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Sample records for bay queensland australia

  1. Temporal and spatial patterns in recruitment of three penaeid prawns in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, A. J.; Masel, J. M.; Die, D. J.

    1995-10-01

    The size at recruitment, temporal and spatial distribution, and abiotic factors influencing abundance of three commercially important species of penaeid prawns in the sublittoral trawl grounds of Moreton Bay (Queensland, Australia) were compared. Metapenaeus bennettae and Penaeus plebejus recruit to the trawl grounds at sizes which are relatively small (14-15 mm carapace length, CL) and below that at which prawns are selected for, and retained, in the fleet's cod-ends. In contrast, Penaeus esculentus recruit at the relatively large size of 27 mm CL from February to May, well above the size ranges selected for. Recruitment of M. bennettae extends over several months, September-October and February-March, and was thus likely to be bi-annual, while the recruitment period of P. plebejus was distinct, peaking in October-November each year. Size classes of M. bennettae were the most spatially stratified of the three species. Catch rates of recruits were negatively correlated with depth for all three species, and were also negatively correlated with salinity for M. bennettae.

  2. Enrichment, distribution and sources of heavy metals in the sediments of Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-04-15

    Sediment samples from 13 sampling sites in Deception Bay, Australia were analysed for the presence of heavy metals. Enrichment factors, modified contamination indices and Nemerow pollution indices were calculated for each sampling site to determine sediment quality. The results indicate significant pollution of most sites by lead (average enrichment factor (EF) of 13), but there is also enrichment of arsenic (average EF 2.3), zinc (average EF 2.7) and other heavy metals. The modified degree of contamination indices (average 1.0) suggests that there is little contamination. By contrast, the Nemerow pollution index (average 5.8) suggests that Deception Bay is heavily contaminated. Cluster analysis was undertaken to identify groups of elements. Strong correlation between some elements and two distinct clusters of sampling sites based on sediment type was evident. These results have implications for pollution in complex marine environments where there is significant influx of sand and sediment into an estuarine environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of anthropogenic gadolinium in the Brisbane River plume in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Wastewater effluent is known to contain macro and micropollutants, which may be deleterious to environmental health. One such class of micropollutants is chelated gadolinium, which are used as MRI contrast agents. As these MRI contrast agents can be assumed to behave conservatively during estuarine mixing, it is possible to calculate how much wastewater is represented in any particular sample. In this study, the percentage contribution of wastewater at specific locations in Moreton Bay, Qld, were determined by calculating the additional anthropogenic gadolinium contribution to the total rare earth element concentrations. Wastewater contributions were measured at concentrations as low as 0.2%, demonstrating the applicability of this technique for wastewater effluent plume mapping.

  4. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This detailed view of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia (19.5S, 149.5E) shows several small patch reefs within the overall reef system. The Great Barrier Reef, largest in the world, comprises thousands of individual reefs of great variety and are closely monitored by marine ecologists. These reefs are about 6000 years old and sit on top of much older reefs. The most rapid coral growth occurs on the landward side of the reefs.

  5. Local and landscape effects on spatial patterns of mangrove forest during wetter and drier periods: Moreton Bay, Southeast Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami-Andargoli, L.; Dale, P. E. R.; Sipe, N.; Chaseling, J.

    2010-09-01

    Land use/cover and mangrove spatial changes were assessed for ten sites and their sub-catchments in Southeast Queensland, Australia. Two time periods were involved: 1972-1990, a period of relatively high rainfall, and 1990-2004, which was significantly drier. Aerial photographs and Landsat satellite imagery were used to map the inter-tidal wetlands and classify the land use/cover in the sub-catchments. A Maximum Likelihood Classification was used to map three types of land cover: agriculture, built-up and plantation forest. Mangroves (mainly Avicennia marina) were the focus as they have been recorded over recent decades encroaching into salt marsh. The Mangrove-Salt marsh Interface (MSI) Index was developed to quantify the relative opportunity for mangroves to expand into salt marshes, based on the shared boundary between them. The index showed a consistent relationship with mangrove expansion and change. To address problems of high dimensionality and multi-collinearity of predictor variables, a Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) model was used. A key finding of this research was that the contribution of environmental variables to spatial changes in the mangroves was altered following a reduction in rainfall. For example, agriculture had more influence on mangrove expansion and change during the wet period than during the dry period.

  6. Cairns and Townsville area, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Cairns and Townsville area, on the northeast coast of Queensland, Australia (17.0S, 146.0E) is one of the best sport diving localities in the world where divers can explore the rich and varied flora and fauna of the nearby Great Barrier Reef. Onshore, the timbered foothills of the Great Dividing Range, seen as dark green areas, separate the semi arid interior of Queensland.

  7. Quantifying the erosion processes and land-uses which dominate fine sediment supply to Moreton Bay, Southeast Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallbrink, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the contributions from the three major erosion sources in the catchments of Moreton Bay are quantified, specifically for the 137 Cs and 226 Ra were measured on the <10 μm fraction of eroding soils from these areas and then compared to concentrations on the same size fraction on deposited sediments within the rivers. A mixing model was then used to calculate the contributions from the different sources to the sediments. The contributions in the Brisbane and Logan catchments were found to be subsoil erosion (∼66±10%); sheet erosion from cultivated lands 33±10% and sheet erosion of uncultivated land 1±10%. Surface and subsoil erosion contributions from the coastal catchments were found to be variable

  8. The role of surface and subsurface processes in keeping pace with sea level rise in intertidal wetlands of Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Bennion, Vicki; Grinham, Alistair; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    Increases in the elevation of the soil surfaces of mangroves and salt marshes are key to the maintenance of these habitats with accelerating sea level rise. Understanding the processes that give rise to increases in soil surface elevation provides science for management of landscapes for sustainable coastal wetlands. Here, we tested whether the soil surface elevation of mangroves and salt marshes in Moreton Bay is keeping up with local rates of sea level rise (2.358 mm y-1) and whether accretion on the soil surface was the most important process for keeping up with sea level rise. We found variability in surface elevation gains, with sandy areas in the eastern bay having the highest surface elevation gains in both mangrove and salt marsh (5.9 and 1.9 mm y-1) whereas in the muddier western bay rates of surface elevation gain were lower (1.4 and -0.3 mm y-1 in mangrove and salt marsh, respectively). Both sides of the bay had similar rates of surface accretion (~7–9 mm y-1 in the mangrove and 1–3 mm y-1 in the salt marsh), but mangrove soils in the western bay were subsiding at a rate of approximately 8 mm y-1, possibly due to compaction of organic sediments. Over the study surface elevation increments were sensitive to position in the intertidal zone (higher when lower in the intertidal) and also to variation in mean sea level (higher at high sea level). Although surface accretion was the most important process for keeping up with sea level rise in the eastern bay, subsidence largely negated gains made through surface accretion in the western bay indicating a high vulnerability to sea level rise in these forests.

  9. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of SS220 and Deet Against Mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    methylpiperindinyl-3-cyclohexen-1-carboxamide] against mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia , were conducted. In the laboratory, both compounds provided...carboxa- mide], mosquito repellents, Culex annulirostris, Australia INTRODUCTION The use of personal protection measures, particularly the application...Queensland, Australia . MATERIALS AND METHODS Test mosquitoes Female mosquitoes used in the laboratory evaluation study were Ae. aegypti (Townsville

  10. An abattoir survey of equine dental abnormalities in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinkangsadarn, T; Wilson, G J; Greer, R M; Pollitt, C C; Bird, P S

    2015-06-01

    A cadaver study to estimate the prevalence of dental disorders in horses presented at an abattoir in Queensland, Australia. Cadaver heads at a Queensland abattoir were examined for the presence of dental abnormalities and categorised into age groups. The prevalence of abnormalities was analysed by binomial observation of observed proportion, Pearson's Chi-square test or Fisher's exact correlation test. Strength of association was evaluated using Cramer's V test. Heads from horses (n=400) estimated to be between 1 and 30 years of age were placed into four age groups. The most common abnormalities were sharp enamel points (55.3%) and hooks (43%). The highest frequency of dental diseases and abnormalities were in horses 11-15 years old (97.5%). Common abnormalities were found in all groups and the prevalence increased with age. This study suggests that all horses should have regular complete dental examinations to detect and treat dental disorders in order to limit more severe dental pathologies later in life. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  11. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  12. A New Equity Deal for Schools: A Case Study of Policy-Making in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Parlo; Taylor, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we draw on concepts from policy sociology to analyse the new equity deal for schools in Queensland, Australia. We examine this "new deal" through an analysis of the language of "inclusion" and "educational risk" in key policy documents associated with a major reform of public education in Queensland. In…

  13. Integrated terrain mapping with digital Landsat images in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinove, Charles Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Mapping with Landsat images usually is done by selecting single types of features, such as soils, vegetation, or rocks, and creating visually interpreted or digitally classified maps of each feature. Individual maps can then be overlaid on or combined with other maps to characterize the terrain. Integrated terrain mapping combines several terrain features into each map unit which, in many cases, is more directly related to uses of the land and to methods of land management than the single features alone. Terrain brightness, as measured by the multispectral scanners in Landsat 1 and 2, represents an integration of reflectance from the terrain features within the scanner's instantaneous field of view and is therefore more correlatable with integrated terrain units than with differentiated ones, such as rocks, soils, and vegetation. A test of the feasibilty of the technique of mapping integrated terrain units was conducted in a part of southwestern Queensland, Australia, in cooperation with scientists of the Queensland Department of Primary Industries. The primary purpose was to test the use of digital classification techniques to create a 'land systems map' usable for grazing land management. A recently published map of 'land systems' in the area (made by aerial photograph interpretation and ground surveys), which are integrated terrain units composed of vegetation, soil, topography, and geomorphic features, was used as a basis for comparison with digitally classified Landsat multispectral images. The land systems, in turn, each have a specific grazing capacity for cattle (expressed in beasts per km 2 ) which is estimated following analysis of both research results and property carrying capacities. Landsat images, in computer-compatible tape form, were first contrast-stretched to increase their visual interpretability, and digitally classified by the parallelepiped method into distinct spectral classes to determine their correspondence to the land systems classes and

  14. Australian doctors and the visual arts. Part 5. Doctor-artists in South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D G

    1986-11-17

    The contributions of Australian doctors to the visual arts are being described in a series of six articles. Work from doctors in New South Wales and Victoria has been covered previously. Now activities in South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia, Queensland and the Northern Territory are presented.

  15. Seasonal Differences in the Day-of-the-Week Pattern of Suicide in Queensland, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Chi-kin; De Leo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Various temporal patterns of suicide events, according to time of day, day of week, month and season, have been identified. However, whether different dimensions of time interact has not been investigated. Using suicide data from Queensland, Australia, this study aims to verify if there is an interaction effect between seasonal and day-of-the-week distribution. Computerized suicide data from the Queensland Suicide Register for those aged 15+ years were analyzed according to date of death, age...

  16. Babies born before arrival to hospital and maternity unit closures in Queensland and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kildea, Sue; McGhie, Alexandra C; Gao, Yu; Rumbold, Alice; Rolfe, Margaret

    2015-09-01

    Evidence suggests the closure of maternity units is associated with an increase in babies born before arrival (BBA). To explore the association between the number of maternity units in Australia and Queensland by birthing numbers, BBA rate and geographic remoteness of the health district where the mother lives. A retrospective study utilised routinely collected perinatal data (1992-2011). Pearson correlation tested the relationship between BBA rate and number of maternity units. Linear regression examined this association over time. During 1992-2011, the absolute numbers (N=22,814) of women having a BBA each year in Australia increased by 47% (N=836-1233); and 206% (n=140-429) in Queensland. This coincided with a 41% reduction in maternity units in Australia (N=623-368=18 per year) and a 28% reduction in Queensland (n=129-93). BBA rates increased significantly across Australia, r=0.837, n=20 years, pmaternity units in Australia, r=-0.804, n=19 years, pmaternity units over a 20-year period across Australia and Queensland is significantly associated with increased BBA rates. The distribution is not limited to rural and remote areas. Given the high risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with BBA, it is time to revisit the closure of units. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative study on gill morphology of gastropods from Moreton Bay, Queensland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertman, R.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the gill morphology of seven common gastropods from Moreton Bay, southeastern Queensland, to test the level of difference in gill structure between major taxa. The investigated species include representatives of the clades Patellogastropoda, Neritimorpha and Vetigastropda as well

  18. Mycobacterium ulcerans DNA in Bandicoot Excreta in Buruli Ulcer–Endemic Area, Northern Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluschke, Gerd; Johnson, Paul D.R.; Fyfe, Janet

    2017-01-01

    To identify potential reservoirs/vectors of Mycobacterium ulcerans in northern Queensland, Australia, we analyzed environmental samples collected from the Daintree River catchment area, to which Buruli ulcer is endemic, and adjacent coastal lowlands by species-specific PCR. We detected M. ulcerans DNA in soil, mosquitoes, and excreta of bandicoots, which are small terrestrial marsupials. PMID:29148373

  19. Global Strategies for International Education Providers in Australia: A Case Study of Tropical North Queensland TAFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Michelle; Haberman, Leigh

    2007-01-01

    The continuing growth of Australia's international education market is causing providers to consider moving from international business approaches to global strategies. This paper examines factors affecting a regional Australian educational provider's approach to the international student market, using Tropical North Queensland TAFE (TNQT) for…

  20. Paediatric tuberculosis in Queensland, Australia: overrepresentation of cross-border and Indigenous children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnan, E J; Coulter, C; Simpson, G; Clark, J; Nourse, C

    2017-03-01

    Queensland, Australia. Understanding paediatric tuberculosis (TB) is important, as children with TB typically reflect recent community transmission. Children pose unique diagnostic challenges and are at risk of developing severe disseminated infection. To describe the epidemiology, presentation and outcomes of children with TB disease in Queensland. This is a retrospective case series of children diagnosed with TB aged 0-16 years notified in 2005-2014. Data collected in the Queensland Notifiable Conditions System were extracted and analysed. Of 127 children diagnosed with TB, 16 were Australian-born (including 12 Indigenous Queenslanders), 41 were overseas-born permanent and temporary residents and 70 were cross-border Papua New Guinea (PNG) children; 88 children had pulmonary disease (with/without other sites) and 39 had extra-pulmonary disease only, with lymph node TB the predominant extra-pulmonary site; 70.1% of children had laboratory confirmation; and 14 cross-border children had multidrug-resistant TB. Treatment outcomes among children residing in Australia were good (100% among Australian-born and 97.2% among permanent and temporary residents), but they were less favourable among PNG children diagnosed in the Torres Strait Protected Zone (76.6%). Queensland has unique challenges in TB control, with a high proportion of cross-border diagnoses and over-representation of Indigenous children. Vigilance is needed given the wide spectrum of clinical presentation, particularly in high-risk communities.

  1. A new species of gecko (Squamata: Diplodactylidae: Strophurus) from central Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderduys, Eric

    2017-11-13

    A new species of diplodactylid gecko in the genus Strophurus Fitzinger, from central Queensland, Australia, is described herein as Strophurus trux sp. nov. It is similar to the recently described Strophurus congoo Vanderduys from north Queensland and apparently shares a habitat preference for Triodia hummock open woodlands. It is notably different from the latter in possessing a vivid yellow to golden eye. It is only known from one small area of the Brigalow Belt Bioregion, although it is expected to occur more widely than the one area in which it has been found. It is likely that it is endemic to the Brigalow Belt Bioregion.

  2. A new blind snake (Serpentes: Typhlopidae) from an endangered habitat in south-eastern Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venchi, Alberto; Wilson, Steve K; Borsboom, Adrian C

    2015-07-24

    A new species of blind snake is described from south-eastern Queensland, eastern Australia. Anilios insperatus sp. nov. differs from all of its congeners in having:16 scales around the body; 442 paravertebral scales; snout slightly trilobed from above and bluntly angular in profile; small, inconspicuous eyes, located within the ocular scale at its junction with the preocular and the supraocular scales; and uniform light colouration. The unique specimen was collected from pasture that was formally Queensland regional ecosystem 12.8.24, a eucalypt dominated ecosystem currently listed as endangered. The site is less than 100 km from Queensland's capital, Brisbane. Given the locality, habitat and absence of additional specimens, the species is probably of conservation concern.

  3. Reconstructing tropical cyclone frequency using hydrogen isotope ratios of sedimentary n-alkanes in northern Queensland, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soelen, E.E. van; Wagner-Cremer, F.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Reichart, G.-J.

    2013-01-01

    A peat record from Quincan Crater (Queensland, Australia), spanning the past 200 years, was used to test if hydrogen isotope ratios of leaf wax long-chain n-alkanes derived of higher plants can be used to reconstruct past tropical cyclone activity. Queensland is frequently impacted by tropical

  4. Forecasting the future risk of Barmah Forest virus disease under climate change scenarios in Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchithra Naish

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne diseases are climate sensitive and there has been increasing concern over the impact of climate change on future disease risk. This paper projected the potential future risk of Barmah Forest virus (BFV disease under climate change scenarios in Queensland, Australia. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained data on notified BFV cases, climate (maximum and minimum temperature and rainfall, socio-economic and tidal conditions for current period 2000-2008 for coastal regions in Queensland. Grid-data on future climate projections for 2025, 2050 and 2100 were also obtained. Logistic regression models were built to forecast the otential risk of BFV disease distribution under existing climatic, socio-economic and tidal conditions. The model was applied to estimate the potential geographic distribution of BFV outbreaks under climate change scenarios. The predictive model had good model accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Maps on potential risk of future BFV disease indicated that disease would vary significantly across coastal regions in Queensland by 2100 due to marked differences in future rainfall and temperature projections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the results of this study demonstrate that the future risk of BFV disease would vary across coastal regions in Queensland. These results may be helpful for public health decision making towards developing effective risk management strategies for BFV disease control and prevention programs in Queensland.

  5. Forecasting the future risk of Barmah Forest virus disease under climate change scenarios in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, Suchithra; Mengersen, Kerrie; Hu, Wenbiao; Tong, Shilu

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are climate sensitive and there has been increasing concern over the impact of climate change on future disease risk. This paper projected the potential future risk of Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease under climate change scenarios in Queensland, Australia. We obtained data on notified BFV cases, climate (maximum and minimum temperature and rainfall), socio-economic and tidal conditions for current period 2000-2008 for coastal regions in Queensland. Grid-data on future climate projections for 2025, 2050 and 2100 were also obtained. Logistic regression models were built to forecast the otential risk of BFV disease distribution under existing climatic, socio-economic and tidal conditions. The model was applied to estimate the potential geographic distribution of BFV outbreaks under climate change scenarios. The predictive model had good model accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Maps on potential risk of future BFV disease indicated that disease would vary significantly across coastal regions in Queensland by 2100 due to marked differences in future rainfall and temperature projections. We conclude that the results of this study demonstrate that the future risk of BFV disease would vary across coastal regions in Queensland. These results may be helpful for public health decision making towards developing effective risk management strategies for BFV disease control and prevention programs in Queensland.

  6. Pyrethroid Susceptibility Has Been Maintained in the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endersby-Harshman, Nancy M; Wuliandari, Juli Rochmijati; Harshman, Lawrence G; Frohn, Verena; Johnson, Brian J; Ritchie, Scott A; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2017-11-07

    Although pesticide resistance is common in insect vectors of human diseases, the evolution of resistance might be delayed if management practices are adopted that limit selection of resistance alleles. Outbreaks of dengue fever have occurred in Queensland, Australia, since the late 1800s, leading to ongoing attempts to control the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti (L.). Since the 1990s, pyrethroid insecticides have been used for this purpose, but have been applied in a strategic manner with a variety of delivery methods including indoor residual spraying, lethal ovitraps, and use of insect growth regulators as larvicides. Separate selection experiments on mosquitoes from Queensland using Type I and Type II pyrethroids did not produce resistant lines of Ae. aegypti, and bioassays of field material from Queensland showed only weak tolerance in comparison with a susceptible line. There was no evidence of knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations in Ae. aegypti from Queensland, in stark contrast to the situation in nearby southeast Asia. We suspect that careful management of pyrethroid insecticide use combined with surveillance and interception of exotic incursions has helped to maintain pyrethroid (and particularly kdr-based) susceptibility in Ae. aegypti in Australia. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Epidemiologic patterns of Ross River virus disease in Queensland, Australia, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiwei; Mengersen, Kerrie; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S; Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tong, Shilu

    2014-07-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) infection is a debilitating disease that has a significant impact on population health, economic productivity, and tourism in Australia. This study examined epidemiologic patterns of RRV disease in Queensland, Australia, during January 2001-December 2011 at a statistical local area level. Spatio-temporal analyses were used to identify the patterns of the disease distribution over time stratified by age, sex, and space. The results show that the mean annual incidence was 54 per 100,000 persons, with a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. Two space-time clusters were identified: the areas adjacent to Townsville, on the eastern coast of Queensland, and the southeast areas. Thus, although public health intervention should be considered across all areas in which RRV occurs, it should specifically focus on high-risk regions, particularly during summer and autumn to reduce the social and economic impacts of RRV infection. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control

    OpenAIRE

    Zamek, Ashley L.; Spinner, Jennifer E.; Micallef, Jessica L.; Gurr, Geoff M.; Reynolds, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native and naturalised Australian parasitoids, especially the braconid Diachasmimorpha tryoni, may result in better management of B. tryoni in some parts of Australia. Mass releases are an especially attractive option...

  9. Hazardous Alcohol Use in 2 Countries: A Comparison Between Alberta, Canada and Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C. Sanchez-Ramirez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This article aimed to compare alcohol consumption between the populations of Queensland in Australia and Alberta in Canada. Furthermore, the associations between greater alcohol consumption and socio-demographic characteristics were explored in each population. Methods Data from 2500 participants of the 2013 Alberta Survey and the 2013 Queensland Social Survey were analyzed. Regression analyses were used to explore the associations between alcohol risk and socio-demographic characteristics. Results A higher rate of hazardous alcohol use was found in Queenslanders than in Albertans. In both Albertans and Queenslanders, hazardous alcohol use was associated with being between 18 and 24 years of age. Higher income, having no religion, living alone, and being born in Canada were also associated with alcohol risk in Albertans; while in Queenslanders, hazardous alcohol use was also associated with common-law marital status. In addition, hazardous alcohol use was lower among respondents with a non-Catholic or Protestant religious affiliation. Conclusions Younger age was associated with greater hazardous alcohol use in both populations. In addition, different socio-demographic factors were associated with hazardous alcohol use in each of the populations studied. Our results allowed us to identify the socio-demographic profiles associated with hazardous alcohol use in Alberta and Queensland. These profiles constitute valuable sources of information for local health authorities and policymakers when designing suitable preventive strategies targeting hazardous alcohol use. Overall, the present study highlights the importance of analyzing the socio-demographic factors associated with alcohol consumption in population-specific contexts.

  10. Individual resilience in rural people: a Queensland study, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegney, D G; Buikstra, E; Baker, P; Rogers-Clark, C; Pearce, S; Ross, H; King, C; Watson-Luke, A

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the results of phase 1 of a study into community and individual resilience in rural Australians. The aim of the study was to develop, implement and evaluate a model that enhances psychological wellness in rural people and communities. The study used a critical participatory action research methodology to work in partnership with key individuals and groups in a rural community in Queensland which, anecdotally, was identified by its community representatives as having confronted and responded positively to and dealt with adversities such as drought, hailstorms and bushfire. A focus in the project was to identify vulnerable as well as resilient elements in individuals and the community, with an emphasis on identifying and then using existing individual, group and community resilience as exemplars for those who are less resilient. The study recognised that not all members of the community were resilient; clearly there are more and less resilient groups within this community. Additionally, it was acknowledged that resilience was not a steady state within an individual. Rather, an individual's level of resilience could vary over their lifetime. A participatory action research design was chosen for this study which aimed to identify individual and community resilience factors in a community. The study is being undertaken in three phases. In phase 1 of the study (the focus of this article), 10 in-depth interviews and one focus group (with four participants) were conducted. Individuals identified by a network of community service providers as being particularly resilient were selected to participate in this phase, with the aim of identifying these individuals' perceptions of individual and community resilience. This article reports on the factors identified that impact on the individual resilience of rural people. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data surrounding individual resilience revealed three themes: images of resilience; characteristics of

  11. Histopathological evaluation of parotid gland neoplasms in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, R F; Lam, A K; O'Neill, J

    2016-01-01

    Parotid gland tumours are complex neoplasms with a broad histological range. The parotid gland is also a common site of face and scalp skin cancer metastases. Parotidectomies performed by ENT department in the Gold Coast health district from 2006 to 2013. A total of 158 specimens were examined. Of these, 53.80 per cent were benign and 46.20 per cent were malignant. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common tumour (29.11 per cent), followed by cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (23.42 per cent) and Warthin's tumour (12.03 per cent). Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma accounted for a large proportion of parotid masses in our case series, reflecting the high prevalence of non-melanoma skin cancer in Australia. Primary parotid neoplasms had similar incidence rates to other studies.

  12. IMPLEMENTASI SISTER PROVINCE PROVINSI JAWA TENGAH DENGAN NEGARA BAGIAN QUEENSLAND AUSTRALIA DI BIDANG PERTANIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Windiani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Globalization on national context has insisted the central government to work together and share duties and rights with the local government in order to achieve the national interest.  In Indonesia, UU 32/2004 about local government provide the chance for them to become more active in foreign policy, such as doing the cooperation in sister province/sister city program. The Central Java Province had done many sister province/sister city program with some partners aboard, such as Fujian province (China, Chungchoeng buk-do province (South Korea and the Queensland province (Australia.  The cooperation cover many sectors such as agriculture, city and village development, transportation and tourism, industry, trade and infestation, education, science and technology, and other sectors that will be confer in advance. From all of the cooperation that have been done between Central Java Province and Queensland, the author, is interested to have research on farming, because central government has had many cows imported from Australia.  This research is become important because central java province is one of the major of national fresh meat distributors. This research is using a qualitative method, with descriptive type of research.  This research has three research questions: How effective is the Sister Province program in Central Java with the Queensland in farm sector? What is the obstacle that holds the Sister Province program in Central Java with the Queensland in farm sector? How is the prospect of Sister Province program in Central Java with the Queensland in farm sector? This result of this research is to prove that the implementation of Sister Province program in Central Java with the Queensland in farm sectors is not effective.  Some of the implementation variables of this program have not been fulfilled. Communication, financial resources and bureaucracy structure are some of the variables that have weakness on this program.  Act of

  13. Description of a new Tiporus Watts, 1985 from northern Queensland, Australia (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrich, Lars; Balke, Michael; Watts, Chris H S

    2016-11-09

    Tiporus queenslandicus sp. n. is described from NE Queensland. The new species is similar to T. undecimmaculatus (Clark, 1862) and T. giuliani (Watts, 1978) from the Northern Territory and north-western Australia but well characterized by its larger size, more elongate habitus, and form of median lobe and parameres. Tiporus queenslandicus sp. n. is a lotic species being collected from rest pools of intermittent creeks and rivers with a sandy bottom. Important species-defining characters (habitus, median lobe, paramere, protibia of male) are illustrated. Together with T. queenslandicus sp. n. the genus comprises now 13 species.

  14. Analysis of Bordetella pertussis pertactin and pertussis toxin types from Queensland, Australia, 1999–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slack Andrew T

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia two acellular Bordetella pertussis vaccines have replaced the use of a whole cell vaccine. Both of the licensed acellular vaccines contain the following three components; pertussis toxoid, pertussis filamentous haemagglutinin and the 69 kDa pertactin adhesin. One vaccine also contains pertussis fimbriae 2 and 3. Various researchers have postulated that herd immunity due to high levels of pertussis vaccination might be influencing the makeup of endemic B. pertussis populations by selective pressure for strains possessing variants of these genes, in particular the pertactin gene type. Some publications have suggested that B. pertussis variants may be contributing to a reduced efficacy of the existing vaccines and a concomitant re-emergence of pertussis within vaccinated populations. This study was conducted to survey the pertactin and pertussis toxin subunit 1 types from B. pertussis isolates in Queensland, Australia following the introduction of acellular vaccines. Methods Forty-six B. pertussis isolates recovered from Queensland patients between 1999 and 2003 were examined by both DNA sequencing and LightCycler™ real time PCR to determine their pertactin and pertussis toxin subunit 1 genotypes. Results Pertactin typing showed that 38 isolates possessed the prn1 allele, 3 possessed the prn2 allele and 5 possessed the prn3 allele. All forty-six isolates possessed the pertussis toxin ptxS1A genotype. Amongst the circulating B. pertussis population in Queensland, 82.5% of the recovered clinical isolates therefore possessed the prn1/ptxS1A genotype. Conclusion The results of this study compared to historical research on Queensland isolates suggest that B. pertussis pertactin and pertussis toxin variants are not becoming more prevalent in Queensland since the introduction of the acellular vaccines. Current prevalences of pertactin variants are significantly different to that described in a number of other countries

  15. Born in another country: women's experience of labour and birth in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennegan, Julie; Redshaw, Maggie; Miller, Yvette

    2014-06-01

    Women born outside Australia make up more than a fifth of the Queensland birthing population and like migrants in other parts of the world face the challenges of cultural dislocation and possible language barriers. Recognising that labour and birth are major life events the aim was to investigate the experiences of these women in comparison to native-born English speaking women. Secondary analysis of data from a population based survey of women who had recently birthed in Queensland. Self-reported clinical outcomes and quality of interpersonal care of 481 women born outside Australia who spoke a language other than English at home were compared with those of 5569 Australian born women speaking only English. After adjustment for demographic factors and type of birthing facility, women born in another country were less likely to be induced, but more likely to have constant electronic fetal monitoring (EFM), to give birth lying on their back or side, and to have an episiotomy. Most women felt that they were treated as an individual and with kindness and respect. However, women born outside Australia were less likely to report being looked after 'very well' during labour and birth and to be more critical of some aspects of care. In comparing the labour and birth experiences of women born outside the country who spoke another language with native-born English speaking women, the present study presents a largely positive picture. However, there were some marked differences in both clinical and interpersonal aspects of care. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Testing a Moderated Model of Satisfaction with Urban Living Using Data for Brisbane-South East Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccrea, Rod; Stimson, Robert; Western, John

    2005-01-01

    Using survey data collected from households living in the Brisbane-South East Queensland region, a rapidly growing metropolis in Australia, path analysis is used to test links between urban residents' assessment of various urban attributes and their level of satisfaction in three urban domains--housing, neighbourhood or local area, and the wider…

  17. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto in Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee McMichael

    Full Text Available This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia.

  18. Increasing incidence of candidaemia: long-term epidemiological trends, Queensland, Australia, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playford, E G; Nimmo, G R; Tilse, M; Sorrell, T C

    2010-09-01

    Given variability in the epidemiology of candidaemia and a relative paucity of contemporary longitudinal data, a passive laboratory-based surveillance study was performed to assess the epidemiology of candidaemia in all public healthcare facilities in Queensland, Australia over the period 1999-2008. Demographic and microbiological data on all candidaemia episodes, together with appropriate denominators (admissions and patient-days), were collected from laboratory and administrative information systems. From 1999 to 2008, 1137 episodes occurred (overall incidence-density: 0.45 per 10 000 patient-days) with a 3.5-fold increase in density (Paccounting for 60% of the total by 2008. The relative proportion caused by Candida albicans decreased and Candida parapsilosis increased (both Pchallenges for preventive and early intervention strategies. Copyright 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia L. Reynolds

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native and naturalised Australian parasitoids, especially the braconid Diachasmimorpha tryoni, may result in better management of B. tryoni in some parts of Australia. Mass releases are an especially attractive option for areas of inland eastern Australia around the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone that produces B. tryoni-free fruits for export. Diachasmimorpha tryoni has been successful in other locations such as Hawaii for the biological control of other fruit fly species. Biological control could contribute to local eradication of isolated outbreaks and more general suppression and/or eradication of the B. tryoni population in endemic areas. Combining biological control with the use of sterile insect technique offers scope for synergy because the former is most effective at high pest densities and the latter most economical when the pest becomes scarce. Recommendations are made on methods for culturing and study of four B. tryoni parasitoids present in Australia along with research priorities for optimising augmentative biological control of B. tryoni.

  20. Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamek, Ashley L; Spinner, Jennifer E; Micallef, Jessica L; Gurr, Geoff M; Reynolds, Olivia L

    2012-10-22

    This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native and naturalised Australian parasitoids, especially the braconid Diachasmimorpha tryoni, may result in better management of B. tryoni in some parts of Australia. Mass releases are an especially attractive option for areas of inland eastern Australia around the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone that produces B. tryoni-free fruits for export. Diachasmimorpha tryoni has been successful in other locations such as Hawaii for the biological control of other fruit fly species. Biological control could contribute to local eradication of isolated outbreaks and more general suppression and/or eradication of the B. tryoni population in endemic areas. Combining biological control with the use of sterile insect technique offers scope for synergy because the former is most effective at high pest densities and the latter most economical when the pest becomes scarce. Recommendations are made on methods for culturing and study of four B. tryoni parasitoids present in Australia along with research priorities for optimising augmentative biological control of B. tryoni.

  1. What women want: qualitative analysis of consumer evaluations of maternity care in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Loretta C; Prosser, Samantha J; Miller, Yvette D

    2014-10-26

    Maternity care reform plans have been proposed at state and national levels in Australia, but the extent to which these respond to maternity care consumers' expressed needs is unclear. This study examines open-text survey comments to identify women's unmet needs and priorities for maternity care. It is then considered whether these needs and priorities are addressed in current reform plans. Women who had a live single or multiple birth in Queensland, Australia, in 2010 (n 3,635) were invited to complete a retrospective self-report survey. In addition to questions about clinical and interpersonal maternity care experiences from pregnancy to postpartum, women were asked an open-ended question "Is there anything else you'd like to tell us about having your baby?" This paper describes a detailed thematic analysis of open-ended responses from a random selection of 150 women (10% of 1,510 who responded to the question). Four broad themes emerged relevant to improving women's experiences of maternity care: quality of care (interpersonal and technical); access to choices and involvement in decision-making; unmet information needs; and dissatisfaction with the care environment. Some of these topics are reflected in current reform goals, while others provide evidence of the need for further reforms. The findings reinforce the importance of some existing maternity reform objectives, and describe how these might best be met. Findings affirm the importance of information provision to enable informed choices; a goal of Queensland and national reform agendas. Improvement opportunities not currently specified in reform agendas were also identified, including the quality of interpersonal relationships between women and staff, particular unmet information needs (e.g., breastfeeding), and concerns regarding the care environment (e.g., crowding and long waiting times).

  2. Large scale surveys suggest limited mercury availability in tropical north Queensland (Australia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, Timothy D., E-mail: t.jardine@griffith.edu.au [Australian Rivers Institute and Tropical Rivers and Coastal Knowledge (TRaCK), Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Halliday, Ian A. [Sustainable Fisheries Unit, Queensland Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, Ecosciences Precinct, GPO Box 46, Brisbane QLD, 4001 (Australia); Howley, Christina [Howley Environmental Consulting and CYMAG Environmental, Cooktown, QLD (Australia); Sinnamon, Vivian [Kowanyama Aboriginal Land and Natural Resource Management Office, Kowanyama, QLD (Australia); Bunn, Stuart E. [Australian Rivers Institute and Tropical Rivers and Coastal Knowledge (TRaCK), Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia)

    2012-02-01

    Little is known about the threat of mercury (Hg) to consumers in food webs of Australia's wet-dry tropics. This is despite high concentrations in similar biomes elsewhere and a recent history of gold mining that could lead to a high degree of exposure for biota. We analysed Hg in water, sediments, invertebrates and fishes in rivers and estuaries of north Queensland, Australia to determine its availability and biomagnification in food webs. Concentrations in water and sediments were low relative to other regions of Hg concern, with only four of 138 water samples and five of 60 sediment samples above detection limits of 0.1 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 0.1 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively. Concentrations of Hg in fishes and invertebrates from riverine and wetland food webs were well below international consumption guidelines, including those in piscivorous fishes, likely due to low baseline concentrations and limited rates of biomagnification (average slope of log Hg vs. {delta}{sup 15}N = 0.08). A large fish species of recreational, commercial, and cultural importance (the barramundi, Lates calcarifer), had low concentrations that were below consumption guidelines. Observed variation in Hg concentrations in this species was primarily explained by age and foraging location (floodplain vs. coastal), with floodplain feeders having higher Hg concentrations than those foraging at sea. These analyses suggest that there is a limited threat of Hg exposure for fish-eating consumers in this region. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hg concentrations in freshwaters and sediments of north Queensland were low. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biomagnification of Hg through riverine food webs was limited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Barramundi, a predatory fish, had low concentrations meaning low risk for consumers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Floodplain-feeding barramundi had higher Hg concentrations than coastal feeders.

  3. Pliocene Paleoenvironments of Southeastern Queensland, Australia Inferred from Stable Isotopes of Marsupial Tooth Enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Shaena; Louys, Julien; Price, Gilbert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Chinchilla Local Fauna is a diverse assemblage of both terrestrial and aquatic Pliocene vertebrates from the fluviatile Chinchilla Sand deposits of southeastern Queensland, Australia. It represents one of Australia's few but exceptionally rich Pliocene vertebrate localities, and as such is an important source of paleoecological data concerning Pliocene environmental changes and its effects on ecosystems. Prior inferences about the paleoenvironment of this locality made on the basis of qualitative observations have ranged from grassland to open woodland to wetland. Examination of the carbon and oxygen isotopes in the tooth enamel of marsupials from this site represents a quantitative method for inferring the paleoenvironments and paleoecology of the fossil fauna. Results from Chinchilla show that Protemnodon sp. indet. consumed both C3 and C4 photosynthesis plant types (mean δ13C = −14.5±2.0‰), and therefore probably occupied a mixed vegetation environment. Macropus sp. indet. from Chinchilla also consumed a mixed diet of both C3 and C4 plants, with more of a tendency for C4 plant consumption (mean δ13C = −10.3±2.3‰). Interestingly, their isotopic dietary signature is more consistent with tropical and temperate kangaroo communities than the sub-tropical communities found around Chinchilla today. Other genera sampled in this study include the extinct kangaroo Troposodon sp. indet. and the fossil diprotodontid Euryzygoma dunense each of which appear to have occupied distinct dietary niches. This study suggests that southeastern Queensland hosted a mosaic of tropical forests, wetlands and grasslands during the Pliocene and was much less arid than previously thought. PMID:23776636

  4. Large scale surveys suggest limited mercury availability in tropical north Queensland (Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, Timothy D.; Halliday, Ian A.; Howley, Christina; Sinnamon, Vivian; Bunn, Stuart E.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the threat of mercury (Hg) to consumers in food webs of Australia's wet–dry tropics. This is despite high concentrations in similar biomes elsewhere and a recent history of gold mining that could lead to a high degree of exposure for biota. We analysed Hg in water, sediments, invertebrates and fishes in rivers and estuaries of north Queensland, Australia to determine its availability and biomagnification in food webs. Concentrations in water and sediments were low relative to other regions of Hg concern, with only four of 138 water samples and five of 60 sediment samples above detection limits of 0.1 μg L −1 and 0.1 μg g −1 , respectively. Concentrations of Hg in fishes and invertebrates from riverine and wetland food webs were well below international consumption guidelines, including those in piscivorous fishes, likely due to low baseline concentrations and limited rates of biomagnification (average slope of log Hg vs. δ 15 N = 0.08). A large fish species of recreational, commercial, and cultural importance (the barramundi, Lates calcarifer), had low concentrations that were below consumption guidelines. Observed variation in Hg concentrations in this species was primarily explained by age and foraging location (floodplain vs. coastal), with floodplain feeders having higher Hg concentrations than those foraging at sea. These analyses suggest that there is a limited threat of Hg exposure for fish-eating consumers in this region. - Highlights: ► Hg concentrations in freshwaters and sediments of north Queensland were low. ► Biomagnification of Hg through riverine food webs was limited. ► Barramundi, a predatory fish, had low concentrations meaning low risk for consumers. ► Floodplain-feeding barramundi had higher Hg concentrations than coastal feeders.

  5. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Locally-Acquired Dengue Transmission in Northern Queensland, Australia, 1993–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, Suchithra; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S.; McBride, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia since it re-emerged in Queensland in 1992–1993. We explored spatio-temporal characteristics of locally-acquired dengue cases in northern tropical Queensland, Australia during the period 1993–2012. Methods Locally-acquired notified cases of dengue were collected for northern tropical Queensland from 1993 to 2012. Descriptive spatial and temporal analyses were conducted using geographic information system tools and geostatistical techniques. Results 2,398 locally-acquired dengue cases were recorded in northern tropical Queensland during the study period. The areas affected by the dengue cases exhibited spatial and temporal variation over the study period. Notified cases of dengue occurred more frequently in autumn. Mapping of dengue by statistical local areas (census units) reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time and place. Statistically significant differences in dengue incidence rates among males and females (with more cases in females) (χ2 = 15.17, d.f. = 1, p<0.01). Differences were observed among age groups, but these were not statistically significant. There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of dengue incidence for the four sub-periods, with the Moran's I statistic ranging from 0.011 to 0.463 (p<0.01). Semi-variogram analysis and smoothed maps created from interpolation techniques indicate that the pattern of spatial autocorrelation was not homogeneous across the northern Queensland. Conclusions Tropical areas are potential high-risk areas for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. This study demonstrated that the locally-acquired dengue cases have exhibited a spatial and temporal variation over the past twenty years in northern tropical Queensland, Australia. Therefore, this study provides an impetus for further investigation of clusters and risk factors in these high-risk areas. PMID:24691549

  6. Intertidal sediments and benthic animals of Roebuck Bay, Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, M.; Piersma, T.; Pearson, G.; Lavaleye, M.

    1999-01-01

    Roebuck Bay near Broome (NW Australia) is with itsextensive tidal flats one of the foremost internationallyimportant sites for shorebirds in the Asia-Pacificflyway system. It is home to 150,000 shorebirds (or‘waders’) in the nonbreeding season, which suggeststhat the intertidal flats of the bay have

  7. The health of female sex workers from three industry sectors in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; Fischer, Jane; Najman, Jackob M

    2009-02-01

    Previous studies have reported poor mental health amongst sex workers without distinguishing the context in which commercial sex is provided. This study describes the self-reported mental and physical health of female sex workers in three industry sectors in Queensland, Australia. In 2003, cross-sectional convenience sampling was used to collect data from 247 female sex workers working in licensed brothels (n=102), as private sole operators (n=103) and illegally (n=42). The average age was 32 years (range 18-57), with most participants being born either in Australia or New Zealand. Overall, there were few differences in the physical health of women from different industry sectors. Illegal (and predominantly street-based) sex workers were four times more likely to report poor mental health with some of this difference attributable to the particular social background of this group. Much of the increased levels of poor mental health among illegal sex workers were associated with more negative experiences before, and subsequent to entering the sex industry. These patterns were not seen among women from the legal industry sectors. This research suggests that illegal, street-based sex workers, from whom many previous results have been derived, may show patterns of disadvantage, and health outcomes not seen in sex workers from other industry sectors.

  8. Naturally occurring radionuclides in materials derived from urban water treatment plants in southeast Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, Ross; Akber, Riaz

    2008-01-01

    An assessment of radiologically enhanced residual materials generated during treatment of domestic water supplies in southeast Queensland, Australia, was conducted. Radioactivity concentrations of U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, Rn-222, and Po-210 in water, sourced from both surface water catchments and groundwater resources were examined both pre- and post-treatment under typical water treatment operations. Surface water treatment processes included sedimentation, coagulation, flocculation and filtration, while the groundwater was treated using cation exchange, reverse osmosis, activated charcoal or methods similar to surface water treatment. Waste products generated as a result of treatment included sediments and sludges, filtration media, exhausted ion exchange resin, backwash and wastewaters. Elevated residual concentrations of radionuclides were identified in these waste products. The waste product activity concentrations were used to model the radiological impact of the materials when either utilised for beneficial purposes, or upon disposal. The results indicate that, under current water resource exploitation programs, reuse or disposal of the treatment wastes from large scale urban water treatment plants in Australia do not pose a significant radiological risk

  9. The relationship between climate change and the endangered rainforest shrub Triunia robusta (Proteaceae) endemic to southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu-Kimura, Yoko; Accad, Arnon; Shapcott, Alison

    2017-04-19

    Threatened species in rainforests may be vulnerable to climate change, because of their potentially narrow thermal tolerances, small population sizes and restricted distributions. This study modelled climate induced changes on the habitat distribution of the endangered rainforest plant Triunia robusta, endemic to southeast Queensland, Australia. Species distribution models were developed for eastern Australia at 250 m grids and southeast Queensland at 25 m grids using ground-truthed presence records and environmental predictor data. The species' habitat distribution under the current climate was modelled, and the future potential habitat distributions were projected for the epochs 2030, 2050 and 2070. The eastern Australia model identified several spatially disjunct, broad habitat areas of coastal eastern Australia consistent with the current distribution of rainforests, and projected a southward and upslope contraction driven mainly by average temperatures exceeding current range limits. The southeast Queensland models suggest a dramatic upslope contraction toward locations where the majority of known populations are found. Populations located in the Sunshine Coast hinterland, consistent with past rainforest refugia, are likely to persist long-term. Upgrading the level of protection for less formal nature reserves containing viable populations is a high priority to better protect refugial T. robusta populations with respect to climate change.

  10. Potential Exposures to Australian Bat Lyssavirus Notified in Queensland, Australia, 2009-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damin Si

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV belongs to the genus Lyssavirus which also includes classic rabies virus and the European lyssaviruses. To date, the only three known human ABLV cases, all fatal, have been reported from Queensland, Australia. ABLV is widely distributed in Australian bats, and any bite or scratch from an Australian bat is considered a potential exposure to ABLV.Potential exposure to ABLV has been a notifiable condition in Queensland since 2005. We analysed notification data for potential exposures occurring between 2009 and 2014. There were 1,515 potential exposures to ABLV notified in Queensland, with an average annual notification rate of 5.6 per 100,000 population per year. The majority of notified individuals (96% were potentially exposed to ABLV via bats, with a small number of cases potentially exposed via two ABLV infected horses and an ABLV infected human. The most common routes of potential exposure were through bat scratches (47% or bites (37%, with less common routes being mucous membrane/broken skin exposure to bat saliva/brain tissue (2.2%. Intentional handling of bats by the general public was the major cause of potential exposures (56% of notifications. Examples of these potential exposures included people attempting to rescue bats caught in barbed wire fences/fruit tree netting, or attempting to remove bats from a home. Following potential exposures, 1,399 cases (92% were recorded as having appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP as defined in national guidelines, with the remainder having documentation of refusal or incomplete PEP. Up to a quarter of notifications occurred after two days from the potential exposure, but with some delays being more than three weeks. Of 393 bats available for testing during the reporting period, 20 (5.1% had ABLV detected, including four species of megabats (all flying foxes and one species of microbats (yellow-bellied sheathtail bat.Public health strategies should address the

  11. Morphologic and sedimentologic characteristics of continental slope box slides offshore Fraser Island, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Melissa; Hubble, Thomas; Clarke, Samantha; Airey, David; Yu, Phyllis; Southern Surveyor V01-2013, Scientific Party RV

    2014-05-01

    The Fraser Island Slide complex is located on eastern Australia's continental slope offshore Fraser Island in southern Queensland. Morphologic, sedimentologic and geomechanical properties data for two submarine landslides, the 'North Fraser Island Upper Slope Slide' (upper slope slide) and the 'Fraser Island Middle Slope Slide' (middle slope slide) are described. Both of these features are box-shaped, slide scars from which rectangular slabs of material have been shed. The upper slope slide is situated at a water depth of approximately 750 m at the northern end of the Fraser Canyon. The head of this slide has apparently detached from a structural surface comprised of a Miocene reef complex located beneath the continental shelf edge; this slide is estimated to be 25 square kilometres in area and an average of 100m thick. The middle slope slide is situated in 1500 m of water at the southern end of the Fraser Canyon. It estimated to be 12 square kilometres in area and 50 m thick. Cores taken in the continental slope within both slides are long (upper slope 5.65 m, middle slope 3.64 m) and are dominantly comprised of hemipelagic mud. Cores taken adjacent to both slides are short (upper slope 1.33m, middle slope 0.43m) and terminate in stiff muds of suspected Miocene or Pliocene age. Additionally, the 1.33 m core on the slope adjacent to the upper slide presents a near surface layer of upper-fining of coarse to fine shelly sand which we interpret to be a turbidite deposit, this layer was deposited within hemipelagic muds which are ubiquitously present on the upper eastern Australian Continental Slope in New South Wales and Southern Queensland.

  12. Using multiple lines of evidence to evaluate the hydrological response to deforestation of large catchments in the dry tropics of Queensland, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pena-Arancibia, J.; van Dijk, A.I.J.M.; Guerschmann, J.P.; Mulligan, M.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; McVicar, T.R.

    2012-01-01

    We used daily rainfall and streamflow time series from two large catchments in the seasonal tropics of Queensland, Australia to investigate the hydrological impacts of woodland clearing. The Comet catchment (16,440km

  13. Impact and effectiveness of childhood varicella vaccine program in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Sarah L; Quinn, Helen E; Hull, Brynley P; Ware, Robert S; Grimwood, Keith; Lambert, Stephen B

    2017-06-14

    In November 2005, Australia introduced a publicly funded single dose of varicella vaccine for children aged 18-months. We describe the impact of this program on varicella hospitalisations in Queensland and provide the first assessment of single-dose varicella vaccine effectiveness in Australia since the program commenced. Age-standardised varicella hospitalisation rates were calculated for 2000-2014 and pre- and post-public funding period rates compared. Case-control studies were conducted to investigate the association between vaccine receipt and both varicella hospitalisations and uncomplicated varicella emergency department presentations. Cases were matched to controls from a population-based register by date of birth and state of residence. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated as (1-odds ratio)×100%. Compared to the pre-funded period (2000-2003), age-standardised varicella hospitalisation rates declined by more than 70% in 2011-2014 with varicella principal diagnosis rates declining from 5.7 to 1.6 per 100,000 population per year. Varicella vaccine effectiveness at preventing hospitalisation with a principal diagnosis of varicella among children aged 19-months to 6-years was 81.9% (95% confidence interval: 61.8-91.4%), while for emergency department presentations among children aged 19-months to 8-years it was 57.9% (95% confidence interval: 48.5-65.5%). In Australia, the single-dose varicella vaccination program has substantially reduced varicella morbidity. The single-dose varicella vaccine schedule is moderately-to-highly effective against hospitalisation, but appears less effective against emergency department presentations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Short note on a Pteranodontoid pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea from western Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W.A. Kellner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Flying reptiles from Australia are very rare, represented mostly by isolated bones coming from the Early Cretaceous (Albian Toolebuc Formation, which crops out in western Queensland. Among the first pterosaur specimens discovered from this deposit is a mandibular symphysis that some authors thought to have a particular affinity to species found in the Cambridge Greensand (Cenomanian of England. It was further referred as a member of or closely related to one of the genera Ornithocheirus, Lonchodectes or Anhanguera. Here we redescribe this specimen, showing that it cannot be referred to the aforementioned genera, but represents a new species of Pteranodontoid (sensu Kellner 2003, here named Aussiedraco molnari gen. et sp. nov. It is the second named pterosaur from Australia and confirms that the Toolebuc deposits are so far the most important for our understanding of the flying reptile fauna of this country.Répteis voadores da Austrália são muito raros e, na maioria dos casos, representados por ossos isolados procedentes da Formação Toolebuc (Cretáceo, Albiano, da região leste de Queensland. Entre os primeiros espécimes de pterossauros coletados nestes depósitos encontra-se uma sínfise mandibular que alguns autores acreditaram possuir afinidades com formas encontradas no Cambridge Greensand (Cenomaniano da Inglaterra. O exemplar acabou sendo classificado como representando uma espécie pertencente ou proximamente relacionada aos gêneros Ornithocheirus, Lonchodectes ou Anhanguera. Neste trabalho nós redescrevemos este espécime e demonstramos que o mesmo não pode ser referido aos gêneros mencionados, mas representa uma nova espécie de Pteranodontóide (sensu Kellner 2003, aqui denominada de Aussiedraco molnari gen. et sp. nov. Este exemplar constitui a segunda espécie de pterossauro da Austrália a ser denominada e confirma a que os depósitos de Toolebuc são até o momento os mais importantes para a pesquisa de pterossauros desse

  15. Peracreadium akenovae sp. nov. (Trematoda: Opecoelidae) parasitising the highfin moray eel Gymnothorax pseudothyrsoideus (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae) from Moreton Bay, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Thomas H; Bray, Rodney A; Cutmore, Scott C

    2013-09-01

    A new opecoelid trematode, Peracreadium akenovae sp. nov., is described from the highfin moray eel Gymnothorax pseudothyrsoideus (Bleeker) (Anguilliformes; Muraenidae), collected from Moreton Bay off southeast Queensland, Australia. The new species is distinctive in its body shape, transversely elongate irregular testes, vitelline follicles interrupted at the level of the ventral sucker, and diverticulate excretory vesicle. The Muraenidae is a new host family for Peracreadium Nicoll, 1909. Peracreadium is the seventh opecoelid genus reported from temperate eastern Australian marine fishes and this is its first report from Australian waters.

  16. Consumers Perception Of Organic Food In A Peri-Urban Area In Queensland Australia

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    Phuong T. Nguyen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand peri-urban areas consumers perception of organic food and the importance of organic certification in customers decisions for obtaining insights into their consumption of organic food. Data was collected through a questionnaire survey at two main supermarkets in Gatton town Queensland Australia. This research showed that 42.4 of consumers purchase organic food at least once per month. Health protection was found the most important reason for Australian peri-urban consumers to purchase organic food. Most of them 89.5 were interested in organic food but only around 59 of consumers were confident with the claimed benefits of the food and 42 trust in the organic certification. The more consumers are interested in trust and are confident with the claimed benefits the more likely will they purchase organic food. In addition organic labels and certification turned out to be important for the consumers when shopping organic food. This research was the first study to investigate the consumers perception of organic food in an Australian peri-urban area especially relationships between the frequency of purchase and consumers level of knowledge and their behaviors toward organic food. Both practical and theoretical contributions of this study are also discussed.

  17. Community Response and Engagement During Extreme Water Events in Saskatchewan, Canada and Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, Dena W.; Sammel, Alison J.; Arbuthnott, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    Technology alone cannot address the challenges of how societies, communities, and individuals understand water accessibility, water management, and water consumption, particularly under extreme conditions like floods and droughts. At the community level, people are increasingly aware challenges related to responses to and impacts of extreme water events. This research begins with an assessment of social and political capacities of communities in two Commonwealth jurisdictions, Queensland, Australia and Saskatchewan, Canada, in response to major flooding events. The research further reviews how such capacities impact community engagement to address and mitigate risks associated with extreme water events and provides evidence of key gaps in skills, understanding, and agency for addressing impacts at the community level. Secondary data were collected using template analysis to elucidate challenges associated with education (formal and informal), social and political capacity, community ability to respond appropriately, and formal government responses to extreme water events in these two jurisdictions. The results indicate that enhanced community engagement alongside elements of an empowerment model can provide avenues for identifying and addressing community vulnerability to negative impacts of flood and drought.

  18. Community Response and Engagement During Extreme Water Events in Saskatchewan, Canada and Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, Dena W; Sammel, Alison J; Arbuthnott, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    Technology alone cannot address the challenges of how societies, communities, and individuals understand water accessibility, water management, and water consumption, particularly under extreme conditions like floods and droughts. At the community level, people are increasingly aware challenges related to responses to and impacts of extreme water events. This research begins with an assessment of social and political capacities of communities in two Commonwealth jurisdictions, Queensland, Australia and Saskatchewan, Canada, in response to major flooding events. The research further reviews how such capacities impact community engagement to address and mitigate risks associated with extreme water events and provides evidence of key gaps in skills, understanding, and agency for addressing impacts at the community level. Secondary data were collected using template analysis to elucidate challenges associated with education (formal and informal), social and political capacity, community ability to respond appropriately, and formal government responses to extreme water events in these two jurisdictions. The results indicate that enhanced community engagement alongside elements of an empowerment model can provide avenues for identifying and addressing community vulnerability to negative impacts of flood and drought.

  19. Exploring the cancer risk perception and interest in genetic services among Indigenous people in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Christina M; Valery, Patricia C; Garvey, Gail

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the levels of interest among Indigenous people with cancer in identifying cancer risk in their family and seeking genetic counselling/testing. A cross-sectional survey of Indigenous cancer patients recruited from four major treating hospitals in Queensland. Participants' family history of cancer and interest in genetic counselling/testing was sought using a structured questionnaire. Overall, 73.0% of 252 participants reported having a family history of cancer; of those, 52.8% had at least one first-degree relative with cancer. A total of 68.3% of participants indicated concern about relatives being affected by cancer and 54.4% of participants indicated they would like to assess the cancer risk in their family with a specialist. Concern was associated with willingness to discuss the risk of cancer with a specialist (pIndigenous cancer patients do have a family history of cancer and appear willing to undergo genetic counselling/investigation. It is of great concern that this population could miss the benefits of the technological advances in health care, creating a much larger disparity in health outcomes. Health service providers should not assume that Indigenous cancer patients will not follow their recommendations when referred to genetic counselling/investigation services. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  20. Households Willingness to Pay for the Emissions Reduction Policy, Queensland, Australia

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    Galina Williams

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines households’ willingness to support the emissions reduction policy and their perceptions of climate change using an Internet survey of more than 1,000 households in Queensland, Australia. Respondents were asked for their willingness to pay (WTP to support the emissions reduction target proposed by the Australian Government by paying extra on their electricity bills. The results can be summarized in four key findings. First, respondents’ WTP to support the emissions reduction target is higher if they perceive that climate change will result in high loss of biodiversity. Second, respondents were willing to support a higher emissions target than proposed by the Australian Government. Third, there is a correlation between respondents WTP to support the emissions reduction and their beliefs about climate change, its effect on standards of living, the environment, and future generations. Fourth, as the data show a high rate of zero responses, common for the contingent valuation method (CVM used in the survey, the zero bids were further investigated using the non-parametric Turnbull model and the more recent spike model. The results showed that although there is some support for the emissions reduction policy, it is not sufficient for the policy to be successful.

  1. New U/Th ages for Pleistocene megafauna deposits of southeastern Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gilbert J.; Zhao, Jian-xin; Feng, Yue-xing; Hocknull, Scott A.

    2009-02-01

    Arguments over the extinction of Pleistocene megafauna have become particularly polarised in recent years. Causes for the extinctions are widely debated with climate change, human hunting and/or habitat modification, or a combination of those factors, being the dominant hypotheses. However, a lack of a spatially constrained chronology for many megafauna renders most hypotheses difficult to test. Here, we present several new U/Th dates for a series of previously undated, megafauna-bearing localities from southeastern Queensland, Australia. The sites were previously used to argue for or against various megafauna extinction hypotheses, and are the type localities for two now-extinct Pleistocene marsupials (including the giant koala, Phascolarctos stirtoni). The new dating allows the deposits to be placed in a spatially- and temporally constrained context relevant to the understanding of Australian megafaunal extinctions. The results indicate that The Joint (Texas Caves) megafaunal assemblage is middle Pleistocene or older (>292 ky); the Cement Mills (Gore) megafaunal assemblage is late Pleistocene or older (>53 ky); and the Russenden Cave Bone Chamber (Texas Caves) megafaunal assemblage is late Pleistocene (˜55 ky). Importantly, the new results broadly show that the sites date prior to the hypothesised megafaunal extinction 'window' (i.e., ˜30-50 ky), and therefore, cannot be used to argue exclusively for or against human/climate change extinction models, without first exploring their palaeoecological significance on wider temporal and spatial scales.

  2. Managing urban water crises: adaptive policy responses to drought and flood in Southeast Queensland, Australia

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    Brian W. Head

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this case study, I examine the quality of decision-making under conditions of rapidly evolving urban water crises, and the adaptive policy challenges of building regional resilience in response to both drought and flood. Like other regions of Australia, Southeast Queensland has been subject to substantial cycles of drought and flood. I draw on resilience literature concerning sustainability, together with governance literature on policy change, to explain the changing awareness of urban water crises and the strategic options available for addressing these crises in this case study. The problem of resilience thinking opens up a number of important questions about the efficacy and adaptability of the policy system. The case provides insights into the interplay between the ways in which problems are framed, the knowledge bases required for planning and decision-making, the collaborative governance processes required for managing complex and rapidly evolving issues, and the overall capacity for policy learning over time. Regional resilience was proclaimed as a policy goal by government, but the practices remained largely anchored in traditional technical frameworks. Centralized investment decisions and governance restructures provoked conflict between levels of government, undermining the capacity of stakeholders to create more consensual approaches to problem-solving and limiting the collective learning that could have emerged.

  3. Discriminating between the vocalizations of Indo-Pacific humpback and Australian snubfin dolphins in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg Soto, Alvaro; Marsh, Helene; Everingham, Yvette; Smith, Joshua N; Parra, Guido J; Noad, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Australian snubfin and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins co-occur throughout most of their range in coastal waters of tropical Australia. Little is known of their ecology or acoustic repertoires. Vocalizations from humpback and snubfin dolphins were recorded in two locations along the Queensland coast during 2008 and 2010 to describe their vocalizations and evaluate the acoustic differences between these two species. Broad vocalization types were categorized qualitatively. Both species produced click trains burst pulses and whistles. Principal component analysis of the nine acoustic variables extracted from the whistles produced nine principal components that were input into discriminant function analyses to classify 96% of humpback dolphin whistles and about 78% of snubfin dolphin calls correctly. Results indicate clear acoustic differences between the vocal whistle repertoires of these two species. A stepwise routine identified two principal components as significantly distinguishable between whistles of each species: frequency parameters and frequency trend ratio. The capacity to identify these species using acoustic monitoring techniques has the potential to provide information on presence/absence, habitat use and relative abundance for each species.

  4. Dental Erosion and Dentinal Sensitivity amongst Professional Wine Tasters in South East Queensland, Australia

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    Roy George

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Professional wine tasters face a hidden occupational hazard due to the high acid content in wine. This study evaluates the self-perceived dentinal sensitivity and erosive effects of wine on the professional wine tasters of the Granite Belt and the Scenic Rim regions of South East Queensland, Australia. Methods. Seventy wineries were contacted and participants were surveyed about their professional wine tasting experience and oral health. Participants were also required to rate their tooth sensitivity prior to being examined for erosion using a modified Smith & Knight tooth wear index. The data were analysed using Mann Whitney U test and Spearman’s correlation test. Results. The results showed that most participants (25 males, 22–66 yrs, brushed twice a day; however, the majority did not floss daily and had limited knowledge of the erosive effect of wine. There was a direct correlation between years of wine tasting, age of participants, and the erosion index. Correlation was not observed between the participant’s sensitivity index and erosion index. Conclusion. The lack of significant experience of dentinal hypersensitivity amongst professional wine tasters should not prevent oral health practitioners from providing necessary counselling and undertaking preventive measures, as tooth wear can have serious long-term effect on oral health of an individual.

  5. Use of Traditional Indigenous Medicine and Complementary Medicine Among Indigenous Cancer Patients in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jon; Valery, Patricia C; Sibbritt, David; Bernardes, Christina M; Broom, Alex; Garvey, Gail

    2015-07-01

    The cancer toll on Indigenous Australians is alarming with overall cancer incidence and mortality rates higher and the 5-year survival rate lower for Indigenous Australians compared with non-Indigenous Australians. Meanwhile, a range of approaches to health and illness-including both complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and traditional Indigenous medicine (TM)-are used by cancer patients. Little work has focused on Indigenous cancer patients with regard to CAM/TM use. This article reports findings from the first examination of the prevalence and profile of TM/CAM use and users among Indigenous Australians with cancer. A structured questionnaire was administered via face-to-face interviews to 248 Indigenous Australian cancer patients diagnosed with a range of cancer types. All received treatment and were recruited from 1 of 4 large hospitals located in Queensland, Australia. A substantial percentage (18.7%) of Indigenous cancer patients use at least one TM/CAM for support with their care, including traditional Indigenous therapy use (2.8%), visiting a traditional Indigenous practitioner (2.8%), CAM use (10.7%), visiting a CAM practitioner (2.4%), and attending relaxation/meditation classes (4.0%). Having a higher level of educational attainment was positively associated with CAM practitioner consultations (P = .015). Women with breast cancer were more likely to attend relaxation/meditation classes (P = .019). Men with genital organ cancer were more likely to use traditional Indigenous therapies (P = .017) and/or CAM (P = .002). A substantial percentage of Indigenous Australians reported using TM/CAM for their cancer care, and there is a need to expand examination of this area of health care using large-scale studies focusing on in-depth specific cancer(s). © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. TPACK Development in Science Teacher Preparation: A Case Study in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickel, Jamie L.

    This study sought to identify key experiences that impact the development of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) of preservice secondary sciences teachers at a medium-sized university in Queensland, Australia. TPACK is a conceptual framework of a body of knowledge that teachers draw upon to influence practice; it is a dynamic and emergent form of knowledge that informs the employment of technology for teaching specific subject matter. This study employed an embedded case study approach, including delivery of a TPACK survey instrument and analysis of participant interviews, to identify the context-specific experiences that promote the development of TPACK among twelve preservice secondary science teachers. The research addresses a specific need cited in the literature, identifying TPACK impact factors, and provides a novel way to visualize TPACK development through contextual experiences. A novel approach to visually representing context-specific experiences and their influence on teacher knowledge, self-efficacy, values and beliefs was employed. Three major findings are presented below: 1) the majority of preservice secondary science teachers were unable to define the constructs of learning and science; 2) a focus on motivation and interest paired with a disconnect between expressed and enacted pedagogical orientation lead to teacher-centered instruction augmented with superficial tactics aimed at generating interest; and 3) difficulty in integrating knowledge bases yielded lower TPACK self-efficacy, which has detrimental impacts on the instruction planned by pre-service teachers for their students. Findings are directly aligned with participants' prior experience, compared to the relevant literature, and utilized to identify implications for teacher preparation as well as recommendations for future research.

  7. Submarine Landslide Morphology of Box Slides Present on the Continental Slope Offshore Fraser Island, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, M. J. A.; Hubble, T.; Clarke, S. L.; Airey, D.; Yu, P. W. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Fraser Island slide complex is located on eastern Australia's continental slope. Two potentially tsunamigenic submarine landslides identified here as the 'North Fraser Island Upper Slope Slide' (25km2 in area, 100m thick) and the 'Middle Fraser Island Middle Slope Slide' (12km2 in area, 50m thick) are described. Morphologic, sedimentologic and geomechanical properties for these slides are compared to data reported for existing submarine landslides located to the south in New South Wales (NSW). The two Fraser Island slides are translational, box-shaped, slab slides. We suspect that the slabs remained intact during downslope transport. The upper slope slide is situated at a water depth of approximately 750m at the northern end of the Fraser Canyon complex. The head of this slide has apparently detached from a structural surface comprised of a Miocene reef complex located beneath the continental shelf edge. The middle slope slide is situated on a large plateau to the south of the Fraser Canyon complex in 1500m of water. Cores taken in the continental slope within both slides are long and present hemipelagic muds. Cores taken adjacent to both slides are short and terminate in stiff muds of suspected Miocene or Pliocene age. Additionally, the core adjacent to the upper slope slide presents a near surface layer of upper-fining of coarse to fine shelly sand which we interpret to be a turbidite deposit. This layer was deposited above hemipelagic muds which are ubiquitously present on the upper eastern Australian continental slope in NSW and Southern Queensland.

  8. Impact of an invasive weed, Parthenium hysterophorus, on a pasture community in south east Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Belgeri, Amalia; Navie, Sheldon; O'Donnell, Chris; Adkins, Steve

    2017-12-01

    Parthenium weed is a highly invasive alien species in more than 40 countries around the world. Along with severe negative effects on human and animal health and crop production, it also causes harm to ecosystem functioning by reducing the native plant species biodiversity. However, its impacts on native plant species, especially in pasture communities, are less known. Given parthenium weed causes substantial losses to Australian pastures' productivity, it is crucial to estimate its impact on pasture communities. This study evaluates the impact of parthenium weed upon species diversity in a pasture community at Kilcoy, south east Queensland, Australia. Sub-sites containing three levels of parthenium weed density (i.e. high, low and zero) were chosen to quantify the above- and below-ground plant community structure. Species richness, diversity and evenness were all found to be significantly reduced as the density of parthenium weed increased; an effect was evident even when parthenium weed was present at relatively low densities (i.e. two plants m -2 ). This trend was observed in the summer season as well as in winter season when this annual weed was absent from the above-ground plant community. This demonstrates the strong impact that parthenium weed has upon the community composition and functioning throughout the year. It also shows the long-term impact of parthenium weed on the soil seed bank where it had displaced several native species. So, management options used for parthenium weed should also consider the reduction of parthenium weed seed bank along with controlling its above-ground populations.

  9. Factors Impacting the Migration Paths of Humpback Whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemckert, C. J.; Reinke, J.; Meynecke, O.

    2016-02-01

    Humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, migrate annually from polar feeding grounds in summer to tropical breeding grounds in winter. Large scale migration patterns are quite well known; however, small scale distribution patterns and relationships with environmental conditions have received less attention. Protection from a range of threats, as well as predicting the effects of climate change, requires knowledge of preferred habitat and the reasons behind the preferences. East Australian humpback whales travel from the Southern Ocean, along the East Coast of Australia, to the Great Barrier Reef (or further) to breed. The East Australian coastal environment is dominated by the East Australian Current. This current carries warm water poleward from the tropics and is responsible for generating upwelling conditions on the coast and providing the majority of nutrients available for primary production. Sharp temperature changes develop at the border of the warm current and the cooler coastal and upwelled waters. This study investigates relationships between humpback whale distribution and environmental conditions (including bathymetry and remotely sensed sea surface temperature, as well as their gradients) on the Gold Coast and Hervey Bay, Australia. The Gold Coast is used primarily a migration route, but also provides a rest stop for mothers and calves on the return journey. Hervey Bay is used on the southern (return) migration for resting and socialising. Environmental preferences for these two will provide a comparison of the requirements for different habitat types. Initial outcomes of the study on the Gold Coast suggest a preference for cooler waters and in areas with a strong temperature gradient. The higher productivity in cooler upwelled water and fronts may provide the whales with a chance of opportunistic feeding, a rare occurrence on their prolonged journey. Following particular hydrodynamic features such as these, which generally run parallel to the shore

  10. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and paracetamol use in Queensland and in the whole of Australia

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    Tett Susan E

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross national drug utilization studies can provide information about different influences on physician prescribing. This is important for medicines with issues around safety and quality of use, like non selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ns-NSAIDs and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitors. To enable comparison of prescription medicine use across different jurisdictions with a range of population sizes, data first need to be compared within Australia to understand whether use in a smaller sub-population may be considered as representative of the total use within Australia. The aim of this study was to compare the utilization of non selective NSAID, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol between Queensland and Australia. Method Dispensing data were obtained for concession beneficiaries for Australia for ns-NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol subsidized by the PBS over the period 1997–2003. The same data were purchased for Queensland. Data were converted to Defined Daily Dose (DDD/1000 beneficiaries/day (World Health Organization anatomical therapeutic chemical classification, 2005. Results Total NSAID and paracetamol consumption were similar in Australia and Queensland. Ns-NSAID use decreased sharply with the introduction of COX-2 inhibitors (from approximately 80 to 40 DDD/1000 beneficiaries/day. Paracetamol was constant (approximately 45 DDD/1000 beneficiaries/day. COX-2 inhibitors consumption was initially higher in Queensland than in the whole of Australia. Conclusion Despite initial divergence in celecoxib use between Queensland and Australia, the use of ns-NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol overall, in concession beneficiaries, was comparable in Australia and Queensland.

  11. A Community-Directed Integrated Strongyloides Control Program in Queensland, Australia

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    Adrian Miller

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two phases of a community-directed intervention to address strongyloidiasis in the remote Aboriginal community of Woorabinda in central Queensland, Australia. The first phase provides the narrative of a community-driven ‘treat-and-test’ mass drug administration (MDA intervention that was co-designed by the Community Health Service and the community. The second phase is a description of the re-engagement of the community in order to disseminate the key factors for success in the previous MDA for Strongyloides stercoralis, as this information was not shared or captured in the first phase. During the first phase in 2004, there was a high prevalence of strongyloidiasis (12% faecal examination, 30% serology; n = 944 community members tested that resulted in increased morbidity and at least one death in the community. Between 2004–2005, the community worked in partnership with the Community Health Service to implement a S. stercoralis control program, where all of the residents were treated with oral ivermectin, and repeat doses were given for those with positive S. stercoralis serology. The community also developed their own health promotion campaign using locally-made resources targeting relevant environmental health problems and concerns. Ninety-two percent of the community residents participated in the program, and the prevalence of strongyloidiasis at the time of the ‘treat-and-test’ intervention was 16.6% [95% confidence interval 14.2–19.3]. The cure rate after two doses of ivermectin was 79.8%, based on pre-serology and post-serology tests. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of local Aboriginal leadership and governance and a high level of community involvement in this successful mass drug administration program to address S. stercoralis. The commitment required of these leaders was demanding, and involved intense work over a period of several months. Apart from controlling strongyloidiasis

  12. Meteorological research studies at Jervis Bay, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.H.; Bendun, E.O.K.

    1974-07-01

    A climatological study of the winds and temperature from the Jervis Bay region which commenced in October 1970 has shown the presence of a coastal sea breeze and secondary bay breeze circulation system. In an attempt to define the influence of the Murray's Beach site on the local atmospheric dispersion, special smoke plume photography studies were conducted in the lower atmosphere. In June 1972 a meteorological acoustic sounding research programme was initiated at the Jervis Bay settlement. The aims of the research are to calibrate the sounder in terms of surface wind, turbulence and temperature measurements pertinent to a description of the lower atmospheric dispersion potential. Preliminary results on six months' data have shown encouraging correlations between the acoustic sounder patterns and particularly the wind direction turbulence traces. (author)

  13. Formulating a VET roadmap for the waste and recycling sector: a case study from Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G

    2012-10-01

    Vocational Education and Training (VET) is an essential tool for providing waste management and recycling workers with the necessary skills and knowledge needed to beneficially influence their own employment and career development; and to also ensure productivity and safe working conditions within the organisations in which they are employed. Current training opportunities within Queensland for the sector are limited and not widely communicated or marketed; with other States, particularly Victoria and New South Wales, realising higher numbers of VET enrollments for waste management courses. This paper presents current VET opportunities and trends for the Queensland waste management sector. Results from a facilitated workshop to identify workforce requirements and future training needs organised by the Waste Contractors and Recyclers Association of Queensland (WCRAQ) are also presented and discussion follows on the future training needs of the industry within Queensland. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Distribution and Density of Water Mice (Xeromys myoides in the Maroochy River of Southeast Queensland, Australia.

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    Janina Kaluza

    Full Text Available The water mouse is a small and vulnerable rodent present in coastal areas of south-west Papua New Guinea, and eastern Queensland and the Northern Territory of Australia. Current knowledge regarding the distribution of the water mouse is incomplete and the loss of one local population has been documented in southeast Queensland, a region where pressures from urban and industrial development are increasing. Water mouse populations have not been studied intensively enough to enable the primary factors responsible for the local decline to be identified. We surveyed the distribution and density of the water mouse along the Maroochy River of southeast Queensland, near the southern extent of the species' range, to gather baseline data that may prove valuable for detecting any future decline in this population's size or health. All areas of suitable habitat were surveyed on foot or by kayak or boat over a three-year period. We found 180 water mouse nests, of which ~94% were active. Permanent camera monitoring of one nest and limited supplementary live trapping suggested that up to three individual mice occupied active nests. Water mouse density was estimated to be 0.44 per hectare of suitable habitat along the Maroochy River. Should future monitoring reveal an adverse change in the water mouse population on the Maroochy River, a concerted effort should be made to identify contributing factors and address proximate reasons for the decline.

  15. The Distribution and Density of Water Mice (Xeromys myoides) in the Maroochy River of Southeast Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Janina; Donald, R. Lesley; Gynther, Ian C.; Leung, Luke K-P.; Allen, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    The water mouse is a small and vulnerable rodent present in coastal areas of south-west Papua New Guinea, and eastern Queensland and the Northern Territory of Australia. Current knowledge regarding the distribution of the water mouse is incomplete and the loss of one local population has been documented in southeast Queensland, a region where pressures from urban and industrial development are increasing. Water mouse populations have not been studied intensively enough to enable the primary factors responsible for the local decline to be identified. We surveyed the distribution and density of the water mouse along the Maroochy River of southeast Queensland, near the southern extent of the species’ range, to gather baseline data that may prove valuable for detecting any future decline in this population’s size or health. All areas of suitable habitat were surveyed on foot or by kayak or boat over a three-year period. We found 180 water mouse nests, of which ~94% were active. Permanent camera monitoring of one nest and limited supplementary live trapping suggested that up to three individual mice occupied active nests. Water mouse density was estimated to be 0.44 per hectare of suitable habitat along the Maroochy River. Should future monitoring reveal an adverse change in the water mouse population on the Maroochy River, a concerted effort should be made to identify contributing factors and address proximate reasons for the decline. PMID:26789521

  16. Surveillance of hospitalizations with pandemic A(H1N1 2009 influenza infection in Queensland, Australia

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    Frances Birrell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized with pandemic A(H1N1 2009 infection in Queensland, Australia between 25 May and 3 October 2009 and to examine the relationship between timing of antiviral treatment and severity of illness.Method: Using data from the Queensland Health EpiLog information system, descriptive analysis and logistic regression modelling were used to describe and model factors which influence patient outcomes (death, admission to intensive care unit and/or special care unit. Data on patients admitted to hospital in Queensland with confirmed pandemic A(H1N1 2009 infection were included in this analysis.Results: 1236 patients with pandemic A(H1N1 2009 infection were admitted to hospitals in Queensland during the study period. Of the total group: 15% were admitted to an intensive care unit or special care unit; 3% died; 34% were under the age of 18 years and 8% were 65 years of age or older; and 55% had at least one underlying medical condition. Among the 842 patients for whom data were available regarding the use of antiviral drugs, antiviral treatment was initiated in 737 (87.5% patients with treatment commencing at a median of one day (range 1–33 days after onset of illness. Admission to an intensive care unit or special care unit (ICU/SCU or death was significantly associated with increased age, lack of timeliness of antiviral treatment, chronic renal disease and morbid obesity.Discussion: Early antiviral treatment was significantly associated with lower likelihood of ICU/SCU admission or death. Early antiviral treatment for influenza cases may therefore have important public health implications.

  17. Using Microsimulation to Estimate the Future Health and Economic Costs of Salmonellosis under Climate Change in Central Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Dimity Maree; Barnett, Adrian Gerard

    2017-12-11

    The incidence of salmonellosis, a costly foodborne disease, is rising in Australia. Salmonellosis increases during high temperatures and rainfall, and future incidence is likely to rise under climate change. Allocating funding to preventative strategies would be best informed by accurate estimates of salmonellosis costs under climate change and by knowing which population subgroups will be most affected. We used microsimulation models to estimate the health and economic costs of salmonellosis in Central Queensland under climate change between 2016 and 2036 to inform preventative strategies. We projected the entire population of Central Queensland to 2036 by simulating births, deaths, and migration, and salmonellosis and two resultant conditions, reactive arthritis and postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome. We estimated salmonellosis risks and costs under baseline conditions and under projected climate conditions for Queensland under the A1FI emissions scenario using composite projections from 6 global climate models (warm with reduced rainfall). We estimated the resulting costs based on direct medical expenditures combined with the value of lost quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) based on willingness-to-pay. Estimated costs of salmonellosis between 2016 and 2036 increased from 456.0 QALYs (95% CI: 440.3, 473.1) and AUD29,900,000 million (95% CI: AUD28,900,000, AUD31,600,000), assuming no climate change, to 485.9 QALYs (95% CI: 469.6, 503.5) and AUD31,900,000 (95% CI: AUD30,800,000, AUD33,000,000) under the climate change scenario. We applied a microsimulation approach to estimate the costs of salmonellosis and its sequelae in Queensland during 2016-2036 under baseline conditions and according to climate change projections. This novel application of microsimulation models demonstrates the models' potential utility to researchers for examining complex interactions between weather and disease to estimate future costs. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1370.

  18. Metals in agricultural produce associated with acid-mine drainage in Mount Morgan (Queensland, Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Beckett, Victoria A; McCauley, Gaylene J Taylor; Duivenvoorden, Leo J

    2016-01-01

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) into the Dee River from the historic gold and copper mine in Mount Morgan, Queensland (Australia) has been of concern to farmers in the area since 1925. This study sought to determine the levels of AMD-related metals and sulfur in agricultural produce grown near the mine-impacted Dee River, compare these with similar produce grown in reference fields (which had no known AMD influence), and assess any potential health risk using relevant Australian or US guidelines. Analyses of lucerne (Medicago sativa; also known as alfalfa) from five Dee fields showed the following average concentrations (mg/kg dry basis): Cd metal levels from the Dee and from reference sites were below the US NRC guidelines for maximum tolerable cattle dietary intake; however, the average Cd, Cu and Fe levels in Dee samples were significantly greater than the corresponding levels in the pasture grass reference sites, suggesting AMD influence in the Dee samples. The average levels in the edible portions of mandarin oranges (Citrus reticulata) from Dee sites (mg/kg wet weight) were Cd 0.011, Cu 0.59, Fe 2.2, Mn 0.56, Pb 0.18, S 91 and Zn 0.96. Cd and Zn were less than or close to, average Fe and Mn levels were at most twice, Cd 1.8 or 6.5 times, and Pb 8.5 or 72 times the maximum levels in raw oranges reported in the US total diet study (TDS) or the Australian TDS, respectively. Average Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn levels in the citrus reference samples were found to exceed the maximum reported in one or both TDS surveys. Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn plant-soil transfer factor (TF) values were metals from soil to plant. In the case of Cd, TF values for Dee pasture grass and citrus fruit samples were 0.14 and 0.73, respectively; lucerne and lucerne hay from both Dee and reference sites gave TF = 10, suggesting some potential risk to cattle, although this conclusion is tentative because Cd levels were close to or less than the detection limit. TF values for S in lucerne, lucerne hay

  19. Transient soil moisture profile of a water-shedding soil cover in north Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Christopher; Baumgartl, Thomas; Scheuermann, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    In current agricultural and industrial applications, soil moisture determination is limited to point-wise measurements and remote sensing technologies. The former has limitations on spatial resolution while the latter, although has greater coverage in three dimensions, but may not be representative of real-time hydrologic conditions of the substrate. This conference paper discusses the use of elongated soil moisture probes to describe the transient soil moisture profile of water-shedding soil cover trial plots in north Queensland, Australia. Three-metre long flat ribbon cables were installed at designed depths across a soil cover with substrate materials from mining activities comprising of waste rocks and blended tailings. The soil moisture measurement is analysed using spatial time domain reflectometry (STDR) (Scheuermann et al., 2009) Calibration of the flat ribbon cable's soil moisture measurement in waste rocks is undertaken in a glasshouse setting. Soil moisture retention and outflows are monitored at specific time interval by mass balance and water potential measurements. These data sets together with the soil hydrologic properties derived from laboratory and field measurements are used as input in the numerical code on unsaturated flow, Hydrus2D. The soil moisture calculations of the glasshouse calibration using this numerical method are compared with results from the STDR soil moisture data sets. In context, the purpose of the soil cover is to isolate sulphide-rich mine wastes from atmospheric interaction as oxidation and leaching of these materials may result to acid and metalliferous drainage. The long term performance of a soil cover will be described in terms of the quantities and physico-chemical characteristics of its outflows. With the soil moisture probes set at automated and pre-determined measurement time intervals, it is expected to distinguish between macropore and soil moisture flows during high intensity rainfall events and, also continuously

  20. Spatiotemporal modelling of groundwater extraction in semi-arid central Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keir, Greg; Bulovic, Nevenka; McIntyre, Neil

    2016-04-01

    The semi-arid Surat Basin in central Queensland, Australia, forms part of the Great Artesian Basin, a groundwater resource of national significance. While this area relies heavily on groundwater supply bores to sustain agricultural industries and rural life in general, measurement of groundwater extraction rates is very limited. Consequently, regional groundwater extraction rates are not well known, which may have implications for regional numerical groundwater modelling. However, flows from a small number of bores are metered, and less precise anecdotal estimates of extraction are increasingly available. There is also an increasing number of other spatiotemporal datasets which may help predict extraction rates (e.g. rainfall, temperature, soils, stocking rates etc.). These can be used to construct spatial multivariate regression models to estimate extraction. The data exhibit complicated statistical features, such as zero-valued observations, non-Gaussianity, and non-stationarity, which limit the use of many classical estimation techniques, such as kriging. As well, water extraction histories may exhibit temporal autocorrelation. To account for these features, we employ a separable space-time model to predict bore extraction rates using the R-INLA package for computationally efficient Bayesian inference. A joint approach is used to model both the probability (using a binomial likelihood) and magnitude (using a gamma likelihood) of extraction. The correlation between extraction rates in space and time is modelled using a Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) with a Matérn spatial covariance function which can evolve over time according to an autoregressive model. To reduce computational burden, we allow the GMRF to be evaluated at a relatively coarse temporal resolution, while still allowing predictions to be made at arbitrarily small time scales. We describe the process of model selection and inference using an information criterion approach, and present some

  1. What makes community engagement effective?: Lessons from the Eliminate Dengue Program in Queensland Australia.

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    Pamela A Kolopack

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, more than 40% of the population is at risk from dengue and recent estimates suggest that up to 390 million dengue infections are acquired every year. The Eliminate Dengue (ED Program is investigating the use of Wolbachia-infected, transmission-compromised, mosquitoes to reduce dengue transmission. Previous introductions of genetically-modified strategies for dengue vector control have generated controversy internationally by inadequately engaging host communities. Community Engagement (CE was a key component of the ED Program's initial open release trials in Queensland Australia. Their approach to CE was perceived as effective by the ED team's senior leadership, members of its CE team, and by its funders, but if and why this was the case was unclear. We conducted a qualitative case study of the ED Program's approach to CE to identify and critically examine its components, and to explain whether and how these efforts contributed to the support received by stakeholders.In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 participants with a range of experiences and perspectives related to the ED Program's CE activities. Our analytic approach combined techniques of grounded theory and qualitative description. The ED Program's approach to CE reflected four foundational features: 1 enabling conditions; 2 leadership; 3 core commitments and guiding values; and 4 formative social science research. These foundations informed five key operational practices: 1 building the CE team; 2 integrating CE into management practices; 3 discerning the community of stakeholders; 4 establishing and maintaining a presence in the community; and 5 socializing the technology and research strategy. We also demonstrate how these practices contributed to stakeholders' willingness to support the trials.Our case study has identified, and explained the functional relationships among, the critical features of the ED Program's approach to CE. It has also

  2. Formulating a VET roadmap for the waste and recycling sector: A case study from Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Existing qualifications do not meet the needs of the sector in Queensland. ► Businesses may not be best positioned to identify training needs. ► Companies are developing training internally to meet their own specific needs. ► Smaller companies lack the resources to develop internal training are disadvantaged. ► There is industry support for an entry-level, minimum industry qualification. - Abstract: Vocational Education and Training (VET) is an essential tool for providing waste management and recycling workers with the necessary skills and knowledge needed to beneficially influence their own employment and career development; and to also ensure productivity and safe working conditions within the organisations in which they are employed. Current training opportunities within Queensland for the sector are limited and not widely communicated or marketed; with other States, particularly Victoria and New South Wales, realising higher numbers of VET enrollments for waste management courses. This paper presents current VET opportunities and trends for the Queensland waste management sector. Results from a facilitated workshop to identify workforce requirements and future training needs organised by the Waste Contractors and Recyclers Association of Queensland (WCRAQ) are also presented and discussion follows on the future training needs of the industry within Queensland.

  3. Tasmanitachoides Erwin glabellus n. sp. from North Queensland, Australia, with a note on Tasmanitachoides lutus (Darlington (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae, Bembidiinae

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    Baehr, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Tasmanitachoides Erwin from North Queensland is described: T. glabellus n. sp. The species belongs to the T. murrumbidgensis¿group of species that is characterized by its distinctly impressed clypeus, but it is distinguished from all related species by its glabrous body surface. It is the first Tasmanitachoides from northern Australia to be found in rainforest on high mountains and has thus probably preserved the original habits of the genus that are still characteristic for those species living in southern temperate regions of Australia. Tasmanitachoides lutus (Darlington so far known from the type locality in southern New South Wales and from the holotype only, is now recorded from eastern Victoria.

  4. Effect of Weather Variability on Seasonal Influenza Among Different Age Groups in Queensland, Australia: A Bayesian Spatiotemporal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Mengersen, Kerrie; Milinovich, Gabriel; Hu, Wenbiao

    2017-06-01

    The effects of weather variability on seasonal influenza among different age groups remain unclear. The comparative study aims to explore the differences in the associations between weather variability and seasonal influenza, and growth rates of seasonal influenza epidemics among different age groups in Queensland, Australia. Three Bayesian spatiotemporal conditional autoregressive models were fitted at the postal area level to quantify the relationships between seasonal influenza and monthly minimum temperature (MIT), monthly vapor pressure, school calendar pattern, and Index of Relative Socio-Economic Advantage and Disadvantage for 3 age groups (age, respectively, while the average increase in the monthly influenza cases was 14.6% (95% CI, 9.0%-21.0%), 12.1% (95% CI, 8.8%-16.1%), and 9.2% (95% CI, 1.4%-16.9%) for a 1-hPa increase in vapor pressure. Weather variability appears to be more influential on seasonal influenza transmission in younger (0-14) age groups. The growth rates of influenza at postal area level were relatively small for older (≥65) age groups in Queensland, Australia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Improving Pool Fencing Legislation in Queensland, Australia: Attitudes and Impact on Child Drowning Fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Richard C; Peden, Amy E

    2017-11-24

    Four-sided, non-climbable pool fencing is an effective strategy for preventing children from drowning in home swimming pools. In 2009, the Queensland Government introduced legislation to improve the effectiveness of pool fencing. This study explores community attitudes towards the effectiveness of these legislative changes and examines child (houses with swimming pools) are protected.

  6. Q fever in an endemic region of North Queensland, Australia: A 10 year review

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    Pirathaban Sivabalan

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: In this endemic region of north Queensland, exposure to wildlife and seasonal rainfall may be substantial exposure factors for the development of Q fever. The region studied is a popular tourist destination. An understanding of risk factors involved can help practitioners who see residents or returned travelers from the region, with an undifferentiated fever.

  7. Suicides among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations in Australia: an analysis of the Queensland Suicide Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2014-12-01

    Sexual orientation is seldom recorded at death in Australia, and to date there have been no studies on the relationship between those that have died by suicide and sexuality or minority gender identity in Australia. The aim of the present study is to determine whether or not lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex individuals who die by suicide constitute a unique subpopulation of those who die by suicide, when compared with non-lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex suicide deaths. The Queensland Suicide Register holds records of all suicides in Queensland since 1990. All cases from 2000 to 2009 (inclusive; a total of 5,966 cases) were checked for potential indicators of individuals' sexual orientation and gender identification. A total of 35 lesbian (n = 10), gay (n = 22), bisexual (n = 2), and transgender (n = 1) suicide cases were identified. Three comparison cases of non-LGBT suicides for each LGBT suicide were then located, matched by age and gender. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. It was significantly more likely that depression was mentioned in the cases of LGBT suicides than in non-LGBT cases. While 12.4% of the comparison group had been diagnosed with psychotic disorders, there were no such diagnoses among LGBT individuals. LGBT individuals experienced relationship problems more often, with relationship conflict also being more frequent than in non-LGBT cases. Despite its limitations, this study - the first of its kind in Australia - seems to indicate that LGBT people would require targeted approaches in mental and general health services. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Promoting and Disseminating Good Practice in the Planning and Management of Educational Facilities: Capital Investment Strategic Planning - A Case Study, Gold Coast Institute of TAFE, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Kelvin

    This paper presents a case study of the process of capital investment strategic planning at the Gold Coast Institute of Technical and Further Education (TAFE), Queensland, Australia. Capital investment strategic planning is a means of contributing to success by providing strategies to ensure that assets are managed efficiently, effectively, and…

  9. Dynamics of sediment carbon stocks across intertidal wetland habitats of Moreton Bay, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Matthew A; Jesse, Amber; Hawke, Bruce; Baldock, Jeff; Tabet, Basam; Lockington, David; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2017-10-01

    Coastal wetlands are known for high carbon storage within their sediments, but our understanding of the variation in carbon storage among intertidal habitats, particularly over geomorphological settings and along elevation gradients, is limited. Here, we collected 352 cores from 18 sites across Moreton Bay, Australia. We assessed variation in sediment organic carbon (OC) stocks among different geomorphological settings (wetlands within riverine settings along with those with reduced riverine influence located on tide-dominated sand islands), across elevation gradients, with distance from shore and among habitat and vegetation types. We used mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy combined with analytical data and partial least squares regression to quantify the carbon content of ~2500 sediment samples and provide fine-scale spatial coverage of sediment OC stocks to 150 cm depth. We found sites in river deltas had larger OC stocks (175-504 Mg/ha) than those in nonriverine settings (44-271 Mg/ha). Variation in OC stocks among nonriverine sites was high in comparison with riverine and mixed geomorphic settings, with sites closer to riverine outflow from the east and south of Moreton Bay having higher stocks than those located on the sand islands in the northwest of the bay. Sediment OC stocks increased with elevation within nonriverine settings, but not in riverine geomorphic settings. Sediment OC stocks did not differ between mangrove and saltmarsh habitats. OC stocks did, however, differ between dominant species across the research area and within geomorphic settings. At the landscape scale, the coastal wetlands of the South East Queensland catchments (17,792 ha) are comprised of approximately 4,100,000-5,200,000 Mg of sediment OC. Comparatively high variation in OC storage between riverine and nonriverine geomorphic settings indicates that the availability of mineral sediments and terrestrial derived OC may exert a strong influence over OC storage potential across

  10. Improving Pool Fencing Legislation in Queensland, Australia: Attitudes and Impact on Child Drowning Fatalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Franklin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Four-sided, non-climbable pool fencing is an effective strategy for preventing children from drowning in home swimming pools. In 2009, the Queensland Government introduced legislation to improve the effectiveness of pool fencing. This study explores community attitudes towards the effectiveness of these legislative changes and examines child (<5 years drowning deaths in pools. Data from the 2011 Queensland Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI Social Survey include results from questions related to pool ownership and pool fencing legislation. Fatal child drowning cases between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2015 were sourced from coronial data. Of the 1263 respondents, 26/100 households had a pool. A total of 58% believed tightening legislation would be effective in reducing child drowning deaths. Pool owners were more likely to doubt the effectiveness of legislation (p < 0.001 when compared to non-pool owners. Perceptions of effectiveness did not differ by presence of children under the age of five. There were 46 children who drowned in Queensland home pools (7.8/100,000 pools with children residing in the residence/annum between 2005 and 2015. While pool owners were less likely to think that tightening the legislation would be effective, the number of children drowning in home swimming pools declined over the study period. Drowning prevention agencies have more work to do to ensure that the most vulnerable (young children in houses with swimming pools are protected.

  11. Building a Plant DNA Barcode Reference Library for a Diverse Tropical Flora: An Example from Queensland, Australia

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    Craig M. Costion

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A foundation for a DNA barcode reference library for the tropical plants of Australia is presented here. A total of 1572 DNA barcode sequences are compiled from 848 tropical Queensland species. The dataset represents 35% of the total flora of Queensland’s Wet Tropics Bioregion, 57% of its tree species and 28% of the shrub species. For approximately half of the sampled species, we investigated the occurrence of infraspecific molecular variation in DNA barcode loci rbcLa, matK, and the trnH-psbA intergenic spacer region across previously recognized biogeographic barriers. We found preliminary support for the notion that DNA barcode reference libraries can be used as a tool for inferring biogeographic patterns at regional scales. It is expected that this dataset will find applications in taxonomic, ecological, and applied conservation research.

  12. Modelling the Potential of Integrated Vegetation Bands (IVB to Retain Stormwater Runoff on Steep Hillslopes of Southeast Queensland, Australia

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    Justin G. Ryan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall intensity is predicted to increase under a changing climate, leading to increased risks of hillslope erosion, downstream sedimentation and flooding. For many catchments used for grazing and agricultural land uses, it will become increasingly important to maintain ecohydrological functioning despite climatic extremes. One means to achieve this is through strategic reforestation using locally endemic species, in spatial configurations that effectively intercept, retain or and redistribute overland flows. This paper adopts a modelling approach for investigating the potential of one such design termed “integrated vegetation bands” (IVB, to increase the retention of runoff across steep hillslopes, particularly in the sub-tropics where rainstorms are becoming increasingly intense. A spatially distributed simulation model (MIKE-SHE was applied to a steep, grazed catchment (Maronghi Creek catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia to compare stormwater runoff characteristics between: (1 the existing pasture land cover; and (2 a series of hypothetical IVB added across this pasture land. The IVB were approximately 20 m wide, and configured at 5% gradient towards ridgelines. Results for estimates of overland flow depth and infiltration (spatial, and accumulative water balance (temporal, confirm that the area of hillslope retaining > 10 mm/day more runoff increased by 22% under IVB compared to the pasture land use. Excluding the IVB themselves, the area of hillslope where runoff retention increased was 11%. During the most intense rainfall, IVB held up to 25% greater water depth and had 10% greater infiltration at the hillslope scale. At the sub-catchment scale, discharge decreased by 7% and infiltration increased by 23%. The findings for sub-tropical landscapes presented here are consistent with studies conducted in temperate regions. Based on the results of this preliminary modelling work, the IVB concept has been established as a paired

  13. Incorporating palaeoclimate data into water security planning and decision making - a case study from southeast Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiem, Anthony; Vance, Tessa; Tozer, Carly; Roberts, Jason

    2017-04-01

    Decision makers in the water sector need to deal with existing hydroclimatic variability and uncertainty about future changes to climate and catchment conditions. Identifying solutions for hydroclimatic risk adaptation strategies that are both optimal and robust in the presence of variability and uncertainty presents a difficult challenge. A major reason for this challenge is the fact that the instrumental record in Australia is short ( 60-130 years) and fails to encompass enough climate variability to allow the calculation of robust statistics around the baseline risk of extreme events (e.g. multi-year droughts, decadal periods with clustering of major flood events). This climate variability is documented pre-1900 in palaeoclimate records from sources such as corals, tree-rings, freshwater and marine sediments. Despite being remote from Queensland, a high resolution and highly correlated palaeoclimate record from the Law Dome ice cores in Antarctica (Vance et al. 2015) is also now available and has identified eight mega-droughts (lasting from 5-39 years) during 1000-2009 AD. Most importantly, the palaeoclimate information confirms that the post-1900 instrumental period (i.e. the period on which all water resources infrastructure, policy, operation rules and strategies is based) does not capture the full range of variability that has occurred. Other work also clearly shows that, out to 2050 at least, impacts associated with natural variability significantly exceed even the worst-case climate change scenarios (i.e. obtained from Global Climate Models run under the highest emission scenarios). This presentation will demonstrate how the Law Dome ice cores from Antarctica have been used to produce a highly accurate, 1000 year, annual and seasonal resolution, hydroclimate reconstruction (i.e. precipitation and streamflow) for the southeast Queensland region of Australia. We will then show how the palaeoclimate data has been incorporated into the South East Queensland

  14. Colorectal cancer among Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Queensland, Australia: Toward survival equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Suzanne P; Green, Adèle C; Bray, Freddie; Coory, Michael; Garvey, Gail; Sabesan, Sabe; Valery, Patricia C

    2016-06-01

    While Indigenous people in Queensland have lower colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality than the rest of the population, CRC remains the third most frequent cancer among Australian Indigenous people overall. This study aimed to investigate patterns of care and survival between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians with CRC. Through a matched-cohort design we compared 80 Indigenous and 85 non-Indigenous people all diagnosed with CRC and treated in Queensland public hospitals during 1998-2004 (frequency matched on age, sex, geographical remoteness). We compared clinical and treatment data (Pearson's chi-square) and all-cause and cancer survival (Cox regression analysis). Indigenous patients with CRC were not significantly more likely to have comorbidity, advanced disease at diagnosis or less treatment than non-Indigenous people. There was also no statistically significant difference in all-cause survival (HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.69, 1.89) or cancer survival (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.60, 1.69) between the two groups. Similar CRC mortality among Indigenous and other Australians may reflect both the lower incidence and adequate management. Increasing life expectancy and exposures to risk factors suggests that Indigenous people are vulnerable to a growing burden of CRC. Primary prevention and early detection will be of paramount importance to future CRC control among Indigenous Australians. Current CRC management must be maintained and include prevention measures to ensure that predicted increases in CRC burden are minimized. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Quantifying the changes in survival inequality for Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baade, Peter D; Dasgupta, Paramita; Dickman, Paul W; Cramb, Susanna; Williamson, John D; Condon, John R; Garvey, Gail

    2016-08-01

    The survival inequality faced by Indigenous Australians after a cancer diagnosis is well documented; what is less understood is whether this inequality has changed over time and what this means in terms of the impact a cancer diagnosis has on Indigenous people. Survival information for all patients identified as either Indigenous (n=3168) or non-Indigenous (n=211,615) and diagnosed in Queensland between 1997 and 2012 were obtained from the Queensland Cancer Registry, with mortality followed up to 31st December, 2013. Flexible parametric survival models were used to quantify changes in the cause-specific survival inequalities and the number of lives that might be saved if these inequalities were removed. Among Indigenous cancer patients, the 5-year cause-specific survival (adjusted by age, sex and broad cancer type) increased from 52.9% in 1997-2006 to 58.6% in 2007-2012, while it improved from 61.0% to 64.9% among non-Indigenous patients. This meant that the adjusted 5-year comparative survival ratio (Indigenous: non-Indigenous) increased from 0.87 [0.83-0.88] to 0.89 [0.87-0.93], with similar improvements in the 1-year comparative survival. Using a simulated cohort corresponding to the number and age-distribution of Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland each year (n=300), based on the 1997-2006 cohort mortality rates, 35 of the 170 deaths due to cancer (21%) expected within five years of diagnosis were due to the Indigenous: non-Indigenous survival inequality. This percentage was similar when applying 2007-2012 cohort mortality rates (19%; 27 out of 140 deaths). Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer still face a poorer survival outlook than their non-Indigenous counterparts, particularly in the first year after diagnosis. The improving survival outcomes among both Indigenous and non-Indigenous cancer patients, and the decreasing absolute impact of the Indigenous survival disadvantage, should provide increased motivation to continue and enhance

  16. Characterisation of invasive clinical Haemophilus influenzae isolates in Queensland, Australia using whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, M; Graham, R M A; Jennison, A V

    2017-06-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is an important aetiological organism of both adult and child respiratory disease. The number of non-typeable (NTHi) invasive H. influenzae isolates referred to the Queensland (QLD) Public Health Microbiology laboratory has increased notably year-by-year. In this study we used whole-genome sequencing to molecularly characterise 100 referred invasive H. influenzae, including 74 NTHi isolates over a 15-year period, observing the carriage of capsular and putative virulence genes, including the major adhesins, antimicrobial resistance genes and population diversity. Encapsulated isolates were largely clonal, however NTHi isolates displayed high genetic variability by MLST and single nucleotide polymorphism typing with no dominant clone observed. The only mechanism for β-lactam resistance identified in the QLD isolates was β-lactamase production. No single set of virulence determinants was conclusively associated with invasive QLD NTHi isolates.

  17. The epidemiology of horse-related injuries for different horse exposures, activities, and age groups in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jacelle; Sathivelu, Maria; Tetsworth, Kevin; Pollard, Cliff; Harvey, Kathy; Bellamy, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    The dangers associated with horse riding, a popular activity throughout Australia, are well documented; yet, few studies have comprehensively described injuries caused by horses to nonriders. This study aimed to facilitate targeted injury prevention strategies and appropriate trauma management by describing all horse-related injuries, for both riders and nonriders, in Queensland, and identifying those at greatest risk. Horse-related injury data from 2005 to 2009 were extracted from the Queensland Trauma Registry. Descriptive comparisons were undertaken for demographic, injury, and acute care characteristics between riders and nonriders, between pediatric and adult cases, and between sports/leisure and work injuries. The relative risk of surgery by sex and between riders and nonriders was assessed. More than 25% of injuries occurred in people not riding a horse. Nonriders sustained a significantly higher proportion of internal organ injuries, open wounds, as well as facial and pelvic/abdominal injuries. Females accounted for more than 80% of children who were injured while riding a horse. For adults, 25% were injured while working, and more than 66% of injured workers were male. Injuries most commonly occurred in regional areas. Surgery was most common among children, nonriders, and those with Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 1 to 8. The likelihood of surgery was 25% higher for nonriders (95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.38%). Horse-related injuries are most prevalent in identifiable populations, particularly young female riders and adult males injured while working. Injuries inflicted by horses to nonriders contribute more than 27% of all horse-related injuries; however, most previous research has been limited to injured riders. Compared with riders, nonriders more frequently sustain internal, facial, and pelvic injuries; are male; and undergo surgery. The results of this study may be used to tailor prevention strategies and inform trauma management specific to the

  18. Differences in characteristics between suicide cases of farm managers compared to those of farm labourers in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnautovska, Urska; McPhedran, Samara; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Farmers constitute an occupation group at a heightened suicide risk compared to the general population. To date, research has tried to explain this peculiarity by identifying suicide risk factors that are common to the whole of the farming population. There are, however, indications that risk factors may be different for different sub-populations of farmers, such as younger/older farmers or farm managers/farm labourers. This study compared the characteristics of suicides by farm managers and farm labourers, while controlling for the effect of age. A review of two datasets, the Queensland Suicide Register and the National Coroners Information System, was conducted in which a total of 78 cases of farm managers and 69 cases of farm labourers were identified as a suicide during 2000-2009, Queensland, Australia. The main outcome measures included various demographic characteristics, circumstances related to death, health and mental health variables, and history of stressful life events. The two groups differed in marital status, living arrangements, ethnicity, physical and mental illness, alcohol and drug abuse, contact with a health professional prior to death, and specific life events such as relationship breakdown and recent/pending unemployment. The majority of these differences were not statistically significant once age was accounted for. However, differences in psychiatric variables and experience of a recent/pending unemployment remained significant. This study contributes towards better understanding of suicide among farmers in different job positions, and highlights the need for tailored suicide prevention initiatives that consider a combination of age- and job-specific suicide risk and protective factors among farmers.

  19. Preparedness for and impact of tropical cyclone Yasi in North Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Kim; Buettner, Petra; West, Caryn; Millis, Jane; Woods, Cindy; Mason, Matt; Boon, Helen; Chamberlain-Salaun, Jennifer

    2013-06-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC) Yasi, thought to be the largest and most severe cyclone to cross the Queensland coast since 1918, made landfall on the southern tropical coast near Mission Beach and continued to track westward across Northern Queensland on February 3, 2011. The warning and response model (WRM) suggests that situational factors, personal characteristics, and social contextual variables influence the degree of threat perceived and protective actions taken. Aim The aim of this study was to examine preparation for this impending natural disaster by residents of the affected regions, and to identify the residents' resource losses and symptoms of psychological distress following TC Yasi. A cross-sectional survey was conducted 6-12 months after the cyclone using an adapted tool designed to measure preparedness, loss and psychosocial distress. Four hundred and thirty-three responses were received. Statistical analysis was conducted using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Categorical characteristics were described using sample size and percentages. Almost all respondents perceived the cyclone warning as serious or very serious, and more than a third started preparing for the cyclone at least three days before it reached landfall. Overall, 115 (26.7%) respondents reported moderate and 59 (13.7%) reported major property damage; 72 (17.1%) reported a moderate and 49 (11.6%) reported a major change in their feeling of whether they have control over their life; 55 (13.1%) reported a major change in their motivation of getting things done; and 33 (7.9%) reported a major change in their perception of feeling valuable to others. Overall, 142 (34.1%) documented at least one of five symptoms of acute distress. The findings document the experiences of Australians who have lived through tropical cyclone Yasi. The results support the WRM theory which proposes that people with previous experience take threatened disasters seriously.

  20. New Mid-Cretaceous (latest Albian dinosaurs fromWinton, Queensland, Australia.

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    Scott A Hocknull

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Australia's dinosaurian fossil record is exceptionally poor compared to that of other similar-sized continents. Most taxa are known from fragmentary isolated remains with uncertain taxonomic and phylogenetic placement. A better understanding of the Australian dinosaurian record is crucial to understanding the global palaeobiogeography of dinosaurian groups, including groups previously considered to have had Gondwanan origins, such as the titanosaurs and carcharodontosaurids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe three new dinosaurs from the late Early Cretaceous (latest Albian Winton Formation of eastern Australia, including; Wintonotitan wattsi gen. et sp. nov., a basal titanosauriform; Diamantinasaurus matildae gen. et sp. nov., a derived lithostrotian titanosaur; and Australovenator wintonensis gen. et sp. nov., an allosauroid. We compare an isolated astragalus from the Early Cretaceous of southern Australia; formerly identified as Allosaurus sp., and conclude that it most-likely represents Australovenator sp. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The occurrence of Australovenator from the Aptian to latest Albian confirms the presence in Australia of allosauroids basal to the Carcharodontosauridae. These new taxa, along with the fragmentary remains of other taxa, indicate a diverse Early Cretaceous sauropod and theropod fauna in Australia, including plesiomorphic forms (e.g. Wintonotitan and Australovenator and more derived forms (e.g. Diamantinasaurus.

  1. New Mid-Cretaceous (Latest Albian) Dinosaurs from Winton, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocknull, Scott A.; White, Matt A.; Tischler, Travis R.; Cook, Alex G.; Calleja, Naomi D.; Sloan, Trish; Elliott, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Australia's dinosaurian fossil record is exceptionally poor compared to that of other similar-sized continents. Most taxa are known from fragmentary isolated remains with uncertain taxonomic and phylogenetic placement. A better understanding of the Australian dinosaurian record is crucial to understanding the global palaeobiogeography of dinosaurian groups, including groups previously considered to have had Gondwanan origins, such as the titanosaurs and carcharodontosaurids. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe three new dinosaurs from the late Early Cretaceous (latest Albian) Winton Formation of eastern Australia, including; Wintonotitan wattsi gen. et sp. nov., a basal titanosauriform; Diamantinasaurus matildae gen. et sp. nov., a derived lithostrotian titanosaur; and Australovenator wintonensis gen. et sp. nov., an allosauroid. We compare an isolated astragalus from the Early Cretaceous of southern Australia; formerly identified as Allosaurus sp., and conclude that it most-likely represents Australovenator sp. Conclusion/Significance The occurrence of Australovenator from the Aptian to latest Albian confirms the presence in Australia of allosauroids basal to the Carcharodontosauridae. These new taxa, along with the fragmentary remains of other taxa, indicate a diverse Early Cretaceous sauropod and theropod fauna in Australia, including plesiomorphic forms (e.g. Wintonotitan and Australovenator) and more derived forms (e.g. Diamantinasaurus). PMID:19584929

  2. Hydrochemistry, mineralogy and sulfur isotope geochemistry of acid mine drainage at the Mt. Morgan mine environment, Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edraki, M.; Golding, S.D.; Baublys, K.A.; Lawrence, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Mineralogical, hydrochemical and S isotope data were used to constrain hydrogeochemical processes that produce acid mine drainage from sulfidic waste at the historic Mount Morgan Au-Cu mine, and the factors controlling the concentration of SO 4 and environmentally hazardous metals in the nearby Dee River in Queensland, Australia. Some highly contaminated acid waters, with metal contents up to hundreds of orders of magnitude greater than the Australia-New Zealand environmental standards, by-pass the water management system at the site and drain into the adjacent Dee River. Mine drainage precipitates at Mt. Morgan were classified into 4 major groups and were identified as hydrous sulfates and hydroxides of Fe and Al with various contents of other metals. These minerals contain adsorbed or mineralogically bound metals that are released into the water system after rainfall events. Sulfate in open pit water and collection sumps generally has a narrow range of S isotope compositions (δ 34 S = 1.8-3.7%o) that is comparable to the orebody sulfides and makes S isotopes useful for tracing SO 4 back to its source. The higher δ 34 S values for No. 2 Mill Diesel sump may be attributed to a difference in the source. Dissolved SO 4 in the river above the mine influence and 20 km downstream show distinctive heavier isotope compositions (δ 34 S = 5.4-6.8%o). The Dee River downstream of the mine is enriched in 34 S (δ 34 S = 2.8-5.4%o) compared with mine drainage possibly as a result of bacterial SO 4 reduction in the weir pools, and in the water bodies within the river channel. The SO 4 and metals attenuate downstream by a combination of dilution with the receiving waters, SO 4 reduction, and the precipitation of Fe and Al sulfates and hydroxides. It is suggested here that in subtropical Queensland, with distinct wet and dry seasons, temporary reducing environments in the river play an important role in S isotope systematics

  3. Chemical and isotopic characterisation and sedimentation rates in Princess Charlotte Bay, Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgersen, T.; Chivas, A.R.; Chapman, A.

    1983-01-01

    Sedimentation rates in Princess Charlotte Bay are in the range 2.3-6.1 mm/yr, with mixed layers up to 10 cm thick, as determined by the 210 Pb method. 137 Cs determinations of sedimentation rate are not in disagreement, but are likely to yield ambiguous results in the Great Barrier Reef Province, because of diffusive redistribution, owing to the low distribution coefficient, K/sub D/ = 420-800, measured in lagoonal sediments

  4. Isotope studies on mechanisms of groundwater recharge to an alluvial aquifer in Gatton, Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmasiri, J.K.; Morawska, L.

    1997-01-01

    Gatton is an important agricultural area for Queensland where about 40% of its vegetables needs are produced using groundwater as the main source. An alluvial Aquifer is located about 30m beneath the layers of alluvial sediments ranging from black soils of volcanic origin on top, layers of alluvial sands, clays and beds of sand and gravel. The leakage of creek flows has been considered to be the main source of recharge to this aquifer. A number of weirs have been built across the Lockyer and Laidley creeks to allow surface water to infiltrate through the beds when the creeks flow. Water levels in bores in a section located in the middle of the alluvial plain (Crowley Vale) have been declining for the last 20 years with little or no success in recharging from the creeks. Acute water shortages have been experienced in the Gatton area during the droughts of 1980-81, 1986-87 and 1994-97. Naturally occurring stable isotopes, 2 H, 18 0 and 13 C as well as radioisotopes 3 H and 14 C have been used to delineate sources of recharge and active recharge areas. Tritium tracing of soil moisture in the unsaturated soil was also used to determine direct infiltration rates

  5. Predictors of autopsy following stillbirth in Queensland, Australia: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibiebele, Ibinabo; Boyle, Frances M; Horey, Dell; Lourie, Rohan; Wilson, Patricia; Coory, Michael; Flenady, Vicki

    2017-02-01

    Accurate determination of causes of stillbirth is critical to effective prevention. Autopsy remains the gold standard investigation for stillbirth; however, with low autopsy rates many stillbirths are likely to be 'unexplored' rather than 'unexplained'. To determine factors associated with autopsy following stillbirth. Routinely collected population-based data on all singleton stillbirths of at least 400 g birthweight or 20 weeks gestation in Queensland between July 2000 and December 2011 were examined. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR, 99% CI) were calculated accounting for sociodemographic, pregnancy and medical factors. Of interest was initially unexplained stillbirth on the death certificate; analysis was stratified by gestational age group (autopsy performed. Initially unexplained stillbirth was associated with decreased odds of autopsy at late gestation (28-36 weeks, aOR 0.63 (99% CI 0.42-0.93); ≥37 weeks, aOR 0.53 (99% CI 0.35-0.81)) as was intrapartum stillbirth (autopsy following stillbirth. Pregnancy factors are associated with stillbirth autopsy. These findings have implications for development of appropriate information for parents and education of clinical staff. Further research is needed into factors influencing autopsy following stillbirth. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Dwarfism and feeding behaviours in Oligo–Miocene crocodiles from Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Instances of dwarfism in the fossil record are of interest to palaeontologists because they often provide insight into aspects of palaeoecology. Fossil species of Australian-Pacific mekosuchine genus Mekosuchus have been described as dwarf, primarily terrestrial crocodiles, in contrast with the nearly ubiquitous semi-aquatic habitus of extant crocodilians (Willis 1997. This hypothesis has been difficult to test because of limited knowledge of the cranial and postcranial skeleton of extinct taxa and the continuous nature of crocodilian growth. New crocodilian vertebral material from Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland, tentatively referred to Mekosuchus whitehunterensis Willis, 1997, displays morphological maturity indicative of adult snout-vent length little over a half-meter, proportionally smaller than extant dwarf taxa. Further, this material displays morphology that indicates a relatively large epaxial neck musculature for its body-size. These attributes suggest this dwarf mekosuchine employed unusual feeding behaviours. The ability to perform normal death-roll, de-fleshing behaviours would be limited in a mekosuchine of such small size. Given the powerful neck muscles and other anatomical features, it is more likely that this mekosuchine killed and/or dismembered its prey using a relatively forceful lifting and shaking of the head.

  7. Miseries suffered, unvoiced, unknown? Communication of suicidal intent by men in "rural" Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhedran, Samara; De Leo, Diego

    2013-12-01

    It has long been argued that suicide prevention efforts in rural locations face not only structural barriers, such as a lack of accessible health care and specialized mental health services, but also a range of cultural barriers. A commonly discussed cultural factor that may contribute to higher rural suicide rates is low levels of help-seeking behavior, which in turn act as a barrier to accessing and receiving care. However, the assumption that suicide by rural men is more likely to be accompanied by low help-seeking behavior, relative to urban men, has not been well tested. Using data from the Queensland Suicide Register, this study evaluates one form of help-seeking behavior--communication of suicidal intent--among men who died by suicide. Contrary to the expectation that suicide in rural areas would be associated with lower levels of help-seeking behavior than suicide in urban areas, it was found that communication of suicidal intent was broadly comparable across rural and urban settings. The implications for suicide prevention policies and service delivery strategies are discussed. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.

  8. Who is in control of road safety? A STAMP control structure analysis of the road transport system in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Read, Gemma J M; Stevens, Nicholas J

    2016-11-01

    Despite significant progress, road trauma continues to represent a global safety issue. In Queensland (Qld), Australia, there is currently a focus on preventing the 'fatal five' behaviours underpinning road trauma (drug and drink driving, distraction, seat belt wearing, speeding, and fatigue), along with an emphasis on a shared responsibility for road safety that spans road users, vehicle manufacturers, designers, policy makers etc. The aim of this article is to clarify who shares the responsibility for road safety in Qld and to determine what control measures are enacted to prevent the fatal five behaviours. This is achieved through the presentation of a control structure model that depicts the actors and organisations within the Qld road transport system along with the control and feedback relationships that exist between them. Validated through a Delphi study, the model shows a diverse set of actors and organisations who share the responsibility for road safety that goes beyond those discussed in road safety policies and strategies. The analysis also shows that, compared to other safety critical domains, there are less formal control structures in road transport and that opportunities exist to add new controls and strengthen existing ones. Relationships that influence rather than control are also prominent. Finally, when compared to other safety critical domains, the strength of road safety controls is brought into question. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of ertapenem and antipseudomonal carbapenem usage and carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa among 12 hospitals in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, David A J; Morton, Anthony P; Playford, E Geoffrey

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association between ertapenem and antipseudomonal carbapenem use and carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 12 hospitals in Queensland, Australia. Data on usage of ertapenem and other antipseudomonal carbapenems, measured in defined daily doses per 1000 occupied bed-days, were collated using statewide pharmacy dispensing and distribution software from January 2007 until June 2011. The prevalence of unique carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates derived from statewide laboratory information systems was collected for the same time period. Mixed-effects models were used to determine any relationship between ertapenem and antipseudomonal carbapenem usage and carbapenem resistance among P. aeruginosa isolates in the 12 hospitals analysed. No relationship between ertapenem usage and P. aeruginosa carbapenem resistance was observed. The introduction of ertapenem did not replace antipseudomonal carbapenem prescribing to any significant extent. However, an association between greater usage of antipseudomonal carbapenems and greater P. aeruginosa carbapenem resistance was demonstrated. It is likely that the only mechanism by which ertapenem can improve P. aeruginosa resistance patterns is by being used as a substitute for, rather than in addition to, antipseudomonal carbapenems.

  10. Remote Sensing Analysis Techniques and Sensor Requirements to Support the Mapping of Illegal Domestic Waste Disposal Sites in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Glanville

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Illegal disposal of waste is a significant management issue for contemporary governments with waste posing an economic, social, and environmental risk. An improved understanding of the distribution of illegal waste disposal sites is critical to enhance the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of waste management efforts. Remotely sensed data has the potential to address this knowledge gap. However, the literature regarding the use of remote sensing to map illegal waste disposal sites is incomplete. This paper aims to analyze existing remote sensing methods and sensors used to monitor and map illegal waste disposal sites. The purpose of this paper is to support the evaluation of existing remote sensing methods for mapping illegal domestic waste sites in Queensland, Australia. Recent advances in technology and the acquisition of very high-resolution remote sensing imagery provide an important opportunity to (1 revisit established analysis techniques for identifying illegal waste disposal sites, (2 examine the applicability of different remote sensors for illegal waste disposal detection, and (3 identify opportunities for future research to increase the accuracy of any illegal waste disposal mapping products.

  11. Comparative morphology of the egg cases of Asymbolus analis, Asymbolus rubiginosus and Figaro boardmani (Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae) from southern Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, C; Kyne, P M; Bennett, M B

    2013-07-01

    Descriptions of the egg cases of three catsharks, Asymbolus analis, Asymbolus rubiginosus and Figaro boardmani, are provided from 65 egg cases obtained from fishing surveys carried out on the continental shelf of southern Queensland, Australia. Egg cases of A. analis, A. rubiginosus and F. boardmani have the same basic morphology; they are typically vase-shaped, dorso-ventrally flattened and yellow and brown-tan in colour. The shape of the posterior border in terms of horn length and tendril thickness is the specific characteristic discriminating these three catsharks: enclosed horns in F. boardmani, short horns and tendrils in A. rubiginosus and long, coiled tendrils in A. analis. A non-parametric statistical approach was used as an exploratory tool for egg case identification in which six proportional measurements were sufficient to discriminate between species. Three egg cases of F. boardmani were recovered from the stomachs of three A. rubiginosus, which provided the first evidence of catshark-catshark predator-prey interaction. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Comparison of groundwater recharge estimation techniques in an alluvial aquifer system with an intermittent/ephemeral stream (Queensland, Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Adam C.; Raiber, Matthias; Cox, Malcolm E.; Cendón, Dioni I.

    2017-09-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of the conceptual hydrogeological model for the estimation of groundwater recharge rates in an alluvial system interconnected with an ephemeral or intermittent stream in south-east Queensland, Australia. The losing/gaining condition of these streams is typically subject to temporal and spatial variability, and knowledge of these hydrological processes is critical for the interpretation of recharge estimates. Recharge rate estimates of 76-182 mm/year were determined using the water budget method. The water budget method provides useful broad approximations of recharge and discharge fluxes. The chloride mass balance (CMB) method and the tritium method were used on 17 and 13 sites respectively, yielding recharge rates of 1-43 mm/year (CMB) and 4-553 mm/year (tritium method). However, the conceptual hydrogeological model confirms that the results from the CMB method at some sites are not applicable in this setting because of overland flow and channel leakage. The tritium method was appropriate here and could be applied to other alluvial systems, provided that channel leakage and diffuse infiltration of rainfall can be accurately estimated. The water-table fluctuation (WTF) method was also applied to data from 16 bores; recharge estimates ranged from 0 to 721 mm/year. The WTF method was not suitable where bank storage processes occurred.

  13. Speciation and frequency of virulence genes of Enterococcus spp. isolated from rainwater tank samples in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2012-06-19

    In this study, 212 Enterococcus isolates from 23 rainwater tank samples in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia were identified to the species level. The isolates were also tested for the presence of 6 virulence genes associated with Enterococcus related infections. Among the 23 rainwater tank samples, 20 (90%), 10 (44%), 7 (30%), 5 (22%), 4 (17%), 2 (9%), and 1 (4%) samples yielded E. faecalis, E. mundtii, E. casseliflavus, E. faecium, E. hirae, E. avium, and E. durans, respectively. Among the 6 virulence genes tested, gelE and efaA were most prevalent, detected in 19 (83%) and 18 (78%) of 23 rainwater tank samples, respectively. Virulence gene ace was also detected in 14 (61%) rainwater tank samples followed by AS, esp (E. faecalis variant), and cylA genes which were detected in 3 (13%), 2 (9%), and 1 (4%) samples, respectively. In all, 120 (57%) Enterococcus isolates from 20 rainwater tank samples harbored virulence genes. Among these tank water samples, Enterococcus spp. from 5 (25%) samples harbored a single virulence gene and 15 (75%) samples were harboring two or more virulence genes. The significance of these strains in terms of health implications remains to be assessed. The potential sources of these strains need to be identified for the improved management of captured rainwater quality. Finally, it is recommended that Enterococcus spp. should be used as an additional fecal indicator bacterium in conjunction with E. coli for the microbiological assessment of rainwater tanks.

  14. Bionomic response of Aedes aegypti to two future climate change scenarios in far north Queensland, Australia: implications for dengue outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig R; Mincham, Gina; Ritchie, Scott A; Viennet, Elvina; Harley, David

    2014-09-19

    Dengue viruses are transmitted by anthropophilic mosquitoes and infect approximately 50 million humans annually. To investigate impacts of future climate change on dengue virus transmission, we investigated bionomics of the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. Using a dynamic life table simulation model (the Container inhabiting mosquito simulation CIMSiM) and statistically downscaled daily values for future climate, we assessed climate change induced changes to mosquito bionomics. Simulations of Ae. aegypti populations for current (1991-2011) and future climate (2046-2065) were conducted for the city of Cairns, Queensland, the population centre with most dengue virus transmission in Australia. Female mosquito abundance, wet weight, and the extrinsic incubation period for dengue virus in these mosquitoes were estimated for current and future climate (MPI ECHAM 5 model, B1 and A2 emission scenarios). Overall mosquito abundance is predicted to change, but results were equivocal for different climate change scenarios. Aedes aegypti abundance is predicted to increase under the B1, but decrease under the A2 scenario. Mosquitoes are predicted to have a smaller body mass in a future climate. Shorter extrinsic incubation periods are projected. It is therefore unclear whether dengue risk would increase or decrease in tropical Australia with climate change. Our findings challenge the prevailing view that a future, warmer climate will lead to larger mosquito populations and a definite increase in dengue transmission. Whilst general predictions can be made about future mosquito borne disease incidence, cautious interpretation is necessary due to interaction between local environment, human behaviour and built environment, dengue virus, and vectors.

  15. Management of the slowly emerging zoonosis, Hendra virus, by private veterinarians in Queensland, Australia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Diana H; Kelly, Jenny; Buttner, Petra; Nowak, Madeleine; Speare, Rick

    2014-09-17

    Veterinary infection control for the management of Hendra virus (HeV), an emerging zoonosis in Australia, remained suboptimal until 2010 despite 71.4% (5/7) of humans infected with HeV being veterinary personnel or assisting a veterinarian, three of whom died before 2009. The aim of this study was to identify the perceived barriers to veterinary infection control and HeV management in private veterinary practice in Queensland, where the majority of HeV outbreaks have occurred in Australia. Most participants agreed that a number of key factors had contributed to the slow uptake of adequate infection control measures for the management of HeV amongst private veterinarians: a work culture characterised by suboptimal infection control standards and misconceptions about zoonotic risks; a lack of leadership and support from government authorities; the difficulties of managing biosecurity and public health issues from a private workforce perspective; and the slow pattern of emergence of HeV. By 2010, some infection control and HeV management changes had been implemented. Participants interviewed agreed that further improvements remained necessary; but also cautioned that this was a complex process which would require time. Private veterinarians and government authorities prior to 2009 were unprepared to handle new slowly emerging zoonoses, which may explain their mismanagement of HeV. Slowly emerging zoonoses may be of low public health significance but of high significance for specialised groups such as veterinarians. Private veterinarians, who are expected to fulfil an active biosecurity and public health role in the frontline management of such emerging zoonoses, need government agencies to better recognise their contribution, to consult with the veterinary profession when devising guidelines for the management of zoonoses and to provide them with greater leadership and support. We propose that specific infection control guidelines for the management of slowly emerging

  16. Cross-sectional biomonitoring study of pesticide exposures in Queensland, Australia, using pooled urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, A L; English, K; Toms, Lml; Calafat, A M; Valentin-Blasini, L; Hobson, P; Broomhall, S; Ware, R S; Jagals, P; Sly, P D; Mueller, J F

    2016-12-01

    A range of pesticides are available in Australia for use in agricultural and domestic settings to control pests, including organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides, herbicides, and insect repellents, such as N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET). The aim of this study was to provide a cost-effective preliminary assessment of background exposure to a range of pesticides among a convenience sample of Australian residents. De-identified urine specimens stratified by age and sex were obtained from a community-based pathology laboratory and pooled (n = 24 pools of 100 specimens). Concentrations of urinary pesticide biomarkers were quantified using solid-phase extraction coupled with isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Geometric mean biomarker concentrations ranged from usage patterns of pesticide products in Australia change over time.

  17. Cyclists' perceptions of motorist harassment pre- to post-trial of the minimum passing distance road rule amendment in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesch, Kristiann C; Schramm, Amy; Debnath, Ashim Kumar; Haworth, Narelle

    2017-12-01

    Issues addressed Cyclists' perceptions of harassment from motorists discourages cycling. This study examined changes in cyclists' reporting of harassment pre- to post-introduction of the Queensland trial of the minimum passing distance road rule amendment (MPD-RRA). Methods Cross-sectional online surveys of cyclists in Queensland, Australia were conducted in 2009 (pre-trial; n=1758) and 2015 (post-trial commencement; n=1997). Cyclists were asked about their experiences of harassment from motorists while cycling. Logistic regression modelling was used to examine differences in the reporting of harassment between these time periods, after adjustments for demographic characteristics and cycling behaviour. Results At both time periods, the most reported types of harassment were deliberately driving too close (causing fear or anxiety), shouting abuse and making obscene gestures or engaging in sexual harassment. The percentage of cyclists who reported tailgating by motorists increased between 2009 and 2015 (15.1% to 19.5%; Pharassment did not change significantly. Conclusions Cyclists in Queensland continue to perceive harassment while cycling on the road. The amendment to the minimum passing distance rule in Queensland appears to be having a negative effect on one type of harassment but no significant effects on others. So what? Minimum passing distance rules may not be improving cyclists' perceptions of motorists' behaviours. Additional strategies are required to create a supportive environment for cycling.

  18. Patterns of drug dependence in a Queensland (Australia) sample of Indigenous and non-Indigenous people who inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Andrew; Kemp, Robert; Ward, James; Henderson, Suzanna; Williams, Sidney; Dev, Abhilash; Najman, Jake M

    2016-09-01

    Despite over-representation of Indigenous Australians in sentinel studies of injecting drug use, little is known about relevant patterns of drug use and dependence. This study compares drug dependence and possible contributing factors in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians who inject drugs. Respondent-driven sampling was used in major cities and 'peer recruitment' in regional towns of Queensland to obtain a community sample of Indigenous (n = 282) and non-Indigenous (n = 267) injectors. Data are cross sectional. Multinomial models were developed for each group to examine types of dependence on injected drugs (no dependence, methamphetamine-dependent only, opioid-dependent only, dependent on methamphetamine and opioids). Around one-fifth of Indigenous and non-Indigenous injectors were dependent on both methamphetamine and opioids in the previous 12 months. Psychological distress was associated with dual dependence on these drugs for Indigenous [adjusted relative risk (ARR) 4.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.08-11.34] and non-Indigenous (ARR 4.14, 95% CI 1.59-10.78) participants. Unemployment (ARR 8.98, 95% CI 2.25-35.82) and repeated (> once) incarceration as an adult (ARR 3.78, 95% CI 1.43-9.97) were associated with dual dependence for Indigenous participants only. Indigenous participants had high rates of alcohol dependence, except for those dependent on opioids only. The drug dependence patterns of Indigenous and non-Indigenous people who inject drugs were similar, including the proportions dependent on both methamphetamine and opioids. However, for Indigenous injectors, there was a stronger association between drug dependence and contextual factors such as unemployment and incarceration. Expansion of treatment options and community-level programs may be required. [Smirnov A, Kemp R, Ward J, Henderson S, Williams S, Dev A, Najman J M. Patterns of drug dependence in a Queensland (Australia) sample of Indigenous and non-Indigenous people who

  19. Palaeomagnetism of the Early Permian Mount Leyshon Intrusive Complex and Tuckers Igneous Complex, North Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. A.; Lackie, M. A.

    2003-06-01

    This study provides reliable, precisely defined and well-dated Early Permian (286 +/- 6 Ma) palaeomagnetic poles for Australia from the Mount Leyshon Intrusive Complex (MLIC) and the Tuckers Igneous Complex (TIC). Both complexes are associated with prominent negative magnetic anomalies, indicating the presence of rocks carrying stable remanence of reverse polarity, with a Koenigsberger ratio greater than unity. The characteristic remanence carried by the intrusive phases and by locally remagnetized, contact-metamorphosed host rocks is always of reverse polarity, consistent with acquisition during the Permo-Carboniferous (Kiaman) Reverse Superchron. The corresponding palaeopoles confirm that Australia occupied high latitudes in the Early Permian. The pole positions are: MLIC: lat. = 43.2 °S, long. = 137.3 °E dp = 6.0°, dm = 6.4° Q= 6; TIC: lat. = 47.5 °S, long. = 143.0 °E, dp = 6.0°, dm = 6.6° Q= 6. Permian palaeomagnetic overprinting is detectable at considerable distances from the MLIC (2-3 km), well beyond the zone of visible alteration. The primary nature of the Early Permian palaeomagnetic signature is established by full baked contact/aureole tests at both localities. Other new data from Australia are consistent with the poles reported here. Comparison of the Australian, African and South American Apparent Polar Wander Paths (APWP) suggests that mean Permian and Triassic poles from West Gondwana, particularly from South America, are biased by remagnetization in the Jurassic-Cretaceous and that the Late Palaeozoic-Mesozoic APWP for Gondwana is best defined by Australian data. The Australian APWP exhibits substantial movement through the Mesozoic. Provided only that the time-averaged palaeofield was zonal, the Early Triassic palaeomagnetic data from Australia provide an important palaeogeographic constraint that the south geographic pole was within, or very close to, SE Australia around 240 Ma. The new Early Permian poles are apparently more consistent

  20. Diversity and composition of sediment bacteria in subtropical coastal wetlands of North Stradbroke Island, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvochina, Maria; Sampayo, Eugenia; Welti, Nina; Hayes, Matthew; Lu, Yang; Lovelock, Catherine; Lockington, David

    2013-04-01

    Coastal wetlands provide a wide variety of important ecosystem services but continue to suffer disturbance, degradation and deforestation. Sediment bacteria are responsible for major nutrient transformation and recycling in these ecosystems. Insight into microbial community composition and the factors that determine them may improve our understanding of biogeochemical processes, food web dynamics, biodegradation processes and, thus, help to develop the management strategies for preserving the ecosystem health and services. Characterizing shifts in community taxa along environmental gradients has been shown to provide a useful tool for determining the major drivers affecting community structure and function. North Stradbroke Island (NSI) in Southern Queensland presents considerable habitat diversity including variety of groundwater dependent ecosystems such as lakes, swamps, sedge-like salt marshes and mangroves. Ecological responses of continuous groundwater extraction for municipal purposes and sand mining operations on NSI are still need to be assessed in order to protect its unique environment. Changes in coastal hydrology due to either climate change or human activity may directly affect microbial populations and, thus, biogeochemical cycles of nutrients. These may result in altering/losing some ecosystem services provided by coastal wetlands. In this study we examine microbial diversity and determine environmental controls on bacterial community structure along a natural transition from freshwater forested wetland (melaleuca woodland), sedge-like salt marsh and into mangroves located at NSI. The study area is characterized by significant groundwater flow, nutrient limitation and sharp transition from one ecosystem type to another. Sediment cores (0-5 cm and 20-25 cm depth) were collected from three representative sites of each zone (mangroves - salt marsh - freshwater wetland) along the salinity gradient in August 2012. Subsamples were set aside for use in

  1. Return to Black Mountain palaeomagnetic reassessment of the Chatsworth and Ninmaroo formations, western Queensland, Australia

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, K L; Lackie, M A; Schmidt, P W; 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2003.02164.x

    2004-01-01

    Palaeomagnetic results from late Middle Cambrian-Early Ordovician carbonate sequences sampled at Black Mountain (Mt Unbunmaroo), Mt Datson and near Chatsworth Station (southeastern Georgina Basin) are presented. A palaeomagnetic reassessment of these carbonates was designed in an effort to constrain regional magnetization ages as results from an earlier study, conducted at Mt Unbunmaroo, play a pivotal role in a proposed Cambrian inertial interchange true polar wander (IITPW) event. Remanent magnetizations within these carbonates were found to be variably developed with most specimens displaying two of the five isolated components. Component PF, for which goethite is the identified remanence carrier, is thought to reflect a chemical remanent magnetization of recent origin. Component TR, held by haematite, has a palaeomagnetic pole consistent with the Tertiary segment of Australia's apparent polar wander path (APWP) and most probably was acquired as a consequence of prolonged weathering during this period. The...

  2. Lithofacies and biofacies of mid-Paleozoic thermal spring deposits in the Drummond Basin, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M. R.; Desmarais, D.; Farmer, J. D.; Hinman, N. W.

    1996-01-01

    The Devonian to Carboniferous sinters of the Drummond Basin, Australia, are among the oldest well established examples of fossil subaerial hot springs. Numerous subaerial and subaqueous spring deposits are known from the geological record as a result of the occurrence of economic mineral deposits in many of them. Some are reported to contain fossils, but very few have been studied by paleobiologists; they represent an untapped source of paleobiological information on the history of hydrothermal ecosystems. Such systems are of special interest, given the molecular biological evidence that thermophilic bacteria lie near the root of the tree of extant life. The Drummond Basin sinters are very closely comparable with modern examples in Yellowstone National Park and elsewhere. Thirteen microfacies are recognisable in the field, ranging from high temperature apparently abiotic geyserite through various forms of stromatolitic sinter probably of cyanobacterial origin to ambient temperature marsh deposits. Microfossils in the stromatolites are interpreted as cyanobacterial sheaths. Herbaceous lycopsids occur in the lower temperature deposits.

  3. Soil chloride and deep drainage responses to land clearing for cropping at seven sites in central Queensland, northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, B. J.; Silburn, D. M.; Forster, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    SummarySoil cores were taken at seven paired sites (native vegetation and adjacent dryland cropping on cracking clay soils) which had been cropped for 10-65 years in the Fitzroy Basin in central Queensland, northern Australia. Levels of soil chloride (Cl -) and nitrate nitrogen (NO 3-N) were determined in 0.3 m increments to a depth of 5 m where possible. The amounts of Cl - in the soil (0-1.5 m depth) under native vegetation were generally high (10-23 t ha -1 at six of the seven sites). The amounts of Cl - that had leached below 1.5 m depth during dryland cropping varied from 2.2 to 16.8 t ha -1 or 19-91% of the original totals at 0-1.5 m. Leaching of salt from the crop rooting zone in combination with higher rates of deep drainage can lead to outbreaks of soil salinisation but can also increase the soil plant available water capacity (PAWC). NO 3-N had also been leached below crop rooting depth at three sites. Such leaching not only contaminates the groundwater but also wastes crop nutrients. The transient chloride mass balance approach was used to determine mean annual rates of deep drainage below crop rooting depth (1.5 m). At all seven sites annual deep drainage was low under native vegetation (0.2-1.7 mm yr -1) but increased under dryland cropping (1.6-27.5 mm yr -1). Drainage losses showed an inverse relationship with plant available water content (PAWC). Drainage losses waste the limited supply of water available for dryland cropping but can be reduced by practising opportunity cropping or by growing ley (temporary) pastures in rotation with annual crops.

  4. Field Comparison of Cyclopentanone Versus Carbon Dioxide as an Attractant for Adult Mosquitoes in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe-Janon, J C D; van den Hurk, A F; Francis, D P; Shivas, M A; Jansen, C C

    2015-05-01

    Cyclopentanone is a saturated monoketone typically used as an intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, biologicals, insecticides, and rubber chemicals. Recently, it has been demonstrated that cyclopentanone activates the cpA CO2 receptor neuron on the maxillary palp of mosquitoes, suggesting that it may be a viable alternative to CO2 as an attractant for mosquitoes. Furthermore, semifield experiments showed that traps baited with cyclopentanone attract Culex quinquefasciatus Say at a similar rate to those baited with CO2. We evaluated the field efficacy of cyclopentanone as an alternative to CO2 in Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps and counterflow geometry (CFG) traps commonly used to collect mosquitoes in surveillance programs. Three pairwise trials and four Latin square trials were conducted across three peri-urban sites, comprising two saltwater sites and one freshwater site, in southeast Queensland, Australia. In all trials, CO2-baited traps outperformed traps baited with cyclopentanone. Carbon dioxide-baited CDC traps collected significantly more total mosquitoes, Aedes vigilax (Skuse), Culex sitiens Weidemann, and Culex annulirostris Skuse, than those baited with ≥99% cyclopentanone in pairwise trials. Similarly, in almost all Latin square trials, CO2-baited CDC and CFG traps collected significantly greater numbers of total mosquitoes, Ae. vigilax, Cx. annulirostris, Culex orbostiensis Dobrotworsky, and Cx. sitiens when compared with CFG traps baited with 20% cyclopentanone. Our trials indicate that cyclopentanone is not effective as a mosquito attractant in the field and cannot be used as a simple substitute for CO2 in commonly used mosquito surveillance traps. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Measurements of occupational ultraviolet exposure and the implications of timetabled yard duty for school teachers in Queensland, Australia: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, N J; Parisi, A V; Igoe, D

    2014-02-05

    Simultaneous personal measurements of the occupational ultraviolet exposure weighted to the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection hazard sensitivity spectrum (UVICNIRP) were made over a five week period (44 person-days) in the second half of the summer school term of 2012 in Queensland, Australia for individual high school teachers located at latitudes of 27.5°S and 23.5°S. These teachers were employed for the duration of the study in a predominately indoor classroom teaching role, excluding mandatory periods of lunch time yard duty and school sport supervisions. Data is presented from personal measurements made to the shirt collar using polyphenylene oxide (PPO) film UV dosimeters. UVICNIRP exposure data is presented for each week of the study period for the shirt collar measurement site and are further expressed relative to the measured ambient horizontal plane exposure. Personal exposures were correlated with time outdoors, showing a higher exposure trend on days when teachers were required to supervise outdoor areas for more than 2h per week (mean daily exposure: 168Jm(-2)UVICNIRP±5Jm(-2) (1σ)) compared to the study average (mean daily exposure: 115Jm(-2)UVICNIRP±91Jm(-2) (1σ)). Time spent in an open playground environment was found to be the most critical factor influencing the occupational UVICNIRP exposure. A linear model was developed showing a correlation (R(2)=0.77) between the time teachers spent on yard duty and UVICNIRP exposure, expressed relative to ambient. The research findings indicate a greater reduction in personal exposure can be achieved by timetabling for yard duty periods in playground areas which offer more shade from trees and surrounding buildings. All mean daily personal exposures measured at the shirt collar site were higher than the ICNIRP occupational daily exposure limit of 30Jm(-2) for outdoor workers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fecal indicators and zoonotic pathogens in household drinking water taps fed from rainwater tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Hodgers, L; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the microbiological quality of household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks was assessed by monitoring the numbers of Escherichia coli bacteria and enterococci from 24 households in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was also used for the quantitative detection of zoonotic pathogens in water samples from rainwater tanks and connected household taps. The numbers of zoonotic pathogens were also estimated in fecal samples from possums and various species of birds by using qPCR, as possums and birds are considered to be the potential sources of fecal contamination in roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW). Among the 24 households, 63% of rainwater tank and 58% of connected household tap water (CHTW) samples contained E. coli and exceeded Australian drinking water guidelines of rainwater tanks and 83% of CHTW samples also contained enterococci. In all, 21%, 4%, and 13% of rainwater tank samples contained Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Giardia lamblia, respectively. Similarly, 21% of rainwater tank and 13% of CHTW samples contained Campylobacter spp. and G. lamblia, respectively. The number of E. coli (P = 0.78), Enterococcus (P = 0.64), Campylobacter (P = 0.44), and G. lamblia (P = 0.50) cells in rainwater tanks did not differ significantly from the numbers observed in the CHTW samples. Among the 40 possum fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 60%, 13%, and 30% of samples, respectively. Among the 38 bird fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., C. parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 24%, 11%, 5%, and 13% of the samples, respectively. Household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks tested in the study appeared to be highly variable. Regular cleaning of roofs and gutters, along with pruning of overhanging tree branches, might also prove effective in reducing animal fecal contamination of rainwater tanks.

  7. Occurrence of intestinal and extraintestinal virulence genes in Escherichia coli isolates from rainwater tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Hodgers, L; Masters, N; Sidhu, J P S; Katouli, M; Toze, S

    2011-10-01

    In this study, 200 Escherichia coli isolates from 22 rainwater tank samples in Southeast Queensland, Australia, were tested for the presence of 20 virulence genes (VGs) associated with intestinal and extraintestinal pathotypes. In addition, E. coli isolates were also classified into phylogenetic groups based on the detection of the chuA, yjaA, and TSPE4.C2 genes. Of the 22 rainwater tanks, 8 (36%) and 5 (23%) were positive for the eaeA (belonging to enteropathogenic E. coli [EPEC] and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli [STEC]) and ST1 (belonging to enterotoxigenic E. coli [ETEC]) genes, respectively. VGs (cdtB, cvaC, ibeA, kpsMT allele III, PAI, papAH, and traT) belonging to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) were detected in 15 (68%) of the 22 rainwater tanks. Of the 22 samples, 17 (77%) and 11 (50%) contained E. coli belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1, respectively. Similarly, 10 (45%) and 16 (72%) contained E. coli belonging to phylogenetic groups B2 and D, respectively. Of the 96 of the 200 strains from 22 tanks that were VG positive, 40 (42%) were carrying a single VG, 36 (37.5%) were carrying two VGs, 17 (18%) were carrying three VGs, and 3 (3%) had four or more VGs. This study reports the presence of multiple VGs in E. coli strains belonging to the STEC, EPEC, ETEC, and ExPEC pathotypes in rainwater tanks. The public health risks associated with potentially clinically significant E. coli in rainwater tanks should be assessed, as the water is used for drinking and other, nonpotable purposes. It is recommended that rainwater be disinfected using effective treatment procedures such as filtration, UV disinfection, or simply boiling prior to drinking.

  8. Major Seagrass Carbon Sinks Worldwide, Shark Bay, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Ortiz, A.; Serrano, O.; Masque, P.; Lavery, P.; Duarte, C. M.; Kendrick, G. A.

    2016-02-01

    Seagrasses are marine foundation species that provide valuable ecosystem services including the stabilization of sediment, carbon dioxide sequestration, and habitat for diverse fauna and flora. Shark Bay, Western Australia, registered as a World Heritage Property, has the largest reported assemblage of seagrass meadows worldwide, thus has an important role in producing, sequestering and storing organic carbon (Corg). We surveyed 30 seagrass meadows in Shark Bay accounting for species composition, seagrass contribution to the sedimentary Corg pool, and habitat variability. The sediment accumulation rates (SAR) and Corg accumulation over short and long terms were determined by means of 210Pb and 14C dating. Sediment grain size was used to characterize sedimentary environments and δ13C analyses to determine the sources of sedimentary Corg stocks in each meadow. Corg stocks accumulated in the last century varied from 0.4 to 4.5 kg Corg m-2, with an average burial rate of 24 ± 11 g Corg m-2 y-1 (10 - 20 cm-thick deposits). Stocks in the top meter ranged from 4 to 30 kg Corg m-2, which is equivalent to a long-term carbon burial rate averaging 8 ± 5 g Corg m-2 y-1 (over the last millennia). With an area of 4,000 km2, seagrass meadows in Shark Bay store the vast amount of 45 ± 23 Tg Corg in the top meter, which would represent about 1% of the Corg stored in seagrass meadows worldwide. Spatial and temporal variability in Corg storage results from various factors, including biological (e.g. net primary production), chemical (e.g. recalcitrance of Corg stocks) and geological (e.g. hydrodynamic energy and sediment accumulation rates). Higher SAR and smaller sediment size appeared to contribute to a higher accumulation and preservation of Corg. Moreover, sediments with highest Corg stocks were characterized by high δ13C, suggesting that the plant itself plays a key role in Corg storage. These findings combined with sediment chronologies help us to understand the formation

  9. Clinical supervision: outsider reports of a research-driven implementation programme in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Edward; Winstanley, Julie

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore substantive issues related to the implementation of Clinical Supervision (CS). Historically, the treatment of mental illness in Australia has been inadequate. CS has shown promise as a positive contribution to the clinical governance agenda, as a structured staff support mechanism. Within the wider context of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of CS, semi-structured interviews (n = 17) were conducted with staff who worked alongside colleagues that attempted to implement CS. Senior managers embraced CS and were disappointed when junior managerial colleagues did not hold a similar conviction, when tested by the realities of CS implementation. If CS was regarded as an additional activity, it stretched human resources and created inter-staff tensions. The personal testimony of these 'outsiders' spoke about the practicalities of implementing CS and the prevailing culture into which they were introduced. When perceived as a tour de force for culture change, CS was polarized as an opportunity by many, but also as a threat by some. A single, cohesive and explicit management position on CS in each Health Service entity may obviate some of the impediments to CS implementation. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Lithofacies and biofacies of mid-paleozoic thermal spring deposits in the Drummond Basin, Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, M.R. [Macquarie Univ. (Australia); Desmarais, D.; Farmer, J.C. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Hinman, N.W. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States)

    1996-12-01

    The Devonian to Carboniferous sinters of the Drummond Basin, Australia, are among the oldest well established examples of fossil subaerial hot springs. Numerous subaerial and subaqueous spring deposits are known from the geological record as a result of the occurrence of economic mineral deposits in many of them. Some are reported to contain fossils, but very few have been studied by paleobiologists; they represent an untapped source of paleobiological information on the history of hydrothermal ecosystems. Such systems are of special interest, given the molecular biological evidence that thermophilic bacteria lie near the root of the tree of extant life. The Drummond Basin sinters are very closely comparable with modern examples in Yellowstone National Park and elsewhere. Thirteen microfacies are recognisable in the field, ranging from high temperature apparently abiotic geyserite through various forms of stromatolitic sinter probably of cyanobacterial origin to ambient temperature marsh deposits. Microfossils in the stromatolites are interpreted as cyanobacterial sheaths. Herbaceous lycopsids occur in the lower temperature deposits. 56 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.

  11. A comparison of trapping methods for Tabanidae (Diptera) in North Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hennekeler, K; Jones, R E; Skerratt, L F; Fitzpatrick, L A; Reid, S A; Bellis, G A

    2008-03-01

    The ability to monitor the abundance and diversity of tabanid flies over wide areas requires effective and low-cost surveillance methods. Such monitoring activities help to quantify the risk of transmission of pathogens by tabanids. Here we examine the effectiveness and practicality of two types of trap (canopy traps and Nzi traps) and two types of attractant (octenol and carbon dioxide) for monitoring tabanid flies in tropical Australia. The Nzi trap consistently caught more tabanids and more species of tabanids than the canopy trap. It was also more robust and therefore required less maintenance in remote locations. The use of attractants substantially increased capture rates, both of individuals and species, and traps using both attractants were consistently the most effective. However, in remote locations, where it is not possible to check traps frequently, the use of attractants may not be feasible. When attractants were not used, the canopy trap caught very few tabanids, but the Nzi trap remained effective enough to be useful as a monitoring device. In addition, the number of tabanid species caught by the Nzi traps remained high, and included those that were most abundant. We therefore conclude that, in this region, Nzi traps are preferable for tabanid monitoring and that attractants greatly improve their effectiveness. However, for longterm monitoring, especially in remote locations, Nzi traps without attractants are a satisfactory option.

  12. Fish Distribution in Far Western Queensland, Australia: The Importance of Habitat, Connectivity and Natural Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kerezsy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The endorheic Lake Eyre Basin drains 1.2 million square kilometres of arid central Australia, yet provides habitat for only 30 species of freshwater fish due to the scarcity of water and extreme climate. The majority are hardy riverine species that are adapted to the unpredictable flow regimes, and capable of massive population booms following heavy rainfall and the restoration of connectivity between isolated waterholes. The remainder are endemic specialists from isolated springs with very restricted ranges, and many are listed under relevant state and national endangered species legislation and also by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN. For these spring communities, which are sustained by water from the Great Artesian Basin, survival is contingent on suitable habitat persisting alongside extractive mining, agriculture and the imposition of alien species. For the riverine species, which frequently undertake long migrations into ephemeral systems, preservation of the natural flow regime is paramount, as this reinstates riverine connectivity. In this study, fish were sampled from the Bulloo River in the east to the Mulligan River in the west, along a temporal timeframe and using a standard set of sampling gears. Fish presence was influenced by factors such as natural catchment divides, sampling time, ephemerality and the occurrence of connection flows and flooding. Despite the comparatively low diversity of species, the aquatic systems of this isolated region remain in good ecological condition, and as such they offer excellent opportunities to investigate the ecology of arid water systems. However, the presence of both endangered species (in the springs and invasive and translocated species more widely indicates that active protection and management of this unique area is essential to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem integrity.

  13. Annual net primary productivity of a cyanobacteria-dominated biological soil crust in the Gulf Savannah, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büdel, Burkhard; Williams, Wendy J.; Reichenberger, Hans

    2018-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are a common element of the Queensland (Australia) dry savannah ecosystem and are composed of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes, fungi and heterotrophic bacteria. Here we report how the CO2 gas exchange of the cyanobacteria-dominated biocrust type from Boodjamulla National Park in the north Queensland Gulf Savannah responds to the pronounced climatic seasonality and on their quality as a carbon sink using a semi-automatic cuvette system. The dominant cyanobacteria are the filamentous species Symplocastrum purpurascens together with Scytonema sp. Metabolic activity was recorded between 1 July 2010 and 30 June 2011, during which CO2 exchange was only evident from November 2010 until mid-April 2011, representative of 23.6 % of the 1-year recording period. In November at the onset of the wet season, the first month (November) and the last month (April) of activity had pronounced respiratory loss of CO2. The metabolic active period accounted for 25 % of the wet season and of that period 48.6 % was net photosynthesis (NP) and 51.4 % dark respiration (DR). During the time of NP, net photosynthetic uptake of CO2 during daylight hours was reduced by 32.6 % due to water supersaturation. In total, the biocrust fixed 229.09 mmol CO2 m-2 yr-1, corresponding to an annual carbon gain of 2.75 g m-2 yr-1. Due to malfunction of the automatic cuvette system, data from September and October 2010 together with some days in November and December 2010 could not be analysed for NP and DR. Based on climatic and gas exchange data from November 2010, an estimated loss of 88 mmol CO2 m-2 was found for the 2 months, resulting in corrected annual rates of 143.1 mmol CO2 m-2 yr-1, equivalent to a carbon gain of 1.7 g m-2 yr-1. The bulk of the net photosynthetic activity occurred above a relative humidity of 42 %, indicating a suitable climatic combination of temperature, water availability and light intensity well above 200 µmol photons m-2 s-1

  14. Evaluation of implementation of a healthy food and drink supply strategy throughout the whole school environment in Queensland state schools, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, M; Lee, A; Bright, M; Turner, K; Edwards, R; Dawson, J; Miller, J

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports on the evaluation of the Smart Choices healthy food and drink supply strategy for Queensland schools (Smart Choices) implementation across the whole school environment in state government primary and secondary schools in Queensland, Australia. Three concurrent surveys using different methods for each group of stakeholders that targeted all 1275 school Principals, all 1258 Parent and Citizens' Associations (P&Cs) and a random sample of 526 tuckshop convenors throughout Queensland. Nine hundred and seventy-three Principals, 598 P&Cs and 513 tuckshop convenors participated with response rates of 78%, 48% and 98%, respectively. Nearly all Principals (97%), P&Cs (99%) and tuckshop convenors (97%) reported that their school tuckshop had implemented Smart Choices. The majority of Principals and P&Cs reported implementation, respectively, in: school breakfast programs (98 and 92%); vending machine stock (94 and 83%); vending machine advertising (85 and 84%); school events (87 and 88%); school sporting events (81 and 80%); sponsorship and advertising (93 and 84%); fundraising events (80 and 84%); and sporting clubs (73 and 75%). Implementation in curriculum activities, classroom rewards and class parties was reported, respectively, by 97%, 86% and 75% of Principals. Respondents also reported very high levels of understanding of Smart Choices and engagement of the school community. The results demonstrated that food supply interventions to promote nutrition across all domains of the school environment can be implemented successfully.

  15. Perceptions About Alcohol Harm and Alcohol-control Strategies Among People With High Risk of Alcohol Consumption in Alberta, Canada and Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C. Sanchez-Ramirez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To explore alcohol perceptions and their association hazardous alcohol use in the populations of Alberta, Canada and Queensland, Australia. Methods Data from 2500 participants of the 2013 Alberta Survey and the 2013 Queensland Social Survey was analyzed. Regression analyses were used to explore the association between alcohol perceptions and its association with hazardous alcohol use. Results Greater hazardous alcohol use was found in Queenslanders than Albertans (p<0.001. Overall, people with hazardous alcohol were less likely to believe that alcohol use contributes to health problems (odds ratio [OR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27 to 0.78; p<0.01 and to a higher risk of injuries (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.90; p<0.05. Albertans with hazardous alcohol use were less likely to believe that alcohol contributes to health problems (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.92; p<0.05 and were also less likely to choose a highly effective strategy as the best way for the government to reduce alcohol problems (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.91; p=0.01. Queenslanders with hazardous alcohol use were less likely to believe that alcohol was a major contributor to injury (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.77; p<0.01. Conclusions Our results suggest that people with hazardous alcohol use tend to underestimate the negative effect of alcohol consumption on health and its contribution to injuries. In addition, Albertans with hazardous alcohol use were less in favor of strategies considered highly effective to reduce alcohol harm, probably because they perceive them as a potential threat to their own alcohol consumption. These findings represent valuable sources of information for local health authorities and policymakers when designing suitable strategies to target alcohol-related problems.

  16. Potential distribution of an invasive species under climate change scenarios using CLIMEX and soil drainage: a case study of Lantana camara L. in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Subhashni; Kumar, Lalit

    2013-01-15

    Invasive species pose a major threat to biodiversity which may be intensified by the effects of climate change, particularly if favourable climate conditions allow invasives to spread to new areas. This research explores the combined effects of climate change and soil drainage on the potential future distribution of Lantana camara L. (lantana) in Queensland, Australia. Lantana is an invasive woody shrub species that has a profound economic and environmental impact worldwide. CLIMEX was used to develop a process-based niche model of lantana to estimate its potential distribution under current and future climate. Two Global Climate Models (GCMs), CSIRO-Mk3.0 and MIROC-H, were used to explore the impacts of climate change. These models were run with the A1B and A2 scenarios for 2030, 2070 and 2100. Further refinements of the potential distributions were carried out through the integration of fine scale soil drainage data in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The results from both GCMs show a progressive reduction in climatic suitability for lantana in Queensland. The MIROC-H projects a larger area as remaining at risk of lantana invasion in 2100 compared to CSIRO-Mk3.0. Inclusion of soil drainage data results in a more refined distribution. Overall results show a dramatic reduction in potential distribution of lantana in Queensland in the long term (2100). However, in the short term (2030), areas such as South East Queensland and the Wet Tropics, both regions of significant ecological importance, remain at risk of invasion consistently under both GCMs and with both the climate only and climate and soil drainage models. Management of lantana in these regions will need to be prioritized to protect environmental assets of ecological significance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The oxygen isotopic composition of phytolith assemblages from tropical rainforest soil tops (Queensland, Australia: validation of a new paleoenvironmental tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alexandre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytoliths are micrometric particles of amorphous silica that form inside or between the cells of higher plant tissues throughout the life of a plant. With plant decay, phytoliths are either incorporated into soils or exported to sediments via regional watersheds. Phytolith morphological assemblages are increasingly used as proxy of grassland diversity and tree cover density in inter-tropical areas. Here, we investigate whether, along altitudinal gradients in northeast Queensland (Australia, changes in the δ18O signature of soil top phytolith assemblages reflect changes in mean annual temperature (MAT and in the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18Oprecipitation, as predicted by equilibrium temperature coefficients previously published for silica. Oxygen isotopic analyses were performed on 16 phytolith samples, after controlled isotopic exchange (CIE, using the IR Laser-Heating Fluorination Technique. Long-term mean annual precipitation (MAP and MAT values at the sampled sites were calculated by the ANUCLIM software. δ18Oprecipitation estimates were calculated using the Bowen and Wilkinson (2002 model, slightly modified. An empirical temperature-dependant relationship was obtained: δ18Owood phytolith-precipitation (‰ vs. VSMOW = −0.4 (±0.2 t (°C + 46 (±3 (R2 = 0.4, p < 0.05; n = 12. Despite the various unknowns introduced when estimating δ18Oprecipitation values and the large uncertainties on δ18Owood phytolith values, the temperature coefficient (−0.4 ± 0.2‰ °C−1 is in the range of values previously obtained for natural quartz, fresh and sedimentary diatoms and harvested grass phytoliths (from −0.2 to −0.5‰ °C−1. The consistency supports the reliability of δ18Owood phytolith signatures for recording

  18. Assessing the repeatability of terrestrial laser scanning for monitoring gully topography: A case study from Aratula, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Nicholas Robert; Armston, John; Stiller, Isaac; Muir, Jasmine

    2016-06-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technology is a powerful tool for quantifying gully morphology and monitoring change over time. This is due to the high sampling density, sub-centimetre positional accuracies (x, y, z), flexibility of survey configurations and ability to link multiple TLS scans together. However, to ensure correct interpretation of results, research is needed to test the repeatability of TLS derived products to quantify the accuracy and separate 'false' from 'true' geomorphic change. In this study, we use the RIEGL VZ400 scanner to test the repeatability of TLS datasets for mapping gully morphology. We then quantify change following a rainfall event of approximately 100 mm. Our study site, located in south-east Queensland, Australia was chosen to be challenging from a repeatability perspective with high topographic variability. The TLS data capture involved three sets of linked scans: one survey pre-rainfall, to be compared to two surveys post-rainfall acquired on consecutive days. Change is considered negligible in the two post-rainfall scans to test survey repeatability. To verify TLS accuracy, an independent dataset of gully extent and spot heights were acquired using traditional total station techniques. Results confirm that the TLS datasets can be registered multi-temporally at sub-centimetre levels of accuracy in three dimensions. Total station and TLS elevation samples showed strong agreement with a mean error and standard deviation (SD) of residuals equal to 0.052 and 0.047 m, respectively (n = 889). Significantly, our repeatability tests found that return type and pulse deviation influence the accuracy and repeatability of DEMs in gully environments. Analysis of consecutive day datasets showed that DEMs derived from first return data recorded 40% higher SD of residual error than DEMs using multiple return data. A significant empirical relationship between pulse deviation and the variance of residuals for repeat DEMs is also shown (r2 = 0

  19. Vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change: the views of government stakeholders and other specialists in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Linn B; Tong, Shilu; Aird, Rosemary; McRae, David

    2010-07-28

    There is overwhelming scientific evidence that human activities have changed and will continue to change the climate of the Earth. Eco-environmental health, which refers to the interdependencies between ecological systems and population health and well-being, is likely to be significantly influenced by climate change. The aim of this study was to examine perceptions from government stakeholders and other relevant specialists about the threat of climate change, their capacity to deal with it, and how to develop and implement a framework for assessing vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change. Two focus groups were conducted in Brisbane, Australia with representatives from relevant government agencies, non-governmental organisations, and the industry sector (n = 15) involved in the discussions. The participants were specialists on climate change and public health from governmental agencies, industry, and non-governmental organisations in South-East Queensland. The specialists perceived climate change to be a threat to eco-environmental health and had substantial knowledge about possible implications and impacts. A range of different methods for assessing vulnerability were suggested by the participants and the complexity of assessment when dealing with multiple hazards was acknowledged. Identified factors influencing vulnerability were perceived to be of a social, physical and/or economic nature. They included population growth, the ageing population with associated declines in general health and changes in the vulnerability of particular geographical areas due to for example, increased coastal development, and financial stress. Education, inter-sectoral collaboration, emergency management (e.g. development of early warning systems), and social networks were all emphasised as a basis for adapting to climate change. To develop a framework, different approaches were discussed for assessing eco-environmental health vulnerability, including literature

  20. Vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change: the views of government stakeholders and other specialists in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background There is overwhelming scientific evidence that human activities have changed and will continue to change the climate of the Earth. Eco-environmental health, which refers to the interdependencies between ecological systems and population health and well-being, is likely to be significantly influenced by climate change. The aim of this study was to examine perceptions from government stakeholders and other relevant specialists about the threat of climate change, their capacity to deal with it, and how to develop and implement a framework for assessing vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change. Methods Two focus groups were conducted in Brisbane, Australia with representatives from relevant government agencies, non-governmental organisations, and the industry sector (n = 15) involved in the discussions. The participants were specialists on climate change and public health from governmental agencies, industry, and non-governmental organisations in South-East Queensland. Results The specialists perceived climate change to be a threat to eco-environmental health and had substantial knowledge about possible implications and impacts. A range of different methods for assessing vulnerability were suggested by the participants and the complexity of assessment when dealing with multiple hazards was acknowledged. Identified factors influencing vulnerability were perceived to be of a social, physical and/or economic nature. They included population growth, the ageing population with associated declines in general health and changes in the vulnerability of particular geographical areas due to for example, increased coastal development, and financial stress. Education, inter-sectoral collaboration, emergency management (e.g. development of early warning systems), and social networks were all emphasised as a basis for adapting to climate change. To develop a framework, different approaches were discussed for assessing eco-environmental health

  1. Vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change: the views of government stakeholders and other specialists in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McRae David

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is overwhelming scientific evidence that human activities have changed and will continue to change the climate of the Earth. Eco-environmental health, which refers to the interdependencies between ecological systems and population health and well-being, is likely to be significantly influenced by climate change. The aim of this study was to examine perceptions from government stakeholders and other relevant specialists about the threat of climate change, their capacity to deal with it, and how to develop and implement a framework for assessing vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change. Methods Two focus groups were conducted in Brisbane, Australia with representatives from relevant government agencies, non-governmental organisations, and the industry sector (n = 15 involved in the discussions. The participants were specialists on climate change and public health from governmental agencies, industry, and non-governmental organisations in South-East Queensland. Results The specialists perceived climate change to be a threat to eco-environmental health and had substantial knowledge about possible implications and impacts. A range of different methods for assessing vulnerability were suggested by the participants and the complexity of assessment when dealing with multiple hazards was acknowledged. Identified factors influencing vulnerability were perceived to be of a social, physical and/or economic nature. They included population growth, the ageing population with associated declines in general health and changes in the vulnerability of particular geographical areas due to for example, increased coastal development, and financial stress. Education, inter-sectoral collaboration, emergency management (e.g. development of early warning systems, and social networks were all emphasised as a basis for adapting to climate change. To develop a framework, different approaches were discussed for assessing eco

  2. Monocotyledon fruits and seeds, and an associated palynoflora from Eocene-Oligocene sediments of coastal central Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmann; Clifford

    2000-07-01

    Fruits of Restionaceae and seeds of Typhaceae are described from a latest Eocene-Oligocene mudstone underlying oil shales in a subsurface sequence near Rockhampton, coastal central Queensland. The Restionaceae fruits are unilocular and encase a single pendulous orthotropous seed with a structured micropylar cap, which may be tannin filled. These are allocated to Restiocarpum gen. nov., which has as its type Restiocarpum latericum sp. nov., and four other taxa described herein; Restiocarpum tesselatum sp. nov., Restiocarpum verrucatum sp. nov., Restiocarpum laeve sp. nov., and Restiocarpum fusiforme sp. nov. Typhaspermum cooksoniae gen. et sp. nov., which accommodates asymmetric claviform seeds, is interpreted as a member of the Typhaceae based on the presence of a lid-like operculum, bitegmic wall, and chalazal cavity.Reconstruction of the source plant community emphasizes similarities to restiad swamps of present day Wallum (swamp heathland) vegetation which is extensively developed along the Queensland coast. Biogeographic implications for the Restionaceae and Typhaceae are discussed.

  3. Is Increasing Coal Seam Gas Well Development Activity Associated with Increasing Hospitalisation Rates in Queensland, Australia? An Exploratory Analysis 1995-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Angela K; Cameron, Cate M; Watt, Kerrianne; Vink, Sue; Jagals, Paul; Page, Andrew

    2017-05-18

    The majority of Australia's coal seam gas (CSG) reserves are in Queensland, where the industry has expanded rapidly in recent years. Despite concerns, health data have not been examined alongside CSG development. This study examined hospitalisation rates as a function of CSG development activity in Queensland, during the period 1995-2011. Admissions data were examined with CSG well numbers, which served as a proxy for CSG development activity. Time series models were used to assess changes in hospitalisation rates for periods of "low", "medium", "high", and "intense" activity compared to a period of "very low" activity, adjusting for covariates. "All-cause" hospitalisation rates increased monotonically with increasing gas well development activity in females (324.0 to 390.3 per 1000 persons) and males (294.2 to 335.4 per 1000 persons). Hospitalisation rates for "Blood/immune" conditions generally increased for both sexes. Female and male hospitalisation rates for "Circulatory" conditions decreased with increasing CSG activity. Hospitalisation rates were generally low for reproductive and birth outcomes; no clear associations were observed. This study showed some outcomes were associated with increasing CSG development activity. However, as a condition of data access, the population and outcomes were aggregated to a broad geographic study area rather than using higher geographic resolution data. Higher resolution data, as well as other data sources, should be explored. Further research should be conducted with an expanded time period to determine if these trends continue as the industry grows.

  4. Hospital in the Nursing Home program reduces emergency department presentations and hospital admissions from residential aged care facilities in Queensland, Australia: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lijun; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Zhao, Jingzhou; Sun, Jiandong; Dingle, Kaeleen; Purtill, Rhonda; Tapp, Sam; Lukin, Bill

    2016-02-09

    There has been considerable publicity regarding population ageing and hospital emergency department (ED) overcrowding. Our study aims to investigate impact of one intervention piloted in Queensland Australia, the Hospital in the Nursing Home (HiNH) program, on reducing ED and hospital attendances from residential aged care facilities (RACFs). A quasi-experimental study was conducted at an intervention hospital undertaking the program and a control hospital with normal practice. Routine Queensland health information system data were extracted for analysis. Significant reductions in the number of ED presentations per 1000 RACF beds (rate ratio (95 % CI): 0.78 (0.67-0.92); p = 0.002), number of hospital admissions per 1000 RACF beds (0.62 (0.50-0.76); p Home program could be effective in reducing ED presentations and hospital admissions from RACF residents. Implementation of the program across a variety of settings is preferred to fully assess the ongoing benefits for patients and any possible cost-savings.

  5. Factors related to the presentation of thin and thick nodular melanoma from a population-based cancer registry in Queensland Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Alan C; Elwood, Mark; Swetter, Susan M; Brooks, Daniel R; Aitken, Joanne; Youl, Philippa H; Demierre, Marie-France; Baade, Peter D

    2009-03-15

    Worldwide, the incidence of thick melanoma has not declined, and the nodular melanoma (NM) subtype accounts for nearly 40% of newly diagnosed thick melanoma. To assess differences between patients with thin (or=2.01 mm) nodular melanoma, the authors evaluated factors such as demographics, melanoma detection patterns, tumor visibility, and physician screening for NM alone and compared clinical presentation and anatomic location of NM with superficial spreading melanoma (SSM). The authors used data from a large population-based study of Queensland (Australia) residents diagnosed with melanoma. Queensland residents aged 20 to 75 years with histologically confirmed first primary invasive cutaneous melanoma were eligible for the study, and all questionnaires were conducted by telephone (response rate, 77.9%). During this 4-year period, 369 patients with nodular melanoma were interviewed, of whom 56.7% were diagnosed with tumors nodular tumors of greater thickness. Thickest nodular melanoma (4 mm+) was also most common in persons who had not been screened by a physician within the past 3 years (odds ratio, 3.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.47-9.59). Forty-six percent of patients with thin nodular melanoma (nodular melanoma (>2.00 mm). Awareness of factors related to earlier detection of potentially fatal nodular melanomas, including the benefits of a physician examination, should be useful in enhancing public and professional education strategies. Particular awareness of clinical warning signs associated with thin nodular melanoma should allow for more prompt diagnosis and treatment of this subtype. Copyright (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.

  6. Does mosquito control have an effect on mosquito-borne disease? The case of Ross River virus disease and mosquito management in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomerini, Deanna M; Dale, Pat E; Sipe, Neil

    2011-03-01

    We examined the relationship between types of mosquito control programs and the mosquito-borne Ross River virus (RRV) disease in Queensland, Australia. Mosquito control information was collected through a survey of the responsible agencies (local governments), and RRV disease notification data were provided by the Queensland state health authority. The study developed a typology of mosquito control programs, based on the approaches used. Based on the analysis of data on RRV disease rates between mosquito control types within 4 climatic regions, each region had different combinations of mosquito control strategies in their programs; there were also general similarities in the relationship between program types and RRV rates between the regions. The long-term RRV disease rates were lower in areas where the mosquito control program included pre-emptive (rather than reactive) surveillance based on an extensive (rather than incomplete) knowledge of mosquito habitats, and where treatment of both saltwater and freshwater habitats (compared to only saltwater habitats, in coastal areas) occurred. The data indicate that mosquito control is an effective public health intervention to reduce mosquito-borne disease; hence, climate change adaptation strategies should ensure that adequate resources are available for effective vector control so as to manage the risk of mosquito-borne diseases.

  7. Breast cancer diagnosis, patterns of care and burden of disease in Queensland, Australia (1998-2004): does being Indigenous make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Suzanne P; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Green, Adèle C; Garvey, Gail; Martin, Jennifer; Valery, Patricia C

    2016-05-01

    We compared patterns of care, comorbidity, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and survival in Indigenous and non-Indigenous women with breast cancer in Queensland, Australia (1998-2004). A cohort study of Indigenous (n = 110) and non-Indigenous women (n = 105), frequency matched on age and remoteness. We used Pearson's Chi-squared analysis to compare proportions, hazard models to assess survival differences and calculated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Indigenous women were more likely to be socially disadvantaged (43 vs. 20 %, p breast cancer received comparable treatment to their non-Indigenous counterparts. The higher proportion of DALYs related to early death in Indigenous women suggests higher fatality with breast cancer in this group. Later stage at diagnosis and higher comorbidity presence among Indigenous women reinforce the need for early detection and improved management of co-existing disease.

  8. Hendra virus in Queensland, Australia, during the winter of 2011: veterinarians on the path to better management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Diana; Buttner, Petra; Speare, Rick

    2014-11-01

    Following the emergence of Hendra virus (HeV), private veterinarians have had to adopt additional infection control strategies to manage this zoonosis. Between 1994 and 2010, seven people became infected with HeV, four fatally. All infected people were at a higher risk of exposure from contact with horses as they were either veterinary personnel, assisting veterinarians, or working in the horse industry. The management of emerging zoonoses is best approached from a One Health perspective as it benefits biosecurity as well as a public health, including the health of those most at risk, in this case private veterinarians. In 2011 we conducted a cross-sectional study of private veterinarians registered in Queensland and providing veterinary services to horses. The aim of this study was to gauge if participants had adopted recommendations for improved infection control, including the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and the development of HeV specific management strategies during the winter of 2011. A majority of participants worked in practices that had a formal HeV management plan, mostly based on the perusal of official guidelines and an HeV field kit. The use of PPE increased as the health status of an equine patient decreased, demonstrating that many participants evaluated the risk of exposure to HeV appropriately; while others remained at risk of HeV infection by not using the appropriate PPE even when attending a sick horse. This study took place after Biosecurity Queensland had sent a comprehensive package about HeV management to all private veterinarians working in Queensland. However, those who had previous HeV experience through the management of suspected cases or had attended a HeV specific professional education programme in the previous 12 months were more likely to use PPE than those who had not. This may indicate that for private veterinarians in Queensland personal experience and face-to-face professional education sessions may be more

  9. The biochronology and palaeobiogeography of Baru (Crocodylia: Mekosuchinae) based on new specimens from the Northern Territory and Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    New records of the Oligo–Miocene mekosuchine crocodylian, Baru, from Queensland and the Northern Territory are described. Baru wickeni and Baru darrowi are accepted as valid species in the genus and their diagnoses are revised. Both species are present in Queensland and the Northern Territory but are restricted in time, with B. wickeni known from the late Oligocene and B. darrowi from the middle Miocene. The broad geographic distributions and restricted time spans of these species indicate that this genus is useful for biochronology. The record of B. wickeni from the Pwerte Marnte Marnte Local Fauna in the Northern Territory establishes that the species inhabited the north-western margin of the Lake Eyre Basin (LEB) drainage system. More southerly Oligo–Miocene sites in the LEB contain only one crocodylian species, Australosuchus clarkae. The Pwerte Marnte Marnte occurrence of B. wickeni indicates that the separation of Baru and Australosuchus did not correspond with the boundaries of drainage basins and that palaeolatitude was a more likely segregating factor. PMID:28649471

  10. The biochronology and palaeobiogeography of Baru (Crocodylia: Mekosuchinae based on new specimens from the Northern Territory and Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Yates

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available New records of the Oligo–Miocene mekosuchine crocodylian, Baru, from Queensland and the Northern Territory are described. Baru wickeni and Baru darrowi are accepted as valid species in the genus and their diagnoses are revised. Both species are present in Queensland and the Northern Territory but are restricted in time, with B. wickeni known from the late Oligocene and B. darrowi from the middle Miocene. The broad geographic distributions and restricted time spans of these species indicate that this genus is useful for biochronology. The record of B. wickeni from the Pwerte Marnte Marnte Local Fauna in the Northern Territory establishes that the species inhabited the north-western margin of the Lake Eyre Basin (LEB drainage system. More southerly Oligo–Miocene sites in the LEB contain only one crocodylian species, Australosuchus clarkae. The Pwerte Marnte Marnte occurrence of B. wickeni indicates that the separation of Baru and Australosuchus did not correspond with the boundaries of drainage basins and that palaeolatitude was a more likely segregating factor.

  11. The biochronology and palaeobiogeography ofBaru(Crocodylia: Mekosuchinae) based on new specimens from the Northern Territory and Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Adam M

    2017-01-01

    New records of the Oligo-Miocene mekosuchine crocodylian, Baru , from Queensland and the Northern Territory are described. Baru wickeni and Baru darrowi are accepted as valid species in the genus and their diagnoses are revised. Both species are present in Queensland and the Northern Territory but are restricted in time, with B. wickeni known from the late Oligocene and B. darrowi from the middle Miocene. The broad geographic distributions and restricted time spans of these species indicate that this genus is useful for biochronology. The record of B. wickeni from the Pwerte Marnte Marnte Local Fauna in the Northern Territory establishes that the species inhabited the north-western margin of the Lake Eyre Basin (LEB) drainage system. More southerly Oligo-Miocene sites in the LEB contain only one crocodylian species, Australosuchus clarkae . The Pwerte Marnte Marnte occurrence of B. wickeni indicates that the separation of Baru and Australosuchus did not correspond with the boundaries of drainage basins and that palaeolatitude was a more likely segregating factor.

  12. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from a subtropical coastal embayment (Moreton Bay, Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musenze, Ronald S; Werner, Ursula; Grinham, Alistair; Udy, James; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-03-01

    Surface water methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations and fluxes were investigated in two subtropical coastal embayments (Bramble Bay and Deception Bay, which are part of the greater Moreton Bay, Australia). Measurements were done at 23 stations in seven campaigns covering different seasons during 2010-2012. Water-air fluxes were estimated using the Thin Boundary Layer approach with a combination of wind and currents-based models for the estimation of the gas transfer velocities. The two bays were strong sources of both CH4 and N2O with no significant differences in the degree of saturation of both gases between them during all measurement campaigns. Both CH4 and N2O concentrations had strong temporal but minimal spatial variability in both bays. During the seven seasons, CH4 varied between 500% and 4000% saturation while N2O varied between 128 and 255% in the two bays. Average seasonal CH4 fluxes for the two bays varied between 0.5±0.2 and 6.0±1.5 mg CH4/(m2·day) while N2O varied between 0.4±0.1 and 1.6±0.6 mg N2O/(m2·day). Weighted emissions (t CO2-e) were 63%-90% N2O dominated implying that a reduction in N2O inputs and/or nitrogen availability in the bays may significantly reduce the bays' greenhouse gas (GHG) budget. Emissions data for tropical and subtropical systems is still scarce. This work found subtropical bays to be significant aquatic sources of both CH4 and N2O and puts the estimated fluxes into the global context with measurements done from other climatic regions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Investigating the stratigraphy and palaeoenvironments for a suite of newly discovered mid-Cretaceous vertebrate fossil-localities in the Winton Formation, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Ryan T.; Roberts, Eric M.; Darlington, Vikie; Salisbury, Steven W.

    2017-08-01

    The Winton Formation of central Queensland is recognized as a quintessential source of mid-Cretaceous terrestrial faunas and floras in Australia. However, sedimentological investigations linking fossil assemblages and palaeoenvironments across this unit remain limited. The intent of this study was to interpret depositional environments and improve stratigraphic correlations between multiple fossil localities within the preserved Winton Formation in the Eromanga Basin, including Isisford, Lark Quarry, and Bladensburg National Park. Twenty-three facies and six repeated facies associations were documented, indicating a mosaic of marginal marine to inland alluvial depositional environments. These developed synchronously with the final regression of the Eromanga Seaway from central Australia during the late Albian-early Turonian. Investigations of regional- and local-scale structural features and outcrop, core and well analysis were combined with detrital zircon provenance signatures to help correlate stratigraphy and vertebrate faunas across the basin. Significant palaeoenvironmental differences exist between the lower and upper portions of the preserved Winton Formation, warranting informal subdivisions; a lower tidally influenced fluvial-deltaic member and an upper inland alluvial member. This work further demonstrates that the Isisford fauna is part of the lower member of the preserved Winton Formation; whereas, fossil localities around Winton, including Lark Quarry and Bladensburg National Park, are part of the upper member of the Winton Formation. These results permit a more meaningful framework for both regional and global comparisons of the Winton flora and fauna.

  14. Adoption of Online Purchasing Methods in Communities and its Socio-Economic Implications in Regional Central Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Taylor

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the general trends of online purchasing in Central Queensland (CQ communities during 1999-2002 and identifies the socio-economic factors affecting online purchasing activities. The Online Purchasing Indicator, defined as a combination of percentages of online purchasers and of regular purchasers (>one item/month within a group, is applied to compare these activities between these two groups. The study identifies that four factors, namely ‘personal attributes’, ‘knowledge’, ‘trust’ and ‘need’ may play important roles in online purchasing decisions. The research found that regional economic bleeding associated with low local adoption failing to provide justification for local business to adopt electronic purchasing support has not yet reached significant levels.

  15. The effect of wildfire on population dynamics for two native small mammal species in a coastal heathland in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedloff, Adam C.; Wilson, John C.; Engeman, Richard M.

    2018-04-01

    The influences of wildfire through population dynamics and life history for two species of small mammals in a south-east Queensland heathland on Bribie Island are presented. Trapping results provided information on breeding, immigration and movement of Melomys burtoni (Grassland melomys) and Rattus lutreolus (Swamp rat). We first investigated and optimized the design of trapping methodology for producing mark-recapture population estimates to compare two adjacent populations, one of which was subjected to an extensive wildfire during the two year study. We consider how well rodents survive wildfire and whether the immediate impacts of fire or altered habitat have the greatest impact on each species. We found the R. lutreolus population was far more influenced by the fire than the M. burtoni population both immediately after the fire and over 18 months of vegetation recovery.

  16. Implementation of A Better Choice Healthy Food and Drink Supply Strategy for staff and visitors in government-owned health facilities in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jane; Lee, Amanda; Obersky, Natalie; Edwards, Rachael

    2015-06-01

    The present paper reports on a quality improvement activity examining implementation of A Better Choice Healthy Food and Drink Supply Strategy for Queensland Health Facilities (A Better Choice). A Better Choice is a policy to increase supply and promotion of healthy foods and drinks and decrease supply and promotion of energy-dense, nutrient-poor choices in all food supply areas including food outlets, staff dining rooms, vending machines, tea trolleys, coffee carts, leased premises, catering, fundraising, promotion and advertising. An online survey targeted 278 facility managers to collect self-reported quantitative and qualitative data. Telephone interviews were sought concurrently with the twenty-five A Better Choice district contact officers to gather qualitative information. Public sector-owned and -operated health facilities in Queensland, Australia. One hundred and thirty-four facility managers and twenty-four district contact officers participated with response rates of 48.2% and 96.0%, respectively. Of facility managers, 78.4% reported implementation of more than half of the A Better Choice requirements including 24.6% who reported full strategy implementation. Reported implementation was highest in food outlets, staff dining rooms, tea trolleys, coffee carts, internal catering and drink vending machines. Reported implementation was more problematic in snack vending machines, external catering, leased premises and fundraising. Despite methodological challenges, the study suggests that policy approaches to improve the food and drink supply can be implemented successfully in public-sector health facilities, although results can be limited in some areas. A Better Choice may provide a model for improving food supply in other health and workplace settings.

  17. Epidemiology of Infectious Disease-Related Death After Release from Prison, Washington State, United States, and Queensland, Australia: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binswanger, Ingrid A; Blatchford, Patrick J; Forsyth, Simon J; Stern, Marc F; Kinner, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    People in prison may be at high risk for infectious diseases and have an elevated risk of death immediately after release compared with later; their risk of death is elevated for at least a decade after release. We compared rates, characteristics, and prison-related risk factors for infectious disease-related mortality among people released from prisons in Queensland, Australia, and Washington State, United States, regions with analogous available data. We analyzed data from retrospective cohort studies of people released from prison in Queensland (1997-2007, n=37,180) and Washington State (1999-2009, n=76,208) and linked identifiers from each cohort to its respective national death index. We estimated infectious disease-related mortality rates (deaths per person-years in community) and examined associations using Cox proportional hazard models. The most frequent infectious disease-related underlying cause of death after release from prison was pneumonia (43%, 23/54 deaths) in the Australian cohort and viral hepatitis (40%, 69/171 deaths) in the U.S. cohort. The infectious disease-related mortality rate was significantly higher in the U.S. cohort than in the Australian cohort (51.2 vs. 26.5 deaths per 100,000 person-years; incidence rate ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence interval 1.42, 2.62). In both cohorts, increasing age was strongly associated with mortality from infectious diseases. Differences in the epidemiology of infectious disease-related mortality among people released from prison may reflect differences in patterns of community health service delivery in each region. These findings highlight the importance of preventing and treating hepatitis C and other infectious diseases during the transition from prison to the community.

  18. Alcohol control policies in Indigenous communities: A qualitative study of the perceptions of their effectiveness among service providers, stakeholders and community leaders in Queensland (Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Alan R; Margolis, Stephen A; Miller, Adrian; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M; McDermott, Robyn; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Towle, Simon; Martin, David; Ypinazar, Valmae; Robertson, Jan A; Fitts, Michelle S; Bird, Katrina; Honorato, Bronwyn; West, Caryn

    2016-10-01

    Favourable impacts are reported from complex alcohol control strategies, known as 'Alcohol Management Plans' (AMPs) implemented 14 years ago in 19 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) communities in Queensland (Australia). However, it is not clear that all communities benefited and that positive impacts were sustained. Service providers, key stakeholders and community leaders provided insights about issues and impacts. Participants (N=382) were recruited from knowledgeable and experienced persons using agency lists and by recommendation across sectors which have a mandate for managing alcohol-related issues and consequences of AMP policies in communities. In semi-structured interviews, participants (51% Indigenous, 55% male and comprised of at least one-third local community residents) were asked whether they believed alcohol controls had been effective and to describe any favourable and unfavourable outcomes experienced or perceived. Inductive techniques were used for thematic analysis of the content of transcribed recorded interviews. Comments reflecting themes were assessed across service sectors, by gender, Indigenous status and remoteness. Participants attributed reduced violence and improved community amenity to AMPs, particularly for 'very remote' communities. Participants' information suggests that these important achievements happened abruptly but may have become undermined over time by: the availability of illicit alcohol and an urgency to consume it; migration to larger centres to seek alcohol; criminalization; substitution of illicit drugs for alcohol; changed drinking behaviours and discrimination. Most issues were more frequently linked with 'very remote' communities. Alcohol restrictions in Queensland's Indigenous communities may have brought favourable changes, a significant achievement after a long period of poorly regulated alcohol availability from the 1980s up to 2002. Subsequently, over the past decade, an urgency to access and

  19. Using GeoEye-1 Imagery for Multi-Temporal Object-Based Detection of Canegrub Damage in Sugarcane Fields in Queensland, Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Johansen, Kasper

    2017-12-18

    The greyback canegrub (Dermolepida albohirtum) is the main pest of sugarcane crops in all cane-growing regions between Mossman (16.5°S) and Sarina (21.5°S) in Queensland, Australia. In previous years, high infestations have cost the industry up to $40 million. However, identifying damage in the field is difficult due to the often impenetrable nature of the sugarcane crop. Satellite imagery offers a feasible means of achieving this by examining the visual characteristics of stool tipping, changed leaf color, and exposure of soil in damaged areas. The objective of this study was to use geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) and high-spatial resolution GeoEye-1 satellite imagery for three years to map canegrub damage and develop two mapping approaches suitable for risk mapping. The GEOBIA mapping approach for canegrub damage detection was evaluated over three selected study sites in Queensland, covering a total of 254 km2 and included five main steps developed in the eCognition Developer software. These included: (1) initial segmentation of sugarcane block boundaries; (2) classification and subsequent omission of fallow/harvested fields, tracks, and other non-sugarcane features within the block boundaries; (3) identification of likely canegrub-damaged areas with low NDVI values and high levels of image texture within each block; (4) the further refining of canegrub damaged areas to low, medium, and high likelihood; and (5) risk classification. The validation based on field observations of canegrub damage at the time of the satellite image capture yielded producer’s accuracies between 75% and 98.7%, depending on the study site. Error of commission occurred in some cases due to sprawling, drainage issues, wind, weed, and pig damage. The two developed risk mapping approaches were based on the results of the canegrub damage detection. This research will improve decision making by growers affected by canegrub damage.

  20. Monitoring Dolphins in an Urban Marine System: Total and Effective Population Size Estimates of Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphins in Moreton Bay, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansmann, Ina C.; Lanyon, Janet M.; Seddon, Jennifer M.; Parra, Guido J.

    2013-01-01

    Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia is an area of high biodiversity and conservation value and home to two sympatric sub-populations of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus). These dolphins live in close proximity to major urban developments. Successful management requires information regarding their abundance. Here, we estimate total and effective population sizes of bottlenose dolphins in Moreton Bay using photo-identification and genetic data collected during boat-based surveys in 2008–2010. Abundance (N) was estimated using open population mark-recapture models based on sighting histories of distinctive individuals. Effective population size (Ne) was estimated using the linkage disequilibrium method based on nuclear genetic data at 20 microsatellite markers in skin samples, and corrected for bias caused by overlapping generations (Nec). A total of 174 sightings of dolphin groups were recorded and 365 different individuals identified. Over the whole of Moreton Bay, a population size N of 554±22.2 (SE) (95% CI: 510–598) was estimated. The southern bay sub-population was small at an estimated N = 193±6.4 (SE) (95% CI: 181–207), while the North sub-population was more numerous, with 446±56 (SE) (95% CI: 336–556) individuals. The small estimated effective population size of the southern sub-population (Nec = 56, 95% CI: 33–128) raises conservation concerns. A power analysis suggested that to reliably detect small (5%) declines in size of this population would require substantial survey effort (>4 years of annual mark-recapture surveys) at the precision levels achieved here. To ensure that ecological as well as genetic diversity within this population of bottlenose dolphins is preserved, we consider that North and South sub-populations should be treated as separate management units. Systematic surveys over smaller areas holding locally-adapted sub-populations are suggested as an alternative method for increasing ability to detect

  1. Monitoring dolphins in an urban marine system: total and effective population size estimates of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins in Moreton Bay, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansmann, Ina C; Lanyon, Janet M; Seddon, Jennifer M; Parra, Guido J

    2013-01-01

    Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia is an area of high biodiversity and conservation value and home to two sympatric sub-populations of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus). These dolphins live in close proximity to major urban developments. Successful management requires information regarding their abundance. Here, we estimate total and effective population sizes of bottlenose dolphins in Moreton Bay using photo-identification and genetic data collected during boat-based surveys in 2008-2010. Abundance (N) was estimated using open population mark-recapture models based on sighting histories of distinctive individuals. Effective population size (Ne ) was estimated using the linkage disequilibrium method based on nuclear genetic data at 20 microsatellite markers in skin samples, and corrected for bias caused by overlapping generations (Ne c). A total of 174 sightings of dolphin groups were recorded and 365 different individuals identified. Over the whole of Moreton Bay, a population size N of 554 ± 22.2 (SE) (95% CI: 510-598) was estimated. The southern bay sub-population was small at an estimated N = 193 ± 6.4 (SE) (95% CI: 181-207), while the North sub-population was more numerous, with 446 ± 56 (SE) (95% CI: 336-556) individuals. The small estimated effective population size of the southern sub-population (Ne c = 56, 95% CI: 33-128) raises conservation concerns. A power analysis suggested that to reliably detect small (5%) declines in size of this population would require substantial survey effort (>4 years of annual mark-recapture surveys) at the precision levels achieved here. To ensure that ecological as well as genetic diversity within this population of bottlenose dolphins is preserved, we consider that North and South sub-populations should be treated as separate management units. Systematic surveys over smaller areas holding locally-adapted sub-populations are suggested as an alternative method for increasing ability to detect abundance

  2. MINErosion 3: A user friendly hillslope model for predicting erosion from steep post-mining landscapes in Central Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Hwat-Bing; Khalifa, Ashraf; Carroll, Chris; Yu, Bofu

    2010-05-01

    Open-cut coal mining in Central Queensland involves the breaking up of overburden that overlies the coal seams using explosives, followed by removal with draglines which results in the formation of extensive overburden spoil-piles with steep slopes at the angle of repose (approximately 75 % or 37o). These spoil-piles are found in long multiple rows, with heights of up to 60 or 70 m above the original landscapes. They are generally highly saline and dispersive and hence highly erosive. Legislation requires that these spoil-piles be rehabilitated into a stable self sustaining ecosystem with no off-site pollution. The first stage in the rehabilitation of these landscapes is the lowering of slopes to create a landscape that is stable against geotechnical failure and erosion. This is followed by revegetation generally with grasses as pioneer vegetation to further reduce erosion and a mixture of native shrubs and trees. Minimizing erosion and excessive on-site discharges of sediment into the working areas may result in the temporary cessation of mining operation with significant financial consequences, while off site discharges may breach the mining lease conditions. The average cost of rehabilitation is around 22,000 per ha. With more than 50,000 ha of such spoil-piles in Queensland at present, the total cost of rehabilitation facing the industry is very high. Most of this comprised the cost of reshaping the landscape, largely associated with the amount of material movement necessary to achieve the desired landscape. Since soil and spoil-piles vary greatly in their erodibilities, a reliable and accurate method is required to determine a cost effective combination of slope length, slope gradient and vegetation that will result in acceptable rates of erosion. A user friendly hillslope computer package MINErosion 3, was developed to predict potential erosion to select suitable combinations of landscape design parameters (slope gradient, slope length and vegetation cover

  3. Back to normal: A retrospective, cross-sectional study of the multi-factorial determinants of normal birth in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Yvette D; Prosser, Samantha J; Thompson, Rachel

    2015-08-01

    currently, care providers and policy-makers internationally are working to promote normal birth. In Australia, such initiatives are being implemented without any evidence of the prevalence or determinants of normal birth as a multidimensional construct. This study aimed to better understand the determinants of normal birth (defined as without induction of labour, epidural/spinal/general anaesthesia, forceps/vacuum, caesarean birth, or episiotomy) using secondary analyses of data from a population survey of women in Queensland, Australia. women who birthed in Queensland during a two-week period in 2009 were mailed a survey approximately three months after birth. Women (n=772) provided retrospective data on their pregnancy, labour and birth preferences and experiences, socio-demographic characteristics, and reproductive history. A series of logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors associated with having labour, having a vaginal birth, and having a normal birth. overall, 81.9% of women had labour, 66.4% had a vaginal birth, and 29.6% had a normal birth. After adjusting for other significant factors, women had significantly higher odds of having labour if they birthed in a public hospital and had a pre-existing preference for a vaginal birth. Of women who had labour, 80.8% had a vaginal birth. Women who had labour had significantly higher odds of having a vaginal birth if they attended antenatal classes, did not have continuous fetal monitoring, felt able to 'take their time' in labour, and had a pre-existing preference for a vaginal birth. Of women who had a vaginal birth, 44.7% had a normal birth. Women who had a vaginal birth had significantly higher odds of having a normal birth if they birthed in a public hospital, birthed outside regular business hours, had mobility in labour, did not have continuous fetal monitoring, and were non-supine during birth. these findings provide a strong foundation on which to base resources aimed at increasing

  4. Relationships between dental personnel and non-dental primary health care providers in rural and remote Queensland, Australia: dental perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jackie; Hoang, Ha; Crocombe, Len; Barnett, Tony

    2017-06-19

    Collaboration between dental practitioners and non-dental primary care providers has the potential to improve oral health care for people in rural and remote communities, where access to oral health services is limited. However, there is limited research on collaboration between these professional disciplines. The purpose of this paper was to explore the relationships between dental practitioners and non-dental primary care providers from rural and remote areas of Queensland and to identify strategies that could improve collaboration between these disciplines from the perspective of dental participants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted between 2013 and 2015 with visiting, local and regional dental practitioners (n = 12) who had provided dental services to patients from eight rural and remote Queensland communities that did not have a resident dentist. Participants were purposely recruited through a snow ball sampling technique. Interview data were analysed using thematic analysis with the assistance of QSR Nvivo v.10. Four major themes emerged from the data: (1) Communication between dental practitioners and rural primary care providers; (2) Relationships between dental and primary care providers; (3) Maintenance of professional dualism; (4) Strategies to improve interprofessional relationships (with subthemes: face to face meetings; utilisation of technology; oral health training for primary care providers; and having a community based oral health contact person). Participants observed that there was a lack of communication between the dental providers who saw patients from these rural communities and the primary care providers who worked in each community. This was attributed to poor communication, the high turnover of staff and the siloed behaviours of some practitioners. Visiting dental practitioners were likely to have stronger professional relationships with hospital nursing, administrative and allied health care staff who were often long term

  5. Decline causes of Koalas in South East Queensland, Australia: a 17-year retrospective study of mortality and morbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Astudillo, Viviana; Allavena, Rachel; McKinnon, Allan; Larkin, Rebecca; Henning, Joerg

    2017-02-01

    Koala populations are in catastrophic decline in certain eastern Australian regions. Spanning from 1997-2013, a database derived from wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland with N = 20,250 entries was classified by causes of morbidity and mortality. A total of 11 aetiologies were identified, with chlamydiosis, trauma, and wasting being most common. The clinical diagnosis at submission varied significantly over the observation period. Combinations of aetiologies were observed in 39% of koalas submitted, with chlamydiosis frequently co-occurring. Urogenital (cystitis 26.8%, bursitis 13.5%) and ocular (conjunctivitis 17.2%) chlamydiosis were the most frequently diagnosed representations of the infection. Approximately 26% of submissions comprised koalas involved in vehicle accidents that were otherwise healthy. Age and sex of the koala as well as season and submission period were compared for the case outcomes of ‘dead on arrival’, ‘euthanized’, or ‘released’ for the four most common clinical diagnoses using multinomial logistic regression models. Exploratory space-time permutation scans were performed and overlapping space-time clusters for chlamydiosis, motor vehicle traumas and wasting unveiled high risk areas for koala disease and injury. Our results suggest that these aetiologies are acting jointly as multifactorial determinants for the continuing decline of koalas.

  6. Suitability of macrophytes for nutrient removal from surface flow constructed wetlands receiving secondary treated sewage effluent in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, M

    2003-01-01

    From a botanical perspective the major difference between waste stabilisation ponds and wetlands is the dominance of algae or floating plants in the former and emergent plants in the latter. Algae, floating and submerged plants remove nutrients directly from the water column whereas emergent species remove nutrients from the sediment. Water depth is a crucial factor in determining which plant types will become established. Surface flow constructed wetlands offer the greatest potential to grow a wide variety of different types of macrophytes. In assessing the suitability of plant species for nutrient removal, consideration must be given not only to nutrient uptake for growth but also storage of nutrients as plant biomass. A survey of macrophytes in 15 surface flow constructed wetlands treating secondary effluent was conducted in Queensland; 63 native species and 14 introduced species were found. Emergent species have been able to tolerate deeper water than in their natural environment and permanent waterlogging. All species grew well in the higher nutrient enriched wastewater. Submerged, floating leaved-attached and free floating species had the highest tissue nutrient content, followed by aquatic creepers. All these species remove nutrients from the water column. Emergent species had lower nutrient content but a greater biomass and were therefore able to store more nutrients per unit area of wetland. In order to maximise the efficiency of constructed wetlands for nutrient removal, a range of species should be used. Native species should be selected in preference to introduced/exotic species.

  7. Geographical Inequalities in Surgical Treatment for Localized Female Breast Cancer, Queensland, Australia 1997–2011: Improvements over Time but Inequalities Remain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Baade

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of breast conserving surgery (BCS for early stage breast cancer varies by where women live. We investigate whether these geographical patterns have changed over time using population-based data linkage between cancer registry records and hospital inpatient episodes. The study cohort consisted of 11,631 women aged 20 years and over diagnosed with a single primary invasive localised breast cancer between 1997 and 2011 in Queensland, Australia who underwent either BCS (n = 9223, 79% or mastectomy (n = 2408, 21%. After adjustment for socio-demographic and clinical factors, compared to women living in very high accessibility areas, women in high (Odds Ratio (OR 0.58 (95% confidence intervals (CI 0.49, 0.69, low (OR 0.47 (0.41, 0.54 and very low (OR 0.44 (0.34, 0.56 accessibility areas had lower odds of having BCS, while  the odds for women from middle (OR 0.81 (0.69, 0.94 and most disadvantaged (OR 0.87 (0.71, 0.98 areas was significantly lower than women living in affluent areas. The association between accessibility and the type of surgery reduced over time (interaction p = 0.028 but not for area disadvantage (interaction p = 0.209. In making informed decisions about surgical treatment, it is crucial that any geographical-related barriers to implementing their preferred treatment are minimised.

  8. New evidence of the reproductive organs of Glossopteris based on permineralized fossils from Queensland, Australia. II: pollen-bearing organ Ediea gen. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Harufumi; Pigg, Kathleen B; Kudo, Kensuke; Rigby, John F

    2014-03-01

    Ediea homevalensis H. Nishida, Kudo, Pigg & Rigby gen. et sp. nov. is proposed for permineralized pollen-bearing structures from the Late Permian Homevale Station locality of the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia. The taxon represents unisexual fertile shoots bearing helically arranged leaves on a central axis. The more apical leaves are fertile microsporophylls bearing a pair of multi-branched stalks on their adaxial surfaces that each supports a cluster of terminally borne pollen sacs. Proximal to the fertile leaves there are several rows of sterile scale-like leaves. The pollen sacs (microsporangia) have thickened and dark, striate walls that are typical of the Arberiella type found in most pollen organs presumed to be of glossopterid affinity. An examination of pollen organs at several developmental stages, including those containing in situ pollen of the Protohaploxypinus type, provides the basis for a detailed analysis of these types of structures, which bear similarities to both compression/impression Eretmonia-type glossopterid microsporangiate organs and permineralized Eretmonia macloughlinii from Antarctica. These fossils demonstrate that at least some Late Permian pollen organs were simple microsporophyll-bearing shoot systems and not borne directly on Glossopteris leaves.

  9. Political Challenges in Complex Place-Based Health Promotion Partnerships: Lessons From an Exploratory Case Study in a Disadvantaged Area of Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fabbro, Letitia; Rowe Minniss, Fiona; Ehrlich, Carolyn; Kendall, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Settings-based health promotion involving multiple strategies and partners is complex, especially in disadvantaged areas. Partnership development and organizational integration are examined in the literature; however, there is more to learn from the examination of practice stakeholders' experience of intersectoral partnership processes. This case study examines stakeholder experiences of challenges in new partnership work in the context of a culturally diverse and socioeconomically disadvantaged region in Queensland, Australia. Health promotion staff and community representatives participated in interviews and focus groups, and the thematic analysis included observations and documentary analyses. Our findings highlight the retrogressive influence of broader system dynamics, including policy reform and funding changes, upon partnership working. Partnership enablers are disrupted by external political influences and the internal politics (individual and organizational) of health promotion practice. We point to the need for organization level commitment to a consistent agreed vision specifically accounting for place, as a cornerstone of intersectoral health promotion partnership resilience. If organizations from diverse sectors can embed a vision for health that accounts for place, complex health promotion initiatives may be less vulnerable to broader system reforms, and health in all policy approaches more readily sustained.

  10. Development of a catchment/landscape erosion prediction model (MINErosion 4) for post-mining landscapes in Central Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Ashraf; Yu, Bofu; Ghadiri, Hossain; Carroll, Chris; So, Hwat-Bing

    2010-05-01

    Open-cut coal mining in Central Queensland involves the breaking up of overburden that overlies the coal seams using explosives, followed by removal with draglines which results in the formation of extensive overburden spoil-piles with steep slopes at the angle of repose (approximately 75 % or 37o). These spoil-piles are found in long multiple rows, with heights of up to 60 or 70 m above the original landscapes. They are generally highly saline and dispersive and hence highly erosive. Legislation requires that these spoil-piles be rehabilitated into a stable self sustaining ecosystem with no off-site pollution. The first stage in the rehabilitation of these landscapes is the lowering of slopes to create a landscape that is stable against geotechnical failure and erosion. This is followed by revegetation generally with grasses as pioneer vegetation to further reduce erosion and a mixture of native shrubs and trees. Minimizing erosion and excessive on-site discharges of sediment into the working areas may result in the temporary cessation of mining operation with significant financial consequences, while off site discharges may breach the mining lease conditions. The average cost of rehabilitation is approximately 22,000 per ha. With more than 50,000 ha of such spoil-piles in Queensland at present, the total cost of rehabilitation facing the industry is very high. Most of this comprised the cost of reshaping the landscape, largely associated with the amount of material movement necessary to achieve the desired landscape. Since soil and spoil-piles vary greatly in their erodibilities, a hillslope erosion model MINErosion 3 (this conference) was developed to determine a cost effective combination of slope length, slope gradient and vegetation that will result in acceptable rates of erosion. This model was useful to determine the design parameters for the construction of a suitable post-mining landscape that meets the required erosion criteria. However, the mining

  11. Cranial osteology of the ankylosaurian dinosaur formerly known as Minmi sp. (Ornithischia: Thyreophora from the Lower Cretaceous Allaru Mudstone of Richmond, Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy G. Leahey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Minmi is the only known genus of ankylosaurian dinosaur from Australia. Seven specimens are known, all from the Lower Cretaceous of Queensland. Only two of these have been described in any detail: the holotype specimen Minmi paravertebra from the Bungil Formation near Roma, and a near complete skeleton from the Allaru Mudstone on Marathon Station near Richmond, preliminarily referred to a possible new species of Minmi. The Marathon specimen represents one of the world’s most complete ankylosaurian skeletons and the best-preserved dinosaurian fossil from eastern Gondwana. Moreover, among ankylosaurians, its skull is one of only a few in which the majority of sutures have not been obliterated by dermal ossifications or surface remodelling. Recent preparation of the Marathon specimen has revealed new details of the palate and narial regions, permitting a comprehensive description and thus providing new insights cranial osteology of a basal ankylosaurian. The skull has also undergone computed tomography, digital segmentation and 3D computer visualisation enabling the reconstruction of its nasal cavity and endocranium. The airways of the Marathon specimen are more complicated than non-ankylosaurian dinosaurs but less so than derived ankylosaurians. The cranial (brain endocast is superficially similar to those of other ankylosaurians but is strongly divergent in many important respects. The inner ear is extremely large and unlike that of any dinosaur yet known. Based on a high number of diagnostic differences between the skull of the Marathon specimen and other ankylosaurians, we consider it prudent to assign this specimen to a new genus and species of ankylosaurian. Kunbarrasaurus ieversi gen. et sp. nov. represents the second genus of ankylosaurian from Australia and is characterised by an unusual melange of both primitive and derived characters, shedding new light on the evolution of the ankylosaurian skull.

  12. Cranial osteology of the ankylosaurian dinosaur formerly known as Minmi sp. (Ornithischia: Thyreophora) from the Lower Cretaceous Allaru Mudstone of Richmond, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Lucy G; Molnar, Ralph E; Carpenter, Kenneth; Witmer, Lawrence M; Salisbury, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Minmi is the only known genus of ankylosaurian dinosaur from Australia. Seven specimens are known, all from the Lower Cretaceous of Queensland. Only two of these have been described in any detail: the holotype specimen Minmi paravertebra from the Bungil Formation near Roma, and a near complete skeleton from the Allaru Mudstone on Marathon Station near Richmond, preliminarily referred to a possible new species of Minmi. The Marathon specimen represents one of the world's most complete ankylosaurian skeletons and the best-preserved dinosaurian fossil from eastern Gondwana. Moreover, among ankylosaurians, its skull is one of only a few in which the majority of sutures have not been obliterated by dermal ossifications or surface remodelling. Recent preparation of the Marathon specimen has revealed new details of the palate and narial regions, permitting a comprehensive description and thus providing new insights cranial osteology of a basal ankylosaurian. The skull has also undergone computed tomography, digital segmentation and 3D computer visualisation enabling the reconstruction of its nasal cavity and endocranium. The airways of the Marathon specimen are more complicated than non-ankylosaurian dinosaurs but less so than derived ankylosaurians. The cranial (brain) endocast is superficially similar to those of other ankylosaurians but is strongly divergent in many important respects. The inner ear is extremely large and unlike that of any dinosaur yet known. Based on a high number of diagnostic differences between the skull of the Marathon specimen and other ankylosaurians, we consider it prudent to assign this specimen to a new genus and species of ankylosaurian. Kunbarrasaurus ieversi gen. et sp. nov. represents the second genus of ankylosaurian from Australia and is characterised by an unusual melange of both primitive and derived characters, shedding new light on the evolution of the ankylosaurian skull.

  13. Joeropsididae Nordenstam, 1933 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota from the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niel L. Bruce

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The marine isopod family Joeropsididae (Asellota is documented for the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Fifteen species of Joeropsis are recorded, including ten new species; descriptive notes are provided for five species that lacked adequate material for description. A revised family and genus diagnosis is presented together with comments on the most useful characters for species identification and a key to Joeropsis of the Lizard Island region.

  14. Biosecurity and the management of emergency animal disease among commercial beef producers in New South Wales and Queensland (Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jover, M; Higgins, V; Bryant, M; Rast, L; McShane, C

    2016-11-01

    Australia places great importance on the prevention and management of emergency animal diseases (EAD), with strict quarantine measures offshore and at the border. Livestock producers are crucial for disease control onshore; however, limited information is available on commercial livestock producers' practices in relation to the management of disease risks. The aims of this paper are to investigate how commercial beef producers in Australia's Northern and Southern beef zones manage EADs and to identify drivers for effective biosecurity and EAD prevention. This paper forms part of a broader mixed methods research project involving an analysis of literature and current policies, qualitative semi-structured interviews with government and industry stakeholders and a cross-sectional study among beef producers. The cross-sectional study used a postal survey (n=182) and face-to-face interviews (n=34) to gather data on beef producers' knowledge and practices on biosecurity and EADs and their communication networks. Findings indicate that producers are uncertain about the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders involved in biosecurity and EAD management. This uncertainty may create confusion about EAD management and impact upon producers' willingness to report animal disease, with over 20% reporting the last veterinary contact more than five years ago and an additional 8.5% who had never contacted a veterinarian. Producers had a generally high awareness of the key sources of animal disease risk and they prioritise herd health planning as part of their everyday practices. Over 40% of producers had limited knowledge of the meaning of EAD; and EAD and biosecurity planning was given a low priority, primarily due to the perceived limited likelihood of an EAD event in Australia and the belief that EAD prevention is primarily the role of government. Only a moderate implementation of biosecurity practices, such as isolating incoming animals, having a single property entry point

  15. Hemipristicola gunterae gen. n., sp. n. (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Phyllobothriidae) from the snaggletooth shark, Hemipristis elongata (Carcharhiniformes: Hemigaleidae), from Moreton Bay, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutmore, Scott C; Theiss, Susan M; Bennett, Michael B; Cribb, Thomas H

    2011-09-01

    Helminthological examination of the snaggletooth shark, Hemipristis elongata (Klunzinger) (Carcharhiniformes: Hemigaleidae), from Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia, yielded a phyllobothriid genus and species previously unknown to science. Hemipristicola gunterae gen. n., sp. n. is described here, and is placed in the subfamily Phyllobothriinae Braun, 1900. Of the other phyllobothriid genera, the new genus most closely resembles Paraorygmatobothrium in that both genera possess bothridia with a single loculus and apical sucker, post-vaginal testes and lateral vitellarium. Hemipristicola, however, differs from Paraorygmatobothrium in the morphology of the proximal bothridial surface microthrix, possessing serrate gladiate spinitriches with marginal serrations restricted to the distal half of the blade, and in the possession of a more extensive uterus, extending anteriorly from the anterior margin of the ovary to well past the level of the cirrus-sac. The new genus also differs from Paraorygmatobothrium by possessing testes that are more than one layer deep. Hemipristicola gunterae further differs from Paraorygmatobothrium species found in hemigaleid sharks in possessing vitelline follicles arranged in two lateral bands that are restricted to the lateral margins of the proglottid and not possessing a cephalic peduncle. Bayesian inference analysis of partial 28S rDNA data shows that H. gunterae forms a sister taxon to species of Paraorygmatobothrium. These two genera were resolved with high posterior probability support in the analysis. Hemipristicola gunterae is only the second phyllobothriid species to be described from Hemipristis elongata from Australian waters, and the fourth from the Australian hemigaleids.

  16. Incidence and predictors of non-fatal drug overdose after release from prison among people who inject drugs in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, R J; Stoové, M; Degenhardt, L; Hellard, M E; Spelman, T; Jenkinson, R; McCarthy, D R; Kinner, S A

    2015-08-01

    Release from prison is a period of elevated risk for drug-related harms, particularly among people who inject drugs (PWID). Non-fatal overdose can cause serious morbidity and predicts future fatal overdose, however neither the incidence nor the risk factors for non-fatal overdose following release from prison are well understood. Structured health-related interviews were conducted with 1051 adult prisoners in Queensland, Australia prior to release and approximately 1, 3 and 6 months post-release. Incidence of self-reported overdose in the community was calculated for PWID and all prisoners for three discrete time periods. Negative binomial regression with robust error variance was used to identify pre-release predictors of overdose among PWID. The incidence of reported overdose was highest between 1 and 3 months post-release (37.8 per 100 person-years (PY) among PWID; 24.5/100 PY among all ex-prisoners). In adjusted analyses, the risk of post-release non-fatal overdose was higher for PWID who reported: being unemployed for >6 months before prison, having been removed from family as a child, at least weekly use of benzodiazepines and/or pharmaceutical opiates in the 3 months prior to prison, and ever receiving opioid substitution therapy (OST). Pre-release psychological distress and a lifetime history of mental disorder also predicted overdose, whereas risky alcohol use in the year before prison was protective. PWID have a high risk of overdose following release from prison. Imprisonment is an opportunity to initiate targeted preventive interventions such as OST, overdose prevention training and peer-delivered naloxone for those with a high risk profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Examination of Child and Adolescent Hospital Admission Rates in Queensland, Australia, 1995-2011: A Comparison of Coal Seam Gas, Coal Mining, and Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Angela K; Watt, Kerrianne; Cameron, Cate; Vink, Sue; Page, Andrew; Jagals, Paul

    2018-03-02

    Objectives At present, coal seam gas (CSG) is the most common form of unconventional natural gas development occurring in Australia. Few studies have been conducted to explore the potential health impacts of CSG development on children and adolescents. This analysis presents age-specific hospitalisation rates for a child and adolescent cohort in three study areas in Queensland. Methods Three geographic areas were selected: a CSG area, a coal mining area, and a rural area with no mining activity. Changes in area-specific hospital admissions were investigated over the period 1995-2011 in a series of negative binomial regression analyses for 19 International Classification of Diseases (ICD) chapters, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Results The strongest associations were found for respiratory diseases in 0-4 year olds (7% increase [95% CI 4%, 11%] and 6% increase [95% CI 2%, 10%] in the CSG area relative to the coal mining and rural areas, respectively) and 10-14 year olds (9% increase [95% CI 1%, 18%] and 11% increase [95% CI 1%, 21%] in the CSG area compared to the coal mining and rural areas, respectively). The largest effect size was for blood/immune diseases in 5-9 year olds in the CSG area (467% increase [95% CI 139%, 1244%]) compared to the rural area with no mining activity. Conclusions for Practice Higher rates of hospitalisation existed in the CSG area for certain ICD chapters and paediatric age groups, suggesting potential age-specific health impacts. This study provides insights on associations that should be explored further in terms of child and adolescent health.

  18. The Impact of Rurality and Disadvantage on the Diagnostic Interval for Breast Cancer in a Large Population-Based Study of 3202 Women in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa H. Youl

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Delays in diagnosing breast cancer (BC can lead to poorer outcomes. We investigated factors related to the diagnostic interval in a population-based cohort of 3202 women diagnosed with BC in Queensland, Australia. Interviews ascertained method of detection and dates of medical/procedural appointments, and clinical information was obtained from medical records. Time intervals were calculated from self-recognition of symptoms (symptom-detected or mammogram (screen-detected to diagnosis (diagnostic interval (DI. The cohort included 1560 women with symptom-detected and 1642 with screen-detected BC. Symptom-detected women had higher odds of DI of >60 days if they were Indigenous (OR = 3.12, 95% CI = 1.40, 6.98; lived in outer regional (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.09, 2.06 or remote locations (OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.39, 4.38; or presented with a “non-lump” symptom (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.43, 2.36. For screen-detected BC, women who were Indigenous (OR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.03, 5.80; lived in remote locations (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.24, 4.44; or disadvantaged areas (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.17, 2.43 and attended a public screening facility (OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.40, 3.17 had higher odds of DI > 30 days. Our study indicates a disadvantage in terms of DI for rural, disadvantaged and Indigenous women. Difficulties in accessing primary care and diagnostic services are evident. There is a need to identify and implement an efficient and effective model of care to minimize avoidable longer diagnostic intervals.

  19. A study of head and neck cancer treatment and survival among indigenous and non-indigenous people in Queensland, Australia, 1998 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Suzanne P; Green, Adèle C; Garvey, Gail; Coory, Michael D; Valery, Patricia C

    2011-10-25

    Overall, Indigenous Australians with cancer are diagnosed with more advanced disease, receive less cancer treatment and have poorer cancer survival than non-Indigenous Australians. The prognosis for Indigenous people with specific cancers varies however, and their prognosis for cancers of the head and neck is largely unknown. We therefore have compared clinical characteristics, treatment and survival between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people diagnosed with head and neck cancer in Queensland, Australia. Rates were based on a cohort of Indigenous people (n = 67), treated in public hospitals between 1998 and 2004 and frequency-matched on age and location to non-Indigenous cases (n = 62) also treated in the public health system. Data were obtained from hospital records and the National Death Index. We used Pearson's Chi-squared analysis to compare categorical data (proportions) and Cox proportional hazard models to assess survival differences. There were no significant differences in socioeconomic status, stage at diagnosis or number and severity of comorbidities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients, although Indigenous patients were more likely to have diabetes. Indigenous people were significantly less likely to receive any cancer treatment (75% vs. 95%, P = 0.005) and, when cancer stage, socioeconomic status, comorbidities and cancer treatment were taken into account, they experienced greater risk of death from head and neck cancer (HR 1.88, 1.10, 3.22) and from all other causes (HR 5.83, 95% CI 1.09, 31.04). These findings show for the first time that Indigenous Australians with head and neck cancer receive less cancer treatment and suggest survival disparity could be reduced if treatment uptake was improved. There is a need for a greater understanding of the reasons for such treatment and survival disparities, including the impact of the poorer overall health on cancer outcomes for Indigenous Australians.

  20. Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children’s Health (UPTECH in Brisbane, Queensland (Australia: Study Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa Nabil Ezz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine particles are particles that are less than 0.1 micrometres (µm in diameter. Due to their very small size they can penetrate deep into the lungs, and potentially cause more damage than larger particles. The Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children’s Health (UPTECH study is the first Australian epidemiological study to assess the health effects of ultrafine particles on children’s health in general and peripheral airways in particular. The study is being conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Continuous indoor and outdoor air pollution monitoring was conducted within each of the twenty five participating school campuses to measure particulate matter, including in the ultrafine size range, and gases. Respiratory health effects were evaluated by conducting the following tests on participating children at each school: spirometry, forced oscillation technique (FOT and multiple breath nitrogen washout test (MBNW (to assess airway function, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, to assess airway inflammation, blood cotinine levels (to assess exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP levels (to measure systemic inflammation. A pilot study was conducted prior to commencing the main study to assess the feasibility and reliably of measurement of some of the clinical tests that have been proposed for the main study. Air pollutant exposure measurements were not included in the pilot study.

  1. Patterns of tree dieback in Queensland, Australia: the importance of drought stress and the role of resistance to cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kevin J; Matzner, Steven L; Byer, William; Brown, Joel R

    2004-04-01

    During the extreme 1992-1997 El Niño drought event, widespread stem mortality, or tree "dieback", of both mature and juvenile eucalypts occurred within the tropical savannas of northeast Australia. Most of the dieback occurred in individuals of the ironbark species complex ( Eucalyptus crebra- E. xanthoclada) while individuals of the bloodwood species Corymbia erythrophloia, exhibited significantly less stem mortality. Indicative of greater water stress, predawn and midday xylem water potentials of ironbark adults and saplings were significantly more negative than predawn values of bloodwoods. The very negative xylem water potentials in ironbarks suggest that stem mortality in both adult and juvenile ironbarks results from drought-induced embolism and that ironbarks perhaps have a shallower and less extensive root system than bloodwoods. Although predawn and midday water potentials for ironbark adults and saplings were similar, a census of mature and juvenile ironbark trees indicated that mortality was higher in adult trees. Cavitation vulnerability curves indicated that ironbark saplings may be better buffered against cavitation than adult trees. If they possess smaller root systems, saplings are more likely than adults to experience low xylem water potentials, even in non-drought years. Xylem conduits produced in adult trees during periods of normal rainfall, although perhaps more efficient in water conduction, may be more vulnerable to cavitation during infrequent severe droughts.

  2. Age, distribution, and significance within a sediment budget, of in-channel depositional surfaces in the Normanby River, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, T. J.; Brooks, A. P.; Spencer, J.; Olley, J. M.; Borombovits, D.

    2015-06-01

    We present the results of investigations into alluvial deposition in the catchment of the Normanby River, which flows into Princess Charlotte Bay (PCB) in the northern part of the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon. Our focus is on the fine fraction (attached bars or inset or inner floodplains, these more or less flat-lying surfaces within the macro-channel have hitherto received little attention in sediment budgeting models. We use high resolution LiDAR based mapping combined with optical dating of exposures cut into these in-channel deposits to compare their aggradation rates with those found in other depositional zones in the catchment, namely the floodplain and coastal plain. In total 59 single grain OSL dates were produced across 21 stratigraphic profiles at 14 sites distributed though the 24 226 km2 catchment. In-channel storage in these inset features is a significant component of the contemporary fine sediment budget (i.e. recent decades/last century), annually equivalent to more than 50% of the volume entering the channel network from hillslopes and subsoil sources. Therefore, at the very least, in-channel storage of fine material needs to be incorporated into sediment budgeting exercises. Furthermore, deposition within the channel has occurred in multiple locations coincident in time with accelerated sediment production following European settlement. Generally, this has occurred on a subset of the features we have examined here, namely linear bench features low in the channel. This suggests that accelerated aggradation on in-channel depositional surfaces has been in part a response to accelerated erosion within the catchment. The entire contribution of ~ 370 kilotonnes per annum of fine sediment estimated to have been produced by alluvial gully erosion over the last ~ 100 years can be accounted for by that stored as in-channel alluvium. These features therefore can play an important role in mitigating the impact on the receiving water of accelerated erosion.

  3. Impacts of prescribed burning on soil greenhouse gas fluxes in a suburban native forest of south-eastern Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, Y. Z.; Xu, Z. H.; Fu, L.

    2015-11-01

    Prescribed burning is a forest management practice that is widely used in Australia to reduce the risk of damaging wildfires. Prescribed burning can affect both carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in the forest and thereby influence the soil-atmosphere exchange of major greenhouse gases, i.e. carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). To quantify the impact of a prescribed burning (conducted on 27 May 2014) on greenhouse gas exchange and the potential controlling mechanisms, we carried out a series of field measurements before (August 2013) and after (August 2014 and November 2014) the fire. Gas exchange rates were determined in four replicate plots which were burned during the combustion and in another four adjacent unburned plots located in green islands, using a set of static chambers. Surface soil properties including temperature, pH, moisture, soil C and N pools were also determined either by in situ measurement or by analysing surface 10 cm soil samples. All of the chamber measurements indicated a net sink of atmospheric CH4, with mean CH4 uptake ranging from 1.15 to 1.99 mg m-2 d-1. Prescribed burning significantly enhanced CH4 uptake as indicated by the significant higher CH4 uptake rates in the burned plots measured in August 2014. In the following 3 months, the CH4 uptake rate was recovered to the pre-burning level. Mean CO2 emission from the forest soils ranged from 2721.76 to 7113.49 mg m-2 d-1. The effect of prescribed burning on CO2 emission was limited within the first 3 months, as no significant difference was observed between the burned and the adjacent unburned plots in both August and November 2014. The CO2 emissions showed more seasonal variations, rather than the effects of prescribed burning. The N2O emission in the plots was quite low, and no significant impact of prescribed burning was observed. The changes in understory plants and litter layers, surface soil temperature, C and N substrate availability and microbial

  4. Eucalyptus pollen allergy and asthma in children: a cross-sectional study in South-East Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane E M Gibbs

    Full Text Available To investigate Eucalyptus (gum tree pollen allergy in children in relation to geography, particularly vegetation, and its relationship to asthma.Males (n = 180 and females (n = 200 aged 9 to 14 participated. Some were healthy (asymptomatic, some had asthma, and some had other symptoms associated with atopy. School students were from three urban coastal schools and one school from a nearby semi-rural elevated area (range near Brisbane, Australia. Coastal and range locations featured different distributions of Myrtaceae family vegetation (including Eucalyptus, Melaleuca, Leptospermum species. Skin prick test (SPT responses to 15 commercial allergens were compared. As well, responses from coast versus range groups, and 'asthma' (n = 97 versus 'healthy' status (n = 107 groups, were compared.SPT responses (≥3mm wheal diameter indicate that children with asthma are 31.1 times more likely to be allergic to Eucalyptus pollen extract (OR: 31.1; 95%CI 4.1- 235.7 compared to healthy children. Dust mite (p = .018, Eucalyptus (p = .046 and cockroach (p = .047 allergen SPT responses (wheals ≥3mm were significantly greater in participants located on the coast versus range as determined by Fisher's Exact Test (α .05. For each location, percentage of positive responses (wheals ≥3mm was greatest for 'dust mite' (30.9%-46%, 'cockroach' (18.1% -35% and 'Bermuda grass' (10.6%-19.4%.The results support the hypothesis that proximity to Myrtaceae vegetation is related to positive SPT response and that Eucalyptus is an important allergen for children with asthma. Substantial response to olive allergen, in the absence of olive trees, suggests that the response may be driven by substances in other plants, perhaps Melaleuca quinquenervia, which abounds in coastal areas.Response to Eucalyptus allergen indicates that changes in gardening practice in schools and public areas may be appropriate. The findings pose validity questions regarding the use of some commercial

  5. Are Seagrass effective Sentinels of Ecosystem Health in Port Phillip Bay, Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. S.; Cook, P. L. M.; Jenkins, G.; Nayar, S.; Hirst, A.; Keough, M. J.; Smith, T.; Ferguson, A.; Gay, J.; Longmore, A. R.; Macreadie, P.; Sherman, C.; Ross, J.; York, P.

    2016-02-01

    Seagrasses are an important part of many coastal systems, but are also under threat in many areas, as a result of a wide range of human activities, including habitat loss and changes to water quality. Due to these sensitivities seagrass are often selected as sentinels of change for coastal marine ecosystems, but could these sensitivities be too complex and varied to provide a clear or reliable measure of change? A recent three year study focused on the resilience of Zostera seagrasses in Port Phillip Bay, Southern Australia, where these ecosystem "engineers", have a dramatic influence on biodiversity and ecosystem function. This large temperate embayment experiences extreme climatic variability, significant loading from urbanized catchments and inflows from the largest sewage treatment facility in Australia, making it a challenging case study for assessing seagrass as a suitable ecosystem metric. Studies on the influence of nutrients, light and sediments using modelling, chemical analyses and field experiments assessed characteristics of Zostera habitat within the bay. Nutrients could be obtained directly in dissolved form from the water column, or sediment, or as atmospheric nitrogen fixed by bacteria associated with the root/rhizome system. Isotopic nutrients were traced to a variety of sources including river inflows, sewage discharges, groundwater, the open ocean, the atmosphere and indirectly via phytoplankton and detritus. Broad-scale seagrass coverage is often depth limited by light, however for regions of significant wave exposure deeper beds existed adjacent to less favorable shallows. Ephemeral beds in more exposed regions showed the greatest potential for responding to change. For these beds, resilience was dependent on bed architecture, connectivity to indirect nutrient sources, and genetic interactions with seagrass communities around the bay. While observed changes in seagrass cover may be a symptomatic trigger of ecosystem health, much as high blood

  6. Trends in the epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in Queensland, Australia from 2000 to 2013: what is the impact of an increase in invasive non-typable H. influenzae (NTHi)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Sai Cheong, J; Smith, H; Heney, C; Robson, J; Schlebusch, S; Fu, J; Nourse, C

    2015-10-01

    Following the introduction of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), cases of invasive encapsulated Hib disease have decreased markedly. This study aimed to examine subsequent epidemiological trends in invasive H. influenzae disease in Queensland, Australia and in particular, assess the clinical impact and public health implications of invasive non-typable H. influenzae (NTHi) strains. A multicentre retrospective study was conducted from July 2000 to June 2013. Databases of major laboratories in Queensland including Queensland Forensic and Scientific Services (jurisdictional referral laboratory for isolate typing) were examined to identify cases. Demographic, infection site, Indigenous status, serotype, and mortality data were collected. In total, 737 invasive isolates were identified, of which 586 (79·5%) were serotyped. Hib, NTHi and encapsulated non-b strains, respectively, constituted 12·1%, 69·1% and 18·8% of isolates. The predominant encapsulated non-b strains were f (45·5%) and a (27·3%) serotypes. Of isolates causing meningitis, 48·9% were NTHi, 14·9% Hib, 14·9% Hie, 10·6% Hif, 6·4% Hia and 4·3% were untyped. During the study period, there was an increase in the incidence of invasive NTHi disease (P = 0·007) with seasonal peaks in winter and spring (P 0·001) and Hib (P = 0·039) than non-Indigenous patients. In Queensland, invasive H. influenzae disease is now predominantly encountered in adults and most commonly caused by NTHi strains with demonstrated pathogenicity extending to otherwise young or immunocompetent individuals. Routine public health notification of these strains is recommended and recent available immunization options should be considered.

  7. Assessment of groundwater–surface water interaction using long-term hydrochemical data and isotope hydrology: Headwaters of the Condamine River, Southeast Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jorge L., E-mail: jlmarti@ig.com.br [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia); Raiber, Matthias [CSIRO Land and Water Flagship, Brisbane (Australia); Cox, Malcolm E. [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia)

    2015-12-01

    A spatial analysis of hydrochemical data of groundwater and surface water was undertaken to identify groundwater-surface water connectivity in the headwaters of the Condamine River catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. An assessment of long-term hydrochemical and water level data supplemented by stable- and radioisotope measurements following a prolonged dry period dominated by baseflow, helped in determining patterns of interaction in different tributaries of the upper Condamine catchment. A conceptual hydrological model representing the major hydrochemical processes and their implications for stream-aquifer connectivity was developed and tested using multiple lines of evidence. The results of a multivariate statistical analysis highlight that there are two main regions with distinct hydrochemical facies (salinity, alkalinity, and predominant ions) in surface water. Geomorphology, geology, anthropogenic and climate influence were identified as the most relevant controlling factors of the spatial variability in water quality. Stable isotope data confirmed a clear evaporation trend in almost all surface water samples during baseflow conditions. Two water types can be identified and separated by the degree of evaporation and the proximity of one group to the local meteoric water line. The results confirm the discharge of groundwater from aquifers recharged by rainfall and located upstream of the surface water sampling sites. Overall, {sup 222}Rn data show a trend of increased activity in surface water towards the upstream portions of these tributaries, validating the use of this tracer to estimate groundwater input to the local creeks. The proportion of groundwater contribution to stream flow calculated by {sup 222}Rn and chloride mass balance is in agreement, and ranges between 20–70% in tributaries in the northern areas, and between 8–50% in the upper reaches of the main river channel. This study shows the efficacy of an integrated approach combining long

  8. Volcanic-plutonic connections and metal fertility of highly evolved magma systems: A case study from the Herberton Sn-W-Mo Mineral Field, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanbo; Spandler, Carl; Chang, Zhaoshan; Clarke, Gavin

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the connection between the highly evolved intrusive and extrusive systems is essential to explore the evolution of high silicic magma systems, which plays an important role in discussions of planetary differentiation, the growth of continents, crustal evolution, and the formation of highly evolved magma associated Sn-W-Mo mineral systems. To discern differences between "fertile" and "non-fertile" igneous rocks associated with Sn-W-Mo mineralization and reveal the genetic links between coeval intrusive and extrusive rocks, we integrate whole rock geochemistry, geochronology and Hf isotope signatures of igneous zircons from contemporaneous plutonic and volcanic rocks from the world-class Herberton Mineral Field of Queensland, Australia. The 310-300 Ma intrusive rocks and associated intra-plutonic W-Mo mineralization formed from relatively oxidized magmas after moderate degrees of crystal fractionation. The geochemical and isotopic features of the coeval volcanic succession are best reconciled utilizing the widely-accepted volcanic-plutonic connection model, whereby the volcanic rocks represent fractionated derivatives of the intrusive rocks. Older intrusions emplaced at 335-315 Ma formed from relatively low fO2 magmas that fractionated extensively to produce highly evolved granites that host Sn mineralization. Coeval volcanic rocks of this suite are compositionally less evolved than the intrusive rocks, thereby requiring a different model to link these plutonic-volcanic sequences. In this case, we propose that the most fractionated magmas were not lost to volcanism, but instead were effectively retained at the plutonic level, which allowed further localized build-up of volatiles and lithophile metals in the plutonic environment. This disconnection to the volcanism and degassing may be a crucial step for forming granite-hosted Sn mineralization. The transition between these two igneous regimes in Herberton region over a ∼30 m.y. period is attributed to

  9. Assessment of groundwater-surface water interaction using long-term hydrochemical data and isotope hydrology: Headwaters of the Condamine River, Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jorge L; Raiber, Matthias; Cox, Malcolm E

    2015-12-01

    A spatial analysis of hydrochemical data of groundwater and surface water was undertaken to identify groundwater-surface water connectivity in the headwaters of the Condamine River catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. An assessment of long-term hydrochemical and water level data supplemented by stable- and radioisotope measurements following a prolonged dry period dominated by baseflow, helped in determining patterns of interaction in different tributaries of the upper Condamine catchment. A conceptual hydrological model representing the major hydrochemical processes and their implications for stream-aquifer connectivity was developed and tested using multiple lines of evidence. The results of a multivariate statistical analysis highlight that there are two main regions with distinct hydrochemical facies (salinity, alkalinity, and predominant ions) in surface water. Geomorphology, geology, anthropogenic and climate influence were identified as the most relevant controlling factors of the spatial variability in water quality. Stable isotope data confirmed a clear evaporation trend in almost all surface water samples during baseflow conditions. Two water types can be identified and separated by the degree of evaporation and the proximity of one group to the local meteoric water line. The results confirm the discharge of groundwater from aquifers recharged by rainfall and located upstream of the surface water sampling sites. Overall, 222Rn data show a trend of increased activity in surface water towards the upstream portions of these tributaries, validating the use of this tracer to estimate groundwater input to the local creeks. The proportion of groundwater contribution to stream flow calculated by 222Rn and chloride mass balance is in agreement, and ranges between 20-70% in tributaries in the northern areas, and between 8-50% in the upper reaches of the main river channel. This study shows the efficacy of an integrated approach combining long

  10. Evaluation of the Good Start Program: a healthy eating and physical activity intervention for Maori and Pacific Islander children living in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Mihrshahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing the prevalence of obesity and chronic disease are important priorities. Maori and Pacific Islander communities living in Australia have higher rates of obesity and chronic disease than the wider Australian population. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the Good Start program, which aims to improve knowledge, attitudes and practices related to healthy eating and physical activity amongst Maori and Pacific Islander communities living in Queensland. Methods The intervention was delivered to children aged 6–19 years (N = 375 in schools by multicultural health workers. Class activities focused on one message each term related to healthy eating and physical activity using methods such as cooking sessions and cultural dance. The evaluation approach was a quantitative uncontrolled pre-post design. Data were collected each term pre- and post-intervention using a short questionnaire. Results There were significant increases in knowledge of correct servings of fruit and vegetables, knowledge of sugar and caffeine content of common sugar-sweetened drinks, recognition of the consequences of marketing and upsizing, and the importance of controlling portion size (all P < 0.05. There was also increases in knowledge of physical activity recommendations (P < 0.001, as well as the importance of physical activity for preventing heart disease (P < 0.001 and improving self-esteem (P < 0.001. In terms of attitudes, there were significant improvements in some attitudes to vegetables (P = 0.02, and sugar-sweetened drinks (P < 0.05. In terms of practices and behaviours, although the reported intake of vegetables increased significantly (P < 0.001, the proportion of children eating discretionary foods regularly did not change significantly, suggesting that modifying the program with an increased emphasis on reducing intake of junk food may be beneficial. Conclusion The study has shown that the Good

  11. Temporal variability in shell mound formation at Albatross Bay, northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdaway, Simon J; Fanning, Patricia C; Petchey, Fiona; Allely, Kasey; Shiner, Justin I; Bailey, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    We report the results of 212 radiocarbon determinations from the archaeological excavation of 70 shell mound deposits in the Wathayn region of Albatross Bay, Australia. This is an intensive study of a closely co-located group of mounds within a geographically restricted area in a wider region where many more shell mounds have been reported. Valves from the bivalve Tegillarca granosa (Linnaeus, 1758) were dated. The dates obtained are used to calculate rates of accumulation for the shell mound deposits. These demonstrate highly variable rates of accumulation both within and between mounds. We assess these results in relation to likely mechanisms of shell deposition and show that rates of deposition are affected by time-dependent processes both during the accumulation of shell deposits and during their subsequent deformation. This complicates the interpretation of the rates at which shell mound deposits appear to have accumulated. At Wathayn, there is little temporal or spatial consistency in the rates at which mounds accumulated. Comparisons between the Wathayn results and those obtained from shell deposits elsewhere, both in the wider Albatross Bay region and worldwide, suggest the need for caution when deriving behavioural inferences from shell mound deposition rates, and the need for more comprehensive sampling of individual mounds and groups of mounds.

  12. New multi-scale perspectives on the stromatolites of Shark Bay, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suosaari, E. P.; Reid, R. P.; Playford, P. E.; Foster, J. S.; Stolz, J. F.; Casaburi, G.; Hagan, P. D.; Chirayath, V.; MacIntyre, I. G.; Planavsky, N. J.; Eberli, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    A recent field-intensive program in Shark Bay, Western Australia provides new multi-scale perspectives on the world’s most extensive modern stromatolite system. Mapping revealed a unique geographic distribution of morphologically distinct stromatolite structures, many of them previously undocumented. These distinctive structures combined with characteristic shelf physiography define eight ‘Stromatolite Provinces’. Morphological and molecular studies of microbial mat composition resulted in a revised growth model where coccoid cyanobacteria predominate in mat communities forming lithified discrete stromatolite buildups. This contradicts traditional views that stromatolites with the best lamination in Hamelin Pool are formed by filamentous cyanobacterial mats. Finally, analysis of internal fabrics of stromatolites revealed pervasive precipitation of microcrystalline carbonate (i.e. micrite) in microbial mats forming framework and cement that may be analogous to the micritic microstructures typical of Precambrian stromatolites. These discoveries represent fundamental advances in our knowledge of the Shark Bay microbial system, laying a foundation for detailed studies of stromatolite morphogenesis that will advance our understanding of benthic ecosystems on the early Earth.

  13. Temporal variability in shell mound formation at Albatross Bay, northern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Holdaway

    Full Text Available We report the results of 212 radiocarbon determinations from the archaeological excavation of 70 shell mound deposits in the Wathayn region of Albatross Bay, Australia. This is an intensive study of a closely co-located group of mounds within a geographically restricted area in a wider region where many more shell mounds have been reported. Valves from the bivalve Tegillarca granosa (Linnaeus, 1758 were dated. The dates obtained are used to calculate rates of accumulation for the shell mound deposits. These demonstrate highly variable rates of accumulation both within and between mounds. We assess these results in relation to likely mechanisms of shell deposition and show that rates of deposition are affected by time-dependent processes both during the accumulation of shell deposits and during their subsequent deformation. This complicates the interpretation of the rates at which shell mound deposits appear to have accumulated. At Wathayn, there is little temporal or spatial consistency in the rates at which mounds accumulated. Comparisons between the Wathayn results and those obtained from shell deposits elsewhere, both in the wider Albatross Bay region and worldwide, suggest the need for caution when deriving behavioural inferences from shell mound deposition rates, and the need for more comprehensive sampling of individual mounds and groups of mounds.

  14. Diversity of cyanobacterial biomarker genes from the stromatolites of Shark Bay, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garby, Tamsyn J; Walter, Malcolm R; Larkum, Anthony W D; Neilan, Brett A

    2013-05-01

    Families of closely related chemical compounds, which are relatively resistant to degradation, are often used as biomarkers to help trace the evolutionary history of early groups of organisms and the environments in which they lived. Biomarkers derived from hopanoid variations are particularly useful in determining bacterial community compositions. 2-Methylhopananoids have been thought to be diagnostic for cyanobacteria, and 2-methylhopanes in the geological record are taken as evidence for the presence of cyanobacteria-containing communities at the time of sediment deposition. Recently, however, doubt has been cast on the validity of 2-methylhopanes as cyanobacterial biomarkers, since non-cyanobacterial species have been shown to produce significant amounts of 2-methylhopanoids. This study examines the diversity of hpnP, the hopanoid biosynthesis gene coding for the enzyme that methylates hopanoids at the C2 position. Genomic DNA isolated from stromatolite-associated pustular and smooth microbial mat samples from Shark Bay, Western Australia, was analysed for bacterial diversity, and used to construct an hpnP clone library. A total of 117 partial hpnP clones were sequenced, representing 12 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Phylogenetic analysis showed that 11 of these OTUs, representing 115 sequences, cluster within the cyanobacterial clade. We conclude that the dominant types of microorganisms with the detected capability of producing 2-methylhopanoids within pustular and smooth microbial mats in Shark Bay are cyanobacteria. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Hydrology and Soil Erosion in Tropical Rainforests and Pasture Lands on the Atherton Tablelands, North Queensland, Australia - a rainfall simulator study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne, Joanne; Ciesiolka, Cyril

    2010-05-01

    The Barron and Johnstone Rivers rise in the basaltic Atherton Tableland, North Queensland, Australia, and flow into the Coral Sea and Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA). Natural rainforest in this region was cleared for settlement in the early 20th century. Rapid decline in soil fertility during the 1940's and 50's forced landholders to turn to pasture based industries from row crop agriculture. Since then, these pasture based industries have intensified. The intensified land use has been linked to increases in sediment and nutrient levels in terrestrial runoff and identified as a major environmental threat to the GBRWHA, which has raised alarm for the tourist industry and resource managers. Studies linking land-use to pollutant discharge are often based on measurements and modelling of end of catchment measurements of water quality. Whilst such measurements can be a reasonable indicator of the effects of land use on pollutant discharge to waterways, they are often a gross assessment. This project used rainfall simulations to investigate the relationship between land use and management with sources and sinks of runoff and soil erosion within the Barron and Johnstone Rivers catchments. Rainfall simulations were conducted and pollutant loads measured in natural rainforest, as well as dairy and beef farming systems. The dairy farming systems included an effluent fed pasture, a high mineral fertilizer and supplementary irrigation farm, and a rainfed organic pasture that relied on tropical legumes and introduced grasses and returned organic material to the soil. One of the beef farming systems used a 7-10 day rotation with a low fertilizer regime (kikuyu mostly), while the other, used a long period- two paddock-rotation with no fertiliser and paspalum pastures. The rainforests were generally small isolated enclaves with a well developed shrub layer (1-3 m), and a presence of scattered, deciduous trees. Simulations were carried out on sites which were

  16. Sole Fighter Mentality: Stakeholder Agency in CLIL Programmes in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smala, Simone

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an insight into content and language integrated learning (CLIL) practices in the Australian state of Queensland. The article comprises four main sections. The first section outlines the context of CLIL in Australia and Queensland; there follows a brief review of the literature on stakeholders in CLIL programmes, such as…

  17. Renal services disaster planning: lessons learnt from the 2011 Queensland floods and North Queensland cyclone experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W; Hayes, Bronwyn; Gray, Nicholas A; Hawley, Carmel; Hole, Janet; Mantha, Murty

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Queensland dialysis services experienced two unprecedented natural disasters within weeks of each other. Floods in south-east Queensland and Tropical Cyclone Yasi in North Queensland caused widespread flooding, property damage and affected the provision of dialysis services, leading to Australia's largest evacuation of dialysis patients. This paper details the responses to the disasters and examines what worked and what lessons were learnt. Recommendations are made for dialysis units in relation to disaster preparedness, response and recovery. © 2012 The Authors. Nephrology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  18. Epidemiological investigation of tattoo-like skin lesions among bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sarah N; Wallen, Megan M; Bansal, Shweta; Mann, Janet

    2018-07-15

    Bottlenose dolphins are excellent bioindicators of ocean ecosystem health for three reasons: (a) as long-lived apex predators they accumulate biotoxins and contaminants; (b) they are visible, routinely appearing at the water's surface in coastal areas, often coming into close contact with humans; and, (c) they exhibit a range of pathogenic lesions attributable to environmental degradation. In this study, we analyzed tattoo-like skin lesions in a population of Tursiops aduncus studied for 30+years in Shark Bay, Australia, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. We provide important baseline data by documenting epidemiological patterns of tattoo-like skin lesions in a healthy, free-ranging population that builds on the previous data of tattoo skin disease (TSD) derived from free ranging, stranded, and dead dolphins. Individual dolphins were classified as symptomatic with tattoo-like skin disease if at least one photograph showed a lesion similar to TSD. The average age of infection was 26.6months (±34.8months) with the symptomatic period lasting 137±29.8days. Overall prevalence of tattoo-like skin disease in the population was 19.4%. Age, but not sex, was significant, with yearlings (1-2years) exhibiting tattoo-like lesions more than younger and older calves. Tattoo-like lesions were rare among juvenile and adult dolphins (N=68 calves, 4 juveniles, and 3 adults). We hypothesize that the lower prevalence in youngest calves (2years) have infection-acquired immunity, as reported for other small cetaceans. The low prevalence of tattoo-like lesions in Shark Bay compared to other populations with poxvirus is consistent with reproductive and demographic viability analyses. Furthermore, by documenting the demography of the disease, we can monitor changes in the prevalence of tattoo-like lesions as a sentinel indicator of ecosystem health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Subsoil erosion dominates the supply of fine sediment to rivers draining into Princess Charlotte Bay, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olley, Jon; Brooks, Andrew; Spencer, John; Pietsch, Timothy; Borombovits, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    that the primary source of sediment delivered to tropical river systems is derived from subsoil erosion. -- Highlights: • We apply sediment tracing to determine the sources of sediment to Princess Charlotte Bay, Australia. • Different sampling methods are tested and evaluated. • >80% of the sediment originates from sub-soil erosion. • The primary source of sediment to tropical rivers in Australia is sub-soil erosion

  20. Habitat features influence catch rates of near-shore bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas) in the Queensland Shark Control Program, Australia 1996-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Jodie A.; Lambert, Gwladys I.; Sumpton, Wayne D.; Mayer, David G.; Werry, Jonathan M.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding shark habitat use is vital for informing better ecological management of coastal areas and shark populations. The Queensland Shark Control Program (QSCP) operates over ∼1800 km of Queensland coastline. Between 1996 and 2012, catch, total length and sex were recorded from most of the 1992 bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas) caught on drum lines and gill-nets as part of the QSCP (sex and length was not successfully recorded for all individuals). Gear was set at multiple sites within ten locations. Analysis of monthly catch data resulted in a zero-inflated dataset for the 17 years of records. Five models were trialled for suitability of standardising the bull shark catch per unit effort (CPUE) using available habitat and environmental data. Three separate models for presence-absence and presence-only were run and outputs combined using a delta-lognormal framework for generalized linear and generalized additive models. The delta-lognormal generalized linear model approach resulted in best fit to explain patterns in CPUE. Greater CPUE occurred on drum lines, and greater numbers of bull sharks were caught on both gear types in summer months, with tropical sites, and sites with greater adjacent wetland habitats catching consistently more bull sharks compared to sub-tropical sites. The CPUE data did not support a hypothesis of population decline indicative of coastal overfishing. However, the total length of sharks declined slightly through time for those caught in the tropics; subtropical catches were dominated by females and a large proportion of all bull sharks caught were smaller than the size-at-maturity reported for this species. These factors suggest that growth and sex overfishing of Queensland bull shark populations may be occurring but are not yet detectable in the available data. The data highlight available coastal wetlands, river size, length of coastline and distance to the 50 m depth contour are important for consideration in future whole of

  1. A comparison of vegetation development on coarse coal reject and replaced topsoil on an open-cut coal mine in central Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulligan, D.R.; Grigg, A.H.; Bowen, D.; Orr, M.S.; Bell, L.C.

    1999-01-01

    In 1988, the University of Queensland commenced a research program at Curragh coal mine in the Bowen Basin of central Queensland to examine factors that would encourage the growth of a cover crop sufficient t control soil erosion, but not so competitive as to hinder the establishment of native species. Weed and grass growth from the soil seed store in replaced topsoil often has a negative impact on the establishment and survival of sown native tree and shrub species. In contrast, good establishment has been achieved using a surface mulch of coarse coal reject. Longer term data confirm the beneficial effect of coarse coal reject, with approximately 4,500 trees/ha on coarse reject after 10 years compared to 300 trees/ha on replaced topsoil. The difference is attributed largely to the competitive effects of the dense ground cover on topsoil at initial establishment. However, there are two potential problems for the long-term sustainability of communities on coarse coal reject. Firstly, reject is very low in nutrients and microbial biomass, limiting the satisfactory development of nutrient cycling. Secondly, it is often saline and will be likely to continue to generate salt with weathering, raising concerns over the success of secondary recruitment. It is concluded that coarse coal reject can play a role in successful tree and shrub establishment and hence in increasing the diversity of post-mining ecosystems. However, careful management is required to avoid the use of saline materials, and strategies need to be explored to increase its biological activity

  2. Monorchis lewisi n. sp. (Trematoda: Monorchiidae) from the surf bream, Acanthopagrus australis (Sparidae), in Moreton Bay, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, T H; Wee, N Q-X; Bray, R A; Cutmore, S C

    2018-01-01

    We describe Monorchis lewisi n. sp. (Monorchiidae) from the surf bream, Acanthopagrus australis (Günther, 1859) (Sparidae), in Moreton Bay, eastern Australia. The new species differs from most existing species of Monorchis Monticelli, 1893 in its possession of an elongate I-shaped excretory vesicle, and from other congeners in the relative configuration of the gut and suckers. Ovipusillus mayu Dove & Cribb, 1998 is re-reported from Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål, 1775) (Carangidae) from Moreton Bay. We report new second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and 28S rDNA sequence data for both species. Bayesian inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses of the 28S rDNA dataset suggest that existing subfamily and genus concepts within the family require substantial revision.

  3. Expanded partnerships between medical faculty and medical students: Developing a Global Health curriculum as an example of 'student-led learning' at the University of Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merridew, Nancy; Wilkinson, David

    2010-01-01

    Reflecting trends in medical education from didactic teaching to student-centred learning, the novel approach of student-led learning was applied at the University of Queensland (UQ) School of Medicine. This article examines the benefits, risks and limitations of curriculum development led by students. The Project aimed to trial student-led development of a Global Health curriculum module for the UQ medical programme, as part of an international collaboration with related Health Sciences activities of Universitas 21 (U21). The Head (Dean) of the UQ School of Medicine instigated the Project. A student Convenor was appointed to lead it and, in conjunction with faculty, to design curriculum Learning Objectives and supporting resources. The initial vision of the Project was greatly expanded, from an optional elective to a compulsory curriculum module with inbuilt prospective outcome measures. The module was established in less than 12 months and is now being delivered throughout the 4-year medical programme. A process for ongoing student leadership of the Project was established. Student-led learning can be effective if given adequate support by faculty. The UQ School of Medicine's new curriculum module and collaboration with U21 promote the teaching of Global Health.

  4. Conserving forest biodiversity across multiple land ownerships: lessons from the Northwest Forest Plan and the Southeast Queensland Regional Forests Agreement (Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.A. McAlpine; T.A. Spies; P. Norman; A. Peterson

    2007-01-01

    As the area of the world's forests shrinks, the management of production forests is becoming increasingly paramount for biodiversity conservation. In the United States and Australia, public debate and controversy about the management of production forests during the later decades of the 20th century resulted in governments adopting sweeping top-down changes to...

  5. A cost-minimisation analysis comparing photoselective vaporisation (PVP) and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for the management of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Jennifer A; Crosland, Paul; Hewson, Kaye; Narula, Rajan; Nathan, Timothy R; Campbell, Peter A; Keller, Andrew; Scuffham, Paul A

    2014-03-01

    To compare the costs of photoselective vaporisation (PVP) and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for management of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) from the perspective of a Queensland public hospital provider. A decision-analytic model was used to compare the costs of PVP and TURP. Cost inputs were sourced from an audit of patients undergoing PVP or TURP across three hospitals. The probability of re-intervention was obtained from secondary literature sources. Probabilistic and multi-way sensitivity analyses were used to account for uncertainty and test the impact of varying key assumptions. In the base case analysis, which included equipment, training and re-intervention costs, PVP was AU$ 739 (95% credible interval [CrI] -12 187 to 14 516) more costly per patient than TURP. The estimate was most sensitive to changes in procedural costs, fibre costs and the probability of re-intervention. Sensitivity analyses based on data from the most favourable site or excluding equipment and training costs reduced the point estimate to favour PVP (incremental cost AU$ -684, 95% CrI -8319 to 5796 and AU$ -100, 95% CrI -13 026 to 13 678, respectively). However, CrIs were wide for all analyses. In this cost minimisation analysis, there was no significant cost difference between PVP and TURP, after accounting for equipment, training and re-intervention costs. However, PVP was associated with a shorter length of stay and lower procedural costs during audit, indicating PVP potentially provides comparatively good value for money once the technology is established. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  6. MINErosion 3: Using measurements on a tilting flume-rainfall simulator facility to predict erosion rates from post-mining landscapes in Central Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Hwat Bing; Khalifa, Ashraf M; Yu, Bofu; Caroll, Chris; Burger, Peter; Mulligan, David

    2018-01-01

    Open-cut coal mining in Queensland results in the formation of extensive saline overburden spoil-piles with steep slopes at the angle of repose (approximately 75% or 37o). These spoil-piles are generally found in multiple rows, several kilometers in length and heights of up to 50 or 60 m above the original landscape. They are highly dispersive and erodible. Legislation demands that these spoil piles be rehabilitated to minimize on-site and off-site discharges of sediment and salt into the surrounding environment. To achieve this, the steep slopes must be reduced, stabilized against erosion, covered with topsoil and re-vegetated. Key design criteria (slope gradient, slope length and vegetation cover) are required for the construction of post-mining landscapes that will result in acceptable erosion rates. A novel user-friendly hillslope computer model MINErosion 3.4 was developed that can accurately predict potential erosion rates from field scale hillslopes using parameters measured with a 3m laboratory tilting flume-rainfall simulator or using routinely measured soil physical and chemical properties. This model links MINErosion 2 with a novel consolidation and above ground vegetation cover factors, to the RUSLE and MUSLE equations to predict the mean annual and storm event erosion rates. The RUSLE-based prediction of the mean annual erosion rates allow minesites to derive the key design criteria of slope length, slope gradient and vegetation cover that would lead to acceptable erosion rates. The MUSLE-based prediction of storm event erosion rates will be useful as input into risk analysis of potential damage from erosion. MINErosion 3.4 was validated against erosion measured on 20 m field erosion plots established on post-mining landscapes at the Oakey Creek and Curragh coalmines, as well as on 120 and 70 m erosion plots on postmining landscapes at Kidston Gold Mine.

  7. The operation and production of the barramundi, Lates calcarifer, at the Good Fortune Bay (GFB Barramundi Farm Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludi Parwadani Aji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Barramundi (Lates calcarifer is a commercially important species in Australia and Southeast Asia. Barramundi are not difficult to accept artificial diets, resistant to disease and can grow faster in warm climates. System operation in Good Fortune Bay (GFB Barramundi Farm in Kelso can be divided into nursery and grow-out management sections. The water source for nursery and grow-out is come from ground water with semi-recirculated system was applied. Every cage in the grow-out ponds has equipment with 4-wheel paddlewheel aeration. Aeration is eminent usually at night when the dissolve oxygen (DO level in the ponds drop. To prevent predation and disease, each cage is covered by oyster tray lid and nursery tanks are always cleaned to remove pathogens. In the nursery, pellet is given to fish and the pellet size increase depends on the fish size, whereas, fish are feed by floating pellet for grow-out fish. Moreover, farmers measure water quality like DO every morning and also take water sample for ammonia, nitrite, nitrate analysis once a month. GFB Barramundi Farm just sells their product domestically and not import to other country since the price of barramundi from South East Asia such as Indonesia and Vietnam is much cheaper even the quality is lower than Australia product. This is because the labor and production cost in Australia is higher than South East Asia.

  8. EVALUATING WADER HABITATS IN ROEBUCK BAY (NORTH-WESTERN AUSTRALIA) AS A SPRINGBOARD FOR NORTHBOUND MIGRATION IN WADERS, WITH A FOCUS ON GREAT KNOTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulp, Ingrid; de Goeij, Petra

    We studied the diet and foraging behaviour of the Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris and to lesser extent of the Red Knot Calidris canutus rogersi and other waders at Roebuck Bay, Broome, Western Australia, in March-May 1991, the period of northward migration. Visual feeding observations, benthic

  9. Lipophilic pigments from cyanobacterial (blue-green algal) and diatom mats in Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, A. C.; Summons, R. E.; Cronin, S. E.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    Lipophilic pigments were examined in microbial mat communities dominated by cyanobacteria in the intertidal zone and by diatoms in the subtidal and sublittoral zones of Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, Western Australia. These microbial mats have evolutionary significance because of their similarity to lithfied stromatolites from the Proterozoic and Early Paleozoic eras. Fucoxanthin, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, beta-carotene, and chlorophylls a and c characterized the diatom mats, whereas cyanobacterial mats contained myxoxanthophyll, zeaxanthin, echinenone, beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and, in some cases, sheath pigment. The presence of bacteriochlorophyll a within the mats suggest a close association of photosynthetic bacteria with diatoms and cyanobacteria. The high carotenoids : chlorophyll a ratios (0.84-2.44 wt/wt) in the diatom mats suggest that carotenoids served a photoprotective function in this high light environment. By contrast, cyanobacterial sheath pigment may have largely supplanted the photoprotective role of carotenoids in the intertidal mats.

  10. Learning Not Borrowing from the Queensland Education System: Lessons on Curricular, Pedagogical and Assessment Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Martin; McGregor, Glenda

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed account of the Queensland education system's engagement with reforming curriculum, pedagogies and assessment. In so doing, it responds to the University College London's Institute of Education report on "high-performing" jurisdictions, of which Queensland, Australia, was identified as one. In this report,…

  11. Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia.

  12. Effect of nitrification inhibitors (DMPP and 3MP+TZ) on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a sub-tropical vegetable production system in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Clemens; Deuter, Peter; Firrell, Mary; Rowlings, David; Grace, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The use of nitrification inhibitors, in combination with ammonium based fertilisers, has been promoted recently as an effective method to reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fertilised agricultural fields, whilst increasing yield and nitrogen use efficiency. Vegetable cropping systems are often characterised by high inputs of nitrogen fertiliser and consequently elevated emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) can be expected. However, to date only limited data is available on the use of nitrification inhibitors in sub-tropical vegetable systems. A field experiment investigated the effect of the nitrification inhibitors (DMPP & 3MP+TZ) on N2O emissions and yield from a typical vegetable production system in sub-tropical Australia. Soil N2O fluxes were monitored continuously over an entire year with a fully automated system. Measurements were taken from three subplots for each treatment within a randomized complete blocks design. There was a significant inhibition effect of DMPP and 3MP+TZ on N2O emissions and soil mineral N content directly following the application of the fertiliser over the vegetable cropping phase. However this mitigation was offset by elevated N2O emissions from the inhibitor treatments over the post-harvest fallow period. Cumulative annual N2O emissions amounted to 1.22 kg-N/ha, 1.16 kg-N/ha, 1.50 kg-N/ha and 0.86 kg-N/ha in the conventional fertiliser (CONV), the DMPP treatment, the 3MP+TZ treatment and the zero fertiliser (0N) respectively. Corresponding fertiliser induced emission factors (EFs) were low with only 0.09 - 0.20% of the total applied fertiliser lost as N2O. There was no significant effect of the nitrification inhibitors on yield compared to the CONV treatment for the three vegetable crops (green beans, broccoli, lettuce) grown over the experimental period. This study highlights that N2O emissions from such vegetable cropping system are primarily controlled by post-harvest emissions following the incorporation of vegetable crop

  13. Developing Queensland coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philp, A. [Australian QTherm (Australia)

    1998-11-01

    Despite regional economic woes and falling coal prices, there have been exciting developments in Queensland`s coal industry with the announcement of three new coal mines, four mine expansions and two mine feasibility studies being undertaken. The article describes new projects being undertaken in Coppabella, Morahbah North and Hall Creek all in the Northern Bowen Basin, and mine expansions underway at Burton, Enshan, Newlands and Oaky North. Feasibility studies are the progress in the Millmerran and Acland deposits in The Moreton Basin. However, a number of proposed expansions at some major mines, such as Moura, Saraji and Peak Downs, have been postponed due to falling international coal prices. 2 figs., 2 photos.

  14. A narrative account of implementation lessons learnt from the dissemination of an up-scaled state-wide child obesity management program in Australia: PEACH™ (Parenting, Eating and Activity for Child Health) Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croyden, Debbie L; Vidgen, Helen A; Esdaile, Emma; Hernandez, Emely; Magarey, Anthea; Moores, Carly J; Daniels, Lynne

    2018-03-13

    PEACH™QLD translated the PEACH™ Program, designed to manage overweight/obesity in primary school-aged children, from efficacious RCT and small scale community trial to a larger state-wide program. This paper describes the lessons learnt when upscaling to universal health coverage. The 6-month, family-focussed program was delivered in Queensland, Australia from 2013 to 2016. Its implementation was planned by researchers who developed the program and conducted the RCT, and experienced project managers and practitioners across the health continuum. The intervention targeted parents as the agents of change and was delivered via parent-only group sessions. Concurrently, children attended fun, non-competitive activity sessions. Sessions were delivered by facilitators who received standardised training and were employed by a range of service providers. Participants were referred by health professionals or self-referred in response to extensive promotion and marketing. A pilot phase and a quality improvement framework were planned to respond to emerging challenges. Implementation challenges included engagement of the health system; participant recruitment; and engagement. A total of 1513 children (1216 families) enrolled, with 1122 children (919 families) in the face-to-face program (105 groups in 50 unique venues) and 391 children (297 families) in PEACH™ Online. Self-referral generated 68% of enrolments. Unexpected, concurrent and, far-reaching public health system changes contributed to poor program uptake by the sector (only 56 [53%] groups delivered by publicly-funded health organisations) requiring substantial modification of the original implementation plan. Process evaluation during the pilot phase and an ongoing quality improvement framework informed program adaptations that included changing from fortnightly to weekly sessions aligned with school terms, revision of parent materials, modification of eligibility criteria to include healthy weight children and

  15. Clonal propagation and storage of subtropical pines in Queensland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clonal forestry is the approach used for deployment of Pinus elliottii x P. caribaea hybrids in Queensland, Australia. Clonal forestry relies on the ability to maintain juvenility of stock plants while selections are made in field tests, so that genetic gains are not eroded by the effects of stock plant maturation. Two parallel ...

  16. Political and social divisions over climate change among young Queenslanders

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Tranter; Zlatko Skrbis

    2014-01-01

    A large survey of young people in Queensland, Australia, indicates that the majority believe that climate change is occurring, that the planet is warming because of greenhouse gas emissions, and that anthropogenic global warming poses a serious risk to Australia. Parental education has an important influence upon the development of environmental attitudes among young people, with the children of tertiary-educated parents much more likely than others to be concerned about planetary warming. A ...

  17. The Queensland Poisonous Plants Committee: its history and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, R A

    1995-01-01

    The Queensland Poisonous Plants Committee was established in 1937 with Professor HR Seddon as chairman. It has functioned since that year, interrupted by two periods of inactivity in 1951-9 and 1962-8. Professor Seddon, first Dean of the Queensland Veterinary School, and Dr. Selwyn Everist, Queensland Government Botanist after the Second World War, provided the main impetus for committee activities in its early and middle years, respectively. The strength of the body has been its multi-disciplinary approach using contributions from veterinarians, chemists and botanists. The research work of the committee members and their associates has provided most of our current knowledge of the toxins and effects of poisonous plants in Queensland. Much of the information generated is of international significance. In equal partnership with the United States Department of Agriculture, the committee initiated a series of international symposia on plant poisoning of animals, hosting the second. This group held its 4th gathering of world authorities in the field in 1993. The committee's activities have long influenced the veterinary profession in Australia through the close involvement of its members in undergraduate and post-graduate teaching in the Queensland Veterinary School since 1951. The present committee has members from the Departments of Primary Industries, Health, and Environment and Heritage, CSIRO and the University of Queensland.

  18. Queensland 2010-2011: A Summer of Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroulis, J.

    2012-04-01

    "I love a sunburnt country, A land of sweeping plains, Of ragged mountain ranges, Of droughts and flooding rains. I love her far horizons, I love her jewel-sea, Her beauty and her terror, The wide brown land for me." (Dorothea Mackellar OBE, 1885-1968). This second stanza from Mackellar's famous poem "My Country", beautifully sums up the Australian environment. In late 2010-early 2011, the "droughts and flooding rains" were the perfect terms to describe the climatic variability and the resulting flooding impacts experienced in many parts of Queensland under an enhanced La Niña as part of the ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) climate pattern, with over 75% of Queensland being declared a disaster zone. This contrasts with the severe drought that had gripped many parts of Australia over the previous 8 years which saw water storage levels plummet, and resulted in 35% of Queensland being 'drought declared' as at April 2010. On the Darling Downs in southern Queensland, over 100,000 ha of land was inundated by the Condamine River due to flooding in early 2011. The river which is generally rule throughout mainland Australia. The Queensland floods highlight the pressing and urgent need for an accurate and more intensive network of river gauging and sediment monitoring. In a country of "droughts and flooding rains" and in the face of climate change, this need is now imperative.

  19. Queensland power progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    Queensland's new energy strategy promises significant support to natural gas and coal seam methane. In a concerted effort to diversify the State's energy portfolio the strategy should reduce the emissions intensity of electricity in the State. The central plank of the strategy includes a requirement for electricity retailers in Queensland to source 15% of the electricity sold in the State from alternative sources-that is not from coal fired plant-by January 1, 2005. The mandatory measure requires retailers to source 13% of all electricity sold from gas fired generators and the other 2% from renewable energy sources in line with Federal Government requirements. It is estimated that these measures will require about 6,300GWh per annum by 2004-5 out of a total projected delivered energy of 42,000GWh

  20. An open, self-controlled study on the efficacy of topical indoxacarb for eliminating fleas and clinical signs of flea-allergy dermatitis in client-owned dogs in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisara, Petr; Sargent, Roger M; Shipstone, Michael; von Berky, Andrew; von Berky, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine flea-allergy dermatitis (FAD), a hypersensitivity response to antigenic material in the saliva of feeding fleas, occurs worldwide and remains a common presentation in companion animal veterinary practice despite widespread availability of effective systemic and topical flea-control products. Hypothesis/Objectives To evaluate the clinical response in dogs with FAD treated topically with indoxacarb, a novel oxadiazine insecticide. Animals Twenty-five client-owned dogs in Queensland, Australia diagnosed with pre-existing FAD on the basis of clinical signs, flea-antigen intradermal and serological tests. Methods An open-label, noncontrolled study, in which all dogs were treated with topical indoxacarb at 4 week intervals, three times over 12 weeks. Results Twenty-four dogs completed the study. Complete resolution of clinical signs of FAD was observed in 21 cases (87.5%), with nearly complete resolution or marked improvement in the remaining three cases. Mean clinical scores (Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index-03) were reduced by 93.3% at week 12. Mean owner-assessed pruritus scores were reduced by 88% by week 12. Mean flea counts reduced by 98.7 and 100% in weeks 8 and 12, respectively. Conclusions and clinical importance Topical indoxacarb treatment applied every 4 weeks for 12 weeks, without concomitant antipruritic or ectoparasiticide therapy, completely alleviated flea infestations in all dogs and associated clinical signs of FAD in a high proportion of this population of dogs in a challenging flea-infestation environment. Résumé Contexte La dermatite par allergie aux piqures de puces (FAD), une hypersensibilité aux antigènes salivaires des puces, est décrite dans le monde entier et reste une présentation fréquente en médicine vétérinaire des animaux de compagnie malgré une large gamme d'antiparasitaires topiques et systémiques efficaces disponibles. Hypothèses/Objectifs Estimer la réponse clinique des chiens

  1. Detecting Trend and Seasonal Changes in Bathymetry Derived from HICO Imagery: A Case Study of Shark Bay, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rodrigo A.; Fearns, Peter R. C. S.; Mckinna, Lachlan I. W.

    2014-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) aboard the International Space Station has offered for the first time a dedicated space-borne hyperspectral sensor specifically designed for remote sensing of the coastal environment. However, several processing steps are required to convert calibrated top-of-atmosphere radiances to the desired geophysical parameter(s). These steps add various amounts of uncertainty that can cumulatively render the geophysical parameter imprecise and potentially unusable if the objective is to analyze trends and/or seasonal variability. This research presented here has focused on: (1) atmospheric correction of HICO imagery; (2) retrieval of bathymetry using an improved implementation of a shallow water inversion algorithm; (3) propagation of uncertainty due to environmental noise through the bathymetry retrieval process; (4) issues relating to consistent geo-location of HICO imagery necessary for time series analysis, and; (5) tide height corrections of the retrieved bathymetric dataset. The underlying question of whether a temporal change in depth is detectable above uncertainty is also addressed. To this end, nine HICO images spanning November 2011 to August 2012, over the Shark Bay World Heritage Area, Western Australia, were examined. The results presented indicate that precision of the bathymetric retrievals is dependent on the shallow water inversion algorithm used. Within this study, an average of 70% of pixels for the entire HICO-derived bathymetry dataset achieved a relative uncertainty of less than +/-20%. A per-pixel t-test analysis between derived bathymetry images at successive timestamps revealed observable changes in depth to as low as 0.4 m. However, the present geolocation accuracy of HICO is relatively poor and needs further improvements before extensive time series analysis can be performed.

  2. Economics of Surveillance: a Bioeconomic Assessment of Queensland Fruit Fly

    OpenAIRE

    White, Benedict; Sadler, Rohan; Florec, Veronique; Dominiak, Bernie

    2012-01-01

    Regional management of endemic pests of trade significance typically requires a surveillance system, border controls, eradication protocols and conditions for market closure and reopening. An example is the systems for managing Queensland fruit fly (Qfly) in south east Australia where the preferred approach for intensive production areas is an Area Wide Management (AWM) scheme. An AWM, such as the Greater Sunraysia PFA (GSPFA) in northern Victoria and western New South Wales, depends for its ...

  3. Sustainable Innovation for Queensland's Housing Design: a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Johnston; Mirko Guaralda; Sukanlaya Sawang

    2014-01-01

    This research provides an assessment tool that assists the selection process of sustainability in detached suburban housing. It investigates the implications of using different design and construction methods including architecturally designed houses, developer housing and prefabricated houses. The study simulates one example of the three types of houses that have been chosen to fulfil a real client brief on a real site on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland Australia. Criteria for sustainability ...

  4. Characteristics and Outcomes of Dogs Admitted into Queensland RSPCA Shelters

    OpenAIRE

    Hemy, Megan; Rand, Jacquie; Morton, John; Paterson, Mandy

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary An up-to-date and comprehensive understanding of the characteristics and outcomes of dogs entering shelters is required for implementing targeted strategies to reduce euthanasia of healthy and treatable dogs in Australia. Currently, there are few up-to-date Australian data published on dogs entering shelters, and their outcomes. Of dogs entering the Royal Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Queensland shelters in 2014, the majority (58%) were strays and 26% were puppi...

  5. HCMM imagery for the discrimination of rock types, the detection of geothermal energy sources and the assessment of soil moisture content in western Queensland and adjacent parts of New South Wales and South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Only photographic prints and negative films of day-visible, day-IR and night-IR imagery were received. For northwest Queensland, only five day-visible and day-IR frames of acceptable quality were received. A master-grid was established over these frames within which selected grid sections are being enlarged photographically for the identification of stream courses and geological features permitting an interpretation of the imagery relative to ground truth information. The imagery is also being scanned and digitized using a Joyce-Loebl microdensitometer for classification purposes. For areas for which good quality HCMM imagery is available, valuable information is obtained on ephemeral and seasonal drainage systems. The day-IR cover is particularly helpful.

  6. 2004 road traffic crashes in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This report presents an overview of reported road traffic crashes in Queensland during : 2004 in the context of the previous five years based on data contained in the Queensland : Road Crash Information System maintained by the Department of Transpor...

  7. Flood impacts in Keppel Bay, southern great barrier reef in the aftermath of cyclonic rainfall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Jones

    Full Text Available In December 2010, the highest recorded Queensland rainfall associated with Tropical Cyclone 'Tasha' caused flooding of the Fitzroy River in Queensland, Australia. A massive flood plume inundated coral reefs lying 12 km offshore of the Central Queensland coast near Yeppoon and caused 40-100% mortality to coral fringing many of the islands of Keppel Bay down to a depth of ∼8 m. The severity of coral mortality was influenced by the level of exposure to low salinity seawater as a result of the reef's distance from the flood plume and to a lesser extent, water depth and whether or not the reef faced the plume source. There was no evidence in this study of mortality resulting from pollutants derived from the nearby Fitzroy Catchment, at least in the short term, suggesting that during a major flood, the impact of low salinity on corals outweighs that of pollutants. Recovery of the reefs in Keppel Bay from the 2010/2011 Fitzroy River flood is likely to take 10-15 years based on historical recovery periods from a similar event in 1991; potentially impacting visitor numbers for tourism and recreational usage. In the meantime, activities like snorkeling, diving and coral viewing will be focused on the few shallow reefs that survived the flood, placing even further pressure on their recovery. Reef regeneration, restoration and rehabilitation are measures that may be needed to support tourism in the short term. However, predictions of a warming climate, lower rainfall and higher intensity summer rain events in the Central and Coastal regions of Australia over the next decade, combined with the current anthropogenic influences on water quality, are likely to slow regeneration with consequent impact on long-term reef resilience.

  8. Flood impacts in Keppel Bay, southern great barrier reef in the aftermath of cyclonic rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alison M; Berkelmans, Ray

    2014-01-01

    In December 2010, the highest recorded Queensland rainfall associated with Tropical Cyclone 'Tasha' caused flooding of the Fitzroy River in Queensland, Australia. A massive flood plume inundated coral reefs lying 12 km offshore of the Central Queensland coast near Yeppoon and caused 40-100% mortality to coral fringing many of the islands of Keppel Bay down to a depth of ∼8 m. The severity of coral mortality was influenced by the level of exposure to low salinity seawater as a result of the reef's distance from the flood plume and to a lesser extent, water depth and whether or not the reef faced the plume source. There was no evidence in this study of mortality resulting from pollutants derived from the nearby Fitzroy Catchment, at least in the short term, suggesting that during a major flood, the impact of low salinity on corals outweighs that of pollutants. Recovery of the reefs in Keppel Bay from the 2010/2011 Fitzroy River flood is likely to take 10-15 years based on historical recovery periods from a similar event in 1991; potentially impacting visitor numbers for tourism and recreational usage. In the meantime, activities like snorkeling, diving and coral viewing will be focused on the few shallow reefs that survived the flood, placing even further pressure on their recovery. Reef regeneration, restoration and rehabilitation are measures that may be needed to support tourism in the short term. However, predictions of a warming climate, lower rainfall and higher intensity summer rain events in the Central and Coastal regions of Australia over the next decade, combined with the current anthropogenic influences on water quality, are likely to slow regeneration with consequent impact on long-term reef resilience.

  9. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a new attractant for the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt))

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni, Q-fly) is a major agricultural pest in eastern Australia. The deployment of male lures comprises an important component of several control and detection strategies for this pest. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroac...

  10. Queensland Lung Cancer Screening Study: rationale, design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, H M; Bowman, R V; Crossin, J; Lau, M A; Slaughter, R E; Passmore, L H; McCaul, E M; Courtney, D A; Windsor, M N; Yang, I A; Smith, I R; Keir, B J; Hayes, T J; Redmond, S J; Zimmerman, P V; Fong, K M

    2013-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in Australia. Screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) can reduce lung cancer mortality. The feasibility of screening in Australia is unknown. This paper describes the rationale, design and methods of the Queensland Lung Cancer Screening Study. The aim of the study is to describe the methodology for a feasibility study of lung cancer screening by LDCT in Australia. The Queensland Lung Cancer Screening Study is an ongoing, prospective observational study of screening by LDCT at a single tertiary institution. Healthy volunteers at high risk of lung cancer (age 60-74 years; smoking history ≥30 pack years, current or quit within 15 years; forced expiratory volume in 1s ≥50% predicted) are recruited from the general public through newspaper advertisement and press release. Participants receive a LDCT scan of the chest at baseline, year 1 and year 2 using a multidetector helical computed tomography scanner and are followed up for a total of 5 years. Feasibility of screening will be assessed by cancer detection rates, lung nodule prevalence, optimal management strategies for lung nodules, economic costs, healthcare utilisation and participant quality of life. Studying LDCT screening in the Australian setting will help us understand how differences in populations, background diseases and healthcare structures modulate screening effectiveness. This information, together with results from overseas randomised studies, will inform and facilitate local policymaking. © 2012 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  11. Nano, Queensland and cryo-electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowall, A.W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In a recent review the authors, Wolfgang Baumeister and Alasdair Steven wrote, '....there is immense opportunity for Cryo-EM, especially as boosted by merging crystallographic structures of individual subunits into moderate resolution Cryo-EM density maps of whole complexes. Electron tomography has now advanced to the point where it is a realistic goal to glimpse molecular machines operating inside cells....' This statement gives testament to the advances made over the past 25 years by many labs around the world to the area of microscopy referred to as Cryo-EM and related 3-D computing technologies. Australian scientific societies have been eager followers of this progress and heard first hand of the new developments in the field at the 1984 ACEM-8 (2). Since those early days the ACEM and other Australian/NZ societies have sponsored numerous researchers and workshops in the field of Cryo-EM to their conferences, Helin Sabil, Wah Chiu, Ron Milligan, Richard Henderson and Werner Kuhlbrandt to name only a few. These visits have stimulated a desire from Australian/NZ researchers to establish collaborations and access to prominent labs in the USA and Europe, where the means and knowledge to provide Cryo EM and 3D reconstruction technology for studying macromolecular complexes is well established. However, Australia has not been backward in seeking to provide its home research community with access to a base in biological molecular microscopy and electron crystallography technology. Since the last ACEM we have seen the emergence of a number of crucial factors, which will make the establishment of a national research facility in this field an operational reality in early 2003. Well publicized is the development of Australia's newest and perhaps most unique research institute, the institute for Molecular Bioscience (IMB) to open at the University of Queensland (UQ) in 2002. The IMB will be the platform for a new research group in advanced computational 3D

  12. Hospital design Innovation on show at Queensland facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kieren; Reading, Megan

    2015-08-01

    In a follow-up to an article on the hospital that first appeared in the autumn 2010 issue of The Australian Hospital Engineer, and was then republished with the help of the magazine. The Institute of Hospital Engineering Australia, and the IFHE in the November 2011 edition of HEJ, principals at architectural firm, Hassell, Kieren Morgan and Megan Reading, explain how the new Gold Coast University Hospital (GCUH) in Southport, Queensland, 'demonstrates how good design can improve delivery of care, as well as staff retention and attraction'.

  13. The new gamma sterilisation and decontamination plant, Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.; Robotham, R.

    2003-01-01

    Steritech Pty Ltd operates the only three industrial gamma sterilisation and decontamination plants in Australia. A plant in Dandenong Victoria has operated since 1971 and a second in Wetherill Park from 1985. In August 2003, a third facility started commercial operation in Narangba, 40km north of Brisbane. Each plant represents a generational change in operating features, although the basic design of the irradiation room, storage pool and shielding remains substantially the same. This paper discusses some of the key design features of the Queensland plant, the complex approval and licensing process and some of the complications caused by perceived terrorist threats

  14. Dinoflagellate cyst abundance is positively correlated to sediment organic carbon in Sydney Harbour and Botany Bay, NSW, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chang; Doblin, Martina A; Dafforn, Katherine A; Johnston, Emma L; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong

    2018-02-01

    There is growing public concern about the global expansion of harmful algal bloom species (HABs), with dinoflagellate microalgae comprising the major portion of the harmful taxa. These motile, unicellular organisms have a lifecycle involving sexual reproduction and resting cyst formation whereby cysts can germinate from sediments and 'seed' planktonic populations. Thus, investigation of dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) distribution in sediments can provide significant insights into HAB dynamics and contribute to indices of habitat quality. Species composition and abundance of dinocysts in relation to sediment characteristics were studied at 18 stations in two densely populated temperate Australian estuaries, Sydney Harbour (Parramatta River/Port Jackson; PS) and Botany Bay (including Georges River; GB). Eighteen dinocyst taxa were identified, dominated by Protoceratium reticulatum and Gonyaulax sp.1 in the PS estuary, together with Archaeperidinium minutum and Gonyaulax sp.1 in the GB estuary. Cysts of Alexandrium catenella, which is one of the causative species of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), were also detected in both estuaries. Out of the measured sediment characteristics (TOC, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), TOC was the parameter explaining most of the variation in dinocyst assemblages and was positively correlated to most of the heavy metals. Given the significant relationship between sediment TOC and dinocyst abundance and heavy metal concentrations, this study suggests that sediment TOC could be broadly used in risk management for potential development of algal blooms and sediment contamination in these estuaries.

  15. Conservative therapy of breast cancer in Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Marie-Frances; Allison, Roger; Tripcony, Lee

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Primary radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery has been an accepted alternative to mastectomy in Europe and North America for many years. In Australia, however, the history of breast conservation for early invasive breast cancer is much shorter. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of breast conservation in a state-wide Australian radiotherapy service. Methods and Materials: Between January 1982 and December 1989, 512 patients were treated with primary radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery. This analysis is based on a review of these patients, all of whom had Stage I or II breast cancer. Results: With a median follow-up of 50 months, the 5-year actuarial rate of overall survival was 84% and disease-free survival was 80%. There have been 22 isolated local recurrences in the breast. The time to an isolated breast recurrence ranged from 12 to 83 months (median, 26 months). The 5-year actuarial rate of an isolated breast recurrence was 4%. The recurrence rate was higher for patients with involved margins (15% vs. 2%, p < 0.01). Local recurrence was also more likely in the presence of extensive ductal carcinoma insitu (DCIS), as opposed to no extensive DCIS (10% vs. 2%, p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results affirm that primary radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery in Queensland, has been given with a low rate of local recurrence, comparable to that obtained in other centers

  16. Serum proteins in the leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, in Prydz Bay, Eastern Antarctica and the coast of NSW, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rachael; Canfield, Paul; Rogers, Tracey

    2005-09-01

    Blood protein analysis including total serum protein and albumin by chemical methods, fibrinogen estimation and serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) was performed on the leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx. The most commonly observed SPE pattern was eight fractions designated albumin, alpha(1a), alpha(1b), alpha(2a), alpha(2b), beta(1), beta(2) and gamma-globulin. Significantly higher total serum protein and albumin concentrations, as determined by chemical methods, and significantly higher alpha(2)-globulin concentrations, determined by SPE, were seen in free-ranging male seals compared to females, whilst significantly higher beta-globulin concentrations were seen in female seals. Season of sampling influenced fibrinogen and beta(2)-globulin concentrations, whereas there were no significant differences in any protein concentrations with moult status. Qualitative comparison of SPE traces of leopard seals in Antarctica with "sick" individuals in NSW, Australia revealed obvious differences, as did quantitative comparison of protein concentrations where differences in alpha(1), alpha(2), beta(1), beta(2), and gamma-globulin concentrations were seen. These findings suggest that SPE is a useful tool for investigating serum proteins in the leopard seal, with applications for the investigation of "sick" individuals and the assessment of variation in homeostasis. This technique could also be used to identify the presence of environmental stressors, subclinical disease and physiological variation within specific seal populations.

  17. Can remote infrared cameras be used to differentiate small, sympatric mammal species? A case study of the black-tailed dusky antechinus, Antechinus arktos and co-occurring small mammals in southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Gray

    Full Text Available The black-tailed dusky antechinus (Antechinus arktos is an endangered, small carnivorous marsupial endemic to Australia, which occurs at low population density along with abundant sympatric populations of other small mammals: Antechinus stuartii, Rattus fuscipes and Melomys cervinipes. Using A. arktos as a model species, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of infrared digital camera traps for detecting and differentiating small mammals and to comment on the broad applicability of this methodology. We also sought to understand how the detection probabilities of our target species varied over time and characterize their activity patterns. We installed 11 infrared cameras at one of only three known sites where A. arktos occurs for five consecutive deployments. Cameras were fixed to wooden stakes and oriented vertically, 35 cm above ground, directly facing bait containers. Using this method, we successfully recorded and identified individuals from all four species of small mammal known previously in the area from live trapping, including A. arktos. This validates the effectiveness of the infrared camera type and orientation for small mammal studies. Periods of activity for all species were highly coincident, showing a strong peak in activity during the same two-hour period immediately following sunset. A. arktos, A. stuartii and M. cervinipes also displayed a strong negative linear relationship between detection probability and days since deployment. This is an important finding for camera trapping generally, indicating that routine camera deployment lengths (of one-to-two weeks between baiting events may be too long when targeting some small mammals.

  18. Long-term responses of Burrunan dolphins (Tursiops australis to swim-with dolphin tourism in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia: A population at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Filby

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated Burrunan dolphin responses to dolphin-swim tour vessels across two time periods: 1998–2000 and 2011–2013. A total of 211 dolphin sightings were documented across 306 surveys. Sighting success rate and mean encounter time with dolphins decreased significantly by 12.8% and 8.2 min, respectively, between periods. Approaches that did not contravene regulations elicited highest approach responses by dolphins towards tour vessels, whereas dolphins’ responded to illegal approaches most frequently with avoidance. Small groups responded to tour vessels with avoidance significantly more than large groups. Initial dolphin behaviour had a strong effect on dolphin’s responses to tour vessels, with resting groups the most likely to exhibit avoidance. Calves were significantly more likely to be present during swims in 2011–2013. Dolphin’s responses to tour vessels changed across time, with effect responses (avoidance and approach increasing significantly as dolphins gained cumulative experience. These dolphins are forced to expend a greater level of time and energy avoiding or approaching boats, shifting from a non-effect response to an effect response. Consequences of this include possible decrease in biological fitness by detracting from core biological activities such as foraging and resting. Combined with a decrease in sighting success between periods, the results imply that this population of dolphins, which is endemic to Australia and listed as threatened under the Victorian Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988, may not be well suited to the dolphin-swim industry. The management implications of these results warrant a shift from passive to active management in Port Phillip Bay. The importance of long-term research is highlighted, given behavioural responses detected herein would be undetected in short-term studies. Keywords: Burrunan dolphin (Tursiops australis, Avoidance, Behaviour, Compliance, Management

  19. Stock structure of blue threadfin Eleutheronema tetradactylum on the Queensland east coast, as determined by parasites and conventional tagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zischke, M T; Cribb, T H; Welch, D J; Sawynok, W; Lester, R J G

    2009-07-01

    Blue threadfin Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Polynemidae) were examined from four areas (Princess Charlotte Bay, Trinity Inlet, Halifax Bay and Upstart Bay) in eastern Queensland covering a distance of c. 950 km of coastline. Parasites were used as biological markers to infer stock structure of E. tetradactylum. Parasites designated as 'temporary' biological markers were the copepod Thysanote eleutheronemi, the acanthocephalan Neoechinorhynchus topseyi, the nematode Philometra rajani and hemiurid trematodes. The larval nematodes Anisakis sp. Type 1 and Terranova sp. Type 2; and the larval cestodes Pterobothrium pearsoni and Callitetrarhynchus gracilis were considered 'permanent' biological markers. Both univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that there was little difference in temporary parasite abundance between the four areas. In contrast, the same analyses revealed that most areas had two or more significant differences in permanent parasite abundance, with the exception of Halifax Bay and Upstart Bay, which were significantly different only in the multivariate analysis. Biological markers predicted that Princess Charlotte Bay and Trinity Inlet consisted of distinct populations, whereas Halifax Bay and Upstart Bay were not clearly differentiated. Tag recapture data supported this hypothesis; the majority of recaptures were within 100 km of the initial tagging location. Geographical movement of E. tetradactylum may be limited due to their biology and ecology, as well as the distances and oceanographic boundaries that separate habitats. Contrary to current management definitions, the stock structure of E. tetradactylum on the east coast of Queensland appears to be geographically differentiated at a small spatial scale.

  20. The importance of yeasts in the ecology and control of the Queensland fruit fly

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander M Piper

    2017-01-01

    Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) is a major orchard pest in Australia. Adult flies lay their eggs into ripe fruit, resulting in larval infestation and the spread of bacterial and fungal rots. The role of these microbes in fruit fly ecology is only now being elucidated, with much of the emphasis to date focusing on bacterial communities. In our study, we explored the diversity of yeast species associated with B. tryoni adults and larvae. We found larvae were highly assoc...

  1. Queensland coal sets new records in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.; Coffey, D.; Abbott, E.

    2002-01-01

    In 2001 the Queensland coal industry consolidated on record expansion in the export market over the past two years and again, increased its sales to overseas customers. New sales records were set in both the export and domestic markets. Unprecedented international demand for Queensland metallurgical coals coupled with improved prices and a favourable A$-US$ exchange rate created strong market conditions for the Queensland coal export industry, boosting confidence for further expansion and new developments. Australian coal exports in 2001 amounted to 194 Mt and are forecast to reach 275 million tonnes per annum (Mtpa) in 2020. The Queensland coal industry is poised to capture a significant share of this market growth. Queensland's large inventory of identified coal, currently estimated at more than 37 billion tonnes (raw coal m situ), is adequate to sustain the industry for many years and allow new opencut and underground mines to develop according to future market demand. Recent coal exploration successes are expected to add significant tonnage to the inventory (Coxhead, Smith and Coffey, 2002). Most of the coal exported from Queensland is mined in the Bowen Basin of central Queensland and additional tonnage of Walloon coal is exported by mines in the Moreton Basin and Surat Basin in south-east Queensland. The Walloon Coal Measures and its equivalents contain large resources of undeveloped opencut, high volatile, clean-burning thermal coal. The environmental advantages in the utilisation of these coals are now recognised and strong growth in production is expected in the near future for supply to both the domestic and export markets. Establishment of new rail transport and civil infrastructure will however, be required to support the development of large scale mining operations in this region

  2. Australia's energy profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, A.

    1999-01-01

    Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE)'s biennial fuel and electricity survey provides a comprehensive database with which is possible to examine recent trends and developments in Australia's energy market. Some key development are outlined in this article. While energy consumption in Australia has been increasing steadily since 1973-74, substantial changes have occurred 'behind the scenes' in terms of the states and sectors in which energy is consumed and the overall fuel mix. Historically, the south-eastern states of New South Wales and Victoria have accounted for the largest shares of total energy consumption In recent years, however, the dominance of New South Wales and Victoria (and particularly New South Wales) has come under pressure from the states of Queensland. Western Australia, and to a lesser extent, the Northern Territory. Each of these states has experienced rapid growth in energy consumption, due mainly to a number of strongly growing energy intensive industries, particularly in the mining and minerals processing sectors. High economic and population growth over this period were also important factors. An increase in the share of natural gas- and a corresponding decline in the share of crude oil - is the most evident change to have occurred in the fuel mix since 1973-1974. However, since 1993, the trend has changed, the share of coal (and particularly brown coal) increased strongly, making it the primary fuel source for thermal electricity generation. This recent shift has been driven by developments in Queensland and Victoria

  3. Potential impacts of climate change on habitat suitability for the Queensland fruit fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Sabira; Baumgartner, John B; Dominiak, Bernard C; Royer, Jane E; Beaumont, Linda J

    2017-10-12

    Anthropogenic climate change is a major factor driving shifts in the distributions of pests and invasive species. The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni Froggatt (Qfly), is the most economically damaging insect pest of Australia's horticultural industry, and its management is a key priority for plant protection and biosecurity. Identifying the extent to which climate change may alter the distribution of suitable habitat for Qfly is important for the development and continuation of effective monitoring programs, phytosanitary measures, and management strategies. We used Maxent, a species distribution model, to map suitable habitat for Qfly under current climate, and six climate scenarios for 2030, 2050 and 2070. Our results highlight that south-western Australia, northern regions of the Northern Territory, eastern Queensland, and much of south-eastern Australia are currently suitable for Qfly. This includes southern Victoria and eastern Tasmania, which are currently free of breeding populations. There is substantial agreement across future climate scenarios that most areas currently suitable will remain so until at least 2070. Our projections provide an initial estimate of the potential exposure of Australia's horticultural industry to Qfly as climate changes, highlighting the need for long-term vigilance across southern Australia to prevent further range expansion of this species.

  4. Rural generalism and the Queensland Health pathway--implications for rural clinical supervisors, placements and rural medical education providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The lifeline for country medicine' was the description by the Rural Doctors Association of Australia of the Queensland Health Rural Generalist Pathway (RGP). The program promises to redress rural medical workforce issues in Queensland. It may fulfil these promises, but only with the support of rural clinical supervisors and medical educators adapting to new expectations of competencies, of training structure and endpoints of training. These adaptations will be a key element of the RGP success, particularly as other states adopt the approach. This article outlines the lessons learnt and adaptations made by clinical supervisors and medical educators in the Queensland Rural Medical Education group, to deliver the Rural Pathway of the Australian General Practice Training program since the first registrars identifying as RGP appeared in this program in 2006.

  5. Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) From Queensland Are Genetically Distinct From 2 Populations in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Christina T; Ishida, Yasuko; Murray, Neil D; O'Brien, Stephen J; Graves, Jennifer A M; Greenwood, Alex D; Roca, Alfred L

    2016-01-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) suffered population declines and local extirpation due to hunting in the early 20th century, especially in southern Australia. Koalas were subsequently reintroduced to the Brisbane Ranges (BR) and Stony Rises (SR) by translocating individuals from a population on French Island descended from a small number of founders. To examine genetic diversity and north-south differentiation, we genotyped 13 microsatellite markers in 46 wild koalas from the BR and SR, and 27 Queensland koalas kept at the US zoos. The Queensland koalas displayed much higher heterozygosity (H O = 0.73) than the 2 southern Australian koala populations examined: H O = 0.49 in the BR, whereas H O = 0.41 in the SR. This is consistent with the historical accounts of bottlenecks and founder events affecting the southern populations and contrasts with reports of high genetic diversity in some southern populations. The 2 southern Australian koala populations were genetically similar (F ST = 0.018, P = 0.052). By contrast, northern and southern Australian koalas were highly differentiated (F ST = 0.27, P < 0.001), thereby suggesting that geographic structuring should be considered in the conservation management of koalas. Sequencing of 648bp of the mtDNA control region in Queensland koalas found 8 distinct haplotypes, one of which had not been previously detected among koalas. Queensland koalas displayed high mitochondrial haplotype diversity (H = 0.753) and nucleotide diversity (π = 0.0072), indicating along with the microsatellite data that North American zoos have maintained high levels of genetic diversity among their Queensland koalas. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Antimicrobial stewardship activities: a survey of Queensland hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avent, Minyon L; Hall, Lisa; Davis, Louise; Allen, Michelle; Roberts, Jason A; Unwin, Sean; McIntosh, Kylie A; Thursky, Karin; Buising, Kirsty; Paterson, David L

    2014-11-01

    In 2011, the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (ACSQHC) recommended that all hospitals in Australia must have an Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) program by 2013. Nevertheless, little is known about current AMS activities. This study aimed to determine the AMS activities currently undertaken, and to identify gaps, barriers to implementation and opportunities for improvement in Queensland hospitals. The AMS activities of 26 facilities from 15 hospital and health services in Queensland were surveyed during June 2012 to address strategies for effective AMS: implementing clinical guidelines, formulary restriction, reviewing antimicrobial prescribing, auditing antimicrobial use and selective reporting of susceptibility results. The response rate was 62%. Nineteen percent had an AMS team (a dedicated multidisciplinary team consisting of a medically trained staff member and a pharmacist). All facilities had access to an electronic version of Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic, with a further 50% developing local guidelines for antimicrobials. One-third of facilities had additional restrictions. Eighty-eight percent had advice for restricted antimicrobials from in-house infectious disease physicians or clinical microbiologists. Antimicrobials were monitored with feedback given to prescribers at point of care by 76% of facilities. Deficiencies reported as barriers to establishing AMS programs included: pharmacy resources, financial support by hospital management, and training and education in antimicrobial use. Several areas for improvement were identified: reviewing antimicrobial prescribing with feedback to the prescriber, auditing, and training and education in antimicrobial use. There also appears to be a lack of resources to support AMS programs in some facilities. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC?: The ACSQHC has recommended that all hospitals implement an AMS program by 2013 as a requirement of Standard 3 (Preventing and Controlling Healthcare

  7. Barcoding Queensland Fruit Flies (Bactrocera tryoni): impediments and improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacket, Mark J; Semeraro, Linda; Malipatil, Mallik B

    2012-05-01

    Identification of adult fruit flies primarily involves microscopic examination of diagnostic morphological characters, while immature stages, such as larvae, can be more problematic. One of the Australia's most serious horticultural pests, the Queensland Fruit Fly (Bactrocera tryoni: Tephritidae), is of particular biosecurity/quarantine concern as the immature life stages occur within food produce and can be difficult to identify using morphological characteristics. DNA barcoding of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) gene could be employed to increase the accuracy of fruit fly species identifications. In our study, we tested the utility of standard DNA barcoding techniques and found them to be problematic for Queensland Fruit Flies, which (i) possess a nuclear copy (a numt pseudogene) of the barcoding region of COI that can be co-amplified; and (ii) as in previous COI phylogenetic analyses closely related B. tryoni complex species appear polyphyletic. We found that the presence of a large deletion in the numt copy of COI allowed an alternative primer to be designed to only amplify the mitochondrial COI locus in tephritid fruit flies. Comparisons of alternative commonly utilized mitochondrial genes, Cytochrome Oxidase II and Cytochrome b, revealed a similar level of variation to COI; however, COI is the most informative for DNA barcoding, given the large number of sequences from other tephritid fruit fly species available for comparison. Adopting DNA barcoding for the identification of problematic fly specimens provides a powerful tool to distinguish serious quarantine fruit fly pests (Tephritidae) from endemic fly species of lesser concern. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Soo J.; Morelli, Renata; Hanssen, Benjamin L.; Jamie, Joanne F.; Jamie, Ian M.; Siderhurst, Matthew S.; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters...

  9. The Rescue and Rehabilitation of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus in Southeast Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Burton

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Koala populations in southeast Queensland are under threat from many factors, particularly habitat loss, dog attack, vehicle trauma and disease. Animals not killed from these impacts are often rescued and taken into care for rehabilitation, and eventual release back to the wild if deemed to be healthy. This study investigated current rescue, rehabilitation and release data for koalas admitted to the four major wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland (Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital (AZWH, Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary Hospital (CWH, Moggill Koala Hospital (MKH and the Royal Society for the Prevention Against Cruelty to Animals Wildlife Hospital at Wacol (RSPCA, and suggests aspects of the practice that may be changed to improve its contribution to the preservation of the species. It concluded that: (a the main threats to koalas across southeast Queensland were related to urbanization (vehicle collisions, domestic animal attacks and the disease chlamydiosis; (b case outcomes varied amongst hospitals, including time spent in care, euthanasia and release rates; and (c the majority (66.5% of rescued koalas were either euthanized or died in care with only 27% released back to the wild. The results from this study have important implications for further research into koala rescue and rehabilitation to gain a better understanding of its effectiveness as a conservation strategy.

  10. The Rescue and Rehabilitation of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Southeast Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Emily; Tribe, Andrew

    2016-09-15

    Koala populations in southeast Queensland are under threat from many factors, particularly habitat loss, dog attack, vehicle trauma and disease. Animals not killed from these impacts are often rescued and taken into care for rehabilitation, and eventual release back to the wild if deemed to be healthy. This study investigated current rescue, rehabilitation and release data for koalas admitted to the four major wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland (Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital (AZWH), Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary Hospital (CWH), Moggill Koala Hospital (MKH) and the Royal Society for the Prevention Against Cruelty to Animals Wildlife Hospital at Wacol (RSPCA)), and suggests aspects of the practice that may be changed to improve its contribution to the preservation of the species. It concluded that: (a) the main threats to koalas across southeast Queensland were related to urbanization (vehicle collisions, domestic animal attacks and the disease chlamydiosis); (b) case outcomes varied amongst hospitals, including time spent in care, euthanasia and release rates; and (c) the majority (66.5%) of rescued koalas were either euthanized or died in care with only 27% released back to the wild. The results from this study have important implications for further research into koala rescue and rehabilitation to gain a better understanding of its effectiveness as a conservation strategy.

  11. A new species of Euonymus (Celastraceae) from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1975-01-01

    Euonymus globularis, a new species from Queensland, is here described. It is the second species of Euonymus for Australia. It shows reticulate affinities with species belonging to different sections or series of this genus as well as with species of Brassiantha and Hedraianthera in the same family.

  12. Sustainable Innovation for Queensland's Housing Design: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Johnston

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research provides an assessment tool that assists the selection process of sustainability in detached suburban housing. It investigates the implications of using different design and construction methods including architecturally designed houses, developer housing and prefabricated houses. The study simulates one example of the three types of houses that have been chosen to fulfil a real client brief on a real site on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland Australia. Criteria for sustainability assessment are formulated based on literature reviews, exemplar designs and similar research projects for which the houses can be adequately evaluated. This criterion covers aspects including energy use, materials and thermal performance. The data is collected using computer models and sustainability assessment software to compare and draw conclusions on the success of each house.Our study indicates that architecturally designed housing with prefabricated building techniques are a better alternative to generic developer style housing. Our research provides an insight into the implications of three key elements of sustainability including energy use, materials and thermal performance. Designers, builders, developers and home-buyers are given an insight into some options currently available on the housing market and how the choices made during early design stages can provide a more positive environmental impact.  

  13. Sustainable Innovation for Queensland's Housing Design: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Johnston

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research provides an assessment tool that assists the selection process of sustainability in detached suburban housing. It investigates the implications of using different design and construction methods including architecturally designed houses, developer housing and prefabricated houses. The study simulates one example of the three types of houses that have been chosen to fulfil a real client brief on a real site on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland Australia. Criteria for sustainability assessment are formulated based on literature reviews, exemplar designs and similar research projects for which the houses can be adequately evaluated. This criterion covers aspects including energy use, materials and thermal performance. The data is collected using computer models and sustainability assessment software to compare and draw conclusions on the success of each house. Our study indicates that architecturally designed housing with prefabricated building techniques are a better alternative to generic developer style housing. Our research provides an insight into the implications of three key elements of sustainability including energy use, materials and thermal performance. Designers, builders, developers and home-buyers are given an insight into some options currently available on the housing market and how the choices made during early design stages can provide a more positive environmental impact.

  14. Characteristics and Outcomes of Dogs Admitted into Queensland RSPCA Shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemy, Megan; Rand, Jacquie; Morton, John; Paterson, Mandy

    2017-09-01

    Over 200,000 stray and surrendered dogs are admitted to shelters and municipal facilities in Australia each year, and approximately 20% are euthanized. Contemporary, comprehensive data on the characteristics and outcomes of dogs entering shelters are required to reduce shelter admissions and euthanasia. However, there are currently limited up-to-date data published on dog admission into shelters. A retrospective single cohort study was conducted to describe the characteristics and outcomes of the dog population entering Royal Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Queensland (RSPCA-QLD) shelters in 2014 ( n = 11,967). The majority of dog admissions were strays from the public (24%) or from municipal councils (34%). Just over a quarter of admissions were puppies, 18% of adults (>6 months) were desexed, and the majority of admissions were crossbred dogs (92%). The majority of owner surrenders (86%) were due to human-related reasons. Most dogs were reclaimed (32%) or adopted (43%) and aggression was the most common reason for euthanasia of adult dogs (45%). Low-cost or free desexing and identification programs targeted to areas and breeds contributing to high intake, and increased support services for owners at risk of surrendering their dog, should be trialed to determine their cost effectiveness in reducing shelter admissions and euthanasia.

  15. Haemangiopericytoma - Queensland Radium Institute experience and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahern, V.A.; Roberts, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    The clinical characteristics, management, relapse patterns and survival of 17 patients with haemangiopericytoma treated at the Queensland Radium Institute, Australia from 1962 to 1989 are reported. Twelve patients were referred at the time of first diagnosis and were treated with curative intent. Three patients were treated with palliative intent when referred following initial diagnosis, and the remaining two patients were referred at the time of relapse. Disease was metastatic at presentation in 4 patients. Radiotherapy was used as a component of primary treatment of disease in 11 patients, in both patients referred for management of local relapse of haemangiopericytoma, and for palliation of metastatic disease. One patient received chemotherapy as part of initial treatment. Nine patients have died with survival from first treatment ranging from 3 to 139 months. All 8 surviving patients remain free of disease at 6 to 94 months from first treatment. It is concluded that haemangiopericytoma has an unpredictable clinical course, and may be indolent in some patients thus validating intensive local therapy and that there is no apparent benefit from incorporating chemotherapy in the primary management of haemangiopericytoma, although it may provide worth-while palliation in selected patients. Surgery combined with pre-or post-operative radiotherapy is recommended. 30 refs., 3 tabs

  16. Not sending the message: A low prevalence of strength-based exercise participation in rural and regional Central Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbo, Vincent J; Czerepusko, James B; Tucker, Patrick S; Kingsley, Michael I; Moon, Jordan R; Young, Kaelin; Scanlan, Aaron T

    2015-10-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of current strength-based exercise in rural and regional populations of Central Queensland. The secondary aim was to examine the proportion of residents from various demographic groups who currently partake in strength-based exercise to allow for targeted strength training campaigns. A cross-sectional, survey-based experimental design was followed. Rural and regional Australia. Rural and regional community-dwelling individuals living in Central Queensland and aged 18 years and older. Survey data was collected in October and November 2010 as part of the Central Queensland University Social Survey. Strength-based exercise participation, gender, age, income, years of education, self-reported physical activity and perception of health. Participation in strength-based exercise was 13.2%. Women were less likely to partake in strength-based exercise than male, and ≥55 year old adults were less likely to partake in strength-based exercise than 18-34 year old adults. Participation in strength-based exercise was found to increase with years of education, self-reported physical activity and self-rated health. The prevalence of adults in rural and regional Central Queensland engaging in strength-based exercise is low. Exercise physiologists, clinicians and government officials must work together to ensure that this form of exercise is acknowledged as a vital component of health in rural and regional areas. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  17. Partners in ecocide: Australia's complicity in the uranium cartel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, V.G.

    1983-01-01

    In 1972 uranium producers from France, South Africa, Australia, Great Britain and Canada organized an international cartel to control the production and sale of uranium. The complicity of Australia in the manipulation of the market by and on behalf of C.R.A., Mary Kathleen Uranium, Pancontinental and Queensland Mines is discussed. The roles of both governments and companies and the antitrust implications of the cartel are considered

  18. Tick-borne infectious diseases in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Stephen R; Stenos, John

    2017-04-17

    Tick bites in Australia can lead to a variety of illnesses in patients. These include infection, allergies, paralysis, autoimmune disease, post-infection fatigue and Australian multisystem disorder. Rickettsial (Rickettsia spp.) infections (Queensland tick typhus, Flinders Island spotted fever and Australian spotted fever) and Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) are the only systemic bacterial infections that are known to be transmitted by tick bites in Australia. Three species of local ticks transmit bacterial infection following a tick bite: the paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) is endemic on the east coast of Australia and causes Queensland tick typhus due to R. australis and Q fever due to C. burnetii; the ornate kangaroo tick (Amblyomma triguttatum) occurs throughout much of northern, central and western Australia and causes Q fever; and the southern reptile tick (Bothriocroton hydrosauri) is found mainly in south-eastern Australia and causes Flinders Island spotted fever due to R. honei. Much about Australian ticks and the medical outcomes following tick bites remains unknown. Further research is required to increase understanding of these areas.

  19. Perceived Safety, Quality and Cultural Competency of Maternity Care for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Women in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Sarah; Miller, Yvette D

    2016-03-01

    Various policies, plans and initiatives have been implemented to provide safe, quality and culturally competent care to patients within Queensland's health care system. A series of models of maternity care are available in Queensland that range from standard public care to private midwifery care. The current study aimed to determine whether identifying as culturally or linguistically diverse (CALD) was associated with the perceived safety, quality and cultural competency of maternity care from a consumer perspective, and to identify specific needs and preferences of CALD maternity care consumers. Secondary analysis of data collected in the Having a Baby in Queensland Survey 2012 was used to compare the experiences of 655 CALD women to those of 4049 non-CALD women in Queensland, Australia, across three stages of maternity care: pregnancy, labour and birth, and after birth. After adjustment for model of maternity care received and socio-demographic characteristics, CALD women were significantly more likely than non-CALD women to experience suboptimal staff technical competence in pregnancy, overall perceived safety in pregnancy and labour/birth, and interpersonal sensitivity in pregnancy and labour/birth. Approximately 50 % of CALD women did not have the choice to use a translator or interpreter, or the gender of their care provider, during labour and birth. Thirteen themes of preferences and needs of CALD maternity care consumers based on ethnicity, cultural beliefs, or traditions were identified; however, these were rarely met. Findings imply that CALD women in Queensland experience disadvantageous maternity care with regards to perceived staff technical competence, safety, and interpersonal sensitivity, and receive care that lacks cultural competence. Improved access to support persons, continuity and choice of carer, and staff availability and training is recommended.

  20. Firearms and suicide in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, C H; Lewin, T

    1990-12-01

    Australia has a moderate overall suicide rate but an extremely high male firearm suicide rate. Using data covering the years 1961-1985, a series of multiple regression based analyses were performed. During this period, overall suicide rates fell but firearm suicides remained constant with a resulting increase in the proportion of suicides by firearms. There has been an increase in suicides in the young offset by a decline in the elderly. Young males showed the greatest proportional increase in the use of firearms. A limited regional analysis supported the hypothesis that lack of legislative restrictions on long guns in Queensland with a greater household prevalence of such weapons and different cultural attitudes were associated with higher overall and firearm suicide rates. Such findings are consistent with reports from North America, although trends in Australia are more modest. Reducing the availability and cultural acceptance of firearms is likely to decrease suicide rates, especially in males.

  1. The influence of tropical cyclones on long-term riverine flooding; examples from tropical Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Jonathan

    2018-02-01

    Luminescence chronologies for two new slackwater flood deposit (SWD) sites (Broken River northeast Queensland and Ord River northwestern Western Australia) are presented and these along with other SWD chronologies from the same regions are compared with recently developed high resolution, isotope tropical cyclones (TC) records. Heightened TC activity occurred between 1400 and 1850 CE in Queensland and between 1500 and 1850 CE in Western Australia. A distinct clustering of flood events in northwest Western Australia during the period of enhanced TC activity suggests the two may be related. The SWD records in northeast Queensland do not cluster specifically during the period of heightened TC activity however several major floods do occur during this time suggesting that TCs may have been involved.

  2. Rainfall Variability of South East Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Louise; Manton, Michael; Siems, Steven

    2010-05-01

    The seasonal weather of southeastern Queensland (SEQ) is commonly described by a wet and a dry season. Rainfall in this area has been declining for the past fifty years and climate projections indicate decreasing trends in annual rainfall and increases in temperature. These factors combined with population growth suggest a need for Queensland to re-evaluate its water management. In order to understand the rainfall variability of SEQ, it is useful to consider the impact of the different weather patterns or synoptic regimes on the regional rainfall. Previous studies have examined the synoptic patterns associated with extreme wind and rainfall events in SEQ and the correlation between rainfall in northern Queensland and atmospheric variables, but a comprehensive climatology for the SEQ region is missing. Analysis of routine soundings is found to reveal relationships between surface precipitation and atmospheric structure. Cluster analysis was performed on daily radiosonde data for Brisbane Airport spanning the period 01/01/1990-11/11/2009. The clustering was initially performed on seven atmospheric variables: total-totals, 850mb winds, wind shear between 850mb and 500mb, moisture flux and total water calculated from the sounding data. A sensitivity study reveals that the moisture flux parameters followed by total water and total-totals are the key variables in determining the regimes. The clusters were combined with daily rainfall records spanning the period 01/01/1995 - 01/06/2008 to determine the contribution of each regime to monthly rainfall. The seven-cluster case describes three separate southeasterly regimes, three westerly regimes and an easterly regime. The contribution of each regime to annual rainfall was also determined. The regimes for SEQ can be divided into ‘wet' and ‘dry' cases. It is apparent that the rainfall is largely limited to the coastal strip, with maxima near regions with steep terrain. The main rainfall period is from November through to

  3. Examining 239+240Pu, 210Pb and historical events to determine carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus burial in mangrove sediments of Moreton Bay, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Santos, Isaac R.; Maher, Damien T.; Breithaupt, Joshua L.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Ketterer, Michael; Call, Mitchell; Sanders, Luciana; Eyre, Bradley D.

    2016-01-01

    Two sediment cores were collected in a mangrove forest to construct geochronologies for the previous century using natural and anthropogenic radionuclide tracers. Both sediment cores were dated using 239+240 Pu global fallout signatures as well as 210 Pb, applying both the Constant Initial Concentration (CIC) and the Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) models. The 239+240 Pu and CIC model are interpreted as having comparable sediment accretion rates (SAR) below an apparent mixed region in the upper ∼5 to 10 cm. In contrast, the CRS dating method shows high sediment accretion rates in the uppermost intervals, which is substantially reduced over the lower intervals of the 100-year record. A local anthropogenic nutrient signal is reflected in the high total phosphorus (TP) concentration in younger sediments. The carbon/nitrogen molar ratios and δ 15 N values further support a local anthropogenic nutrient enrichment signal. The origin of these signals is likely the treated sewage discharge to Moreton Bay which began in the early 1970s. While the 239+240 Pu and CIC models can only produce rates averaged over the intervals of interest within the profile, the 210 Pb CRS model identifies elevated rates of sediment accretion, organic carbon (OC), nitrogen (N), and TP burial from 2000 to 2013. From 1920 to 2000, the three dating methods provide similar OC, N and TP burial rates, ∼150, 10 and 2 g m −2  year −1 , respectively, which are comparable to global averages. - Highlights: • Lead-210 dating models indicate that the high phosphorous import to the tidal creek may increase mangrove OC burial. • Combinations of sediment dating models ( 239+240 Pu, 210 Pb) are ideal in determining sediment accretion in marine sediments during the previous century. • Decadal accretion rates, derived from the 239+240 Pu and 210 Pb dating models, are important to interpret anthropogenic effects on coastal systems. • Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes indicate diversified source

  4. Prevalence of koala retrovirus in geographically diverse populations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, G S; Young, P R; Hanger, J J; Jones, K; Clarke, D; McKee, J J; Meers, J

    2012-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of koala retrovirus (KoRV) in selected koala populations and to estimate proviral copy number in a subset of koalas. Blood or tissue samples from 708 koalas in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia were tested for KoRV pol provirus gene using standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR and real-time PCR (qPCR). Prevalence of KoRV provirus-positive koalas was 100% in four regions of Queensland and New South Wales, 72.2% in mainland Victoria, 26.6% on four Victorian islands and 14.8% on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Estimated proviral copy number per cell in four groups of koalas from Queensland and Victoria showed marked variation, ranging from a mean of 165 copies per cell in the Queensland group to 1.29 × 10(-4) copies per cell in one group of Victorian koalas. The higher prevalence of KoRV-positive koalas in the north of Australia and high proviral loads in Queensland koalas may indicate KoRV entered and became endogenous in the north and is spreading southwards. It is also possible there are genetic differences between koalas in northern and southern Australia that affect susceptibility to KoRV infection or endogenisation, or that environmental factors affecting transmission in northern states are absent or uncommon in southern regions. Although further studies are required, the finding of proviral copy numbers orders of magnitude lower than what would be expected for the presence of a single copy in every cell for many Victorian animals suggests that KoRV is not endogenous in these animals and likely reflects ongoing exogenous infection. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. 2010-2011 Queensland floods: using Haddon's Matrix to define and categorise public safety strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Zang, Yu-Li; FitzGerald, Gerry

    2013-08-01

    The 2010-2011 Queensland floods resulted in the most deaths from a single flood event in Australia since 1916. This article analyses the information on these deaths for comparison with those from previous floods in modern Australia in an attempt to identify factors that have contributed to those deaths. Haddon's Matrix, originally designed for prevention of road trauma, offers a framework for understanding the interplay between contributing factors and helps facilitate a clearer understanding of the varied strategies required to ensure people's safety for particular flood types. Public reports and flood relevant literature were searched using key words 'flood', 'fatality', 'mortality', 'death', 'injury' and 'victim' through Google Scholar, PubMed, ProQuest and EBSCO. Data relating to reported deaths during the 2010-2011 Queensland floods, and relevant data of previous Australian flood fatality (1997-2009) were collected from these available sources. These sources were also used to identify contributing factors. There were 33 deaths directly attributed to the event, of which 54.5% were swept away in a flash flood on 10 January 2011. A further 15.1% of fatalities were caused by inappropriate behaviours. This is different to floods in modern Australia where over 90% of deaths are related to the choices made by individuals. There is no single reason why people drown in floods, but rather a complex interplay of factors. The present study and its integration of research findings and conceptual frameworks might assist governments and communities to develop policies and strategies to prevent flood injury and fatalities. © 2013 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  6. Status of marine turtle rehabilitation in Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaylene Flint

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of marine turtles in Queensland has multifaceted objectives. It treats individual animals, serves to educate the public, and contributes to conservation. We examined the outcome from rehabilitation, time in rehabilitation, and subsequent recapture and restranding rates of stranded marine turtles between 1996 and 2013 to determine if the benefits associated with this practice are cost-effective as a conservation tool. Of 13,854 marine turtles reported as stranded during this 18-year period, 5,022 of these turtles were stranded alive with the remainder verified as dead or of unknown condition. A total of 2,970 (59% of these live strandings were transported to a rehabilitation facility. Overall, 1,173/2,970 (39% turtles were released over 18 years, 101 of which were recaptured: 77 reported as restrandings (20 dead, 13 alive subsequently died, 11 alive subsequently euthanized, 33 alive and 24 recaptured during normal marine turtle population monitoring or fishing activities. Of the turtles admitted to rehabilitation exhibiting signs of disease, 88% of them died, either unassisted or by euthanasia and 66% of turtles admitted for unknown causes of stranding died either unassisted or by euthanasia. All turtles recorded as having a buoyancy disorder with no other presenting problem or disorder recorded, were released alive. In Queensland, rehabilitation costs approximately $1,000 per animal per year admitted to a center, $2,583 per animal per year released, and $123,750 per animal per year for marine turtles which are presumably successfully returned to the functional population. This practice may not be economically viable in its present configuration, but may be more cost effective as a mobile response unit. Further there is certainly benefit giving individual turtles a chance at survival and educating the public in the perils facing marine turtles. As well, rehabilitation can provide insight into the diseases and environmental

  7. Screening mitochondrial DNA sequence variation as an alternative method for tracking established and outbreak populations of Queensland fruit fly at the species southern range limit

    OpenAIRE

    Blacket, Mark J.; Malipatil, Mali B.; Semeraro, Linda; Gillespie, Peter S.; Dominiak, Bernie C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the relationship between incursions of insect pests and established populations is critical to implementing effective control. Studies of genetic variation can provide powerful tools to examine potential invasion pathways and longevity of individual pest outbreaks. The major fruit fly pest in eastern Australia, Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), has been subject to significant long?term quarantine and population reduction control measures in the major ho...

  8. Estimating the risk of a scuba diving fatality in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, John; Stevenson, Christopher; McD Taylor, David; Williams, Jo

    2016-12-01

    There are few data available on which to estimate the risk of death for Australian divers. This report estimates the risk of a scuba diving fatality for Australian residents, international tourists diving in Queensland, and clients of a large Victorian dive operator. Numerators for the estimates were obtained from the Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific dive fatality database. Denominators were derived from three sources: Participation in Exercise, Recreation and Sport Surveys, 2001-2010 (Australian resident diving activity data); Tourism Research Australia surveys of international visitors to Queensland 2006-2014 and a dive operator in Victoria 2007-2014. Annual fatality rates (AFR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using an exact binomial test. Estimated AFRs were: 0.48 (0.37-0.59) deaths per 100,000 dives, or 8.73 (6.85-10.96) deaths per 100,000 divers for Australian residents; 0.12 (0.05-0.25) deaths per 100,000 dives, or 0.46 (0.20-0.91) deaths per 100,000 divers for international visitors to Queensland; and 1.64 (0.20-5.93) deaths per 100,000 dives for the dive operator in Victoria. On a per diver basis, Australian residents are estimated to be almost twenty times more likely to die whilst scuba diving than are international visitors to Queensland, or to lower than fourfold on a per dive basis. On a per dive basis, divers in Victoria are fourteen times more likely to die than are Queensland international tourists. Although some of the estimates are based on potentially unreliable denominator data extrapolated from surveys, the diving fatality rates in Australia appear to vary by State, being considerably lower in Queensland than in Victoria. These estimates are similar to or lower than comparable overseas estimates, although reliability of all such measurements varies with study size and accuracy of the data available.

  9. Counting (green) jobs in Queensland's waste and recycling sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Georgina

    2013-09-01

    The waste and recycling sector has been identified as a green industry and, as such, jobs within this sector may be classed as 'green jobs'. Many governments have seen green jobs as a way of increasing employment, particularly during the global financial crisis. However, the methods used to define and quantify green jobs directly affect the quantification of these green jobs. In December 2010, Queensland introduced a waste strategy that stated intent to increase green jobs within the waste sector. This article discusses the milieu and existing issues associated with quantifying green jobs within Queensland's waste and recycling sector, and provides a review of the survey that has sought to quantify the true size of the Queensland industry sector. This research has identified nearly 5500 jobs in Queensland's private waste management and recycling sector, which indicates that official data do not accurately reflect the true size of the sector.

  10. A Survey of Intestinal Parasites of Domestic Dogs in Central Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gillespie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Australia has a very high rate of dog ownership, which in some circumstances may lead to exposure to zoonotic parasitic diseases from those companion animals. Domestic dog faecal samples (n = 300 were collected from public spaces and private property in the greater Rockhampton (Central Queensland region and tested for intestinal helminths and protozoa by direct microscopy, two flotation methods and a modified acid-fast stain for cryptosporidia. Intestinal parasites detected included hookworms (25%, Cystoisospora ohioensis complex (9%, Blastocystis hominis (3%, Giardia duodenalis (3%, Spirometra erinacei (1% and Toxocara canis (1%, Sarcocystis spp. (2%, Cryptosporidium spp. (2% and Cystoisospora canis (1%. One infection each with Trichuris vulpis, Dipylidium caninum and a protozoa belonging to the Entamoeba histolytica complex were identified. Sheather’s sucrose centrifugal flotation was more sensitive than saturated salt passive flotation, but no single test detected all cases of parasitic infection identified. The test methodologies employed are poor at recovering larva of Strongyloides stercoralis, Aleurostrongylus abstrussis and eggs of cestodes such as Echinococcus granulosis, so the potential presence of these parasites in Central Queensland domestic dogs cannot be excluded by this survey alone.

  11. Size, sex and seasonal patterns in the assemblage of Carcharhiniformes in a sub-tropical bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S M; Bennett, M B

    2013-01-01

    Size, sex and seasonal patterns among Carcharhiniformes were examined in shallow regions of Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. A total of 1259 sharks were caught, comprising 13 species. The Australian sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon taylori and the blacktip complex Carcharhinus limbatus-Carcharhinus tilstoni comprised 55% of all shark individuals. Neonates were observed for five species including the dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus, which contrary to previous reports was relatively abundant in shallow, predominantly estuarine waters. Three contrasting patterns of occurrence were observed: smaller species were abundant and present throughout much of their ontogeny, larger species were mainly caught as neonates or juveniles and vagrant species were only caught during the warmer months. The shark assemblage differed significantly among seasons. While many species were observed during the warmer months, species diversity was lower in winter when C. obscurus comprised 43% of the catch. Overall, the results indicated that spatial and temporal distribution patterns were not synchronous for all species. The capture of small numbers of neonate C. obscurus in late autumn and winter demonstrates that parturition among Carcharhiniformes is not confined to spring and summer in sub-tropical waters. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Towards Distributed Citizen Participation: Lessons from WikiLeaks and the Queensland Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Bruns

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the rapid and ad hoc development and interactions of participative citizen communities during acute events, using the examples of the 2011 floods in Queensland, Australia, and the global controversy surrounding Wikileaks and its spokesman, Julian Assange. The self-organising community responses to such events which can be observed in these cases bypass or leapfrog, at least temporarily, most organisational or administrative hurdles which may otherwise frustrate the establishment of online communities; they fast-track the processes of community development and structuration. By understanding them as a form of rapid prototyping, e-democracy initiatives can draw important lessons from observing the community activities around such acute events.

  13. North Queensland midwives' experience with a team model of midwifery care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sandra B; Moore, Heather D; Eaton, Annie

    2004-03-01

    This qualitative study investigated midwives' perception of a team midwifery model of care implemented in North Queensland, Australia. A midwifery model of care is the use of primary health care principles to deliver care throughout the woman's entire pregnancy and postpartum period in partnership with other members of the health care team. Four focus groups were undertaken with 22 midwives to determine their perception of the team midwifery model of care. The study found the experience of the team midwifery model of care for midwives had been influenced by organisational characteristics, team structures, and accountability. Recommendations from this study include the need for an appropriate environmental scan and implementation of planning process and team building before the introduction of any new model of care, transportability of health care services to any new model of care, and a shared governance to allow midwives to meet both organisational and professional goals.

  14. Solar UVR exposures of three groups of outdoor workers on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gies, H.P.; Roy, C.R.; Toomey, S.; MacLennan, R.; Watson, M.

    1995-01-01

    The solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposures of three groups of outdoor workers, physical education (PE) teachers, ground staff/gardeners and lifeguards were measured using UVR-sensitive polysulfone (PS) film badges. The exposures all took place on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland over 5 consecutive weekdays in November 1992. For the three groups, the shoulder badges received greater UVR exposures than the chest badges, in agreement with previous studies. The PE teachers received the highest UVR exposures while the lifeguards received the least. One of the 5 days of the study was overcast with some rain showers and UVR doses for this day for all groups was significantly lower than on the other 4 days, however the ratio of exposure to ambient remained relatively constant. All groups had measured UVR exposures in excess of occupational guidelines, indicating that protective measures, including education and behaviour modification, which are becoming much more common in occupational situations in Australia, are both timely and necessary. (author)

  15. Queensland set to expand coal operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    In addition to new coal mines which came on line in 2006 (as mentioned on pp 8-12 in this issue in the article entitled 'Coal production, exports and new mine developments' a number of advanced coal projects are at various stages of assessment and most are proceeding through the statutory approvals process while others are progressing to and beyond pre-feasibility studies. An overview of several of these projects is given in the article. These are: development of the Clermont open-cut thermal project; expanding open-cut operations at Ensham Central; assessing development of the Glen Wilga and Haystack Road deposits; and development at mines at Goonyella-Riverside, Hail Creek, Monto, Lenton, New Acland, Olive Downs, Peak Downs, Sonoma and Vermont. Coal exploration developments, particularly in the Bowen Basin, are reported, together with work in progress under the AUS $20 m Smart Exploration program. Figures are given for private expenditure on coal exploration, exploration, permits for coal received and active exploration permits for coal for June 1997 to June 2006. The article is part of a review called 'Queensland Mining and Production Industries 2006'. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Diagnostic and treatment pathways for men with prostate cancer in Queensland: investigating spatial and demographic inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baade Peter D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of diagnosis and management for men diagnosed with prostate cancer in Queensland, Australia, have not yet been systematically documented and so assumptions of equity are untested. This longitudinal study investigates the association between prostate cancer diagnostic and treatment outcomes and key area-level characteristics and individual-level demographic, clinical and psychosocial factors. Methods/Design A total of 1064 men diagnosed with prostate cancer between February 2005 and July 2007 were recruited through hospital-based urology outpatient clinics and private practices in the centres of Brisbane, Townsville and Mackay (82% of those referred. Additional clinical and diagnostic information for all 6609 men diagnosed with prostate cancer in Queensland during the study period was obtained via the population-based Queensland Cancer Registry. Respondent data are collected using telephone and self-administered questionnaires at pre-treatment and at 2 months, 6 months, 12 months, 24 months, 36 months, 48 months and 60 months post-treatment. Assessments include demographics, medical history, patterns of care, disease and treatment characteristics together with outcomes associated with prostate cancer, as well as information about quality of life and psychological adjustment. Complementary detailed treatment information is abstracted from participants' medical records held in hospitals and private treatment facilities and collated with health service utilisation data obtained from Medicare Australia. Information about the characteristics of geographical areas is being obtained from data custodians such as the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Geo-coding and spatial technology will be used to calculate road travel distances from patients' residences to treatment centres. Analyses will be conducted using standard statistical methods along with multilevel regression models including individual and area-level components

  17. Evaluation of a lateral flow immunoassay for field identification of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to improve surveillance capacity for the exotic red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) was recently evaluated by Biosecurity Queensland staff in Australia. The purpose of the research was to assess the ability of the fire ant LFA to discriminate S. i...

  18. The Secondary School Principal in Australia and New Zealand: An Investigation of Changing Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Neil; Ehrich, Lisa; Billot, Jennie

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the roles and workloads of secondary school principals from Queenslands, Australia, and New Zealand. Finds, for example, that pressure in the role and hours worked per week had increased compared with previous years. Overall principals were highly satisfied with their roles. Provides discussion of skills and competencies required of…

  19. Buruli Ulcer Disease in Travelers and Differentiation of Mycobacterium ulcerans Strains from Northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Caroline J.; Globan, Maria; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Charles, Patrick G. P.; Jenkin, Grant A.; Ghosh, Niladri; Clark, Benjamin M.; Martinello, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing infection of skin and soft tissue caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. In Australia, most cases of BU are linked to temperate, coastal Victoria and tropical, northern Queensland, and strains from these regions are distinguishable by variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing. We present an epidemiological investigation of five patients found to have been infected during interstate travel and describe two nucleotide polymorphisms that differentiate M. ulcerans strains from northern Australia. PMID:22875890

  20. "Hats off, gentlemen, to our Australian mothers!" Representations of white femininity in North Queensland in the early twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningham, N

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines some representations of the anxiety and uncertainty about "white woman's place" in tropical North Queensland that were present in medical and general discourse in the early twentieth century. It focuses on white women's work in the private sphere as both the source of and the solution to these anxieties. Although 'White Australia' had been legislatively established in the "public sphere" by the 1920s, through the passage of the Queensland Aboriginal Protection Act of 1897, and the Commonwealth Immigration Restriction Act of 1901, in the tropics there was still public concern about how it would be established in the "private sphere". This was because even though the conventional wisdom that a white man could not work in the tropics and remain healthy had been successfully challenged by the early twentieth century, the same could not be said about such wisdom as it applied to white women and children. This paper looks at some of the ways that ideologies of race and gender intersected in the early twentieth century to construct white women and children as a group that could bring down the successful establishment of "White Australia", and this group was specially targeted for surveillance by the "new experts" of medicine, sociology and domestic science.

  1. Management of waste from uranium mining and milling in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.; Levins, D.; Ring, B.; Zuk, W.

    1997-01-01

    Australia has a long history of uranium mining. Most of the early production came from Rum Jungle in the Northern Territory and Mary Kathleen in Queensland. The second generation of uranium mines (Ranger, Nabarlek and Olympic Dam) came on line in the 1970s and 1980s at a time of increased environmental awareness and public scrutiny. The waste management practices at these mines are in accordance with best practicable technology for the uranium mining industry. This paper describes Australia's experience in managing the front end of the fuel cycle; uranium mining and ore processing. (orig.)

  2. Online reporting of pseudoephedrine pharmacy sales: does Australia require a mandatory system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaney, Madonna; Ferris, Jason; Mazerolle, Lorraine

    2014-11-03

    The objective of our research was to compare the reported pharmacy sales of pseudoephedrine-based medication in state where the electronic recording of sales is mandatory, Queensland, with a state where recording is voluntary, Victoria. Unidentified, unit-record, pseudoephedrine-based medication transaction data (known as ProjectSTOP), for both states, were made available by GuildLink Pty Ltd, the data custodians. Data provided dated from roll-out, 8 November 2005 (Queensland) and 10 August 2007 (Victoria) to 16 October 2012 (the last entry at the time of request). Data were stored on a secure, password-protected computer at the University of Queensland, Australia, where it was prepared and analysed. The rate of uptake of ProjectSTOP in Queensland compared with Victoria differed significantly; 1 year after roll-out, 72% of pharmacies in Queensland had used the system compared with 41% in Victoria. There were significant differences in transaction rates between Queensland and Victoria; the transaction rate in Queensland was four times greater than Victoria 1 year after roll-out. Our data show that Victoria captured fewer cases of multiple purchases using the same identification (i.e. suspected pseudo-runner activity) than in Queensland (112 compared with 517 cases in 2011). Our findings show, not surprisingly, that by making the electronic recording of pseudoephedrine-based medication sales mandatory, there is increased uptake and use of the recording system ProjectSTOP. Importantly, by using ProjectSTOP comprehensively, the data can provide useful intelligence for the identification of trends and patterns of activity in relation to the diversion of pseudoephedrine-based medications. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Australia's uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampson, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: structure of the uranium industry in Australia (export policies; development of mining programme; table of export contracts approved by Australian government, 1972; government policy towards the industry 1972-75 and since 1975); reserves (table of Australia's major uranium deposits; estimated world resources of uranium, excluding USSR, Eastern Europe and China; comparison of exploration expenditures and discovery of uranium in Australia and the USA); enrichment; resource potential; future demand (table of nuclear power reactors above 30 MW in operation or under construction, mid-1979; projection of Australian uranium production to 1990); government and union action. (U.K.)

  4. Radiation oncology medical physics education and training in Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, M.P.; Thomas, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The training education and accreditation program (TEAP) for radiation oncology commenced formally in Queensland in 2008 with an initial intake of nine registrars. In 2011 there are 17 registrars across four ACPSEM accredited Queensland Health departments (Mater Radiation Oncology Centre, Princess Alexandria Hospital, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Townsville Hospital). The Queensland Statewide Cancer Services Plan 2008-2017 outlines significant expansion to oncology services including increases in total number of treatment machines from 14 (2007) to 29-31 (2017) across existing and new clinical departments. A direct implication of this will be the number of qualified ROMPs needed to maintain and develop medical physics services. This presentation will outline ongoing work in the ROMP education and Training portfolio to develop, facilitate and provide training activities for ROMPs undertaking TEAP in the Queensland public system. Initiatives such as Department of Health and Aging scholarships for medical physics students, and the educational challenges associated with competency attainment will also be discussed in greater detail.

  5. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly.

  6. Mex Bay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-02-23

    Feb 23, 2015 ... surveys to assess the vulnerability of the most important physical and eutrophication parameters along. El- Mex Bay coast. As a result of increasing population and industrial development, poorly untreated industrial waste, domestic sewage, shipping industry and agricultural runoff are being released to the.

  7. Effectiveness of bevacizumab and cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer across selected public hospitals in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Suzannah J; McKavanagh, Daniel; Burge, Matthew E; McPherson, Ian; Walpole, Euan; Hollingworth, Samantha A

    2017-10-01

    Metastatic colorectal cancer has a large burden of disease in Australia. Medical therapy is fundamental to extending survival and improving quality of life. The benefits of two costly medicines, bevacizumab and cetuximab, used in Australia remain unclear. The aim of this study was to retrospectively examine the use of these two medicines in metastatic colorectal cancer across five public hospitals in south east Queensland and to compare clinical outcomes to those of published clinical trials. We extracted data from the chemotherapy prescribing database for patients planned for bevacizumab or cetuximab therapy between 2009 and 2013. Median overall survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. There were 490 bevacizumab-containing protocols planned and 292 patients received at least one dose of bevacizumab. Median overall survival was 17.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.4-19.3). Of 208 planned cetuximab-containing protocols, 134 patients received at least one dose of cetuximab. Median overall survival was 9.1 months (95% CI, 7.6-12.0). Thirty-day mortality rates from date of first dose were 0.7% for bevacizumab and 7.5% for cetuximab. Overall survival of patients receiving bevacizumab and cetuximab was consistent with clinical trials, providing some assurance that benefits seen in trials are observed in usual practice. This study provides a methodology of using routinely collected health data for clinical monitoring and research. Because of the high cost of these medicines and the lack of toxicity data in this study, further analysis in the postmarketing setting should be explored. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Ultrafine particles over Eastern Australia: an airborne survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Junkermann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine particles (UFP in the atmosphere may have significant impacts on the regional water and radiation budgets through secondary effects on cloud microphysics. Yet, as these particles are invisible for current remote sensing techniques, knowledge about their three-dimensional distribution, source strengths and budgets is limited. Building on a 40-yr-old Australia-wide airborne survey which provides a reference case study of aerosol sources and budgets, this study presents results from a new airborne survey over Eastern Australia, northern New South Wales and Queensland. Observations identified apparent changes in the number and distribution of major anthropogenic aerosol sources since the early 1970s, which might relate to the simultaneously observed changes in rainfall patterns over eastern Queensland. Coal-fired power stations in the inland areas between Brisbane and Rockhampton were clearly identified as the major sources for ultrafine particulate matter. Sugar mills, smelters and shipping along the coast close to the Ports of Townsville and Rockhampton were comparable minor sources. Airborne Lagrangian plume studies were applied to investigate source strength and ageing properties within power station plumes. Significant changes observed, compared to the measurements in the 1970s, included a significant increase in the number concentration of UFP related to coal-fired power station emissions in the sparsely populated Queensland hinterland coincident with the area with the most pronounced reduction in rainfall.

  9. Occupational therapy services for adult neurological clients in Queensland and therapists' use of telehealth to provide services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Tammy; Cantoni, Nicola

    2008-12-01

    Occupational therapy is an important component of neurological rehabilitation. Clients in rural areas have fewer opportunities to receive rehabilitation than those in metropolitan areas. Telehealth is a potential method of closing these gaps in service delivery, although research into telehealth applications for neurological rehabilitation is extremely limited. To assist in the development of appropriate telehealth applications, this study aimed to identify the nature of occupational therapy services for neurological rehabilitation in areas of Queensland other than the capital city of Brisbane, the barriers to service delivery, and the current uses of various information and communication technologies among occupational therapists. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to occupational therapists working in adult neurological rehabilitation in all areas of Queensland other than the capital city of Brisbane. Contact details were obtained from OT AUSTRALIA Queensland. Responses were received from 39 eligible participants. The client's home was the most frequent setting in which participants saw clients. Home visits and modifications, equipment prescription, client/family education, and activities of daily living assessment and retraining were the most common interventions provided by participants. Frequently identified barriers to service provision included travelling distance to clients, large workloads and limited resources. Telephone, email, fax, the Internet and videoconferencing were available in most workplaces. Few participants used the Internet or videoconferencing for purposes other than continuing professional development. Home-based assessment and intervention appear to be frequent components of occupational therapy practice among therapists working in neurological rehabilitation. The use of telehealth to provide direct home-based client services is currently limited, but should be explored as a possible solution to overcome some of the identified

  10. Patterns and perceptions of physical activity and sedentary time in male transport drivers working in regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jason Y L; Gilson, Nicholas D; Bush, Robert A; Brown, Wendy J

    2014-08-01

    To objectively measure physical activity (PA) patterns and sedentary time, and explore perceptions of workplace PA opportunities in regional male transport workers. A multi-method study involving 28 drivers (52.4±9.69 years) working at a bus company in South-East Queensland, Australia. PA was measured using accelerometers (n=23) to determine the proportion of time spent in sedentary (take advantage of existing workplace-related PA opportunities. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  11. The nuclear industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    The history of the development of the nuclear industry in Australia is essentially the history of uranium mining. Australia is a significant exporter of uranium concentrate yellowcake, but no other nuclear power or fuel cycle activity exists on a commercial scale. Industrial radiation processing and the production of radioisotopes and radio-pharmaceuticals are the only other endeavors. The uranium mining in early years and the second discovery period, the policy formulation in 1970s and the recent policy development are described. Australia's low cost reserve has risen to 474,000 t U, and in 1984, three mines produced around 4,400 t U as yellowcake. Once the Jervis Bay nuclear power plant with 500 MWe capacity was planned, but the project was postponed indefinitely. The Uranium Enrichment Group of Australia planned to build an enrichment plant as a joint venture with URENCO Ltd., but also this plan was interrupted. The lack of expansion into nuclear power and fuel cycle activities has been due to favorable fossil fuel resources and their distribution, population density and distribution, social factors and government policy in Australia. (Kako, I.)

  12. Bull Riding Injuries In Central Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan James Livingston

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Bull riding is an increasingly popular and growing professional sport in Australia. This is the first national study that investigates bull riding-related injuries. Method A six-year retrospective study of patients admitted to Rockhampton Base Hospital with acute injuries sustained whilst bull riding. Patients were identified from the Rockhampton Hospital international coding system and surgical audit excel databases. Supporting information was found from patient chart review. Results Thirty-eight patients were admitted during the study. Injuries increased from 2008. The most common injuries were to limbs (52%, chest (15% and brain (10%. Life-threatening injuries were all caused by a direct kick or trampling by the bull; 5% of patients needed air transfer to Brisbane, and 10% to Rockhampton for their acute care. The only complication was infection of open wounds. The average hospital stay was 2.2 (range= 1-5, SD= 1.1 days and 64% of patients required operative intervention. Conclusion Patients that had been kicked or trampled should be identified as having potentially life-threatening injuries, and transferred for review at an appropriate facility. Due to the high risk of infection all contaminated wounds should be washed out formally and receive antibiotics. Protective equipment should be encouraged among riders.

  13. Microsatellite analysis of the Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae) indicates spatial structuring: implications for population control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H; Frommer, M; Robson, M K; Meats, A W; Shearman, D C; Sved, J A

    2001-04-01

    The population structure of a tephritid pest species, the Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), has been analysed over a five year period (1994-1998), using six microsatellites. Adult fly samples were collected to cover most regions of eastern and central Australia where the flies are regularly found. Tests for heterogeneity indicated that flies within geographically defined regions were homogeneous. The samples were allocated into five regions, including one very large region, Queensland, which encompasses that portion of the fly's range where breeding can occur year-round. With one exception, the collections from different regions were homogeneous between years, showing a fairly static distribution of the species. However, differences between regions were highly significant. The one case of a change in frequency between years indicated a gradual replacement of flies in a marginal region by flies from the main part of the range. The finding of stability in the distribution of a highly mobile insect is of interest, potentially also for other species which have expanded beyond their native range. It is argued that a contributing reason for this stability may be adaptation to different climatic regimes, and that strategies for control based on this hypothesis afford a reasonable chance of success.

  14. Alcohol-related emergency department injury presentations in Queensland adolescents and young adults over a 13-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hides, Leanne; Limbong, Jesani; Vallmuur, Kirsten; Barker, Ruth; Daglish, Mark; Young, Ross McD

    2015-03-01

    The rate of alcohol-related emergency department (ED) presentations in young people has increased dramatically in recent decades. Injuries are the most common type of youth alcohol-related ED presentation, yet little is known about these injuries in young people. This paper describes the characteristics of alcohol-related ED injury presentations in young people over a 13-year period and determines if they differ by gender and/or age group (adolescents: 12-17 years; young adults: 18-24 years). The Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit (QISU) database collects injury surveillance data at triage in participating EDs throughout Queensland, Australia. A total of 4667 cases of alcohol-related injuries in young people (aged 12-24 years) were identified in the QISU database between January 1999 and December 2011, using an injury surveillance code and nursing triage text-based search strategy. Overall, young people accounted for 38% of all QISU alcohol-related ED injury presentations in patients aged 12 years or over. The majority of young adults presented with injuries due to violence and falls, whereas adolescents presented due to self-harm or intoxication without other injury. Males presented with injuries due to violence, whereas females presented with alcohol-related self-harm and intoxication. There is a need for more effective ways of identifying the degree of alcohol involvement in injuries among young people presenting to EDs. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  15. At the heart of the industrial boom: Australian snubfin dolphins in the Capricorn Coast, Queensland, need urgent conservation action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnazzi, Daniele; Parra, Guido J; Westley, Shane; Harrison, Peter L

    2013-01-01

    The recent industrial boom along the Australian coastline has increased concerns about the long term conservation of snubfin dolphins along the Queensland coast. National assessment of the conservation status and management of the Australian snubfin dolphin is currently hindered by the lack of adequate biological and ecological information throughout most of its range. In response to the issue of determining the conservation status of species with broad ranges, the IUCN has provided a framework for assessing the threatened status of regional populations. In this study we assessed the conservation status of a small geographically isolated population of snubfin dolphins living in the Fitzroy River region, Queensland, Australia, against the IUCN criteria for regional populations. A review of all available sightings data and stranding information indicates that this is the southernmost resident population of snubfin dolphins in Australian waters. The Fitzroy River snubfin dolphin population is composed of less than 100 individuals, with a representative range and core area of less than 400 and 300 km(2) respectively. The area most often used by snubfin dolphins within the representative range and core area was estimated to be about 292 and 191 km(2), respectively. A decrease in representative range, core area and preferred habitat between 14 and 25% is projected to occur if a planned industrial port development were to occur. These results are robust to uncertainty and considering the low level of formal protection and future threats, a classification of this subpopulation under the IUCN Red List as "Endangered" is appropriate.

  16. Dr John Thomson (1847-1909). Pioneer surgeon, military surgeon and a founder of St John Ambulance in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J; Wales, M

    Surgeon John Thomson (1847-1909), a Scot who made his life's work in Queensland, was a pioneer surgeon, radiologist and bacteriologist, and one of the founders of the St John Ambulance movement in Australia and the Railway Ambulance Corps. He was variously President of the British Medical Association (Queensland Branch), the Medical Board of Queensland, the Medico-Ethical Association, and the Intercolonial Medical Congress, which was held in Brisbane in 1899. A pioneer military surgeon in this country, he was the foundation Principal Medical Officer (as Surgeon-Major) of the Queensland Ambulance Corps within the Queensland Defence Force. His advocacy for a university north of Sydney was one of the factors which led to the foundation of the University of Queensland, a body which honoured him by the establishment of the John Thomson Lectureship, which for half a century was its most prestigious public oration. The life and times of this singular doctor exemplify one small class of pre-Federation medical pioneers whose professional outreach established a number of voluntary organisations which have blossomed in Australian society to the present day.

  17. Frequency of sunburn in Queensland adults: still a burning issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adèle C; Marquart, Louise; Clemens, Susan L; Harper, Catherine M; O'Rourke, Peter K

    2013-05-06

    To assess the current frequency of sunburn, a preventable risk factor for skin cancer, among Queensland adults. Cross-sectional population-based surveys of 16 473 residents aged ≥ 18 2013s across Queensland in 2009 and 2010. Proportion of the adult population reporting sunburn (skin reddening lasting 12 hours or more) during the previous weekend, by age, sex and other risk factors. One in eight men and one in 12 women in Queensland reported being sunburnt on the previous weekend. Age up to 65 2013s was the strongest predictor of sunburn: eg, people aged 18-24 2013s were seven times more likely (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 7.35; 95% CI, 5.09-10.62) and those aged 35-44 2013s were five times more likely (adjusted OR, 5.22) to report sunburn compared with those aged ≥ 65 2013s. Not having a tertiary education and being in the workforce were also significantly associated with sunburn. Those who had undertaken any physical activity the previous week were more likely to be sunburnt than those who were physically inactive. Sunburn was significantly less likely among people who generally took sun-protective measures in summer. Sunburn was not related to location of residence, socioeconomic disadvantage, skin colour, body weight or current smoking status. Sunburn remains a public health problem among Queensland residents, especially those under 45 2013s of age. Sun-safe habits reduce sunburn risk, but advice must be integrated with health promotion messages regarding physical activity to reduce the skin cancer burden while maintaining active wellbeing.

  18. Towards indirect potable reuse in South East Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traves, W H; Gardner, E A; Dennien, B; Spiller, D

    2008-01-01

    Faced with limited water supply options in the longer term and the worst drought on record in the short term, the Queensland Government is constructing the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project which will supply up to 182 ML/day of purified recycled water for industrial and potable purposes. The project is one of a suite of capital works projects in progress which in the longer term will supply up to 10% of the region's potable water supply. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  19. The University of Queensland échelle spectrograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M. J.

    1996-11-01

    Many stars display variations in their light output. These variable stars are commonly studied using stellar photometry. In some cases, however, the variations are irregular with sudden "outbursts" occurring. In these cases the availability of more advanced instrumentation, such as spectrographs, would be desirable. This paper describes the University of Queensland échelle spectrograph, which is being developed for use as part of an automated photometric observing system.

  20. Unsettling Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    This book is a critical intervention into debates on Australia's cultural history. The book demonstrates the interconnectedness of themes commonly seen as separate discursive formations, and shows the fruitfulness of bringing a combined cultural studies and postcolonial approach to bear on a number...

  1. Impacts of groundwater discharge at Myora Springs (North Stradbroke Island, Australia on the phenolic metabolism of eelgrass, Zostera muelleri, and grazing by the juvenile rabbitfish, Siganus fuscescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Arnold

    Full Text Available Myora Springs is one of many groundwater discharge sites on North Stradbroke Island (Queensland, Australia. Here spring waters emerge from wetland forests to join Moreton Bay, mixing with seawater over seagrass meadows dominated by eelgrass, Zostera muelleri. We sought to determine how low pH/high CO2 conditions near the spring affect these plants and their interactions with the black rabbitfish (Siganus fuscescens, a co-occurring grazer. In paired-choice feeding trials S. fuscescens preferentially consumed Z. muelleri shoots collected nearest to Myora Springs. Proximity to the spring did not significantly alter the carbon and nitrogen contents of seagrass tissues but did result in the extraordinary loss of soluble phenolics, including Folin-reactive phenolics, condensed tannins, and phenolic acids by ≥87%. Conversely, seagrass lignin contents were, in this and related experiments, unaffected or increased, suggesting a shift in secondary metabolism away from the production of soluble, but not insoluble, (polyphenolics. We suggest that groundwater discharge sites such as Myora Springs, and other sites characterized by low pH, are likely to be popular feeding grounds for seagrass grazers seeking to reduce their exposure to soluble phenolics.

  2. Biological Survey of Marine Communities around Triangular Island (Shoalwater Bay, Queensland),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    15 - 48 P. koelreuteri 11 16 - - 12 - - 39 P. plebejus 10 20 - 3 4 1 - 38 L. valaiensis 7 17 1 4 - - - 29 A. australis - 8 10 1 2 - - 21 M. georgii 3...maculata S. hamiltoni P. plebejus II. Fish collected on Little Bang and East Beaches only: A. sclerolepsis A. australis P. koelreuteri T. jarbua L...PHYLUM ARTHROPODA CLASS CRUSTACEA ORDER DECAPODA FAMILY PENAEIDAE Penaeus plebejus Hess Eastern king prawn PHYLUM CHORDATA CLASS ELASMOBRANCHII ORDER

  3. Dust settles at Dalrymple Bay Terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    With an annual loading capacity approaching 60Mt, Queensland's Dalrymple Bay Coal Terminal is one of the largest and most efficient coal export facilities in Australia. Each day, DBCT handles thousands of tonnes of coal transported directly from the Bowen Basin via an electrified railway and bound, ultimately, for out-loading onto bulk carrier ships. It is little wonder then that dust control and an accurate knowledge of coal moisture content are key priorities for DBCT. In early 2004, these priorities, together with an undertaking to the Co-ordinator General to reduce dust emissions, saw DBCT investigate the CSIRO-developed Low Frequency Microwave (LFM) Moisture Analyser. The LFM Analyser is specifically designed to deliver accurate, online measurements of moisture in continuous on-conveyor applications. At this stage, it was already enjoying significant success in the iron ore market with BHP Billiton Iron Ore investing in multiple units as part of its moisture control strategy for the Marra Mamba ore-types. The LFM Analysers, now being commercialised by spin-out company Intalysis, were commissioned in July 2004. Babcock and Brown Infrastructure (BBI), the company that holds the long-term leasehold of DBCT, was heavily involved in the analyser's commissioning. BBI's electrical supervisor Doug Mitchell says the analyser offers the means for DBCT to meet the environmental conditions of the terminal license while at the same time enabling it to meet its individual contract obligations with the terminal customers. 'This basically involves ensuring the moisture content for each coal type does not exceed that which has been agreed upon with terminal customer,' Mitchell says. DBCT has installed two analysers on the in loading conveyors, each about 100m from the coal discharge hoppers. They are fitted to steel cord belts at a nominal speed of around 6m/sec that carry the coal to either 4250tph or 5500tph yard stacking machines, depending on the string selected for

  4. Further studies on tritium tracing of soil moisture for rainwater infiltration measurements in Gatton, Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmasiri, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    Further to preliminary results presented at the last SPERA 96 conference in Darwin, final results based on two years of measurements are summarised here. The tritium tracer was injected in April 1995 at 10 sites scattered in Gatton experimental area (70 km 2 ) and first sampled in April 1996. The second soil sampling was carried out in May 1997, after a major flood event that took place in May 1996. The sites were named as G 1-10 and the site G-8 was located in Forest Hill to the south of the study area. The vertical tracer distribution was essentially Gaussian in shape indicating piston-type moisture movement. Within the study area the tracer peak movement during 1995-97 was 5-30 cm from the initial depth of injection at 70 cm. The total infiltration ranged from 21-177 mm within two years. The site G 8 located in Forest Hill showed 201 mm of infiltration, with a skewed tracer distribution. The errors of measurement are large due to limitation in depth resolution (10 cm and 5 cm in 1996 and 1997 respectively), rendering the lower infiltration value insignificant. Yet, very small tracer movement in two years clearly indicated the problem of poor recharge through top soil layers to the alluvial aquifer. There are however other sources of recharge from creeks and sandstone outcrops as identified using stable isotopes. The Crowley Vale irrigation area (7 km 2 ) has already exhausted its groundwater by the middle of 1997, having little or no impact after the major flood in May 1996

  5. IMPLEMENTASI SISTER PROVINCE PROVINSI JAWA TENGAH DENGAN NEGARA BAGIAN QUEENSLAND AUSTRALIA DI BIDANG PERTANIAN

    OpenAIRE

    Reni Windiani

    2016-01-01

    Globalization on national context has insisted the central government to work together and share duties and rights with the local government in order to achieve the national interest.  In Indonesia, UU 32/2004 about local government provide the chance for them to become more active in foreign policy, such as doing the cooperation in sister province/sister city program. The Central Java Province had done many sister province/sister city program with some partners aboard, such as Fujian pro...

  6. Implementasi Sister Province Provinsi Jawa Tengah Dengan Negara Bagian Queensland Australia Di Bidang Pertanian

    OpenAIRE

    Windiani, Reni

    2014-01-01

    Globalization on national context has insisted the central government to work together and share duties and rights with the local government in order to achieve the national interest. In Indonesia, UU 32/2004 about local government provide the chance for them to become more active in foreign policy, such as doing the cooperation in sister province/sister city program.The Central Java Province had done many sister province/sister city program with some partners aboard, such as Fujian province...

  7. Pasture species selection for revegetation of open-cut coal mine areas in central Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, B.P.; Harwood, M.R.; Hacker, J.B.; Thumma, B.R.; Mott, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper outlines a successful approach that was followed to evaluate grass and legume accessions for revegetation of low fertility and saline coal mine spoils. At the first stage, using seed collection records (passport data) of the Australian Tropical Forages Genetic Resource Centre, a range of grasses and legumes adapted to low rainfall, clay soils and saline areas were selected. At the second stage, legume seed was germinated in NaCl solutions of 0 to 0.2 M and salinity tolerance was assessed based on germination percentage and seedling vigour. At the third stage, germination of legumes was assessed in pots filled with mine top-soil and spoils to be revegetated. Grasses were not included in stages 2 and 3 as adequate passport data was available to select a range of accession for the 4th stage. The fourth stage of evaluation comprised field trails of 10 grass and 10 legume accessions, on two top-soils and two spoils. A stoloniferous from of Urochloa mosamblicensis was the most promising grass providing up to 20% of ground cover 12 months after establishment. Legumes surviving at the end of the first season were Desmanthus subulatus, D. virgatus and Neptunia dimorphantha on top-soil and Clitoria ternatea, Leucaena leucocephala, and Rhynchosia sublobata on the spoil. Depending on long term survival, grass and legume accessions will be released as cultivars for minesite revegetation purposes. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  8. "You Are My Sunshine My Only Sunshine": Current Music Activities in Kindergarten Classrooms in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvis, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Music in early years classrooms is an important learning area for young children. Young children need access to hear different genres of music, learn a variety of repertoire, engage in composing and play musical instruments. With the changing reform agenda in early childhood education however, little is known about the way music is positioned in…

  9. Analysis of Interferometric Radar Data in a Queensland, Australia Tropical Rain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Rodriquez, Ernesto; Chapin, Elaine; Accad, Arnon

    1999-01-01

    The radar flies at 8000 m (24000 ft) above the ground and collects data in swath about 10 km wide. The radar simultaneously collects data from multiple frequencies and is capable of making interferometric radar measurements.

  10. The dynamics of grazed woodlands in southwest Queensland, Australia and their effect on greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J L; Howden, S M; McKeon, G M; Carter, J O; Scanlan, J C

    2001-09-01

    This study outlines the development of an approach to evaluate the sources, sinks, and magnitudes of greenhouse gas emissions from a grazed semiarid rangeland dominated by mulga (Acacia aneura) and how these emissions may be altered by changes in management. This paper describes the modification of an existing pasture production model (GRASP) to include a gas emission component and a dynamic tree growth and population model. An exploratory study was completed to investigate the likely impact of changes in burning practices and stock management on emissions. This study indicates that there is a fundamental conflict between maintaining agricultural productivity and reducing greenhouse gas emissions on a given unit of land. Greater agricultural productivity is allied with the system being an emissions source while production declines and the system becomes a net emissions sink as mulga density increases. Effective management for sheep production results in the system acting as a net source (approximately 60-200 kg CO2 equivalents/ha/year). The magnitude of the source depends on the management strategies used to maintain the productivity of the system and is largely determined by starting density and average density of the mulga over the simulation period. Prior to European settlement, it is believed that the mulga lands were burnt almost annually. Simulations indicate that such a management approach results in the system acting as a small net sink with an average net absorption of greenhouse gases of 14 kg CO2 equivalents/ha/year through minimal growth of mulga stands. In contrast, the suppression of fire and the introduction of grazing results in thickening of mulga stands and the system can act as a significant net sink absorbing an average of 1000 kg CO2 equivalents/ha/year. Although dense mulga will render the land largely useless for grazing, land in this region is relatively inexpensive and could possibly be developed as a cost-effective carbon offset for greenhouse gas emissions elsewhere. These results also provide support for the hypothesis that changes in land management, and particularly, suppression of fire is chiefly responsible for the observed increases in mulga density over the past century.

  11. Incubation temperature, morphology and performance in loggerhead (Caretta caretta turtle hatchlings from Mon Repos, Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L. Sim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine turtles are vulnerable to climate change because their life history and reproduction are tied to environmental temperatures. The egg incubation stage is arguably the most vulnerable stage, because marine turtle eggs require a narrow range of temperatures for successful incubation. Additionally, incubation temperature affects sex, emergence success, morphology and locomotor performance of hatchlings. Hatchlings often experience high rates of predation in the first few hours of their life, and increased size or locomotor ability may improve their chances of survival. Between 2010 and 2013 we monitored the temperature of loggerhead (Caretta caretta; Linnaeus 1758 turtle nests at Mon Repos Rookery, and used these data to calculate a mean three day maximum temperature (T3dm for each nest. We calculated the hatching and emergence success for each nest, then measured the mass, size and locomotor performance of hatchlings that emerged from those nests. Nests with a T3dm greater than 34°C experienced a lower emergence success and produced smaller hatchlings than nests with a T3dm lower than 34°C. Hatchlings from nests with a T3dm below 34°C performed better in crawling and swimming trials than hatchlings from nests with a T3dm above 34°C. Thus even non-lethal increases in global temperatures have the potential to detrimentally affect fitness and survival of marine turtle hatchlings.

  12. Multi-resolution time series imagery for forest disturbance and regrowth monitoring in Queensland, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, M.; Lucas, R.; Bunting, P.; Verbesselt, J.; Armston, J.

    2015-01-01

    High spatio-temporal resolution optical remote sensing data provide unprecedented opportunities to monitor and detect forest disturbance and loss. To demonstrate this potential, a 12-year time series (2000 to 2011) with an 8-day interval of a 30 m spatial resolution data was generated by the use of

  13. Communication of suicide intent by schizophrenic subjects: data from the Queensland Suicide Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Leo Diego

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide in mentally ill subjects, like schizophrenics, remains unbearably frequent in Australia and elsewhere. Since these patients are known to constitute a high-risk group, suicide in them should be amongst the most preventable ones. The objective of this study is to investigate the frequency of suicide communication in subjects with reported history of schizophrenia who completed suicide. Method The Queensland Suicide Register (QSR was utilised to identify suicide cases. Frequency of suicide communication was examined in subjects with schizophrenia, and compared with persons with other psychiatric conditions and with subjects with no reported diagnosis. Socio-demographic variables, history of suicidal behaviour, pharmacological treatment and mental health service utilisation were also compared among the three groups. Results and discussion Subjects with a reported diagnosis of schizophrenia comprised 7.2% (n = 135 of the 1,863 suicides included in this study. Subjects with schizophrenia and those with other psychiatric disorders communicated their suicide intent more frequently than those with no psychiatric diagnosis, and persons with schizophrenia communicated their intent more than those with other psychiatric diagnoses. Seventy one per cent of schizophrenia subjects had contact with a mental health professional within the three months prior to suicide. Conclusion The fact that subjects with schizophrenia had the highest prevalence of suicide intent communication could offer concrete opportunities for suicide prevention.

  14. Australian private midwives with hospital visiting rights in Queensland: Structures and processes impacting clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, J; Brittain, H; Gamble, J

    2017-12-01

    Reporting the outcomes for women and newborns accessing private midwives with visiting rights in Australia is important, especially since this data cannot currently be disaggregated from routinely collected perinatal data. 1) Evaluate the outcomes of women and newborns cared for by midwives with visiting access at one Queensland facility and 2) explore private midwives views about the structures and processes contributing to clinical outcomes. Mixed methods. An audit of the 'all risk' 529 women receiving private midwifery care. Data were compared with national core maternity variables using Chi square statistics. Telephone interviews were conducted with six private midwives and data analysed using thematic analysis. Compared to national data, women with a private midwife were significantly more likely to be having a first baby (49.5% vs 43.6% p=0.007), to commence labour spontaneously (84.7% vs 52.7%, pfundamental to achieving quality outcomes. Midwives valued the governance processes embedded around the model. Private midwives with access to the public system is safe. Ensuring national data collection accurately captures outcomes relative to model of care in both the public and private sector should be prioritised. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Development of an Ecosystem Services Framework for South East Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Simone; James, David; Davidson, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    Extensive research has been conducted globally into conceptual frameworks for ecosystem services, the most notable being the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (Millennium ecosystem assessment: ecosystems and human well-being; a framework for assessment. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, pp 51, 53-55, 2005). The South East Queensland (SEQ) Ecosystem Services Framework (Australia) aims to provide the tools to enable government, industry, business, researchers, non-government organizations and land managers to apply the concept of ecosystem services in their planning and management practices. This article describes the Framework and the process that has produced matrices and maps that identify and illustrate the linkages between ecosystems, ecosystem functions, ecosystem services and the community’s well-being. The matrices and maps derived can identify areas in the region where the most ecosystem services are generated. This allows areas to be considered as valuable natural assets of the region, deserving appropriate protection measures or significant offsets if they are diminished or degraded in any way. Although the Framework requires further refinement and ongoing development, the process applied and the products produced has enabled decision makers to turn the concept of ecosystem services into practical application in SEQ.

  16. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Home Internet Usage Patterns in Central Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wal J. Taylor

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Governments and other policy makers are concerned with the gap in home Internet usage between people from metropolitan and rural areas. A survey conducted in Central Queensland, Australia examined differences in home Internet usage patterns between young and old, male and female, people in urban and rural areas, married and unmarried, well-educated and less educated, rich and poor, and employed and unemployed and found significant differences. These results highlight areas for further research and provide a basis for government agencies and industries to consider these associations in future policy formulation for regional development using ICT. The research suggested that further research should be conducted to monitor consuming behaviors of the youngest age group in Internet use for entertainment and information search in order to detect possible Internet overuse or addiction. In addition, further research should be conducted to find out what people search for on the Internet, and if for employment opportunities, financial incentives are suggested for the unemployed people.

  17. Suicides in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children: analysis of Queensland Suicide Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soole, Rebecca; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2014-12-01

    Suicide rates among Indigenous Australian children are higher than for other Australian children. The current study aimed to identify factors associated with Indigenous child suicide when compared to other Australian children. Using the Queensland Suicide Register, suicides in Indigenous children (10-14 years) and other Australian children in the same age band were compared. Between 2000 and 2010, 45 child suicides were recorded: 21 of Indigenous children and 24 of other Australian children. This corresponded to a suicide rate of 10.15 suicides per 100,000 for Indigenous children - 12.63 times higher than the suicide rate for other Australian children (0.80 per 100,000). Hanging was the predominant method used by all children. Indigenous children were significantly more likely to suicide outside the home, to be living outside the parental home at time of death, and be living in remote or very remote areas. Indigenous children were found to consume alcohol more frequently before suicide, compared to other Australian children. Current and past treatments of psychiatric disorders were significantly less common among Indigenous children compared to other Australian children. Western conceptualisation of mental illness may not adequately embody Indigenous people's holistic perspective regarding mental health. Further development of culturally appropriate suicide prevention activities for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children is required. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  18. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a New Attractant for the Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera Tryoni (Froggatt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderhurst, Matthew S; Park, Soo J; Buller, Caitlyn N; Jamie, Ian M; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Jang, Eric B; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-02-01

    Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Q-fly), is a major pest of horticultural crops in eastern Australia. Lures that attract male Q-fly are important for detection of incursions and outbreaks, monitoring of populations, and control by mass trapping and male annihilation. Cuelure, an analog of naturally occurring raspberry ketone, is the standard Q-fly lure, but it has limited efficacy compared with lures that are available for some other fruit flies such as methyl eugenol for B. dorsalis. Melolure is a more recently developed raspberry ketone analog that has shown better attraction than cuelure in some field studies but not in others. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroacetate (RKTA), has been developed as a potential improvement on cuelure and melolure. RKTA placed on laboratory cages containing 2-week-old Q-flies elicited strong behavioral responses from males. Quantification of Q-fly responses in these cages, using digital images to estimate numbers of flies aggregated near different lures, showed RKTA attracted and arrested significantly more flies than did cuelure or melolure. RKTA shows good potential as a new lure for improved surveillance and control of Q-fly.

  19. Unintentional insecticide poisoning by age: an analysis of Queensland Poisons Information Centre calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Karin; Jagals, Paul; Ware, Robert S; Wylie, Carol; Sly, Peter D

    2016-10-01

    Data from the Queensland Poisons Information Centre (QPIC) was assessed to determine mechanisms of acute insecticide poisoning in young children (analysis of call patterns by age was conducted. Of 743 insecticide-related calls received by QPIC 364 (49.0%) were for young children. The number of calls peaked in children aged one. Ant and cockroach baits accounted for 39.0% of calls. Sprays, which were found to contain not only pyrethroids, pyrethrins and/or piperonly butoxide but also the organophosphate diazinon, accounted for 25.8% of calls. Mouthing or ingesting a pest-control product and consuming an item/insect after treatment were common mechanisms for children under the age of two. Topical exposure to sprays, via direct application, typically by the child or an older sibling, peaked in children aged two. In 12.3% of calls medical attention for the child was already sought or advised by QPIC. Normal behaviours associated with child development, particularly mouthing behaviours, explained the peak of exposure in one-year-olds. This finding should guide strategies to minimise poisonings in this vulnerable population. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  20. Prenatal maternal stress shapes children's theory of mind: the QF2011 Queensland Flood Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, G; Kildea, S; Elgbeili, G; Laplante, D P; Cobham, V; King, S

    2017-08-01

    Research shows that stress in pregnancy has powerful and enduring effects on many facets of child development, including increases in behavior problems and neurodevelopmental disorders. Theory of mind is an important aspect of child development that is predictive of successful social functioning and is impaired in children with autism. A number of factors related to individual differences in theory of mind have been identified, but whether theory of mind development is shaped by prenatal events has not yet been examined. In this study we utilized a sudden onset flood that occurred in Queensland, Australia in 2011 to examine whether disaster-related prenatal maternal stress predicts child theory of mind and whether sex of the child or timing of the stressor in pregnancy moderates these effects. Higher levels of flood-related maternal subjective stress, but not objective hardship, predicted worse theory of mind at 30 months (n=130). Further, maternal cognitive appraisal of the flood moderated the effects of stress in pregnancy on girls' theory of mind performance but not boys'. These results illuminate how stress in pregnancy can shape child development and the findings are discussed in relation to biological mechanisms in pregnancy and stress theory.

  1. Queensland Alcohol-related violence and Night Time Economy Monitoring project (QUANTEM): a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter G; Ferris, Jason; Coomber, Kerri; Zahnow, Renee; Carah, Nicholas; Jiang, Heng; Kypri, Kypros; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Clough, Alan; Livingston, Michael; de Andrade, Dominique; Room, Robin; Callinan, Sarah; Curtis, Ashlee; Mayshak, Richelle; Droste, Nicolas; Lloyd, Belinda; Matthews, Sharon; Taylor, Nicholas; Crane, Meredythe; Thorn, Michael; Najman, Jake

    2017-10-05

    Alcohol-related harm is a substantial burden on the community in Australia and internationally, particularly harm related to risky drinking practices of young people in the night-time economy. This protocol paper describes a study that will report on the changes in a wide range of health and justice outcome measures associated with major policy changes in the state of Queensland, Australia. A key element includes trading hours restrictions for licensed premises to 2 am for the state and 3 am in Safe Night Precincts (SNPs). Other measures introduced include drinks restrictions after midnight, increased patron banning measures for repeat offenders, mandatory ID scanning of patrons in late-night venues, and education campaigns. The primary aim of the study is to evaluate change in the levels of harm due to these policy changes using administrative data (e.g., police, hospital, ambulance, and court data). Other study elements will investigate the impact of the Policy by measuring foot traffic volume in SNPs, using ID scanner data to quantify the volume of people entering venues and measure the effectiveness of banning notices, using patron interviews to quantify the levels of pre-drinking, intoxication and illicit drug use within night-time economy districts, and to explore the impacts of the Policy on business and live music, and costs to the community. The information gathered through this project aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Policy and to draw on these findings to inform future prevention and enforcement approaches by policy makers, police, and venue staff.

  2. Problems Associated with the Microchip Data of Stray Dogs and Cats Entering RSPCA Queensland Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Emily; Rand, Jacquie; Collecott, Sheila; Paterson, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Microchip identification has become an important tool to reunite stray dogs and cats with their owners, and is now compulsory in most states of Australia. Improvement of the microchipping system in Australia is limited by a lack of published Australian data documenting the problems experienced by shelter staff when using microchip data to contact the owner of a stray animal. In this study we determine the character and frequency of inaccurate microchip data to identify weaknesses in the current microchipping system. This information could be used to develop strategies that increase the accuracy of microchip data that will increase the reclaiming of stray animals. Abstract A lack of published information documenting problems with the microchip data for the reclaiming of stray animals entering Australian shelters limits improvement of the current microchipping system. A retrospective study analysing admission data for stray, adult dogs (n = 7258) and cats (n = 6950) entering the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Queensland between January 2012 and December 2013 was undertaken to determine the character and frequency of microchip data problems and their impact on outcome for the animal. Only 28% of dogs and 9% of cats were microchipped, and a substantial proportion (37%) had problems with their data, including being registered to a previous owner or organisation (47%), all phone numbers incorrect/disconnected (29%), and the microchip not registered (14%). A higher proportion of owners could be contacted when the microchip had no problems, compared to those with problems (dogs, 93% vs. 70%; cats, 75% vs. 41%). The proportion of animals reclaimed declined significantly between microchipped animals with no data problems, microchipped animals with data problems and non-microchipped animals—87%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, for dogs and 61%, 33%, and 5%, respectively, for cats. Strategies are needed to increase the accuracy of

  3. Queensland Alcohol-related violence and Night Time Economy Monitoring project (QUANTEM: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G. Miller

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol-related harm is a substantial burden on the community in Australia and internationally, particularly harm related to risky drinking practices of young people in the night-time economy. This protocol paper describes a study that will report on the changes in a wide range of health and justice outcome measures associated with major policy changes in the state of Queensland, Australia. A key element includes trading hours restrictions for licensed premises to 2 am for the state and 3 am in Safe Night Precincts (SNPs. Other measures introduced include drinks restrictions after midnight, increased patron banning measures for repeat offenders, mandatory ID scanning of patrons in late-night venues, and education campaigns. Methods The primary aim of the study is to evaluate change in the levels of harm due to these policy changes using administrative data (e.g., police, hospital, ambulance, and court data. Other study elements will investigate the impact of the Policy by measuring foot traffic volume in SNPs, using ID scanner data to quantify the volume of people entering venues and measure the effectiveness of banning notices, using patron interviews to quantify the levels of pre-drinking, intoxication and illicit drug use within night-time economy districts, and to explore the impacts of the Policy on business and live music, and costs to the community. Discussion The information gathered through this project aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Policy and to draw on these findings to inform future prevention and enforcement approaches by policy makers, police, and venue staff.

  4. Virulence and Evolution of West Nile Virus, Australia, 1960-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prow, Natalie A; Edmonds, Judith H; Williams, David T; Setoh, Yin X; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Suen, Willy W; Hobson-Peters, Jody; van den Hurk, Andrew F; Pyke, Alyssa T; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Northill, Judith A; Johansen, Cheryl A; Warrilow, David; Wang, Jianning; Kirkland, Peter D; Doggett, Stephen; Andrade, Christy C; Brault, Aaron C; Khromykh, Alexander A; Hall, Roy A

    2016-08-01

    Worldwide, West Nile virus (WNV) causes encephalitis in humans, horses, and birds. The Kunjin strain of WNV (WNVKUN) is endemic to northern Australia, but infections are usually asymptomatic. In 2011, an unprecedented outbreak of equine encephalitis occurred in southeastern Australia; most of the ≈900 reported cases were attributed to a newly emerged WNVKUN strain. To investigate the origins of this virus, we performed genetic analysis and in vitro and in vivo studies of 13 WNVKUN isolates collected from different regions of Australia during 1960-2012. Although no disease was recorded for 1984, 2000, or 2012, isolates collected during those years (from Victoria, Queensland, and New South Wales, respectively) exhibited levels of virulence in mice similar to that of the 2011 outbreak strain. Thus, virulent strains of WNVKUN have circulated in Australia for >30 years, and the first extensive outbreak of equine disease in Australia probably resulted from a combination of specific ecologic and epidemiologic conditions.

  5. Language and utilisation of emergency care in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ibrahim; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Chu, Kevin; Clark, Michele

    2013-02-01

    To compare access and utilisation of EDs in Queensland public hospitals between people who speak only English at home and those who speak another language at home. A retrospective analysis of a Queensland statewide hospital ED dataset (ED Information System) from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 was conducted. Access to ED care was measured by the proportion of the state's population attending EDs. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the relationships between ambulance use and language, and between hospital admission and language, both after adjusting for age, sex and triage category. The ED utilisation rate was highest in English only speakers (290 per 1000 population), followed by Arabic speakers (105), and lowest among German speakers (30). Compared with English speakers, there were lower rates of ambulance use in Chinese (odds ratio 0.50, 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.54), Vietnamese (0.87, 0.79-0.95), Arabic (0.87, 0.78-0.97), Spanish (0.56, 0.50-0.62), Italian (0.88, 0.80-0.96), Hindi (0.61, 0.53-0.70) and German (0.87, 0.79-0.90) speakers. Compared with English speakers, German speakers had higher admission rates (odds ratio 1.17, 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.34), whereas there were lower admission rates in Chinese (0.90, 0.86-0.99), Arabic (0.76, 0.67-0.85) and Spanish (0.83, 0.75-0.93) speakers. This study showed that there was a significant association between lower utilisation of emergency care and speaking languages other than English at home. Further researches are needed using in-depth methodology to investigate if there are language barriers in accessing emergency care in Queensland. © 2012 The Authors. EMA © 2012 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  6. Objectives and results of barley breeding in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparrow, D.H.B.

    1990-01-01

    An important current development in Australian barley improvement is the release of semi-dwarf cultivars. These are derived from Abed Deba, Triumph or Aapo which are believed to have an allelic series of mutant genes. A common problem with these genes is their association with relatively late maturity and small grain, limiting current cultivars to rainfall areas above 450mm per annum. The first release 'Skiff' (S.A., N.S.W. 1988) is to be followed by selections from 'Forrest' x 'Aapo' in Western Australia and 'Grimmett' x 'Triumph' in Queensland, whilst 'Triumph' is already being grown in Tasmania. (author)

  7. New Hope Coal Australia: leaders in thin seam coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    New Hope Corporation Ltd.'s coal activities in Queensland are conducted under the business name of New Hope Coal Australia and comprise open-cut mines in the West Moreton coal fields, 40 km west of Brisbane. The company gained an award for its reject co-disposal system and another for its organic overburden conditioning programme. Walloon coal from the Jeebropilly and New Oakleigh open-cut mines has characteristics which are making it increasingly popular as power plant fuel. The article describes operations at these mines and also at Swanbank and Acland. Other projects with which New Hope is involved are mentioned. 4 photos.

  8. The Building Partnerships Program: An Approach to Community-Based Learning for Medical Students in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, Frances M.; Posner, T. Natasha; Mutch, Allyson J.; Farley, Rebecca M.; Dean, Julie H.; Nilsson, Anne-Louise

    2009-01-01

    The Building Partnerships Program at the University of Queensland, Australia seeks to address the dual challenge of preparing doctors who are responsive to the community while providing a meaningful context for social sciences learning. Through partnerships with a diverse range of community agencies, the program offers students opportunities to gain non-clinical perspectives on health and illness through structured learning activities including: family visits; community agency visits and atta...

  9. Novel Borrelia species detected in echidna ticks, Bothriocroton concolor, in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, Siew-May; Gofton, Alexander W.; Lo, Nathan; Gillett, Amber; Ryan, Una M.; Irwin, Peter J.; Oskam, Charlotte L.

    2016-01-01

    Background To date, little has been documented about microorganisms harboured within Australian native ticks or their pathogenic potential. Recently, a Borrelia sp. related to the Relapsing Fever (RF) group was identified in a single tick removed from a wild echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). The present study investigated the presence of Borrelia in 97 Bothriocroton concolor ticks parasitizing echidnas in Queensland, New South Wales, and Victoria, Australia, using nested PCR with Borrelia-spe...

  10. The strange case of Laetesia raveni n. sp., a green linyphiid spider from Eastern Australia with a preference for thorny plants (Araneae, Linyphiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hormiga, Gustavo; Scharff, Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    Laetesia raveni n. sp. (Araneae, Linyphiidae), is described based on specimens collected in New South Wales and Queensland (Australia). This new linyphiid species is of bright green colour, and it seems to have a preference to build its webs almost exclusively on two plant species, namely Calamus...

  11. Redescription of Rhabdochona papuanensis (Nematoda: Thelazioidea), a parasite of rainbow fishes (Melanotaenia spp.); the first record of the species of Rhabdochona in Australia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Adlard, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2016), s. 820-827 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Parasitic nematode * Spirurida * freshwater fish * Melanotaeniidae * Queensland * Australia n mainland Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.160, year: 2016

  12. Echinococcus granulosus in northern Queensland. 1. Prevalence in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, D J D; Copeman, D B; Skerratt, L F; Molina, E C

    2006-09-01

    To determine the prevalence and geographical distribution of hydatidosis and investigate factors that might be expected to influence the prevalence of hydatids in cattle in Queensland north of the Tropic of Capricorn. To determine the effect of natural levels of infection on carcase weight and subsequent economic loss. An abattoir survey conducted in 1981 provided information on the distribution, prevalence and viability of hydatid cysts in cattle from all shires north of the Tropic of Capricorn in Queensland. Livers, lungs and spleens from 10,382 cattle were palpated at abattoirs in Cairns, Townsville and Rockhampton to detect hydatid cysts. Prevalence of infection in cattle in each shire was estimated from results of the abattoir study together with reports of infection in a further 22,185 cattle obtained from abattoir records. Linear modelling was used to define the effect of geographical origin, age, breed and sex on prevalence of infection. Differences in the weights of carcases between infected and non-infected cattle of the same age, sex, breed and property of origin were examined. The economic loss to the beef industry in the region surveyed was estimated. Cattle infected with hydatids originated almost entirely from regions to the east of the Great Dividing Range. The mean prevalence inside this zone was 28% compared with 3% in other areas. Viable protoscoleces were found in 0.7% of cysts. Geographical origin and age of the cattle were the most significant factors influencing prevalence. Infection with hydatids had no effect on carcase weight. Economic loss was limited to that associated with condemnations of organs at meat inspection, estimated to be 0.5 million dollars per annum in 1981 and 6 million dollars in 2004. The distribution of hydatids in Queensland north of the Tropic of Capricorn corresponded most closely with the distribution of small wallabies such as Macropus dorsalis (black-striped wallaby), M parryi (whiptail wallaby) and M rufogriseus

  13. Environmental review of the Mary Kathleen uranium minesite, Northwest Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costelloe, M.T.; Lottermoser, B.G.; Ashley, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The Mary Kathleen uranium deposit, in northwest Queensland, was discovered in 1954 and mined in 19561963 and 1976-1982. Rehabilitation of the site was completed in 1985 and the work won an award for environmental excellence. In 1999 gamma-ray data, plus stream sediment, soil, rock chip, mineral efflorescence, vegetation and water samples were collected from selected sites to assist in the examination of the current environmental status of the rehabilitated area. This paper presents preliminary results and interpretations. In the Mark Kathleen open pit, skarn type U-Th-REE mineralisation is hosted in amphibolite grade metamorphosed calc-silicate, mafic to intermediate igneous and sedimentary rocks. Remnant ore zones are composed of medium to coarse grained garnet and clinopyroxene, with accessory allanite, plagioclase, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite and uraninite. Later retrograde alteration to chlorite, calcite, sericite, epidote and scapolite occurs. Fine grained uraninite is enclosed in allanite, and is partly replaced by metamict products nd traces of galena. Elevated gamma-ray readings in the open pit correspond to exposed ore lenses, the former haul road and abandoned ore stockpiles (up to 16 mSv/year). Surficial oxidation of ore and adjacent sulphide-bearing calc-silicate rocks has led to contemporary precipitation of yellow, orange, green and white mineral efflorescences on the pit walls. Wallrock oxidation of reactive sulphides (mainly pyrrhotite breakdown) produces acidic solutions, however, buffering reactions of these fluids with gangue calc-silicates and carbonate phases prevent low pH conditions from developing. The open pit lake is approximately 40m deep and contains saline (0.15%) surface waters which are Ca-, SO 4 -rich with elevated Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, U and Zn at a pH of 6.11. Waste rock piles are up to 30m thick and have been covered by a thin veneer of benign waste. However, there are high radiation levels on several waste rock piles (up to 20

  14. 1999 road traffic crashes in Queensland : a report on the road toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This report presents an overview of reported road traffic crashes in Queensland for the year : ended 31 December 1999 in the context of the previous five years. : The information in this bulletin is based on data contained in the Queensland Road Cras...

  15. 2000 road traffic crashes in Queensland : a report on the road toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This report presents an overview of reported road traffic crashes in Queensland for the year : ended 31 December 2000 in the context of the previous five years. : The information in this bulletin is based on data contained in the Queensland Road Cras...

  16. 2001 road traffic crashes in Queensland : a report on the road toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents an overview of reported road traffic crashes in Queensland for the year ended 31 December 2001 in the context of the previous five years. : The information in this report is based on data contained in the Queensland Road Crash In...

  17. 2003 road traffic crashes in Queensland : a report on the road toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    This report presents an overiew of reported road traffic crashes in Queensland for the year ended 31 December 2003 in the context of the previous five years, based on data contained in the Queensland Road Crash Information System maintained by the Qu...

  18. 2002 road traffic crashes in Queensland : a report on the road toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    This report presents an overview of reported road traffic crashes in Queensland for the year : ended 31 December 2002 in the context of the previous five years, based on data contained in : the Queensland Road Crash Information System maintained by Q...

  19. Hendra virus: an emerging paramyxovirus in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Suresh; Herrero, Lara J; Playford, E Geoffrey; Spann, Kirsten; Herring, Belinda; Rolph, Michael S; Middleton, Deborah; McCall, Bradley; Field, Hume; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2012-10-01

    Hendra virus, first identified in 1994 in Queensland, is an emerging zoonotic pathogen gaining importance in Australia because a growing number of infections are reported in horses and people. The virus, a member of the family Paramyxoviridae (genus Henipavirus), is transmitted to horses by pteropid bats (fruit bats or flying foxes), with human infection a result of direct contact with infected horses. Case-fatality rate is high in both horses and people, and so far, more than 60 horses and four people have died from Hendra virus infection in Australia. Human infection is characterised by an acute encephalitic syndrome or relapsing encephalitis, for which no effective treatment is currently available. Recent identification of Hendra virus infection in a domestic animal outside the laboratory setting, and the large range of pteropid bats in Australia, underpins the potential of this virus to cause greater morbidity and mortality in both rural and urban populations and its importance to both veterinary and human health. Attempts at treatment with ribavirin and chloroquine have been unsuccessful. Education, hygiene, and infection control measures have hitherto been the mainstay of prevention, while access to monoclonal antibody treatment and development of an animal vaccine offer further opportunities for disease prevention and control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A Coghlan

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus. The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  1. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, Brett A; Goldizen, Anne W; Thomson, Vicki A; Seddon, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales) experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  2. Pest fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Australia: one species or two?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, E C; Sved, J A; Gilchrist, A S

    2010-04-01

    Since 1985, a new and serious fruit fly pest has been reported in northwestern Australia. It has been unclear whether this pest was the supposedly benign endemic species, Bactrocera aquilonis, or a recent introduction of the morphologically near-identical Queensland fruit fly, B. tryoni. B. tryoni is a major pest throughout eastern Australia but is isolated from the northwest region by an arid zone. In the present study, we sought to clarify the species status of these new pests using an extensive DNA microsatellite survey across the entire northwest region of Australia. Population differentiation tests and clustering analyses revealed a high degree of homogeneity within the northwest samples, suggesting that just one species is present in the region. That northwestern population showed minimal genetic differentiation from B. tryoni from Queensland (FST=0.015). Since 2000, new outbreaks of this pest fruit fly have occurred to the west of the region, and clustering analysis suggested recurrent migration from the northwest region rather than Queensland. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing also showed no evidence for the existence of a distinct species in the northwest region. We conclude that the new pest fruit fly in the northwest is the endemic population of B. aquilonis but that there is no genetic evidence supporting the separation of B. aquilonis and B. tryoni as distinct species.

  3. Burden of paediatric pyoderma and scabies in North West Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehall, John; Kuzulugil, Deniz; Sheldrick, Kyle; Wood, Angela

    2013-02-01

    The study aims to assess the health burden of children admitted with 'scabies' to Mt Isa Hospital, the referral centre for North West Queensland, from 2006 to 2010. This is a retrospective chart audit of admissions of children with 'scabies' including age, sex, date, residence, Indigenous status, result of skin swabs and length of stay, and the number of admissions with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and acute post-streptococcal glomerulo-nephritis (APSGN) in that period. Financial burden was estimated from daily bed costs and transportation. There were 113 admissions with mean age of 23/12: 11% were Scabies' accounted for 10.1% of medical admissions resistant. There were 29 admissions for ARF and 23 with APSGN. All children with 'scabies' and ARF and all but three with APSGN were Indigenous. Pyoderma and scabies are major health burdens in North West Queensland, requiring organised community-based prevention. The number of repeat admissions emphasises the futility of individual treatment. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  4. Using probabilistic record linkage methods to identify Australian Indigenous women on the Queensland Pap Smear Register: the National Indigenous Cervical Screening Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Abbey; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Canfell, Karen; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Taylor, Catherine; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of record linkage of existing population-based data sets to determine Indigenous status among women receiving Pap smears. This method may allow for the first ever population measure of Australian Indigenous women's cervical screening participation rates. Setting/participants A linked data set of women aged 20–69 in the Queensland Pap Smear Register (PSR; 1999–2011) and Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR; 1997–2010) formed the Initial Study Cohort. Two extracts (1995–2011) were taken from Queensland public hospitals data (Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection, QHAPDC) for women, aged 20–69, who had ever been identified as Indigenous (extract 1) and had a diagnosis or procedure code relating to cervical cancer (extract 2). The Initial Study Cohort was linked to extract 1, and women with cervical cancer in the initial cohort were linked to extract 2. Outcome measures The proportion of women in the Initial Cohort who linked with the extracts (true -pairs) is reported, as well as the proportion of potential pairs that required clerical review. After assigning Indigenous status from QHAPDC to the PSR, the proportion of women identified as Indigenous was calculated using 4 algorithms, and compared. Results There were 28 872 women (2.1%) from the Initial Study Cohort who matched to an ever Indigenous record in extract 1 (n=76 831). Women with cervical cancer in the Initial Study Cohort linked to 1385 (71%) records in extract 2. The proportion of Indigenous women ranged from 2.00% to 2.08% when using different algorithms to define Indigenous status. The Final Study Cohort included 1 372 823 women (PSR n=1 374 401; QCR n=1955), and 5 062 118 records. Conclusions Indigenous status in Queensland cervical screening data was successfully ascertained through record linkage, allowing for the crucial assessment of the current cervical screening programme for Indigenous women. Our study

  5. Using probabilistic record linkage methods to identify Australian Indigenous women on the Queensland Pap Smear Register: the National Indigenous Cervical Screening Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whop, Lisa J; Diaz, Abbey; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Canfell, Karen; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Taylor, Catherine; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-02-12

    To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of record linkage of existing population-based data sets to determine Indigenous status among women receiving Pap smears. This method may allow for the first ever population measure of Australian Indigenous women's cervical screening participation rates. A linked data set of women aged 20-69 in the Queensland Pap Smear Register (PSR; 1999-2011) and Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR; 1997-2010) formed the Initial Study Cohort. Two extracts (1995-2011) were taken from Queensland public hospitals data (Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection, QHAPDC) for women, aged 20-69, who had ever been identified as Indigenous (extract 1) and had a diagnosis or procedure code relating to cervical cancer (extract 2). The Initial Study Cohort was linked to extract 1, and women with cervical cancer in the initial cohort were linked to extract 2. The proportion of women in the Initial Cohort who linked with the extracts (true -pairs) is reported, as well as the proportion of potential pairs that required clerical review. After assigning Indigenous status from QHAPDC to the PSR, the proportion of women identified as Indigenous was calculated using 4 algorithms, and compared. There were 28,872 women (2.1%) from the Initial Study Cohort who matched to an ever Indigenous record in extract 1 (n=76,831). Women with cervical cancer in the Initial Study Cohort linked to 1385 (71%) records in extract 2. The proportion of Indigenous women ranged from 2.00% to 2.08% when using different algorithms to define Indigenous status. The Final Study Cohort included 1,372,823 women (PSR n=1,374,401; QCR n=1955), and 5,062,118 records. Indigenous status in Queensland cervical screening data was successfully ascertained through record linkage, allowing for the crucial assessment of the current cervical screening programme for Indigenous women. Our study highlights the need to include Indigenous status on Pap smear request and report forms in any

  6. Impact of Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust on Myrtaceae-rich wet sclerophyll forests in south east Queensland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Pegg

    Full Text Available In April 2010, Austropuccinia psidii (formerly Puccinia psidii was detected for the first time in Australia on the central coast of New South Wales. The fungus spread rapidly along the east coast and can now be found infecting vegetation in a range of native forest ecosystems with disease impacts ranging from minor leaf spots to severe shoot and stem blight and tree dieback. Localised extinction of some plant species has been recorded. In 2014, the impact of A. psidii was observed for the first time in a wet sclerophyll site with a rainforest understory, dominated by species of Myrtaceae, in Tallebudgera Valley, south east Queensland, Australia. This study aimed to determine the impact of A. psidii on individual species and species composition. Here we provide quantitative and qualitative evidence on the significant impact A. psidii has in native ecosystems, on a broader range of species than previously reported. Archirhodomyrtus beckleri, Decaspermum humile, Gossia hillii and Rhodamnia maideniana are in serious decline, with significant increases in tree mortality over the period of our study. This research further highlights the potential of this invasive pathogen to negatively impact native ecosystems and biodiversity.

  7. Impact of Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust) on Myrtaceae-rich wet sclerophyll forests in south east Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, Geoff; Taylor, Tamara; Entwistle, Peter; Guymer, Gordon; Giblin, Fiona; Carnegie, Angus

    2017-01-01

    In April 2010, Austropuccinia psidii (formerly Puccinia psidii) was detected for the first time in Australia on the central coast of New South Wales. The fungus spread rapidly along the east coast and can now be found infecting vegetation in a range of native forest ecosystems with disease impacts ranging from minor leaf spots to severe shoot and stem blight and tree dieback. Localised extinction of some plant species has been recorded. In 2014, the impact of A. psidii was observed for the first time in a wet sclerophyll site with a rainforest understory, dominated by species of Myrtaceae, in Tallebudgera Valley, south east Queensland, Australia. This study aimed to determine the impact of A. psidii on individual species and species composition. Here we provide quantitative and qualitative evidence on the significant impact A. psidii has in native ecosystems, on a broader range of species than previously reported. Archirhodomyrtus beckleri, Decaspermum humile, Gossia hillii and Rhodamnia maideniana are in serious decline, with significant increases in tree mortality over the period of our study. This research further highlights the potential of this invasive pathogen to negatively impact native ecosystems and biodiversity.

  8. A panel data analysis of the determinants of oil consumption: The case of Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Wong, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine the determinants of oil consumption for a panel consisting of six Australian States and one territory, namely Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, Western Australia, and the Northern territory, for the period 1985-2006. We find that oil consumption, oil prices and income are panel cointegrated. We estimate long-run elasticities and find that oil prices have had a statistically insignificant impact on oil consumption, while income has had a statistically significant positive effect on oil consumption. (author)

  9. A panel data analysis of the determinants of oil consumption: The case of Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Wong, Philip [School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Law, Deakin University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2009-12-15

    The goal of this paper is to examine the determinants of oil consumption for a panel consisting of six Australian States and one territory, namely Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, Western Australia, and the Northern territory, for the period 1985-2006. We find that oil consumption, oil prices and income are panel cointegrated. We estimate long-run elasticities and find that oil prices have had a statistically insignificant impact on oil consumption, while income has had a statistically significant positive effect on oil consumption. (author)

  10. Chesapeake Bay TMDL Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) report for the Chesapeake Bay. It includes the executive summary, main report, and appendices. The Chesapeake Bay TMDL was established by U.S. EPA Region 3 on December 29, 2010

  11. Chesapeake Bay TMDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010 EPA established the Chesapeake Bay TMDL, a comprehensive pollution diet with accountability measures to restore clean water in the bay and local waters. It set limits for nutrients and sediment to meet water quality standards across the watershed

  12. Nuclear power options for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Australia is slowly transitioning to low emissions technologies for electricity generation. International pressure for greenhouse gas reductions and community expectations are starting to speed up this process. Nuclear power would make a useful contribution to low emissions generation in Australia, as it does in more than 30 countries, but deployment will have to take into account local factors. 1) Australia does not have any experience of nuclear power. For many people the image they have of nuclear is the explosion at Fukushima. Safety is a concern and a modern reactor type with full natural (passive) safety features using only gravity and natural circulation for ultimate cooling is more likely to be acceptable. 2) The unit size will have to be compatible with the existing generation system. The largest single unit in the NEM (National Electricity Market) is 750 MWe (Kogan Creek, Queensland) and in many States even 750 MWe is too large. A 600 MWe single unit could probably be accommodated in certain areas but Small Modular Reactor (SMR) units of up to 200 MWe would allow more choice of location. 3) The nuclear power plant will have to be capable of backing up the increasing non-scheduled generation from renewable energy sources particularly wind and solar. The turbine generator of a nuclear power plant provides the rotating inertia necessary for frequency control. SMRs can load follow at typically 10%/min. 4) Australia does not have experience of licensing a nuclear power plant. The time to complete the licensing process will be minimised if the nuclear power plant was of a type that has been extensively licensed worldwide, e.g. a PWR or BWR. It would also assist licensing if the reactor had a generic design approval. Molten salt reactors or fast neutron reactors have attractive features, but licensing in an Australian context would be more difficult. 5) The nuclear power plant has to be economically viable in the Australian electricity market. Due to the current

  13. Research capacity and culture in podiatry: early observations within Queensland Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Research is a major driver of health care improvement and evidence-based practice is becoming the foundation of health care delivery. For health professions to develop within emerging models of health care delivery, it would seem imperative to develop and monitor the research capacity and evidence-based literacy of the health care workforce. This observational paper aims to report the research capacity levels of statewide populations of public-sector podiatrists at two different time points twelve-months apart. Methods The Research Capacity & Culture (RCC) survey was electronically distributed to all Queensland Health (Australia) employed podiatrists in January 2011 (n = 58) and January 2012 (n = 60). The RCC is a validated tool designed to measure indicators of research skill in health professionals. Participants rate skill levels against each individual, team and organisation statement on a 10-point scale (one = lowest, ten = highest). Chi-squared and Mann Whitney U tests were used to determine any differences between the results of the two survey samples. A minimum significance of p  6). Whereas, most reported their organisation’s skills to perform and support research at much higher levels (Median > 6). The 2012 survey respondents reported significantly higher skill ratings compared to the 2011 survey in individuals’ ability to secure research funding, submit ethics applications, and provide research advice, plus, in their organisation’s skills to support, fund, monitor, mentor and engage universities to partner their research (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study appears to report the research capacity levels of the largest populations of podiatrists published. The 2011 survey findings indicate podiatrists have similarly low research capacity skill levels to those reported in the allied health literature. The 2012 survey, compared to the 2011 survey, suggests podiatrists perceived higher skills and support to initiate

  14. Great Barrier Reef coral luminescence reveals rainfall variability over northeastern Australia since the 17th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Janice M.

    2011-06-01

    Northeast tropical Queensland rainfall is concentrated in the summer half year and characterized by high interannual variability, partly related to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. This results in highly variable river flows affecting nearshore coral reefs of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Freshwater flood events are recorded in long-lived, annually banded massive coral skeletons as luminescent lines. Quantitative measurements of luminescence intensity were made for 20 Porites coral cores from nearshore reef sites between 11°S and 23°S. Seventeen of the coral luminescence series were significantly correlated with an instrumental record of northeast Queensland summer rainfall and were used to develop seven significantly calibrated and verified rainfall reconstructions based on between 17 (starting 1891) and 1 (starting 1639) coral series. The longest reconstruction, based on more than one coral, provides insights into northeast Queensland rainfall variability from the late 17th century. Comparisons with various independent climate proxies are equivocal: the magnitude and significance of relationships with, for example, a proxy ENSO index vary through time. An extended drier period reconstructed from approximately the 1760s to the 1850s is associated with lower interannual rainfall variability. Since the late 19th century average rainfall and its variability have significantly increased, with wet and dry extremes becoming more frequent than in earlier centuries. This suggests that a warming global climate maybe associated with more variable tropical Queensland rainfall.

  15. Queensland fruit fly virus, a probable member of the Picornaviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiruddin, J B; Martin, J L; Reinganum, C

    1988-01-01

    A picornavirus was isolated from various life stages of the Queensland fruit fly, Dacus tryoni. This virus, Queensland fruit fly virus (QFFV) has virions with a diameter of 30 nm and a sedimentation coefficient of 178 S. One third of the particles in preparations were empty capsids or natural top component (NTC) with a sedimentation coefficient of 95 S. The buoyant density (rho) of virions and NTC in CsCl was 1.34 and 1.30 g/ml respectively; small amounts of a dense component (rho = 1.45 g/ml) were also detected. The capsid contained three major protein species of molecular weight (mol.wt.) 41,700, 36,500, and 31,300, in approximately equimolar proportions. NTC contained three major species of mol. wt. 44,700, 41,700, and 31,300. The nucleic acid present only in the bottom component virions was RNA and comprised about 30% of the particle weight and had a mol. wt of 2.88 kd, contained a poly(A) tract, and had a base ratio: G = 20; A = 32; C = 15; U = 33. The mol. wt. of the virion was estimated to be approximately equal to 9.5 kd. When virions were heated at 56 degrees C and above, they converted into artificial top component (ATC), which had the same protein composition as the virion when analysed by SDS-PAGE. In immunodiffusion tests the virions and NTC were indistinguishable, but a minor difference in antigenicity was detected between the virions and ATC. Virions were stable between pH 3 and 9 inclusive, and between 5 and 7 in the presence of 0.14 M NaCl. Immunodiffusion tests showed that QFFV was serologically unrelated to a range of picornaviruses as well as an unclassified virus isolated from the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. The data show that QFFV is probably a member of the Picornaviridae, genus Enterovirus.

  16. Workforce issues in nursing in Queensland: 2001 and 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegney, Desley; Eley, Robert; Plank, Ashley; Buikstra, Elizabeth; Parker, Victoria

    2006-12-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the factors having an impact upon nursing work and to use the results to inform strategic planning of the Queensland Nurses Union. In 2001 and 2004, a study was undertaken to gather data on the level of satisfaction of nurses with their working life. This paper reports the 2004 results on workload, skill mix, remuneration and morale. Where applicable, the results are compared with 2001 data. A questionnaire was mailed to 3000 Assistants-in-Nursing, Enrolled and Registered Nurses in October 2004. All participants were members of the Queensland Nurses Union. The results are reported in three sectors - public, private and aged care. A total of 1349 nurses responded to the survey, a response rate of 45%. Nurses in the 2004 study believed: their workload was heavy; their skills and experience poorly rewarded; work stress was high; morale was perceived to be poor and, similar to 2001, deteriorating; the skill mix was often inadequate; and the majority of nurses were unable to complete their work in the time available. Nursing morale was found to be associated with autonomy, workplace equipment, workplace safety, teamwork, work stress, the physical demand of nursing work, workload, rewards for skills and experience, career prospects, status of nursing and remuneration. Overall the findings of the study are consistent with those determined by the 2001 survey. The findings of this study indicate the importance of factors such as workplace autonomy, teamwork, the levels of workplace stress, workload and remuneration on nursing morale. The data also indicate that workplace safety and workplace morale are linked. These findings provide information for policy makers and nurse managers on areas that need to be addressed to retain nurses within aged care, acute hospital and community nursing.

  17. The impact of fresh produce specifications on the Australian food and nutrition system: a case study of the north Queensland banana industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Amy; Gallegos, Danielle; Hundloe, Tor

    2011-08-01

    To use the north Queensland banana industry as a case study to examine the extent to which cosmetic standards set by retailers influence the amount of edible waste generated on-farm and the effect of this on the sustainability of the Australian food and nutrition system. Waste audits were performed on-farm at a banana packing shed to quantify the amount of fruit discarded due to cosmetic imperfections. These data, together with production records provided by the Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries and interviews with growers, were used to inform a nutritional analysis, a life cycle assessment and an economic analysis to quantify nutritional, environmental and economic impacts. North Queensland, Australia Banana farms and packing shed.ResultBetween 10 and 30 % of the north Queensland banana crop is discarded on-farm. Of this, 78 % was found to be due to cosmetic imperfections, which equates to an industry total of 37 000 tonnes per annum. This waste represents a loss of 137 billion kilojoules with accompanying macro- and micronutrients. The life cycle assessment indicated that approximately 16 300 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions, 11·2 gigalitres of virtual water as well as other natural resources are embodied in the waste. There is an industry-wide, economic loss of approximately $AU 26·9 million per annum. The majority of on-farm banana waste is caused by arbitrary cosmetic standards set by retailers, resulting in significant nutritional, environmental and economic losses. Public health nutritionists have a role to play across the entire food chain to minimize the impacts of waste on the food system.

  18. Women's access to abortion after 20 weeks' gestation for fetal chromosomal abnormalities: Views and experiences of doctors in New South Wales and Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Kirsten I; Douglas, Heather; de Costa, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Induced abortions after 20 weeks' gestation comprise around one per cent of all terminations in Australia and mostly occur following the diagnosis of a fetal anomaly. However, these abortions are overly represented in legal cases against doctors and challenging to organise in those states where abortion remains in the criminal code and health department directives impose regulations. This study explores barriers to abortion access after 20 weeks' gestation in the states of Queensland and New South Wales. We approached and sought consent from 22 doctors involved in abortion provision (15 in Queensland and seven in NSW), who responded in depth to a set of clinical scenarios. This study presents participants' responses to three clinical scenarios of women presenting with a fetal chromosomal abnormality after 20 weeks' gestation. Of the 22 medical practitioners in this study, 18 reported that access to late-term abortion in their state was restricted. The two key factors perceived to affect the decision to terminate a pregnancy in this context were the legal status of abortion and Department of Health policies mandating that applications for abortion be presented to clinical ethics committees. Practitioners reported that committees were slow to convene and inconsistent in their decisions. Ethics committee involvement for late-term abortions is required by state health policy in NSW and Queensland, where abortion is still a criminal offence. This process is seen by abortion providers to hinder timely access to services and excludes women from the decision-making process. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  19. Queensland nursing staffs' perceptions of the preparation for practice of registered and enrolled nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegney, Desley; Eley, Robert; Francis, Karen

    2013-10-01

    In Australia, unlike other countries, programmes which lead to registration as a registered or enrolled nurse (called "entry to practice" programmes) are carried out solely in the tertiary sector. In Australian nursing and the wider community, there continues to be a debate over the place of preparation and the "work readiness" of graduates. Despite several opinion papers on the preparation of registered nurses, there is a dearth of published research on the perceptions of the clinical nursing workforce on the suitability of the current preparation for practice models. Data were collected from approximately 3000 nurses in Queensland, Australia in 2007 and 2010. The aim of these studies was to ascertain issues around nursing work. This paper reports on qualitative data that were collected as part of that larger survey. Specifically this paper provides the thematic analysis of one open-ended question: "what are the five key issues and strategies that you see could improve nursing and nursing work?" as it was apparent when we undertook thematic analysis of this question that there was a major theme around the preparation of nurses for the nursing workforce. We therefore carried out a more detailed thematic analysis around this major theme. The major sub-themes that we identified from comments on the preparation of the nursing workforce were: perceptions of lack of clinical exposure and the need to increase the amount of clinical hours; the design of the curriculum, the place of preparation (solely within industry or a great focus on industry), financial consideration (students to be paid for their work); and in 2007 only, the need for students to have better time management. The findings suggest that a majority of respondents believed there should be changes to the entry to practice preparation for nurses. The major focus of these comments was the perception of insufficient clinical experience and inappropriate curriculum content. Thus, graduates are not "work ready

  20. A potential Human Rights Act in Queensland and inclusion of the right to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolan, Claire E; Herron, Lisa; Carney, Anna; Fritz, Eva M; James, Judy; Margetts, Miranda

    2018-04-01

    To identify the level of public support for a Human Rights Act for Queensland (HRAQ) and for inclusion of the right to health by participants in a public inquiry process. We reviewed the 492 written submissions to the Legal Affairs and Community Safety Committee's Inquiry into a potential HRAQ and the transcripts documenting the public hearings held by the Committee in 2016. A total of 465 written submissions were analysed; 419 (90%) were for a HRAQ. More than 80% of the 'for' submissions advocated the right to health's inclusion. At the seven public hearings, 72 persons made verbal submissions and most supported a HRAQ. Five major themes were identified in our synthesis of the public hearing transcripts. Three related specifically to health and human rights: 1) the need to consider the holistic health and human rights of Indigenous Queenslanders and Indigenous Queensland communities; 2) instilling a human rights culture in Queensland; and 3) access to health care and the underlying determinants of health. The other two themes related to the conduct of the Inquiry: 4) the importance of community participation in developing a HRAQ; and 5) concerns about the public consultation processes. This study found strong support in the majority of submissions for the Queensland Parliament to draft and enact a HRAQ, and for the inclusion of the right to health in such legislation. Implications for public health: The Queensland Parliament's enactment of a HRAQ that expressly included the right to health would increase the accountability and transparency of government health (and related) decision making and resource allocation, and would better identify and address health inequities across the state. This Act is imperative for improving the health and wellbeing of all Queenslanders, particularly rural and remote and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Queenslanders. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. The potential use of ionising energy treatment in Queensland's horticultural industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heather, N.W.; Sheehy, P.T.; Muirhead, I.F.; Brown, B.I.; Hassall, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    The potential application of ionising energy treatment technology in Queensland falls into three categories: insect disinfestation, disease control and quality improvement. The technology fulfils the requirements of a disinfestation treatment against Queensland fruit fly and other pests of quarantine importance in respect to efficacy, absence of phytotoxicity, absence of residues and, on technical considerations would be an ideal replacement for the fumigant EDB. The report examines the purposes of ionising energy treatment, economic and marketing aspects and research needs

  2. Habitat Characteristics and Eggshell Distribution of the Salt Marsh Mosquito, Aedes vigilax, in Marshes in Subtropical Eastern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, Pat E. R.; Knight, Jon; Kay, Brian H.; Chapman, Heather; Ritchie, Scott A.; Brown, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Research at 10 locations in coastal subtropical Queensland, Australia, has shown that salt marshes contained heterogeneous distributions of eggshells of the pest and vector mosquito Aedes vigilax (Skuse) (Diptera:Culicidae). The eggshell distribution was related to specific vegetation assemblages, with a mix of the grass, Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), and the beaded glasswort, Sarcocornia quinqueflora (Bunge ex (Ung.-Stern) A.J. Scott (Caryophyllales: Chenopodiaceae), as...

  3. Screening mitochondrial DNA sequence variation as an alternative method for tracking established and outbreak populations of Queensland fruit fly at the species southern range limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacket, Mark J; Malipatil, Mali B; Semeraro, Linda; Gillespie, Peter S; Dominiak, Bernie C

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the relationship between incursions of insect pests and established populations is critical to implementing effective control. Studies of genetic variation can provide powerful tools to examine potential invasion pathways and longevity of individual pest outbreaks. The major fruit fly pest in eastern Australia, Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), has been subject to significant long-term quarantine and population reduction control measures in the major horticulture production areas of southeastern Australia, at the species southern range limit. Previous studies have employed microsatellite markers to estimate gene flow between populations across this region. In this study, we used an independent genetic marker, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences, to screen genetic variation in established and adjacent outbreak populations in southeastern Australia. During the study period, favorable environmental conditions resulted in multiple outbreaks, which appeared genetically distinctive and relatively geographically localized, implying minimal dispersal between simultaneous outbreaks. Populations in established regions were found to occur over much larger areas. Screening mtDNA (female) lineages proved to be an effective alternative genetic tool to assist in understanding fruit fly population dynamics and provide another possible molecular method that could now be employed for better understanding of the ecology and evolution of this and other pest species.

  4. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The mining of uranium in Australia is criticised in relation to it's environmental impact, economics and effects on mine workers and Aborigines. A brief report is given on each of the operating and proposed uranium mines in Australia

  5. Dominance of IMP-4-Producing Enterobacter cloacae among Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townell, Nicola; Nimmo, Graeme R.; George, Narelle M.; Robson, Jennifer; Vohra, Renu; Davis, Louise; Heney, Claire; Paterson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has been increasing worldwide. blaIMP has been reported to be the predominant carbapenemase-encoding gene within Enterobacteriaceae in Australia. However, there are limited data currently available on CPE from Queensland, Australia. A total of 58 CPE isolates were isolated between July 2009 and March 2014 from Queensland hospitals. The clonality of isolates was determined by Diversilab repetitive sequence-based PCR. The isolates were investigated for the resistance mechanisms carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase, and AmpC β-lactamase and for aminoglycoside resistance and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes by PCR. The plasmid types associated with carbapenemase-encoding genes were characterized. The majority of the CPE were Enterobacter cloacae (n = 29). The majority of Queensland CPE isolates were IMP producers and comprised 11 species (n = 48). Nine NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae were identified. One NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate coproduced OXA-48. One K. pneumoniae isolate was an OXA-181 producer. The incidence of IMP producers increased significantly in 2013. blaIMP-4 was found in all IMP-producing isolates. blaTEM, qnrB, and aacA4 were common among IMP-4 producers. The HI2 (67%) and L/M (21%) replicons were associated with blaIMP-4. All HI2 plasmids were of sequence type 1 (ST1). All but one of the NDM producers possessed blaCTX-M-15. The 16S rRNA methylase genes found among NDM producers were armA, rmtB, rmtC, and rmtF. The substantial increase in the prevalence of CPE in Queensland has been associated mainly with the emergence E. cloacae strains possessing HI2 plasmids carrying blaIMP-4 over the past 2 years. The importation of NDM producers and/or OXA-48-like producers in patients also contributed to the increased emergence of CPE. PMID:25918153

  6. Mating Reverses Actuarial Aging in Female Queensland Fruit Flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarsha Yap

    Full Text Available Animals that have a long pre-reproductive adult stage often employ mechanisms that minimize aging over this period in order to preserve reproductive lifespan. In a remarkable exception, one tephritid fruit fly exhibits substantial pre-reproductive aging but then mitigates this aging during a diet-dependent transition to the reproductive stage, after which life expectancy matches that of newly emerged flies. Here, we ascertain the role of nutrients, sexual maturation and mating in mitigation of previous aging in female Queensland fruit flies. Flies were provided one of three diets: 'sugar', 'essential', or 'yeast-sugar'. Essential diet contained sugar and micronutrients found in yeast but lacked maturation-enabling protein. At days 20 and 30, a subset of flies on the sugar diet were switched to essential or yeast-sugar diet, and some yeast-sugar fed flies were mated 10 days later. Complete mitigation of actuarial aging was only observed in flies that were switched to a yeast-sugar diet and mated, indicating that mating is key. Identifying the physiological processes associated with mating promise novel insights into repair mechanisms for aging.

  7. Mating Reverses Actuarial Aging in Female Queensland Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Sarsha; Fanson, Benjamin G; Taylor, Phillip W

    2015-01-01

    Animals that have a long pre-reproductive adult stage often employ mechanisms that minimize aging over this period in order to preserve reproductive lifespan. In a remarkable exception, one tephritid fruit fly exhibits substantial pre-reproductive aging but then mitigates this aging during a diet-dependent transition to the reproductive stage, after which life expectancy matches that of newly emerged flies. Here, we ascertain the role of nutrients, sexual maturation and mating in mitigation of previous aging in female Queensland fruit flies. Flies were provided one of three diets: 'sugar', 'essential', or 'yeast-sugar'. Essential diet contained sugar and micronutrients found in yeast but lacked maturation-enabling protein. At days 20 and 30, a subset of flies on the sugar diet were switched to essential or yeast-sugar diet, and some yeast-sugar fed flies were mated 10 days later. Complete mitigation of actuarial aging was only observed in flies that were switched to a yeast-sugar diet and mated, indicating that mating is key. Identifying the physiological processes associated with mating promise novel insights into repair mechanisms for aging.

  8. Laser Hydrography in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    r#00-Ails 584 ELECTRONICS RESEARCH LAO ADELAIDE IAUSTRALIA) F/S B/10 LASER HYDfiORAPHY IN AUSTRALIA . (U) FEB 82 M F PENNYJIJNCLASSIFIED ERLO Z B 9...RESEARCH CENTRE SALISBURY SOUTH AUSTRALIA TECHNICAL REPORT ERL-0229-TR LASER HYDROGRAPHY IN AUSTRALIA M.F. PENNY LJ--.I LA. Approved for Public Releae...ERL-0229-TR LASER HYDROGRAPHY IN AUSTRALIA M.F. Penny SUMMARY In response to a Royal Australian Navy requirement, the Electronics Research Laboratory

  9. Wakasa Bay Weather Forecast Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E Wakasa Bay Field Campaign was conducted over Wakasa Bay, Japan, in January and February, 2003. The Wakasa Bay Field Campaign includes joint research...

  10. Declines of seagrasses in a tropical harbour, North Queensland ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A recent paper inferred that all seagrass in Cairns Harbour, tropical north-eastern Australia, had undergone 'complete and catastrophic loss' as a result of tropical cyclone Yasi in 2011. While we agree with the concern expressed, we would like to correct the suggestion that the declines were the result of a single climatic ...

  11. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo J; Morelli, Renata; Hanssen, Benjamin L; Jamie, Joanne F; Jamie, Ian M; Siderhurst, Matthew S; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl) and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether) in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated.

  12. Value of mental health first aid training of advisory and extension agents in supporting farmers in rural Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, D; Gorman, D; Eley, R; Coutts, J

    2010-01-01

    This study was a pilot project responding to the increasing levels of stress, depression and other mental health issues in Australian rural areas resulting from prolonged drought and a changing economic and social environment. Thirty-two Advisory and Extension Agents (AEAs) attended a training course held in 2007 and 2008 in Queensland, Australia. A year after the training, data was collected to determine its value. Interviews were conducted with course participants and their supervisors and focus groups were held with stakeholders (farmers, agency staff and health professionals). The findings show that Mental Health First Aid training improved the participants' confidence level and their knowledge of mental health issues and increased their empathy toward persons with mental health problems. Furthermore, providing training on mental health issues to AEAs was perceived by stakeholders to be beneficial to both farmers and AEAs. This study demonstrated that stakeholders and course participants see this type of training as very much needed and highly beneficial. Further, providing training in mental health issues to rural service providers can be very beneficial to their farmer clients and their social network.

  13. Who Leaves Suicide Notes? An Exploration of Victim Characteristics and Suicide Method of Completed Suicides in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Belinda; Bond, Christine; Tait, Gordon; Wilson, Moira; White, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to address the question: are those who leave suicide notes representative of the larger population of those who commit suicide? The method involves an analysis of a full population of suicides by residents of Queensland, Australia for the full year of 2004, with the information drawn from Coronial files. Our overall results suggest that, and in support of previous research, the population who leaves suicide notes are remarkably similar to those who do not. Differences are identified in four areas: first, and in contrast to prior research, females are less likely to leave a suicide note; second, and in support of previous research, Aboriginal Australians are less likely to leave suicide notes; third, and in support of some previous research, those who use gas as a method of suicide are more likely to leave notes, while those who use a vehicle or a train are less likely to leave notes; finally, our findings lend support to research which finds that those with a diagnosed mental illness are less likely to leave notes. The discussion addresses some of the reasons these disparities may have occurred, and continues the debate over the degree to which suicide notes give insight into the larger suicide population.

  14. An assessment of the benefits of yellow Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella musicola control in the Queensland Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cook

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The banana leaf spotting disease yellow Sigatoka is established and actively controlled in Australia through intensive chemical treatments and diseased leaf removal. In the State of Queensland, the State government imposes standards for de-leafing to minimise the risk of the disease spreading in 6 banana pest quarantine areas. Of these, the Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area is the most significant in terms of banana production. Previous regulations imposed obligations on owners of banana plants within this area to remove leaves from plants with visible spotting on more than 15 per cent of any leaf during the wet season. Recently, this leaf disease threshold has been lowered to 5 per cent. In this paper we examine the likely impact this more-costly regulation will have on the spread of the disease. We estimate that the average net benefit of reducing the diseased leaf threshold is only likely to be $1.4million per year over the next 30 years, expressed as the annualised present value of tightened regulation. This result varies substantially when the timeframe of the analysis is changed, with shorter time frames indicating poorer net returns from the change in protocols. Overall, the benefit of the regulation change is likely to be minor.

  15. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt (Diptera: Tephritidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo J Park

    Full Text Available The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt (Q-fly, is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT and mass trapping (MT are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl-2-butanone and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated.

  16. Controlling firearms use in Australia: has the 1996 gun law reform produced the decrease in rates of suicide with this method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klieve, Helen; Barnes, Michael; De Leo, Diego

    2009-04-01

    Observed reductions in firearm suicides in Australia have been linked to the 1997 national firearms agreement (NFA) introduced following the 1996 Port Arthur massacre. The NFA placed strong access restrictions on firearms. To assess the impact of legislative restrictions on the incidence of firearm suicide in Queensland and explore alternative or contributory factors behind observed declines. The Queensland suicide register (QSR) provided detailed information on all male suicides in Queensland (1990-2004), with additional data for Australia (1968-2004) accessed from other official sources. Trends in suicide rates pre/post NFA, and in method selection, were assessed using negative binomial regressions. Changing method selection patterns were examined using a cohort analysis of 5 years of age classes for Australian males. The observed reduction in firearms suicides was initiated prior to the 1997 introduction of the NFA in Queensland and Australia, with a clear decline observed in Australian figures from 1988. No significant difference was found in the rate pre/post the introduction of the NFA in Queensland; however, a significant difference was found for Australian data, the quality of which is noticeably less satisfactory. A marked age-difference in method choice was observed through a cohort analysis demonstrating both time and age influences. Within sequential birth cohorts, rates of firearms suicides decreased in younger males but increased in hanging suicides; this trend was far less marked in older males. The implemented restrictions may not be responsible for the observed reductions in firearms suicide. Data suggest that a change in social and cultural attitudes could have contributed to the shift in method preference.

  17. The Physical Oceanography of Australia's Sunshine Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbe, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    Australia's Sunshine coast is located to the south of the Great Barrier Reef and Fraser Island between about 25 oS to 28 oS. With a width of nearly 70-80 km, the eastern Australian continental shelf is at its widest here. The shelf region is referred to as the Southeast Queensland Marine Coastal Zone due to its unique physical oceanographic characteristics. The most prominent large-scale oceanic feature is the southward flowing East Australian Current (EAC). It forms to the north of Fraser Island from Coral Sea outflows, intensifies, and follows the continental shelf as a swift continental shelf hugging current but variable in strength; stronger in the southern hemisphere summer and weaker in winter. Little attention has been paid to the physical oceanography of this region, although important physical processes take place that drive regional marine environmental conditions, drive cross-shelf exchanges and interactions with the EAC, and that represent marine connectivity processes significant to the larger scale eastern Australian fisheries. This presentation reviews recent discoveries that include the Southeast Fraser Island Upwelling System, the Fraser Island Gyre, and document the role of cyclonic mesoscale eddies in driving cross-shelf exchanges and contribute to the formation of the Fraser Island Gyre. The Southeast Fraser Island Upwelling System appears to be predominately driven by the interaction of the EAC with the continental shelf leading to the establishment of one of eight important marine ecological hotspots along the east Australian coast. The Fraser Island Gyre is most prominent during the southern hemisphere autumn and winter months. It is characterised by on-shelf northerly flow, turning eastward south of Fraser Island before joining the EAC. It emerges that cyclonic eddy formation as well as the south-easterly trade winds drive the gyre's establishment and strength. A census of short-lived (7-28 days) cyclonic eddies, the first for any western

  18. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company...

  19. Research capacity and culture in podiatry: early observations within Queensland Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazzarini Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research is a major driver of health care improvement and evidence-based practice is becoming the foundation of health care delivery. For health professions to develop within emerging models of health care delivery, it would seem imperative to develop and monitor the research capacity and evidence-based literacy of the health care workforce. This observational paper aims to report the research capacity levels of statewide populations of public-sector podiatrists at two different time points twelve-months apart. Methods The Research Capacity & Culture (RCC survey was electronically distributed to all Queensland Health (Australia employed podiatrists in January 2011 (n = 58 and January 2012 (n = 60. The RCC is a validated tool designed to measure indicators of research skill in health professionals. Participants rate skill levels against each individual, team and organisation statement on a 10-point scale (one = lowest, ten = highest. Chi-squared and Mann Whitney U tests were used to determine any differences between the results of the two survey samples. A minimum significance of p  Results Thirty-seven (64% podiatrists responded to the 2011 survey and 33 (55% the 2012 survey. The 2011 survey respondents reported low skill levels (Median  6. Whereas, most reported their organisation’s skills to perform and support research at much higher levels (Median > 6. The 2012 survey respondents reported significantly higher skill ratings compared to the 2011 survey in individuals’ ability to secure research funding, submit ethics applications, and provide research advice, plus, in their organisation’s skills to support, fund, monitor, mentor and engage universities to partner their research (p  Conclusions This study appears to report the research capacity levels of the largest populations of podiatrists published. The 2011 survey findings indicate podiatrists have similarly low research capacity skill

  20. The road to registration: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health practitioner training in north Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kristy; Harvey, Nichole; Felton-Busch, Catrina; Hoskins, Judy; Rasalam, Roy; Malouf, Peter; Knight, Sabina

    2018-01-01

    In 2012, the new profession of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health practitioner (ATSIHP) was registered under the Health Practitioner Regulation National Law Act 2009. The project in this present study evolved out of the Australian Government\\'s recognition of the need for the existing Indigenous health worker (IHW) workforce to meet the minimum qualification requirements for registration as ATSIHPs through recognition of prior learning and/or further education. A total of 53 IHWs participated in the upskilling project between June 2014 and June 2015, with approximately 200 IHWs from Queensland expressing an interest in undertaking the training. This demonstrated a clear need for further training programs such as this one. The project was coordinated by the Indigenous Health Unit at James Cook University (JCU) with training being delivered by TAFE Cairns in collaboration with the College of Medicine and Dentistry, JCU. Students travelled from as far north as the Torres Strait and as far west as Mount Isa. The key issues for discussion were associated with the ATSIHP role being relatively new including the limited preparedness of training providers to deliver the upgraded qualification requirements and uncertainty about the registration process. Compounding this was a general undervaluing and underutilisation of the IHW role within the current primary healthcare system. Other challenges included the variations of IHW roles, scope of practice and educational standards held by individuals, as well as the associated complexities of providing training to IHWs from the large and diverse geographic area that is rural and remote Australia. Program and student evaluation was undertaken with each of the three cohorts via a course experience questionnaire, TAFE evaluation forms and opportunistic student feedback. Lessons learned as a result of this project include the need to continue to recognise and promote understanding of the contribution that IHW/ATSIHPs make

  1. On the prevailing construction waste recycling practices: a South East Queensland study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vivian W Y; Kotrayothar, Duangthidar; Loo, Yew-Chaye

    2009-03-01

    Waste generated from construction and building demolition work constitutes about 68% of all solid waste generated each year in South East Queensland. Consequently, it has created a serious waste management problem. The State Governments of Victoria and New South Wales have been encouraging the use of recycled materials from construction and related waste; they have also promulgated specifications for their use. In Queensland, however, similar regulations are not anticipated in the near future, which explains the lack of funded research conducted in this important arena. This paper presents an evaluation of the prevailing waste recycling practices in Queensland. Nine sites were visited, including two construction sites, three demolition sites, three recycling plants and one landfill in South East Queensland. The difficulties encountered by the recycling programme operators and their associates at these sites are described and the benefits of recycling construction materials are presented. One of the major barriers is that the local councils disallow the use of recycled materials in new construction work. To help rectify these impediments to recycling, recommendations are given to increase the use of recycled construction waste in South East Queensland.

  2. Current Government Actions and Potential Policy Options for Reducing Obesity in Queensland Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharairi, Naser A

    2018-01-29

    School nutrition policies provide promising avenues towards the improvement of children's eating habits and the prevention of obesity. Childhood obesity rates and related chronic diseases are increasing in Queensland, in part as a result of unhealthy eating habits and lack of physical activity. There is a very high investment by the Queensland government in maintaining healthy weight and promoting nutrition and physical activity among schoolchildren through delivering a range of initiatives across the state. However, there is a lack of evidence concerning the effectiveness of nutrition/physical education and parental involvement programs addressing obesity delivered in Queensland schools. This paper can be used to guide government and policy-makers regarding the most effective policy options that will promote healthy eating and physical activity among Queensland schoolchildren. The aim of this paper is to: (i) summarize current evidence on Queensland government responses to obesity; and (ii) discuss potential policy options that could support healthy eating and regular physical activity, and examine the evidence base for each option and suggest new areas for future research.

  3. Recovery experience and burnout in cancer workers in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Michael G; Poulsen, Anne A; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Poulsen, Emma E; Khan, Shanchita R

    2015-02-01

    Two key recovery experiences mediating the relationship between work demands and well-being are psychological detachment and relaxation over leisure time. The process of recovery from work-related stress plays an important role in maintaining well-being, but is poorly understood in cancer workers. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the relationships of burnout, psychological well-being and work engagement with the recovery experiences of psychological detachment and relaxation in oncology staff. A cross sectional survey of 573 cancer workers in Queensland was conducted (response rate 56%). Oncology nurses (n = 211) represented the largest professional group. Staff completed surveys containing demographics and psychosocial questionnaires measuring burnout, psychological distress, work engagement and recovery experience. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify explanatory variables which were independently associated with Recovery Experience Score (RES). There was a negative association between the RES and burnout (p = 0.002) as well as psychological distress (p engagement. Age >25 years was negatively correlated with RES as was having a post graduate qualification, being married or divorced, having carer commitments. Participating in strenuous exercise was associated with high recovery (p = 0.015). The two recovery experiences of psychological detachment and relaxation had a strong negative association to burnout and psychological well-being, but not work engagement. Further research needs to be undertaken to better understand if improving recovery experience reduces burnout and improves the well-being of cancer workers. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploring the determinants of health and wellbeing in communities living in proximity to coal seam gas developments in regional Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Mactaggart

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is some concern that coal seam gas mining may affect health and wellbeing through changes in social determinants such as living and working conditions, local economy and the environment. The onward impact of these conditions on health and wellbeing is often not monitored to the same degree as direct environmental health impacts in the mining context, but merits attention. This study reports on the findings from a recurrent theme that emerged from analysis of the qualitative component of a comprehensive Health Needs Assessment (HNA conducted in regional Queensland: that health and wellbeing of communities was reportedly affected by nearby coal seam gas (CSG development beyond direct environmental impacts. Methods Qualitative analysis was initially completed using the Framework Method to explore key themes from 11 focus group discussions, 19 in-depth interviews, and 45 key informant interviews with health and wellbeing service providers and community members. A key theme emerged from the analysis that forms the basis of this paper. This study is part of a larger comprehensive HNA involving qualitative and quantitative data collection to explore the health and wellbeing needs of three communities living in proximity to CSG development in regional Queensland, Australia. Results Communities faced social, economic and environmental impacts from the rapid growth of CSG development, which were perceived to have direct and indirect effects on individual lifestyle factors such as alcohol and drug abuse, family relationships, social capital and mental health; and community-level factors including social connectedness, civic engagement and trust. Conclusions Outer regional communities discussed the effects of mining activity on the fabric of their town and community, whereas the inner regional community that had a longer history of industrial activity discussed the impacts on families and individual health and wellbeing. The

  5. Exploring the determinants of health and wellbeing in communities living in proximity to coal seam gas developments in regional Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mactaggart, Fiona; McDermott, Liane; Tynan, Anna; Gericke, Christian A

    2017-08-03

    There is some concern that coal seam gas mining may affect health and wellbeing through changes in social determinants such as living and working conditions, local economy and the environment. The onward impact of these conditions on health and wellbeing is often not monitored to the same degree as direct environmental health impacts in the mining context, but merits attention. This study reports on the findings from a recurrent theme that emerged from analysis of the qualitative component of a comprehensive Health Needs Assessment (HNA) conducted in regional Queensland: that health and wellbeing of communities was reportedly affected by nearby coal seam gas (CSG) development beyond direct environmental impacts. Qualitative analysis was initially completed using the Framework Method to explore key themes from 11 focus group discussions, 19 in-depth interviews, and 45 key informant interviews with health and wellbeing service providers and community members. A key theme emerged from the analysis that forms the basis of this paper. This study is part of a larger comprehensive HNA involving qualitative and quantitative data collection to explore the health and wellbeing needs of three communities living in proximity to CSG development in regional Queensland, Australia. Communities faced social, economic and environmental impacts from the rapid growth of CSG development, which were perceived to have direct and indirect effects on individual lifestyle factors such as alcohol and drug abuse, family relationships, social capital and mental health; and community-level factors including social connectedness, civic engagement and trust. Outer regional communities discussed the effects of mining activity on the fabric of their town and community, whereas the inner regional community that had a longer history of industrial activity discussed the impacts on families and individual health and wellbeing. The findings from this study may inform future health service planning in

  6. Coal seam gas water: potential hazards and exposure pathways in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navi, Maryam; Skelly, Chris; Taulis, Mauricio; Nasiri, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of coal seam gas (CSG) produces large volumes of potentially contaminated water. It has raised concerns about the environmental health impacts of the co-produced CSG water. In this paper, we review CSG water contaminants and their potential health effects in the context of exposure pathways in Queensland's CSG basins. The hazardous substances associated with CSG water in Queensland include fluoride, boron, lead and benzene. The exposure pathways for CSG water are (1) water used for municipal purposes; (2) recreational water activities in rivers; (3) occupational exposures; (4) water extracted from contaminated aquifers; and (5) indirect exposure through the food chain. We recommend mapping of exposure pathways into communities in CSG regions to determine the potentially exposed populations in Queensland. Future efforts to monitor chemicals of concern and consolidate them into a central database will build the necessary capability to undertake a much needed environmental health impact assessment.

  7. The establishment of the Chiropractic & Osteopathic College of Australasia in Queensland (1996–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Bruce F

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction For chiropractors and osteopaths after graduation, the learning process continues by way of experience and continuing education (CE. The provision of CE and other vocational services in Queensland between 1996 and 2002 is the subject of this paper. Methods The Chiropractic & Osteopathic College of Australasia (COCA implemented a plan, which involved continuing education, with speakers from a broad variety of health provider areas; and the introduction of the concepts of evidence-based practice. The plan also involved building membership. Results Membership of COCA in Queensland grew from 3 in June 1996 to 167 in 2002. There were a total of 25 COCA symposia in the same period. Evidence-based health care was introduced and attendees were generally satisfied with the conferences. Discussion The development of a vocational body (COCA for chiropractors and osteopaths in Queensland was achieved. Registrants in the field have supported an organisation that concentrates on the vocational aspects of their practice.

  8. Using MSD prevention for cultural change in mining: Queensland Government/Anglo Coal Industry partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilbury, Trudy; Sanderson, Liz

    2012-01-01

    Queensland Mining has a strong focus on safety performance, but risk management of health, including Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) continues to have a lower priority. The reliance on individual screening of workers and lower level approaches such as manual handling training is part of the coal mining 'culture'. Initiatives such as the New South Wales and Queensland Mining joint project to develop good practice guidance for mining has allowed for a more consistent message on participatory ergonomics and prevention of MSD. An evidence based practice approach, including the introduction of participatory ergonomics and safe design principles, was proposed to Anglo American Coal operations in Queensland. The project consisted of a skills analysis of current health personnel, design of a facilitated participatory ergonomics training program, site visits to identify good practice and champions, and a graduated mentoring program for health personnel. Early results demonstrate a number of sites are benefiting from site taskforces with a focus on positive performance outcomes.

  9. A comparison of severely injured trauma patients admitted to level 1 trauma centres in Queensland and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Johanna M. M.; Wullschleger, Martin E.; Nielsen, Susan E.; McNamee, Anitia M.; Lefering, Rolf; ten Duis, Hendrik-Jan; Schuetz, Michael A.

    Background: The allocation of a trauma network in Queensland is still in the developmental phase. In a search for indicators to improve trauma care both locally as state-wide, a study was carried out comparing trauma patients in Queensland to trauma patients in Germany, a country with 82.4 million

  10. Impact and feasibility of the Allied Health Professional Enhancement Program placements – experiences from rural and remote Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Priya Martin,1,2 Saravana Kumar,2 Melinda Stone,1 LuJuana Abernathy,1 Vanessa Burge,1 Lucylynn Lizarondo3 1Allied Health Education and Training, Cunningham Centre, Darling Downs Hospital and Health Service, Toowoomba, QLD, 2International Centre for Allied Health Evidence (iCAHE, School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, 3Joanna Briggs Institute, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaBackground: Allied health professionals practicing in rural and remote areas are often faced with barriers that prevent them from accessing professional development opportunities. In order to address this barrier, a tailored professional development program was developed and implemented by the Cunningham Centre in Queensland, Australia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits of the program to participants and their work units.Methods: This study used a concurrent mixed methods longitudinal design to investigate the medium- to long-term benefits of one Allied Health Professional Enhancement Program placement. Surveys and individual interviews provided data at 2 weeks and at 6 months post-placement. The study participants included the placement participant (a physiotherapist, their line manager, clinical supervisor, and the placement facilitator.Results: Results demonstrated that the placement resulted in various reported benefits to the placement participant, as well as to service delivery in their home location. Benefits of the placement reported by the participant included increased confidence, improved knowledge and skills, increased access to professional networks, and validation of practice. Benefits to service delivery reported included improved efficiencies, improved patient outcomes, and positive impact on other team members.Discussion: This study found that the Allied Health Professional Enhancement Program placement investigated was beneficial to the participant and to service delivery. In addition, the benefits

  11. MEDICINAL CANNABIS LAW REFORM IN AUSTRALIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Attempts at medicinal cannabis law reform in Australia are not new. However, in historical perspective 2015 and 2016 will be seen as the time when community debate about legalisation of medicinal cannabis reached a tipping point in a number of Australian jurisdictions and when community impetus for change resulted in major reform initiatives. In order to contextualise the changes, the August 2015 Report of the Victorian Law Reform Commission (VLRC) and then the Access to Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2015 (Vic) introduced in December 2015 into the Victorian Parliament by the Labor Government are scrutinised. In addition, this editorial reviews the next phase of developments in the course of 2015 and 2016, including the Commonwealth Narcotic Drugs Amendment Act 2016 and the Queensland Public Health (Medicinal Canna- bis) Bill 2016. It identifies the principal features of the legislative initiatives against the backdrop of the VLRC proposals. It observes that the principles underlying the Report and the legislative developments in the three Australian jurisdictions are closely aligned and that their public health approach, their combination of evidence-based pragmatism, and their carefully orchestrated checks and balances against abuse and excess constitute a constructive template for medicinal cannabis law reform.

  12. Collaboration: the Key to Establishing Community Networks in Regional Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wal Taylor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the promise of community involvement, cohesion and empowerment offered by local community networks (CN using Internet Technologies, few communities in regional Australia have been able to demonstrate sustainable and vibrant CN which demonstrate increased social, cultural or self-reliance capital. The Faculty of Informatics and Communication at Central Queensland University (CQU and a local council have established a formal alliance to establish the COIN (Community Informatics projects to research issues around this topic. This paper presents the initial findings from this work and draws conclusions for possible comparison with other international experience. The research focuses attention on community understanding and cohesion, local government priorities in a community with relatively low diffusion of the Internet and the competing demands in a regional university between traditional service provision in an increasingly competitive market and the needs of establishing outreach research for altruistic, industry establishment and commercial rationale.

  13. Drop Tower Facility at Queensland University of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagens, Owen; Castillo, Martin; Steinberg, Theodore; Ong, Teng-Cheong

    The Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Drop Tower Facility is a {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}2.1 second, 21.3 m fall, dual capsule drop tower system. The dual capsule comprises of an uncoupled exterior hollow drag shield that experiences drag by the ambient atmosphere with the experimental capsule falling within the drag shield. The dual capsule system is lifted to the top of the drop tower via a mechanical crane and the dropping process is initiated by the cutting of a wire coupling the experimental package and suspending the drag shield. The internal experimental capsule reaches the bottom of the drag shield floor just prior to the deceleration stage at the air bag and during this time experience gravity levels of {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}10textsuperscript{-6} g. The deceleration system utilizes an inflatable airbag where experimental packages can be designed to experience a maximum deceleration of {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}10textsuperscript{18} g for {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}0.1 seconds. The drag shield can house experimental packages with a maximum diameter of 0.8 m and height of 0.9 m. The drag shield can also be used in foam mode, where the walls are lined with foam and small experiments can be dropped completely untethered. This mode is generally used for the study of microsatellite manipulation. Payloads can be powered by on-board power systems with power delivered to the experiment until free fall occurs. Experimental data that can be collected includes but is not limited to video, temperature, pressure, voltage/current from the power supply, and triggering mechanisms outputs which are simultaneously collected via data logging systems and high speed video recording systems. Academic and commercial projects are currently under investigation at the QUT Drop Tower Facility and collaboration is openly welcome at this facility. Current research includes the study of heterogeneously burning metals in oxygen which is aimed at fire safety applications and

  14. Energy in Australia 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas-Cubria, C.; Schultz, A.; Petchey, R.; Beaini, F.; New, R.

    2011-04-01

    Securing access to affordable, reliable and clean energy is one of the great challenges facing governments around the world. The Australian Government is committed to ensuring the security of Australia's domestic energy systems as a fundamental part of Australia's social and economic prosperity. Energy in Australia 2011 is a key reference for anyone with an interest in Australian energy issues. It provides a detailed overview of energy in Australia from production to consumption, and serves as a useful resource to inform industry, government and the community.

  15. Epidemiology of gonorrhoea notifications in Australia, 2007-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Witteveen, April; Pennington, Kate; Higgins, Nasra; Lang, Carolyn; Lahra, Monica; Waddell, Russell; Kaldor, John

    2014-09-01

    Background An increase in the notification rate of gonorrhoea was observed in the national surveillance system. In Australia, gonorrhoea is relatively rare, apart from among some populations of Aboriginal people and men who have sex with men. Data about gonorrhoea cases reported between 2007 and 2012 from all Australian jurisdictions were extracted from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. Analyses were undertaken of the time trends in counts and rates, according to jurisdiction, gender, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, diagnosis method and sexual orientation. The largest increase in notifications between 2007 and 2012 was observed in both men and women in New South Wales (2.9- and 3.7-fold greater in 2012 than 2007, respectively) and Victoria (2.4- and 2.7-fold greater in 2012 than 2007, respectively), men in the Australian Capital Territory and women in Queensland. The highest notification rates remained in Indigenous people in the Northern Territory and Western Australia, and particularly in women, although rates may have decreased over the study period. Changes in age and sex distribution, antimicrobial resistance and patterns of exposure and acquisition were negligible. There is an ongoing gonorrhoea epidemic affecting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia, but the increases in notifications have occurred primarily in non-Aboriginal populations in the larger jurisdictions. Interpretation of these surveillance data, especially in relation to changes in population subgroups, would be enhanced by laboratory testing data. Further efforts are needed to decrease infection rates in populations at highest risk.

  16. Humboldt Bay Orthoimages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-meter pixel resolution, four band orthoimages covering the Humboldt Bay area. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  17. Chesapeake Bay Tributary Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesapeake Bay Tributary Strategies were developed by the seven watershed jurisdictions and outlined the river basin-specific implementation activities to reduce nutrient and sediment pollutant loads from point and nonpoint sources.

  18. Bathymetry in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 4x4 meter resolution bathymetric surface for Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The depth values are in meters referenced to the...

  19. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started in...

  20. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  1. Registered nurses as members of interprofessional primary health care teams in remote or isolated areas of Queensland: Collaboration, communication and partnerships in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jane Elizabeth; Francis, Karen; Birks, Melanie; Coyle, Meaghan; Henderson, Sue; Jones, Jan

    2010-09-01

    Nurses represent the largest occupational group of health care professionals in Australia. The ratio of nurses to population is relatively consistent, unlike other health care professional groups (including medical doctors and allied health staff) whose numbers decline as population density and distance from metropolitan areas increases. Nurses working in areas where other health care professionals are limited or absent have expanded scopes of practice with their work being more generalist than specialist. The role of nurses in remote and isolated areas of Queensland, Australia was the focus of a commissioned multi-case research project. Findings reported in this paper relate to the position of registered nurses as part of an interprofessional team. These findings indicated that, in some instances, local health care teams were limited to a single nurse and Indigenous health care worker/s, while in others the teams were more diverse. In all cases collegial support was available either locally or via telecommunication technology. Understanding the role of each team member, having useful strategies to enhance communication and work collaboratively were identified as essential criteria for "good practice".

  2. Assessing the threat of chikungunya virus emergence in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennet, Elvina; Knope, Katrina; Faddy, Helen M; Williams, Craig R; Harley, David

    2013-06-30

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a major threat to Australia given the distribution of competent vectors, and the large number of travellers returning from endemic regions. We describe current knowledge of CHIKV importations into Australia, and quantify reported viraemic cases, with the aim of facilitating the formulation of public health policy and ensuring maintenance of blood safety. Cases reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) from 2002 to 2012 were analysed by place, month of acquisition, and place of residence. Rates of chikungunya importation were estimated based on reported cases and on the numbers of short-term movements. Between 2002 and 2012, there were 168 cases of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) imported into Australia. Victoria and New South Wales had the largest number of notifications. The main sources were Indonesia, India and Malaysia. The number of cases increased from 2008 to reach a peak in 2010 (n=64; 40%). Although Indonesia accounted for the majority of CHIKV notifications in Australia, travel from India had the highest CHIKV importation rate (number of imported cases per 100,000 travellers). The Australian population is increasingly at risk from CHIKV. Arrivals from endemic countries have increased concurrently with vector incursions via imported goods, as well as via local movement from the Torres Strait to North Queensland ports. An outbreak of CHIKV could have a significant impact on health, the safety of the blood supply and on tourism. Case and vector surveillance as well as population health responses are crucial for minimising any potential impact of CHIKV establishment in Australia. This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from the Commonwealth. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Commonwealth Copyright Administration, Attorney General

  3. Incidence and prevalence of non-melanoma skin cancer in Australia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Eshini; Gnaneswaran, Neiraja; Staines, Carolyn; Win, Aung Ko; Sinclair, Rod

    2015-11-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), is the most common cancer occurring in people with fair skin. Australia has been reported to have the highest incidence of NMSC in the world. Using a systematic search of the literature in EMBASE and Medline, we identified 21 studies that investigated the incidence or prevalence of NMSC in Australia. Studies published between 1948 and 2011 were identified and included in the analysis. There were six studies that were conducted on national level, two at state level and 13 at the regional level. Overall, the incidence of NMSC had steadily increased over calendar-years in Australia. The incidence of NMSC per 100,000 person-years was estimated to be 555 in 1985; 977 in 1990; 1109 in 1995; 1170 in 2002 and 2448 in 2011. The incidence was higher for men than women and higher for BCC than SCC. Incidence varied across the states of Australia, with the highest in Queensland. The prevalence of NMSC was estimated to be 2% in Australia in 2002. The incidence and prevalence of NMSC still need to be accurately established at both national and state levels to determine the costs and burden of the disease on the public health system in Australia. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  4. Dengue and climate change in Australia: predictions for the future should incorporate knowledge from the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard C; Currie, Bart J; Lindsay, Michael D; Mackenzie, John S; Ritchie, Scott A; Whelan, Peter I

    2009-03-02

    Dengue transmission in Australia is currently restricted to Queensland, where the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti is established. Locally acquired infections have been reported only from urban areas in the north-east of the state, where the vector is most abundant. Considerable attention has been drawn to the potential impact of climate change on dengue distribution within Australia, with projections for substantial rises in incidence and distribution associated with increasing temperatures. However, historical data show that much of Australia has previously sustained both the vector mosquito and dengue viruses. Although current vector distribution is restricted to Queensland, the area inhabited by A. aegypti is larger than the disease-transmission areas, and is not restricted by temperature (or vector-control programs); thus, it is unlikely that rising temperatures alone will bring increased vector or virus distribution. Factors likely to be important to dengue and vector distribution in the future include increased dengue activity in Asian and Pacific nations that would raise rates of virus importation by travellers, importation of vectors via international ports to regions without A. aegypti, higher rates of domestic collection and storage of water that would provide habitat in urban areas, and growing human populations in northern Australia. Past and recent successful control initiatives in Australia lend support to the idea that well resourced and functioning surveillance programs, and effective public health intervention capabilities, are essential to counter threats from dengue and other mosquito-borne diseases. Models projecting future activity of dengue (or other vector-borne disease) with climate change should carefully consider the local historical and contemporary data on the ecology and distribution of the vector and local virus transmission.

  5. Online Training in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzic, Joze

    2013-01-01

    On-line training is becoming an interesting phenomenon in Australia and has attracted a lot of interest across many industries and businesses (Chan and Ngai, 2007). The research reported here looks at the use of online training in corporations in Australia. It focuses on two aspects of online training, the factors that "warrant" its…

  6. Handbook on Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    A study unit on Australia for secondary students is divided into eight sections. Section 1 introduces students to the states, territories, and capitals of the country. Section two, land and people, discusses the size, location, geology, climate, flora and fauna, and population of Australia. Sections 3 and 4 outline Australian history and include…

  7. OPERATION GASLIGHT IN AUSTRALIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    seeking explanations of these phenomena. The reasons for wishing to make measurements in Australia are: (a) the trajectory of Black Knight provides a...other suitable firings in Australia provide better opportunity for optical observation than do firings on American ranges. (Author)

  8. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Consequences for Indigenous Australians in North Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous…

  9. The Health Legislation Amendment Act 2013 (QLD) and Queensland's health assets privatisation dispute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Caroline; Faunce, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    'New legislation in Queensland has provided a "pathway" for the privatisation of health assets and services in Queensland, which effectively realigns the health care system to the financial market. This column explores how this legislation contained the antecedents of the Queensland doctors' dispute when doctors roundly rejected new employment contracts in February 2014. It also argues that such legislation and its attendant backlash provides a valuable case study in view of the federal government's 2014 budget offer to the States of extra funding if they sell their health assets to fund new infrastructure. The move to privatise health in Queensland has also resulted in a government assault on the ethical credibility of the opposing medical profession and changes to the health complaints system with the introduction of a Health Ombudsman under ministerial control. The column examines these changes in light of R (Heather) v Leonard Cheshire Foundation [2001] EWHC Admin 429, a case concerning the obligations of a private entity towards publically funded clients in the United Kingdom. In discussing concerns about the impact of privatisation on the medical profession, the column points to a stark conflict between the duty to operate hospitals as a business rather than as a duty to patients.

  10. Exploring Information Experience Using Social Media during the 2011 Queensland Floods: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, Sharon; Partridge, Helen; Davis, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Social media networks have emerged as a powerful tool in allowing collaboration and sharing of information during times of crisis (Axel Bruns, The Centre for Creative Industries Blog, comment posted January 19, 2011). The 2011 Queensland floods provided a unique opportunity to explore social media use during an emergency. This paper presents the…

  11. The Queensland experience of participation in a national drug use evaluation project, Community-acquired pneumonia – towards improving outcomes nationally (CAPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tett Susan E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multicentre drug use evaluations are described in the literature infrequently and usually publish only the results. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience of Queensland hospitals participating in the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Towards Improving Outcomes Nationally (CAPTION project, specifically evaluating the implementation of this project, detailing benefits and drawbacks of involvement in a national drug use evaluation program. Methods Emergency departments from nine hospitals in Queensland, Australia, participated in CAPTION, a national quality improvement project, conducted in 37 Australian hospitals. CAPTION was aimed at optimising prescribing in the management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia according to the recommendations of the Australian Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic 12th edition. The project involved data collection, and evaluation, feedback of results and a suite of targeted educational interventions including audit and feedback, group presentations and academic detailing. A baseline audit and two drug use evaluation cycles were conducted during the 2-year project. The implementation of the project was evaluated using feedback forms after each phase of the project (audit or intervention. At completion a group meeting with the hospital coordinators identified positive and negative elements of the project. Results Evaluation by hospitals of their participation in CAPTION demonstrated both benefits and drawbacks. The benefits were grouped into the impact on the hospital dynamic such as; improved interdisciplinary working relationships (e.g. between pharmacist and doctor, recognition of the educational/academic role of the pharmacist, creation of ED Pharmacist positions and enhanced involvement with the National Prescribing Service, and personal benefits. Personal benefits included academic detailing training for participants, improved communication skills and opportunities to present at

  12. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative AGENCY...: Notice of availability of program funds for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative. SUMMARY: The... through the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative for agricultural producers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  13. Learning to learn with farmers : a case study of an adult learning extension project conducted in Queensland, Australia 1990 - 1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamilton, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, the relationship between the use of participatory processes in the development and use of information and knowledge and their impact on change is described and explored. This research utilises a major extension project carried out with respect to fallow management in

  14. Use of pooled samples to assess human exposure to parabens, benzophenone-3 and triclosan in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, A L; Baduel, C; Toms, L M L; Calafat, A M; Ye, X; Hobson, P; Broomhall, S; Mueller, J F

    2015-12-01

    Parabens, benzophenone-3 and triclosan are common ingredients used as preservatives, ultraviolet radiation filters and antimicrobial agents, respectively. Human exposure occurs through consumption of processed food and use of cosmetics and consumer products. The aim of this study was to provide a preliminary characterisation of exposure to selected personal care product chemicals in the general Australian population. De-identified urine specimens stratified by age and sex were obtained from a community-based pathology laboratory and pooled (n=24 pools of 100). Concentrations of free and total (sum of free plus conjugated) species of methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl paraben, benzophenone-3 and triclosan were quantified using isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry; with geometric means 232, 33.5, 60.6, 4.32, 61.5 and 87.7ng/mL, respectively. Age was inversely associated with paraben concentration, and females had concentrations approximately two times higher than males. Total paraben and benzophenone-3 concentrations are significantly higher than reported worldwide, and the average triclosan concentration was more than one order of magnitude higher than in many other populations. This study provides the first data on exposure of the general Australian population to a range of common personal care product chemical ingredients, which appears to be prevalent and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A multi-criteria approach to Great Barrier Reef catchment (Queensland, Australia) diffuse-source pollution problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, R; Herr, A; Brodie, J; Haynes, D

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-criteria based tool for assessing the relative impact of diffuse-source pollution to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) from the river basins draining into the GBR lagoon. The assessment integrates biophysical and ecological data of water quality and pollutant concentrations with socio-economic information pertaining to non-point source pollution and (potential) pollutant impact. The tool generates scores for each river basin against four criteria, thus profiling the basins and enabling prioritization of management alternatives between and within basins. The results support policy development for pollution control through community participation, scientific data integration and expert knowledge contributed by people from across the catchment. The results specifically provided support for the Reef Water Quality Protection Plan, released in October 2003. The aim of the plan is to provide a framework for reducing discharge of sediment, nutrient and other diffuse-source loads and (potential) impact of that discharge and for prioritising management actions both between and within river basins.

  16. Rural self-reliance: the impact on health experiences of people living with type II diabetes in rural Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althea Page-Carruth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study was to explore whether and how rural culture influences type II diabetes management and to better understand the social processes that rural people construct in coping with diabetes and its complications. In particular, the study aimed to analyse the interface and interactions between rural people with type II diabetes and the Australian health care system, and to develop a theoretical understanding that reflects constructs that may be more broadly applicable. Methods: The study applied constructivist grounded theory methods within an interpretive interactionist framework. Data from 39 semi-structured interviews with rural and urban type II diabetes patients and a mix of rural health care providers were analysed to develop a theoretical understanding of the social processes that define diabetes management in that context. Results: The analysis suggests that although type II diabetes imposes limitations that require adjustment and adaptation, these processes are actively negotiated by rural people within the environmental context to fit the salient social understandings of autonomy and self-reliance. Thus, people normalized self-reliant diabetes management behaviours because this was congruent with the rural culture. Factors that informed the actions of normalization were relationships between participants and health care professionals, support, and access to individual resources. Conclusions: The findings point to ways in which rural self-reliance is conceived as the primary strategy of diabetes management. People face the paradox of engaging with a health care system that at the same time maximizes individual responsibility for health and minimizes the social support by which individuals manage the condition. The emphasis on self-reliance gives some legitimacy to a lack of prevention and chronic care services. Success of diabetes management behaviours is, however, contingent on relative resources. Where there is good primary care, there develops a number of downstream effects including a sense of empowerment to manage difficult rural environmental circumstances. This has particular bearing on health outcomes for people with fewer resources.

  17. Pilot implementation of allied health assistant roles within publicly funded health services in Queensland, Australia: results of a workplace audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, Michelle; Hurwood, Andrea; Hulcombe, Julie; Kuipers, Pim

    2014-06-16

    Allied health assistants provide delegated support for physical therapists, occupational therapists and other allied health professionals. Unfortunately the role statements, scope of practice and career pathways of these assistant positions are often unclear. To inform the future development of the allied health assistant workforce, a state-wide pilot project was implemented and audited. New allied health assistant positions were implemented in numerous settings at three levels (trainee level, full (standard) scope and advanced scope level). Six months after implementation, 41 positions were audited, using a detailed on-site audit process, conducted by multiple audit teams. Thematically analysed audit findings indicated that both the full (standard) scope and the advanced scope positions were warranted, however the skills of the allied health assistants were not optimally utilised. Contributing factors to this underutilization included the reluctance of professionals to delegate clinical tasks, inconsistencies in role descriptions, limitations in training, and the time frame taken to reach an effective skill level. Optimal utilisation of assistants is unlikely to occur while professionals withhold delegation of tasks related to direct patient care. Formal clinical supervision arrangements and training plans should be established in order to address the concerns of professionals and accelerate full utilisation of assistants. Further work is necessary to identify the key components and distinguish key features of an advanced allied health assistant role.

  18. Pilot implementation of allied health assistant roles within publicly funded health services in Queensland, Australia: results of a workplace audit

    OpenAIRE

    Stute, Michelle; Hurwood, Andrea; Hulcombe, Julie; Kuipers, Pim

    2014-01-01

    Background Allied health assistants provide delegated support for physical therapists, occupational therapists and other allied health professionals. Unfortunately the role statements, scope of practice and career pathways of these assistant positions are often unclear. To inform the future development of the allied health assistant workforce, a state-wide pilot project was implemented and audited. Methods New allied health assistant positions were implemented in numerous settings at three le...

  19. Use of pooled samples to assess human exposure to parabens, benzophenone-3 and triclosan in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, A.L.; Baduel, C.; Toms, L.M.L.; Calafat, A.M.; Ye, X.; Hobson, P.; Broomhall, S.; Mueller, J.F.

    2017-01-01

    Parabens, benzophenone-3 and triclosan are common ingredients used as preservatives, ultraviolet radiation filters and antimicrobial agents, respectively. Human exposure occurs through consumption of processed food and use of cosmetics and consumer products. The aim of this study was to provide a preliminary characterisation of exposure to selected personal care product chemicals in the general Australian population. De-identified urine specimens stratified by age and sex were obtained from a community-based pathology laboratory and pooled (n = 24 pools of 100). Concentrations of free and total (sum of free plus conjugated) species of methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl paraben, benzophenone-3 and triclosan were quantified using isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry; with geometric means 232, 33.5, 60.6, 4.32, 61.5 and 87.7 ng/mL, respectively. Age was inversely associated with paraben concentration, and females had concentrations approximately two times higher than males. Total paraben and benzophenone-3 concentrations are significantly higher than reported worldwide, and the average triclosan concentration was more than one order of magnitude higher than in many other populations. This study provides the first data on exposure of the general Australian population to a range of common personal care product chemical ingredients, which appears to be prevalent and warrants further investigation. PMID:26368661

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorder Coursework for Teachers and Teacher-Aides: An Investigation of Courses Offered in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Mitchell; Lamb, Janeen; Bartlett, Brendan; Datta, Poulomee

    2017-01-01

    The content and structure of pre-service and teacher-aide programs has major implications for training, management, support and deployment of teachers and teacher-aides in mainstream schools working with students who have ASD. Data pertaining to course content and structure were collected from university and teacher-aide training websites, program…

  1. Regional health workforce planning through action research: lessons for commissioning health services from a case study in Far North Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzera, Annette June; Murray, Richard; Stewart, Ruth; Mills, Jane; Beaton, Neil; Larkins, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Creating a stable and sustainable health workforce in regional, rural and remote Australia has long been a challenge to health workforce planners, policy makers and researchers alike. Traditional health workforce planning is often reactive and assumes continuation of current patterns of healthcare utilisation. This demonstration project in Far North Queensland exemplifies how participatory regional health workforce planning processes can accurately model current and projected local workforce requirements. The recent establishment of Primary Health Networks (PHNs) with the intent to commission health services tailored to individual healthcare needs underlines the relevance of such an approach. This study used action research methodology informed by World Health Organization (WHO) systems thinking. Four cyclical stages of health workforce planning were followed: needs assessment; health service model redesign; skills-set assessment and workforce redesign; and development of a workforce and training plan. This study demonstrated that needs-based loco-regional health workforce planning can be achieved successfully through participatory processes with stakeholders. Stronger health systems and workforce training solutions were delivered by facilitating linkages and planning processes based on community need involving healthcare professionals across all disciplines and sectors. By focusing upon extending competencies and skills sets, local health professionals form a stable and sustainable local workforce. Concrete examples of initiatives generated from this process include developing a chronic disease inter-professional teaching clinic in a rural town and renal dialysis being delivered locally to an Aboriginal community. The growing trend of policy makers decentralising health funding, planning and accountability and rising health system costs increase the future utility of this approach. This type of planning can also assist the new PHNs to commission health services

  2. Risk factors of mobile phone use while driving in Queensland: Prevalence, attitudes, crash risk perception, and task-management strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios

    Full Text Available Distracted driving is one of the most significant human factor issues in transport safety. Mobile phone interactions while driving may involve a multitude of cognitive and physical resources that result in inferior driving performance and reduced safety margins. The current study investigates characteristics of usage, risk factors, compensatory strategies in use and characteristics of high-frequency offenders of mobile phone use while driving. A series of questions were administered to drivers in Queensland (Australia using an on-line questionnaire. A total of 484 drivers (34.9% males and 49.8% aged 17-25 participated anonymously. At least one of every two motorists surveyed reported engaging in distracted driving. Drivers were unable to acknowledge the increased crash risk associated with answering and locating a ringing phone in contrast to other tasks such as texting/browsing. Attitudes towards mobile phone usage were more favourable for talking than texting or browsing. Lowering the driving speed and increasing the distance from the vehicle in front were the most popular task-management strategies for talking and texting/browsing while driving. On the other hand, keeping the mobile phone low (e.g. in the driver's lap or on the passenger seat was the favourite strategy used by drivers to avoid police fines for both talking and texting/browsing. Logistic regression models were fitted to understand differences in risk factors for engaging in mobile phone conversations and browsing/texting while driving. For both tasks, exposure to driving, driving experience, driving history (offences and crashes, and attitudes were significant predictors. Future mobile phone prevention efforts would benefit from development of safe attitudes and increasing risk literacy. Enforcement of mobile phone distraction should be re-engineered, as the use of task-management strategies to evade police enforcement seems to dilute its effect on the prevention of this

  3. Risk factors of mobile phone use while driving in Queensland: Prevalence, attitudes, crash risk perception, and task-management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; King, Mark; Haque, Md Mazharul; Washington, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Distracted driving is one of the most significant human factor issues in transport safety. Mobile phone interactions while driving may involve a multitude of cognitive and physical resources that result in inferior driving performance and reduced safety margins. The current study investigates characteristics of usage, risk factors, compensatory strategies in use and characteristics of high-frequency offenders of mobile phone use while driving. A series of questions were administered to drivers in Queensland (Australia) using an on-line questionnaire. A total of 484 drivers (34.9% males and 49.8% aged 17-25) participated anonymously. At least one of every two motorists surveyed reported engaging in distracted driving. Drivers were unable to acknowledge the increased crash risk associated with answering and locating a ringing phone in contrast to other tasks such as texting/browsing. Attitudes towards mobile phone usage were more favourable for talking than texting or browsing. Lowering the driving speed and increasing the distance from the vehicle in front were the most popular task-management strategies for talking and texting/browsing while driving. On the other hand, keeping the mobile phone low (e.g. in the driver's lap or on the passenger seat) was the favourite strategy used by drivers to avoid police fines for both talking and texting/browsing. Logistic regression models were fitted to understand differences in risk factors for engaging in mobile phone conversations and browsing/texting while driving. For both tasks, exposure to driving, driving experience, driving history (offences and crashes), and attitudes were significant predictors. Future mobile phone prevention efforts would benefit from development of safe attitudes and increasing risk literacy. Enforcement of mobile phone distraction should be re-engineered, as the use of task-management strategies to evade police enforcement seems to dilute its effect on the prevention of this behaviour. Some

  4. Chesapeake Bay Program Grant Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant Guidance and appendices for the Chesapeake Bay Program that describes how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Region 3’s Chesapeake Bay Program Office (CBPO) administers grant and cooperative agreement funds.

  5. Chesapeake Bay under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to extensive data obtained over its 13,000 km of shoreline, the Chesapeake Bay has been suffering a major, indeed unprecedented, reduction in submerged vegetation. Chesapeake Bay is alone in experiencing decline in submerged vegetation. Other estuary systems on the east coast of the United States are not so affected. These alarming results were obtained by the synthesis of the findings of numerous individual groups in addition to large consortium projects on the Chesapeake done over the past decade. R. J. Orth and R. A. Moore of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science pointed to the problem of the severe decline of submerged grasses on the Bay and along its tributaries. In a recent report, Orth and Moore note: “The decline, which began in the 1960's and accelerated in the 1970's, has affected all species in all areas. Many major river systems are now totally devoid of any rooted vegetation” (Science, 222, 51-53, 1983).

  6. Managing climate risks through transformational adaptation: Economic and policy implications for key production regions in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Mushtaq

    Full Text Available Transformational adaptations are expected to become more frequent and widespread in Australia, and globally, with a changing climate. However, any transformation adaptation will have complex and interconnected effects on rural communities, particularly income, employment and service provision, which will impact on regional sustainability. This paper investigates regional transformative adaptation options to manage climate risks for the rice and cotton industries of northern Queensland, Australia. More specifically, it seeks to identify when to move from incremental adaptation to transformative adaptation and, more importantly, to assess the potential regional economic consequences of such a transformative adaptation. The results indicate transformative adaptation could have large negative effects on regional economies. Relocation of rice or cotton in sugarcane production system will not compensate some negative regional impacts. More importantly, the increase in wheat production in Riverina will not compensate for the reduction in the higher value rice commodity. However, the cotton production system in Queensland is capable of transformational adaptation and incremental adaptation with little impact on regional communities. In contrast, the southern rice production region of the Riverina shows limited capacity for incremental adaptation, given the already high adoption of improved irrigation technologies and practices, and the limited scope to improve these further. The market incentives for the transformation adaptation of cotton and/or rice production in north Queensland are limited without government support. Alternatively, there may be interest from international investors, which would shift the focus from market opportunities to international food security. Keywords: Structural adjustment, Climate change, Environmental and water policy, Rice, Cotton, Regional economic model

  7. Impacts of Cyclone Yasi on nearshore, terrigenous sediment-dominated reefs of the central Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C. T.; Smithers, S. G.; Kench, P. S.; Pears, B.

    2014-10-01

    Tropical Cyclone (TC) Yasi (Category 5) was a large (~ 700 km across) cyclone that crossed Australia's Queensland coast on the 3rd of February 2011. TC Yasi was one of the region's most powerful recorded cyclones, with winds gusting to 290 km/h and wave heights exceeding 7 m. Here we describe the impacts of TC Yasi on a number of nearshore, turbid-zone coral reefs, that include several in the immediate vicinity of the cyclone's landfall path (King Reef, Lugger Shoal and Dunk Island), as well as a more distally located reef (Paluma Shoals) ~ 150 km to the south in Halifax Bay. These reefs were the focus of recent (between 2006 and 2009) pre-Yasi studies into their geomorphology, sedimentology and community structure, and here we discuss data from a recent (August 2011) post-Yasi re-assessment. This provided a unique opportunity to identify and describe the impacts of an intense tropical cyclone on nearshore reefs, which are often assumed to be vulnerable to physical disturbance and reworking due to their poorly lithified framework. Observed impacts of TC Yasi were site specific and spatially highly heterogeneous, but appear to have been strongly influenced by the contemporary evolutionary stage and ecological make-up of the individual reefs, with site setting (i.e. exposure to prevailing wave action) apparently more important than proximity to the landfall path. The most significant ecological impacts occurred at King Reef (probably a result of freshwater bleaching) and at Paluma Shoals, where widespread physical destruction of branched Acropora occurred. New coral recruits are, however, common at all sites and colony re-growth clearly evident at King Reef. Only localised geomorphic change was evident, mainly in the form of coral fracturing, rubble deposition, and sediment movement, but again these impacts were highly site specific. The dominant impact at Paluma Shoals was localised storm ridge/shingle sheet deposition, at Lugger Shoal major offshore fine sediment

  8. Radiation processing in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.

    2003-01-01

    Australia is a true pioneer in commercial irradiation processing as the first commercial irradiation processing plant in the world was commissioned in Melbourne in 1959. This talk will briefly discuss the establishment of the process in Australia. Steritech's three irradiation plants will be discussed in detail, especially the different engineering aspects and the effect that those differences have on irradiation performance and flexibility of operation.Steritech's new state of the art 'pallet irradiator' will be featured. The transportation and loading of Cobalt 60 into the plants will be demonstrated, and public opposition, and security issues since September 11th 2001, will be highlighted. The wide variety of products that are routinely processed at Steritechs plants will be revealed including some 'world firsts' for Australia. Finally, the talk will address the future of irradiation processing in Australia including the potential, or otherwise, of the irradiation of food items

  9. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Known uranium deposits and the companies involved in uranium mining and exploration in Australia are listed. The status of the development of the deposits is outlined and reasons for delays to mining are given

  10. Uranium production in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, B.G.

    1984-01-01

    The history of uranium mining and milling in Australia is briefly outlined, particular attention being given to the development of Australia's only two operating mills, Nabarlek and Ranger, and its only operating mine, Ranger. The latter project is used to illustrate the prerequisites for development of the industry and the complex roles of the various parties involved in establishing a new mine: equity holders, customers, financiers, the securities industry, trade unions, and the public. The moves currently being taken to resolve the future of the industry in Australia, particularly the examination of issues relating to Australia's role in the nuclear fuel cycle being conducted by the Australian Science and Technology Council, preclude any firm conclusions being drawn, but the various options open to the government are reviewed and the record of Australian governments and unions and the attitude of the Australian public are described. (Author) (3 tabs., fig.)

  11. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Western world requirements for uranium based on increasing energy consumption and a changing energy mix, will warrant the development of Australia's resources. By 1985 Australian mines could be producing 9500 tonnes of uranium oxide yearly and by 1995 the export value from uranium could reach that from wool. In terms of benefit to the community the economic rewards are considerable but, in terms of providing energy to the world, Australias uranium is vital

  12. Comparative adoption of cone beam computed tomography and panoramic radiography machines across Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A; Critchley, S; Monsour, P A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the current adoption of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and panoramic radiography (PR) machines across Australia. Information regarding registered CBCT and PR machines was obtained from radiation regulators across Australia. The number of X-ray machines was correlated with the population size, the number of dentists, and the gross state product (GSP) per capita, to determine the best fitting regression model(s). In 2014, there were 232 CBCT and 1681 PR machines registered in Australia. Based on absolute counts, Queensland had the largest number of CBCT and PR machines whereas the Northern Territory had the smallest number. However, when based on accessibility in terms of the population size and the number of dentists, the Australian Capital Territory had the most CBCT machines and Western Australia had the most PR machines. The number of X-ray machines correlated strongly with both the population size and the number of dentists, but not with the GSP per capita. In 2014, the ratio of PR to CBCT machines was approximately 7:1. Projected increases in either the population size or the number of dentists could positively impact on the adoption of PR and CBCT machines in Australia. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  13. Student survey trends in reported alcohol use and influencing factors in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumbourou, John W; Rowland, Bosco; Ghayour-Minaie, Matin; Sherker, Shauna; Patton, George C; Williams, Joanne W

    2018-01-12

    There is a need to explain reported trends of reduced alcohol and drug (substance) use in school-aged children in Australia. This study used student survey data collected in the states of Victoria, Western Australia and Queensland to examine trends in substance use and associated influencing factors. Youth self-reports were examined from 11 cross-sectional surveys completed by 41 328 adolescents (average age 13.5 years, 52.5% female) across 109 Australian communities between 1999 and 2015. Multi-level modelling was used to identify trends in adolescent reports of lifetime alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use, adjusted for age, gender, social disadvantage and minority status. Trends in influencing factors were also examined that included: individual attitudes, and family, school and community environments. Multivariate analyses estimated the main contributors to alcohol use trends. Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use all fell significantly from 1999 to 2015. Higher levels of use were observed in Victoria compared to Western Australia or Queensland. Multivariate analyses identified reductions in favourable parent attitudes and lower availability of substances as direct contributors to reducing alcohol use trends. Indicators of school and family adjustment did not show similar trend reductions. Reductions in adolescent alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use from 1999 to 2015 were associated with similar reductions in parent favourable attitudes and availability of substances. It is plausible that a reduced tendency for parents and other adults to supply adolescent alcohol are implicated in the reductions in adolescent alcohol use observed across Australia. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  14. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available ..................................... 26 BACKGROUND Historical The town of Richards Bay is situated on the east coast of South Africa, approximately 160 km north-east of Durban, and was named after Sir Frederick William Richards. Although the area was already known...

  15. Patterns of soft drink consumption and primary tooth extractions in Queensland children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, P J; Gkolia, P P; Johnson, H L; Thomas, A R

    2010-12-01

    The authors examined the association of patterns of soft drink consumption and primary tooth extractions in Queensland children aged 12 years or less. Data were gathered through the Child Health Surveys conducted by Queensland Health in 2003 and 2008. The analysis allowed for various demographic characteristics using logistic regression analysis. The data in both surveys showed an increased risk of tooth extraction in children who had a greater frequency and amount of soft drink consumption, and those that consumed soft drink between meals. In 2008, the percentage of children that had soft drink daily or several times a week had decreased, with an increase in those that never had soft drink. To reduce the risk of primary tooth extraction due to decay, this paper recommends the continuing moderation of soft drink consumption frequency and the consumption of soft drinks with, rather than between, meals. © 2010 Australian Dental Association.

  16. Flood Risk in Australia: Whose Responsibility Is It, Anyway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin van den Honert

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research into four key stakeholders in flood risk management in Australia: local councils, the insurance industry, the State Emergency Service (SES, and local residents; examining the perception of their own roles and responsibilities, and those of the other stakeholders. Key informant interviews were conducted in four locations—Brisbane and Emerald, in Queensland, Dora Creek, in New South Wales, and Benalla, in Victoria. We find that understanding of the roles and responsibilities of each stakeholder varied considerably between research participants. Insurance representatives felt their concerns about increasing flood risk costs were unheeded until the 2010–2011 floods made them the “canary in the coal mine”. Councils felt they had limited options for reducing flood risk. SES representatives felt they were too relied upon for event response, with requests for assistance outstripping their capacity to assist, and many residents were uncertain how to prepare for flood, relying on emergency agencies and the local council to protect them. Key lessons for flood risk management in Australia are (a an urgent need for all stakeholders to better understand each others’ roles and responsibilities; and (b residents must take greater responsibility for their own personal protection. Only then can the vision of shared responsibility presented by the 2009 National Strategy for Disaster Resilience be achieved.

  17. Cryptosporidiosis: A Disease of Tropical and Remote Areas in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Aparna; Cornish, Lisa Michelle; Fearnley, Emily; Glass, Kathryn; Kirk, Martyn

    2015-09-01

    Cryptosporidiosis causes gastroenteritis and is transmitted to humans via contaminated water and food, and contact with infected animals and people. We analyse long-term cryptosporidiosis patterns across Australia (2001-2012) and review published Australian studies and jurisdictional health bulletins to identify high risk populations and potential risk factors for disease. Using national data on reported cryptosporidiosis, the average annual rate of reported illness was 12.8 cases per 100 000 population, with cycles of high and low reporting years. Reports of illness peak in summer, similar to other infectious gastrointestinal diseases. States with high livestock densities like New South Wales and Queensland also record a spring peak in illnesses. Children aged less than four years have the highest rates of disease, along with adult females. Rates of reported cryptosporidiosis are highest in the warmer, remote regions and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Our review of 34 published studies and seven health department reports on cryptosporidiosis in Australia highlights a lack of long term, non-outbreak studies in these regions and populations, with an emphasis on outbreaks and risk factors in urban areas. The high disease rates in remote, tropical and subtropical areas and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations underscore the need to develop interventions that target the sources of infection, seasonal exposures and risk factors for cryptosporidiosis in these settings. Spatial epidemiology can provide an evidence base to identify priorities for intervention to prevent and control cryptosporidiosis in high risk populations.

  18. Cryptosporidiosis: A Disease of Tropical and Remote Areas in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Lal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis causes gastroenteritis and is transmitted to humans via contaminated water and food, and contact with infected animals and people. We analyse long-term cryptosporidiosis patterns across Australia (2001-2012 and review published Australian studies and jurisdictional health bulletins to identify high risk populations and potential risk factors for disease. Using national data on reported cryptosporidiosis, the average annual rate of reported illness was 12.8 cases per 100 000 population, with cycles of high and low reporting years. Reports of illness peak in summer, similar to other infectious gastrointestinal diseases. States with high livestock densities like New South Wales and Queensland also record a spring peak in illnesses. Children aged less than four years have the highest rates of disease, along with adult females. Rates of reported cryptosporidiosis are highest in the warmer, remote regions and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Our review of 34 published studies and seven health department reports on cryptosporidiosis in Australia highlights a lack of long term, non-outbreak studies in these regions and populations, with an emphasis on outbreaks and risk factors in urban areas. The high disease rates in remote, tropical and subtropical areas and in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations underscore the need to develop interventions that target the sources of infection, seasonal exposures and risk factors for cryptosporidiosis in these settings. Spatial epidemiology can provide an evidence base to identify priorities for intervention to prevent and control cryptosporidiosis in high risk populations.

  19. A benefit cost analysis on management strategies for Queensland Fruit Fly: methods and observations

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Sallyann; Fisher, Bill; Larson, Kristoffer; Malcolm, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The Queensland Fruit Fly (QFF) — Bactrocera tryoni — poses a significant threat to horticultural production in Victoria causing losses of fruit and jeopardising access to interstate and international markets. The Victorian Government implements and largely funds an area freedom program to manage QFF. Concern about the record number of outbreaks in 2007-08 and the escalating costs of maintaining the current management regime, led the Victorian Department of Primary Industries to review the pro...

  20. Genetic and molecular markers of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J T; Frommer, M; Sved, J A; Gillies, C B

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-six microsatellite markers, along with two restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers and three morphological markers, have been mapped to five linkage groups, corresponding to the five autosomes of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni. All these molecular and genetic markers were genotyped in three-generation pedigrees. Eight molecular markers were also localized to the salivary gland polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization. This provides a substantial starting point for an integrated genetic and physical map of B. tryoni.

  1. The spatial and temporal characteristics of rainfall in south-eastern Queensland

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Cluster analysis of five upper-air variables from Brisbane Airport has identified eight weather regimes associated with rainfall in the south-eastern Queensland. These eight weather regimes are found to clearly distinguish the rain-bearing systems; four are associated with essentially dry conditions and four with wet conditions. The low-rainfall regimes were all linked to synoptic patterns with low moisture flux and weak surface pressure gradients. The rain-bearing regimes tend to have ...

  2. The Rescue and Rehabilitation of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Southeast Queensland

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Emily; Tribe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Little is understood about the overall success of current wildlife rehabilitation techniques and the implications of these as an effective conservation strategy. This study collated admission records from four major wildlife hospitals catering to sick and injured koalas across southeast Queensland from 2009 to 2014, and analyzed specific factors that may be important when quantifying the extent and effectiveness of this work. The study found koalas to be at an increased risk fr...

  3. A snapshot of radiation therapy techniques and technology in Queensland: An aid to mapping undergraduate curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann; Brady, Carole; Dry, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate students studying the Bachelor of Radiation Therapy at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements in a number of department sites across Queensland. To ensure that the curriculum prepares students for the most common treatments and current techniques in use in these departments, a curriculum matching exercise was performed. A cross-sectional census was performed on a pre-determined “Snapshot” date in 2012. This was undertaken by the clinical education staff in each department who used a standardized proforma to count the number of patients as well as prescription, equipment, and technique data for a list of tumour site categories. This information was combined into aggregate anonymized data. All 12 Queensland radiation therapy clinical sites participated in the Snapshot data collection exercise to produce a comprehensive overview of clinical practice on the chosen day. A total of 59 different tumour sites were treated on the chosen day and as expected the most common treatment sites were prostate and breast, comprising 46% of patients treated. Data analysis also indicated that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) use is relatively high with 19.6% of patients receiving IMRT treatment on the chosen day. Both IMRT and image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) indications matched recommendations from the evidence. The Snapshot method proved to be a feasible and efficient method of gathering useful data to inform curriculum matching. Frequency of IMRT use in Queensland matches or possibly exceeds that indicated in the literature. It is recommended that future repetition of the study be undertaken in order to monitor trends in referral patterns and new technology implementation

  4. Potential impacts of climate change on habitat suitability for the Queensland fruit fly

    OpenAIRE

    Sultana, Sabira; Baumgartner, John B.; Dominiak, Bernard C.; Royer, Jane E.; Beaumont, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is a major factor driving shifts in the distributions of pests and invasive species. The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni Froggatt (Qfly), is the most economically damaging insect pest of Australia’s horticultural industry, and its management is a key priority for plant protection and biosecurity. Identifying the extent to which climate change may alter the distribution of suitable habitat for Qfly is important for the development and continuation of effect...

  5. Preparedness for short-term isolation among Queensland residents: implications for pandemic and disaster planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Peter; Leggat, Peter A; Brown, Lawrence H; Speare, Richard

    2010-10-01

    Short-term isolation might occur during pandemic disease or natural disasters. We sought to measure preparedness for short-term isolation in an Australian state during pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Data were collected as part of the Queensland Social Survey (QSS) 2009. Two questions related to preparedness for 3 days of isolation were incorporated into QSS 2009. Associations between demographic variables and preparedness were analysed using χ², with P potable water if isolated for 3 days with an interruption in utility services. Subpopulations that were less likely to have sufficient food and potable water reserves for 3 days' isolation without utility services included single people, households with children under 18 years of age, people living in South-East Queensland or urban areas, those with higher levels of education and people employed in health or community service occupations. The majority of Queensland's population consider themselves to have sufficient food supplies to cope with isolation for a period of 3 days. Far fewer would have sufficient reserves if they were isolated for a similar period with an interruption in utility services. The lower level of preparedness among health and community service workers has implications for maintaining the continuity of health services. © 2010 The Authors. Emergency Medicine Australasia © 2010 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  6. Testing for Hendra virus: difficulties experienced by veterinarians in Queensland prior to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, D; Judd, J; Speare, R

    2013-08-01

    To identify the perceived barriers to Hendra virus (HeV) management by private equine veterinarians in Queensland. An exploratory qualitative study of private equine veterinarians registered and working in coastal Queensland. A questionnaire that included eight open-ended questions about the management of HeV was used in face-to-face in-depth interviews with 21 veterinary personnel working in equine or mixed private practice between Far North and South-East Queensland in 2009-10. The qualitative data was entered and analysed thematically using QSR's International's Nvivo 9 qualitative data analysis software. This study revealed key issues associated with HeV testing: (1) inadequate knowledge of testing procedures and laboratory diagnostic pathways; (2) difficulty in accessing laboratory services; (3) responsibility for cost of collection and transport of specimen; and (4) the role of government. Participants perceived these issues as reducing potential HeV case management efficiency. Although HeV management plans have been modified in part since 2009-10, this study highlights the importance of considering the perspectives of private veterinary practitioners in any biosecurity protocols. © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  7. Sustainable development in the Hudson Bay/James Bay bioregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of projects planned for the James Bay/Hudson Bay region, and the expected environmental impacts of these projects. The watershed of James Bay and Hudson Bay covers well over one third of Canada, from southern Alberta to central Ontario to Baffin Island, as well as parts of north Dakota and Minnesota in the U.S.A. Hydroelectric power developments that change the timing and rate of flow of fresh water may cause changes in the nature and duration of ice cover, habitats of marine mammals, fish and migratory birds, currents into and out of Hudson Bay/James Bay, seasonal and annual loads of sediments and nutrients to marine ecosystems, and anadromous fish populations. Hydroelectric projects are proposed for the region by Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba. In January 1992, the Canadian Arctic Resources Committee (CARC), the Environmental Committee of Sanikuluaq, and the Rawson Academy of Arctic Science will launch the Hudson Bay/James Bay Bioregion Program, an independent initiative to apply an ecosystem approach to the region. Two main objectives are to provide a comprehensive assessment of the cumulative impacts of human activities on the marine and freshwater ecosystems of the Hudson Bay/James Bay bioregion, and to foster sustainable development by examining and proposing cooperative processes for decision making among governments, developers, aboriginal peoples and other stakeholders. 1 fig

  8. Assessing the health equity impacts of regional land-use plan making: An equity focussed health impact assessment of alternative patterns of development of the Whitsunday Hinterland and Mackay Regional Plan, Australia (Short report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunning, Colleen; Harris, Patrick; Mallett, John

    2011-01-01

    Health service and partners completed an equity focussed health impact assessment to influence the consideration of health and equity within regional land-use planning in Queensland, Australia. This project demonstrated how an equity oriented assessment matrix can assist in testing regional planning scenarios. It is hoped that this HIA will contribute to the emerging interest in ensuring that potential differential health impacts continue to be considered as part of land-use planning processes.

  9. Australia's uranium export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.

    1987-01-01

    In developing the policy framework for the export of uranium, successive governments have been keenly aware that, in Australia, as in most countries, there has been considerable community interest and controversy surrounding the subject of uranium. When the Australian Labor Government was elected in 1983, it commissioned the Australian Science and Technology Council (ASTEC) to report on Australia's role in the nuclear fuel cycle. In particular, the report examined: (i) Australia's nuclear safeguards arrangements, giving particular attention to the effectiveness of the bilateral and multilateral agreements and to the scope for strengthening these agreements, (ii) the opportunities for Australia through the conditions of its involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle to further advance the cause of nuclear non-proliferation having regard to the policies and practices of recipient countries, (iii) the adequacy of existing technology for the handling and disposal of waste products by consuming countries, and the ways in which Australia could further contribute to the development of safe disposal methods. (orig./UA) [de

  10. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  11. Distances travelled by feral horses in 'outback' Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, B A; de Laat, M A; Mills, P C; Pollitt, C C

    2010-11-01

    The distance travelled by Australian feral horses in an unrestricted environment has not previously been determined. It is important to investigate horse movement in wilderness environments to establish baseline data against which the movement of domestically managed horses and wild equids can be compared. To determine the travel dynamics of 2 groups of feral horses in unrestricted but different wilderness environments. Twelve feral horses living in 2 wilderness environments (2000 vs. 20,000 km(2)) in outback Australia were tracked for 6.5 consecutive days using custom designed, collar mounted global positioning systems (GPS). Collars were attached after darting and immobilising the horses. The collars were recovered after a minimum of 6.5 days by re-darting the horses. Average daily distance travelled was calculated. Range use and watering patterns of horses were analysed by viewing GPS tracks overlaid on satellite photographs of the study area. Average distance travelled was 15.9 ± 1.9 km/day (range 8.1-28.3 km/day). Horses were recorded up to 55 km from their watering points and some horses walked for 12 h to water from feeding grounds. Mean watering frequency was 2.67 days (range 1-4 days). Central Australian horses watered less frequently and showed a different range use compared to horses from central Queensland. Central Australian horses walked for long distances in direct lines to patchy food sources whereas central Queensland horses were able to graze close to water sources and moved in a more or less circular pattern around the central water source. The distances travelled by feral horses were far greater than those previously observed for managed domestic horses and other species of equid. Feral horses are able to travel long distances and withstand long periods without water, allowing them to survive in semi-arid conditions. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  12. Socio-demographic, ecological factors and dengue infection trends in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokeya Akter

    Full Text Available Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia. This study has explored the spatio-temporal trends of dengue and potential socio- demographic and ecological determinants in Australia. Data on dengue cases, socio-demographic, climatic and land use types for the period January 1999 to December 2010 were collected from Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, and Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences, respectively. Descriptive and linear regression analyses were performed to observe the spatio-temporal trends of dengue, socio-demographic and ecological factors in Australia. A total of 5,853 dengue cases (both local and overseas acquired were recorded across Australia between January 1999 and December 2010. Most the cases (53.0% were reported from Queensland, followed by New South Wales (16.5%. Dengue outbreak was highest (54.2% during 2008-2010. A highest percentage of overseas arrivals (29.9%, households having rainwater tanks (33.9%, Indigenous population (27.2%, separate houses (26.5%, terrace house types (26.9% and economically advantage people (42.8% were also observed during 2008-2010. Regression analyses demonstrate that there was an increasing trend of dengue incidence, potential socio-ecological factors such as overseas arrivals, number of households having rainwater tanks, housing types and land use types (e.g. intensive uses and production from dryland agriculture. Spatial variation of socio-demographic factors was also observed in this study. In near future, significant increase of temperature was also projected across Australia. The projected increased temperature as well as increased socio-ecological trend may pose a future threat to the local transmission of dengue in other parts of Australia if Aedes mosquitoes are being established. Therefore, upgraded mosquito and disease surveillance at different

  13. Potential for tree rings to reveal spatial patterns of past drought variability across western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Alison J.; Cook, Edward R.; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Turney, Chris S. M.; Grierson, Pauline F.

    2018-02-01

    Proxy records have provided major insights into the variability of past climates over long timescales. However, for much of the Southern Hemisphere, the ability to identify spatial patterns of past climatic variability is constrained by the sparse distribution of proxy records. This is particularly true for mainland Australia, where relatively few proxy records are located. Here, we (1) assess the potential to use existing proxy records in the Australasian region—starting with the only two multi-century tree-ring proxies from mainland Australia—to reveal spatial patterns of past hydroclimatic variability across the western third of the continent, and (2) identify strategic locations to target for the development of new proxy records. We show that the two existing tree-ring records allow robust reconstructions of past hydroclimatic variability over spatially broad areas (i.e. > 3° × 3°) in inland north- and south-western Australia. Our results reveal synchronous periods of drought and wet conditions between the inland northern and southern regions of western Australia as well as a generally anti-phase relationship with hydroclimate in eastern Australia over the last two centuries. The inclusion of 174 tree-ring proxy records from Tasmania, New Zealand and Indonesia and a coral record from Queensland did not improve the reconstruction potential over western Australia. However, our findings suggest that the addition of relatively few new proxy records from key locations in western Australia that currently have low reconstruction skill will enable the development of a comprehensive drought atlas for the region, and provide a critical link to the drought atlases of monsoonal Asia and eastern Australia and New Zealand.

  14. Socio-demographic, ecological factors and dengue infection trends in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Rokeya; Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Tong, Shilu

    2017-01-01

    Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia. This study has explored the spatio-temporal trends of dengue and potential socio- demographic and ecological determinants in Australia. Data on dengue cases, socio-demographic, climatic and land use types for the period January 1999 to December 2010 were collected from Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, and Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences, respectively. Descriptive and linear regression analyses were performed to observe the spatio-temporal trends of dengue, socio-demographic and ecological factors in Australia. A total of 5,853 dengue cases (both local and overseas acquired) were recorded across Australia between January 1999 and December 2010. Most the cases (53.0%) were reported from Queensland, followed by New South Wales (16.5%). Dengue outbreak was highest (54.2%) during 2008-2010. A highest percentage of overseas arrivals (29.9%), households having rainwater tanks (33.9%), Indigenous population (27.2%), separate houses (26.5%), terrace house types (26.9%) and economically advantage people (42.8%) were also observed during 2008-2010. Regression analyses demonstrate that there was an increasing trend of dengue incidence, potential socio-ecological factors such as overseas arrivals, number of households having rainwater tanks, housing types and land use types (e.g. intensive uses and production from dryland agriculture). Spatial variation of socio-demographic factors was also observed in this study. In near future, significant increase of temperature was also projected across Australia. The projected increased temperature as well as increased socio-ecological trend may pose a future threat to the local transmission of dengue in other parts of Australia if Aedes mosquitoes are being established. Therefore, upgraded mosquito and disease surveillance at different ports should

  15. Delineation of an endemic tick paralysis zone in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Zoe; Kelman, Mark; Ward, Michael P

    2017-11-30

    Tick paralysis has a major impact on pet dog and cat populations in southeastern Australia. It results from envenomation by Ixodes holocyclus and Ixodes cornuatus ticks, the role of Ixodes cornuatus in the epidemiology of this disease in Australia being unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the geographical distribution of tick paralysis cases in southeastern Australia using data from a national disease surveillance system and to compare characteristics of "endemic" cases with those reported outside this endemic zone ("sporadic" cases). Data were collated and a proportional symbol map of all cases by postcode was created. A 15-case isopleth was developed based on descriptive spatial statistics (directional ellipses) and then kernel smoothing to distinguish endemic from sporadic cases. During the study period (January 2010-December 2015) 12,421 cases were reported, and 10,839 of these reported by clinics located in 434 postcodes were included in the study. Endemic cases were predominantly reported from postcodes in coastal southeastern Australia, from southern Queensland to eastern Victoria. Of those cases meeting selection criteria, within the endemic zone 10,767 cases were reported from 351 (88%) postcodes and outside this zone 72 cases were reported from 48 (12%) postcodes. Of these latter 48 postcodes, 18 were in Victoria (26 cases), 16 in New South Wales (28 cases), 7 in Tasmania (9 cases), 5 in South Australia (7 cases) and 2 in Queensland (2 cases). Seasonal distribution in reporting was found: 62% of endemic and 52% of sporadic cases were reported in spring. The number of both endemic and sporadic cases reported peaked in October and November, but importantly a secondary peak in reporting of sporadic cases in April was found. In non-endemic areas, summer was the lowest risk season whilst in endemic areas, autumn was the lowest risk season. Two clusters of sporadic cases were identified, one in South Australia (P=0.022) during the period 22 May to 2

  16. Psychiatry in Australia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    resurgence of cultural pride in Tasmanian Aboriginal descen- dants). The 20th century. By the start of the 20th ... administered by the Royal Australian and New Zealand. College of Psychiatrists. There are over 2 000 ... psychiatry in Australia followed suit, picking up new ideas and trends. After World War I this included fever ...

  17. Mathematical Sciences in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jan; Muchatuta, Michelle; Wood, Leigh

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates enrolment trends in mathematical sciences in Australian universities. Data has been difficult to extract and the coding for mathematical disciplines has made investigation challenging. We show that the number of mathematics major undergraduates in Australia is steadily declining though the number studying…

  18. Australia: a continuing genocide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Damien

    2010-01-01

    Debates about genocide in Australia have for the most part focussed on past frontier killings and child removal practices. This article, however, focuses on contemporary culturally destructive policies, and the colonial structures that produce them, through the analytical lens of the concept of genocide. The article begins with a discussion of the meaning of cultural genocide, locating the idea firmly in Lemkin's work before moving on to engage with the debates around Lemkin's distinction between genocide and cultural 'diffusion.' In contrast to those scholars who prefer the word 'ethnocide,' the underlying conceptual contention is that the term 'cultural genocide' simply describes a key method of genocide and should be viewed, without the need for qualification, as genocide. While direct physical killing and genocidal child removal practices may have ceased in Australia, some indigenous activists persuasively contend that genocide is a continuing process in an Australia that has failed to decolonise. Concurring with these views the article argues that the contemporary expression of continuing genocidal relations in Australia can be seen principally, and perversely, in the colonial state's official reconciliation process, native title land rights regime and the recent interventionist 'solutions' to indigenous 'problems' in the Northern Territory.

  19. Economy Profile of Australia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Aust...

  20. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  1. Dream house in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Asgaard

    2004-01-01

    This first book in the Utzon Library, which deals with Utzon's own houses, contains a number of drawings that have not previously been published. This is especially true of the four projects for his house in Bayview, Sydney, which unfortunately never got past the drawing stage, as Utzon had left ...... Australia when the authorities finally got around to approving the project....

  2. Lexicography in Australia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: This paper describes the current setting for lexirography in Australia by reviewing the place of English since the first British settlement began in 1788. The emergence of Australian. English as the national language is traced, and its relations with the Australian Aboriginal lan- guages touched on. The greatest ...

  3. Banknote Quality in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Arianna Cowling; Monica Howlett

    2012-01-01

    The Reserve Bank aims to keep the quality of banknotes in circulation high to ensure that they meet the needs of the public and to make it more difficult for counterfeits to be passed or remain in circulation. This article discusses the quality of banknotes in Australia and Reserve Bank initiatives that have improved the quality of banknotes in recent years.

  4. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  5. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  6. Australia's uranium export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    During the period 1954-71 in Australia approximately 9000 MT of U 3 O 8 was produced from five separate localities. Of this, 7000 MT was exported to the United Kingdom and United States and the balance stockpiled by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC). Australia's uranium ore reserves occur in eight deposits in three states and the Northern Territory. However, 83% of Australia's reserves are contained in four deposits in lower Proterozoic rocks in the East Alligator River region of the Northern Territory. The AAEC has calculated Australia's recoverable uranium reserves by eliminating estimated losses during the mining and milling of the ores. AAEC has estimated reasonably assured resources of 289,000 MT of uranium at a recovery cost of less than US$80 per kilogram uranium. The companies have collectively announced a larger ore reserve than the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. This difference is a result of the companies adopting different ore reserve categories. On August 25, 1977, the federal government announced that Australia would develop its uranium resources subject to stringent environmental controls, recognition of Aboriginal Land Rights, and international safeguards. Australian uranium production should gradually increase from 1981 onward, growing to 10,000 to 15,000 MT by 1985-86. Further increases in capacity may emerge during the second half of the 1980s when expansion plans are implemented. Exploration for uranium has not been intensive due to delays in developing the existing deposits. It is likely that present reserves can be substantially upgraded if more exploration is carried out. 6 figures, 3 tables

  7. Wakasa Bay Weather Forecast Maps, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E Wakasa Bay Field Campaign was conducted over Wakasa Bay, Japan. The Wakasa Bay Field Campaign includes joint research observations, such as precipitation...

  8. Climate Change. Solutions for Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, T.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Karoly, D.; Lowe, I.; McMichael, T.; Mitchell, C.; Pearman, G.; Scaife, P.; Reynolds, A. (eds.)

    2004-06-01

    The Australian Climate Group was convened in late 2003 by WWF Australia and the Insurance Australia Group (IAG) in response to the increasing need for action on climate change in Australia. This group proposes a set of solutions to lower the risk that climate change will reach a dangerous level.

  9. Risk factors of mobile phone use while driving in Queensland: Prevalence, attitudes, crash risk perception, and task-management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Mark; Haque, Md. Mazharul; Washington, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Distracted driving is one of the most significant human factor issues in transport safety. Mobile phone interactions while driving may involve a multitude of cognitive and physical resources that result in inferior driving performance and reduced safety margins. The current study investigates characteristics of usage, risk factors, compensatory strategies in use and characteristics of high-frequency offenders of mobile phone use while driving. A series of questions were administered to drivers in Queensland (Australia) using an on-line questionnaire. A total of 484 drivers (34.9% males and 49.8% aged 17–25) participated anonymously. At least one of every two motorists surveyed reported engaging in distracted driving. Drivers were unable to acknowledge the increased crash risk associated with answering and locating a ringing phone in contrast to other tasks such as texting/browsing. Attitudes towards mobile phone usage were more favourable for talking than texting or browsing. Lowering the driving speed and increasing the distance from the vehicle in front were the most popular task-management strategies for talking and texting/browsing while driving. On the other hand, keeping the mobile phone low (e.g. in the driver’s lap or on the passenger seat) was the favourite strategy used by drivers to avoid police fines for both talking and texting/browsing. Logistic regression models were fitted to understand differences in risk factors for engaging in mobile phone conversations and browsing/texting while driving. For both tasks, exposure to driving, driving experience, driving history (offences and crashes), and attitudes were significant predictors. Future mobile phone prevention efforts would benefit from development of safe attitudes and increasing risk literacy. Enforcement of mobile phone distraction should be re-engineered, as the use of task-management strategies to evade police enforcement seems to dilute its effect on the prevention of this behaviour. Some

  10. Monitoring gully change: A comparison of airborne and terrestrial laser scanning using a case study from Aratula, Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Nicholas R.; Armston, John D.; Muir, Jasmine; Stiller, Issac

    2017-04-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technologies capture spatially detailed estimates of surface topography and when collected multi-temporally can be used to assess geomorphic change. The sensitivity and repeatability of ALS measurements to characterise geomorphic change in topographically complex environments such as gullies; however, remains an area lacking quantitative research. In this study, we captured coincident ALS and TLS datasets to assess their ability and synergies to detect geomorphic change for a gully located in Aratula, southeast Queensland, Australia. We initially used the higher spatial density and ranging accuracy of TLS to provide an assessment of the Digital Elevation Models (DEM) derived from ALS within a gully environment. Results indicated mean residual errors of 0.13 and 0.09 m along with standard deviation (SD) of residual errors of 0.20 and 0.16 m using pixel sizes of 0.5 and 1.0 m, respectively. The positive mean residual errors confirm that TLS data consistently detected deeper sections of the gully than ALS. We also compared the repeatability of ALS and TLS for characterising gully morphology. This indicated that the sensitivity to detect change using ALS is substantially lower than TLS, as expected, and that the ALS survey characteristics influence the ability to detect change. Notably, we found that using one ALS transect (mean density of 5 points / m2) as opposed to three transects increased the SD of residual error by approximately 30%. The supplied classification of ALS ground points was also demonstrated to misclassify gully features as non-ground, with minimum elevation filtering found to provide a more accurate DEM of the gully. The number and placement of terrestrial laser scans were also found to influence the derived DEMs. Furthermore, we applied change detection using two ALS data captures over a four year period and four TLS field surveys over an eight month period. This demonstrated that

  11. Online Relinquishments of Dogs and Cats in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenvey, Caitlin J.; Tuke, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary The aim of this study was to analyze dog and cat advertisements on a popular online trading website in Australia in February 2016. A total of 2640 ads for dogs and 2093 ads for cats were classified as being relinquished on Gumtree. A total of 23% of dog ads and 62% of cat ads were for free animals. The median age was 1.42 years in dogs and 0.9 years in cats. Compared to the human population there were proportionately more ads in Queensland and fewer ads in Victoria. In comparison to pets from animal shelters advertised on PetRescue, there were more purebred dogs on Gumtree, although the common breeds were similar. Fifteen people who had relinquished a dog or cat on Gumtree were interviewed. They used Gumtree because they believed shelters were full, they wanted to see/interview the new owner, or because they originally got the animal on Gumtree and it works. These results shed light on a hitherto under-studied population of relinquished dogs and cats. Abstract While traditionally people relinquish their pets to an animal shelter or pound, the internet provides a newer method to re-home. We analyzed advertisements (ads) on the largest website in Australia for trading dogs and cats: Gumtree. Data was collected in 2016. Dogs were sampled on 7, 16 and 24 February 2016 and cats on 9, 19 and 26 February 2016, with 2640 ads for relinquished dogs, and 2093 ads for relinquished cats. It was estimated >31,000 puppies/dogs and >24,000 kittens/cats are relinquished on Gumtree per year. The median age of dogs was 1.42 and cats 0.9 years of age. There were 23% of dog ads and 62% of cat ads for free animals. Compared to the human population, there were proportionately more ads in Queensland and fewer ads in Victoria. A total of 15 people were surveyed who had relinquished a dog or cat using Gumtree. The dog owners used Gumtree for two reasons: because they believed the shelters were full (n = 4); and they wanted to see/interview the new owner (n = 2). For cat

  12. The effects of culture independent diagnostic testing on the diagnosis and reporting of enteric bacterial pathogens in Queensland, 2010 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Fiona J; Stafford, Russell J; Carroll, Heidi; Robson, Jennifer Mb; Vohra, Renu; Nimmo, Graeme R; Bates, John; Kirk, Martyn D; Fearnley, Emily J; Polkinghorne, Benjamin G

    2017-09-01

    Changes in diagnostic laboratory testing procedures can impact on the number of cases notified and the public health surveillance of enteric pathogens. Culture independent diagnostic testing using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was introduced for the rapid detection of bacterial enteric pathogens in pathology laboratories in Queensland, Australia, from late 2013 onwards. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study using laboratory data to assess the impact of the introduction of PCR testing on four common enteric pathogens, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shigella and Yersinia, in Queensland between 2010 and 2014. The number of stool specimens tested and the proportion positive for each of the four pathogens increased in 2014 after the introduction of culture independent diagnostic testing. Among the specimens tested by both PCR and culture, 12% of Salmonella positive stools, 36% of Campylobacter positive stools, 74% of Shigella / enteroinvasive Escherichia coli positive stools and 65% of Yersinia positive stools were PCR positive only. Including those where culture was not performed, 19% of Salmonella positive stools, 44% of Campylobacter positive stools, 83% of Shigella positive stools and 79% of Yersinia positive stools had no cultured isolate available for further characterisation. The detection and tracking of foodborne and non-foodborne gastrointestinal outbreaks will become more difficult as culture independent diagnostic testing becomes more widespread. Until new techniques for characterisation of pathogens directly from clinical specimens have been developed, we recommend laboratories continue to culture specimens concurrently or reflexively with culture independent diagnostic tests. This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce the whole or part of this work in unaltered form for your own personal use or, if you are part of an organisation, for internal use within your organisation, but only if you or your

  13. QF2011: a protocol to study the effects of the Queensland flood on pregnant women, their pregnancies, and their children's early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Suzanne; Kildea, Sue; Austin, Marie-Paule; Brunet, Alain; Cobham, Vanessa E; Dawson, Paul A; Harris, Mark; Hurrion, Elizabeth M; Laplante, David P; McDermott, Brett M; McIntyre, H David; O'Hara, Michael W; Schmitz, Norbert; Stapleton, Helen; Tracy, Sally K; Vaillancourt, Cathy; Dancause, Kelsey N; Kruske, Sue; Reilly, Nicole; Shoo, Laura; Simcock, Gabrielle; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Yong Ping, Erin

    2015-05-06

    Retrospective studies suggest that maternal exposure to a severe stressor during pregnancy increases the fetus' risk for a variety of disorders in adulthood. Animal studies testing the fetal programming hypothesis find that maternal glucocorticoids pass through the placenta and alter fetal brain development, particularly the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, there are no prospective studies of pregnant women exposed to a sudden-onset independent stressor that elucidate the biopsychosocial mechanisms responsible for the wide variety of consequences of prenatal stress seen in human offspring. The aim of the QF2011 Queensland Flood Study is to fill this gap, and to test the buffering effects of Midwifery Group Practice, a form of continuity of maternity care. In January 2011 Queensland, Australia had its worst flooding in 30 years. Simultaneously, researchers in Brisbane were collecting psychosocial data on pregnant women for a randomized control trial (the M@NGO Trial) comparing Midwifery Group Practice to standard care. We invited these and other pregnant women to participate in a prospective, longitudinal study of the effects of prenatal maternal stress from the floods on maternal, perinatal and early childhood outcomes. Data collection included assessment of objective hardship and subjective distress from the floods at recruitment and again 12 months post-flood. Biological samples included maternal bloods at 36 weeks pregnancy, umbilical cord, cord blood, and placental tissues at birth. Questionnaires assessing maternal and child outcomes were sent to women at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. The protocol includes assessments at 16 months, 2½ and 4 years. Outcomes include maternal psychopathology, and the child's cognitive, behavioral, motor and physical development. Additional biological samples include maternal and child DNA, as well as child testosterone, diurnal and reactive cortisol. This prenatal stress study is the first of its kind, and will

  14. A field investigation into a suspected outbreak of pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicosis in horses in western Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, B; Gummow, B

    2015-03-01

    A disease outbreak investigation was conducted in western Queensland to investigate a rare suspected outbreak of pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) toxicosis in horses. Thirty five of 132 horses depastured on five properties on the Mitchell grass plains of western Queensland died in the first six months of 2010. Clinical-pathological findings were consistent with PA toxicosis. A local variety of Crotalaria medicaginea was the only hepatotoxic plant found growing on affected properties. Pathology reports and departure and arrival dates of two brood mares provided evidence of a pre wet season exposure period. All five affected properties experienced a very dry spring and early summer preceded by a large summer wet season. The outbreak was characterised as a point epidemic with a sudden peak of deaths in March followed by mortalities steadily declining until the end of June. The estimated morbidity (serum IGG>50IU/L) rate was 76%. Average crude mortality was 27% but higher in young horses (67%) and brood mares (44%). Logistic regression analysis showed that young horses and brood mares and those grazing denuded pastures in December were most strongly associated with dying whereas those fed hay and/or grain based supplements were less likely to die. This is the first detailed study of an outbreak of PA toxicosis in central western Queensland and the first to provide evidence that environmental determinants were associated with mortality, that the critical exposure period was towards the end of the dry season, that supplementary feeding is protective and that denuded pastures and the horses physiological protein requirement are risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. How do red knots Calidris canutus leave Northwest Australia in May and reach the breeding grounds in June? Predictions of stopover times, fuelling rates and prey quality in the Yellow Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battley, PF; Rogers, DI; van Gils, JA; Piersma, T; Hassell, CJ; Boyle, A; Hong-Yan, Y; Battley, Phil F.; Rogers, Danny I.; Hassell, Chris J.; Yang, Hong-Yan

    2005-01-01

    In general, Arctic-breeding waders leave non-breeding grounds in Australasia from March (New Zealand) to mid-April (Northwest Australia). Here we provide evidence from radio-tracking and visual observations that many red knots Calidris canutus do not leave Roebuck Bay, Northwest Australia, until

  16. Mitotic and polytene chromosome analyses in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J T; Frommer, M; Sved, J A; Zacharopoulou, A

    1998-08-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, like the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, has a diploid complement of 12 chromosomes, including five pairs of autosomes and a XX/XY sex chromosome pair. Characteristic features of each chromosome are described. Chromosomal homology between B. tryoni and C. capitata has been determined by comparing chromosome banding pattern and in situ hybridisation of cloned genes to polytene chromosomes. Although the evidence indicates that a number of chromosomal inversions have occurred since the separation of the two species, synteny of the chromosomes appears to have been maintained.

  17. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for sweet cherries against Queensland fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessup, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The quality of 'Ron's Seedling', 'American Bing', and 'Lambert' sweet cherry drupes was not affected by irradiation doses up to 300 to 1000 gray. Peduncle discoloration increased in 'Ron's Seedling' cherries when irradiated at 600 and 1000 gray. A dose of 75 gray prevented adult eclosion of more than 1300 Queensland fruit fly (Dacus tryoni, Froggatt). Larvae treated at the third instar were the least susceptible to gamma irradiation. The results indicated that gamma irradiation is a feasible quarantine treatment against D. tryoni without impairment to the quality of cherries

  18. What are the costs associated with child and maternal healthcare within Australia? A study protocol for the use of data linkage to identify health service use, and health system and patient costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, Emily J; Fox, Haylee

    2018-02-06

    The current literature in Australia demonstrates that there are variations in access and outcomes in perinatal care based on socioeconomic factors. However, little has been done looking at the level of out-of-pocket healthcare costs associated with perinatal care. The primary aim of this project will be to quantify health service use and out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure associated with childbearing and early childhood in Queensland, Australia. This project will build Australia's first model (called Maternal & Child Cost MOD) of out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure by using administrative data from the Queensland Perinatal Data Collection, of all childbearing women and their resultant children, who gave birth in Queensland between 1 July 2012 and 30 June 2016.The current costs to the health system and out-of-pocket health care expenditure of patients associated with maternity and early childhood health care will be identified. The differences in costs based on indigenous identification, socioeconomic status and geographic location will be assessed using linear regression modelling and counterfactual modelling techniques. Human Research Ethics approval has been obtained from Townsville Hospital and Health Service Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) (HREC Reference number: HREC/16/QTHS/223). Consent will not be sought from participants whose de-identified data will be used in this study. Permission to waive consent has been gained from Queensland Health under the Public Health Act 2005.The results of this study will be disseminated through publications in peer-reviewed journals and through presentations at conferences, regionally and nationally. Our target audience is clinicians, health professionals and health policy-makers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Geochemical and Nd-isotopic systematics of the Permo-Traissic Gympie Group, southeast Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivell, W.J.; McCulloch, M.T.

    2001-01-01

    Nine subduction-related magma suites are recognised from drill core in the Upper Paleozoic - Mesozoic volcanic-intrusive sequence of the Gympie Group, part of the tectonically anomalous Gympie Province, southeast Queensland. Magmas of the Gympie Group include Lower Permian submarine (later subaerial) island-arc tholeiites, basaltic tuff-breccias and lavas comprising the Highbury Volcanics, as well as andesites and dacites in the unconformably overlying Rammutt Formation. Mantle-derived mafic-intermediate magmas also comprise several intrusive suites in the Gympie Group, some possessing alkaline and shoshonitic affinities. Most eruptives of the Highbury Volcanics and Rammutt Formation show uniformly high Nd-isotope ratios (εNd(270 Ma) = +7.4 to +8.1) and geochemical features (e.g. high Zr/Nb, Sr/Nd and La/Nb) that reflect depleted asthenospheric mantle sources metasomatised by hydrous fluids from subducted lithosphere. Predominant andesites from the Rammutt Formation have higher Zr/Y, Nb/Y, Ti/V, La/Y, P/Nd and K/P than isotopically similar basalts of the Highbury Volcanics, as well as high Al 2 O 3 , Zr and SiO 2 . The andesites may represent island-arc tholeiite magmas that assimilated as much as 40% isotopically primitive (young) terrigenous sediment, akin to turbiditic greywacke of Carboniferous accretionary complex origin in contiguous terranes of the New England Orogen. Rare dacites from the Rammutt Formation differentiated from island-arc tholeiite magmas similar to those of the Highbury Volcanics without incorporation of substantial metasedimentary components. Lower initial Nd-isotopic ratios characterise Gympie Group intrusive suites. In order of emplacement, these are: (i) the transitional-alkaline multiphase Langton Dolerite sill (εNd = +6.2 to +6.7); (ii) dolerite dykes intimately associated with gold mineralisation (εNd = + 4.3 to +5.7); and (iii) microdiorite dykes (εNd = +4.5 to +4.7) that include some near-primary magmas with features

  20. Stylobates birtlesi sp. n., a new species of carcinoecium-forming sea anemone (Cnidaria, Actiniaria, Actiniidae from eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Crowther

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of carcinoecium-forming sea anemone, Stylobates birtlesi sp. n., from sites 680-960 m deep in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland, Australia. An anemone of this genus settles on a gastropod shell inhabited by a hermit crab, then covers and extends the shell to produce a chitinous structure termed a carcinoecium. Stylobates birtlesi sp. n. is symbiotic with the hermit crab Sympagurus trispinosus (Balss, 1911. The nature of marginal sphincter muscle and nematocyst size and distribution distinguish Stylobates birtlesi sp. n. from other species in the genus. The four known species are allopatric, each inhabiting a separate ocean basin of the Indo-west Pacific. We also extend the known range of Stylobates loisetteae in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Western Australia.

  1. Mineral industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parbo, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The paper reviews the history and growth of the mineral industry in Australia and its significance to the nation's economic growth and overseas trade, particularly over the last twenty years during which time production of coal, iron ore, manganese and mineral sands has increased greatly and new discoveries of petroleum, bauxite and nickel have given rise to major new industries. Australia ranks fourteenths in the value of world trade and is among the world's largest exporters of alumina, iron ore, mineral sands, coal, lead, zinc and nickel. Some details of production, processing and exports of the major minerals are given. Comment is made on the policies and roles of the six State Governments and the Federal Government in respect of ownership and control of the mining, processing and exporting of both energy and non-energy minerals. (orig.) [de

  2. Pleistocene Paleoart of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene rock art is abundant in Australia, but has so far received only limited attention. Instead there has been a trend, begun over a century ago, to search for presumed depictions of extinct megafauna and the tracks of such species. All these notions have been discredited, however, and the current evidence suggests that figurative depiction was introduced only during the Holocene, never reaching Tasmania. Nevertheless, some Australian rock art has been attributed to the Pleistocene by direct dating methods, and its nature implies that a significant portion of the surviving corpus of rock art may also be of such age. In particular much of Australian cave art is of the Ice Age, or appears to be so, and any heavily weathered or patinated petroglyphs on particularly hard rocks are good candidates for Pleistocene antiquity. On the other hand, there is very limited evidence of mobiliary paleoart of such age in Australia.

  3. WAVFH delegates' reports: Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation measuring and control before Chernobyl: Continuous measurements of fallout in different parts of Australia, including the food producing areas, have been made since the mid 1950s. Levels have decreased rapidly since the cessation of atmospheric nuclear tests in the Southern Hemisphere in 1974 and in the Northern Hemisphere in 1980. Measurements of concentrations of radionuclides arising from fallout were made for the major groups of foods affected by the radioactive contaminants, starting in the 1950s and continuing until concentrations were so low that further effort in measurement was not warranted, i.e., less than 0.1 Bq/kg or 0.1 Bq/l. Changes in the concentrations of radionuclides in foods follow the same trends as the fallout levels. Based on the low levels of fallout measured in Australia since the 1950s, and taking into account the extremely low levels during the past decade, the concentrations of radionuclides arising from fallout in foods grown and processed in Australia are extremely small. Results from the fall-out from Chernobyl. Since the Chernobyl accident, measurements of the concentrations of 137 Cs in a variety of foodstuffs grown in Australia have been made, mainly for export purposes. A summary of the results of these measurements is given in Table 111 of Attachment 2. No 134 Cs has been detected, nor is it likely to be. By taking into account these measurements, the earlier measurements of foodstuffs, predictive modelling values and the very low levels of fall-out in deposit and in air, it is concluded that the concentrations of 137 Cs in all foodstuffs grown in Australia are extremely small. Accordingly, their consumption would result in no significant risk to the health of a population. With world atmospheric conditions being as they are, it will probably be 12 to 18 months before any fallout reaches Australia. Even if some fall-out does occur, it will be minimal and should not significantly increase our very low natural levels

  4. Australia's nuclear safeguards agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is a compilation of the bilateral agreements concluded by Australia concerning co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The publication also includes the agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the agreement with EURATOM on transfers of nuclear materials from Australia to the European Atomic Energy Community. The other agreements were concluded with the following countries: Canada, Egypt, Finland, France, Japan, Republic of Korea, Philippines, Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland, USSR, United Kingdom and United States. They concern transfers of nuclear materials and equipment, research and development, exchange of information, etc. All contain provisions on safeguards, physical protection and restrictions on exports to third countries [fr

  5. Australia Online; Borderless University

    OpenAIRE

    ERDINC, Zeynep

    2015-01-01

    Around the world distance education is playing an important roll in the education sector. Many countries are in the process of developing and improving their distance education projects. One of the projects being online education has improved information delivery and development op International education. Distance education has been available in Australia for many years. More than 30 higher education institutions within the country now use the program. The purpose of the development of di...

  6. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    In Australia most exploration for uranium has been conducted by companies and individuals. The geological mapping and airborne radiometric surveying conducted by the BMR is made available to interested persons. Exploration for uranium in Australia can be divided into two periods - 1947 to 1961 and 1966-1977. During the first period the Commonwealth Government introduced measures to encourage uranium exploration including a system of rewards for the discovery of uranium ore. This reward system resulted in extensive activity by prospectors particularly in the known mineral fields. Equipped with a Geiger counter or scintillometer, individuals with little or no experience in prospecting could compete with experienced prospectors and geologists. During this period several relative small uranium deposits were discovered generally by prospectors who found outcropping mineralisation. The second phase of uranium exploration in Australia began in 1966 at which time reserves amounted to only 6,200 tonnes of uranium and by 3 977 reserves had been increased to 289,000 tonnes. Most of the exploration was done by companies with substantial exploration budgets utilising more advanced geological and geophysical techniques. In the field of airborne radiometer the development of multi-channel gamma ray spectrometers with large volume crystal detectors increased the sensitivity of the tool as a uranium detector and resulted in several major discoveries. Expenditure or exploration for uranium increased from 1966 to 1971 but has declines in recent years. After listing the major geological elements of Australia, its uranium production and resources are discussed. During the period 1954-71 the total production of uranium concentrate in Australia amounted to 7,780 tonnes of uranium, and was derived from deposits at Rum Jungle (2,990 tonnes U) and the South Alligator River (610 tonnes U) in the Northern Territory, Mary Kathleen (3,460 tonnes U) in Queensland and Radium Hill (720 tonnes U

  7. Australia's atomic conspiracy theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnie, A.

    2001-01-01

    The author questions claims by the Newcastle University historian Wayne Reynolds in his book 'Australia's Bid for the Bomb', that the impetus behind the Snowy Mountains Scheme was to provide a secure source of power for the enrichment of uranium and production of heavy water so that Australia could produce its own atomic bombs. Reynolds also argued that the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) was set up so that Australia had a trained scientific workforce to produce plutonium for the bomb. While the book is well researched, Reynolds does not seem to understand the principles of basic science and engineering. After the Second World War, a manufacturing and industrial base with a skilled and trained workforce was needed so it could be converted to war or defence manufacturing when the need arose. This new manufacturing community would require electrical power to sustain it. Hydroelectricity and atomic energy could help provide these needs. Even though war was still raging, Prime Minister John Curtin looked ahead and set up a Department of Post-War Reconstruction. It was through this department that the Snowy Mountains Scheme would be established. Curtin did not live to see this. He died in 1945 but his successor, Ben Chifley, continued the vision. The author believes, an understanding of the science behind these developments and an appreciation of how how humans interact with each others when it comes to getting something they want is likely to give a more balanced view of the past

  8. Psychiatry in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Kaplan

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatry has been practised in Australia in one form or another since the peopling of the continent, originally with the practices of the Aboriginal shamans, and later with the psychiatric treatment necessitated by convict transportation. Over most of the last half-century psychiatry has been administered by the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. There are over 2 000 psychiatrists in Australia, and num- bers are expected to increase in future. As in many other countries, there is ongoing pressure between the private and public sectors, with endemic under- funding of public and community services. Despite its small number of practitioners and relative isola- tion from major centres, Australian psychiatry has a distin- guished record in the field of research. The most famous dis- covery, by John Cade, was the use of lithium for treatment of mania. Recently governments at state and federal level have acknowledged the effect of psychiatric illness on patients and their families. This has led to the development of pro- grammes to improve public information and eliminate preju- dice. It is anticipated that the practice of psychiatry will flourish in Australia and that the country will remain a leading centre of excellence in psychiatric research and training.

  9. Behavioural evidence for heat-load problems in Great Knots in tropical Australia fuelling for long-distance flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battley, PF; Rogers, DI; Piersma, T; Koolhaas, A; Battley, Phil F.; Rogers, Danny I.

    2003-01-01

    Migratory shorebirds that live in the tropics prior to embarking on long (> 5000 km) flights may face heat-load problems. The behaviour of a large sandpiper, the Great Knot (Calidris tenuirostris), was studied in Roebuck Bay, north-west Australia, from February to April 2000. We determined the

  10. Trends and risk factors for human Q fever in Australia, 1991-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan-Gardner, T S; Massey, P D; Hutchinson, P; Knope, K; Fearnley, E

    2017-03-01

    Australian abattoir workers, farmers, veterinarians and people handling animal birthing products or slaughtering animals continue to be at high risk of Q fever despite an effective vaccine being available. National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System data were analysed for the period 1991-2014, along with enhanced risk factor data from notified cases in the states of New South Wales and Queensland, to examine changes in the epidemiology of Q fever in Australia. The national Q fever notification rate reduced by 20% [incident rate ratio (IRR) 0·82] following the end of the National Q fever Management Program in 2006, and has increased since 2009 (IRR 1·01-1·34). Highest rates were in males aged 40-59 years (5·9/100 000) and 87% of Q fever cases occurred in New South Wales and Queensland. The age of Q fever cases and proportion of females increased over the study period. Based on the enhanced risk factor data, the most frequently listed occupation for Q fever cases involved contact with livestock, followed by 'no known risk' occupations. More complete and comparable enhanced risk factor data, at the State/Territory and national levels, would aid in further understanding of the epidemiology of Q fever.

  11. Telemedicine for rural cancer care in North Queensland: bringing cancer care home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabesan, Sabe; Larkins, Sarah; Evans, Rebecca; Varma, Suresh; Andrews, Athena; Beuttner, Petra; Brennan, Sean; Young, Michael

    2012-10-01

    To describe the use of telemedicine in cancer care (teleoncology model of care) for rural patients in North Queensland. This is a descriptive study. Data on demographical and clinical factors were retrieved from the teleoncology database of Townsville Hospital and review of medical records for the period betwee