effect of longitudinal grooves, we measure the aerodynamic forces on a scallop model by removing the grooves. With the grooves, the lift force increases at low angles of attack (α<10 .deg.). The drag force increases slightly at all the attack angles considered. The lift-to-drag ratio is increased by about 10% at α<10 .deg.

  19. Multiple field-based methods to assess the potential impacts of seismic surveys on scallops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeslawski, Rachel; Huang, Zhi; Anderson, Jade; Carroll, Andrew G; Edmunds, Matthew; Hurt, Lynton; Williams, Stefan

    2017-10-30

    Marine seismic surveys are an important tool to map geology beneath the seafloor and manage petroleum resources, but they are also a source of underwater noise pollution. A mass mortality of scallops in the Bass Strait, Australia occurred a few months after a marine seismic survey in 2010, and fishing groups were concerned about the potential relationship between the two events. The current study used three field-based methods to investigate the potential impact of marine seismic surveys on scallops in the region: 1) dredging and 2) deployment of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) were undertaken to examine the potential response of two species of scallops (Pecten fumatus, Mimachlamys asperrima) before, two months after, and ten months after a 2015 marine seismic survey; and 3) MODIS satellite data revealed patterns of sea surface temperatures from 2006-2016. Results from the dredging and AUV components show no evidence of scallop mortality attributable to the seismic survey, although sub-lethal effects cannot be excluded. The remote sensing revealed a pronounced thermal spike in the eastern Bass Strait between February and May 2010, overlapping the scallop beds that suffered extensive mortality and coinciding almost exactly with dates of operation for the 2010 seismic survey. The acquisition of in situ data coupled with consideration of commercial seismic arrays meant that results were ecologically realistic, while the paired field-based components (dredging, AUV imagery) provided a failsafe against challenges associated with working wholly in the field. This study expands our knowledge of the potential environmental impacts of marine seismic survey and will inform future applications for marine seismic surveys, as well as the assessment of such applications by regulatory authorities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Mex Bay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-02-23

    Feb 23, 2015 ... surveys to assess the vulnerability of the most important physical and eutrophication parameters along. El- Mex Bay coast. As a result of increasing population and industrial development, poorly untreated industrial waste, domestic sewage, shipping industry and agricultural runoff are being released to the.

  1. The image-forming mirror in the eye of the scallop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Benjamin A.; Taylor, Gavin J.; Brumfeld, Vlad; Gur, Dvir; Shemesh, Michal; Elad, Nadav; Osherov, Aya; Oron, Dan; Weiner, Steve; Addadi, Lia

    2017-12-01

    Scallops possess a visual system comprising up to 200 eyes, each containing a concave mirror rather than a lens to focus light. The hierarchical organization of the multilayered mirror is controlled for image formation, from the component guanine crystals at the nanoscale to the complex three-dimensional morphology at the millimeter level. The layered structure of the mirror is tuned to reflect the wavelengths of light penetrating the scallop’s habitat and is tiled with a mosaic of square guanine crystals, which reduces optical aberrations. The mirror forms images on a double-layered retina used for separately imaging the peripheral and central fields of view. The tiled, off-axis mirror of the scallop eye bears a striking resemblance to the segmented mirrors of reflecting telescopes.

  2. Scallop-Inspired DNA Nanomachine: A Ratiometric Nanothermometer for Intracellular Temperature Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Nuli; Huang, Jin; Yang, Xiaohai; He, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Jianbo; Huang, Jiaqi; Fang, Hongmei; Wang, Kemin

    2017-11-21

    Accurate measurement of intracellular temperature is of great significance in biology and medicine. With use of DNA nanotechnology and inspiration by nature's examples of "protective and reversible responses" exoskeletons, a scallop-inspired DNA nanomachine (SDN) is desgined as a ratiometric nanothermometer for intracellular temperature sensing. The SDN is composed of a rigid DNA tetrahedron, where a thermal-sensitive molecular beacon (MB) is embedded in one edge of the DNA tetrahedron. Relying on the thermal-sensitive MB and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) signaling mechanism, the "On" to "Off" signal is reversibly responding to "below" and "over" the melting temperature. Mimicking the functional anatomy of a scallop, the SDN exhibits high cellular permeability and resistance to enzymatic degradation, good reversibility, and tunable response range. Furthermore, FRET ratiometric signal that allows the simultaneous recording of two emission intensities at different wavelengths can provide a feasible approach for precise detection, minimizing the effect of system fluctuations.

  3. Processing Sliding Mosaic Mode Data with Modified Full-Aperture Imaging Algorithm Integrating Scalloping Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Tuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a modified full-aperture imaging algorithm that includes scalloping correction and spike suppression for sliding-Mosaic-mode Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR. It is innovational to correct the azimuth beam-pattern weighting altered by radar antenna rotation in the azimuth during the deramping preprocessing operation. The main idea of spike suppression is to substitute zeros between bursts with linear-predicted data extrapolated from adjacent bursts to suppress spikes caused by multiburst processing. We also integrate scalloping correction for the sliding mode into this algorithm. Finally, experiments are performed using the C-band airborne SAR system with a maximum bandwidth of 200 MHz to validate the effectiveness of this approach.

  4. A BAC-based physical map of Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri Jones et Preston.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Zhang

    Full Text Available Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri is one of the most economically important aquaculture species in China. Physical maps are crucial tools for genome sequencing, gene mapping and cloning, genetic improvement and selective breeding. In this study, we have developed a genome-wide, BAC-based physical map for the species. A total of 81,408 clones from two BAC libraries of the scallop were fingerprinted using an ABI 3130xl Genetic Analyzer and a fingerprinting kit developed in our laboratory. After data processing, 63,641 (∼5.8× genome coverage fingerprints were validated and used in the physical map assembly. A total of 3,696 contigs were assembled for the physical map. Each contig contained an average of 10.0 clones, with an average physical size of 490 kb. The combined total physical size of all contigs was 1.81 Gb, equivalent to approximately 1.5 fold of the scallop haploid genome. A total of 10,587 BAC end sequences (BESs and 167 markers were integrated into the physical map. We evaluated the physical map by overgo hybridization, BAC-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization, contig BAC pool screening and source BAC library screening. The results have provided evidence of the high reliability of the contig physical map. This is the first physical map in mollusc; therefore, it provides an important platform for advanced research of genomics and genetics, and mapping of genes and QTL of economical importance, thus facilitating the genetic improvement and selective breeding of the scallop and other marine molluscs.

  5. The phenoloxidase activity and antibacterial function of a tyrosinase from scallop Chlamys farreri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Ni, Duojiao; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Leilei; Shi, Xiaowei; Yue, Feng; Liu, Rui; Song, Linsheng

    2012-08-01

    Tyrosinase (TYR), also known as monophenol monooxygenase, is a ubiquitous binuclear copper-containing enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of phenols to catechols and the oxidation of catechols to quinones. In the present study, the cDNA of a tyrosinase (CfTYR) was identified from scallop Chlamys farreri, which encoded a polypeptide of 486 amino acids. The CfTYR mRNA transcripts were expressed in all the tested tissues, including haemocytes, adductor muscle, kidney, hepatopancreas, gill, gonad and mantle, with the highest level in mantle. The expression level of CfTYR mRNA in haemocytes decreased significantly during 3-6 h after LPS stimulation, and reached the lowest level at 6 h (0.05-fold, P 0.05), and reached the highest level at 24 h (2.91-fold, P tyrosinase in scallop C. farreri with the copper-dependence phenoloxidase activity, and it could be induced after immune stimulation and mediate immune response for the elimination of invasive pathogens in scallop. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolation and characterization of melanin pigment from yesso scallop Patinopecten yessoensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiujun; Wu, Biao; Zhou, Liqing; Liu, Zhihong; Dong, Yinghui; Yang, Aiguo

    2017-04-01

    Melanin is one of the essential compounds in the pigments of molluscan shells. However, the effects of melanin on color variations in molluscs are largely unknown. Our previous study suggests that Yesso scallop Patinopecten yessoensis might contain melanin pigment in the dark brown shell. We therefore isolated melanin from the pigmented shells using hydrochloric acid method, and characterized the types of melanin pigments by spectrophotometry. The purified melanin, which was verified by spectrophotometry scanning and HPLC analysis, showed the typical characteristics of melanin absorption spectra and HPLC chromatograms. The contents of pheomelanin and eumelanin in pigmented shells, which were determined by the linear standard curve of melanin at 405 nm and 350 nm absorbance, were 48.23 ± 1.350 and 157.65 ± 5.905 mg, respectively. The present results indicate that the brown-pigmented shells of scallops comprise approximately 76.6% of eumelanin and 23.4% of pheomelanin, which supports the presence of eumelanin-rich pigment in scallop shells. Therefore, the combination of hydrochloric acid extraction and spectrophotometric quantification is a rapid and efficient method to isolate and quantify melanin in shells. This will facilitate the melanin studies related to shell color polymorphism and the selective breeding of bivalves with different shell colors.

  7. The subcellular fate of cadmium and zinc in the scallop Chlamys nobilis during waterborne and dietary metal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan Ke [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)], E-mail: wwang@ust.hk

    2008-12-11

    Subcellular metal distribution has received increasing attention in aquatic toxicology studies, but the relationship between metal distribution and metal biokinetics remains largely unexplored. A series of short-term experiments on different concentrations of dissolved and dietary metals and on metal elimination were conducted to investigate the dynamics of subcellular distribution of Cd and Zn in the scallop Chlamys nobilis, a bivalve species that is known to accumulate very high concentrations of Cd and Zn in its tissues. Our results showed that, in general, both Cd and Zn were sequestered in insoluble forms (organelles, metal-rich granules, and cellular debris). The main binding pool for the newly acquired metals was organelles for Cd and cellular debris for Zn. Metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) was the most important storage pool for Cd in the scallops. Storage in the non-toxic form both in organelles and MTLP instead of through exocytosis was the major detoxification strategy to control Cd and accounted for the low efflux rate of Cd from scallops. In contrast to Cd, the main binding pool for Zn was cellular debris. Significant changes were found in the scallops when they were challenged with different concentrations of metals in the aqueous and food phases. Such changes provide important information on how scallops handle metals when there is increasing metal uptake. The redistribution of Zn among each subcellular compartment was much faster than the redistribution of Cd, suggesting an effective regulation mechanism for Zn in scallops. Thus, knowing subcellular metal distribution helps in studying the toxicity of both waterborne and dietborne metals.

  8. Rates of morphological evolution, asymmetry and morphological integration of shell shape in scallops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, Emma; Serb, Jeanne M; Adams, Dean C

    2017-12-08

    Rates of morphological evolution vary across different taxonomic groups, and this has been proposed as one of the main drivers for the great diversity of organisms on Earth. Of the extrinsic factors pertaining to this variation, ecological hypotheses feature prominently in observed differences in phenotypic evolutionary rates across lineages. But complex organisms are inherently modular, comprising distinct body parts that can be differentially affected by external selective pressures. Thus, the evolution of trait covariation and integration in modular systems may also play a prominent role in shaping patterns of phenotypic diversity. Here we investigate the role ecological diversity plays in morphological integration, and the tempo of shell shape evolution and of directional asymmetry in bivalved scallops. Overall, the shape of both valves and the magnitude of asymmetry of the whole shell (difference in shape between valves) are traits that are evolving fast in ecomorphs under strong selective pressures (gliders, recessers and nestling), compared to low rates observed in other ecomorphs (byssal-attaching, free-living and cementing). Given that different parts of an organism can be under different selective pressures from the environment, we also examined the degree of evolutionary integration between the valves as it relates to ecological shifts. We find that evolutionary morphological integration is consistent and surprisingly high across species, indicating that while the left and right valves of a scallop shell are diversifying in accordance with ecomorphology, they are doing so in a concerted fashion. Our study on scallops adds another strong piece of evidence that ecological shifts play an important role in the tempo and mode of morphological evolution. Strong selective pressures from the environment, inferred from the repeated evolution of distinct ecomorphs, have influenced the rate of morphological evolution in valve shape and the magnitude of asymmetry

  9. Cholinesterase activities in the scallop Pecten jacobaeus: Characterization and effects of exposure to aquatic contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano, Bonacci [Department of Environmental Sciences ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy)], E-mail: bonacci@unisi.it; Ilaria, Corsi [Department of Environmental Sciences ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy)], E-mail: corsii@unisi.it; Silvano, Focardi [Department of Environmental Sciences ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy)], E-mail: focardi@unisi.it

    2008-03-15

    Nearshore marine environments of industrialized countries are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic pollution. It is therefore a priority task to investigate the sensitivity of new ecotoxicological warning signals of the occurrence and effects of aquatic pollutants. The main aims of the present study were: 1) to characterize the biochemical properties of ChEs in tissues of the bivalve Pecten jacobaeus, using different specific substrates and selective inhibitors; 2) to measure sensitivity of ChE activities to in vitro exposure to the OPs azamethiphos and DFP and to the heavy metals cadmium and zinc. Our final aim was to carry out a preliminary evaluation of the suitability of ChEs measurement in tissues of the scallop for monitoring marine environmental quality and neurotoxic compounds contamination in the Mediterranean Sea. Responses to specific inhibitors have suggested that ChEs in adductor muscle share many characteristics with vertebrate acetylcholinesterase. Dose-dependent inhibition of ChE was observed in response to in vitro exposure to environmental contaminants such as cadmium and azamethiphos. Sensitivity to zinc and DFP was lower. ChEs in P. jacobaeus might therefore have potential as a sensitive biomarker for monitoring marine pollution. Results of the present study will be useful to focus further experiment of exposure to pollutants under in vivo conditions. Capsule: Cholinesterase activities in scallop Pecten jacobaeus were observed to be sensitive to contaminants in vitro and may therefore have potential as biomarkers for monitoring water pollution.

  10. The transcriptomic response to copper exposure in the digestive gland of Japanese scallops (Mizuhopecten yessoensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaolin; Tian, Xue; Nie, Guoxing; Wang, Junli; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Wang, Baojie; Guo, Qianqian; Huang, Jianrong; Wang, Lei

    2015-10-01

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the effects of copper exposure on the immune system and lipid metabolism of the Japanese scallop, Mizuhopecten yessoensis. Transcriptional levels of differentially expressed genes (DEGs)in M. yessoensis digestive gland tissue were analyzed using the deep-sequencing platform Illumina HiSeq™ 2000. In total, 841 and 877 genes were identified as significantly up- or down-regulated, respectively. In addition, significant enrichment analysis identified 3 gene ontology terms and 15 pathways involved in the response to copper exposure. Analysis of transcripts related to the immune response revealed a complex pattern of innate recognition receptors, including toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors and downstream pathway effectors, including those involved in apoptosis. Furthermore, genomic analysis revealed that genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interactions were enriched in Cu-exposed scallop glands. These results will provide a resource for subsequent gene expression studies regarding heavy metal exposure and the identification of copper-sensitive biomarkers for the aquaculture of M. yessoensis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Oxidative and interactive challenge of cadmium and ocean acidification on the smooth scallop Flexopecten glaber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Alessandro; Benedetti, Maura; Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco

    2018-03-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) may affect sensitivity of marine organisms to metal pollution modulating chemical bioavailability, bioaccumulation and biological responsiveness of several cellular pathways. In this study, the smooth scallop Flexopecten glaber was exposed to various combinations of reduced pH (pH/pCO 2 7.4/∼3000 μatm) and Cd (20 μg/L). The analyses on cadmium uptake were integrated with those of a wide battery of biomarkers including metallothioneins, single antioxidant defenses and total oxyradical scavenging capacity in digestive gland and gills, lysosomal membrane stability and onset of genotoxic damage in haemocytes. Reduced pH slightly increased concentration of Cd in scallop tissues, but no effects were measured in terms of metallothioneins. Induction of some antioxidants by Cd and/or low pH in the digestive gland was not reflected in variations of the total oxyradical scavenging capacity, while the investigated stressors caused a certain inhibition of antioxidants and reduction of the scavenging capacity toward peroxyl radical in the gills. Lysosomal membrane stability and onset of genotoxic damages showed high sensitivity with possible synergistic effects of the investigated factors. The overall results suggest that indirect effects of ocean acidification on metal accumulation and toxicity are tissue-specific and modulate oxidative balance through different mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of benzo(a)pyrene exposure on the antioxidant enzyme activity of scallop Chlamys farreri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Luqing; Ren, Jiayun; Zheng, Debin

    2009-02-01

    Scallop Chlamys farreri was exposed to different concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) (0.5 μg/L, 1.0 μg/L, 10.0 μg/L and 50.0 μg/L) for 30 days in seawater. The 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was significantly induced, and increased with the increasing BaP concentration. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities increased in short time at low concentration of BaP, and was significantly depressed at high concentrations. Scallop gill was more sensitive to BaP than the digestive gland, and the digestive gland was the main tissue to deal with oxyradicals. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased with the exposure time and there was a positive correlation (concentration-effect) between the MDA content and the concentration of BaP. The biomarkers determined in this experiment had important roles in detoxification, and showed great potential as biomarkers for oxidative stress. Controlled laboratory experiments designed to simulate field exposure scenarios are particularly useful in ascertaining biomarkers suitable for use with complex contaminant mixtures in the marine environment.

  13. Nitrogen stable isotopes reveal age-dependent dietary shift in the Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aya, Frolan A; Kudo, Isao

    2017-03-01

    Ontogenetic niche shifts in diet are a consequence of changes in body size or resource partitioning between age classes. To better resolve the feeding patterns of the Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis, we examined the relative importance of age and size in the diet of this species using stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) from 2006 to 2009. Contribution of food sources was quantified using an isotope mixing model by comparing the muscle tissue isotope ratios to those of suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) and their zooplankton prey (e.g. micro- and meso-zooplankton). Unlike the δ 13 C values, which remained constant with age and size, muscle δ 15 N values were more positively correlated with age accounting for 69 % of variations than size with only 46 %. Increasing 15 N values with age suggested that shifts in diet from SPOM to micro- and meso-zooplankton occurred during ontogeny in M. yessoensis. Results of the isotope mixing model indicated that SPOM contribution to scallop's diet decreased from 68 to 8 % while those of zooplankton increased from 15 to 50 % with increasing age. This study concludes that age-related dietary shift explains the enrichment of 15 N, as a result of predation on zooplankton by M. yessoensis.

  14. Cholinesterase activities in the scallop Pecten jacobaeus: Characterization and effects of exposure to aquatic contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefano, Bonacci; Ilaria, Corsi; Silvano, Focardi

    2008-01-01

    Nearshore marine environments of industrialized countries are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic pollution. It is therefore a priority task to investigate the sensitivity of new ecotoxicological warning signals of the occurrence and effects of aquatic pollutants. The main aims of the present study were: 1) to characterize the biochemical properties of ChEs in tissues of the bivalve Pecten jacobaeus, using different specific substrates and selective inhibitors; 2) to measure sensitivity of ChE activities to in vitro exposure to the OPs azamethiphos and DFP and to the heavy metals cadmium and zinc. Our final aim was to carry out a preliminary evaluation of the suitability of ChEs measurement in tissues of the scallop for monitoring marine environmental quality and neurotoxic compounds contamination in the Mediterranean Sea. Responses to specific inhibitors have suggested that ChEs in adductor muscle share many characteristics with vertebrate acetylcholinesterase. Dose-dependent inhibition of ChE was observed in response to in vitro exposure to environmental contaminants such as cadmium and azamethiphos. Sensitivity to zinc and DFP was lower. ChEs in P. jacobaeus might therefore have potential as a sensitive biomarker for monitoring marine pollution. Results of the present study will be useful to focus further experiment of exposure to pollutants under in vivo conditions. Capsule: Cholinesterase activities in scallop Pecten jacobaeus were observed to be sensitive to contaminants in vitro and may therefore have potential as biomarkers for monitoring water pollution

  15. Papilla preservation between two implants: a modified socket-shield technique to maintain the scalloped anatomy? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherel, Fabrice; Etienne, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A scalloped anatomy maintained between two adjacent crowns supported by immediate implants is presented in this clinical case. This is a modified concept of the socket-shield technique, which allows preservation of the papilla due in part to preservation of interproximal root fragments. Clinical results at 11 months after implant placement are presented.

  16. Exposure to seismic air gun signals causes physiological harm and alters behavior in the scallop Pecten fumatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ryan D; McCauley, Robert D; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Hartmann, Klaas; Semmens, Jayson M

    2017-10-03

    Seismic surveys map the seabed using intense, low-frequency sound signals that penetrate kilometers into the Earth's crust. Little is known regarding how invertebrates, including economically and ecologically important bivalves, are affected by exposure to seismic signals. In a series of field-based experiments, we investigate the impact of exposure to seismic surveys on scallops, using measurements of physiological and behavioral parameters to determine whether exposure may cause mass mortality or result in other sublethal effects. Exposure to seismic signals was found to significantly increase mortality, particularly over a chronic (months postexposure) time scale, though not beyond naturally occurring rates of mortality. Exposure did not elicit energetically expensive behaviors, but scallops showed significant changes in behavioral patterns during exposure, through a reduction in classic behaviors and demonstration of a nonclassic "flinch" response to air gun signals. Furthermore, scallops showed persistent alterations in recessing reflex behavior following exposure, with the rate of recessing increasing with repeated exposure. Hemolymph (blood analog) physiology showed a compromised capacity for homeostasis and potential immunodeficiency, as a range of hemolymph biochemistry parameters were altered and the density of circulating hemocytes (blood cell analog) was significantly reduced, with effects observed over acute (hours to days) and chronic (months) scales. The size of the air gun had no effect, but repeated exposure intensified responses. We postulate that the observed impacts resulted from high seabed ground accelerations driven by the air gun signal. Given the scope of physiological disruption, we conclude that seismic exposure can harm scallops.

  17. 76 FR 72891 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Scalloped Hammerhead...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... factor, but that the species may be responding in a negative fashion; then we assess the potential... indentation, giving the head a ``scalloped'' appearance. It has a broadly arched mouth and the rear margin of... sharks are responding in a negative fashion to human population growth. Summary of Section 4(a)(1...

  18. DNA damage in the gill cells of the marine scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis during anoxic stress and aerobic recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodskova, Valentina V.; Zhukovskaya, Avianna F.; Chelomin, Victor P.

    2012-06-01

    Anoxia-induced DNA damage in the gill cells of the marine scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis was assessed with the alkaline comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis). The alkaline comet assay method for detecting DNA strand breaks and alkali labile sites in individual cells. DNA damage was determened in the scallops ( M. yessoensis) gill cells. The scallops were exposed to air for 8 h showing a clear increase in the levels of DNA damage. After the air exposure, M. yessoensis were re-submersed for a period of 12 h, leading values to return to a pre-aerial exposure level. Control animals were kept immersed during the whole period. The resulting data demonstrate that natural influences, such as oxygen depletion (anoxia) in seawater, can be responsible for the induction of DNA damage. If the scallops were re-immersed in oxic conditions, the anoxically induced breaks were repaired. The main mechanisms influencing the integrity of the DNA structure are discussed in this paper.

  19. An Integrated Assessment Model for Helping the United States Sea Scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) Fishery Plan Ahead for Ocean Acidification and Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Sarah R; Rheuban, Jennie E; Hart, Deborah R; Luu, Victoria; Glover, David M; Hare, Jonathan A; Doney, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification, the progressive change in ocean chemistry caused by uptake of atmospheric CO2, is likely to affect some marine resources negatively, including shellfish. The Atlantic sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) supports one of the most economically important single-species commercial fisheries in the United States. Careful management appears to be the most powerful short-term factor affecting scallop populations, but in the coming decades scallops will be increasingly influenced by global environmental changes such as ocean warming and ocean acidification. In this paper, we describe an integrated assessment model (IAM) that numerically simulates oceanographic, population dynamic, and socioeconomic relationships for the U.S. commercial sea scallop fishery. Our primary goal is to enrich resource management deliberations by offering both short- and long-term insight into the system and generating detailed policy-relevant information about the relative effects of ocean acidification, temperature rise, fishing pressure, and socioeconomic factors on the fishery using a simplified model system. Starting with relationships and data used now for sea scallop fishery management, the model adds socioeconomic decision making based on static economic theory and includes ocean biogeochemical change resulting from CO2 emissions. The model skillfully reproduces scallop population dynamics, market dynamics, and seawater carbonate chemistry since 2000. It indicates sea scallop harvests could decline substantially by 2050 under RCP 8.5 CO2 emissions and current harvest rules, assuming that ocean acidification affects P. magellanicus by decreasing recruitment and slowing growth, and that ocean warming increases growth. Future work will explore different economic and management scenarios and test how potential impacts of ocean acidification on other scallop biological parameters may influence the social-ecological system. Future empirical work on the effect of ocean

  20. De novo characterization of Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis transcriptome and analysis of its gene expression following cadmium exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-lin Meng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Japanese scallop has been cultured on a large-scale in China for many years. However, serious marine pollution in recent years has resulted in considerable loss to this industry. Moreover, due to the lack of genomic resources, limited research has been carried out on this species. To facilitate the understanding at molecular level immune and stress response mechanism, an extensive transcriptomic profiling and digital gene expression (DGE database of Japanese scallop upon cadmium exposure was carried out using the Illumina sequencing platform. RESULTS: RNA-seq produced about 112 million sequencing reads from the tissues of adult Japanese scallops. These reads were assembled into 194,839 non-redundant sequences with open reading frame (ORF, of which 14,240 putative amino acid sequences were assigned biological function annotation and were annotated with gene ontology and eukaryotic orthologous group terms. In addition, we identified 720 genes involved in response to stimulus and 302 genes involved in immune-response pathways. Furthermore, we investigated the transcriptomic changes in the gill and digestive gland of Japanese scallops following cadmium exposure using a tag-based DGE system. A total of 7,556 and 3,002 differentially expressed genes were detected, respectively, and functionally annotated with KEGG pathway annotations. CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive transcripts sequence resource for the Japanese scallop and presents a survey of gene expression in response to heavy metal exposure in a non-model marine invertebrate via the Illumina sequencing platform. These results may contribute to the in-depth elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in bivalve responses to marine pollutants.

  1. Scalloped Implant-Abutment Connection Compared to Conventional Flat Implant-Abutment Connection: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Starch-Jensen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective was to test the hypothesis of no difference in implant treatment outcome after installation of implants with a scalloped implant-abutment connection compared to a flat implant-abutment connection. Material and Methods: A MEDLINE (PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library search in combination with a hand-search of relevant journals was conducted. No language or year of publication restriction was applied. Results: The search provided 298 titles. Three studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The included studies were characterized by low or moderate risk of bias. Survival of suprastructures has never been compared within the same study. High implant survival rate was reported in all the included studies. Significantly more peri-implant marginal bone loss, higher probing depth score, bleeding score and gingival score was observed around implants with a scalloped implant-abutment connection. There were no significant differences between the two treatment modalities regarding professional or patient-reported outcome measures. Meta-analysis disclosed a mean difference of peri-implant marginal bone loss of 1.56 mm (confidence interval: 0.87 to 2.25, indicating significant more bone loss around implants with a scalloped implant-abutment connection. Conclusions: A scalloped implant-abutment connection seems to be associated with higher peri-implant marginal bone loss compared to a flat implant-abutment connection. Therefore, the hypothesis of the present systematic review must be rejected. However, further long-term randomized controlled trials assessing implant treatment outcome with the two treatment modalities are needed before definite conclusions can be provided about the beneficial use of implants with a scalloped implant-abutment connection on preservation of the peri-implant marginal bone level.

  2. Chesapeake Bay TMDL Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) report for the Chesapeake Bay. It includes the executive summary, main report, and appendices. The Chesapeake Bay TMDL was established by U.S. EPA Region 3 on December 29, 2010

  3. Chesapeake Bay TMDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010 EPA established the Chesapeake Bay TMDL, a comprehensive pollution diet with accountability measures to restore clean water in the bay and local waters. It set limits for nutrients and sediment to meet water quality standards across the watershed

  4. Biomarker modulation associated with marine diesel contamination in the Iceland scallop (Chlamys islandica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Geraudie, Perrine; Camus, Lionel; Huet, Valérie; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2015-12-01

    The decrease of ice cover in the Arctic will lead to an increase of ship traffic in the upcoming decades. Consequently, oil pollution is expected. In this context, the goals of this study were to evaluate the biological impact of marine diesel contamination and, on this basis, to determine analytical tools of interest (biomarkers) for future biomonitoring of diesel spills. Using a 7-day contamination protocol, this study investigated biochemical modulations in the digestive gland of the Iceland scallop (Chlamys islandica). Incorporation of contaminants was verified assessing haemolymph metabolites. Results showed a response of glutathione-S-transferase to contamination suggesting detoxification processes and the suitability of such a tool for diesel spill biomonitoring. The lack of modulation of superoxide dismutase activity and lipid peroxidation suggests no oxidative stress and the unsuitability of these molecular tools for biomonitoring.

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of the scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini (Carcharhiniformes: Sphyrnidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Xiang, Dan; Xu, Yuziwei; Shi, Xiaofang

    2015-08-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the endangered scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini was firstly determined in this study. It is 16,726 bp in length with the typical gene composition and orders in vertebrates. The overall base composition is 31.4% A, 26.3% C, 13.2% G and 29.1% T. Two start codon (ATG and GTG) and three stop codon (TAG, AGA and TAA/TA/T) patterns were found in protein-coding genes. Except for the tRNA-Ser2, the remaining 21 tRNAs can be folded into the typical cloverleaf structure. The control region possess the highest A + T content (66.1%) and lowest G content (12.6%) among all mitochondrial partitions.

  6. The TEAD/TEF family of transcription factor Scalloped mediates Hippo signaling in organ size control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Ren, Fangfang; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Yongbin; Wang, Bing; Jiang, Jin

    2008-03-01

    The Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway governs cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis by controlling key regulatory genes that execute these processes; however, the transcription factor of the pathway has remained elusive. Here we provide evidence that the TEAD/TEF family transcription factor Scalloped (Sd) acts together with the coactivator Yorkie (Yki) to regulate Hpo pathway-responsive genes. Sd and Yki form a transcriptional complex whose activity is inhibited by Hpo signaling. Sd overexpression enhances, whereas its inactivation suppresses, tissue overgrowth caused by Yki overexpression or tumor suppressor mutations in the Hpo pathway. Inactivation of Sd diminishes Hpo target gene expression and reduces organ size, whereas a constitutively active Sd promotes tissue overgrowth. Sd promotes Yki nuclear localization, whereas Hpo signaling retains Yki in the cytoplasm by phosphorylating Yki at S168. Finally, Sd recruits Yki to the enhancer of the pathway-responsive gene diap1, suggesting that diap1 is a direct transcriptional target of the Hpo pathway.

  7. Variation in size and growth of the great scallop Pecten maximus along a latitudinal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Chauvaud

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between growth and temperature will aid in the evaluation of thermal stress and threats to ectotherms in the context of anticipated climate changes. Most Pecten maximus scallops living at high latitudes in the northern hemisphere have a larger maximum body size than individuals further south, a common pattern among many ectotherms. We investigated differences in daily shell growth among scallop populations along the Northeast Atlantic coast from Spain to Norway. This study design allowed us to address precisely whether the asymptotic size observed along a latitudinal gradient, mainly defined by a temperature gradient, results from differences in annual or daily growth rates, or a difference in the length of the growing season. We found that low annual growth rates in northern populations are not due to low daily growth values, but to the smaller number of days available each year to achieve growth compared to the south. We documented a decrease in the annual number of growth days with age regardless of latitude. However, despite initially lower annual growth performances in terms of growing season length and growth rate, differences in asymptotic size as a function of latitude resulted from persistent annual growth performances in the north and sharp declines in the south. Our measurements of daily growth rates throughout life in a long-lived ectothermic species provide new insight into spatio-temporal variations in growth dynamics and growing season length that cannot be accounted for by classical growth models that only address asymptotic size and annual growth rate.

  8. Fisheries Closed Areas Strengthen Scallop Larval Settlement and Connectivity Among Closed Areas and Across International Open Fishing Grounds: A Model Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kimberley T A; Gentleman, W C; DiBacco, C; Johnson, C L

    2015-09-01

    This study examined whether a measured increase in average body size of adult sea scallops inside three fishery closed areas on Georges Bank (GB), United States (US), was sufficient to increase larval supply to closed areas and open fishing areas in both US and Canadian areas of the Bank. The effects of adult scallop density-at-size and fecundity-at-size on egg production were compared among open and closed fishery areas, countries, and time periods before and after the closed areas were established. Estimated egg production was then used to define spawning conditions in a coupled biological-physical larval tracking model that simulated larval development, mortality, and dispersal. Results showed that order of magnitude increases in larval settlement after closure were facilitated by increases in size-dependant egg production inside and dispersal from Closed Areas I and II, but not Nantucket Lightship Closed Area. The distributions of both egg production and larval settlement became more uniform across the Bank, causing the relative contribution of Canadian larvae to US scallop aggregations to decrease after establishment of Closed Areas I and II. Decreases in small and medium-sized scallop density in Canada and decreases in large scallops over the US-Southern Flank after closure caused local declines in egg production but were not sufficient to negatively affect larval settlement at the regional scale. Our model suggests that the establishment of fishery closed areas on GB considerably strengthened larval supply and settlement within and among several adult scallop aggregations.

  9. BIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIEGATED SCALLOP Chlamys varia (LINNAEUS, 1758. – AS THE BASIS FOR FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Antolović

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pectinides are a highly regarded sea product among the consumers. Huge efforts are being made for the development of farming technology. All around the world the local species of the Pectinidae family are being consumed along with some newly introduced species as for example Japanese scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis Jay, 1858. Althougt there are 16 species of shellfish from eastern Adriatic that are offered in Croatian markets, only two species are being farmed. Chlamys varia (variegated scallop is often found in many locations, most often where the s alredy egsist shellfish farming. Many authors believe that farming must be conducted in the hatcheries since the spat settlement on the collectors has proven unsuccessful and dependent of many environmental factors. The research of hatchery cultivation of this species has been described. In most areas where the reproductive cycle has been studied there appear to be two main periods of spawning each year, but the timing can differ between areas, and between years.

  10. Low Cost CaTiO3 Perovskite Synthesized from Scallop (Anadara granosa) Shell as Antibacterial Ceramic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, Is; Nur Ilahi, Rico; Pratami, Rismayanti

    2018-01-01

    Research on perovskite CaTiO3 synthesis from scallop (Anadara granosa) shell and its test as material for antibacterial ceramic application have been conducted. The synthesis was performed by calcium extraction from the scallop shell followed by solid-solid reaction of obtained calcium with TiO2. Physicochemical character of the perovskite wasstudied by measurement of crystallinity using x-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse-reflectance UV Visible spectrophotometry, scanning electrone microscope-energy dispersive x-ray (SEM-EDX) and Fourier-Transform InfraRed. Considering the future application of the perovskite as antibacterial agent, laboratory test of the peroskite as material in antibacterial ceramic preparation was also conducted. Result of research indicated that perovskite formation was obtained and the material demonstrated photocatalytic activity as identified by band gap energy (Eg) value. The significant activity was also reflected by the antibacterial action of formed ceramic.

  11. Ecological effects of co-culturing sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) with scallop Chlamys farreri in earthen ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yichao; Dong, Shuanglin; Qin, Chuanxin; Wang, Fang; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng

    2012-01-01

    Monthly changes in sedimentation and sediment properties were studied for three different culture treatments: sea cucumber monoculture (Mc), sea cucumber and scallop polyculture (Ps-c) and scallop monoculture (Ms). Results indicated that the survival rate of sea cucumber was significantly higher in Ps-c cultures than in Mc cultures. Sea cucumber yield was 69.6% higher in Ps-c culture than in Mc culture. No significant differences in body weight and scallop shell length were found between Ps-c and Ms cultures. The mean sedimentation rate of total particulate matter (TPM) was 72.2 g/(m2·d) in Ps-c cultures, with a maximum of 119.7 g/(m2·d), which was markedly higher than that of Mc (mean value). Sedimentation rates of organic matter (OM), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in Ps-c cultures were also significantly higher than those in Mc cultures. TOC and TN contents of sediment increased rapidly in the first 5 months in Ms cultures and remained at a high level. TOC and TN contents in Mc and Ps-c cultures decreased during sea cucumber feeding seasons and increased during sea cucumber dormancy periods (summer and winter). The study demonstrates that co-culture of sea cucumber and scallop in earthen ponds is an alternative way to alleviate nutrient loads and improve water quality in coastal aquaculture systems. Moreover, it provides the additional benefit of an increased sea cucumber yield.

  12. Scallop protein with endogenous high taurine and glycine content prevents high-fat, high-sucrose-induced obesity and improves plasma lipid profile in male C57BL/6J mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Keenan, Alison H.; Madsen, Lise

    2014-01-01

    -sucrose diets with protein sources of increasing endogenous taurine content, i.e., chicken, cod, crab and scallop, for 6 weeks. The energy intake was lower in crab and scallop-fed mice than in chicken and cod-fed mice, but only scallop-fed mice gained less body and fat mass. Liver mass was reduced in scallop......-fasted states. Dietary intake of taurine and glycine correlated negatively with body mass gain and total fat mass, while intake of all other amino acids correlated positively. Furthermore taurine and glycine intake correlated positively with improved plasma lipid profile, i.e., lower levels of plasma lipids...

  13. The phylogeny of native and exotic scallops cultured in China based on 16S rDNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baozhong; Dong, Bo; Xiang, Jianhai; Wang, Zaizhao

    2007-01-01

    Scallops of the Family Pectinidae are a valuable resource in marine industry of the world. Understanding the phylogeny of the family is important for the development of the industry. In this study, partial 16S mitochondrial rDNA genes were obtained from 8 scallop species that are commonly cultured indigenous and transplanted species in China. Phylogenetic relationships of Pectinidae were analyzed based on the 8 sequences and other 5 published ones in GenBank, representing 9 genera of the family. The molecular phylogeny trees were constructed using 3 methods with software PHYLIP. The results showe that total 13 species of scallops clustered in 4 clades. Pecten maximus joins P. jacobaeus then Amusium pleuronectes in cluster, indicating close relationship of genus Amusium with Pecten in evolution. P. yessoensis is close to Chlamys farreri and C. islandica. No enough material was available to single out genus Patinopecten as an independent monophyletic subfamily. The position of Adamussium colbecki indicates that it is far from genus Pecten but near to genus Chlamys in evolution.

  14. Biodiversity and dynamics of the bacterial community of packaged king scallop (Pecten maximus) meat during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coton, M; Joffraud, J J; Mekhtiche, L; Leroi, F; Coton, E

    2013-09-01

    The microbial biodiversity and dynamics of king scallops meat and coral during cold storage (cold chain rupture: 1/3 storage time at 4 °C followed by 2/3 at 8 °C), was assessed by combining culture-dependant and -independent methods. Products were packaged as follows: aerobic, vacuum packed and 3 different CO2/N2 modified atmospheres and the impact of these conditions on the microbial communities was assessed. Results indicated that under air (current packaging condition), the dominant species corresponded to Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp. and Shewanella spp. These species have regularly been associated in the literature with food (especially seafood), and product spoilage. Moellerella wisconsensis was the only species detected on VRBG medium, however, its impact on the food product is unclear. Packaging conditions influenced the ecosystem equilibrium and biodiversity. Except for day 8, the lowest counts for all studied flora were observed for modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) containing >80% CO2. Moreover, in these conditions, higher biodiversity by Temporal Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (TTGE) and the non-detection of specific flora (i.e. Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis) were observed. At day 8, scallops packaged using these conditions were still acceptable from a sensorial point of view (odour), although the initial load of the king scallop was high (total psychrotrophic flora reached 5.5 log CFU/g). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Apoptosis of hemocytes from lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus induced with paralyzing shellfish poison from Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Norma; Ascencio, Felipe; Shoshani, Liora; Contreras, Rubén G

    2014-12-01

    The toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces paralyzing shellfish poisons (PSPs) that are consumed and accumulated by bivalves. Previously, we recorded a decrease in hemocytes 24h after injection of PSPs (gonyautoxin 2/3 epimers, GTX2/3) in the adductor muscle in the lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus. In this work, qualitative and quantitative analyses, in in vivo and in vitro experiments, revealed that the lower count of hemocytes results from cells undergoing typical apoptosis when exposed to GTX 2/3 epimers. This includes visible morphological alterations of the cytoplasmic membrane, damage to the nuclear membrane, condensation of chromatin, DNA fragmentation, and release of DNA fragments into the cytoplasm. Induction of apoptosis was accompanied by phosphatidylserine exposure to the outer cell membrane and activation of cysteine-aspartic proteases, caspase 3 and caspase 8. Addition of an inhibitor of caspase to the medium suppressed activation in hemocytes exposed to the toxins, suggesting that cell death was induced by a caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. The results are important for future investigation of the scallop's immune system and should provide new insights into apoptotic processes in immune cells of scallops exposed to PSPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. A simple method to reduce the risk of cadmium exposure from consumption of Iceland scallops (Chlamys islandica) fished in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Lis; Sonne, Christian; Rigét, Frank F; Dietz, Rune; Asmund, Gert

    2014-08-01

    This paper studied the levels and organ distribution of the toxic heavy metal cadmium in scallops from unpolluted Greenlandic waters. The scallops had an average cadmium concentration of 2.93 ± 0.94 μg/g wet weight in the total soft tissues and no concentration dependent effect was found for gender or size (both p>0.05). The kidney was the primary organ for cadmium accumulation with a mean of 226.2 ± 111.7 μg/g wet weight, and despite the small weight of the kidney, it appeared as the principal contributor of cadmium with 92% of the total cadmium body burden. The cadmium concentrations in the total soft tissues far exceeded the EU-limit of 1 μg/g wet weight for cadmium in bivalves. Based on this, selective evisceration of the cadmium-rich kidney and digestive gland during processing can be regarded as a reliable measure to be taken in order to reduce the cadmium content of scallops used for human consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Certification for Trace Elements and Methyl Mercury Mass Fractions in IAEA-452 Scallop (Pecten maximus) Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    to poor environmental management decisions. The IAEA has a long history of organizing interlaboratory studies, which have evolved to include an increasing array of potential contaminants in the marine environment. A marine certified reference material (CRM), IAEA-452, prepared with a scallop (Pecten maximus) sample, was recently produced by the IAEA and certified for trace elements and methylmercury (MeHg). This species of scallop is a common, widely consumed seafood that is also used as a bioindicator for trace metal contamination in marine pollution studies. This publication presents the sample preparation methodology, material homogeneity and stability studies, evaluation of certification campaign results, and assignment of property values and their associated uncertainty. The reference values and associated expanded uncertainty for nine trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn) and MeHg in the scallop sample are established. The informative value for one more element (Ni) is also given. The new CRM can be used for the development and validation of analytical methods in the determination of trace elements and MeHg in seafood Pecten maximus as well as for QA/QC purposes

  18. Wakasa Bay Weather Forecast Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E Wakasa Bay Field Campaign was conducted over Wakasa Bay, Japan, in January and February, 2003. The Wakasa Bay Field Campaign includes joint research...

  19. A small-scale comparison of Iceland scallop size distributions obtained from a camera based autonomous underwater vehicle and dredge survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warsha Singh

    Full Text Available An approach is developed to estimate size of Iceland scallop shells from AUV photos. A small-scale camera based AUV survey of Iceland scallops was conducted at a defined site off West Iceland. Prior to height estimation of the identified shells, the distortions introduced by the vehicle orientation and the camera lens were corrected. The average AUV pitch and roll was 1.3 and 2.3 deg that resulted in <2% error in ground distance rendering these effects negligible. A quadratic polynomial model was identified for lens distortion correction. This model successfully predicted a theoretical grid from a frame photographed underwater, representing the inherent lens distortion. The predicted shell heights were scaled for the distance from the bottom at which the photos were taken. This approach was validated by height estimation of scallops of known sizes. An underestimation of approximately 0.5 cm was seen, which could be attributed to pixel error, where each pixel represented 0.24 x 0.27 cm. After correcting for this difference the estimated heights ranged from 3.8-9.3 cm. A comparison of the height-distribution from a small-scale dredge survey carried out in the vicinity showed non-overlapping peaks in size distribution, with scallops of a broader size range visible in the AUV survey. Further investigations are necessary to evaluate any underlying bias and to validate how representative these surveys are of the true population. The low resolution images made identification of smaller scallops difficult. Overall, the observations of very few small scallops in both surveys could be attributed to low recruitment levels in the recent years due to the known scallop parasite outbreak in the region.

  20. A small-scale comparison of Iceland scallop size distributions obtained from a camera based autonomous underwater vehicle and dredge survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Warsha; Örnólfsdóttir, Erla B; Stefansson, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    An approach is developed to estimate size of Iceland scallop shells from AUV photos. A small-scale camera based AUV survey of Iceland scallops was conducted at a defined site off West Iceland. Prior to height estimation of the identified shells, the distortions introduced by the vehicle orientation and the camera lens were corrected. The average AUV pitch and roll was 1.3 and 2.3 deg that resulted in <2% error in ground distance rendering these effects negligible. A quadratic polynomial model was identified for lens distortion correction. This model successfully predicted a theoretical grid from a frame photographed underwater, representing the inherent lens distortion. The predicted shell heights were scaled for the distance from the bottom at which the photos were taken. This approach was validated by height estimation of scallops of known sizes. An underestimation of approximately 0.5 cm was seen, which could be attributed to pixel error, where each pixel represented 0.24 x 0.27 cm. After correcting for this difference the estimated heights ranged from 3.8-9.3 cm. A comparison of the height-distribution from a small-scale dredge survey carried out in the vicinity showed non-overlapping peaks in size distribution, with scallops of a broader size range visible in the AUV survey. Further investigations are necessary to evaluate any underlying bias and to validate how representative these surveys are of the true population. The low resolution images made identification of smaller scallops difficult. Overall, the observations of very few small scallops in both surveys could be attributed to low recruitment levels in the recent years due to the known scallop parasite outbreak in the region.

  1. Inactivation of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor inoculated into Peruvian ''choro'' mussels (Aulacomya ater) and two species of clams (Argopecten purpuratus and Gari solida) using medium-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Z.; Bernuy, B.; Kahn, G.; Zapata, G.; Vivanco, M.; Guzman, E.; Leon, R.

    2001-01-01

    The radiation decimal reduction dose (D 10 ) for Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor inoculated through the natural feeding system into three species of bivalve mollusks from the Peruvian Pacific coast: ''choro'' mussels (Aulacome ater), ''abanico'' clams (Argopecten purpuratus), and common clams (Gari solida), was determined in vivo. The D 10 value obtained in vivo was 0.14 kGy in all mollusks tested. Concurrent studies conducted to determine the potential use of irradiation to extend the microbiological shelf-life of the mollusks during post-irradiation storage at 0-1 deg. C indicated that a dose of 1.0 kGy was optimal for choro mussels and abanico clams, whereas 2.0 kGy produced the best results when treating common clams. Shelf-life extension thus achieved was 31 days for choro mussels, 16 days for abanico clams, and 21 days for common clams. Non-irradiated control samples of all mollusks spoiled after 17 days of refrigerated storage. There were no significant (p<.05) adverse effects from the application of the optimal radiation treatments on the sensory characteristics (i.e. appearance, odor, flavor, and texture) of the mollusks. Total volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and pH values were examined for use as indexes of seafood freshness. (author)

  2. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company...

  3. The response of mRNA expression upon secondary challenge with Vibrio anguillarum suggests the involvement of C-lectins in the immune priming of scallop Chlamys farreri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Lingling; Yang, Chuanyan; Jiang, Qiufen; Zhang, Huan; Yue, Feng; Huang, Mengmeng; Sun, Zhibin; Song, Linsheng

    2013-06-01

    The enhanced immunity against a second encounter with the particular pathogen has suggested the presence of "immune priming" in scallop. In the present study, the survival rate and expression patterns of five C-lectin isoforms from scallop Chlamys farreri were explored after "vaccination" of heat-killed Vibrio anguillarum or successively challenge with V. anguillarum and Micrococcus luteus. When scallops were challenged with live bacteria, the survival rate increased significantly only in the group firstly "vaccinated" with inactivated V. anguillarum and then challenged with live V. anguillarum compared with naive scallops (from 41% to 63.6%, Pimmuned previously with heat-killed V. anguillarum peaked significantly higher (26.7-, 121.7-, 60.1-, 27.4-, 16.3-fold to 0h, respectively, Pimmuned scallops (7.6-fold, P0.05; 5.7-fold, P0.05; 8.3-fold, P0.05; 14.5-fold, P0.05, to 0h, respectively). The response of mRNA expression to the secondary encounter with the same bacteria was stronger than that of successively encounter with the different class of bacteria. It was obvious that the mRNA expression of C-lectins in scallops was significantly enhanced by the successive challenge of same species of bacteria with a certain degree of specificity. All the results suggested that C-lectins might be involved in some form of immune priming, and it might provide new insights into mechanism of invertebrate immune priming. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential Regulation of Cyclin E by Yorkie-Scalloped Signaling in Organ Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Shu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tissue integrity and homeostasis are accomplished through strict spatial and temporal regulation of cell growth and proliferation during development. Various signaling pathways have emerged as major growth regulators across metazoans; yet, how differential growth within a tissue is spatiotemporally coordinated remains largely unclear. Here, we report a role of a growth modulator Yorkie (Yki, the Drosophila homolog of Yes-associated protein (YAP, that differentially regulates its targets in Drosophila wing imaginal discs; whereby Yki interacts with its transcriptional partner, Scalloped (Sd, the homolog of the TEAD/TEF family transcription factor in mammals, to control an essential cell cycle regulator Cyclin E (CycE. Interestingly, when Yki was coexpressed with Fizzy-related (Fzr, a Drosophila endocycle inducer and homolog of Cdh1 in mammals, surrounding hinge cells displayed larger nuclear size than distal pouch cells. The observed size difference is attributable to differential regulation of CycE, a target of Yki and Sd, the latter of which can directly bind to CycE regulatory sequences, and is expressed only in the pouch region of the wing disc starting from the late second-instar larval stage. During earlier stages of larval development, when Sd expression was not detected in the wing disc, coexpression of Fzr and Yki did not cause size differences between cells along the proximal–distal axis of the disc. We show that ectopic CycE promoted cell proliferation and apoptosis, and inhibited transcriptional activity of Yki targets. These findings suggest that spatiotemporal expression of transcription factor Sd induces differential growth regulation by Yki during wing disc development, highlighting coordination between Yki and CycE to control growth and maintain homeostasis.

  5. Humboldt Bay Orthoimages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-meter pixel resolution, four band orthoimages covering the Humboldt Bay area. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  6. Chesapeake Bay Tributary Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesapeake Bay Tributary Strategies were developed by the seven watershed jurisdictions and outlined the river basin-specific implementation activities to reduce nutrient and sediment pollutant loads from point and nonpoint sources.

  7. Bathymetry in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 4x4 meter resolution bathymetric surface for Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The depth values are in meters referenced to the...

  8. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started in...

  9. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  10. Geochemistry of phosphorus in sediment cores from Sishili Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Gao, Xuelu; Wang, Changyou; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Zhou, Fengxia; Yang, Yuwei

    2016-12-15

    This paper presents the distribution of total phosphorus (P), inorganic P (IP) and organic P in sediment cores from Sishili Bay, China. Their concentrations (μmolg -1 ) ranged from 15.04 to 21.59, 12.43 to 18.27 and 0.15 to 5.11, respectively, showing 87.6-96.9% of TP is IP. The distribution of the fractionation of IP , obtained by a sequential extraction technique, was 1.9-3.2% for soluble and loosely bound P (Ex-P), 8.5-13.1% for Al-bound from (Al-P), 7.4-9.5% for Fe-bound P (Fe-P), 5.0-12.4% for reductant-soluble P (Oc-P), 9.7-15.6% for CaCO 3 -bound P (ACa-P) and 45.9-54.6% for detritus P (Det-P). The P distribution and concentration was consistent with other Chinese coastal seas. No significant difference was found for the sedimentary P forms between scallop cultivation area and background area, indicating that shellfish aquaculture did not have significant effect on the depositional environment in the studied area, at least in case of P. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A coupled biophysical model for the distribution of the great scallop Pecten maximus in the English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Clément; Lavaud, Romain; Cugier, Philippe; Jean, Fred; Flye-Sainte-Marie, Jonathan; Foucher, Eric; Desroy, Nicolas; Fifas, Spyros; Foveau, Aurélie

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we used a modelling approach integrating both physical and biological constraints to understand the biogeographical distribution of the great scallop Pecten maximus in the English Channel during its whole life cycle. A 3D bio-hydrodynamical model (ECO-MARS3D) providing environmental conditions was coupled to (i) a population dynamics model and (ii) an individual ecophysiological model (Dynamic Energy Budget model). We performed the coupling sequentially, which underlined the respective role of biological and physical factors in defining P. maximus distribution in the English Channel. Results show that larval dispersion by hydrodynamics explains most of the scallop distribution and enlighten the main known hotspots for the population, basically corresponding to the main fishing areas. The mechanistic description of individual bioenergetics shows that food availability and temperature control growth and reproduction and explain how populations may maintain themselves in particular locations. This last coupling leads to more realistic densities and distributions of adults in the English Channel. The results of this study improves our knowledge on the stock and distribution dynamics of P. maximus, and provides grounds for useful tools to support management strategies.

  12. Accumulation of nine metals and one metalloid in the tropical scallop Comptopallium radula from coral reefs in New Caledonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metian, M.; Bustamante, P.; Hedouin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Uptake of waterborne Cd, Co, Mn and Zn was determined in laboratory experiments using radiotracer techniques ( 109 Cd, 57 Co, 54 Mn and 65 Zn). Labelled Zn was mainly accumulated in the digestive gland (65%) and Co in kidneys (81%); Cd and Mn were similarly distributed in digestive gland and gills. In a complementary field study, Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn were analysed in scallops collected at two stations showing different contamination levels. Digestive gland and kidneys displayed the highest concentrations. Ag, As, Cd, and Fe differed in soft tissues from the two stations, suggesting that Comptopallium radula could be a valuable local biomonitor species for these elements. Low Mn and Zn concentrations found in kidneys suggest that their content in calcium-phosphate concretions differs from the other pectinids. Preliminary risk considerations suggest that As would be the only element potentially leading to exposure of concern for seafood consumers. - This study investigates metal accumulation behaviour in the tropical scallop Comptopallium radula and preliminary risk assessment for consumers

  13. Inheritance pattern of microsatellite loci and their use for kinship analysis in the Japanese scallop Patinopecten yessoensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kefeng; Li, Qi

    2009-06-01

    The inheritance mode of seven microsatellite markers was investigated in Patinopecten yessoensis larvae from four controlled crosses, and the feasibility of using these markers for kinship estimation was also examined. All the seven microsatellite loci were compatible with Mendelian inheritance. Neither sex-linked barriers to transmission nor major barriers to fertilization between gametes from the parents were evident. Two of the seven loci showed the presence of null alleles in two families, suggesting the need to conduct comprehensive species-specific inheritance studies for microsatellite loci used in population genetic studies. However, even if the null allele heterozygotes were considered as homozygotes in the calculation of genetic distance, offspring from four families were all unambiguously discriminated in the neighbor-joining dendrogram. This result indicates that the microsatellite markers used may be capable of discriminating between related and unrelated scallop larvae in the absence of pedigree information, and of investigating the effective number of parents contributing to the hatchery population of the Japanese scallop.

  14. Impact of a scallop drag on the sediment chemistry, microbiota, and faunal assemblages of a shallow subtidal marine benthic community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Les; Findlay, Robert H.; Mayer, Lawrence M.; Schick, Daniel F.

    2001-12-01

    Scallops are usually obtained by means of a heavy metal dredge that is pulled over the sea bottom. Most studies of the impact of this gear type have shown that larger invertebrates, in particular, are severely disturbed. These studies, however, have been conducted on coarse sediments, ranging from sands to cobble, and have dealt only with faunal changes. In this paper the impact of a New England type scallop dredge on the fauna and sedimentary nutritional characteristics of a silty sand community is detailed. The site, in the Damariscotta River, Maine, USA, was sampled during the fall and winter prior to, then again immediately following, the dragging event, and twice more over the ensuing six months. Loss of surficial sediment, lowered food quality of the sediment (as measured by microbial populations, enzyme hydrolysable amino acids, and chlorophyll a), and changes in the faunal composition of the dragged site were observed. While some taxa returned to the drag track relatively quickly, others such as the cumaceans, phoxocephalid and photid amphipods, and nephtyid polychaetes, were not seen in abundances comparable to those of the adjacent undragged site until the food quality also recovered.

  15. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative AGENCY...: Notice of availability of program funds for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative. SUMMARY: The... through the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative for agricultural producers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  16. Extensive use of mesopelagic waters by a Scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Spaet, Julia L.Y.

    2017-09-06

    Background Despite being frequently landed in fish markets along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast, information regarding fundamental biology of the Scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) in this region is scarce. Satellite telemetry studies can generate important data on life history, describe critical habitats, and ultimately redefine management strategies for sharks. To better understand the horizontal and vertical habitat use of S. lewini in the Red Sea and to aid with potential future development of zoning and management plans for key habitats, we deployed a pop-up satellite archival transmitting tag to track a single female specimen (240 cm total length) for a tracking period of 182 days. Results The tag was physically recovered after a deployment period of 6 months, thus providing the complete archived dataset of more than one million depth and temperature records. Based on a reconstructed, most probable track, the shark travelled a circular distance of approximately 1000 km from the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea southeastward into Sudanese waters, returning to the tagging location toward the end of the tracking period. Mesopelagic excursions to depths between 650 and 971 m occurred on 174 of the 182 days of the tracking period. Intervals between such excursions were characterized by constant oscillatory diving in the upper 100 m of the water column. Conclusions This study provides evidence that mesopelagic habitats might be more commonly used by S. lewini than previously suggested. We identified deep diving behavior throughout the 24-h cycle over the entire 6-month tracking period. In addition to expected nightly vertical habitat use, the shark exhibited frequent mesopelagic excursions during daytime. Deep diving throughout the diel cycle has not been reported before and, while dive functionality remains unconfirmed, our study suggests that mesopelagic excursions may represent foraging events within and below deep scattering layers. Additional research

  17. SOME BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SCALLOPED HAMMERHEAD SHARKS (Sphyrna lewini Griffith & Smith, 1834 CAUGHT FROM COASTAL FISHERIES IN THE EASTERN INDIAN OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Chodrijah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has the largest chondrichthyan fishery in the world, with a reported of 105,000 and 118,000 tonnes landed in 2002 and 2003 respectively. Scalloped hammerhead shark was either targeted or by-catch from this fishery, mostly for its fins. Despite of the growing concern around the world, the availability of biological data of this species, especially in the Eastern Indian Ocean is still lacking. The objectives of this paper are to present some biological information (size composition and sex ratio of the scalloped hammerhead, from coastal fisheries in Eastern Indian Ocean. The data used for the analysis comprised of two components, i.e. survey data in 2010 (February, March, June, August, October and December and data from daily monitoring shark landing in 2013 (January to December. Substantially lower mean size, more immature sharks and more frequent of female caught over years showed that scalloped hammerhead shark in the Eastern Indian Ocean are facing intensive fishing pressure which could lead to overfishing. This could harm the sustainability of scalloped hammerhead shark resource in the long run. The relationship between clasper length and total length was positively correlated where every 5 cmTL increment on clasper length adding 51 cmTL on total length.

  18. Chesapeake Bay Program Grant Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant Guidance and appendices for the Chesapeake Bay Program that describes how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Region 3’s Chesapeake Bay Program Office (CBPO) administers grant and cooperative agreement funds.

  19. Chesapeake Bay under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to extensive data obtained over its 13,000 km of shoreline, the Chesapeake Bay has been suffering a major, indeed unprecedented, reduction in submerged vegetation. Chesapeake Bay is alone in experiencing decline in submerged vegetation. Other estuary systems on the east coast of the United States are not so affected. These alarming results were obtained by the synthesis of the findings of numerous individual groups in addition to large consortium projects on the Chesapeake done over the past decade. R. J. Orth and R. A. Moore of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science pointed to the problem of the severe decline of submerged grasses on the Bay and along its tributaries. In a recent report, Orth and Moore note: “The decline, which began in the 1960's and accelerated in the 1970's, has affected all species in all areas. Many major river systems are now totally devoid of any rooted vegetation” (Science, 222, 51-53, 1983).

  20. The TEAD family transcription factor Scalloped regulates blood progenitor maintenance and proliferation in Drosophila through PDGF/VEGFR receptor (Pvr) signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gabriel B; Martinez-Agosto, Julian A

    2017-05-01

    The Drosophila lymph gland is a well-characterized hematopoietic organ in which a population of multipotent stem-like progenitors is maintained by a combination of signals from different cellular populations within the organ. The lymph gland serves as an ideal model both for the interrogation of signaling mechanisms involved in progenitor maintenance as well as a tool for the identification of novel regulatory mechanisms in the highly conserved process of hematopoiesis. Here, we demonstrate a requirement for the TEAD transcription factor Scalloped in the maintenance and proliferation of hematopoietic progenitors. We have characterized a novel population of hemocytes in the early lymph gland identified by the expression of Hand, Scalloped, and the PVR ligand PVF2. In this unique population, we show that Scalloped maintains PVF2 expression, which is required for hemocyte proliferation and achievement of normal lymph gland size. We further demonstrate that STAT signaling marks actively proliferating hemocytes in the early lymph gland, and inhibition of this pathway causes decreased lymph gland growth similar to loss of Scalloped and PVF2, demonstrating a requirement for PVR/STAT signaling in the regulation of lymph gland size. Finally, we demonstrate that Scalloped regulates PVR expression and the maintenance of progenitors downstream of PVR/STAT/ADGF signaling. These findings further establish the role of the TEAD family transcription factors in the regulation of important signaling molecules, and expand our mechanistic insight into the balance between progenitor maintenance and proliferation required for the regulation of lymph gland homeostasis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Multi-biomarker approach in the scallop Chlamys farreri to assess PAHs pollution in Qingdao coastal areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Luqing; Zhang, Mengyu; Jin, Qian; Ji, Rongwang

    2017-11-15

    A multi-biomarker approach was conducted in the scallop Chlamys farreri from three sites, denoted here as S1, S2, and S3, in Qingdao coastal areas of China in March, June, September and December 2014 to assess pollution from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and to select appropriate biomarkers. A suite of biological responses of the gills and digestive glands of the scallops was assayed, including: (i) phase I detoxification enzymes of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), epoxide hydrolase (EH), and dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DD) and phase II detoxification enzymes of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and sulfotransferase (SULT); (ii) antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx); (iii) oxidative damage parameters: lipid peroxidation (LPO) expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, protein carbonylation (PC) and DNA damage (F value); and (iv) the metabolism-related genes of EH, DD, GST, SULT and SOD. Simultaneously, the concentrations of total PAHs along with 16 types of PAHs previously identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and environmental parameters, including temperature and salinity together with pH, were measured. Using Principle Component Analysis (PCA), it was revealed that S2 was the most PAH-contaminated site, while S1 was identified as the least PAH-polluted site, which was consistent with the results utilizing the Biomarker Response Index (BRI); in other words, the biological health status of S2 was worse than S1 and S3. Moreover, the most suitable biomarkers to assess PAH pollution in Qingdao coastal areas proved to be DD mRNA expression and the F value in both the gills and digestive glands for the total PAHs, DD activity and PC contents or PC and MDA contents in the gills or digestive glands for 5 + 6 rings PAHs and DD mRNA expression in both the gills and digestive glands for 2 + 3 rings and 4 rings PAHs. Moreover, this study highlighted the possible use of the

  2. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available ..................................... 26 BACKGROUND Historical The town of Richards Bay is situated on the east coast of South Africa, approximately 160 km north-east of Durban, and was named after Sir Frederick William Richards. Although the area was already known...

  3. DREM: Infinite etch selectivity and optimized scallop size distribution with conventional photoresists in an adapted multiplexed Bosch DRIE process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Bingdong; Leussink, Pele; Jensen, Flemming

    2018-01-01

    The quest to sculpture materials as small and deep as possible is an ongoing topic in micro- and nanofabrication. For this, the Bosch process has been widely used to achieve anisotropic silicon microstructures with high aspect ratio. Reactive ion etching (RIE) lag is a phenomenon in which etch rate...... depends on the opening areas of patterns, aspect ratio of the trenches and other geometrical factors. The lag not only gives a non-uniform distribution of scallop size, but it also sets a limit for the maximum achievable aspect ratio. The latter since the mask suffers from persistent erosion. While...... different kinds of hard masks have been suggested to ensure a longer total etch time, here we report a correctly tuned 3-steps Bosch process - called DREM (Deposit, Remove, Etch, Multistep) – without mask erosion. The erosion-free feature is independent of the type of mask. For example, an aspect ratio...

  4. Preliminary analysis of the genetic variability of two natural beds of the Scallop Euvola ziczac (Linnaeus, 1758 in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Gonzalez Wangüemert

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Euvola ziczac (formerly Pecten ziczac, a simultaneous hermaphroditic scallop was heavily fished in Brazil between 1972 and 1980. The production peaked in 1980 with 8,800 tons and was followed by the total collapse of the resource. In order to investigate the possible loss of genetic variability of the stock associated to overfishing and self-fertilization, the polymorphism of phosphoglucomutase (PGM and glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI was analyzed by electrophoresis of the adductor muscle of scallops from São Francisco (26° 20.583’S; 48° 16.507’W and Bom Abrigo (25° 28.735’S; 47° 37.621’W beds; the southern and northern extremes of the scallop fishing ground, respectively. Animals from São Francisco showed a strong deficiency of heterozygosity for GPI and PGM. In addition, PGM showed *exclusive alleles for each bed. Such results coupled with other information about the species suggested the following hypothesis: a the stock was a metapopulation with at least two populations; b some reproductive isolation might be occurring which might be influenced by conditions of larval transport and by the extremely low densities of scallops; c presently, the stock seemed to be mostly maintained through self-fertilization; d São Francisco could constitute a source-area, contributing with larvae and recruits to Bom Abrigo and other areas; e both beds were suffering a genetic homogenization more evident in São Francisco. Such hypothesis needed to be investigated in order to furnish guidelines for future programs of recovery and management of the resource.A vieira hermafrodita simultânea Euvola ziczac (anteriormente Pecten ziczac, foi intensamente explotada no Brasil entre os anos de 1972 e 1980. O máximo de produção foi atingido em 1980, com 8800 toneladas desembarcadas, após o qual ocorreu o total colapso do recurso. Com o objetivo de reconhecer uma possível perda de variabilidade genética do estoque associada à sobrepesca e

  5. Quality and shelf life of the gonad of lion's paw scallop transported and stored whole in refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel Ocaño-Higuera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of refrigerated 48h transport and 4 days storage on the quality and shelf life of the whole lion's paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus gonad was evaluated. Proximal composition, adenosine 5´triphosphate (ATP and related products, K-value, total volatile bases (TVB-N, trimethylamine (TMA-N, pH, fatty acid profile and microbiological analyses were quantified. Gonad holds a significant composition of essential fatty acids while levels of gonadal ATP were initially low; moreover, K-value of the gonad remained constant. With respect to TVB-N and TMA-N, only the former exceeded allowed limits. The pH level showed no significant variation during storage and, despite the high level of TVB-N, according to the TMA-N as well as microbiological analyses it was demonstrated innocuity after 4 days under the transportation and storage conditions utilized.

  6. Sustainable development in the Hudson Bay/James Bay bioregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of projects planned for the James Bay/Hudson Bay region, and the expected environmental impacts of these projects. The watershed of James Bay and Hudson Bay covers well over one third of Canada, from southern Alberta to central Ontario to Baffin Island, as well as parts of north Dakota and Minnesota in the U.S.A. Hydroelectric power developments that change the timing and rate of flow of fresh water may cause changes in the nature and duration of ice cover, habitats of marine mammals, fish and migratory birds, currents into and out of Hudson Bay/James Bay, seasonal and annual loads of sediments and nutrients to marine ecosystems, and anadromous fish populations. Hydroelectric projects are proposed for the region by Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba. In January 1992, the Canadian Arctic Resources Committee (CARC), the Environmental Committee of Sanikuluaq, and the Rawson Academy of Arctic Science will launch the Hudson Bay/James Bay Bioregion Program, an independent initiative to apply an ecosystem approach to the region. Two main objectives are to provide a comprehensive assessment of the cumulative impacts of human activities on the marine and freshwater ecosystems of the Hudson Bay/James Bay bioregion, and to foster sustainable development by examining and proposing cooperative processes for decision making among governments, developers, aboriginal peoples and other stakeholders. 1 fig

  7. Characterization of {sup 241}Am and {sup 134}Cs bioaccumulation in the king scallop Pecten maximus: investigation via three exposure pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metian, Marc, E-mail: metian@hawaii.edu [International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratories, 4, Quai Antoine Ier, MC-98000, Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Littoral Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Warnau, Michel; Teyssie, Jean-Louis [International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratories, 4, Quai Antoine Ier, MC-98000, Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Bustamante, Paco, E-mail: paco.bustamante@univ-lr.fr [Littoral Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France)

    2011-06-15

    In order to understand the bioaccumulation of {sup 241}Am and {sup 134}Cs in scallops living in sediments, the uptake and depuration kinetics of these two elements were investigated in the king scallop Pecten maximus exposed via seawater, food, or sediment under laboratory conditions. Generally, {sup 241}Am accumulation was higher and its retention was stronger than {sup 134}Cs. This was especially obvious when considering whole animals exposed through seawater with whole-body concentration factors (CF{sub 7d}) of 62 vs. 1, absorption efficiencies (A{sub 0l}) of 78 vs. 45 for seawater and biological half-lives (T{sub b1/2l}) of 892 d vs. 22 d for {sup 241}Am and {sup 134}Cs, respectively. In contrast, following a single feeding with radiolabelled phytoplankton, the assimilation efficiency (AE) and T{sub b1/2l} of {sup 134}Cs were higher than those of {sup 241}Am (AE: 28% vs. 20%; T{sub b1/2l}: 14 d vs. 9 d). Among scallop tissues, the shells always contained the higher proportion of the total body burden of {sup 241}Am whatever the exposure pathway. In contrast, the whole soft parts presented the major fraction of whole-body burden of {sup 134}Cs, which was generally associated with muscular tissues. Our results showed that the two radionuclides have contrasting behaviors in scallops, in relation to their physico-chemical properties. - Highlights: > We determined Am and Cs uptake and depuration kinetics following seawater, food and sediment exposures. > We determined radionuclide tissue distribution after exposure and after depuration periods. > Am was mainly associated to the shell whatever the exposure pathway was. > Transfer processes occurred between soft and hard tissues for Am.

  8. Risks and benefits of compost-like materials prepared by the thermal treatment of raw scallop hepatopancreas for supplying cadmium and the growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Kensuke; Fukushima, Masami; Kanno, Shinya; Kanno, Itoko; Ohnishi, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Scallop hepatopancreas, fishery waste, contains relatively high levels of Cd and organic nitrogen compounds, the latter of which represent a fertilizer. In this study, raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue was thermally treated with sawdust and red loam in the presence of an iron catalyst to produce compost-like materials (CLMs). Two CLM samples were prepared by varying the content of raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue: 46 wt.% for CLM-1 and 18 wt.% for CLM-2. Mixtures of control soil (CTL) and CLMs (CLM content: 10 and 25 wt.%) were examined for the growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to evaluate the risks and benefits of using this material for fertilization. The Cd content in shoots and roots of alfalfa, that were grown in the presence of CLMs, was significantly higher than those for the plants grown in the CTL, indicating that Cd had accumulated in the plants from CLMs. The accumulation of Cd in the alfalfa roots was quite high in the case of the 25% CLM-1 sample. However, alfalfa growth was significantly promoted in the presence of 10% CLM-1. This can be attributed to the higher levels of nitrogen and humic substances, which serve as fertilizer components. Although the fertilization effect in case of CLM-1showed a potential benefit, the accumulation of Cd in alfalfa was clearly increased in the presence of both CLMs. In conclusion, the use of CLMs produced from raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue can be considered to have a desirable benefit from standpoint of its use as fertilizer, but is accompanied by a risk of the accumulation of Cd in alfalfa plants.

  9. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  10. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  11. Effects of the toxic dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium catenatum on hydrolytic and antioxidant enzymes, in tissues of the giant lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Norma; de Jesús Romero, Maria; Campa-Córdova, Angel; Luna, Antonio; Ascencio, Felipe

    2007-11-01

    This study documents effects of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, a producer of paralytic shellfish poison, on juvenile farmed (5.9+/-0.39 cm) giant lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus. Scallops were fed bloom concentrations of toxic dinoflagellate G. catenatum for 7 h. The effect of the toxic dinoflagellate in different tissues was determined by analysis of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, gluthathione peroxidase), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (lipid peroxidation), and hydrolytic enzymes (proteases, glycosidases, phosphatases, lipases, and esterases). Histopathological photos record the effects of the toxic dinoflagellate in various tissues. The results show that juvenile lions-paw scallops produce pseudo-feces, partially close their shell, increase melanization, and aggregate hemocytes. Several enzymes were affected and could serve as biological markers. In general, the adductor muscle was not affected. In the digestive gland, some enzymes could be the result of defensive and digestive processes. Gills and mantle tissue were markedly affected because these sites respond first to toxic dinoflagellates, leading to the idea that proteolytic cascades could be involved.

  12. Determination of trace elements in scallop and fish otolith by instrumental neutron activation analysis using anti-coincidence and coincidence counting methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shogo; Okada, Yukiko; Hirai, Shoji

    2005-01-01

    Trace element concentrations in scallop reference material and fish otolith certified reference materials prepared at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Nine aliquots of scallop sample (ca. 252∼507 mg) and five aliquots of fish otolith sample (ca. 502 ∼ 988 mg) and comparative standards were irradiated for a short time (10 s) at a thermal neutron flux of 1.5 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 (pneumatic transfer) and for a long time (6 h) at a thermal neutron flux of 3.7 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 (central thimble) in the Rikkyo University Research Reactor (100 kW). The irradiated samples were measured by conventional γ-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector, and by anti-coincidence and coincidence γ-ray spectrometry with a coaxial Ge detector and a well-type NaI (Tl) detector to determine as many trace elements as possible with high sensitivity. The concentrations of 34 elements of the NIES No.15 scallop reference material and 16 elements of the NIES No.22 fish otolith CRM were determined. Using the coincidence counting method to determine Se, Ba and Hf, the lower limit of the determination was improved by 2 times compared with the conventional counting method. (author)

  13. Application of SSH and quantitative real time PCR to construction of gene expression profiles from scallop Chlamys farreri in response to exposure to tetrabromobisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaoli; Pan, Luqing; Miao, Jingjing; Liu, Na

    2012-11-01

    TBBPA-induced genes were identified using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) from Chlamys farreri. A total of 203 and 44 clones from SSH forward and reverse library were respectively obtained including cellular process, immune system process, response to stimulus, metabolic process and signaling etc. Differential gene expressions were compared between scallops from control and TBBPA treatment groups (400 μg/L, 15 days) using quantitative real time RT-PCR. For further research, eight significant genes expression from scallops exposed to TBBPA (0; 100; 200; 400 μg/L) sampling at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 15 days, were utilized for Q-RT-PCR. The results revealed that the expression level of most selected cDNAs was dominantly up-regulated or down-regulated in the TBBPA-induced scallops. These findings provide basic genomic information of the bivalve and the selected genes may be the potential molecular biomarkers for TBBPA pollution in aquatic environment. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Wakasa Bay Weather Forecast Maps, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E Wakasa Bay Field Campaign was conducted over Wakasa Bay, Japan. The Wakasa Bay Field Campaign includes joint research observations, such as precipitation...

  15. Chitosan/nanohydroxyapatite composite based scallop shells as an efficient adsorbent for mercuric ions: Static and dynamic adsorption studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Asaad F; Hrdina, Radim

    2018-04-01

    Chitosan/nanohydroxyapatite composites based on scallop shells (CP12, CP14 and CP21) were prepared with different chitosan: nanohydroxyapatite ratios (1:2, 1:4 and 2:1, respectively). Nanohydroxyapatite (P), chitosan(C) and their composites were characterized by means of TGA, XRD, N 2 adsorption/desorption analysis, SEM, Zeta potential and FTIR. The BET surface area ranged between 189 and 512 m 2 /g. Static adsorption of Hg +2 was tested for the effect of adsorbent dosage, pH, time and initial Hg +2 concentrations indicating that maximum static adsorption capacity was confirmed by CP12 (111.6 mg/g). Static adsorption well fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm and Pseudo-second order kinetic models. CP12 was selected for dynamic adsorption of Hg +2 considering the effect of bed height, flow rate and the effect of Hg +2 concentrations. Maximum dynamic adsorption capacity was confirmed at bed height of 3 cm, 2.0 mL/min flow rate and 300 mg/L as Hg +2 concentration with breakthrough time (t b ) and exhaustion time (t e ) of 9 and 21 h. Yoon-Nelson and Thomas models best described the experimental Hg +2 breakthrough curve model. After static adsorption, EDTA solution confirmed the maximum desorption efficiency. The validity of CP12 was tested through three cycles of column dynamic adsorption-desorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Trace element distribution during the reproductive cycle of female and male spiny and Pacific scallops, with implications for biomonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norum, Ulrik [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)]. E-mail: ulrik@biology.sdu.dk; Lai, Vivian W.-M. [Environmental Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Cullen, William R. [Environmental Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    Trace element concentrations and contents in gills, gonad, kidneys, mantle, muscle and remainder during the reproductive cycle of female and male spiny and Pacific scallops, from the Strait of Georgia, BC, Canada, were quantified by using ICPMS. The elements investigated were chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, tin and mercury. For all ten elements, the tissue distribution was to some extent influenced by species, sex and reproductive status. The implications of the present study in relation to the design of biomonitoring programmes are: (1) care should be taken to ensure an equal/constant sex composition when making interannual comparisons of pooled samples. Preferably the sexes should be monitored separately. (2) the practice of obtaining pooled samples in the interspawn phase is applicable only to monitoring long-term trends in contaminant levels, while the reproductive status should be heeded when studying short-term changes. (3) the present study confirms that direct temporal or spatial comparisons of absolute accumulated element concentrations are only valid intraspecifically.

  17. Effects of different combinations of cryoprotectants on spermatozoon vitality of Chinese scallop, Chlamys farreri, during low temperature equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qin-Zhao; Xiang, Jian-Hai

    1995-12-01

    The effects of membrane penetrating anti—freezing agents (MPAAs), DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide), glycerol, EG (ethylene glycol) and methanol in combination with different cryoprotective additives such as carbohydrates, macromoleules and inorganic compounds on the spermatozoon vitality of Chinese scallop, Chlamys farreri, during 1 h 0 °C equilibrium were investigated. When only MPAAs existed, the detrimental effects of different MPAAs ranked in the following order: DMSOspermatozoon vitality than 2.4% lactose. 5% glucose or 2.4% lactose in 7.5% glycerol caused complete damage. 10% yolk was best in maintaining the spermatozoon vitality except when used in combination with 10% methanol. 10% milk significantly decreased spermatozoon vitality in EG and methanol and enhanced its vitality in glycerol, but did not significantly influence it in DMSO. Glycine MPAAs ranked in the following order. 10% yolk <10% yolk +2.4% lactose <2.4% lactose <2.0% citrate <10% milk <10% milk +2.0% citrate <5% glucose <80mmol/L glycine +55 mmol/L NaHCO3.

  18. Identification and expression analysis of cDNA encoding chitinase-like protein (CLP) gene in Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, L; Xu, G J; Su, H; Gao, X G; Li, Y F; Bao, X B; Liu, W D; He, C B

    2014-12-18

    Chitinase-like proteins (CLP) are important members of the glycoside hydrolase family 18 (GH18) and are involved in growth control and remodeling processes. In this study, a CLP transcript was isolated and sequenced from the Japanese scallop (Mizuhopecten yessoensis) after screening expressed sequence tags. The full-length complementary DNA of M. yessoensis CLP (My-Clp1) was 1555 bp in length, consisting of a 75-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 160-bp 3'-UTR, and a 1320-bp open reading frame bearing characteristics of the GH18 family. The My-Clp1 protein was well conserved, with similar domain structures and architecture across species (e.g., from mollusks to mammals). Expression analysis in healthy tissues and across developmental stages revealed a strong preference for expression; My-Clp1 was abundantly expressed in the mantle and throughout metamorphosis, which suggests the involvement of My-Clp1 in the synthesis of extracellular components, and tissue degeneration and remodeling. My-Clp1 expression was induced after infection with a bacterial pathogen, Vibrio anguillarum, suggesting its involvement in immunity against this intracellular pathogen.

  19. High-power free-electron laser amplifier using a scalloped electron beam and a two-stage wiggler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Nguyen

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available High-power free-electron laser (FEL amplifiers present many practical design and construction problems. One such problem is possible damage to any optical beam control elements beyond the wiggler. The ability to increase the optical beam’s divergence angle after the wiggler, thereby reducing the intensity on the first optical element, is important to minimize such damage. One proposal to accomplish this optical beam spreading is to pinch the electron beam thereby focusing the radiation as well. In this paper, we analyze an approach that relies on the natural betatron motion to pinch the electron beam near the end of the wiggler. We also consider a step-tapered, two-stage wiggler to enhance the efficiency. The combination of a pinched electron beam and step-taper wiggler leads to additional optical guiding of the optical beam. This novel configuration is studied in simulation using the MEDUSA code. For a representative set of beam and wiggler parameters, we discuss (i the effect of the scalloped beam on the interaction in the FEL and on the focusing and propagation of the radiation, and (ii the efficiency enhancement in the two-stage wiggler.

  20. The TEAD/TEF family protein Scalloped mediates transcriptional output of the Hippo growth-regulatory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shian; Liu, Yi; Zheng, Yonggang; Dong, Jixin; Pan, Duojia

    2008-03-01

    The Hippo (Hpo) kinase cascade restricts tissue growth by inactivating the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie (Yki), which regulates the expression of target genes such as the cell death inhibitor diap1 by unknown mechanisms. Here we identify the TEAD/TEF family protein Scalloped (Sd) as a DNA-binding transcription factor that partners with Yki to mediate the transcriptional output of the Hpo growth-regulatory pathway. The diap1 (th) locus harbors a minimal Sd-binding Hpo Responsive Element (HRE) that mediates transcriptional regulation by the Hpo pathway. Sd binds directly to Yki, and a Yki missense mutation that abrogates Sd-Yki binding also inactivates Yki function in vivo. We further demonstrate that sd is required for yki-induced tissue overgrowth and target gene expression, and that sd activity is conserved in its mammalian homolog. Our results uncover a heretofore missing link in the Hpo signaling pathway and provide a glimpse of the molecular events on a Hpo-responsive enhancer element.

  1. Comparative analysis of the reproductive strategy of lion's paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus in Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A Angel-Dapa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive strategy of lion's paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus was evaluated in a culturing system in Bahía Tortugas, Baja California Sur, Mexico during an annual cycle, comparing its response with data previously reported at other localities. High frequencies of ripe gonads throughout the year indicate that reproduction was continuous, with two main ripening/spawning events: July-September and December-March. A continuous breeding is also reported for the species in Bahía Magdalena, Bahía Juncalito, and Bahía de Los Angeles. These eutrophic areas are Biological Active Centers where gametogenesis appears to be regulated by the energy taken from recently ingested food following an opportunistic strategy. However, the digestive gland index decreased and the muscle indices increased during one of the breeding peaks, suggesting that some stored reserves are also used to sustain gametogenesis (conservative strategy partially. High incidences of atretic oocytes are likely associated with atypical daily variations in water temperature from May through September (12 to 33°C, or with stressful conditions in the culturing system in summer. Despite this, the culturing system set in Bahía Tortugas appears beneficial for a continuous reproduction of N. subnodosus.

  2. 77 FR 35860 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... Island Bay, Erie, PA. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Presque... rulemaking entitled Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA in the Federal Register (77 FR 18739...

  3. Chesapeake Bay: Introduction to an Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the contiguous United States. The Bay and its tidal tributaries make up the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. This document, which focuses of various aspects of this ecosystem, is divided into four major parts. The first part traces the geologic history of the Bay, describes the overall physical structure of…

  4. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the nation's estuaries have been environmentally stressed since the turn of the 20th century and will continue to be impacted in the future. Tampa Bay, one the Gulf of Mexico's largest estuaries, exemplifies the threats that our estuaries face (EPA Report 2001, Tampa Bay Estuary Program-Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (TBEP-CCMP)). More than 2 million people live in the Tampa Bay watershed, and the population constitutes to grow. Demand for freshwater resources, conversion of undeveloped areas to resident and industrial uses, increases in storm-water runoff, and increased air pollution from urban and industrial sources are some of the known human activities that impact Tampa Bay. Beginning on 2001, additional anthropogenic modifications began in Tampa Bat including construction of an underwater gas pipeline and a desalinization plant, expansion of existing ports, and increased freshwater withdrawal from three major tributaries to the bay. In January of 2001, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) and its partners identifies a critical need for participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in providing multidisciplinary expertise and a regional-scale, integrated science approach to address complex scientific research issue and critical scientific information gaps that are necessary for continued restoration and preservation of Tampa Bay. Tampa Bay stakeholders identified several critical science gaps for which USGS expertise was needed (Yates et al. 2001). These critical science gaps fall under four topical categories (or system components): 1) water and sediment quality, 2) hydrodynamics, 3) geology and geomorphology, and 4) ecosystem structure and function. Scientists and resource managers participating in Tampa Bay studies recognize that it is no longer sufficient to simply examine each of these estuarine system components individually, Rather, the interrelation among system components must be understood to develop conceptual and

  5. Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Expression of a Catalase Gene in the Japanese Scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis Induced in the Presence of Cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jialong; Ishizaki, Shoichiro; Nagashima, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is known to influence the oxidative status of marine organisms and can induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Catalase (CAT) is one of the important enzymes involved in scavenging high levels of ROS. In present study, we cloned CAT cDNA and investigated the response of this enzyme at the transcriptional level in the Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis exposed to Cd. The full-length CAT cDNA (MyCAT) of 1,870 nucleotides including a 57 bp 5'-UTR, a coding sequence of 1,500 bp and a 313 bp 3'-UTR were identified from the scallop. The deduced amino acid sequence of MyCAT corresponds to 499 amino acids with predicted molecular weight of 56.48 kDa and contains highly conserved motifs of the proximal heme-binding site RLFSYSTH, proximal active signature FNRERIPERVVHAKGGG and three catalytic amino acid residues His72, Asn145, and Tyr355. Its significant homology to CATs from multiple alignments revealed that MyCAT had a high identity with CATs from other mollusks. CAT mRNA expression analysis revealed that expression level was highest in the digestive gland ( p < 0.01) but weak in muscle. Following exposure to 200 and 400 µg/l of Cd, a high amount of Cd was found to have accumulated in the digestive gland and CAT mRNA expression had significantly increased in this organ among 7-day exposed scallops ( p < 0.001). The result demonstrated that antioxidant enzymes such as CAT play important roles in counteracting Cd stress in M. yessoensis.

  6. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quililongo C. J., Rıos-Ramırez M. A., Velásquez-Cumplido L., Morales-Mun˜oz B. and Escobar-Fica J. A. 2012 Development and characterization of ten polymorphic microsatellites isolated from the scallop Argopecten purpuratus. J. Genet.

  7. FL BAY SPECTROUT-DIET

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  8. Missisquoi Bay Phosphorus Model Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical memorandum provides results of an extended load reduction simulation. The memorandum serves as an addendum to the main Missisquoi Bay Phosphorus Mass Balance Model report prepared for the Lake Champlain Basin Program by LimnoTech in 2012

  9. Lavaca Bay 1985-1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples were collected from October 15, 1985 through June 12, 1987 in emergent marsh and non-vegetated habitats throughout the Lavaca Bay system to characterize...

  10. Global phylogeography with mixed-marker analysis reveals male-mediated dispersal in the endangered scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby S Daly-Engel

    Full Text Available The scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini, is a large endangered predator with a circumglobal distribution, observed in the open ocean but linked ontogenetically to coastal embayments for parturition and juvenile development. A previous survey of maternal (mtDNA markers demonstrated strong genetic partitioning overall (global Φ(ST = 0.749 and significant population separations across oceans and between discontinuous continental coastlines.We surveyed the same global range with increased sample coverage (N = 403 and 13 microsatellite loci to assess the male contribution to dispersal and population structure. Biparentally inherited microsatellites reveal low or absent genetic structure across ocean basins and global genetic differentiation (F(ST = 0.035 over an order of magnitude lower than the corresponding measures for maternal mtDNA lineages (Φ(ST = 0.749. Nuclear allelic richness and heterozygosity are high throughout the Indo-Pacific, while genetic structure is low. In contrast, allelic diversity is low while population structure is higher for populations at the ends of the range in the West Atlantic and East Pacific.These data are consistent with the proposed Indo-Pacific center of origin for S. lewini, and indicate that females are philopatric or adhere to coastal habitats while males facilitate gene flow across oceanic expanses. This study includes the largest sampling effort and the most molecular loci ever used to survey the complete range of a large oceanic predator, and findings emphasize the importance of incorporating mixed-marker analysis into stock assessments of threatened and endangered shark species.

  11. Genome-wide identification and characterization of TRAF genes in the Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) and their distinct expression patterns in response to bacterial challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Ruijia; Wang, Shuyue; Zhang, Mengran; Ma, Xiaoli; Liu, Pingping; Zhang, Meiwei; Hu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin

    2015-11-01

    The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor associated factors (TRAFs) are the major signal transducers for the TNF receptor superfamily and the interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1R/TLR) superfamily, which regulate a variety of cellular activities and innate immune responses. TRAF genes have been extensively studied in various species, including vertebrates and invertebrates. However, as one of the key component of NF-κB pathway, TRAF genes have not been systematically characterized in marine invertebrates. In this study, we identified and characterized five TRAF genes, PyTRAF2, PyTRAF3, PyTRAF4, PyTRAF6 and PyTRAF7, in the Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis). Phylogenetic and protein structural analyses were conducted to determine their identities and evolutionary relationships. In comparison with the TRAF genes from vertebrate species, the structural features were all relatively conserved in the PyTRAF genes. To gain insights into the roles of TRAF genes during scallop innate immune responses, quantitative real-time PCR was used to investigate the expression profiles in the different stages of scallop development, in the healthy adult tissues, and in the hemocytes after bacterial infection with Micrococcus luteus and Vibrio anguillarum. Based on the qRT-PCR analysis, the expression of most of the PyTRAFs was significantly induced in the acute phases (3-6 h) after infection with Gram-positive (M. luteus) and Gram-negative (V. anguillarum) bacteria, and many more dramatic changes in PyTRAFs expression were observed after V. anguillarum challenge. Notably, the strong response in the up-regulation of PyTRAF6 post-bacterial challenge was distinct from that previously reported in scallops and crabs but was similar to that of other shellfish, Echinodermata and even teleost fish. The high level expressions of PyTRAFs in the hemocytes and the gill, and their specific expression patterns after challenges provide insights into the versatile roles and responses

  12. Radiocesium in marine fish, shrimps and scallops in coastal waters in Northern Norway and in the Barents Sea, measured over a period of two years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solberg, T.; Hellstroem, T.; Eikelmann, I.M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with a national programme for assessing the radioactivity in marine species important for human consumption. The programme that started in 1993 and will continue for several years, focuses on the marine area of Norway north of the Arctic Circle. Using NaI detectors, measurements of 59 samples from fish, shrimps and scallops have recently been made. In all samples the radioactivity was below the detection limit (29 Bq/kg wet weight). Compared to the intervention levels for foodstuff, this level is negligible. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. A multi-biomarker approach in scallop Chlamys farreri to assess the impact of contaminants in Qingdao coastal area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruiming; Pan, Luqing; Ji, Rongwang

    2017-08-01

    A multi-biomarker approach was carried out to classify the environmental quality and the adverse effects of contaminants on scallop Chlamys farreri. The scallops were collected from three sampling stations in Qingdao coastal area of China in March, May, August and October of 2015. A suite of environmental factors and biomarkers, including temperature, salinity, pH, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and metals (Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, As) in seawater and soft tissue, mRNA expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), uridine-diphosphate-glucuronyl-transferase (UGT), sulfotransferase (SULT), metallothionein (MT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyl (PC) contents and DNA strand breaks, were measured in the gill and digestive gland. The results showed that S2 was the most polluted while S1 was identified the least polluted. Despite the differentiation of pollution levels and environmental parameters the selected biomarkers responded efficiently to contaminants. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that EROD for PAHs, AhR for TBBPA, MT for Cr, Pb and Mn, LPO and PC for Zn were the effective biomarkers respectively. This study demonstrated that the application of multi-biomarker approach in conjunction with the traditional analysis of environmental parameters and contaminants provided valuable information in environmental risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Yield potential and fruit quality of scallop squash (Cucurbita pepo L. var. patissonina Greb. f. radiata Nois. cultivars grown for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Kołota

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Scallop squash fruits may be harvested at different stages of development. Small size fruits, intended both for the fresh market and the food industry, have the highest biological value. This study was conducted to determine the yield potential of scallop squash cultivars (‘Polo F1’, ‘Disco’, ‘Gagat’, ‘Okra’, ‘Sunny Delight F1’ grown on mulched (black polyethylene foil or black agrotextile or unmulched soil, and harvested when fruits reached a diameter of 3–6 cm. Based on 3-year average data, the highest marketable and early yield was produced by ‘Sunny Delight F1’. This cultivar is also appreciated by consumers for its yellow colored skin of fruits. Another advantage of this cultivar was its high nutritional value expressed by the highest content of dry matter, vitamin C, polyphenols and minerals (K, P, Ca, Mg, with limited tendency to nitrate accumulation. Among the other cultivars tested, ‘Okra’ showed high yield potential, ‘Gagat’ was a rich source of carotenoids, and ‘Disco’ – polyphenols. Black polyethylene foil and black agrotextile appeared to be equally effective mulching materials. The benefit from the application of mulch was a significant increase in yield without any change in the chemical composition of the fruit.

  15. An investigation of endocrine disrupting effects and toxic mechanisms modulated by benzo[a]pyrene in female scallop Chlamys farreri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Shuangmei; Pan, Luqing, E-mail: panlq@ouc.edu.cn; Sun, Xiaohua

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •B[a]P disturbed progesterone, 17β-estradiol and testosterone production in scallop. •B[a]P inhibited 3β-HSD, CYP17 and 17β-HSD expression after a 10-day exposure. •B[a]P of lower dose elevated AHR-CYP1A expression but high dose B[a]P inhibited them. •ER and vitellogenin transcription was consistent with AHR after B[a]P exposure. •B[a]P exposure induced relatively developmental delay and impairment of ovary. -- Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and explore the underlying mechanisms in mollusks. In this study, sexually mature female Chlamys farreri were exposed to benzo[a]pyrene for 10 days at four different concentrations as 0, 0.025, 0.5 and 10 μg/L. Sex steroids were identified and quantified by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) method and results showed that exposure to B[a]P exerts great suppression on 17β-estradiol, testosterone production and disrupts progesterone levels in ovary. Transcription of genes were detected and measured by real-time RT-PCR. It showed that at day 10 B[a]P inhibited 3β-HSD, CYP17 and 17β-HSD mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that they could be potential targets of B[a]P that disrupt steroidogenic machinery. Moreover, 0.025 μg/L B[a]P activated transcription of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), CYP1A1 and estrogen receptor (ER), while 10 μg/L B[a]P suppressed all of them. The consistency of their responses to B[a]P exposure implies that AHR action may be involved in invertebrate CYP regulation and ER transcription despite of unknown mechanisms. Additionally, B[a]P exposure could induce ovarian impairment and developmental delay in C. farreri. Overall, sensitivity of C. farreri to endocrine disruption and toxicity suggests that C. farreri is a suitable species for study of endocrine-disrupting effects in marine invertebrates. This study will form a

  16. An investigation of endocrine disrupting effects and toxic mechanisms modulated by benzo[a]pyrene in female scallop Chlamys farreri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Shuangmei; Pan, Luqing; Sun, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •B[a]P disturbed progesterone, 17β-estradiol and testosterone production in scallop. •B[a]P inhibited 3β-HSD, CYP17 and 17β-HSD expression after a 10-day exposure. •B[a]P of lower dose elevated AHR-CYP1A expression but high dose B[a]P inhibited them. •ER and vitellogenin transcription was consistent with AHR after B[a]P exposure. •B[a]P exposure induced relatively developmental delay and impairment of ovary. -- Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and explore the underlying mechanisms in mollusks. In this study, sexually mature female Chlamys farreri were exposed to benzo[a]pyrene for 10 days at four different concentrations as 0, 0.025, 0.5 and 10 μg/L. Sex steroids were identified and quantified by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) method and results showed that exposure to B[a]P exerts great suppression on 17β-estradiol, testosterone production and disrupts progesterone levels in ovary. Transcription of genes were detected and measured by real-time RT-PCR. It showed that at day 10 B[a]P inhibited 3β-HSD, CYP17 and 17β-HSD mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that they could be potential targets of B[a]P that disrupt steroidogenic machinery. Moreover, 0.025 μg/L B[a]P activated transcription of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), CYP1A1 and estrogen receptor (ER), while 10 μg/L B[a]P suppressed all of them. The consistency of their responses to B[a]P exposure implies that AHR action may be involved in invertebrate CYP regulation and ER transcription despite of unknown mechanisms. Additionally, B[a]P exposure could induce ovarian impairment and developmental delay in C. farreri. Overall, sensitivity of C. farreri to endocrine disruption and toxicity suggests that C. farreri is a suitable species for study of endocrine-disrupting effects in marine invertebrates. This study will form a

  17. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  18. Funding Opportunities in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides links to financial assistance opportunities to help the Chesapeake Bay jurisdictions (Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia) restore the Chesapeake Bay.

  19. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  20. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  1. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Ca{sup 2+}-bound C-terminal lobe of troponin C in complex with a troponin I-derived peptide fragment from Akazara scallop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, Fumiaki [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Department of Physiology II, The Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-19-18 Nishi-shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461 (Japan); Nagata, Koji; Miyauchi, Yumiko [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Ojima, Takao; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nishita, Kiyoyoshi [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, Hakodate, Hokkaido 041-8611 (Japan); Ohtsuki, Iwao [Department of Physiology II, The Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-19-18 Nishi-shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461 (Japan); Tanokura, Masaru, E-mail: amtanok@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan)

    2007-06-01

    Recombinant TnC was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, complexed with a 24-residue synthetic peptide derived from scallop troponin I (TnI) and crystallized. Troponin C (TnC) is the Ca{sup 2+}-binding component of troponin and triggers muscle contraction. TnC of the invertebrate Akazara scallop can bind only one Ca{sup 2+} at the C-terminal EF-hand motif. Recombinant TnC was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, complexed with a 24-residue synthetic peptide derived from scallop troponin I (TnI) and crystallized. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 1.80 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 32.1, b = 42.2, c = 60.0 Å. The asymmetric unit was assumed to contain one molecular complex of the Akazara scallop TnC C-lobe and TnI fragment, with a Matthews coefficient of 1.83 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 33.0%.

  3. 77 FR 18739 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... of Presque Island Bay, Erie, PA. This proposed safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a... will take place on Presque Isle Bay near Erie, PA. The Captain of the Port Buffalo has determined that...

  4. 75 FR 36292 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim III, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0529] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim III, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... read as follows: Sec. 165.T09-0529 Safety Zone; Bay Swim III, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA (a) Location...

  5. 77 FR 2972 - Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application for Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene Thunder Bay Power Company Project No. 2404-095 Thunder Bay Power, LLC Midwest Hydro, Inc...

  6. 77 FR 70891 - Safety Zone; Bay Bridge Construction, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Bridge Construction, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard... construction of the Bay Bridge, the safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of mariners transiting... zones (33 U.S.C. 1221 et seq.). CALTRANS will sponsor the Bay Bridge Construction Safety Zone on...

  7. 78 FR 27989 - Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos, Tillamook, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... comments regarding the separate Bandon Marsh NWR Land Protection Planning (LPP) process will be considered...] Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos, Tillamook, and Lincoln... Assessments (EAs) for three Oregon refuges--Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife...

  8. Bayes linear statistics, theory & methods

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian methods combine information available from data with any prior information available from expert knowledge. The Bayes linear approach follows this path, offering a quantitative structure for expressing beliefs, and systematic methods for adjusting these beliefs, given observational data. The methodology differs from the full Bayesian methodology in that it establishes simpler approaches to belief specification and analysis based around expectation judgements. Bayes Linear Statistics presents an authoritative account of this approach, explaining the foundations, theory, methodology, and practicalities of this important field. The text provides a thorough coverage of Bayes linear analysis, from the development of the basic language to the collection of algebraic results needed for efficient implementation, with detailed practical examples. The book covers:The importance of partial prior specifications for complex problems where it is difficult to supply a meaningful full prior probability specification...

  9. Contaminant transport in Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford

    Construction of a new treatment plant and outfall to clean up Boston Harbor is currently one of the world's largest public works projects, costing about $4 billion. There is concern about the long-term impact of contaminants on Massachusetts Bay and adjacent Gulf of Maine because these areas are used extensively for transportation, recreation, fishing, and tourism, as well as waste disposal. Public concern also focuses on Stellwagen Bank, located on the eastern side of Massachusetts Bay, which is an important habitat for endangered whales. Contaminants reach Massachusetts Bay not only from Boston Harbor, but from other coastal communities on the Gulf of Maine, as well as from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the pathways, mechanisms, and rates at which pollutants are transported throughout these coastal environments is needed to address a wide range of management questions.

  10. Automation in tube finishing bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Prateek; Satyadev, B.; Raghuraman, S.; Syama Sundara Rao, B.

    1997-01-01

    Automation concept in tube finishing bay, introduced after the final pass annealing of PHWR tubes resulted in integration of number of sub-systems in synchronisation with each other to produce final cut fuel tubes of specified length, tube finish etc. The tube finishing bay which was physically segregated into four distinct areas: 1. tube spreader and stacking area, 2. I.D. sand blasting area, 3. end conditioning, wad blowing, end capping and O.D. wet grinding area, 4. tube inspection, tube cutting and stacking area has been studied

  11. Estuarine Sediment Budgets for Chesapeake Bay Tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    2003. Estuarine sediment sources: A Summary Report of Sediment Processes in Chesapeake Bay and Watershed . Water-Resources Investigations Report 03...2007. Sources and transport of sediment in the watershed : Synthesis of US Geological Survey science for the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem and...originator. Estuarine Sediment Budgets for Chesapeake Bay Tributaries by Julie D. Herman PURPOSE. This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering

  12. East bay fire chiefs' consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Bradley

    1995-01-01

    The traditional approach to planning for public fire protection has been based on independent actions by each fire department or district. The county fire chiefs’ associations, while providing interagency communication, were not adequate to deal with the regional nature of the wildland urban interface problem. The formation of the East Bay Fire Chiefs’ Consortium grew...

  13. Backscatter imagery in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1x1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The backscatter values are in relative 8-bit (0 –...

  14. Classification using Hierarchical Naive Bayes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Dyhre Nielsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Classification problems have a long history in the machine learning literature. One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing set of classifiers is the Naïve Bayes models. However, an inherent problem with these classifiers is the assumption that all attributes used to describe......, termed Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models. Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models extend the modeling flexibility of Naïve Bayes models by introducing latent variables to relax some of the independence statements in these models. We propose a simple algorithm for learning Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models...

  15. Asociación del color de la concha de reproductores de Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 con la supervivencia, crecimiento y desarrollo larval de sus progenies Association between shell color of breeds (Lamarck, 1819 and the survival, growth and larval development of their progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo M García

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Las conchas de moluscos bivalvos marinos son extremadamente diversas en sus patrones de pigmentación y riqueza de colores. Tal diversidad se debe a factores ambientales y genéticos. En bivalvos marinos adultos, individuos con coloraciones de concha poco comunes en las poblaciones silvestres suelen presentar tasas de crecimiento y supervivencia menores que aquellos con colores de concha más frecuentes. Conociendo que la variación del color de la concha en Argopecten purpuratus está bajo control genético, en este trabajo se pone a prueba la hipótesis de que los loci responsables de dicha variación pueden afectar el crecimiento, la supervivencia y la tasa de desarrollo de las larvas de esta especie. Se estimó la supervivencia y el crecimiento en progenies de cruzamientos dirigidos entre individuos de A. purpuratus con colores de concha blanco, naranja y marrón, y se verificó la existencia de diferencias en las tasas de desarrollo. El crecimiento de las larvas producidas en cruzamientos que incluyeron individuos marrones o blancos con naranja no mostraron diferencias entre sí. En cambio, las progenies producto de autofecundaciones de individuos naranja y blancos presentaron tasas de crecimiento significativamente menores que las anteriores y distintas entre sí. Las tasas de desarrollo y de supervivencia, en cambio, no mostraron diferencias entre las progenies de los distintos tipos de cruzamientos. Los resultados sugieren que los genes que controlan la variación del color en las conchas de juveniles y adultos de A. purpuratus afectarían la tasa de crecimiento de sus larvas, pero no la tasa de desarrollo ni su supervivencia.Marine bivalve mollusks are extremely diverse in shell color and pigmentation patterns. Such diversity is affected by environmental and genetic factors. Some evidences in adult marine bivalves shows that individuals with low-frequency shell colors have lower growth rates and/or higher mortalities than those with the

  16. The Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, David S.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Gohn, Gregory S.; Horton, J. Wright

    2015-10-28

    About 35 million years ago, during late Eocene time, a 2-mile-wide asteroid or comet smashed into Earth in what is now the lower Chesapeake Bay in Virginia. The oceanic impact vaporized, melted, fractured, and (or) displaced the target rocks and sediments and sent billions of tons of water, sediments, and rocks into the air. Glassy particles of solidified melt rock rained down as far away as Texas and the Caribbean. Models suggest that even up to 50 miles away the velocity of the intensely hot air blast was greater than 1,500 miles per hour, and ground shaking was equivalent to an earthquake greater than magnitude 8.0 on the Richter scale. Large tsunamis affected most of the North Atlantic basin. The Chesapeake Bay impact structure is among the 20 largest known impact structures on Earth.

  17. 76 FR 37641 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for the City of Half Moon Bay, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for the City of Half Moon Bay, Half Moon Bay... temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of Half Moon Bay, off of Pillar Point Harbor beach, Half Moon Bay, CA in support of the Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for the City of Half Moon Bay...

  18. Linear dimension reduction and Bayes classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decell, H. P., Jr.; Odell, P. L.; Coberly, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    An explicit expression for a compression matrix T of smallest possible left dimension K consistent with preserving the n variate normal Bayes assignment of X to a given one of a finite number of populations and the K variate Bayes assignment of TX to that population was developed. The Bayes population assignment of X and TX were shown to be equivalent for a compression matrix T explicitly calculated as a function of the means and covariances of the given populations.

  19. 78 FR 34575 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim VI, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim VI, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION..., Erie, PA. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Presque Isle bay during... lighthouse dock, Erie, PA. The Captain of the Port Buffalo has determined that this large scale swimming...

  20. 78 FR 45061 - Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski Show, Sister Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Sister Bay due to a fireworks display and ski show. This... with the fireworks display and ski show in Sister Bay on August 31, 2013. DATES: This rule is effective...

  1. 77 FR 44140 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Maple-Oregon Bridges so vehicular traffic congestion would not develop on downtown Sturgeon Bay streets... movement of vehicular traffic in Sturgeon Bay. The Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal is approximately 8.6 miles long... significant increase in vehicular and vessel traffic during the peak tourist and navigation season between...

  2. 78 FR 29289 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA... establish four temporary safety zones upon the navigable waters of San Diego ] Bay for the Port of San Diego... docket number using any one of the following methods: (1) Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www...

  3. Hierarchical mixtures of naive Bayes classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Naive Bayes classifiers tend to perform very well on a large number of problem domains, although their representation power is quite limited compared to more sophisticated machine learning algorithms. In this pa- per we study combining multiple naive Bayes classifiers by using the hierar- chical

  4. Traditional Fisheries of Antongil Bay, Madagascar | Doukakis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar's marine fisheries provide revenue and sustenance for the island nation. Antongil Bay, the largest shallow-water bay along Madagascar's eastern coast, harbors significant marine resources and is heavily utilized by traditional, artisanal (shark-fin) and industrial fisheries. Mean hourly catch rates are just under 1 ...

  5. Guangdong Daya Bay nuclear power station project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Wen Xing

    1994-01-01

    Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station is the largest joint-venture project which is also the largest commercial nuclear power plant currently under construction in China mainland. Organized and executed strictly in accordance with international standards, the Daya Bay project is seen as the first step taken by China in the development programme of large-capacity commercial nuclear power units

  6. Unique thermal record in False Bay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grundlingh, ML

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade False Bay has assumed a prime position in terms of research in to large South African bays. This is manifested by investigations that cover flow conditions modelling, thermal structure, management, biology and nutrients, geology...

  7. Scalloped a member of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway controls mushroom body size in Drosophila brain by non-canonical regulation of neuroblast proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohith, Basavanahalli Nanjundaiah; Shyamala, Baragur Venkatanarayanasetty

    2017-12-15

    Cell proliferation, growth and survival are three different basic processes which converge at determining a fundamental property -the size of an organism. Scalloped (Sd) is the first characterised transcriptional partner to Yorkie (Yki), the downstream effector of the Hippo pathway which is a highly potential and evolutionarily conserved regulator of organ size. Here we have studied the hypomorphic effect of sd on the development of Mushroom Bodies (MBs) in Drosophila brain. We show that, sd non-function results in an increase in the size of MBs. We demonstrate that, sd regulation on MB size operates through multiple routes. Sd expressed in the differentiated MB neurons, imposes non-cell autonomous repression on the proliferation of MB precursor cells, and Sd expression in the MB neuroblasts (NB) cell autonomously represses mushroom body neuroblast (MBNB) proliferation. Further Sd in Kenyon cells (KCs) imparts a cell autonomous restriction on their growth. Our findings are distinctive because, while the classical sd loss of function phenotypes in eye, wing and lymph gland are reported as loss of tissue or reduced organ size, the present study shows that, Sd inactivation in the developing MB, promotes precursor cell proliferation and results in an increase in the organ size. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a monoclonal antibody specific to granulocytes and its application for variation of granulocytes in scallop Chlamys farreri after acute viral necrobiotic virus (AVNV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; Xing, Jing; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Tang, Xiaoqian; Zhan, Wenbin

    2011-06-01

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb 6H7) specific to granulocytes of scallop Chlamys farreri was produced by immunising mice with separated granulocytes as an antigen. Characterised using a flow cytometric immunofluorescence assay, MAb 6H7 reacted to granulocytes by 87.1% of total positive haemocytes. At the ultrastructural level, MAb 6H7 demonstrated epitope in cytoplasmic granules of granulocytes. Western blotting analysis indicated that a peptide of 155 kDa was recognised by MAb 6H7. It was therefore used to investigate granulocyte variation in C. farreri after acute viral necrobiotic virus (AVNV) infection using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The result illustrated that granulocytes varied greatly by AVNV infection, and their amount significantly increased on day 1 post-injection, then decreased on days 2, 3 and 4, thereafter, rebounded and approached to a second peak on day 6, finally went down gradually to the control level on day 8. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Specific pathways for the incorporation of dissolved barium and molybdenum into the bivalve shell: an isotopic tracer approach in the juvenile Great Scallop (Pecten maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabouret, Hélène; Pomerleau, Sébastien; Jolivet, Aurélie; Pécheyran, Christophe; Riso, Ricardo; Thébault, Julien; Chauvaud, Laurent; Amouroux, David

    2012-07-01

    Dissolved barium and molybdenum incorporation in the calcite shell was investigated in the Great Scallop Pecten maximus. Sixty six individuals were exposed for 16 days to two successive dissolved Ba and Mo concentrations accurately differentiated by two different isotopic enrichments (⁹⁷Mo, ⁹⁵Mo; ¹³⁵Ba, ¹³⁷Ba). Soft tissue and shell isotopic composition were determined respectively by quantitative ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer) and laser ablation--ICP-MS. Results from Ba enrichment indicate the direct incorporation of dissolved Ba into the shell in proportion to the levels in the water in which they grew with a 6-8 day delay. The low spike contributions and the low partition coefficient (D(Mo) = 0.0049 ± 0.0013), show that neither the soft tissue nor the shell were significantly sensitive to Mo enrichment. These results eliminate direct Mo shell enrichment by the dissolved phase, and favour a trophic uptake that will be investigated using the successive isotopic enrichment approach developed in this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of forest area data in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonya W. Lister; Andrew J. Lister

    2012-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States, has been designated by executive order as a national treasure. There is much interest in monitoring the status and trends in forest area within the bay, especially since maintaining forest cover is key to bay restoration efforts. The Chesapeake Bay Land Cover Data Series (CBLCD), a Landsat-based, multi-...

  11. THz identification and Bayes modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolnikov, Andre

    2017-05-01

    THz Identification is a developing technology. Sensing in the THz range potentially gives opportunity for short range radar sensing because THz waves can better penetrate through obscured atmosphere, such as fog, than visible light. The lower scattering of THz as opposed to the visible light results also in significantly better imaging than in IR spectrum. A much higher contrast can be achieved in medical trans-illumination applications than with X-rays or visible light. The same THz radiation qualities produce better tomographical images from hard surfaces, e.g. ceramics. This effect comes from the delay in time of reflected THz pulses detection. For special or commercial applications alike, the industrial quality control of defects is facilitated with a lower cost. The effectiveness of THz wave measurements is increased with computational methods. One of them is Bayes modeling. Examples of this kind of mathematical modeling are considered.

  12. The Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Michael John; O'Neill, Clare K.; Palmer, Matthew R.

    2010-05-01

    A pre-operational Coastal Observatory has been functioning since August 2002 in Liverpool Bay, Irish Sea. Its rationale is to develop the science underpinning the ecosystem based approach to marine management, including distinguishing between natural and man-made variability, with particular emphasis on eutrophication and predicting responses of a coastal sea to climate change. Liverpool Bay has strong tidal mixing, receives fresh water principally from the Dee, Mersey and Ribble estuaries, each with different catchment influences, and has enhanced levels of nutrients. Horizontal and vertical density gradients are variable both in space and time. The challenge is to understand and model accurately this variable region which is turbulent, turbid, receives enhanced nutrients and is productive. The Observatory has three components, for each of which the goal is some (near) real-time operation - measurements; coupled 3-D hydrodynamic, wave and ecological models; a data management and web-based data delivery system which provides free access to the data, http://cobs.pol.ac.uk. The integrated measurements are designed to test numerical models and have as a major objective obtaining multi-year records, covering tidal, event (storm / calm / bloom), seasonal and interannual time scales. The four main strands on different complementary space or time scales are:- a) fixed point time series (in situ and shore-based); very good temporal and very poor spatial resolution. These include tide gauges; a meteorological station on Hilbre Island at the mouth of the Dee; two in situ sites, one by the Mersey Bar, measuring waves and the vertical structure of current, temperature and salinity. A CEFAS SmartBuoy whose measurements include surface nutrients is deployed at the Mersey Bar site. b) regular (nine times per year) spatial water column surveys on a 9 km grid; good vertical resolution for some variables, limited spatial coverage and resolution, and limited temporal resolution. The

  13. A pollution history of Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, E.D.; Hodge, V.; Koide, M.; Griffin, J.; Gamble, E.; Bricker, O.P.; Matisoff, G.; Holdren, G.R.; Braun, R.

    1978-01-01

    Present day anthropogenic fluxes of some heavy metals to central Chesapeake Bay appear to be intermediate to those of the southern California coastal region and those of Narragansett Bay. The natural fluxes, however, are in general higher. On the bases of Pb-210 and Pu-239 + 240 geochronologies and of the time changes in interstitial water compositions, there is a mixing of the upper 30 or so centimeters of the sediments in the mid-Chesapeake Bay area through bioturbation by burrowing mollusks and polychaetes. Coal, coke and charcoal levels reach one percent or more by dry weight in the deposits, primarily as a consequence of coal mining operations. ?? 1978.

  14. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  15. 78 FR 62293 - Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    ... Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast... zone on the navigable waters of Oyster Bay near Oyster Bay, NY for the Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary... Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display is scheduled for October 19, 2013 and is one of...

  16. Description of gravity cores from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Donald L.; John L. Chin,; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-06-27

    Seventy-two gravity cores were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1990, 1991, and 2000 from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, California. The gravity cores collected within San Pablo Bay contain bioturbated laminated silts and sandy clays, whole and broken bivalve shells (mostly mussels), fossil tube structures, and fine-grained plant or wood fragments. Gravity cores from the channel wall of Carquinez Strait east of San Pablo Bay consist of sand and clay layers, whole and broken bivalve shells (less than in San Pablo Bay), trace fossil tubes, and minute fragments of plant material.

  17. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  18. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  19. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  20. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  1. Underwater Grass Comeback Helps Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fortified Susquehanna Flats, the largest bed of underwater grasses in the Chesapeake Bay, seems able to withstand a major weather punch. Its resilience is contributing to an overall increase in the Bay’s submerged aquatic vegetation.

  2. San Antonio Bay 1986-1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The effect of salinity on utilization of shallow-water nursery habitats by aquatic fauna was assessed in San Antonio Bay, Texas. Overall, 272 samples were collected...

  3. BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL ALIENS IN WILLAPA BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected at random stations in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Z...

  4. Biscayne Bay Florida Bottlenose Dolphin Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of small vessel based studies of bottlenose dolphins that reside within Biscayne Bay, Florida, adjacent estuaries and nearshore...

  5. FL BAY SPECTROUT-POPULATION STATUS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  6. Chesapeake Bay Watershed Implementation Plans (WIPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides an overview of Watershed Implementation Plans (WIP) and how they play an important role in restoring the Chesapeake Bay. The page also provides links to each jurisdiction's Phase I, II, and III WIP.

  7. Searching for ?13 at Daya Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giedt, Joel; Napolitano, James

    2015-01-01

    An experiment has been carried out by the Daya Bay Collaboration to measure the neutrino mixing angle θ 13 . In addition, the grant has supported research into lattice field theory beyond the standard model.

  8. Corpus ChristiEast Matagorda Bay 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Patterns of habitat utilization were compared among transplanted and natural Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Halls Lake area of Chocolate Bay in the Galveston...

  9. Mesozoic anomalies in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Nair, R.R.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramprasad, T.; Krishna, K.S.; Subrahmanyam, V.; D'Cruz, M.; Subrahmanyam, C.; Paul, J.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Sekhar, D.V.C.

    The analysis of 8200 line km of total magnetic intensity data in the Bay of Bengal, northeastern Indian Ocean, revealed the presence of approximately N30~'E-trending seafloor spreading type magnetic anomalies. These anomalies resemble the Mesozoic...

  10. San Francisco Bay Interferometric Bathymetry: Area B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High resolution sonar data were collected over ultra-shallow areas of the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  11. Chesapeake Bay Low Freshwater Inflow Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    canvasback, redhead , lows: Bay for long periods, but eventually mi- ringneck, and scaup, winter through- grate to their ocean spawning grounds out Chesapeake...Basin -’ The economic and demographic pro- jections prepared by the Department of Figure II-1 1 Economic A reas - ChesapeakeBayDrainageBasin Commerce...for many of the waterfowl that cannot be replaced by high salinity SAV. The Biota Evaluation Panel has . estimated that redhead ducks would . decline

  12. Deriving Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Peter J.; Batiuk, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining the water quality conditions necessary to protect the aquatic living resources of the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries has required a foundation of quantifiable water quality criteria. Quantitative criteria serve as a critical basis for assessing the attainment of designated uses and measuring progress toward meeting water quality goals of the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership. In 1987, the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership committed to defining the water quality conditions necessary to protect aquatic living resources. Under section 303(c) of the Clean Water Act, States and authorized tribes have the primary responsibility for adopting water quality standards into law or regulation. The Chesapeake Bay Program partnership worked with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop and publish a guidance framework of ambient water quality criteria with designated uses and assessment procedures for dissolved oxygen, water clarity, and chlorophyll a for Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries in 2003. This article reviews the derivation of the water quality criteria, criteria assessment protocols, designated use boundaries, and their refinements published in six addendum documents since 2003 and successfully adopted into each jurisdiction's water quality standards used in developing the Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load.

  13. Gradient Analysis and Classification of Carolina Bay Vegetation: A Framework for Bay Wetlands Conservation and Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diane De Steven,Ph.D.; Maureen Tone,PhD.

    1997-10-01

    This report address four project objectives: (1) Gradient model of Carolina bay vegetation on the SRS--The authors use ordination analyses to identify environmental and landscape factors that are correlated with vegetation composition. Significant factors can provide a framework for site-based conservation of existing diversity, and they may also be useful site predictors for potential vegetation in bay restorations. (2) Regional analysis of Carolina bay vegetation diversity--They expand the ordination analyses to assess the degree to which SRS bays encompass the range of vegetation diversity found in the regional landscape of South Carolina's western Upper Coastal Plain. Such comparisons can indicate floristic status relative to regional potentials and identify missing species or community elements that might be re-introduced or restored. (3) Classification of vegetation communities in Upper Coastal Plain bays--They use cluster analysis to identify plant community-types at the regional scale, and explore how this classification may be functional with respect to significant environmental and landscape factors. An environmentally-based classification at the whole-bay level can provide a system of templates for managing bays as individual units and for restoring bays to desired plant communities. (4) Qualitative model for bay vegetation dynamics--They analyze present-day vegetation in relation to historic land uses and disturbances. The distinctive history of SRS bays provides the possibility of assessing pathways of post-disturbance succession. They attempt to develop a coarse-scale model of vegetation shifts in response to changing site factors; such qualitative models can provide a basis for suggesting management interventions that may be needed to maintain desired vegetation in protected or restored bays.

  14. Bay BC's: A Multidisciplinary Approach To Teaching about the Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Britt Eckhardt

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in North America, providing food and habitat for an abundance of fish and wildlife. This booklet provides lesson plans for lower elementary students introducing the Chesapeake, its inhabitants, and pollution problems, and suggesting ways that individuals can contribute to the Bay's restoration. Background…

  15. BOOK REVIEW OF "CHESAPEAKE BAY BLUES: SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND THE STRUGGLE TO SAVE THE BAY"

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a book review of "Chesapeake Bay Blues: Science, Politics, and the Struggle to Save the Bay". This book is very well written and provides an easily understandable description of the political challenges faced by those proposing new or more stringent environmental regulat...

  16. 76 FR 28309 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... vehicular traffic congestion would not develop on downtown Sturgeon Bay streets due to unscheduled bridge... schedules during the peak tourist and navigation seasons to provide for the efficient movement of vehicular... between Lake Michigan and Green Bay. The area experiences a significant increase in vehicular and vessel...

  17. 77 FR 21890 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Street and Maple-Oregon Bridges so vehicular traffic congestion would not develop on downtown Sturgeon... the efficient movement of vehicular traffic in Sturgeon Bay. The Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal is... experiences a significant increase in vehicular and vessel traffic during the peak tourist and navigation...

  18. Map showing thickness of young bay mud, southern San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sandra D.; Nichols, Donald R.; Wright, Nancy A.; Atwater, Brian

    1978-01-01

    Soft water-saturated estuarine deposits less than 10,000 years old underlie the southern part of San Francisco bay and the present and former marshlands that border the bay. Known locally as bay mud or as young bay mud, these deposits, and the estuarine environment that produces them, are of major importance in making decision on land use and development in the San Francisco Bay area. Knowledge of the distribution, thickness, and physical properties of young bay mud is critical to the feasibility, design, and maintenance of structures built on it. Fore this reason, numerous attempts have been made in the past to map or describe these characteristics (Mitchell, 1963; Goldman, 1969; McDonald and Nichols, 1974). The accompanying map of bay-mud thickness significantly revises part of an earlier compilation by Kahle and Goldman (1969) and includes new data from approximately 2400 boreholes, most of which have been drilled during the past 15 years. It also incorporates information on historic margins of San Francisco Bay and its tidal marshes (Nichols and Wright, 1971). Although this map was compelled mostly from data gathered during foundation investigations and construction projects, it is mostly from data gathered during foundation investigations and construction projects, it is not a substitute for such studies. Rather, the map provides regional information for land-use planning, seismic zonation, and design of foundation investigations.

  19. Habitat Restoration on Mobile Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B.

    2017-12-01

    Alabama has some of the most biodiversity found anywhere in our nation, however we are rapidly losing many of these species to habitat loss. Our marine science class realized our shoreline on our campus on Mobile Bay was disappearing and wanted to help. We collaborated with local scientists from Dauphin Island Sea Lab under the direction of Dr. Just Cebrian and our instructor, Dr. Megan McCall, to create a project to help restore the habitat. We had to first collect beach profile surveys and learn how to measure elevations. Next we installed plants that we measured and collected growth data. Our project went through a series of prototypes and corrective measures based on the type of wave energy we discovered on our shores. Finally we landed on a type of wave attenuator of crab traps filled with rock and staked into the sand. This coming year we will begin collecting data on any changes to the beach profile as well as fish counts to evaluate the effectiveness of our installation.

  20. Influenza in Bristol Bay, 1919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gilson deValpine

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The 1918 influenza pandemic has been blamed for as many as 50 million deaths worldwide. Like all major disasters, the full story of the pandemic includes smaller, less noted episodes that have not attracted historical attention. The story of the 1919 wave of the influenza pandemic in Bristol Bay Alaska is one such lost episode. It is an important story because the most accessible accounts—the Congressional Record and the Coast Guard Report—are inconsistent with reports made by employees, health care workers, and volunteers at the site of the disaster. Salmon fishing industry supervisors and medical officers recorded their efforts to save the region’s Native Alaskans in private company reports. The federal Bureau of Education physician retained wireless transmission, reports, and letters of events. The Coast Guard summarized its work in its Annual Report of 1920. The independent Bureau of Fisheries report to the Department of Commerce reveals the Coast Guard report at striking odds with others and reconciles only one account. This article explores the historical oversight, and attempts to tell the story of the 1919 wave of the pandemic which devastated the Native Alaskan population in this very remote place.

  1. Selected alternatives to conventional chlorination. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garey, J.F.

    1980-10-01

    This study was jointly funded by EPRI and five electric utility companies in New England (New England Power, Northeast Utilities, United Illuminating, Vermont Yankee Nuclear, and Public Service of New Hampshire). Previous investigations had identified three major areas for further study: continuous low-level chlorination, dechlorination, and condenser biofouling control. Continuous low-level chlorination, studied at two locations, one on open coastal water and the other in an industrialized estuarine area, showed that 0.1 ppM total residual oxidant (TRO) prevented attachment of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) to concrete surfaces. Chronic bioassays showed that 0.075 ppM TRO reduced biofouling by indigenous organisms; 0.1 ppM TRO slightly increased mortalities of the Atlantic silversides (Menidia menidia) but had no effect on the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Dechlorination investigations showed that threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), Atlantic silversides (Menidia menidia), larval bay scallops (Argopecten irradians), and the copepod Acartia tonsa exposed to water chlorinated to 0.5 ppM TRO for 10, 100, and 1000 seconds, followed by dechlorination with sodium thiosulfate, all suffered significant toxic effects. Condenser tube biofouling studies showed that there was a strong correlation between condenser performance and condenser tube biofouling; biofilm induction varied inversely with ambient water temperature, but orientation of the tubes had no effect on biofilm formation; and all chemicals tested (mono-, di-, and trisodium phosphate; Polident; and TRO at 0.1 ppM) reduced but did not remove biofilms.

  2. Benthic communities under anthropogenic pressure show resilience across the Quaternary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Julieta C; Soto, Luis P; González, Jorge; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M

    2017-09-01

    The Southeast Pacific is characterized by rich upwelling systems that have sustained and been impacted by human groups for at least 12 ka. Recent fishing and aquaculture practices have put a strain on productive coastal ecosystems from Tongoy Bay, in north-central Chile. We use a temporal baseline to determine whether potential changes to community structure and composition over time are due to anthropogenic factors, natural climatic variations or both. We compiled a database ( n  = 33 194) with mollusc species abundances from the Mid-Pleistocene, Late Pleistocene, Holocene, dead shell assemblages and live-sampled communities. Species richness was not significantly different, neither were diversity and evenness indices nor rank abundance distributions. There is, however, an increase in relative abundance for the cultured scallop Argopecten , while the previously dominant clam Mulinia is locally very rare. Results suggest that impacts from both natural and anthropogenic stressors need to be better understood if benthic resources are to be preserved. These findings provide the first Pleistocene temporal baseline for the south Pacific that shows that this highly productive system has had the ability to recover from past alterations, suggesting that if monitoring and management practices continue to be implemented, moderately exploited communities from today have hopes for recovery.

  3. Benthic communities under anthropogenic pressure show resilience across the Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Julieta C.; Soto, Luis P.; González, Jorge; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M.

    2017-09-01

    The Southeast Pacific is characterized by rich upwelling systems that have sustained and been impacted by human groups for at least 12 ka. Recent fishing and aquaculture practices have put a strain on productive coastal ecosystems from Tongoy Bay, in north-central Chile. We use a temporal baseline to determine whether potential changes to community structure and composition over time are due to anthropogenic factors, natural climatic variations or both. We compiled a database (n = 33 194) with mollusc species abundances from the Mid-Pleistocene, Late Pleistocene, Holocene, dead shell assemblages and live-sampled communities. Species richness was not significantly different, neither were diversity and evenness indices nor rank abundance distributions. There is, however, an increase in relative abundance for the cultured scallop Argopecten, while the previously dominant clam Mulinia is locally very rare. Results suggest that impacts from both natural and anthropogenic stressors need to be better understood if benthic resources are to be preserved. These findings provide the first Pleistocene temporal baseline for the south Pacific that shows that this highly productive system has had the ability to recover from past alterations, suggesting that if monitoring and management practices continue to be implemented, moderately exploited communities from today have hopes for recovery.

  4. Predicting Effects of Coastal Acidification on Marine Bivalve ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) is increasing in the oceans and causing changes in seawater pH commonly described as ocean or coastal acidification. It is now well-established that, when reproduced in laboratory experiments, these increases in pCO2 can reduce survival and growth of early life stage bivalves. However, the effects that these impairments would have on whole populations of bivalves are unknown. In this study, these laboratory responses were incorporated into field-parameterized population models to assess population-level sensitivities to acidification for two northeast bivalve species with different life histories: Mercenaria mercenaria (hard clam) and Argopecten irradians (bay scallop). The resulting models permitted translation of laboratory pCO2 response functions into population-level responses to examine population sensitivity to future pCO2 changes. Preliminary results from our models indicate that if the current M. mercenaria negative population growth rate was attributed to the effects of pCO2 on early life stages, the population would decline at a rate of 50% per ten years at 420 microatmospheres (µatm) pCO2. If the current population growth rate was attributed to other additive factors (e.g., harvest, harmful algal blooms), M. mercenaria populations were predicted to decline at a rate of 50% per ten years at the preliminary estimate of 1010 µatm pCO2. The estimated population growth rate was positive for A. irradians,

  5. Modulation of pumping rate by two species of marine bivalve molluscs in response to neurotransmitters: Comparison of in vitro and in vivo results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Dana M; Deaton, Lewis; Shumway, Sandra E; Holohan, Bridget A; Ward, J Evan

    2015-07-01

    Most studies regarding the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of molluscan ctenidia have focused on isolated ctenidial tissue preparations. This study investigated how bivalve molluscs modulate their feeding rates by examining the effects of a variety of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, dopamine, and the dopamine agonist apomorphine on both isolated ctenidial tissue and in intact members of two commercially important bivalve species: the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis; and the bay scallop Argopecten irradians. In particular, we examined the effect of changes in: 1) beat of the lateral cilia (in vitro), 2) distance between ctenidial filaments and/or plicae (in vivo), and 3) diameter of the siphonal openings (in vivo) on alteration of bulk water flow through the mantle cavity. Important differences were found between isolated tissue and whole animals, and between species. Drugs that stimulated ciliary beat in vitro did not increase water processing rate in vivo. None of the treatments increased water flow through the mantle cavity of intact animals. Results suggest that A. irradians was primarily modulating lateral ciliary activity, while M. edulis appeared to have a number of ways to control water processing activity, signifying that the two species may have different compensatory and regulatory mechanisms controlling feeding activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Study on headland-bay sandy coast stability in South China coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji-Tao; Chen, Zi-Shen

    2011-03-01

    Headland-bay beach equilibrium planform has been a crucial problem abroad to long-term sandy beach evolution and stabilization, extensively applied to forecast long-term coastal erosion evolvement and the influences of coastal engineering as well as long-term coastal management and protection. However, little concern focuses on this in China. The parabolic relationship is the most widely used empirical relationship for determining the static equilibrium shape of headland-bay beaches. This paper utilizes the relation to predict and classify 31 headland-bay beaches and concludes that these bays cannot achieve the ultimate static equilibrium planform in South China. The empirical bay equation can morphologically estimate beach stabilization state, but it is just a referential predictable means and is difficult to evaluate headland-bay shoreline movements in years and decades. By using Digital Shoreline Analysis System suggested by USGS, the rates of shoreline recession and accretion of these different headland-bay beaches are quantitatively calculated from 1990 to 2000. The conclusions of this paper include that (a) most of these 31 bays maintain relatively stable and the rates of erosion and accretion are relatively large with the impact of man-made constructions on estuarine within these bays from 1990 to 2000; (b) two bays, Haimen Bay and Hailingshan Bay, originally in the quasi-static equilibrium planform determined by the parabolic bay shape equation, have been unstable by the influence of coastal engineering; and (c) these 31 bays have different recession and accretion characters occurring in some bays and some segments. On the one hand, some bays totally exhibit accretion, but some bays show erosion on the whole. Shanwei Bay, Houmen Bay, Pinghai Bay and Yazhou Bay have the similar planforms, characterized by less accretion on the sheltering segment and bigger accretion on the transitional and tangential segments. On the other hand, different segments of some

  7. Concentration of PSP (Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning) Toxin On Shellfish From Inner Ambon Bay and Kao Bay North Halmahera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pello, F. S.; Haumahu, S.; Huliselan, N. V.; Tuapattinaja, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    The Inner Ambon Bay and Kao Bay have potential on fisheries resources which one of them is molluscs. Molluscs especially for class bivalve have economical values and are consumed by coastal community. The research had been done to analyze saxitoxin (STX) concentration on bivalves from Kao Bay and Inner Ambon Bay. The Saxitoxin Elisa Test Kit Protocol was used to determine saxitoxin concentration. The measurement showed that the highest concentration of saxitoxin (392.42 µg STXeq/100g shellfish meat) was Gafrarium tumidum from Ambon Bay, whereas concentration of saxitoxin (321.83 µg STXeq/100g shellfish meat) was Mactra mera from Kao Bay

  8. Mycobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stine, C B; Kane, A S; Baya, A M

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis in fish can result in ulcers, emaciation, and in some cases death. Mycobacteria have been previously isolated from a variety of Chesapeake Bay fish species, and the current study was designed to identify potential host specificity and location fidelity of mycobacterial isolates. Mycobacteria were isolated from wild fish of the Chesapeake Bay collected from the Upper Bay, the Choptank River, Herring Bay, the Chicamacomico River, the Pocomoke River and the Potomac River in 2003-2006. Mycobacterial isolates were recovered from striped bass, Morone saxatilis, Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, white perch, Morone americana, summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, spot, Leiostomus xanthurus, largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, common carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, killifish, Fundulus sp., blueback herring, Alosa aestivalis, American gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum and American silver perch, Bairdiella chrysoura. Twenty-nine well-defined mycobacterial groups resulted from gas chromatography dendrogram clustering of isolates. The majority of groups included more than one host species and more than one site of collection. However, four groups contained only striped bass isolates, three of which were similar to M. shottsii. Therefore, multiple Chesapeake Bay fish species are colonized with multiple mycobacterial isolates, of which few appear to be host or location specific.

  9. Changing Salinity Patterns in Biscayne Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2004-01-01

    Biscayne Bay, Fla., is a 428-square-mile (1,109-square-kilometer) subtropical estuarine ecosystem that includes Biscayne National Park, the largest marine park in the U.S. national park system (fig. 1). The bay began forming between 5,000 and 3,000 years ago as sea level rose and southern Florida was flooded. Throughout most of its history, the pristine waters of the bay supported abundant and diverse fauna and flora, and the bay was a nursery for the adjacent coral-reef and marine ecosystems. In the 20th century, urbanization of the Miami-Dade County area profoundly affected the environment of the bay. Construction of powerplants, water-treatment plants, and solid-waste sites and large-scale development along the shoreline stressed the ecosystem. Biscayne National Monument was established in 1968 to ?preserve and protect for the education, inspiration, recreation and enjoyment of present and future generations a rare combination of terrestrial, marine, and amphibious life in a tropical setting of great natural beauty? (Public Law 90?606). The monument was enlarged in 1980 and designated a national park.

  10. 1999 RoxAnn Data Points from Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve and the NOAA Office for Coastal Management worked together to map benthic habitats within Apalachicola Bay,...

  11. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund: Projects and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) projects listed here are part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  12. Sediment grab data from October 1999 in Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve and the NOAA Office for Coastal Management worked together to map benthic habitats within Apalachicola Bay,...

  13. Endocrine disrupter - estradiol - in Chesapeake Bay tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorabawila, Nelum [University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853 (United States); Gupta, Gian [University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853 (United States)]. E-mail: gcgupta@umes.edu

    2005-04-11

    Exogenous chemicals that interfere with natural hormonal functions are considered endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Estradiol (17{beta}-estradiol or E2) is the most potent of all xenoestrogens. Induction of vitellogenin (VTG) production in male fish occurs at E2 concentrations as low as 1 ng l{sup -1}. E2 reaches aquatic systems mainly through sewage and animal waste disposal. Surface water samples from ponds, rivers (Wicomico, Manokin and Pocomoke), sewage treatment plants (STPs), and coastal bays (Assawoman, Monie, Chincoteague, and Tangier Sound - Chesapeake Bay) on the Eastern Shore of Maryland were analyzed for E2 using enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). E2 concentrations in river waters varied between 1.9 and 6.0 ng l{sup -1}. Highest E2 concentrations in river waters were observed immediately downstream of STPs. E2 concentrations in all the coastal bays tested were 2.3-3.2 ng l{sup -1}.

  14. Endocrine disrupter - estradiol - in Chesapeake Bay tributaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorabawila, Nelum; Gupta, Gian

    2005-01-01

    Exogenous chemicals that interfere with natural hormonal functions are considered endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Estradiol (17β-estradiol or E2) is the most potent of all xenoestrogens. Induction of vitellogenin (VTG) production in male fish occurs at E2 concentrations as low as 1 ng l -1 . E2 reaches aquatic systems mainly through sewage and animal waste disposal. Surface water samples from ponds, rivers (Wicomico, Manokin and Pocomoke), sewage treatment plants (STPs), and coastal bays (Assawoman, Monie, Chincoteague, and Tangier Sound - Chesapeake Bay) on the Eastern Shore of Maryland were analyzed for E2 using enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). E2 concentrations in river waters varied between 1.9 and 6.0 ng l -1 . Highest E2 concentrations in river waters were observed immediately downstream of STPs. E2 concentrations in all the coastal bays tested were 2.3-3.2 ng l -1

  15. Meteorological research studies at Jervis Bay, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.H.; Bendun, E.O.K.

    1974-07-01

    A climatological study of the winds and temperature from the Jervis Bay region which commenced in October 1970 has shown the presence of a coastal sea breeze and secondary bay breeze circulation system. In an attempt to define the influence of the Murray's Beach site on the local atmospheric dispersion, special smoke plume photography studies were conducted in the lower atmosphere. In June 1972 a meteorological acoustic sounding research programme was initiated at the Jervis Bay settlement. The aims of the research are to calibrate the sounder in terms of surface wind, turbulence and temperature measurements pertinent to a description of the lower atmospheric dispersion potential. Preliminary results on six months' data have shown encouraging correlations between the acoustic sounder patterns and particularly the wind direction turbulence traces. (author)

  16. Lost lake - restoration of a Carolina bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlin, H.G.; McLendon, J.P. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology; Wike, L.D. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Dietsch, B.M. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Carolina bays are shallow wetland depressions found only on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Although these isolated interstream wetlands support many types of communities, they share the common features of having a sandy margin, a fluctuating water level, an elliptical shape, and a northwest to southeast orientation. Lost Lake, an 11.3 hectare Carolina bay, was ditched and drained for agricultural production before establishment of the Savannah River Site in 1950. Later it received overflow from a seepage basin containing a variety of chemicals, primarily solvents and some heavy metals. In 1990 a plan was developed for the restoration of Lost Lake, and restoration activities were complete by mid-1991. Lost Lake is the first known project designed for the restoration and recovery of a Carolina bay. The bay was divided into eight soil treatment zones, allowing four treatments in duplicate. Each of the eight zones was planted with eight species of native wetland plants. Recolonization of the bay by amphibians and reptiles is being evaluated by using drift fences with pitfall traps and coverboard arrays in each of the treatment zones. Additional drift fences in five upland habitats were also established. Hoop turtle traps, funnel minnow traps, and dip nets were utilized for aquatic sampling. The presence of 43 species common to the region has been documented at Lost Lake. More than one-third of these species show evidence of breeding populations being established. Three species found prior to the restoration activity and a number of species common to undisturbed Carolina bays were not encountered. Colonization by additional species is anticipated as the wetland undergoes further succession.

  17. Mapping Oyster Reef Habitats in Mobile Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Oyster reefs around the world are declining rapidly, and although they haven t received as much attention as coral reefs, they are just as important to their local ecosystems and economies. Oyster reefs provide habitats for many species of fish, invertebrates, and crustaceans, as well as the next generations of oysters. Oysters are also harvested from many of these reefs and are an important segment of many local economies, including that of Mobile Bay, where oysters rank in the top five commercial marine species both by landed weight and by dollar value. Although the remaining Mobile Bay oyster reefs are some of the least degraded in the world, projected climate change could have dramatic effects on the health of these important ecosystems. The viability of oyster reefs depends on water depth and temperature, appropriate pH and salinity levels, and the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water. Projected increases in sea level, changes in precipitation and runoff patterns, and changes in pH resulting from increases in the amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in the oceans could all affect the viability of oyster reefs in the future. Human activities such as dredging and unsustainable harvesting practices are also adversely impacting the oyster reefs. Fortunately, several projects are already under way to help rebuild or support existing or previously existing oyster reefs. The success of these projects will depend on the local effects of climate change on the current and potential habitats and man s ability to recognize and halt unsustainable harvesting practices. As the extent and health of the reefs changes, it will have impacts on the Mobile Bay ecosystem and economy, changing the resources available to the people who live there and to the rest of the country, since Mobile Bay is an important national source of seafood. This project identified potential climate change impacts on the oyster reefs of Mobile Bay, including the possible addition of newly viable

  18. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  19. Chesapeake bay watershed land cover data series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Frederick M.; Claggett, Peter

    2010-01-01

    To better understand how the land is changing and to relate those changes to water quality trends, the USGS EGSC funded the production of a Chesapeake Bay Watershed Land Cover Data Series (CBLCD) representing four dates: 1984, 1992, 2001, and 2006. EGSC will publish land change forecasts based on observed trends in the CBLCD over the coming year. They are in the process of interpreting and publishing statistics on the extent, type and patterns of land cover change for 1984-2006 in the Bay watershed, major tributaries and counties.

  20. STS-98 Destiny in Atlantis's payload bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- The U.S. Laboratory Destiny rests once again in Atlantis'''s payload bay, at Launch Pad 39A. Closing of the payload bay doors is imminent. Destiny, a key element in the construction of the International Space Station, is 28 feet long and weighs 16 tons. This research and command-and-control center is the most sophisticated and versatile space laboratory ever built. It will ultimately house a total of 23 experiment racks for crew support and scientific research. Destiny will be launched Feb. 7 on STS-98, the seventh construction flight to the ISS.

  1. Spatial hierarchical Bayes estimation of mean years of schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, Dwi A. S.; Wage, Sutarman; Darnius, Open

    2018-01-01

    A spatial hierarchical bayes for estimating mean years of schooling district level is proposed. We developed spatial hierarchical bayes within a Monte Carlo simulation study with R software. The simulation generated posterior distribution invers gamma. The spatial correlation used rook contiguity for each district. Hierarchical bayes method with spatial weighted provides smaller relative bias and relative root mean square.

  2. Chondrichthyan occurrence and abundance trends in False Bay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercial fishing in False Bay, South Africa, began in the 1600s. Today chondrichthyans are regularly taken in fisheries throughout the bay. Using a combination of catch, survey and life history data, the occurrence and long-term changes in populations of chondrichthyans in False Bay are described. Analyses of time ...

  3. The role of pelagic-benthic coupling in structuring littoral benthic communities at Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea and in the Straits of Magellan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Cattaneo-Vietti

    1999-12-01

    . Bivalves seem to play an important role in both regions: for instance, at Terra Nova Bay, the scallop Adamussium colbecki processes about 14 % of the total carbon flux, with an assimilation efficiency of 36 %. This scallop seems to be able to adapt its reproductive period and its trophic behaviour to the changes in the quality and quantity of the pelagic events. The pulsing trend of the vertical flux, which in a few weeks can reach the total annual input, produces significant changes in the physiology (growth, reproduction, spawning and trophic behaviour of many benthic species, such as sponges and polychaetes. The study of the pelagic-benthic coupling could be essential in the evaluation of the trophic capacity and the environmental response around sites of sea-farming, which are an ever-growing activity in the Magellan area.

  4. Marine littoral diatoms from the Gordon’s bay region of False Bay, Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gordon’s Bay region occupies the North western corner of false Bay, a large rectangular bay, bounded on the west by the Cape Peninsula ending at Cape Point, on the east by the precipitous slope of the Steenbras Mountains ending at the Cape...

  5. 76 FR 22809 - Safety Zone; Bay Ferry II Maritime Security Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2011-0196] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Ferry II Maritime Security Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA AGENCY... Security Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA. (a) Location. The limits of this safety zone...

  6. Pärnu Bay Golf Club = Pärnu Bay Golf Club / Arhitekt11

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    Pärnu Bay Golf Club, arhitektid Jürgen Lepper, Anto Savi, Margus Soonets, Janar Toomesso (Arhitekt11), sisearhitektid Liina Vaino, Kaari Metslang, Hannelore Kääramees (Arhitekt11). Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali aastapreemia nominent 2016

  7. Discharge between San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay, southern Gulf Coast, Texas, May-September 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Jeffery W.

    2001-01-01

    Along the Gulf Coast of Texas, many estuaries and bays are important habitat and nurseries for aquatic life. San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay, located about 50 and 30 miles northeast, respectively, of Corpus Christi, are two important estuarine nurseries on the southern Gulf Coast of Texas (fig. 1). According to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, “Almost 80 percent of the seagrasses [along the Texas Gulf Coast] are located in the Laguna Madre, an estuary that begins just south of Corpus Christi Bay and runs southward 140 miles to South Padre Island. Most of the remaining seagrasses, about 45,000 acres, are located in the heavily traveled San Antonio, Aransas and Corpus Christi Bay areas” (Shook, 2000).Population growth has led to greater demands on water supplies in Texas. The Texas Water Development Board, the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission have the cooperative task of determining inflows required to maintain the ecological health of the State’s streams, rivers, bays, and estuaries. To determine these inflow requirements, the three agencies collect data and conduct studies on the need for instream flows and freshwater/ saline water inflows to Texas estuaries.To assist in the determination of freshwater inflow requirements, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, conducted a hydrographic survey of discharge (flow) between San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay during the period May–September 1999. Automated instrumentation and acoustic technology were used to maximize the amount and quality of data that were collected, while minimizing personnel requirements. This report documents the discharge measured at two sites between the bays during May–September 1999 and describes the influences of meteorologic (wind and tidal) and hydrologic (freshwater inflow) conditions on discharge between the two bays. The movement of water between the bays is

  8. Estimation of Freshwater Flow to Joe Bay, South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, M. A.; Hittle, C. D.

    2002-05-01

    During the last century, drainage canals were constructed as part of the Central and Southern Flood Control (C&SF) project. Flood control was achieved but degradation to the Everglades ecosystem was evident. Problems related to Florida Bay include sea grass die off, algae blooms, and extreme salinity conditions. Modifications to the C&SF project are proposed as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). One objective of CERP is to improve the timing and distribution of freshwater flow within the Everglades ecosystem and to Florida Bay. Several CERP projects propose changes to the existing canal network that borders Everglades National Park (ENP) in southern Miami-Dade County. An examination of flows to Joe Bay, a small embayment on the northeastern shores of Florida Bay, has provided baseline information on current spatial and temporal water deliveries prior to CERP modifications. Understanding the existing complex water delivery system and the effects the system has on Everglades hydrology will provide a necessary benchmark against which to measure restoration success. The study was initiated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in May 1999 to estimate creek flows to Joe Bay and determine the relative amounts derived from Taylor Slough and overflow from the C-111 Canal. It is important to understand the source of freshwater to Joe Bay before it enters Florida Bay. Taylor Slough transports freshwater to northeastern Florida Bay from the northwest while overflow from the C-111 Canal provides freshwater to northeastern Florida Bay from the northeast. Joe Bay, receives part of the freshwater from each of these sources via sheet flow and small estuarine creeks, and subsequently discharges southward to northeastern Florida Bay via Trout Creek. Trout Creek contributes approximately 50 percent of the total freshwater flow to northeastern Florida Bay (Hittle 2001). Eight non-gaged creeks entering Joe Bay were selected for acoustic Doppler current

  9. IRST infrared background analysis of bay environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schwering, PBW

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available threats can be present in environments with cluttered backgrounds as well as rapidly varying atmospheric conditions. During trials executed in False Bay a large amount of target, background and atmosphere data was gathered that is of use in analysis...

  10. Roebuck Bay Invertebrate and bird Mapping 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Pearson, Grant B.; Hickey, Robert; Dittmann, Sabine; Rogers, Danny I.; Folmer, Eelke; Honkoop, Pieter; Drent, Jan; Goeij, Petra de; Marsh, Loisette

    2006-01-01

    1. This is a report on a survey of the benthic ecology of the intertidal flats along the northern shores of Roebuck Bay in June 2006. In the period 11-20 June we mapped both the invertebrate macrobenthic animals (those retained by a 1 mm sieve) over the whole of the northern intertidal area of

  11. Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalles, J.F. (Creighton Univ., Omaha, NE (USA)); Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.; Leversee, G.J.; Knox, J.N. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Much of the research to date on the Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant and elsewhere has focused on certain species or on environmental features. Different levels of detail exist for different groups of organisms and reflect the diverse interests of previous investigators. This report summarizes aspects of research to date and presents data from numerous studies. 70 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Ecology of Buzzards Bay: An Estuarine Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    the wet- land ecosystem. Other insects such as plant hop- pers, grasshoppers, and aphids , as well as many species of amphipods and spiders, also are...purple cudweed) Endangered Lactuca hirsuta (hairy wild lettuce ) Endangered Prenanthes serpentaria (lion’s foot) Endangered ECOLOGY OF BUZZARDS BAY: An

  13. Madreporaria from the Bay of Batavia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umbgrove, J.H.F.

    1939-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In the Bay of Batavia there are patch-reefs and cays in different stadia of development. Some are small reefs still rather deep below sea level, other reefs bear a small sand cay. On the larger coral sand islands vegetation has developed ; moreover shingle ramparts and a moat have come

  14. ULF fluctuations at Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Meloni

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available ULF geomagnetic field measurements in Antarctica are a very important tool for better understanding the dynamics of the Earth’s magnetosphere and its response to the variable solar wind conditions. We review the results obtained in the last few years at the Italian observatory at Terra Nova Bay

  15. Bathymetry (2011) for Fish Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution depth surface for Fish Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). The...

  16. Bathymetry (2011) for Coral Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution depth surface for Coral Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). The...

  17. Sediment Characterization in St. Alban's Bay, VT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethercutt, S.; Manley, T.; Manley, P.

    2017-12-01

    St. Alban's Bay within Lake Champlain is plagued with harmful algal blooms. With future intensification due to climate change, a multidisciplinary program (BREE-Basin Resilience to Extreme Events) was initiated in 2016. In order to assess the mobilization of harmful nutrients from sediment resuspension events and riverine input, 74 sediment samples were collected in a grid fashion throughout St. Alban's Bay. Sediments were deflocculated and analyzed using a LA920 Horiba laser scattering particle size distribution analyzer to define the frequency of sediment sizes from clay to sand. Gridded surfaces of mean sortable silt percentage, silt percentage, sand percentage, and clay percentage were used to represent the sediment distribution of the region. A plot of diameter versus frequency showed the bimodal nature of some of the sediments, with one peak at about 10 microns diameter (silt) and the second at about 525 microns diameter (sand). The data showed an extremely low percentage of clay relative to that of sand and silt. The highest frequencies of sortable silt, which represents the most easily mobilized particle size, are found in the deepest areas of the bay, suggesting that these regions are where dominant bottom flow occurs. The high occurrence of sortable silt in the St. Alban's Bay does suggest that sediment mobilization, and therefore nutrient mobilization has the potential to occur. These data combined with high-resolution multibeam and hydrodynamic data will allow for future models of water flow and remobilization studies in the future.

  18. Fecal indicator bacteria at Havana Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, Lisse; Gomez D'Angelo, Yamiris; Beltran Gonzalez, Jesus; Alvarez Valiente, Reinaldo

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations were evaluated in Havana Bay. Methods: Concentrations of traditional fecal indicator bacteria were calculated between April 2010 and February 2011, by MPN methods. Concentrations of thermo tolerant coliform (CTT), Escherichia coli, fecal streptococci (EF), intestinal enterococci (ENT) in seawater, and Clostridium perfringens in sediment surface, were determined. Results: CTT and E. coli levels were far above Cuban water quality standard for indirect contact with water, showing the negative influence of sewage and rivers on the bay. The EF and ENT were measured during sewage spills at the discharge site and they were suitable indicators of fecal contamination, but these indicators didn't show the same behavior in other selected sites. This result comes from its well-known inactivation by solar light in tropical zones and the presumable presence of humid acids in the waters of the bay. Conclusion: Fecal indicator bacteria and its statistical relationships reflect recent and chronic fecal contamination at the bay and near shores.

  19. Empirical Bayes Approaches to Multivariate Fuzzy Partitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Max A.; Manton, Kenneth G.

    1991-01-01

    An empirical Bayes-maximum likelihood estimation procedure is presented for the application of fuzzy partition models in describing high dimensional discrete response data. The model describes individuals in terms of partial membership in multiple latent categories that represent bounded discrete spaces. (SLD)

  20. Tortuguero Bay [Puerto Rico] environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.D.; Youngbluth, M.J.; Nutt, M.E.; Yoshioka, P.; Canoy, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    Site selection surveys and environmental research studies of seven coastal sites in Puerto Rico for construction of power generating facilities were carried out. Data are presented on the physical, chemical, and geological parameters of the Tortuguero Bay site, and the ecological parameters of zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, plant and fish communities. (U.S.)

  1. Elemental analysis of Uranouchi bay seabed sludge using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, M. Hasnat; Narusawa, Tadashi; Nishiyama, Fumitaka; Sumi, Katsuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Elemental analyses were carried out for the seabed sludge collected from Uranouchi bay (Kochi, Japan) using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Seabed-sludge contamination with heavy metals as well as toxic elements becomes one of the most serious environmental problems. The aim of the present study is to investigate the polluted areas in the bay by heavy and toxic elements. As a results of analyses of samples collected from eleven different places in the bay, seventeen elements including toxic ones were detected. The results suggest that the center region of the bay is seriously contaminated by heavy and toxic elements in comparison with the other areas in the bay. (author)

  2. Chesapeake Bay Watershed - Protecting the Chesapeake Bay and its rivers through science, restoration, and partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay, the Nation's largest estuary, has been degraded due to the impact of human-population increase, which has doubled since 1950, resulting in degraded water quality, loss of habitat, and declines in populations of biological communities. Since the mid-1980s, the Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP), a multi-agency partnership which includes the Department of Interior (DOI), has worked to restore the Bay ecosystem. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has the critical role of providing unbiased scientific information that is utilized to document and understand ecosystem change to help assess the effectiveness of restoration strategies in the Bay and its watershed. The USGS revised its Chesapeake Bay science plan for 2006-2011 to address the collective needs of the CBP, DOI, and USGS with a mission to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Bay ecosystem. The USGS science themes for this mission are: Causes and consequences of land-use change; Impact of climate change and associated hazards; Factors affecting water quality and quantity; Ability of habitat to support fish and bird populations; and Synthesis and forecasting to improve ecosystem assessment, conservation, and restoration.

  3. Pb’s high sedimentation inside the bay mouth of Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Miao, Zhenqing; Huang, Xinmin; Wei, Linzhen; Feng, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Sedimentation is one of the key environmental behaviors of pollutants in the ocean. This paper analyzed the seasonal and temporal variations of Pb’s sedimentation process in Jiaozhou Bay in 1987. Results showed that Pb contents in bottom waters in Jiaozhou Bay in May, July and November 1987 were 1.87-2.60 μg L-1, 15.11-19.68 μg L-1 and 11.08-15.18 μg L-1, and the pollution levels of Pb in May, July and November 1987 were slight, heavy and heavy, respectively. In May 1987, there was low sedimentation process in waters in the outside of the bay mouth, yet were high sedimentation process in waters in the middle and inside of the bay mouth. In July and November 1987, there was low sedimentation process in waters in the outside of the bay mouth, yet were high sedimentation process in waters in the inside of the bay mouth. The seasonal-temporal variation of sedimentation processes of Pb were determined by the variations of sources input and the vertical water’s effect.

  4. Responses of upland herpetofauna to the restoration of Carolina Bays and thinning of forested Bay Margins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledvina, Joseph A.

    2008-05-01

    Research on the effects of wetland restoration on reptiles and amphibians is becoming more common, but almost all of these studies have observed the colonization of recently disturbed habitats that were completely dry at the time of restoration. In a similar manner, investigations herpetofaunal responses to forest management have focused on clearcuts, and less intensive stand manipulations are not as well studied. To evaluate community and population responses of reptiles and amphibians to hydrology restoration and canopy removal in the interior of previously degraded Carolina bays, I monitored herpetofauna in the uplands adjacent to six historically degraded Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for four years after restoration. To evaluate the effects of forest thinning on upland herpetofauna, forests were thinned in the margins of three of these bays. I used repeated measures ANOVA to compare species richness and diversity and the abundance of selected species and guilds between these bays and with those at three reference bays that were not historically drained and three control bays that remained degraded. I also used Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) to look for community-level patterns based treatments.

  5. Rapid Crustal Uplift at Birch Bay, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, B. L.; Kelsey, H. M.; Blakely, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    Geomorphology and coastal marsh stratigraphy suggest late Holocene uplift of the shoreline at Birch Bay, located northwest of Bellingham, Washington, during an earthquake on a shallow fault. LiDAR images show a raised, late Holocene shoreline along Birch Bay, with ~1 m of elevation difference between the modern shoreline and the inferred paleoshoreline. Commercial seismic reflection images reveal an anticline in Tertiary and possibly Quaternary deposits underlying Birch Bay. NW-trending magnetic anomalies are likely associated with the Birch Bay anticline and other nearby structures. Taken together, the geophysical data and lidar images suggest uplift of young deposits along a NW-trending blind reverse fault. Stratigraphy from Terrell Creek marsh, located just south of Birch Bay, shows freshwater peat buried by lower intertidal muds, indicating local submergence ~1300 yr BP. Stratigraphy of a 70-cm sediment core from Birch Bay marsh, sitting astride the anticline imaged with seismic reflection data, shows mud buried by detrital peat. One radiocarbon age from the core places the abrupt change from mud to peat prior to 1520-1700 yr BP. We divide fossil diatom assemblages straddling the mud-peat contact at Birch Bay into three zones. The oldest zone consists primarily of intertidal and marine diatoms, dominated by Paralia sulcata, Scoleoneis tumida, Grammataphora oceanica, and Gyrosigma balticum. An intermediate zone, beginning at the sharp contact between mud and overlying peat, consists of a mixture of brackish marsh and freshwater species, dominated by Diploneis interrupta, with lesser amounts of Aulacoseira sp., Pinnularia viridis, Eunotia pectinalis, and Paralia sulcata. A third and youngest zone lies in the upper half of the peat and is dominated by poorly preserved freshwater diatoms, mostly Aulacoseira cf. crassapuntata, Pinnularia viridis, P. maior, Eunotia pectinalis, and E. praerupta. Paleoecological inferences, based on distributions of modern diatoms

  6. Holocene evolution of Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, L.E.; Twichell, D.C.; Poore, R.Z.

    2009-01-01

    A program of geophysical mapping and vibracoring was conducted to better understand the geologic evolution of Apalachicola Bay. Analyses of the geophysical data and sediment cores along with age control provided by 34 AMS 14C dates on marine shells and wood reveal the following history. As sea level rose in the early Holocene, fluvial deposits filled the Apalachicola River paleochannel, which extended southward under the central part of the bay and seaward across the continental shelf. Sediments to either side of the paleochannel contain abundant wood fragments, with dates documenting that those areas were forested at 8,000 14C years b.p. As sea level continued to rise, spits formed of headland prodelta deposits. Between ???6,400 and ???2,500 14C years b.p., an Apalachicola prodelta prograded and receded several times across the inner shelf that underlies the western part of the bay. An eastern deltaic lobe was active for a shorter time, between ???5,800 and 5,100 14C years b.p. Estuarine benthic foraminiferal assemblages occurred in the western bay as early as 6,400 14C years b.p., and indicate that there was some physical barrier to open-ocean circulation and shelf species established by that time. It is considered that shoals formed in the region of the present barrier islands as the rising sea flooded an interstream divide. Estuarine conditions were established very early in the post-glacial flooding of the bay. ?? 2009 US Government.

  7. Topobathymetric model of Mobile Bay, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Brock, John C.; Howard, Daniel M.; Gesch, Dean B.; Bonisteel-Cormier, Jamie M.; Travers, Laurinda J.

    2013-01-01

    Topobathymetric Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are a merged rendering of both topography (land elevation) and bathymetry (water depth) that provides a seamless elevation product useful for inundation mapping, as well as for other earth science applications, such as the development of sediment-transport, sea-level rise, and storm-surge models. This 1/9-arc-second (approximately 3 meters) resolution model of Mobile Bay, Alabama was developed using multiple topographic and bathymetric datasets, collected on different dates. The topographic data were obtained primarily from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (NED) (http://ned.usgs.gov/) at 1/9-arc-second resolution; USGS Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data (2 meters) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/400/); and topographic lidar data (2 meters) and Compact Hydrographic Airborne Rapid Total Survey (CHARTS) lidar data (2 meters) from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) (http://www.csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/data/coastallidar/). Bathymetry was derived from digital soundings obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/geodas/geodas.html) and from water-penetrating lidar sources, such as EAARL and CHARTS. Mobile Bay is ecologically important as it is the fourth largest estuary in the United States. The Mobile and Tensaw Rivers drain into the bay at the northern end with the bay emptying into the Gulf of Mexico at the southern end. Dauphin Island (a barrier island) and the Fort Morgan Peninsula form the mouth of Mobile Bay. Mobile Bay is 31 miles (50 kilometers) long by a maximum width of 24 miles (39 kilometers) with a total area of 413 square miles (1,070 square kilometers). The vertical datum of the Mobile Bay topobathymetric model is the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). All the topographic datasets were originally referenced to NAVD 88 and no transformations

  8. Performance Characteristics of AOAC Method 2005.06 for the Determination of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins in Manila Clams, European Otter Clams, Grooved Carpet Shell Clams, Surf Clams, and Processed King Scallops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Alison; Turner, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    An approach was developed for the verification of method performance of the AOAC 2005.06 LC-fluorescence detector (FLD) method for determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in bivalve shellfish. This was developed following advice published by the Analytical Laboratory Accreditation Criteria Committee and applied to shellfish species that had not been previously subjected to a full single-laboratory validation scheme. The refined approach was developed following the need to assess performance in a number of shellfish species infrequently monitored through the UK statutory monitoring program, while reducing the impact and cost of the studies, most notably in terms of the use of valuable reference standards. The species assessed were manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum), European otter clams (Lutraria lutraria), grooved carpet shell clams (R. decussatus), surf clams (Spisula solida), and king scallops (Pecten maximus) presented as adductor only or adductor plus roe. The method was assessed for sensitivity in terms of LOD and LOQ, toxin recovery, and method precision in each species. It incorporated the PSP toxins deemed toxic and/or prevalent in UK samples and commercially available as certified reference standards. The toxins studied included GTX1-5, dcSTX, STX, C1&2, and NEO. The toxins dcGTX2&3 were included for surf clams due to the prevalence of these toxins in this species as a result of toxin decarbamoylation. Method performance targets were met for each of the characteristics investigated. Consequently, the method was deemed fit for purpose for the screening and quantification of these clam and scallop species for PSP toxins by AOAC Method 2005.06 LC-FLD.

  9. Urban Noise Modelling in Boka Kotorska Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Nikolić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traffic is the most significant noise source in urban areas. The village of Kamenari in Boka Kotorska Bay is a site where, in a relatively small area, road traffic and sea (ferry traffic take place at the same time. Due to the specificity of the location, i.e. very rare synergy of sound effects of road and sea traffic in the urban area, as well as the expressed need for assessment of noise level in a simple and quick way, a research was conducted, using empirical methods and statistical analysis methods, which led to the creation of acoustic model for the assessment of equivalent noise level (Leq. The developed model for noise assessment in the Village of Kamenari in Boka Kotorska Bay quite realistically provides data on possible noise levels at the observed site, with very little deviations in relation to empirically obtained values.

  10. Thatcher Bay, Washington, Nearshore Restoration Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breems, Joel; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Grossman, Eric E.; Elliott, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The San Juan Archipelago, located at the confluence of the Puget Sound, the Straits of Juan de Fuca in Washington State, and the Straits of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada, provides essential nearshore habitat for diverse salmonid, forage fish, and bird populations. With 408 miles of coastline, the San Juan Islands provide a significant portion of the available nearshore habitat for the greater Puget Sound and are an essential part of the regional efforts to restore Puget Sound (Puget Sound Shared Strategy 2005). The nearshore areas of the San Juan Islands provide a critical link between the terrestrial and marine environments. For this reason the focus on restoration and conservation of nearshore habitat in the San Juan Islands is of paramount importance. Wood-waste was a common by-product of historical lumber-milling operations. To date, relatively little attention has been given to the impact of historical lumber-milling operations in the San Juan Archipelago. Thatcher Bay, on Blakely Island, located near the east edge of the archipelago, is presented here as a case study on the restoration potential for a wood-waste contaminated nearshore area. Case study components include (1) a brief discussion of the history of milling operations. (2) an estimate of the location and amount of the current distribution of wood-waste at the site, (3) a preliminary examination of the impacts of wood-waste on benthic flora and fauna at the site, and (4) the presentation of several restoration alternatives for the site. The history of milling activity in Thatcher Bay began in 1879 with the construction of a mill in the southeastern part of the bay. Milling activity continued for more than 60 years, until the mill closed in 1942. Currently, the primary evidence of the historical milling operations is the presence of approximately 5,000 yd3 of wood-waste contaminated sediments. The distribution and thickness of residual wood-waste at the site was determined by using sediment

  11. The Bay of Pigs: Revisiting Two Museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Museum of Playa Giron (the Bay of Pigs in the region of Cienega De Zapata, Cuba, celebrates the repulse of Brigade 2506 as the first reverse of US imperialism on the American continents. The equivalent Brigade 2506 Museum in Miami, dedicated to and maintained by the members of Brigade 2506, celebrates defeat at the Bay of Pigs as moral victory for the Cuban exiles. The forces were indeed implacable foes. Yet between the museums can be detected some curious similarities. Both present the common theme of the confrontation between forces of good and evil. Both celebrate the philosophy that dying for one’s country is the greatest good a citizen may achieve. Both museums fly the common Cuban flag. Both museums identify a common enemy: the United States of America. This article, by comparing the displays in the two museums, analyses some cultural elements of what, despite decades of separation, in some ways remains a common Cuban culture.

  12. New and Improved Results from Daya Bay

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Despite the great progress achieved in the last decades, neutrinos remain among the least understood fundamental particles to have been experimentally observed. The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment consists of eight identically designed detectors placed underground at different baselines from three groups of nuclear reactors in China, a configuration that is ideally suited for studying the properties of these elusive particles. In this talk I will review the improved results released last summer by the Daya Bay collaboration. These results include (i) a precision measurement of the θ13 mixing angle and the effective mass splitting in the electron antineutrino disappearance channel with a dataset comprising more than 2.5 million antineutrino interactions, (ii) a high-statistics measurement of the absolute flux and spectrum of reactor-produced electron antineutrinos, and (iii) a search for light sterile neutrino mixing performed with more than three times the statistics of the previous result. I w...

  13. 76 FR 1513 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Horseshoe Bay, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Horseshoe Bay, TX. Decommissioning of the Horseshoe Bay Resort non-directional beacon (NDB) at Horseshoe Bay Resort Airport, Horseshoe Bay, TX, has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and management of... Horseshoe Bay Resort Airport (75 FR 66013) Docket No. FAA-2010-0843. Interested parties were invited to...

  14. Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector Gas System

    OpenAIRE

    Band, H. R.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M-C.; Heeger, K. M.; Kwok, M. W.; Shih, K.; Wise, T.; Xiao, Q.

    2012-01-01

    The Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is designed to protect the liquid scintillator targets of the antineutrino detectors against degradation and contamination from exposure to ambient laboratory air. The gas system is also used to monitor the leak tightness of the antineutrino detector assembly. The cover gas system constantly flushes the gas volumes above the liquid scintillator with dry nitrogen to minimize oxidation of the scintillator over the five year lifetime of the experimen...

  15. Bechevin Bay, Alaska, Inlet Stability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    Krenitzin. Bechevin Inlet, Bechevin Bay, and Isanotski Strait form an inlet system which * separates Unimak Island from the Alaska Peninsula. This...from the North Pacific must travel around Unimak Island through Unimak Pass. This route is 100-150 miles longer than the route through the Bechevin...period was semidiurnal, while the tidal flow at Unimak Pass (not too far southwest from the study area) was, interestingly, diurnal. Second, the phase

  16. Hydrocarbon pollution and monitorin in Augusta Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisafi, E.; De Domenico, L.; Puglisi, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Messina (Italy). Thallasographic Inst.; Magazzu`, G. [Lecce, Univ. (Italy). Biology Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Surveys in the coastal waters of Sicily (Augusta Bay) were carried out between 1900 and 1991 in order to assess the level of the hydrocarbon - pollution. Results show that helicopter tele-survey is an optimal technique for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). High PAH concentrations, due to the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents, as well as shipping activity, were found in the area.

  17. Morphological features in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.

    to the evolutionary history of the ocean basins. The passive continental margins and some times the deep sea basins adjoining them are generally covered by thick pile of sediments which make it difficult to examine the features associated with the volcanic... basement of the ocean floor. The Bay of Bengal is one such region where a thick pile of Bengal Fan sediments covers the entire basement and renders the ocean floor bathymetry virtually featureless. The sediment cover is exceptionally thick (about...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1182 - Safety/Security Zone: San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Suisun Bay, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety/Security Zone: San... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY... Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1182 Safety/Security Zone: San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay...

  19. Cosmogenic neutron production at Daya Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, F. P.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Bishai, M.; Blyth, S.; Cao, D.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, J.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, J. F.; Chang, Y.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. X.; Cheng, J.; Cheng, Z. K.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M. C.; Chukanov, A.; Cummings, J. P.; Ding, Y. Y.; Diwan, M. V.; Dolgareva, M.; Dove, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Edwards, W. R.; Gill, R.; Gonchar, M.; Gong, G. H.; Gong, H.; Grassi, M.; Gu, W. Q.; Guo, L.; Guo, X. H.; Guo, Y. H.; Guo, Z.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Hans, S.; He, M.; Heeger, K. M.; Heng, Y. K.; Higuera, A.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Hu, T.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. B.; Huber, P.; Huo, W.; Hussain, G.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jen, K. L.; Ji, X. L.; Ji, X. P.; Jiao, J. B.; Johnson, R. A.; Jones, D.; Kang, L.; Kettell, S. H.; Khan, A.; Koerner, L. W.; Kohn, S.; Kramer, M.; Kwok, M. W.; Langford, T. J.; Lau, K.; Lebanowski, L.; Lee, J.; Lee, J. H. C.; Lei, R. T.; Leitner, R.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, C.; Li, D. J.; Li, F.; Li, G. S.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S.; Li, S. C.; Li, W. D.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. F.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Lin, C. J.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, S.; Lin, S. K.; Lin, Y.-C.; Ling, J. J.; Link, J. M.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Liu, J. C.; Liu, J. L.; Loh, C. W.; Lu, C.; Lu, H. Q.; Lu, J. S.; Luk, K. B.; Ma, X. B.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. Q.; Malyshkin, Y.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McDonald, K. T.; McKeown, R. D.; Mitchell, I.; Nakajima, Y.; Napolitano, J.; Naumov, D.; Naumova, E.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Olshevskiy, A.; Pan, H.-R.; Park, J.; Patton, S.; Pec, V.; Peng, J. C.; Pinsky, L.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, F. Z.; Qi, M.; Qian, X.; Qiu, R. M.; Raper, N.; Ren, J.; Rosero, R.; Roskovec, B.; Ruan, X. C.; Steiner, H.; Sun, J. L.; Tang, W.; Taychenachev, D.; Treskov, K.; Tsang, K. V.; Tse, W.-H.; Tull, C. E.; Viaux, N.; Viren, B.; Vorobel, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.; Wang, N. Y.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. M.; Wei, H. Y.; Wen, L. J.; Whisnant, K.; White, C. G.; Wise, T.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, S. C. F.; Worcester, E.; Wu, C.-H.; Wu, Q.; Wu, W. J.; Xia, D. M.; Xia, J. K.; Xing, Z. Z.; Xu, J. L.; Xu, Y.; Xue, T.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, H.; Yang, L.; Yang, M. S.; Yang, M. T.; Yang, Y. Z.; Ye, M.; Ye, Z.; Yeh, M.; Young, B. L.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zeng, S.; Zhan, L.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, Q. M.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X. T.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhou, L.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zou, J. H.; Daya Bay Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    Neutrons produced by cosmic ray muons are an important background for underground experiments studying neutrino oscillations, neutrinoless double beta decay, dark matter, and other rare-event signals. A measurement of the neutron yield in the three different experimental halls of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment at varying depth is reported. The neutron yield in Daya Bay's liquid scintillator is measured to be Yn=(10.26 ±0.86 )×10-5 , (10.22 ±0.87 )×10-5 , and (17.03 ±1.22 )×10-5 μ-1 g-1 cm2 at depths of 250, 265, and 860 meters-water-equivalent. These results are compared to other measurements and the simulated neutron yield in Fluka and Geant4. A global fit including the Daya Bay measurements yields a power law coefficient of 0.77 ±0.03 for the dependence of the neutron yield on muon energy.

  20. Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, H. R.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M.-C.; Heeger, K. M.; Kwok, M. W.; Shih, K.; Wise, T.; Xiao, Q.

    2012-11-01

    The Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is designed to protect the liquid scintillator targets of the antineutrino detectors against degradation and contamination from exposure to ambient laboratory air. The gas system is also used to monitor the leak tightness of the antineutrino detector assembly. The cover gas system constantly flushes the gas volumes above the liquid scintillator with dry nitrogen to minimize oxidation of the scintillator over the five year lifetime of the experiment. This constant flush also prevents the infiltration of radon or other contaminants into these detecting liquids keeping the internal backgrounds low. Since the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors are immersed in the large water pools of the muon veto system, other gas volumes are needed to protect vital detector cables or gas lines. These volumes are also purged with dry gas. Return gas is monitored for oxygen content and humidity to provide early warning of potentially damaging leaks. The design and performance of the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is described.

  1. An overview of San Francisco Bay PORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ralph T.; McKinnie, David; English, Chad; Smith, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    The Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS) provides observations of tides, tidal currents, and meteorological conditions in real-time. The San Francisco Bay PORTS (SFPORTS) is a decision support system to facilitate safe and efficient maritime commerce. In addition to real-time observations, SFPORTS includes a nowcast numerical model forming a San Francisco Bay marine nowcast system. SFPORTS data and nowcast numerical model results are made available to users through the World Wide Web (WWW). A brief overview of SFPORTS is presented, from the data flow originated at instrument sensors to final results delivered to end users on the WWW. A user-friendly interface for SFPORTS has been designed and implemented. Appropriate field data analysis, nowcast procedures, design and generation of graphics for WWW display of field data and nowcast results are presented and discussed. Furthermore, SFPORTS is designed to support hazardous materials spill prevention and response, and to serve as resources to scientists studying the health of San Francisco Bay ecosystem. The success (or failure) of the SFPORTS to serve the intended user community is determined by the effectiveness of the user interface.

  2. Recent results of Daya Bay Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dongmei

    2017-12-01

    The Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment aimed to precisely measure the least known mixing angle θ13. In March 2012, Daya Bay announced the non-zero value with more than 5σ. With more statistics, less background and better control of systematics, the Daya Bay experiment is continuously improving the precision of sin2 2θ13 as well as the effective neutrino mass squared differences. In this paper, I will report the recent oscillation results, which are the most precise measurement of the oscillation parameter θ13 and . With 1230 days of data, sin2 2θ13 is measured to be [8.41 ± 0:27(stat.) ± 0.19(syst.)]×10-2, and = [2.50±0.06(stat.)±0.06(syst.)]×10-3eV2 with X2/NDF = 232.6/263. An independent measurement with the inverse beta decay neutron captured on hydrogen will also be presented.

  3. Whose Bay Street? Competing Narratives of Nassau's City Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nona Patara Martin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Bay Street has always been at the centre of commercial, cultural and political life in the Bahama Islands. It also acts as a gateway for millions of tourists who come to Nassau, the Bahamian capital, via cruise ships every year. Not surprisingly, Bahamians and non-Bahamians have widely divergent impressions of Bay Street. The need to accommodate the tourists who are critical to the Bahamian economy has meant that Bay Street, despite its deep social significance for Bahamians, has increasingly become a tourist space. With reference to the ‘sense of place’ and place attachment literature, this paper traces the transformation of Bay Street and attempts to tease out the most obvious tensions between the Bay Street that Bahamians experience and Bay Street as a port of call.

  4. Phytoplankton growth, dissipation, and succession in estuarine environments. [Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seliger, H H

    1976-01-01

    Two major advances in a study of phytoplankton ecology in the Chesapeake Bay are reported. The annual subsurface transport of a dinoflagellate species (Prorocentrum mariae labouriae) from the mouth of the bay a distance northward of 120 nautical miles to the region of the Bay Bridge was followed. Prorocentrum is a major seasonal dinoflagellate in the Chespeake Bay and annually has been reported to form mahogany tides, dense reddish-brown patches, in the northern bay beginning in late spring and continuing through the summer. Subsequent to this annual appearance the Prorocentrum spread southward and into the western tributary estuaries. The physiological behavioral characteristics of the Prorocentrum were correlated with the physical water movements in the bay. A phytoplankton cage technique for the measurement in situ of the growth rates of natural mixed populations is described. (CH)

  5. Organic Matter Remineralization Predominates Phosphorus Cycling in the Mid-Bay Sediments in the Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunendra, Joshi R.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Burdige, David J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Sparks, Donald L.; Jaisi, Deb P.

    2015-05-19

    The Chesapeake Bay, the largest and most productive estuary in the US, suffers from varying degrees of water quality issues fueled by both point and non–point source nutrient sources. Restoration of the bay is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources, their variable inputs and hydrological conditions, and complex interacting factors including climate forcing. These complexities not only restrict formulation of effective restoration plans but also open up debates on accountability issues with nutrient loading. A detailed understanding of sediment phosphorus (P) dynamics enables one to identify the exchange of dissolved constituents across the sediment- water interface and aid to better constrain mechanisms and processes controlling the coupling between the sediments and the overlying waters. Here we used phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ18Op) in concert with sediment chemistry, XRD, and Mössbauer spectroscopy on the sediment retrieved from an organic rich, sulfidic site in the meso-haline portion of the mid-bay to identify sources and pathway of sedimentary P cycling and to infer potential feedback effect on bottom water hypoxia and surface water eutrophication. Isotope data indicate that the regeneration of inorganic P from organic matter degradation (remineralization) is the predominant, if not sole, pathway for authigenic P precipitation in the mid-bay sediments. We interpret that the excess inorganic P generated by remineralization should have overwhelmed any bottom-water and/or pore-water P derived from other sources or biogeochemical processes and exceeded saturation with respect to authigenic P precipitation. It is the first research that identifies the predominance of remineralization pathway against remobilization (coupled Fe-P cycling) pathway in the Chesapeake Bay. Therefore, these results are expected to have significant implications for the current understanding of P cycling and benthic-pelagic coupling in the bay, particularly on the

  6. Organic matter remineralization predominates phosphorus cycling in the mid-Bay sediments in the Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sunendra R; Kukkadapu, Ravi K; Burdige, David J; Bowden, Mark E; Sparks, Donald L; Jaisi, Deb P

    2015-05-19

    Chesapeake Bay, the largest and most productive estuary in the U.S., suffers from varying degrees of water quality issues fueled by both point and nonpoint nutrient sources. Restoration of the Bay is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources, their variable inputs, and complex interaction between imported and regenerated nutrients. These complexities not only restrict formulation of effective restoration plans but also open up debates on accountability issues with nutrient loading. A detailed understanding of sediment phosphorus (P) dynamics provides information useful in identifying the exchange of dissolved constituents across the sediment-water interface as well as helps to better constrain the mechanisms and processes controlling the coupling between sediments and the overlying waters. Here we used phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)O(P)) in concert with sediment chemistry, X-ray diffraction, and Mössbauer spectroscopy on sediments retrieved from an organic rich, sulfidic site in the mesohaline portion of the mid-Bay to identify sources and pathway of sedimentary P cycling and to infer potential feedbacks on bottom water hypoxia and surface water eutrophication. Authigenic phosphate isotope data suggest that the regeneration of inorganic P from organic matter degradation (remineralization) is the predominant, if not sole, pathway for authigenic P precipitation in the mid-Bay sediments. This indicates that the excess inorganic P generated by remineralization should have overwhelmed any pore water and/or bottom water because only a fraction of this precipitates as authigenic P. This is the first research that identifies the predominance of remineralization pathway and recycling of P within the Chesapeake Bay. Therefore, these results have significant implications on the current understanding of sediment P cycling and P exchange across the sediment-water interface in the Bay, particularly in terms of the sources and pathways of P that sustain hypoxia

  7. 46 CFR 7.50 - Chesapeake Bay and tributaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chesapeake Bay and tributaries. 7.50 Section 7.50... Atlantic Coast § 7.50 Chesapeake Bay and tributaries. A line drawn from Cape Charles Light to latitude 36... latitude 36°54.8′ N. longitude 75°55.6′ W. (Chesapeake Bay Entrance Lighted Bell Buoy “CBC”); thence to...

  8. Variational Assimilation of Glider Data in Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    gliders and ten Slocum gliders were deployed in the Monterey Bay region, collecting temperature and salinity profiles (Ramp et al., 2008). Since the... Glider Data in the Monterey Bay 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 0601153N 6. AUTHOR(S) Chudong Pan, Max...observed by gliders in the Monterey Bay in August 2003 are assimilated into NCOM model in the framework of a 3dVar scheme with a hybrid background error

  9. Spatial-temporal migration laws of Cd in Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Li, Haixia; Zhang, Xiaolong; Wang, Qi; Miao, Zhenqing

    2018-02-01

    Many marine bays have been polluted by various pollutants, and understanding the migration laws is essential to scientific research and pollution control. This paper analyzed the spatial and temporal migration laws of Cd in waters in Jiaozhou Bay during 1979—1983. Results showed that there were twenty spatial-temporal migration law for the migration processes of Cd. These laws were helpful for better understanding the migration of Cd in marine bay, providing basis for scientific research and pollution control.

  10. Delineation of marsh types from Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, to Perdido Bay, Alabama, in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Michael G. Brasher,; Jenneke M. Visser,; Michael K. Mitchell,; Bart M. Ballard,; Mark W. Parr,; Barry C. Wilson,

    2015-07-23

    Coastal zone managers and researchers often require detailed information regarding emergent marsh vegetation types (that is, fresh, intermediate, brackish, and saline) for modeling habitat capacities and needs of marsh dependent taxa (such as waterfowl and alligator). Detailed information on the extent and distribution of emergent marsh vegetation types throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico coast has been historically unavailable. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Gulf Coast Joint Venture, the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Ducks Unlimited, Inc., and the Texas A&M University-Kingsville, produced a classification of emergent marsh vegetation types from Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, to Perdido Bay, Alabama.

  11. Control of hardwood regeneration in restored carolina bay depression wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Lee, J.; Barton, Christopher, D.; Blake, John, I.

    2012-06-01

    Carolina bays are depression wetlands located in the coastal plain region of the eastern United States. Disturbance of this wetland type has been widespread, and many sites contain one or more drainage ditches. Restoration of bays is of interest because they are important habitats for rare flora and fauna. Previous bay restoration projects have identified flood-tolerant woody competitors in the seedbank and re-sprouting as impediments to the establishment of desired herbaceous wetland vegetation communities. We restored 3 bays on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, by plugging drainage ditches, harvesting residual pine/hardwood stands within the bays, and monitoring the vegetative response of the seedbank to the hydrologic change. We applied a foliar herbicide on one-half of each bay to control red maple (Acerrubrum), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and water oak (Quercus nigra) sprouting, and we tested its effectiveness across a hydrologic gradient in each bay. Hardwood regeneration was partially controlled by flooding in bays that exhibited long growing season hydroperiods. The findings also indicated that herbicide application was an effective means for managing hardwood regeneration and re-sprouting in areas where hydrologic control was ineffective. Herbicide use had no effect on species richness in the emerging vegetation community. In late-season drawdown periods, or in bays where hydroperiods are short, more than one herbicide application may be necessary.

  12. Linking public health and the health of the Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, T A; Litt, J S; Fox, M A

    2000-02-01

    The Chesapeake Bay has a profound impact on the lives of all who reside in the 64,000 square miles of its watershed. From crab cakes to sail-boats, drinking water to naval ships, the Bay touches virtually every aspect of life in the region. The Bay has inspired literature, driven the regional economy, and shaped political decision making and development patterns for homes, industry, agriculture, and transportation. As population demands increase and urban boundaries expand into pristine landscapes, the sustainability of the Chesapeake Bay and its resources face unprecedented pressures. Consequently, the public's health also is vulnerable to Bay pollution and other stresses stemming from development activities and widespread growth occurring throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed. This paper will examine the linkages between the environmental quality of the Bay and the population health status, recommend ways to bridge ecological and human health concerns in the context of the Bay, and finally present a framework for developing a public health report card for the Bay. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  13. MODELING THE 1958 LITUYA BAY MEGA-TSUNAMI, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Mader

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Lituya Bay, Alaska is a T-Shaped bay, 7 miles long and up to 2 miles wide. The two arms at the head of the bay, Gilbert and Crillon Inlets, are part of a trench along the Fairweather Fault. On July 8, 1958, an 7.5 Magnitude earthquake occurred along the Fairweather fault with an epicenter near Lituya Bay.A mega-tsunami wave was generated that washed out trees to a maximum altitude of 520 meters at the entrance of Gilbert Inlet. Much of the rest of the shoreline of the Bay was denuded by the tsunami from 30 to 200 meters altitude.In the previous study it was determined that if the 520 meter high run-up was 50 to 100 meters thick, the observed inundation in the rest of Lituya Bay could be numerically reproduced. It was also concluded that further studies would require full Navier-Stokes modeling similar to those required for asteroid generated tsunami waves.During the Summer of 2000, Hermann Fritz conducted experiments that reproduced the Lituya Bay 1958 event. The laboratory experiments indicated that the 1958 Lituya Bay 524 meter run-up on the spur ridge of Gilbert Inlet could be caused by a landslide impact.The Lituya Bay impact landslide generated tsunami was modeled with the full Navier- Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE with includes the effect of gravity.

  14. On watermass mixing ratios and regenerated silicon in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.P.; Sarma, V.V.; Rao, V.S.; Sudhakar, U.; Gupta, G.V.M.

    Regeneration of silicon on mixing in the Bay of Bengal have been computed from six water masses [Bay of Bengal low saline water (BBLS), Bay of Bengal subsurface water (BBSS), northern southeast high salinity water (NSEHS), north Indian intermediate...

  15. 75 FR 78667 - Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative-Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Corporation Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative--Chesapeake Bay Watershed AGENCY: Commodity Credit... Chesapeake Bay Watershed priority areas (see attached map). DATES: Effective Date: The notice of request is... Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative--Chesapeake Bay Watershed Overview of the Cooperative...

  16. BACTERIOPLANKTON DYNAMICS IN NORTHERN SAN FRANCISCO BAY: ROLE OF PARTICLE ASSOCIATION AND SEASONAL FRESHWATER FLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterioplankton abundance and metabolic characteristics were observed in northern San Francisco Bay, California, during spring and summer 1996 at three sites: Central Bay, Suisun Bay, and the Sacramento River. These sites spanned a salinity gradient from marine to freshwater, an...

  17. A Bayes linear Bayes method for estimation of correlated event rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, John; Wilson, Kevin J; Walls, Lesley; Bedford, Tim

    2013-12-01

    Typically, full Bayesian estimation of correlated event rates can be computationally challenging since estimators are intractable. When estimation of event rates represents one activity within a larger modeling process, there is an incentive to develop more efficient inference than provided by a full Bayesian model. We develop a new subjective inference method for correlated event rates based on a Bayes linear Bayes model under the assumption that events are generated from a homogeneous Poisson process. To reduce the elicitation burden we introduce homogenization factors to the model and, as an alternative to a subjective prior, an empirical method using the method of moments is developed. Inference under the new method is compared against estimates obtained under a full Bayesian model, which takes a multivariate gamma prior, where the predictive and posterior distributions are derived in terms of well-known functions. The mathematical properties of both models are presented. A simulation study shows that the Bayes linear Bayes inference method and the full Bayesian model provide equally reliable estimates. An illustrative example, motivated by a problem of estimating correlated event rates across different users in a simple supply chain, shows how ignoring the correlation leads to biased estimation of event rates. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. 75 FR 54771 - Safety Zone; Thunder on the Bay, Chesapeake Bay, Buckroe Beach Park, Hampton, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... navigable waters of the Chesapeake Bay within the area bounded by a 210-foot radius circle centered on... are technical standards (e.g., specifications of materials, performance, design, or operation; test... cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment. This rule is categorically excluded, under...

  19. 77 FR 57107 - Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos, Tillamook, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... eco-tourism or natural resource-based visitor centers. Nestucca Bay NWR Alternative A: No Action Under... continue to seek funding to replace the deteriorating volunteer residence with a bunkhouse through the... office with a visitor lobby under this alternative, as well as replacing the existing volunteer residence...

  20. Gateway National Recreation Area, Jamaica Bay Unit : Jamaica Bay Greenway Missing Links Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    Based on both a field site reconnaissance and workshop, this study developed a conceptual plan for the location and design of bicyle facilites to complete a "missing link" of the Jamaica Bay through the Rockaway region of Brooklyn and Queens in New Y...

  1. Management case study: Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Gerold; Greening, Holly; Yates, Kimberly K.; Wolanski, Eric; McLusky, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, is a shallow, subtropical estuary that experienced severe cultural eutrophication between the 1940s and 1980s, a period when the human population of its watershed quadrupled. In response, citizen action led to the formation of a public- and private-sector partnership (the Tampa Bay Estuary Program), which adopted a number of management objectives to support the restoration and protection of the bay’s living resources. These included numeric chlorophyll a and water-clarity targets, as well as long-term goals addressing the spatial extent of seagrasses and other selected habitat types, to support estuarine-dependent faunal guilds. Over the past three decades, nitrogen controls involving sources such as wastewater treatment plants, stormwater conveyance systems, fertilizer manufacturing and shipping operations, and power plants have been undertaken to meet these and other management objectives. Cumulatively, these controls have resulted in a 60% reduction in annual total nitrogen (TN) loads relative to earlier worse-case (latter 1970s) conditions. As a result, annual water-clarity and chlorophyll a targets are currently met in most years, and seagrass cover measured in 2008 was the highest recorded since 1950. Factors that have contributed to the observed improvements in Tampa Bay over the past several decades include the following: (1) Development of numeric, science-based water-quality targets to meet a long-term goal of restoring seagrass acreage to 1950s levels. Empirical and mechanistic models found that annual average chlorophyll a concentrations were a primary manageable factor affecting light attenuation. The models also quantified relationships between TN loads, chlorophyll a concentrations, light attenuation, and fluctuations in seagrass cover. The availability of long-term monitoring data, and a systematic process for using the data to evaluate the effectiveness of management actions, has allowed managers to track progress and

  2. Management case study: Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Gerold; Greening, Holly; Yates, Kimberly K.; Wolanski, Eric; McLusky, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, is a shallow, subtropical estuary that experienced severe cultural eutrophication between the 1940s and 1980s, a period when the human population of its watershed quadrupled. In response, citizen action led to the formation of a public- and private-sector partnership (the Tampa Bay Estuary Program), which adopted a number of management objectives to support the restoration and protection of the bay’s living resources. These included numeric chlorophyll a and water-clarity targets, as well as long-term goals addressing the spatial extent of seagrasses and other selected habitat types, to support estuarine-dependent faunal guilds. Over the past three decades, nitrogen controls involving sources such as wastewater treatment plants, stormwater conveyance systems, fertilizer manufacturing and shipping operations, and power plants have been undertaken to meet these and other management objectives. Cumulatively, these controls have resulted in a 60% reduction in annual total nitrogen (TN) loads relative to earlier worse-case (latter 1970s) conditions. As a result, annual water-clarity and chlorophyll a targets are currently met in most years, and seagrass cover measured in 2008 was the highest recorded since 1950. Factors that have contributed to the observed improvements in Tampa Bay over the past several decades include the following: (1) Development of numeric, science-based water-quality targets to meet a long-term goal of restoring seagrass acreage to 1950s levels. Empirical and mechanistic models found that annual average chlorophyll a concentrations were a primary manageable factor affecting light attenuation. The models also quantified relationships between TN loads, chlorophyll a concentrations, light attenuation, and fluctuations in seagrass cover. The availability of long-term monitoring data, and a systematic process for using the data to evaluate the effectiveness of management actions, has allowed managers to track progress and

  3. Bathymetry and acoustic backscatter: Estero Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Stephen R.; Finlayson, David P.; Dartnell, Peter; Johnson, Samuel Y.

    2013-01-01

    Between July 30 and August 9, 2012, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC), acquired bathymetry and acoustic-backscatter data from Estero Bay, San Luis Obispo, California, under PCMSC Field Activity ID S-05-12-SC. The survey was done using the R/V Parke Snavely outfitted with a multibeam sonar for swath mapping and highly accurate position and orientation equipment for georeferencing. This report provides these data in a number of different formats, as well as a summary of the mapping mission, maps of bathymetry and backscatter, and Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata.

  4. Frequentist Standard Errors of Bayes Estimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, DongHyuk; Carroll, Raymond J; Sinha, Samiran

    2017-09-01

    Frequentist standard errors are a measure of uncertainty of an estimator, and the basis for statistical inferences. Frequestist standard errors can also be derived for Bayes estimators. However, except in special cases, the computation of the standard error of Bayesian estimators requires bootstrapping, which in combination with Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) can be highly time consuming. We discuss an alternative approach for computing frequentist standard errors of Bayesian estimators, including importance sampling. Through several numerical examples we show that our approach can be much more computationally efficient than the standard bootstrap.

  5. Investigation of Tidal Power, Cobscook Bay, Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    eastern Maine and measured by the comparison of vertical leveling between Bangor and Calais , Maine, coupled with the geological and historical data...Cobscook Bay attract an extremely high density of shore and wading birds, including resident, breeding, wintering and migrant species. The area is...969,265 6.1 1970 29,859 -9.3 3.0 992,048 2.4 1975 32,854 10.0 3.1 1,057,955 6.6 Source: U.S. Census The majority of in- migrants are young and middle

  6. Breeding avifauna of the south San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Robert E.

    1977-01-01

    San Francisco Bay represents one of the largest estuarine areas on the Pacific Coast of North America. Its open waters, tidal flats, tidal marshes and solar evaporation ponds provide critical foraging, resting and breeding habitat for migratory and resident birds. The avifauna of San Francisco Bay has received considerable attention; however, little of it has been directed toward assessing the overall importance of the Bay as a nesting area. Works by Grinnell and Wythe (1927), Grinnell and Miller (1944) and Sibley (1952) are the only comprehensive studies of San Francisco Bay avifauna. These studies, while major contributions, are broad in scope as they relate to the breeding avifauna of the Bay's estuarine areas. Several studies by Johnston (1955, 1956a, b), Marshall (1948a, b), DeGroot (1927, 1931) and Zucca (1954) have concentrated on the breeding biology of individual species; however, much of the marsh reclamation and Bay fill has occurred since. The present breeding status of many resident and migratory birds is poorly known for San Francisco Bay. Included among these are three rare or endangered forms: California Black Rail, California Clapper Rail and California Least Tern. In addition, some species now found in the area represent recent breeding range extensions. This study, undertaken from March to September 1971 and including a few more recent data, presents a quantitative assessment of the present breeding bird populations in the South San Francisco Bay area.

  7. 33 CFR 117.779 - Eastchester Bay (Arm of).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eastchester Bay (Arm of). 117.779 Section 117.779 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.779 Eastchester Bay (Arm of). The draw...

  8. 33 CFR 80.510 - Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA. 80.510 Section 80.510 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.510 Chesapeake Bay Entrance, VA. A...

  9. The Chesapeake Bay through Ebony Eyes. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillin, Holli S.

    This curriculum guide contains eight lessons which complement "The Chesapeake Bay through Ebony Eyes," a book that recounts the contributions blacks have made to Maryland's Chesapeake Bay's maritime and seafood industries. The guide is for use as supplemental material or as cultural enrichment. Lesson plans in the guide are: (1)…

  10. Potential climate-change impacts on the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond G. Najjar; Christopher R. Pyke; Mary Beth Adams; Denise Breitburg; Carl Hershner; Michael Kemp; Robert Howarth; Margaret R. Mulholland; Michael Paolisso; David Secor; Kevin Sellner; Denice Wardrop; Robert. Wood

    2010-01-01

    We review current understanding of the potential impact of climate change on the Chesapeake Bay. Scenarios for CO2 emissions indicate that by the end of the 21st century the Bay region will experience significant changes in climate forcings with respect to historical conditions, including increases in CO2 concentrations,...

  11. Characteristic mixing triangles in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.

    Temperature-salinity structures in the inner part of Bay of Bengal showed complete mixing processes in the upper bay, less than about 600 m can be characterisEd. by a mixing triangle constitutEd. by three characteristic water properties. In outer...

  12. 33 CFR 80.1420 - Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1420 Section 80.1420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. A line drawn from...

  13. 33 CFR 80.1430 - Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1430 Section 80.1430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1430 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. A straight line...

  14. 46 CFR 7.110 - Mamala Bay, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mamala Bay, HI. 7.110 Section 7.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Hawaii § 7.110 Mamala Bay, HI. A line drawn from Barbers Point Light to Diamond Head Light. Pacific Coast ...

  15. 75 FR 8396 - Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, Cold Bay, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ...] Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, Cold Bay, Alaska AGENCY: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior..., we will hold public scoping meetings in King Cove, Cold Bay, Sand Point, and Nelson Lagoon in Alaska... Aleutian arc chain of volcanoes. Landforms include mountains, active volcanoes, U-shaped valleys, glacial...

  16. Distribution of particulate carbohydrate species in the Bay of Bengal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    into the Bay large quantities of fresh water .... Distribution of temperature, salinity, particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate nitrogen (TPN), C/N ratio, ... of the surface seawater collected at various locations of the Bay of Bengal. TPURA/. Station. Temperature. POC. TPN. C/N. TPCHO. TPURA. TPCHO no. (. ◦. C). Salinity.

  17. Intertidal sediments and benthic animals of Roebuck Bay, Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, M.; Piersma, T.; Pearson, G.; Lavaleye, M.

    1999-01-01

    Roebuck Bay near Broome (NW Australia) is with itsextensive tidal flats one of the foremost internationallyimportant sites for shorebirds in the Asia-Pacificflyway system. It is home to 150,000 shorebirds (or‘waders’) in the nonbreeding season, which suggeststhat the intertidal flats of the bay have

  18. Understanding Persuasive Online Sales Messages from eBay Auctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Barbara Jo; Clapper, Danial; Noel, Rita; Fortier, Jenny; Grabolosa, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Online auctions are dominated by eBay, which started bringing together buyers and sellers in 1995. eBay product listings can easily be used in business communication courses to better understand online sales messages. One great advantage is that the vast majority of nearly 15 million listings a day are written and assembled by everyday consumers…

  19. A support system for predicting eBay end prices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. van Heijst (Dennis); R. Potharst (Rob); M.C. van Wezel (Michiel)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn this report a support system for predicting end prices on eBay is proposed. The end price predictions are based on the item descriptions found in the item listings of eBay, and on some numerical item features. The system uses text mining and boosting algorithms from the field of

  20. Using naive Bayes classifier for classification of convective rainfall ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... based on 'naiveBayes classifier' is applied. This is a simple probabilistic classifier based on applying 'Bayes' theoremwith strong (naive) independent assumptions. For a 9-month period, the ability of SEVIRI to classifythe rainfall intensity in the convective clouds is evaluated using weather radar over the northern Algeria.

  1. Gamma Activation Analysis in the Havana Bay superficial sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, N.; Gelen, A.; Diaz Riso, O.; Manso, M.V.; Simon, M.J.; Maslov, A.G.; Gustova, M.V.; Beltran, J.; Soto, J.

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary study of 26 elements of Havana Bay superficial sediments were made using Gamma Activation Analysis. Samples from five zones of Havana Bay were analyzed. The results show a close interrelation between the concentration levels of the studied elements and the contaminant sources

  2. Summer survival of Phytophthora ramorum in California bay laurel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth J. Fichtner; David M. Rizzo; Shannon C. Lynch; Jennifer Davidson; Gerri Buckles; Jennifer Parker

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death manifests as non-lethal foliar lesions on bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), which support sporulation and survival of Phytophthora ramorum in forest ecosystems. Infected bay laurel leaves are more likely to abscise than uninfected leaves, resulting in an accumulation of inoculum at the forest floor. The pathogen survives the dry...

  3. Sepetiba Bay: an integrated study of an harbour location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandeira, J.V.; Aun, P.E.; Castro, J.O.N.M. de; Moreira, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Several aspects of the construction of an iron-ore and coal terminal in Sepetiba bay (RJ, Brazil) in the region of south of Madeira Island, are presented. The studies include a general view of the geomorphology of the region, analyses of current measurements, water circulation and sedimentology of the bay by conventional methods and by radioactive tracers. (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. Default Bayes Factors for Model Selection in Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Morey, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a Bayes factor solution for inference in multiple regression. Bayes factors are principled measures of the relative evidence from data for various models or positions, including models that embed null hypotheses. In this regard, they may be used to state positive evidence for a lack of an effect, which is not possible…

  5. Modelling of hydrodynamic circulation in Benoa Bay, Bali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ningsih, Nining Sari; Muchamad, Al Azhar

    2013-01-01

    A simulation of water level, velocity, salinity, and temperature in the Bay of Benoa has been carried out using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic Estuarine and Coastal Ocean Model incorporating a main characteristic of southward transport of the Indonesian throughflow at the offshore area of the bay...

  6. 33 CFR 110.75 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. 110.75... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.75 Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. (a) South area. Southward of... said breakwater; and eastward of the Corpus Christi sea wall. ...

  7. Inputs and spatial distribution patterns of Cr in Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Miao, Zhenqing; Huang, Xinmin; Wei, Linzhen; Feng, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Cr pollution in marine bays has been one of the critical environmental issues, and understanding the input and spatial distribution patterns is essential to pollution control. In according to the source strengths of the major pollution sources, the input patterns of pollutants to marine bay include slight, moderate and heavy, and the spatial distribution are corresponding to three block models respectively. This paper analyzed input patterns and distributions of Cr in Jiaozhou Bay, eastern China based on investigation on Cr in surface waters during 1979-1983. Results showed that the input strengths of Cr in Jiaozhou Bay could be classified as moderate input and slight input, and the input strengths were 32.32-112.30 μg L-1 and 4.17-19.76 μg L-1, respectively. The input patterns of Cr included two patterns of moderate input and slight input, and the horizontal distributions could be defined by means of Block Model 2 and Block Model 3, respectively. In case of moderate input pattern via overland runoff, Cr contents were decreasing from the estuaries to the bay mouth, and the distribution pattern was parallel. In case of moderate input pattern via marine current, Cr contents were decreasing from the bay mouth to the bay, and the distribution pattern was parallel to circular. The Block Models were able to reveal the transferring process of various pollutants, and were helpful to understand the distributions of pollutants in marine bay.

  8. Crustal structure of Bristol Bay Region, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, A.K.; McLean, H.; Marlow, M.S.

    1985-04-01

    Bristol Bay lies along the northern side of the Alaska Peninsula and extends nearly 600 km southwest from the Nushagak lowlands on the Alaska mainland to near Unimak Island. The bay is underlain by a sediment-filled crustal downwarp known as the north Aleutian basin (formerly Bristol basin) that dips southeast toward the Alaska Peninsula and is filled with more than 6 km of strata, dominantly of Cenozoic age. The thickest parts of the basin lie just north of the Alaska Peninsula and, near Port Mollar, are in fault contact with older Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. These Mesozoic rocks form the southern structural boundary of the basin and extend as an accurate belt from at least Cook Inlet to Zhemchug Canyon (central Beringian margin). Offshore multichannel seismic-reflection, sonobuoy seismic-refraction, gravity, and magnetic data collected by the USGS in 1976 and 1982 indicate that the bedrock beneath the central and northern parts of the basin comprises layered, high-velocity, and highly magnetic rocks that are locally deformed. The deep bedrock horizons may be Mesozoic(.) sedimentary units that are underlain by igneous or metamorphic rocks and may correlate with similar rocks of mainland western Alaska and the Alaska Peninsula. Regional structural and geophysical trends for these deep horizons change from northeast-southwest to northwest-southeast beneath the inner Bering shelf and may indicate a major crustal suture along the northern basin edge.

  9. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistarol, Giovana O; Coutinho, Felipe H; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E M; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A B; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Amado Filho, Gilberto M; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E; Thompson, Cristiane C; Salomon, Paulo S; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km(2). In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay's degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay's water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.

  10. 76 FR 70480 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego Bay National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego Bay National Wildlife...), intend to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the proposed Otay River Estuary Restoration... for the Otay River floodplain. Prior to implementation of the restoration project, the California...

  11. GPU MrBayes V3.1: MrBayes on Graphics Processing Units for Protein Sequence Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shuai; Stones, Rebecca J; Ren, Ming-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Gang; Xia, Hong-ju; Wu, Hao-Yang; Liu, Yang; Xie, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    We present a modified GPU (graphics processing unit) version of MrBayes, called ta(MC)(3) (GPU MrBayes V3.1), for Bayesian phylogenetic inference on protein data sets. Our main contributions are 1) utilizing 64-bit variables, thereby enabling ta(MC)(3) to process larger data sets than MrBayes; and 2) to use Kahan summation to improve accuracy, convergence rates, and consequently runtime. Versus the current fastest software, we achieve a speedup of up to around 2.5 (and up to around 90 vs. serial MrBayes), and more on multi-GPU hardware. GPU MrBayes V3.1 is available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/mrbayes-gpu/. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Integrating science and resource management in Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Greening, Holly; Morrison, Gerold

    2011-01-01

    Tampa Bay is recognized internationally for its remarkable progress towards recovery since it was pronounced "dead" in the late 1970s. Due to significant efforts by local governments, industries and private citizens throughout the watershed, water clarity in Tampa Bay is now equal to what it was in 1950, when population in the watershed was less than one-quarter of what it is today. Seagrass extent has increased by more than 8,000 acres since the mid-1980s, and fish and wildlife populations are increasing. Central to this successful turn-around has been the Tampa Bay resource management community's long-term commitment to development and implementation of strong science-based management strategies. Research institutions and agencies, including Eckerd College, the Florida Wildlife Commission Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Mote Marine Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Southwest Florida Water Management District, University of South Florida, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Survey, local and State governments, and private companies contribute significantly to the scientific basis of our understanding of Tampa Bay's structure and ecological function. Resource management agencies, including the Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council's Agency on Bay Management, the Southwest Florida Water Management District's Surface Water Improvement and Management Program, and the Tampa Bay Estuary Program, depend upon this scientific basis to develop and implement regional adaptive management programs. The importance of integrating science with management has become fully recognized by scientists and managers throughout the region, State and Nation. Scientific studies conducted in Tampa Bay over the past 10–15 years are increasingly diverse and complex, and resource management programs reflect our increased knowledge of geology, hydrology and hydrodynamics, ecology and restoration techniques. However, a synthesis of this

  13. Bay breeze climatology at two sites along the Chesapeake bay from 1986-2010: Implications for surface ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Ryan M; Thompson, Anne M

    Hourly surface meteorological measurements were coupled with surface ozone (O 3 ) mixing ratio measurements at Hampton, Virginia and Baltimore, Maryland, two sites along the Chesapeake Bay in the Mid-Atlantic United States, to examine the behavior of surface O 3 during bay breeze events and quantify the impact of the bay breeze on local O 3 pollution. Analyses were performed for the months of May through September for the years 1986 to 2010. The years were split into three groups to account for increasingly stringent environmental regulations that reduced regional emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ): 1986-1994, 1995-2002, and 2003-2010. Each day in the 25-year record was marked either as a bay breeze day, a non-bay breeze day, or a rainy/cloudy day based on the meteorological data. Mean eight hour (8-h) averaged surface O 3 values during bay breeze events were 3 to 5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) higher at Hampton and Baltimore than on non-bay breeze days in all year periods. Anomalies from mean surface O 3 were highest in the afternoon at both sites during bay breeze days in the 2003-2010 study period. In conjunction with an overall lowering of baseline O 3 after the 1995-2002 period, the percentage of total exceedances of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 75 ppbv 8-h O 3 standard that occurred on bay breeze days increased at Hampton for 2003-2010, while remaining steady at Baltimore. These results suggest that bay breeze circulations are becoming more important to causing exceedance events at particular sites in the region, and support the hypothesis of Martins et al. (2012) that highly localized meteorology increasingly drives air quality events at Hampton.

  14. Bayes Empirical Bayes Inference of Amino Acid Sites Under Positive Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ziheng; Wong, Wendy Shuk Wan; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    , with > 1 indicating positive selection. Statistical distributions are used to model the variation in among sites, allowing a subset of sites to have > 1 while the rest of the sequence may be under purifying selection with ... probabilities that a site comes from the site class with > 1. Current implementations, however, use the naive EB (NEB) approach and fail to account for sampling errors in maximum likelihood estimates of model parameters, such as the proportions and ratios for the site classes. In small data sets lacking...... information, this approach may lead to unreliable posterior probability calculations. In this paper, we develop a Bayes empirical Bayes (BEB) approach to the problem, which assigns a prior to the model parameters and integrates over their uncertainties. We compare the new and old methods on real and simulated...

  15. Studies of movement of sediments in Santos bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandeira, J.V.; Aun, P.E.; Bomtempo, V.L.; Salim, L.H.; Minardi, P.S.P.; Santos, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    In the years of 1973, 74, 80, 81 and 85 several studies were performed at Santos bay, using radioactive tracers, with the following main objectives: to evaluate the behaviour (on the bottom and in suspension) of the mixture of silt and clay which is dredged from the estuary and from its access channel and dumped at pre-determined sites, in the bay and surrounding regions, with the objective of optimizing dredging disposal operations; to quantify the movement of sandy sediments on the bottom, in 3 areas of the bay, in summer and winter conditions, to obtain pertinent information related to the siltation of the access channel. As results of these studies, it was found that: the ancient dumping site, near Itaipu Point, in the western limit of the bay, was inadequate, since the material could return to the bay and to the estuary. The dumping site was moved to a region at the south of Moela Island, located eastwards relative to the bay, which brought substantial economies in dredging works; the bottom sediment transport was quantified, following clouds of tagged materials for about 8 months, thus obtaining important conclusions about transport rates in different regions of the bay. An analysis of the intervening hydrodynamic agents is also presented. (author) (L.J.C.)

  16. Spatiotemporal appraisal of TBT contamination and imposex along a tropical bay (Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artifon, Vanda; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    A spatiotemporal evaluation of butyltin contamination was performed between 2010 and 2012 along Todos os Santos Bay (Northeast Brazil) using surface sediments, bivalve tissues (Anomalocardia brasiliana and Mytella guyanensis), and imposex occurrence (Stramonita rustica). The spatial study detected high tributyltin (TBT) levels (maximum values of 262 ng Sn g (-1) - 21,833 ng Sn g(-1) of total organic carbon - for surface sediments and 421 ng Sn g(-1) for bivalve tissues) in the innermost part of the bay. The TBT levels detected in M. guyanensis tissues might cause human health risk since local population consumes these organisms. These high concentrations observed in the bivalves might result in ingestions higher than the safe limits established by European Food Safety Authority (250 ng TBT kg(-1) day(-1)). Considering the temporal evaluation, no difference (p > 0.05) was observed between TBT concentrations in sediments obtained during the two sampling campaigns (2010/2011 and 2012). However, the increasing predominance of TBT metabolites (butyltin degradation index (BDI) >1) in more recent sediments indicates further degradation of old TBT inputs. In spite of that, recent inputs are still evident at this region. Nevertheless, a reduction of imposex parameters in S. rustica over the last decade suggests an overall decline in the TBT contamination, at least in the outermost and possible less impacted region of the bay. The TBT contamination is probably reducing due to the national and international legislative restrictions on the use of TBT as antifouling biocide. The contamination levels, however, are still relevant especially in the inner part of Todos os Santos Bay since they are above those that are likely to cause toxicity to the biota.

  17. Bayes and empirical Bayes estimators of abundance and density from spatial capture-recapture data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Dorazio

    Full Text Available In capture-recapture and mark-resight surveys, movements of individuals both within and between sampling periods can alter the susceptibility of individuals to detection over the region of sampling. In these circumstances spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR models, which incorporate the observed locations of individuals, allow population density and abundance to be estimated while accounting for differences in detectability of individuals. In this paper I propose two Bayesian SECR models, one for the analysis of recaptures observed in trapping arrays and another for the analysis of recaptures observed in area searches. In formulating these models I used distinct submodels to specify the distribution of individual home-range centers and the observable recaptures associated with these individuals. This separation of ecological and observational processes allowed me to derive a formal connection between Bayes and empirical Bayes estimators of population abundance that has not been established previously. I showed that this connection applies to every Poisson point-process model of SECR data and provides theoretical support for a previously proposed estimator of abundance based on recaptures in trapping arrays. To illustrate results of both classical and Bayesian methods of analysis, I compared Bayes and empirical Bayes esimates of abundance and density using recaptures from simulated and real populations of animals. Real populations included two iconic datasets: recaptures of tigers detected in camera-trap surveys and recaptures of lizards detected in area-search surveys. In the datasets I analyzed, classical and Bayesian methods provided similar - and often identical - inferences, which is not surprising given the sample sizes and the noninformative priors used in the analyses.

  18. The light transmission and seiche depth of Izmir Bay, western Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Izmir Bay is one of the most polluted estuaries in the whole Mediterranean Sea. The inner part of the Bay (Inner Bay) is heavily affected by domestic and industrial discharge. As a result of these loads, strong eutrophication occurs in the Inner Bay, which is temporally anaerobic. The ecologically sensitive approach of the ...

  19. Sediment depositional environment in some bays in Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajamanickam, G.V.; Gujar, A.R.

    Bay: beach/river/barrier island/lagoon type; Mirya Bay: beach to barrier island type and Ratnagiri Bay: river to lagoon type. The abnormal values of kurtosis are attributed to such palimsest environment in these bays. The earlier reported heavy...

  20. 75 FR 26226 - Executive Order 13508 Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration Section 203 Final Coordinated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Chesapeake Bay watershed to better align actions to protect and restore the Chesapeake Bay. EO 13508 also... availability of a final strategy for restoration and protection of the Chesapeake Bay that was prepared pursuant to Executive Order (EO) 13508 of May 12, 2009, Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration. The...

  1. Tectonic framework of the Hanoe Bay area, southern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wannaes, K.O.; Floden, T.

    1994-06-01

    The tectonic framework and the general geologic development of the Hanoe Bay, from the Scanian coast in the west to south of Oeland in the east, has been investigated by means of reflection seismic methods. The Hanoe Bay is in this paper subdivided into four areas of different geologic settings. These are: 1) The Hanoe Bay slope, which forms a southward dipping continuation of the rigid Blekinge coastal plain. 2) The eastward dipping Kalmarsund Slope, which southwards from Oeland forms the western part of the Paleozoic Baltic Syneclise. 3) The Mesozoic Hanoe Bay Halfgraben, which forms the central and southern parts of the Hanoe Bay. The ongoing subsidence of the Halfgraben is estimated to be in the order of 20-60 m during the Quaternary. 4) The Yoldia Structural Element, which forms a deformed, tilted and possibly rotated block of Paleozoic bedrock located east of the Hanoe Bay Halfgraben. Two tectonic phases dominate the post-Paleozoic development of the Hanoe Bay, these are: 1) The Early Kimmerian phase, which initiated subsidence and reactivated older faults. 2) The Late Cretaceous phase, which is the main subsidence phase of the Hanoe Bay Halfgraben. The tectonic fault pattern of the Hanoe Bay is dominated by three directions, i.e. NW-SE, NE-SW and WNW-ESE. The two main tectonic elements of the area are the Kullen-Christiansoe Ridge System (NW-SE) and the Bornholm Gat Tectonic Zone (NE-SW). Sinistral strike-slip movements in order of 2-3 km are interpreted to have occurred along the Bornholm Gat Tectonic Zone during the late Cretaceous. 20 refs, 19 figs

  2. Social and environmental impacts of the James Bay hydroelectric project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornig, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    The book, which is an analysis and not an advocacy, examines the anatomy of the controversy that has swirled around the James Bay project - the La Grande and Great Whale projects combined - from the 1970s to the 1990s, and seeks, in the process, to determine whether there are lessons that can be learned from such an analysis that are applicable to other cases as well as to James Bay itself. The contributors are interested, at one and the same time, in finding ways to integrate the knowledge of natural scientists and social scientists to deepen the understanding of human/environment relations and to link science and policy to encourage a productive dialogue between practitioners and scholars in this increasingly important area of inquiry. The contributor's papers include the following: introduction to the issues; hydroelectric power development at James Bay: establishing a frame of reference; James Bay: environmental considerations for building large hydroelectric dams and reservoirs in Quebec; elevated mercury in fish as a result of the James Bay hydroelectric power development: perception and reality; the Cree people of James Bay: assessing the social impacts of hydroelectric dams and reservoirs; culture, social change, and Cree opposition to the James Bay hydroelectric development; and the impact of James Bay hydroelectric development on the art and craft of the James Bay Cree. The authors of the volume have attempted to stand back and examine just a few of these issues from the perspective of a variety of disciplines, and their purpose is to inform and stimulate thoughtful consideration by providing an overall perspective that might might serve to broaden the context in which specific issues can be debated. refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  3. Mercury and Selenium in Muscle and Target Organs of Scalloped Hammerhead Sharks Sphyrna lewini of the SE Gulf of California: Dietary Intake, Molar Ratios, Loads, and Human Health Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergés-Tiznado, Magdalena E; Márquez-Farías, Fernando; Lara-Mendoza, Raúl E; Torres-Rojas, Yassir E; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Bojórquez-Leyva, Humberto; Páez-Osuna, Federico

    2015-11-01

    Selenium and mercury were evaluated in muscle, liver, kidney, brain, and the stomach contents of juvenile scalloped hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini. Se:Hg molar ratios were calculated. The average Hg levels in muscle ranged from 0.12 to 1.17 μg/g (wet weight); Hg was 1. Correlations were found for Hg in muscle with size, age, and weight, and also for Hg in liver with size, age, and weight. Hg in muscle was significantly positive correlated to Hg in brain as well as Hg in liver was correlated to Hg in kidney. The highest Hg in preys was for carangid fishes; scombrid and carangid fishes contributed with the highest Se levels. Results suggest that more than 98 % of the total Hg and 62 % of Se end up in muscle and might be affected by factors, such as geographical area, age, size, and feeding habits. The muscle of S. lewini should be consumed by people cautiously so as not to exceed the recommended intake per week.

  4. Nonparametric Bayes Modeling of Multivariate Categorical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, David B; Xing, Chuanhua

    2012-01-01

    Modeling of multivariate unordered categorical (nominal) data is a challenging problem, particularly in high dimensions and cases in which one wishes to avoid strong assumptions about the dependence structure. Commonly used approaches rely on the incorporation of latent Gaussian random variables or parametric latent class models. The goal of this article is to develop a nonparametric Bayes approach, which defines a prior with full support on the space of distributions for multiple unordered categorical variables. This support condition ensures that we are not restricting the dependence structure a priori. We show this can be accomplished through a Dirichlet process mixture of product multinomial distributions, which is also a convenient form for posterior computation. Methods for nonparametric testing of violations of independence are proposed, and the methods are applied to model positional dependence within transcription factor binding motifs.

  5. Evaluating Bay Area Methane Emission Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Marc [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jeong, Seongeun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    As a regulatory agency, evaluating and improving estimates of methane (CH4) emissions from the San Francisco Bay Area is an area of interest to the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD). Currently, regional, state, and federal agencies generally estimate methane emissions using bottom-up inventory methods that rely on a combination of activity data, emission factors, biogeochemical models and other information. Recent atmospheric top-down measurement estimates of methane emissions for the US as a whole (e.g., Miller et al., 2013) and in California (e.g., Jeong et al., 2013; Peischl et al., 2013) have shown inventories underestimate total methane emissions by ~ 50% in many areas of California, including the SF Bay Area (Fairley and Fischer, 2015). The goal of this research is to provide information to help improve methane emission estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area. The research effort builds upon our previous work that produced methane emission maps for each of the major source sectors as part of the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project (http://calgem.lbl.gov/prior_emission.html; Jeong et al., 2012; Jeong et al., 2013; Jeong et al., 2014). Working with BAAQMD, we evaluate the existing inventory in light of recently published literature and revise the CALGEM CH4 emission maps to provide better specificity for BAAQMD. We also suggest further research that will improve emission estimates. To accomplish the goals, we reviewed the current BAAQMD inventory, and compared its method with those from the state inventory from the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the CALGEM inventory, and recent published literature. We also updated activity data (e.g., livestock statistics) to reflect recent changes and to better represent spatial information. Then, we produced spatially explicit CH4 emission estimates on the 1-km modeling grid used by BAAQMD. We present the detailed activity data, methods and derived emission maps by sector

  6. Characterization of Dredged Sediments from Santander Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, M.; Ibanez, R.; Viguri, J.R.; Irabien, A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the physico- chemical characterisation of Santander Bay (North Spain) inter-tidal sediments, with the determination of levels of selected organic compounds pollution. A sampling strategy has been developed based on characteristic parameters of the study. The physico-chemical seasonal characterisation of sediments has been performed by determination of waster content, Ph, density, humidity, lost on ignition (LOI), particle size distribution, and chemical analysis of three categories of organic compounds (VOCs,EOX and PAHs) selected for its ubiquity, persistence and high potential of environmental hazard. The EOX analysis give a picture of the total load of organo halogen compounds in the estuarine area and the VOC and ph values obtained, allow the characterization of sediments in two areas in function of the closeness to the urban and industrial activities

  7. IMAX films Destiny in Atlantis's payload bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    In the Payload Changeout Room at Launch Pad 39A, a film crew from IMAX prepares its 3-D movie camera to film the payload bay door closure on Atlantis. Behind them is the payload, the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, which will fly on mission STS-98, the seventh construction flight to the ISS. Destiny, a key element in the construction of the International Space Station, is 28 feet long and weighs 16 tons. This research and command-and-control center is the most sophisticated and versatile space laboratory ever built. It will ultimately house a total of 23 experiment racks for crew support and scientific research. Launch of Atlantis is Feb. 7 at 6:11 p.m. EST.

  8. Muon Simulation at the Daya Bay SIte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengyun, Guan; Jun, Cao; Changgen, Yang; Yaxuan, Sun; Luk, Kam-Biu

    2006-01-01

    With a pretty good-resolution mountain profile, we simulated the underground muon background at the Daya Bay site. To get the sea-level muon flux parameterization, a modification to the standard Gaisser's formula was introduced according to the world muon data. MUSIC code was used to transport muon through the mountain rock. To deploy the simulation, first we generate a statistic sample of sea-level muon events according to the sea-level muon flux distribution formula; then calculate the slant depth of muon passing through the mountain using an interpolation method based on the digitized data of the mountain; finally transport muons through rock to get underground muon sample, from which we can get results of muon flux, mean energy, energy distribution and angular distribution.

  9. bayesPop: Probabilistic Population Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševčíková, Hana; Raftery, Adrian E.

    2016-01-01

    We describe bayesPop, an R package for producing probabilistic population projections for all countries. This uses probabilistic projections of total fertility and life expectancy generated by Bayesian hierarchical models. It produces a sample from the joint posterior predictive distribution of future age- and sex-specific population counts, fertility rates and mortality rates, as well as future numbers of births and deaths. It provides graphical ways of summarizing this information, including trajectory plots and various kinds of probabilistic population pyramids. An expression language is introduced which allows the user to produce the predictive distribution of a wide variety of derived population quantities, such as the median age or the old age dependency ratio. The package produces aggregated projections for sets of countries, such as UN regions or trading blocs. The methodology has been used by the United Nations to produce their most recent official population projections for all countries, published in the World Population Prospects. PMID:28077933

  10. Lightning phenomenology in the Tampa Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, D. W.; Uman, M. A.; Wilcox, C. E., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A commercial lightning-locating system (LLS) was employed in the study of lightning phenomenology in the Tampa Bay area of Florida. The LLS output included the time, location, number of strokes per flash, and initial peak magnetic field value of first strokes for lightning ground flashes lowering negative charge. Attention is given to the design and the operation of the LLS, and the experimental results. Measured properties of each of 111 storms are given in a number of tables. It was observed that the apparent motion associated with the lightning activity in storm systems was not due to the motion of the individual single-peak and multiple-peak storms but rather to the successive growth of new storms near previously active storms.

  11. bayesPop: Probabilistic Population Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Ševčíková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe bayesPop, an R package for producing probabilistic population projections for all countries. This uses probabilistic projections of total fertility and life expectancy generated by Bayesian hierarchical models. It produces a sample from the joint posterior predictive distribution of future age- and sex-specific population counts, fertility rates and mortality rates, as well as future numbers of births and deaths. It provides graphical ways of summarizing this information, including trajectory plots and various kinds of probabilistic population pyramids. An expression language is introduced which allows the user to produce the predictive distribution of a wide variety of derived population quantities, such as the median age or the old age dependency ratio. The package produces aggregated projections for sets of countries, such as UN regions or trading blocs. The methodology has been used by the United Nations to produce their most recent official population projections for all countries, published in the World Population Prospects.

  12. Tidal pumping - missing factor in glacial bays evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczucinski, Witold; Moskalik, Mateusz; Dominiczak, Aleksander

    2017-04-01

    Most of the glaciers worldwide are subjected to rapid retreat. It is particularly well visible in Svalbard, where tidewater glaciers after the termination of the Little Ice Age often resulted in formation of new glacial bays. These bays are specific environments, characterised by high sediment accumulation rates, seasonal formation of sea-ice cover and common presence of icebergs. They are usually separated from the rest of the fjord by shallow (e.g. submerged moraine) or narrow passages. Although hostile, these bays also host unique ecosystems, with particular importance as feeding grounds for seals and sea birds. Among factors considered in development of such environments the role of tides is usually neglected or assumed as constant. Here we would like to stress the increasing role of tides in development of glacial bays ecosystems, as well as for import and burial of organic carbon in the bays. We present a model of tide development and results on present day conditions from Brepolen bay in Hornsund (southern Spitsbergen). On the basis of ADCP and CTD surveys we present the modern conditions and water exchange rates between the glacial bay and the fjord. Analysis of archival satellite images, aerial photographs and historical maps was used to map the change in glacial bay area. Finally simple modeling allow to identify a linear increase in tidal pumping magnitude (water exchange due to tides) with increasing glacial bay area due to glaciers retreat. We discuss it in context of potential consequences for bay oceanography, ecology and sedimentation. With fast glacier retreat and rapid grow of glacial bays one may expect the following effects of increasing tidal pumping: enhanced water exchange with the central part of the fjord, increasing salinity, facilitating colonisation by new species (e.g. import of juvenile forms of benthic species), increased input of marine organic carbon into setting suitable for its burial (high sediment accumulation rate in glacial

  13. Transport process and block diagram of Cd in Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Wei, Linzhen; Feng, Ming; Chen, Mei; Miao, Zhenqing

    2017-08-01

    Many marine bays have been polluted by various pollutants due to the rapid development of economic and population. Understanding the transport processes of pollutants in marine bays is essential to pollution control. This paper analyzed the transport processes of Cd in Jiaozhou Bay based on investigation data during 1979-1983. Results showed that the major transport processes of Cd included terrestrial transport process, atmospheric transport process and oceanic transport process, respectively. Furthermore, this paper provided the block diagrams for these transport processes, which were determining the migrating paths and traces of Cd.

  14. Defining a data management strategy for USGS Chesapeake Bay studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladino, Cassandra

    2013-01-01

    The mission of U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Chesapeake Bay studies is to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Collective USGS efforts in the Chesapeake Bay watershed began in the 1980s, and by the mid-1990s the USGS adopted the watershed as one of its national place-based study areas. Great focus and effort by the USGS have been directed toward Chesapeake Bay studies for almost three decades. The USGS plays a key role in using “ecosystem-based adaptive management, which will provide science to improve the efficiency and accountability of Chesapeake Bay Program activities” (Phillips, 2011). Each year USGS Chesapeake Bay studies produce published research, monitoring data, and models addressing aspects of bay restoration such as, but not limited to, fish health, water quality, land-cover change, and habitat loss. The USGS is responsible for collaborating and sharing this information with other Federal agencies and partners as described under the President’s Executive Order 13508—Strategy for Protecting and Restoring the Chesapeake Bay Watershed signed by President Obama in 2009. Historically, the USGS Chesapeake Bay studies have relied on national USGS databases to store only major nationally available sources of data such as streamflow and water-quality data collected through local monitoring programs and projects, leaving a multitude of other important project data out of the data management process. This practice has led to inefficient methods of finding Chesapeake Bay studies data and underutilization of data resources. Data management by definition is “the business functions that develop and execute plans, policies, practices and projects that acquire, control, protect, deliver and enhance the value of data and information.” (Mosley, 2008a). In other words, data management is a way to preserve, integrate, and share data to address the needs of the Chesapeake Bay studies to better

  15. Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station equipment reliability management system innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Ligang; Wang Zongjun

    2006-01-01

    Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station has achieved good performance since its commercial operation in 1994. The equipment reliability management system that features Daya Bay characteristics has been established through constant technology introduction, digestion and innovation. It is also based on the success of operational system, equipment maintenance system and technical support system. The system lays a solid foundation for the long-term safe operation of power station. This article emphasizes on the innovation part of equipment reliability management system in Daya Bay. (authors)

  16. The Neoglacial landscape and human history of Glacier Bay, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, southeast Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, C.; Streveler, G.; Post, A.; Monteith, D.; Howell, W.

    2009-01-01

    The Neoglacial landscape of the Huna Tlingit homeland in Glacier Bay is recreated through new interpretations of the lower Bay's fjordal geomorphology, late Quaternary geology and its ethnographic landscape. Geological interpretation is enhanced by 38 radiocarbon dates compiled from published and unpublished sources, as well as 15 newly dated samples. Neoglacial changes in ice positions, outwash and lake extents are reconstructed for c. 5500?????"200 cal. yr ago, and portrayed as a set of three landscapes at 1600?????"1000, 500?????"300 and 300?????"200 cal. yr ago. This history reveals episodic ice advance towards the Bay mouth, transforming it from a fjordal seascape into a terrestrial environment dominated by glacier outwash sediments and ice-marginal lake features. This extensive outwash plain was building in lower Glacier Bay by at least 1600 cal. yr ago, and had filled the lower bay by 500 cal. yr ago. The geologic landscape evokes the human-described landscape found in the ethnographic literature. Neoglacial climate and landscape dynamism created difficult but endurable environmental conditions for the Huna Tlingit people living there. Choosing to cope with environmental hardship was perhaps preferable to the more severely deteriorating conditions outside of the Bay as well as conflicts with competing groups. The central portion of the outwash plain persisted until it was overridden by ice moving into Icy Strait between AD 1724?????"1794. This final ice advance was very abrupt after a prolonged still-stand, evicting the Huna Tlingit from their Glacier Bay homeland. ?? 2009 SAGE Publications.

  17. MrBayes tgMC³: a tight GPU implementation of MrBayes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ling

    Full Text Available MrBayes is model-based phylogenetic inference tool using Bayesian statistics. However, model-based assessment of phylogenetic trees adds to the computational burden of tree-searching, and so poses significant computational challenges. Graphics Processing Units (GPUs have been proposed as high performance, low cost acceleration platforms and several parallelized versions of the Metropolis Coupled Markov Chain Mote Carlo (MC(3 algorithm in MrBayes have been presented that can run on GPUs. However, some bottlenecks decrease the efficiency of these implementations. To address these bottlenecks, we propose a tight GPU MC(3 (tgMC(3 algorithm. tgMC(3 implements a different architecture from the one-to-one acceleration architecture employed in previously proposed methods. It merges multiply discrete GPU kernels according to the data dependency and hence decreases the number of kernels launched and the complexity of data transfer. We implemented tgMC(3 and made performance comparisons with an earlier proposed algorithm, nMC(3, and also with MrBayes MC(3 under serial and multiply concurrent CPU processes. All of the methods were benchmarked on the same computing node from DEGIMA. Experiments indicate that the tgMC(3 method outstrips nMC(3 (v1.0 with speedup factors from 2.1 to 2.7×. In addition, tgMC(3 outperforms the serial MrBayes MC(3 by a factor of 6 to 30× when using a single GTX480 card, whereas a speedup factor of around 51× can be achieved by using two GTX 480 cards on relatively long sequences. Moreover, tgMC(3 was compared with MrBayes accelerated by BEAGLE, and achieved speedup factors from 3.7 to 5.7×. The reported performance improvement of tgMC(3 is significant and appears to scale well with increasing dataset sizes. In addition, the strategy proposed in tgMC(3 could benefit the acceleration of other Bayesian-based phylogenetic analysis methods using GPUs.

  18. Analysis of Phytoplankton Nutrient Limitation in Farmington Bay and the Great Salt Lake

    OpenAIRE

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.; Marcarelli, Amy

    2004-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake is bordered to the south and east by a growing metropolitan area that contributes high nutrients to Farmington Bay. This large bay is eutrophic, and there is concern that continued increases in effluents from the Salt Lake City area could extend to impact the much larger, and currently less productive, Gilbert Bay. This study focused on determining how nutrient supplies might limit, and therefore control, algal populations in Farmington Bay and Gilbert Bay at different sal...

  19. NUMERICAL MODELS AS TOOLS TO UNDERSTAND THE DYNAMICS IN BAYS: CASE OF STUDY CHETUMAL BAY, QUINTANA ROO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Avalos-Cueva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study performed the simulation of currents generated by the wind on the Bay of Chetumal, Quintana Roo through the use of a stationary shallow-water model. A homogeneous climatic wind was used for the entire Bay, with a velocity of 3m·s-1 , and directions North, South, Northeast, Northwest, East, Southeast, Southwest and West. The results showed a rather complex dynamics in Chetumal Bay, in which important turns were observed in deep areas, with speeds reaching up to 13 cm·s-1 .

  20. Primary production in the Bay of Bengal during August 1977

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devassy, V.P.; Bhattathiri, P.M.A.; Radhakrishna, K.

    Primary production, chlorophyll @ia@@, phaeophytin, phytoplankton and particulate organic carbon (POC) were studied at 14 stations in the Bay of Bengal during August 1977. Column primary production, chlorophyll @ia@@, and phaeopigments varied from 0...

  1. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — One of the most important functions of the southern Monterey Bay coastal system is its role as a habitat for a unique flora and fauna. The beaches are habitat for...

  2. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — One of the most important functions of the southern Monterey Bay coastal system is its role as a habitat for a unique flora and fauna. The beaches are habitat for...

  3. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and coastal areas of...

  4. Shallow-water Benthic Habitats in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico were mapped and characterized using visual interpretation...

  5. Macrofouling community structure in Kanayama Bay, Kii Peninsula (Japan)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; Harada, E.

    An investigation on the macrofouling community in Kanayama Bay, Kill Peninsula, Japan was undertaken from June 1994 to May 1995 by exposing fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) panels at subsurface and bottom (2.2 m) depths. The composition and abundance...

  6. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Kachemak Bay Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Kachemak Bay system in...

  7. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - San Francisco Bay Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the San Francisco Bay...

  8. San Francisco Bay Interferometric Side Scan Imagery: Area B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High resolution sonar data were collected over ultra-shallow areas of the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  9. Expanded USGS science in the Chesapeake Bay restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Scott

    2010-01-01

    In May 2009, the President issued Executive Order (EO) 13508 for Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration. For the first time since the creation of the Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) in 1983, the full weight of the Federal Government will be used to address the challenges facing the Chesapeake Bay. The EO directs the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), represented by the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), to expand its efforts and increase leadership to restore the Bay and its watershed. A Federal Leadership Committee (FLC) was established to ensure coordination of Federal activities and consult with states and stakeholders to align restoration efforts.

  10. Data supporting study of Ecosystem Metabolism in Pensacola Bay estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These files house the data collected during 2013 in lower Pensacola Bay. The data were used to estimate aquatic primary production and respiration. This dataset is...

  11. AFSC/ABL: Auke Bay Climatology 1959-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data set includes available climatological and related physical environmental records for Auke Bay, Auke Creek and Auke Lake beginning in 1959. Daily high and low...

  12. Characteristics of nearshore waters in Binge Bay, Karwar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    Environmental parameters to delineate characteristics of nearshore waters were studied over one year in Binge Bay. Existence of low temperature, high saline, low dissolved oxygen and high nutrient water during August-October at the bottom...

  13. Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer Brightness Temperatures, Wakasa Bay, Japan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes calibrated brightness temperatures measured over Wakasa Bay in the Sea of Japan in January and February 2003. The MIR was carried on a...

  14. Field guide to fishes of the chesapeake bay

    CERN Document Server

    Murdy, Edward O.

    2013-01-01

    The only comprehensive field guide to the Chesapeake’s fishes, this book is an indispensable resource for both anglers and students of the Bay. Vivid illustrations by Val Kells complement the expertise of researchers Edward O. Murdy and John A. Musick. They describe fishes that inhabit waters ranging from low-salinity estuaries to the point where the Bay meets the Atlantic Ocean. Key features of this field guide include• full-color illustrations of more than 200 species• text that is presented adjacent to illustrations for easy reference• detailed descriptions of physical characteristics, range, occurrence in the Bay, reproduction, diet, and statistics from fisheries research• spot illustrations that highlight critical features of certain fish• illustrations of juveniles when they look different from adults• appendices that include identification keys Formatted as a compact field guide for students, scientists, researchers, and fishermen, Field Guide to Fishes of the Chesapeake Bay should be a ...

  15. San Francisco Bay, California 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1-second San Francisco Bay, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This...

  16. AMMR Air and Brightness Temperature Data, Wakasa Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Wakasa Bay Field Campaign was conducted in January and February 2003 to validate rainfall algorithms developed for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer -...

  17. Delaware Bay, Delaware Sediment Distribution 2003 to 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 38 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2003 to 2004 along the middle to lower Delaware Bay Coast. The bottom sediment map...

  18. Eureka Littoral Cell CRSMP Humboldt Bay Shoreline Types 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In 2011 Aldaron Laird walked and kayaked the entire shoreline of Humboldt Bay mapping the shoreline conditions onto 11x17 laminated fieldmaps at a scale of 1' = 200'...

  19. APR-2 Dual-frequency Airborne Radar Observations, Wakasa Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In January and February 2003, the Airborne Second Generation Precipitation Radar (APR-2) collected data in the Wakasa Bay AMSR-E validation campaign over the sea of...

  20. SEASONAL DOMINANCE OF CYANOBACTERIA IN PENSACOLA BAY, FLORIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted during 1999-2000 in Pensacola Bay, Florida, USA to characterize the seasonal dynamics of nutrients, phytoplankton, and bacterioplankton. Monthly samples were collected from 5 sites spanning the salinity gradient. Abundances of non-heterocystous chroococcoid...

  1. Microplastic contamination in the San Francisco Bay, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Rebecca; Mason, Sherri A; Stanek, Shavonne K; Willis-Norton, Ellen; Wren, Ian F; Box, Carolynn

    2016-08-15

    Despite widespread detection of microplastic pollution in marine environments, data describing microplastic abundance in urban estuaries and microplastic discharge via treated municipal wastewater are limited. This study presents information on abundance, distribution, and composition of microplastic at nine sites in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Also presented are characterizations of microplastic in final effluent from eight wastewater treatment plants, employing varying treatment technologies, that discharge to the Bay. With an average microplastic abundance of 700,000particles/km(2), Bay surface water appears to have higher microplastic levels than other urban waterbodies sampled in North America. Moreover, treated wastewater from facilities that discharge into the Bay contains considerable microplastic contamination. Facilities employing tertiary filtration did not show lower levels of contamination than those using secondary treatment. As textile-derived fibers were more abundant in wastewater, higher levels of fragments in surface water suggest additional pathways of microplastic pollution, such as stormwater runoff. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neah Bay, Washington Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Neah Bay, Washington Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  3. Tampa Bay Topographic/Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In this joint demonstration project for the Tampa Bay region, NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have merged NOAA bathymetric...

  4. Canonical sound speed profile for the central Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Sastry, J.S.; De Figueiredo, R.J.P.

    Following Munk's canonical theory, an algorithm has been presented for computing sound channel parameters in the western and southern Bay of Bengal. The estimated canonical sound speed profile using these parameters has been compared with computed...

  5. Circulation and geostrophic transport in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.P.; Murty, V.S.N.

    Utilising the hydrographic data collected during the early northeast monsoon of 1983 and southwest monsoon of 1984, the circulation of waters of the Bay of Bengal and the associated volume transport have been studied in the upper 1000 m...

  6. DDT residues in sediments from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; SenGupta, R.

    in the sediments from the Bay of Bengal. Peterson grab and hydrographic winch was used to collect the sediment samples. Each sample was extracted and cleaned. Residues were detected by electron capture gas chromatography. A range variation in the concentration...

  7. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Critical Habitats, Wildlife Refuges, National Park lands, and other management areas in the Bristol Bay Subarea....

  8. 2004 Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan Coastline LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata document describes the collection and processing of Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data over an area along the coast of Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron,...

  9. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, and seabirds in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea...

  10. Rail embankment stabilization needs on the Hudson Bay Railway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-24

    Since its construction in 1929, the Hudson Bay Railway (HBR) located in northern Manitoba, Canada, has been witnessing track deterioration through differential settlements. These differential settlements, termed sinkholes, have been linked to t...

  11. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Proposed Receiver Site 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Given the location of the critical areas of erosion and the need to avoid adverse impacts to local sensitive habitat, the Southern Monterey Bay Coastal RSM Plan...

  12. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Proposed Receiver Site 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Given the location of the critical areas of erosion and the need to avoid adverse impacts to local sensitive habitat, the Southern Monterey Bay Coastal RSM Plan...

  13. Massachusetts Bay - Internal wave packets digitized from SAR imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This feature class contains internal wave packets digitized from SAR imagery at 1:350,000 scale in Massachusetts Bay. Internal waves are nonsinusoidal waves that...

  14. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and...

  15. San Francisco Bay Interferometric Side Scan Imagery: Area A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Backscatter imagery data were collected over shallow subtidal areas in the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  16. San Francisco Bay Multi-beam Backscatter Imagery: Area A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Backscatter imagery data were collected over shallow subtidal areas in the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  17. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting seabirds (alcids, pelagic birds), gulls, terns, diving birds, and raptors in the Bristol Bay...

  18. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: HABITATS (Habitats Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and coastal...

  19. Theories of transporting processes of Cu in Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Su, Chunhua; Zhu, Sixi; Wu, Yunjie; Zhou, Wei

    2018-02-01

    Many marine bays have been polluted along with the rapid development of industry and population size, and understanding the transporting progresses of pollutants is essential to pollution control. In order to better understanding the transporting progresses of pollutants in marine, this paper carried on a comprehensive research of the theories of transporting processes of Cu in Jiaozhou Bay. Results showed that the transporting processes of Cu in this bay could be summarized into seven key theories including homogeneous theory, environmental dynamic theory, horizontal loss theory, source to waters transporting theory, sedimentation transporting theory, migration trend theory and vertical transporting theory, respectively. These theories helpful to better understand the migration progress of pollutants in marine bay.

  20. Particulate carbohydrate and proteins in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreepada, R.A.; Rivonker; Parulekar

    -N ratios in the 150 m water column with those observed from other regions (oligotrophic and eutrophic), in addition to phytoplankton cultures, suggests that the Bay of Bengal appears to be oligatrophic rather than eutrophic, with a much higher contribution...

  1. Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Strategy for Mobile Bay, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    followed Alabama guidelines including the use of magnetometers, fathometers, side-scan sonar , differential global positioning system, and line spacing of...will be retained in the natural Mobile Bay sediment transport system. Both hydraulic cutterhead dredges and hopper dredges have advantages and... disadvantages relating to Mobile Bay placement techniques. ERDC/CHL CHETN-XIV-41 April 2015 12 Hydraulic cutterhead dredges are extremely efficient when

  2. Bay of Bengal Surface and Thermocline and the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    oceanographic processes that exchange low salinity surface and upper thermocline water of the Bay of Bengal with the salty Arabian Sea and tropical Indian Ocean...yet so different, one relatively fresh the other salty. The input of freshwater into BoB must be balanced, in quasi-stationary steady state, by...export of freshwater to the Arabian Sea to offset its net evaporation. Complicating the study of the inter-bay exchange is the vigorous mesoscale field

  3. An Oceanographic and Climatological Atlas of Bristol Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    have a profound the bay North Pacific water which has just entered effect on regional oceanographic phenomena. An the Bering Sea through Unimak Pass... Unimak circulation in outer Bristol Bay consists of a Island, much of the coastal current is entrained typically unclosed counterclockwise gyre open to...Peninsula and become more face currents. cyclonic and rotary offshore. National Ocean Sea level changes on either side of Unimak Survey current tables

  4. 76 FR 23189 - Safety Zone; Pensacola Bay; Pensacola, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Pensacola Bay; Pensacola, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone for a portion of Pensacola Bay including...[deg]17'20.31'' W, 30[deg]20'41.51'' N 087[deg]15'01.15'' W, and 30[deg]20'11.76'' N 087[deg]15'01.18...

  5. PENERAPAN NAIVE BAYES PADA INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM DENGAN DISKRITISASI VARIABEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Trisna Wirawan

    2015-07-01

    Pada penelitian ini akan dibahas mengenai penerapan naive bayes classifier dengan menggunakan pemilihan atribut berdasarkan pada korelasi serta preprocessing data dengan diskritisasi dengan menggunakan metode mean/standar deviasi untuk atribut kontinu dengan menggunakan 3-interval dan 5-interval. Hasil percobaan menunjukan bahwa penerapan naive bayes pada klasifikasi data yang telah melewati proses diskritisasi mampu memberikan akurasi hingga 89% dengan running time rata-rata adalah 31 detik.

  6. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Reddy, G.V.; Araligidad, N.; Shenoy, Shrikant

    evaporation rates. However, the precipitation in the Bay changes significantly betweensummerandwinter(Varkeyetal., 1996). ThephysiographicconditionsofsouthernAsiaare *Correspondingauthor.Fax:+91-832-223340. E-mail address: pankaj@csnio.ren.nic.in, pankaj..., the excessive precipitation (P) over evaporation (E) during summer is another significant source of fresh water to the Bay (Harenduprakash and Mitra, 1988; Prasad, 1997). Thus, the large river runoff and excess precipitation over evaporation during summer monsoon...

  7. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  8. Revisiting the Chesapeake Bay phytoplankton index of biotic integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jacqueline M; Buchanan, Claire

    2014-03-01

    In 2006, a phytoplankton index of biotic integrity (PIBI) was published for Chesapeake Bay Lacouture et al. (Estuaries 29(4):598-616, 2006). The PIBI was developed from data collected during the first 18 years (1985-2002) of the Chesapeake Bay Program long-term phytoplankton and water quality monitoring programs. Combinations of up to nine phytoplankton metrics were selected to characterize bay habitat health according to plankton community condition in spring and summer seasons across four salinity zones. The independent data available at the time for index validation was not sufficient to test the PIBI because they lacked critical index parameters (pheophytin and dissolved organic carbon) and reference samples for some seasons and salinity zones. An additional 8 years of monitoring data (2003-2010) are now available to validate the original index, reassess index performance and re-examine long-term trends in PIBI conditions in the Bay. The PIBI remains sensitive to changes in nutrient and light conditions. Evaluation of the PIBI results over the entire 1985-2010 time period shows no discernible trends in the overall health of Bay habitat based on phytoplankton community conditions. This lack of overall PIBI trend appears to be a combined response to declines in water clarity and improvements in dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved phosphorus conditions in the bay.

  9. Observation on Heavy Metals in Sediment of Jakarta Bay Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rozak

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Observation on heavy metals in Jakarta Bay, from June and September 2003. Heavy metals Pb in sediment at the West have been conductet of Jakarta Bay Waters varied between Pb = 8,49-31,22 ppm, Cd = <0,001-0,47 ppm, Cu = 13,81-193,75 ppm, Zn = 82,18-533,59 ppm and Ni = 0,99-35,38 ppm,while those at the Center of Jakarta Bay, varied between Pb = 2,21-69,22 ppm, Cd = <0,001-0,28 ppm, Cu = 3,36-50,65 ppm, Zn = 71,13-230,54 ppm and Ni = 0,42-15,58 ppm and at the East of Jakarta Bay, Pb content varied between 0,25-77,42 ppm, Cd = <0,001-0,42 ppm, Cu = 0,79-44,94 ppm, Zn = 93,21-289,00 ppm and Ni = 0,42-128,47 ppm. Hevy metals content in sediment the West of Jakarta Bay was high of equivalent the Center and East of Jakarta Bay. At than those composition sediment at the west was black, that indicated high heavy metals content.

  10. San Francisco Bay Area Baseline Trash Loading Summary Results, San Francisco Bay Area CA, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Area stormwater permit sets trash control guidelines for discharges through the storm drain system. The permit covers Alameda, Contra Costa,...

  11. Soundscape Ecology of Hawaiian Spinner Dolphin Resting Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenehan, Heather Leigh

    Sound is a key sensory modality for Hawaiian spinner dolphins. Like many other marine animals, these dolphins rely on sound and their acoustic environment for many aspects of their daily lives, making it is essential to understand soundscape in areas that are critical to their survival. Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest during the day in shallow coastal areas and forage offshore at night. In my dissertation I focus on the soundscape of the bays where Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest taking a soundscape ecology approach. I primarily relied on passive acoustic monitoring using four DSG-Ocean acoustic loggers in four Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting bays on the Kona Coast of Hawai'i Island. 30-second recordings were made every four minutes in each of the bays for 20 to 27 months between January 8, 2011 and March 30, 2013. I also utilized concomitant vessel-based visual surveys in the four bays to provide context for these recordings. In my first chapter I used the contributions of the dolphins to the soundscape to monitor presence in the bays and found the degree of presence varied greatly from less than 40% to nearly 90% of days monitored with dolphins present. Having established these bays as important to the animals, in my second chapter I explored the many components of their resting bay soundscape and evaluated the influence of natural and human events on the soundscape. I characterized the overall soundscape in each of the four bays, used the tsunami event of March 2011 to approximate a natural soundscape and identified all loud daytime outliers. Overall, sound levels were consistently louder at night and quieter during the daytime due to the sounds from snapping shrimp. In fact, peak Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting time co-occurs with the quietest part of the day. However, I also found that humans drastically alter this daytime soundscape with sound from offshore aquaculture, vessel sound and military mid-frequency active sonar. During one recorded mid

  12. Recipient Capacity of Tvaeren, a Baltic Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnedal, P.O.; Bergstroem, S.O.W.

    1966-07-15

    The research station at Studsvik is situated on the Baltic coast and includes several reactors and laboratories, a waste disposal plant serving both the station and waste producers outside Studsvik. A storage plant for irradiated fuel from power reactors has also been built. A total of 850 people are employed. The waste disposal plant was designed for a personnel of 900 using foreign information to correlate waste amounts to personnel. After a delay production has increased at a rate very close to the one expected. The composition of the waste is varied and difficult to predict. Minor amounts of fission products, active corrosion products, and fissile materials have been detected. Most of the waste activity is released to a strait leading into the Bay. Large volumes of water with very low specific activity are released immediately off the coast. Hydrological and dispersion data for the bay are quoted from a paper presented at the symposium mentioned below. The Baltic has brackish water. Both the chemistry and the biology are quite different from those of marine or fresh water recipients. A short description is given of the fauna and flora and important food webs are discussed. The different ways in which man is exposed to radioactivity in waste releases are dependent upon biological accumulation in living organisms and adsorption to dead materials. Fish consumption is the type of exposure which is likely to be the most critical, though it is possible that the exposure from sunbathing and fishing-gear handling could reach similar significance if conservative calculations are used. Accumulation factors from water to fish are given for iron, cobalt,and zinc . Permissible releases have been calculated using relevant accumulation factors. Fission products and corrosion products seem to be of similar significance with regard to possible human exposure. Permission to release liquid waste is granted by water courts in Sweden and operations inspected by special authorities

  13. Environmental geology of Harrison Bay, northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.D.; Thrasher, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The surficial and shallow subsurface geology of Harrison Bay on the Beaufort Sea coast was mapped as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's prelease evaluation for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 71. During the 1980 summer season, approximately 1600 km of multisensored, high-resolution geophysical profile data were collected along a rectangular grid with 4.8 km line spacing. Interpretation of these data is presented on five maps showing bathymetry, sea-floor microrelief, ice-gouge characteristics, Holocene sediment thickness, and geologic structure to depths of approximately 1000 m. On a broad scale, the seafloor is shallow and almost flat, although microrelief features produced by sediment transport and ice-gouge processes typically vary up to several meters in amplitude. Microrelief bedforms related to hydraulic processes are predominant in water depths less than 12 m. Microrelief caused by ice gouging generally increases with water depth, reaching a maximum of 2 m or more in water depths beyond the 20 m isobath. This intensely gouged area lies beneath the shear zone between the seasonal landfast ice and the mobile polar ice pack. The thickness of recent (Holocene) sediment increases offshore, from 2 m near the Colville River delta to 30 m or more on the outer shelf. The thin Holocene layer is underlain by a complex horizon interpreted to be the upper surface of a Pleistocene deposit similar in composition to the present Arctic Coastal Plain. The base of the inferred Pleistocene section is interpreted to be a low-angle unconformity 100 m below sea level. Beneath this Tertiary-Quaternary unconformity, strata are interpreted to be alluvial fan-delta plain deposits corresponding to the Colville Group and younger formations of Late Cretaceous to Tertiary age. Numerous high-angle faults downthrown to the north trend across the survey area. With few exceptions, these faults terminate at or below the 100 m unconformity, suggesting that most tectonism

  14. Recipient Capacity of Tvaeren, a Baltic Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnedal, P.O.; Bergstroem, S.O.W.

    1966-07-01

    The research station at Studsvik is situated on the Baltic coast and includes several reactors and laboratories, a waste disposal plant serving both the station and waste producers outside Studsvik. A storage plant for irradiated fuel from power reactors has also been built. A total of 850 people are employed. The waste disposal plant was designed for a personnel of 900 using foreign information to correlate waste amounts to personnel. After a delay production has increased at a rate very close to the one expected. The composition of the waste is varied and difficult to predict. Minor amounts of fission products, active corrosion products, and fissile materials have been detected. Most of the waste activity is released to a strait leading into the Bay. Large volumes of water with very low specific activity are released immediately off the coast. Hydrological and dispersion data for the bay are quoted from a paper presented at the symposium mentioned below. The Baltic has brackish water. Both the chemistry and the biology are quite different from those of marine or fresh water recipients. A short description is given of the fauna and flora and important food webs are discussed. The different ways in which man is exposed to radioactivity in waste releases are dependent upon biological accumulation in living organisms and adsorption to dead materials. Fish consumption is the type of exposure which is likely to be the most critical, though it is possible that the exposure from sunbathing and fishing-gear handling could reach similar significance if conservative calculations are used. Accumulation factors from water to fish are given for iron, cobalt,and zinc . Permissible releases have been calculated using relevant accumulation factors. Fission products and corrosion products seem to be of similar significance with regard to possible human exposure. Permission to release liquid waste is granted by water courts in Sweden and operations inspected by special authorities

  15. Status, trends, and changes in freshwater inflows to bay systems in the Corpus Christi Bay National Estuary Program study area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, W.H.; Mosier, J. G.; Bush, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to quantify current (1983–93) mean freshwater inflows to the six bay systems (open water and wetlands) in the Corpus Christi Bay National Estuary Program study area, to test for historical temporal trends in inflows, and to quantify historical and projected changes in inflows. The report also addresses the adequacy of existing data to estimate freshwater inflows.

  16. Short Term Sediment Exchange Between Marshes and Bays Using Beryllium-7 as a Tracer, Fourleague Bay, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restreppo, G. A.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    Modern delta models focus on the availability and exchange of coarse sediment as one of the major factors of deltaic growth or decay. Fine-grained sediment exchange within a river's delta is relatively poorly understood, as is the impact that this exchange has on land building and land loss. To better understand the dynamics of fine grain sediment exchange between river mouth, adjacent bays, and marshland, sediment cores from Fourleague Bay, LA, were collected and analyzed for 7Be, a naturally occurring radioisotope that serves as a marker for recently deposited sediment. Time-series push cores were collected every two months at ten sites, five located across a longitudinal transect in the middle bay and five located along adjacent marshes, from May 2015 to May 2016. All sites fall within 11 to 28 km of the Atchafalaya Delta, along a gradient extending towards the open ocean. Cores were extruded in 2 cm intervals, dried, ground, and analyzed via gamma spectrometry for the presence of 7Be. Inventories of 7Be were then calculated and used to determine bimonthly sedimentation rates over the course twelve months. Sediment deposition on the bay floor and marsh surface were then compared to Atchafalaya River discharge, wind speed and direction, and wave action. Preliminary results indicate patterns of initial fluvial sediment transfer from river to bay floor, then bay floor to marsh surface, with decreasing fluvial influence towards the open ocean. Sediment transport from bay to marsh appears to be coupled with meteorological forcing that induces bay-floor sediment resuspension and the flooding of marsh surfaces. This indirect mechanism of fluvial sediment supply to wetland surfaces may extend the region of influence for sediment delivery from man-made river-sediment diversions.

  17. THE RESPONSE OF MONTEREY BAY TO THE 2010 CHILEAN EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence C. Breaker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary frequencies contained in the arrival sequence produced by the tsunami from the Chilean earthquake of 2010 in Monterey Bay were extracted to determine the seiche modes that were produced. Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA and Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD were employed to extract the primary frequencies of interest. The wave train from the Chilean tsunami lasted for at least four days due to multipath arrivals that may not have included reflections from outside the bay but most likely did include secondary undulations, and energy trapping in the form of edge waves, inside the bay. The SSA decomposition resolved oscillations with periods of 52-57, 34-35, 26-27, and 21-22 minutes, all frequencies that have been predicted and/or observed in previous studies. The EEMD decomposition detected oscillations with periods of 50-55 and 21-22 minutes. Periods in the range of 50-57 minutes varied due to measurement uncertainties but almost certainly correspond to the first longitudinal mode of oscillation for Monterey Bay, periods of 34-35 minutes correspond to the first transverse mode of oscillation that assumes a nodal line across the entrance of the bay, a period of 26- 27 minutes, although previously observed, may not represent a fundamental oscillation, and a period of 21-22 minutes has been predicted and observed previously. A period of ~37 minutes, close to the period of 34-35 minutes, was generated by the Great Alaskan Earthquake of 1964 in Monterey Bay and most likely represents the same mode of oscillation. The tsunamis associated with the Great Alaskan Earthquake and the Chilean Earthquake both entered Monterey Bay but initially arrived outside the bay from opposite directions. Unlike the Great Alaskan Earthquake, however, which excited only one resonant mode inside the bay, the Chilean Earthquake excited several modes suggesting that the asymmetric shape of the entrance to Monterey Bay was an important factor and that the

  18. Groupthink, Bay of Pigs, and Watergate Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven

    1998-02-01

    Irving Janis's concept of groupthink can be seen in the context of our on-again-off-again love affair with groups. Group decisions have often been seen as offering the benefits of collective wisdom, but may also lead to disastrous consequences. Groupthink then focuses on the negative effects of erroneous group decisions. Two major examples of groupthink are reexamined and compared: the disastrous Bay of Pigs decision by the elite advisory group of President Kennedy, and the advisory groups of President Nixon, which led to the Watergate disaster and at unsuccessful attempts to cover up. In both, it is suggested there was a "runaway norm," escalation and polarization with the norm being to exceed other members of the group in taking more extreme and unrestrained actions against an "enemy." While Janis seems to suggest that groupthink will ultimately lead the group to fail in its ultimate endeavors, we need to consider the frightening possibility that in the case of the Nixon group, the group actions came close to being successful. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  19. Atmospheric deposition fluxes to Monetary Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, E.; Paytan, A.; Ryan, J.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition has been widely recognized as a source of pollutants and nutrients to coastal ecosystems. Specifically, deposition includes nitrogen compounds, sulfur compounds, mercury, pesticides, phosphate, trace metals and other toxic compounds that can travel great distances. Sources of these components include both natural (volcanoes, mineral dust, forest fires) and anthropogenic (fossil fuels, chemical byproducts, incineration of waste) sources, which may contribute to harmful health and environmental impacts such as eutrophication, contaminated fish and harmful algal blooms. This study looks at the flux of aerosol deposition (TSP - total suspended particle load) to Monterey Bay, California. Samples are collected on a cascade impactor aerosol sampler (size fractions PM 2.5 and PM 10) every 48 hours continuously. Preliminary results indicate that the TSP for PM 10 ranged from 0.026 to 0.104 mg m-3 of air and for PM 2.5 from 0.014 to 0.046 mg m-3 of air. Using a deposition velocity of 2 cm s-1 for the large fraction (PM10 - PM 2.5) and a deposition velocity of 0.7 cm s-1 for the fine fraction (PM 2.5) deposition rates are 13 and 86 mg m-2 d-1 respectively.

  20. Mangrove Forest Structure in Ungwana Bay, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundotich, G; Karacchi, M.; Kairo, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Forest structure and natural regeneration was investigated in a 12-year-old Rhizophoria reforested stand at Gazi bay, Kenya. Within 10* 10m 2 plots, tree height and stem diameter at breast height (DBH) of all trees of DBH>2.5 cm were determined. Stand volume was estimated by allometric equations derived from 50 harvested trees. The composition of juveniles was determined by within 5*5 m 2 inside the 10 * 10 plots. The stand density in Rhizophora plantation was 5,132 stems ha - 1, with a mean canopy height and stem diameter of 8.4+ 1 .1 m (range: 3.0 to 11.0 m) and 6.2+ 1 .87 cm (range: 2.5 to 12.4 cm) respectively. The stand volume was 103.80 m 3 ha-1 , stilt roots and branches combined was 43.09 m 3 ha-1 . Five species with juveniles; Rhizophora mucronata, Bruguieria gymnorrhiza, Ceriops tagal, Sonneretia alba and Xylocarpus granatum, were encountered with density of 4 886 juveniles ha-1 , with clustered distribution pattern

  1. [Reflectance of sea ice in Liaodong Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhan-tang; Yang, Yue-zhong; Wang, Gui-fen; Cao, Wen-xi; Kong, Xiang-peng

    2010-07-01

    In the present study, the relationships between sea ice albedo and the bidirectional reflectance distribution in Liaodong Bay were investigated. The results indicate that: (1) sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is closely related to the components of sea ice, the higher the particulate concentration in sea ice surface is, the lower the sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is. On the contrary, the higher the bubble concentration in sea ice is, the higher sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is. (2) Sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is similar to the bidirectional reflectance factor R(f) when the probe locates at nadir. The R(f) would increase with the increase in detector zenith theta, and the correlation between R(f) and the detector azimuth would gradually increase. When the theta is located at solar zenith 63 degrees, the R(f) would reach the maximum, and the strongest correlation is also shown between the R(f) and the detector azimuth. (3) Different types of sea ice would have the different anisotropic reflectance factors.

  2. Content Abstract Classification Using Naive Bayes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Syukriyanto; Suwardoyo, Untung; Aldrin Wihelmus Sanadi, Edwin

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to classify abstract content based on the use of the highest number of words in an abstract content of the English language journals. This research uses a system of text mining technology that extracts text data to search information from a set of documents. Abstract content of 120 data downloaded at www.computer.org. Data grouping consists of three categories: DM (Data Mining), ITS (Intelligent Transport System) and MM (Multimedia). Systems built using naive bayes algorithms to classify abstract journals and feature selection processes using term weighting to give weight to each word. Dimensional reduction techniques to reduce the dimensions of word counts rarely appear in each document based on dimensional reduction test parameters of 10% -90% of 5.344 words. The performance of the classification system is tested by using the Confusion Matrix based on comparative test data and test data. The results showed that the best classification results were obtained during the 75% training data test and 25% test data from the total data. Accuracy rates for categories of DM, ITS and MM were 100%, 100%, 86%. respectively with dimension reduction parameters of 30% and the value of learning rate between 0.1-0.5.

  3. Highlights from the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With an understanding of the energy response of the anti-neutrino detectors, the Daya Bay collaboration presents new results using gadolinium-neutron capture: sin2 2θ13 = 0.108 ± 0.028 and |Δmee2| = 2.55−0.18+0.21 × 10−3 eV2 with only the distortion information of the neutrino energy spectrum shape, and sin2 2θ13 = 0.090−0.009+0.008 and |Δmee2| = 2.59−0.20+0.19 10−3 eV2 with both the shape and event rate information. It is also demonstrated that a clean inverse beta decay sample can be extracted using hydrogen-neutron capture, which is now being used for neutrino oscillation measurement. The supernova online trigger is designed and implemented, which can provide about 100% efficiency for all SN1987A-scale supernova bursts within the Milky Way.

  4. Holocene Tsunamis in Avachinsky Bay, Kamchatka, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinegina, Tatiana K.; Bazanova, Lilya I.; Zelenin, Egor A.; Bourgeois, Joanne; Kozhurin, Andrey I.; Medvedev, Igor P.; Vydrin, Danil S.

    2018-03-01

    This article presents results of the study of tsunami deposits on the Avachinsky Bay coast, Kurile-Kamchatka island arc, NW Pacific. We used tephrochronology to assign ages to the tsunami deposits, to correlate them between excavations, and to restore paleo-shoreline positions. In addition to using established regional marker tephra, we establish a detailed tephrochronology for more local tephra from Avachinsky volcano. For the first time in this area, proximal to Kamchatka's primary population, we reconstruct the vertical runup and horizontal inundation for 33 tsunamis recorded over the past 4200 years, 5 of which are historical events - 1737, 1792, 1841, 1923 (Feb) and 1952. The runup heights for all 33 tsunamis range from 1.9 to 5.7 m, and inundation distances from 40 to 460 m. The average recurrence for historical events is 56 years and for the entire study period 133 years. The obtained data makes it possible to calculate frequencies of tsunamis by size, using reconstructed runup and inundation, which is crucial for tsunami hazard assessment and long-term tsunami forecasting. Considering all available data on the distribution of historical and paleo-tsunami heights along eastern Kamchatka, we conclude that the southern part of the Kamchatka subduction zone generates stronger tsunamis than its northern part. The observed differences could be associated with variations in the relative velocity and/or coupling between the downgoing Pacific Plate and Kamchatka.

  5. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. 137Cs and 210Pb distribution in Manila Bay sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sta. Maria, Efren J.; Madrid, Jordan F.; Olivares, Ryan U.; Bulos, Adelina DM; Dayaon, Jennyvi P.; Asa, Anie Day DC; Sombrito, Elvira Z.

    2011-01-01

    Two radionuclides were measured in surface sediment samples taken from geographically distributed sections of Manila Bay, namely cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and lead-210 ( 210 Pb). Results indicated a noticeable change in the radioactivity concentration levels in sediments collected in 2005 and 2010, with a median concentration of 1.0 and 2.64 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Higher levels of 137 Cs radioactivity were measured in the northern and inner portion of the bay adjacent to major river systems, agricultural and highly industrialized urban areas. 137 Cs isotope increased in activity in most of the samples especially in the northwestern areas of Bataan and Pampanga with five times more than the activity from the first sampling measurements. Nevertheless, radioactivity concentrations observed in surface sediments along the bay are within the range of radioactivity in several areas monitored in the Northern Hemisphere. The country has been frequented by tropical cyclones and storms that have caused erosion, which may have introduced elevated material input in the bay. In addition, wind-driven circulation especially in the shallower areas of the bay is a possibility for the substantial sediment movement and accumulation along this coast. Conversely, areas with higher 137 Cs have lower values of 210 Pb. In an undisturbed environment, 210 Pb deposition values are assumed nearly constant. Hence, changes in the radioactivity concentration levels of these radionuclides can be an indicator of pollution input from land-based sources, sediment movement and reworking in the coastal areas. At present, there is very limited information on the radioactivity level of various radioisotopes in Manila Bay.The data obtained are benchmark values against which changes that will be occurring in the bay can be assessed. (author)

  7. Plant diversity and biomass of Marudu bay mangroves in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanum, F.; Kudus, K.A.; Saari, N.S

    2012-01-01

    The mangroves of Marudu Bay in the state of Sabah is situated at the tip of Borneo Island, and at the southern limit of the Coral Triangle whose waters hold the highest diversity of corals, fish, molluscks, crustaceans and marine plant species in the world. The ecosystem shows a deterioration due to unsustainable fishing, pollution and encroachment, and these are impacting the Marudu Bay coastal communities economically. Fishing is the major economic activity here. Realising the importance of conserving the mangroves to uplift the socio-economic livelihood of the coastal community, a resource inventory of the mangroves and its productivity study were carried out. A total of 16 plant species in 12 genera and 9 families were identified. It was also found that 0.7 ha is capable of capturing all the species in the mangrove forest. The mangrove forests of Marudu Bay are dominated by Rhizopora apiculata and R. mucronata. The highest Importance Value index (IVI) was given by Rhizophora mucronata. Total Above Ground Biomass (TAGB) for 1-ha of mangrove forest in Marudu Bay was estimated to be 98.4 t/ha. It was found in other parallel studies that the mangroves of Marudu Bay are productive ecosystems that provide valuable habitats, nurseries and spawning grounds for various commercially important species of fish and invertebrates such as shrimp besides many species of wildlife. The mangroves at Marudu Bay are not only aesthetically attractive but provide opportunities for ecotourism activities that can be undertaken by the local community inhabiting the area to uplift their meagre income, These activities include mangrove cruising, recreational fishing, educational tourism and mangrove honey production, amongst others. This way, the degradation of the mangrove in Marudu Bay can be halted and reversed. (author)

  8. Abundance patterns of macrofauna and infauna in nursery habitats of Christmas Bay, Texas: July 1984 through June 1985.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between July 1984 and June 1985, monthly samples were collected from marsh, seagrass, and nonvegetated habitats in Christmas Bay and West Bay in the Galveston Bay...

  9. Proceedings of the Fourth Glacier Bay Science Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, John F.; Gende, Scott M.

    2007-01-01

    Foreword Glacier Bay was established as a National Monument in 1925, in part to protect its unique character and natural beauty, but also to create a natural laboratory to examine evolution of the glacial landscape. Today, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve is still a place of profound natural beauty and dynamic landscapes. It also remains a focal point for scientific research and includes continuing observations begun decades ago of glacial processes and terrestrial ecosystems. In recent years, research has focused on glacial-marine interactions and ecosystem processes that occur below the surface of the bay. In October 2004, Glacier Bay National Park convened the fourth in a series of science symposiums to provide an opportunity for researchers, managers, interpreters, educators, students and the general public to share knowledge about Glacier Bay. The Fourth Glacier Bay Science Symposium was held in Juneau, Alaska, rather than at the Park, reflecting a desire to maximize attendance and communication among a growing and diverse number of stakeholders interested in science in the park. More than 400 people attended the symposium. Participants provided 46 oral presentations and 41 posters covering a wide array of disciplines including geology, glaciology, oceanography, wildlife and fisheries biology, terrestrial and marine ecology, socio-cultural research and management issues. A panel discussion focused on the importance of connectivity in Glacier Bay research, and keynote speakers (Gary Davis and Terry Chapin) spoke of long-term monitoring and ecological processes. These proceedings include 56 papers from the symposium. A summary of the Glacier Bay Science Plan-itself a subject of a meeting during the symposium and the result of ongoing discussions between scientists and resource managers-also is provided. We hope these proceedings illustrate the diversity of completed and ongoing scientific studies, conducted within the Park. To this end, we invited all

  10. Bristol Bay Assessment – Supplemental Peer Review Reports ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    These reports represent the results of independent peer reviews of several technical reports submitted to the public docket for the May 2012 draft of the Bristol Bay Assessment, An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska. Background In May 2012, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) released the draft assessment entitled An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska, or the Bristol Bay Assessment. The purpose of the assessment is to provide a characterization of the biological and mineral resources of the Bristol Bay watershed, increase understanding of the potential impacts of large-scale mining on the region’s fish resources, and inform future governmental decisions. During the public comment period for the May 2012 draft, numerous technical reports were submitted to the public docket. The USEPA identified several of these reports as providing information about issues raised by the peer reviewers, but the reports did not show evidence of prior peer review. The USEPA made arrangements for a contractor to conduct independent peer reviews of seven such reports. The reports and the results of these supplemental peer reviews are provided here to document that the reports are of

  11. Patchiness of phytoplankton and primary production in Liaodong Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Edward A.; Zhang, Haibo; Ye, Siyuan; Yuan, Hongming; Liu, Haiyue

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive study of water quality, phytoplankton biomass, and photosynthetic rates in Liaodong Bay, China, during June and July of 2013 revealed two large patches of high biomass and production with dimensions on the order of 10 km. Nutrient concentrations were above growth-rate-saturating concentrations throughout the bay, with the possible exception of phosphate at some stations. The presence of the patches therefore appeared to reflect the distribution of water temperature and variation of light penetration restricted by water turbidity. There was no patch of high phytoplankton biomass or production in a third, linear patch of water with characteristics suitable for rapid phytoplankton growth; the absence of a bloom in that patch likely reflected the fact that the width of the patch was less than the critical size required to overcome losses of phytoplankton to turbulent diffusion. The bottom waters of virtually all of the eastern half of the bay were below the depth of the mixed layer, and the lowest bottom water oxygen concentrations, 3–5 mg L–1, were found in that part of the bay. The water column in much of the remainder of the bay was within the mixed layer, and oxygen concentrations in both surface and bottom waters exceeded 5 mg L–1. PMID:28235070

  12. Causal Bayes Model of Mathematical Competence in Kindergarten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božidar Tepeš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper authors define mathematical competences in the kindergarten. The basic objective was to measure the mathematical competences or mathematical knowledge, skills and abilities in mathematical education. Mathematical competences were grouped in the following areas: Arithmetic and Geometry. Statistical set consisted of 59 children, 65 to 85 months of age, from the Kindergarten Milan Sachs from Zagreb. The authors describe 13 variables for measuring mathematical competences. Five measuring variables were described for the geometry, and eight measuring variables for the arithmetic. Measuring variables are tasks which children solved with the evaluated results. By measuring mathematical competences the authors make causal Bayes model using free software Tetrad 5.2.1-3. Software makes many causal Bayes models and authors as experts chose the model of the mathematical competences in the kindergarten. Causal Bayes model describes five levels for mathematical competences. At the end of the modeling authors use Bayes estimator. In the results, authors describe by causal Bayes model of mathematical competences, causal effect mathematical competences or how intervention on some competences cause other competences. Authors measure mathematical competences with their expectation as random variables. When expectation of competences was greater, competences improved. Mathematical competences can be improved with intervention on causal competences. Levels of mathematical competences and the result of intervention on mathematical competences can help mathematical teachers.

  13. Phytoplankton and nutrient dynamics in Winyah Bay, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneillo, G. E.; Brooks, S. S.; Brown, S. L.; Woodford, K. M.; Wright, C. R.

    2016-02-01

    Winyah Bay is a coastal plain estuary located in South Carolina that has been classified for a moderate risk of Eutrophication by NOAA. Winyah Bay receives freshwater input from four rivers, the Waccamaw, Sampit, Black, and Pee Dee Rivers. The Waccamaw, Sampit and Black River are blackwater systems that discharge elevated amounts of colored dissolved organic matter. During the summer and fall of 2015, bioassay experiments were performed to simultaneously examine both light and nutrient (nitrogen & phosphate) limitation throughout Winyah Bay. Sampling stations near the mouth of the Waccamaw and Sampit Rivers showed that phytoplankton were light limited in the late summer instead of nutrient limited. These stations were located in the industrialized area of the bay and typically had the highest nutrient concentrations and highest turbidity, with Secchi depths typically less than 0.5 meters. Results indicated that phytoplankton may be nitrogen limited near the mouth of Winyah Bay, where nutrient concentrations and turbidity were observed to be lower than locations further upstream. There was also an observed dissolved oxygen and pH gradient during the summer of 2015. Dissolved oxygen levels less than 4.0 mg/L were routinely observed near the industrialized head of the estuary and corresponded with lower pH values.

  14. A model for the geomorphology of the Carolina Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Geometrical analysis of the Carolina Bays using Google Earth in combination with LiDAR data makes it possible to postulate that the bays formed as the result of impacts, rather than from eolian and lacustrine processes. The Carolina Bays are elliptical conic sections with width-to-length ratios averaging 0.58 that are radially oriented toward the Great Lakes region. The radial distribution of ejecta is one characteristic of impacts, and the width-to-length ratios of the ellipses correspond to cones inclined at approximately 35°, which is consistent with ballistic trajectories from the point of convergence. These observations, and the fact that these geomorphological features occur only on unconsolidated soil close to the water table, make it plausible to propose that the Carolina Bays are the remodeled remains of oblique conical craters formed on ground liquefied by the seismic shock waves of secondary impacts of glacier ice boulders ejected by an extraterrestrial impact on the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Mathematical analysis using ballistic equations and scaling laws relating yield energy to crater size provide clues about the magnitude of the extraterrestrial event. An experimental model elucidates the remodeling mechanisms and provides an explanation for the morphology and the diverse dates of the bays.

  15. San Pablo Bay Tidal Marsh Enhancement and Water Quality Improvement Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP San Pablo Bay Tidal Marsh Enhancement and Water Quality Improvement Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  16. Sediment profile image data from October 1999 in Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve and the NOAA Office for Coastal Management worked together to map benthic habitats within Apalachicola Bay,...

  17. Virgin Islands: Coral Bay Watershed Management (A Former EPA CARE Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Coral Bay Watershed Management is a recipient of the Level II CARE cooperative agreement to continue and expand its collective efforts to stop erosion, sediment, and storm-water pollution of Coral Bay, improve solid waste management,

  18. 77 FR 15359 - Availability of Seats for the Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... the Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine... the following seats on the Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council (council): Education... (including snorkeling), Tourism, Maritime History & Interpretation, and Citizen- at-Large. Applicants are...

  19. Lowering Barriers to Achieving Multiple Environmental Goals in the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recognition of past unsuccessful restoration strategies for the Chesapeake Bay, President Obama signed Executive Order (EO) 13508 “Strategy for Protecting and Restoring the Chesapeake Bay Watershed” in 2009.

  20. Sotheby's ja eBay - kaks äärmust / Romet Kreek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreek, Romet, 1972-

    2008-01-01

    USA börsil leiab kahe oksjonikeskkonna aktsiad - traditsioonilisema ja varakamale kliendile rõhuva Sotheby's ning rahvaoksjonite internetikeskkond eBay. Vt. samas: Sotheby's; eBay. Diagramm: Oksjonikorraldajate aktsiad

  1. Is the biological productivity in the Bay of Bengal light limited?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Narvekar, J.; Nuncio, M.; Kumar, A.; Ramaiah, N.; Sardessai, S.; Gauns, M.; Fernandes, V.; Paul, J.

    Recent measurements of chlorophyll, primary productivity (PP) and nutrients along the central Bay of Bengal (BOB) during summer, fall and spring intermonsoons showed that the northern bay becomes less productive compared to the south in summer...

  2. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for brown bears in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and coastal areas of Bristol Bay...

  3. 75 FR 37727 - Disapproval of California State Implementation Plan Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... California State Implementation Plan Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD) portion of the California State... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations...

  4. 75 FR 13468 - Disapproval of California State Implementation Plan Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... California State Implementation Plan Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBAPCD) portion of the California State... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen...

  5. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Green Bay, WI Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) dataset comprises 936 km2 around the city of Green Bay, surrounding towns, tribal lands and rural areas in...

  6. Strong variability in bacterioplankton abundance and production in central and western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes; Ramaiah; Paul, J.T.; Sardessai; Jyothibabu; Gauns, M.

    to low or no nutrient injections into the surface, primary production in Bay of Bengal is reportedly low. As a consequence, the Bay of Bengal is considered as a region of low biological productivity. Along with many biological parameters, bacterioplankton...

  7. Use of Geographic Information Systems to examine cumulative impacts of development on Mobile Bay, AL and Galveston Bay, TX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosigno, P.F.; McNiff, M.E.; Watzin, M.C.; Ji, W.

    1993-01-01

    Databases from Mobile Bay, Alabama and Galveston Bay, Texas were compiled using ARC/INFO Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to examine the cumulative impacts from urbanization and industrialization on these two Gulf of Mexico estuaries. The databases included information on wetland habitats, pollution sources, metal contamination, bird-nesting sites, and oyster reefs, among others. A series of maps were used to represent the impacts within and between each ecosystem. These two estuaries share many similarities in the types of developmental pressures that each experience. However, difference in the magnitude of industrial activity, pollution loading, and urban growth coupled with distinct hydrodynamic and geochemical differences in sediment mineralogy, freshwater inflows and salinity regimens results in differing responses. With growing human population and extensive oil and gas development, the demands on Galveston Bay are quite different than those placed on Mobile Bay which has lower growth and less extensive oil and gas infrastructure. Mobile Bay tends to retain whatever contamination enters into the system because of the high levels of clay and organic carbon found in its sediment. Some of these chemicals bioaccumulate, posing an extra risk to natural resources. Geographic Information Systems provide natural resource managers with the technology to manage complex databases. The analytical and mapping capabilities of GIS can be used to consider cumulative effects in a regional context and to develop plans to protect ecologically sensitive areas

  8. Norway's role in international collaboration towards rehabilitation of Andreeva Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdall, M; Sneve, M; Standring, W J F; Amundsen, I

    2009-12-01

    Andreeva Bay is one of the largest and most hazardous nuclear legacy sites in northwest Russia. The site is the location of large amounts of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and radioactive wastes and the risks associated with the site have precipitated an extensive international collaborative effort towards securing and rehabilitating the site. Given the location and proximity of the site, Norway has and continues to contribute in a number of ways towards this effort. Norway's activities in relation to rehabilitative efforts at Andreeva Bay are focused on both infrastructural and remediative initiatives as well as regulatory collaboration with Russia towards ensuring effective and safe operations during handling and removal of SNF and radioactive materials. This article describes Norway's role within international efforts in the context of the rehabilitation of Andreeva Bay and outlines previous activities and Norway's future direction with respect to the site.

  9. Bay State announces growth strategies to cope with changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A top executive for New England's biggest independent gas distributor says deregulation of the utility industry offers unprecedented opportunities for growth, but getting there will radically change the way it does business. To achieve dramatic growth, Bay State Gas Co. needs to base their strategies on anticipating the changes in the industry and aggressively positioning themselves to capture the new opportunities that the new business environment is creating. This includes: accelerating the unbundling of transportation service all the way to the residential customer level; forging strategic relationships with retail energy product and service companies as a means of increasing throughput on Bay State's system; implementing performance-based rates that provide financial incentives for lowering costs and improving customer service; accelerating the implementation of sophisticated information systems to streamline key business processes; and aggressively expanding Bay State's nonregulated Energy Products and Services business. These steps are discussed

  10. Naive Bayes vs Logistic Regression: Theory, Implementation and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Bhowmik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the theoretical derivation as well as practical steps for implementing Naive Bayes (NB and Logistic Regression (LR classifiers. A generative learning under Gaussian Naive Bayes assumption and two discriminative learning techniques based on gradient ascent and Newton-Raphson methods are described to estimate the parameters of LR. Some limitation of learning techniques and implementation issues are discussed as well. A set of experiments are performed for both the classifiers under different learning circumstances and their performances are compared. From the experiments, it is observed that LR learning with gradient ascent technique outperforms general NB classifier. However, under Gaussian Naive Bayes assumption, both classifiers NB and LR perform similar.

  11. The Bias in Bayes and How to Measure it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. S. Fraser

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A Bayes prior with a likelihood can give approximate confidence and provide a remarkably flexible approach to statistical inference; but is also known to provide inaccurate perhaps incorrect results. We develop a measure of Bayes bias, first examining a simple Normal model and then progressing to quite general models with scalar and vector parameters. The Bias measure can be interpreted as the lateral displacement of the location standardized likelihood function and thus provides ready access to the effect of a prior on p-values, confidence bounds, and Bayes posterior bounds. The needed computation is comparable to that for the likelihood function and thus provides an initial option for checking merits of Bayesian computation for high dimensions.

  12. The inauguration of Robert-Bourassa Park at James Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiquette, M.

    1997-01-01

    Robert Bourassa's contributions to the hydroelectric development at James Bay were acknowledged with the inauguration of a park in the ex-prime minister's name. Phase 1 of the James Bay hydroelectric project constituted the world's biggest construction site, employing more than 180,000 people from beginning to project completion. The James Bay project allowed Hydro-Quebec to gain one of the world's largest electric power utilities and to gain significant competitive edge over its competitors. The Robert Bourassa Park contains a picnic area and a visitor interpretation centre which describes the history of the project. A sequence of 5 signposts summarize the contributions that Robert Bourassa made to the megaproject which cost over $20.6 billion. The complex consists of 65 turbines which produce 15,235 megawatts of electricity. 1 fig

  13. Application of the Bayes equation to predicting reactor system reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.R.; Erdmann, R.C.; Rumble, E.T.; Lellouche, G.S.

    1977-01-01

    Reliability predictions for systems exhibiting few, if any, failures require the use of all available information. The Bayes equation incorporates prior engineering information with test data to provide statistically improved posterior estimates. Classical results agree with those obtained from the Bayes equation by using no prior information. For the case of failure-on-demand, this is equivalent to assuming a 50% mean failure probability for the prior information--hardly an appropriate estimate for a reliable system such as a reactor scram system. The method of Bayes conjugates applied to the cases of aging failure and failure-on-demand yields formulas for calculating mean, standard deviation, and confidence values. Various methods for incorporating prior information are possible. For example, calculating scram failure probabilities by incorporating prior information obtained from fault tree analysis of a scram system with historical test data indicates a mean scram failure probability of approx. 8 x 10 -6 per demand

  14. A Creek to Bay Biological Assessment in Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, E.; Ramirez, N.; Lopez, A.; Avila, M.; Ramirez, J.; Arroyo, D.; Bracho, H.; Casanova, A.; Pierson, E.

    2011-12-01

    In 2007, the Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) assessed the impact of trash on water quality in the Peralta Creek which is located in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA. This 2011 follow-up study will take further steps in evaluating the physical and biological impacts of pollution and human development on Peralta Creek and in the San Leandro Bay, where the Creek empties into the larger San Francisco Bay estuary. This study will utilize two forms of biological assessment in order to determine the level of water quality and ecosystem health of Peralta Creek and San Leandro Bay in Oakland, California. A Rapid Bioassesment Protocal (RBP) will be used as the method of biological assessment for Peralta Creek. RBP uses a biotic index of benthic macroinvertebrates to provide a measure of a water body's health. Larval trematodes found in two mud snails (Ilynassa obsoleta and Cerithidea californica) will be used to evaluate the health of the San Leandro Bay. Due to the complex life cycle of trematodes, the measure of trematode diversity and richness in host species serves as an indicator of estuarine health (Huspeni 2005). We have completed the assessment of one section of Peralta Creek, located at 2465 34th Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601. Abundance results indicate a moderately healthy creek because there were high levels of pollution tolerant benthic macroinvertebrates. The tolerant group of benthic macroinvertebrates includes such organisms as flatworms, leeches, and scuds. This is possibly due to this section of the creek being pumped up to the surface from culverts impacting the macroinvertebrate's life cycle. Another contributing factor to creek health is the amount of organic debris found in the creek, which inhibits the flow and oxygenation of the water, allowing for more pollution tolerant aquatic insects to persist. Further investigation is being conducted to fully assess the Peralta Creek watershed; from the preliminary results one can surmise that

  15. eBay viib Kadaka teelt Ameerikasse lille- ja merepilte / Andres Kärssin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärssin, Andres, 1971-

    2005-01-01

    Ärimees Nikolai Zenevich kaupleb eBay-s maalidega. Vt. samas: Turg Eesti kollektsionääridele ja turustuskanal ettevõtetele; Raivo Sormunen. eBay on üks väheseid börsimullist pääsejaid; Kertu Ruus. eBay kasvab konkurente üles ostes; eBay juhtiv maksmissüsteem Eestit ei tunnista; Maksuamet: piisava aja- ning inimressursi korral on kontroll võimalik

  16. Biodiversity of Echinoderms at Kuta Bay, West Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Yusron

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Observation on echinoderms diversity was carriedout at coastal waters of Kuta bay in the Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nopember 2005. A total of 21 species of echinoderms,consist of 4 species Holothuroidea, 7 species Echinoidea, 5 species Asteroidea and 5 species Ophiuroidea have beenfound in the Kuta of Nusa Tenggara Barat. The Echinoidea were relatively common in the sea gras zone. On the basisof population density, Echinoidea was the dominant group and relatively highest in the individual density. In generalthe number of species of echinoderm fauna is smaller than in the Sekotong Lombok Barat Bay.

  17. BayesMD: flexible biological modeling for motif discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Man-Hung Eric; Krogh, Anders; Winther, Ole

    2008-01-01

    We present BayesMD, a Bayesian Motif Discovery model with several new features. Three different types of biological a priori knowledge are built into the framework in a modular fashion. A mixture of Dirichlets is used as prior over nucleotide probabilities in binding sites. It is trained on trans......We present BayesMD, a Bayesian Motif Discovery model with several new features. Three different types of biological a priori knowledge are built into the framework in a modular fashion. A mixture of Dirichlets is used as prior over nucleotide probabilities in binding sites. It is trained...

  18. Hydrography of Onslow Bay, North Carolina: September 1975 (OBIS II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, L.P.; Singer, J.J.; Dunstan, W.M.; Pietrafesa, L.J.

    1975-09-01

    Data collected during studies of Onslow Bay, off the North Carolina coast during cruises during September, 1975, are reported. Current meters and thermography were placed at depths of 10 and 22 m along the 28 m isobath in the northeastern and southwestern sectors of the Bay. Data are included on wind turbulence and velocity; seawater salinity and temperature at various depths; the content of nitrates, phosphates, silicate, oxygen, chlorophyll, and phytoplankton biomass at various depths. Hydrographic and meteorologic conditions during the cruises are included. (CH)

  19. Seasonal features of zooplankton in Petrozavodskaya Bay of Lake Onega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarky Maria

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenological phases or seasons of the zooplankton were determined by the method of discriminatory analysis in Petrozavodsk bay of Lake Onega. On the basis of the data on the zooplankton abundance and the biomass of the main taxonomic groups, received from 1988 to 2010, four seasonal conditions of the community, their timing and duration were determined. On an average, summer period for zooplankton in Petrozavodskaya bay lasts 66 days, it is 24 days longer than in the central area of the lake. The relationship between zooplankton phenology and hydrodynamic and thermal conditions are considered

  20. Theories on migration processes of Cd in Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Li, Haixia; Wang, Qi; Ding, Jun; Zhang, Longlei

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the migration progress is essential to pollution control, while developing theories for the migration progress is the scientific basis. This paper further developed five key theories on migration processes of Cd including homogeneous theory, environmental dynamic theory, horizontal loss theory, migration trend theory and vertical migration theory, respectively. The performance and practical values of these theories were demonstrated in the application of these on analyzing the migration process of Cd in Jiaozhou Bay. Results these theory helpful to better understand the migration progress of pollutants in marine bay.

  1. Identification of Cu’s sources in Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Li, Haixia; Ding, Jun; Zhang, Longlei; Li, Jiangmin

    2017-12-01

    Many marine bays have been polluted by Cu along with the rapid development of industry, economy and population size, and identification the sources of Cu is essential to environmental protection. This paper identified the sources of Cu in according to the horizontal distribution in Jiaozhou Bay during 1982-1986. Results showed that there were five Cu sources during study years including marine current, stream flow, island top, overland runoff and marine traffic, respectively. These findings were helpful information in decision-making of pollution control and environmental remediation practice.

  2. Sedimentological and clay mineral studies in Kakinada Bay, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, N.P.C.; Rao, K.M.

    The sediments of Kakinada Bay are predominantly silty clays, with a phi mean range between 2.9 to 7.8 northern, central and southern parts of the bay consist of finer sediments (5.5 to 7.05 phi) while the eastern and western parts of the bay...

  3. 78 FR 54581 - Safety Zone; Perry 200 Fireworks, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Perry 200 Fireworks, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION..., Erie, PA. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Presque Isle Bay during... display will be held on Presque Isle Bay in Erie, PA. The Captain of the Port Buffalo has determined that...

  4. 75 FR 34367 - Safety Zone; Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA AGENCY: Coast... zone on the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of Ocean View Beach Park, Norfolk, VA in support of the... movement on the Chesapeake Bay [[Page 34368

  5. Decision Making: The Chesapeake Bay. An Interdisciplinary Environmental Education Curriculum Unit. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland Univ., College Park. Sea Grant Program.

    As the oceans rose due to melting glaciers, the Chesapeake Bay became a crowned valley. The Bay is a biologically rich system in which the success of each species depends on the quality of water in the parts of the Bay used during its life history. With the increase in human population, technological developments associated with industrial…

  6. 75 FR 26155 - Safety Zone; Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA AGENCY: Coast... temporary safety zone on the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of Ocean View Beach Park, Norfolk, VA in support... traffic movement on the Chesapeake Bay to protect mariners from the hazards associated with fireworks...

  7. 78 FR 39599 - Safety Zone; Fort Monroe Fireworks Display, Chesapeake Bay, Hampton, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fort Monroe Fireworks Display, Chesapeake Bay, Hampton, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... navigable waters of the Chesapeake Bay in Hampton, VA to support the Fort Monroe Fireworks. This action is... Authority will host a fireworks display in the Chesapeake Bay off of Fort Monroe in Hampton, VA. The...

  8. 76 FR 38300 - Safety Zone; Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA AGENCY: Coast... zone on the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of Ocean View Beach Park, Norfolk, VA in support of the... intended to restrict vessel traffic movement on the Chesapeake Bay to protect mariners from the hazards...

  9. 33 CFR 334.320 - Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.320 Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning at a point on the south shore of Chesapeake Bay at...

  10. 76 FR 4345 - A Method To Assess Climate-Relevant Decisions: Application in the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ...: Application in the Chesapeake Bay AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Peer Review... Climate-Relevant Decisions: Application in the Chesapeake Bay'' (EPA/600/R-10/096a). The draft document...-803-2833 (ask for the Chesapeake Bay peer review coordinator, Laurie Waite), sending a facsimile to...

  11. 33 CFR 334.140 - Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving Ground Reservation, Aberdeen, Md.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving....140 Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving Ground Reservation, Aberdeen, Md. (a) Restricted area defined..., Maryland. (1) Beginning at a point on the westerly side of Chesapeake Bay, at the south side of the mouth...

  12. 76 FR 27967 - Safety Zone; Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA AGENCY: Coast... temporary safety zone on the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of Ocean View Beach Park, Norfolk, VA in support... action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement on the Chesapeake Bay to protect mariners from the...

  13. 77 FR 9850 - Safety Zone; 2012 Mavericks Invitational, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ...-AA08 Safety Zone; 2012 Mavericks Invitational, Half Moon Bay, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Pillar Point in the navigable waters of Half Moon Bay, California. The regulation will temporarily... the navigable waters of Half Moon Bay in vicinity of Pillar Point. The Coast Guard will enforce a...

  14. 75 FR 66013 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Horseshoe Bay, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Resort non-directional beacon (NDB) at Horseshoe Bay Resort Airport, Horseshoe Bay, TX, has made this action necessary for the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations at the airport... from 700 feet above the surface for standard instrument approach procedures at Horseshoe Bay Resort...

  15. 75 FR 14152 - Executive Order 13508; Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration Section 502; Guidance for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... in the Chesapeake Bay watershed describing proven, cost-effective tools and practices that reduce... management practices that, if implemented widely across the Chesapeake Bay watershed by both Federal land...(d) of the Clean Water Act for the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The TMDL will be followed by the...

  16. 75 FR 38710 - Special Local Regulation, Fran Schnarr Open Water Championships, Huntington Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ..., Huntington Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a permanent Special Local Regulation on the navigable waters of Huntington Bay, New York due to the annual... Championships, Huntington Bay, NY'' in the Federal Register (75 FR 13454). The Coast Guard received no comments...

  17. 75 FR 13454 - Special Local Regulation, Fran Schnarr Open Water Championships, Huntington Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Championships, Huntington Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Supplemental Notice of proposed rulemaking... Special Local Regulation on the navigable waters of Huntington Bay, New York due to the annual Fran... championship swim on the waters of Huntington Bay, NY during a single day in July. This swim has historically...

  18. 78 FR 25266 - An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... determine the significance of Bristol Bay's ecological resources and the potential impacts of large-scale... additional data or scientific or technical information about Bristol Bay resources or large-scale mining that... Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  19. 77 FR 31353 - An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... information about Bristol Bay resources or large-scale mining that should be considered in our evaluation. EPA... Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, AK AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska'' (EPA-910-R-12-004a-d). The document was...

  20. 46 CFR 180.207 - Survival craft-vessels operating on lakes, bays, and sounds routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on lakes, bays, and... Survival Craft § 180.207 Survival craft—vessels operating on lakes, bays, and sounds routes. (a) Except as... warm water is not required to carry survival craft. (d) A vessel certificated to operate on lakes, bays...