WorldWideScience

Sample records for bay of fundy

  1. Bay of Fundy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The highest tides on Earth occur in the Minas Basin, the eastern extremity of the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada, where the tide range can reach 16 meters when the various factors affecting the tides are in phase. The primary cause of the immense tides of Fundy is a resonance of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine system. The system is effectively bounded at this outer end by the edge of the continental shelf with its approximately 40:1 increase in depth. The system has a natural period of approximately 13 hours, which is close to the 12h25m period of the dominant lunar tide of the Atlantic Ocean. Like a father pushing his daughter on a swing, the gentle Atlantic tidal pulse pushes the waters of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine basin at nearly the optimum frequency to cause a large to-and-fro oscillation. The greatest slosh occurs at the head (northeast end) of the system. The high tide image (top) was acquired April 20, 2001, and the low tide image (bottom) was acquired September 30, 2002. The images cover an area of 16.5 by 21 km, and are centered near 64 degrees west longitude and 45.5 degrees north latitude. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying

  2. Tidal power dams in the Bay of Fundy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsun, W. van

    1998-01-01

    The challenges of harnessing tidal power and the construction of dams and tidal power plants in a tidal-ocean environment such as the Bay of Fundy in New Brunswick are discussed. In the 1966-1988 series of studies, three sites were chosen at the Bay of Fundy as being the most promising, namely (1) site B9 in Minas Basin at the entrance to Cobequid Bay, (2) site A8 at the narrow neck beyond the entrance to Cumberland Basin, and (3) site A6 at the entrance to Shepody Bay. All the sites are located at the head of the Bay of Fundy because that is where the maximum tidal ranges are found and a basin's tidal energy potential is proportional to the square of its tidal range. Site B9 was determined to have the greatest tidal power potential but no plant has ever been built because reports have stated that a solid conventional tidal power barrage at site B9 would increase the tidal range at Boston by as much as 30 cm. Rather than abandoning the site for this reason, an installation consisting of a series of piers from shore to shore with hydraulic turbines mounted in the spaces between piers, was suggested. A simple mathematical model has been developed for determining the operation of this tidal fence. The cost of energy, generated by the tidal fence at site B9 was also calculated. Further studies are suggested to determine the exact environmental effect of the tidal fence on the tidal regime. If environmental problems persist, machines with larger discharge capabilities could be considered to reduce the interference of the fence with natural tidal movements. 9 refs., 6 figs

  3. Determining Marine Renewable Energy Areas in the Bay of Fundy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, R.; Roc, T.; O'Flaherty-Sproul, M.

    2016-02-01

    The Bay of Fundy has the world's highest tides and several excellent sites for the development of in-stream tidal energy. In particular, Minas Passage in the upper Bay of Fundy has been identified as a site with the theoretical potential to produce over 2000 MW of power. Recently, the Nova Scotia government has enacted legislation to define Marine Renewable Energy Areas where tidal energy will be developed. As part of this process, the practical potential of the regions in the upper Bay of Fundy must be accurately quantified. To assist in this process, we have conducted a practical resource assement of the region. The resource asssesment includes an analysis of the hydrodynamic characteristics of the region. The assessment uses the simulations data from a high-resolution, multi-layered, unstructured-grid, coastal-ocean model (FVCOM). The numerical model has been validated through comparison to numerous measurements of tdial flow from ADCPs, surface drifters and X-band radar. The simulations data is used to estimate the power production of different turbine technologies across the study area. The technologies will have varying hub-height and power curves. Other characteristics of the flow (i.e., water depth, variation in flow) will be used to determine if sites are more or less suitable for turbine deployment. As well, the numerical data will be used to design practical layouts for turbine farms, that have suitable spacing of turbines to allow deployment and minimize the interaction of wakes. The final output will be a prediction of the number of turbines and the power production of an array for a given region. The results of the analysis of the simulation data will be processed into a series of GIS layers. These will be combined with other indications of suitability for deployment of a turbine array: for example, geo-technical, marine conditions, environmental factors, social factors, proximity to on-shore infrastructure etc. The final GIS tool will allow the user

  4. Feasibility of tidal power development in the Bay of Fundy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1969-01-01

    A committee was formed to carry out technical studies on the feasibility of a tidal power plant in the Bay of Fundy. Basic information was collected on the physical, geological, climatic, and tidal characteristics of the area to determine areas for more intense investigation. Studies were conducted on the possible effects of the plant on navigation, ground transportation, fisheries, and area development. Electric power marketing and transmission were also examined, as well as the basic concepts for extracting tidal energy. A number of potential sites were examined, and the three most promising sites were selected for preliminary design and cost estimates. Computerized models were used at appropriate stages in order to evaluate various tidal power schemes. This report presents a summary of the committee's investigations. It was seen that a site at the entrance to Cobequid Bay would have an economic advantage over the other sites considered. From the results of the design studies, it was concluded that a long period of construction, plus extensive capital investment, would be required. However, the lowest unit cost of output was calculated at 5.6 mills/kWh, substantially above the incremental cost of energy available from existing sources. Under current economic conditions, the tidal power plant would not be feasible. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. The environmental aspects of a tidal power project in the upper reaches of the Bay Fundy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, D.C.; Longhurst, A.R.

    1979-02-01

    A recommendation for pre-investment design studies for a tidal power development in the Cumberland Basin region of the Bay of Fundy has been made by the Bay of Fundy Tidal Power Review Board and is backed by Canadian provincial and federal governments. A brief history of regional tidal power proposals is presented, and procedures for determining the environmental impacts of the project are outlined. Possible environmental consequences of tidal power development can be hypothesized, but the existing environmental data base is sparse. Investigations are presently being expanded by university and governmental scientists, and specific impact assessment studies will be commissioned if the project is authorized to proceed. (1 map, 11 references)

  6. Bay of Fundy tidal energy : a response to the strategic environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    Tidal in-stream energy conversion is an emerging technology to harness sea power. These energy conversion devices are similar to underwater windmills. The government of Nova Scotia is interested in understanding the potential effects of these devices on the Bay of Fundy. As a result, it commissioned a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) that was completed in the spring of 2008. This document presented a response to the SEA. It discussed Nova Scotia's specific approach to tidal energy as well as the province's broader approach to marine renewable energy in the Bay of Fundy, with specific responses to each recommendation in the SEA. The energy context was presented, with particular reference to energy strategy; emissions; legal requirements; production costs; and carbon costs. The report also discussed tidal lagoon technology as well as a demonstration facility called the Fundy Tidal Energy Centre. The objectives of the SEA were also described and recommendations were presented. Recommendations were grouped under several key themes such as sustainability principles; allowing the demonstration of tidal in-stream energy conversion (TISEC) technologies; marine renewable energy legislation; research program; Mi'kmaq ecological knowledge study; provincial standard for ecological data; Bay of Fundy socioeconomic background study; marine renewable energy demonstration program; siting demonstration projects; and environmental assessment of the demonstration facility. figs

  7. Site Safety and Food Affect Movements of Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla Migrating Through the Upper Bay of Fundy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley J. Sprague

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The upper Bay of Fundy is a critical stopover site for Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla during their fall migration. However, little is known about factors that influence selection of feeding and roosting sites by these birds, or the extent to which birds move between different sites during their time in the region. Using radio-telemetry, we studied movement patterns, examined habitat use, and tested hypotheses associated with factors influencing foraging and roost-site selection. Movements of radio-tagged sandpipers were tracked in the upper Bay of Fundy in August 2004 and 2005. In 2004, sandpipers from the Minas Basin, Nova Scotia and Chignecto Bay, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, were tracked, and in 2005, sandpipers were tracked only in Chignecto Bay. Sandpipers were highly mobile in both the Minas Basin 2004 and Chignecto Bay 2005, making daily movements of up to 20 km between foraging and roosting sites, although very little movement was detected in Chignecto Bay in 2004. Migrating sandpipers appeared to select foraging sites based on relative safety, as measured by distance to cover, provided that these sites offered an adequate food supply. Similarly, roosting sandpipers preferred sites that were far from nearby trees that might offer cover to predators. This preference for safe sites became more apparent later in their stay in the Bay of Fundy, when birds were heavier and, therefore, possibly more vulnerable to predation. Semipalmated Sandpipers appear to be flexible during their time in the upper Bay of Fundy, displaying year-to-year and site-to-site variability in movement and mudflat usage. Therefore, multiple, synchronized population counts should be conducted at known roost sites in order to more accurately estimate Semipalmated Sandpiper abundance in this region. Furthermore, in a highly dynamic system where food can be variable, landscape features such as distance to cover may be important factors to consider when

  8. Trace element and stable isotope analysis of fourteen species of marine invertebrates from the Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Matthew D; Robertson, Gregory J; Mallory, Mark L

    2015-12-15

    The Bay of Fundy, Canada, is a macrotidal bay with a highly productive intertidal zone, hosting a large abundance and diversity of marine invertebrates. We analysed trace element concentrations and stable isotopic values of δ(15)N and δ(13)C in 14 species of benthic marine invertebrates from the Bay of Fundy's intertidal zone to investigate bioaccumulation or biodilution of trace elements in the lower level of this marine food web. Barnacles (Balanus balanus) consistently had significantly greater concentrations of trace elements compared to the other species studied, but otherwise we found low concentrations of non-essential trace elements. In the range of trophic levels that we studied, we found limited evidence of bioaccumulation or biodilution of trace elements across species, likely due to the species examined occupying similar trophic levels in different food chains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multi-decadal changes in the megabenthos of the Bay of Fundy: The effects of fishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenchington, Ellen L.; Kenchington, Trevor J.; Henry, Lea-Anne; Fuller, Susanna; Gonzalez, Patricia

    2007-10-01

    Analysis of presence / absence records from two comparable megabenthic surveys of scallop grounds in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, in 1966-67 and 1997 showed profound change over three decades. There were no indications that any species were lost and the average number of taxa per station remained steady. However, spatial heterogeneities in the community were reduced and species composition changed significantly. Some taxa widespread in 1966-67 declined while others expanded, with frequencies of occurrence of individual taxa changing by up to 71%. The whelks Buccinum undatum and Colus spp., the bivalves Astarte spp. and Cyclocardia borealis, the toad crabs Hyas spp., the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis and the brittle stars (Ophiurida) showed particular increases. Corresponding declines were seen in the boring sponges Cliona spp., the horse mussel Modiolus modiolus, the scallop Chlamys islandica, the fan worm Pseudopotamilla reniformis and the stalked tunicate Boltenia ovifera. Replacement of attached, fragile, epifaunal, filter-feeding taxa by a combination of motile scavengers, motile filter-feeders and robust, burrowing filter-feeders suggests that the primary cause of the temporal change was physical impacts by fishing gear, even though trawling and scallop dragging in the area were neither intense nor new developments. Secondary causes of change may have included other ecosystem effects of fishing (supply of discards and bait), a mass mortality of scallops and a range expansion of a bryozoan ( Flustra foliacea).

  10. Assessment of arrays of in-stream tidal turbines in the Bay of Fundy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Richard; Swan, Amanda; Culina, Joel

    2013-02-28

    Theories of in-stream turbines are adapted to analyse the potential electricity generation and impact of turbine arrays deployed in Minas Passage, Bay of Fundy. Linear momentum actuator disc theory (LMADT) is combined with a theory that calculates the flux through the passage to determine both the turbine power and the impact of rows of turbine fences. For realistically small blockage ratios, the theory predicts that extracting 2000-2500 MW of turbine power will result in a reduction in the flow of less than 5 per cent. The theory also suggests that there is little reason to tune the turbines if the blockage ratio remains small. A turbine array model is derived that extends LMADT by using the velocity field from a numerical simulation of the flow through Minas Passage and modelling the turbine wakes. The model calculates the resulting speed of the flow through and around a turbine array, allowing for the sequential positioning of turbines in regions of strongest flow. The model estimates that over 2000 MW of power is possible with only a 2.5 per cent reduction in the flow. If turbines are restricted to depths less than 50 m, the potential power generation is reduced substantially, down to 300 MW. For large turbine arrays, the blockage ratios remain small and the turbines can produce maximum power with a drag coefficient equal to the Betz-limit value.

  11. Behavioral response of Corophium volutator to shorebird predation in the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C MacDonald

    Full Text Available Predator avoidance is an important component of predator-prey relationships and can affect prey availability for foraging animals. Each summer, the burrow-dwelling amphipod Corophium volutator is heavily preyed upon by Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla on mudflats in the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada. We conducted three complementary studies to determine if adult C. volutator exhibit predator avoidance behavior in the presence of sandpipers. In a field experiment, we monitored vertical distribution of C. volutator adults in bird exclosures and adjacent control plots before sandpipers arrived and during their stopover. We also made polymer resin casts of C. volutator burrows in the field throughout the summer. Finally, we simulated shorebird pecking in a lab experiment and observed C. volutator behavior in their burrows. C. volutator adults were generally distributed deeper in the sediment later in the summer (after sandpipers arrived. In August, this response was detectably stronger in areas exposed to bird predation than in bird exclosures. During peak predator abundance, many C. volutator adults were beyond the reach of feeding sandpipers (>1.5 cm deep. However, burrow depth did not change significantly throughout the summer. Detailed behavioral observations indicated that C. volutator spent more time at the bottom of their burrow when exposed to a simulated predator compared to controls. This observed redistribution suggests that C. volutator adults move deeper into their burrows as an anti-predator response to the presence of sandpipers. This work has implications for predators that feed on burrow-dwelling invertebrates in soft-sediment ecosystems, as density may not accurately estimate prey availability.

  12. Summary report of the OREG 2009 spring event : Bay of Fundy tidal energy forum : working together for sustainable success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The Ocean Renewable Energy Group (OREG) is a collaboration between various academic, government and Canadian industry stakeholders that was formed to advocated for and accelerate the development of an ocean renewable energy sector in Canada. This report summarized a forum held by ocean renewable energy stakeholders to discuss technical, operational, and regulatory decisions related to tidal energy projects in Canada's Atlantic provinces. Local interest in the Bay of Fundy as a renewable tidal resource is growing. Presentations focused on current initiatives in the Bay of Fundy and the Gulf of Maine. Challenges to creating an ocean energy sector in the region were discussed along with issues related to regulators, project planning, and emerging local suppliers. Adaptive management techniques were also discussed. The forum included working group sessions designed to look for areas of potential collaboration. Workshop participants concluded by reviewing strategies for creating early market drivers, and demonstrating the role and value of renewable ocean energy in the coming decades. tabs., figs.

  13. The quest for chron E23r at Partridge Island, bay of Fundy, Canada: CAMP emplacement postdates the end-Triassic extinction event at the North American craton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deenen, M.H.L.; Krijgsman, W.; Ruhl, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Partridge Island stratigraphic section at the Bay of Fundy, Maritime Canada, reveals a continental sedimentary succession with the end-Triassic mass extinction level closely followed by basalts of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP). New Paleomagnetic data show that a short reverse

  14. Sediment transport and development of banner banks and sandwaves in an extreme tidal system: Upper Bay of Fundy, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Michael Z.; Shaw, John; Todd, Brian J.; Kostylev, Vladimir E.; Wu, Yongsheng

    2014-07-01

    Multibeam sonar mapping and geophysical and geological groundtruth surveys were coupled with tidal current and sediment transport model calculations to investigate the sediment transport and formation processes of the complex seabed features off the Cape Split headland in the upper Bay of Fundy. The Cape Split banner bank, composed of coarse to very coarse sand, is a southwest-northeast oriented, large tear-drop shaped sand body with superimposed sand waves that show wavelengths from 15 to 525 m and heights from 0.5 to 19 m. Isolated and chains of barchan dunes occur on top of a shadow bank to the southeast of the banner bank. The barchan dunes are composed of well-sorted medium sand and are oriented northwest-southeast. Their mean height and width are 1.5 and 55 m, respectively. A gravel bank, with an elongated elliptical shape and west-east orientation, lies in the Minas Passage erosional trough east of the headland to form the counterpart to the sandy Cape Split banner bank. The southern face is featureless but the northern face is covered by gravel megaripples. Tidal model predictions and sediment transport calculations show that the formation of the banner bank and the gravel bank are due to the development of the transient counter-clockwise and clockwise tidal eddies respectively to the west and east of the headland. The formation of barchan dunes is controlled by the nearly unidirectional flow regime in outer Scots Bay. Sand waves on the flanks of the Cape Split banner bank show opposite asymmetry and the barchan dunes are asymmetric to the northeast. The tidal current and sediment transport predictions corroborate bedform asymmetry to show that sand wave migration and net sediment transport is to southwest on the northern flank of the banner bank but to northeast on the southern bank. Long-term migration of the Scots Bay barchan dunes is to the northeast. Spring-condition tidal currents can cause frequent mobilization and high-stage transport over the

  15. Effectiveness of emamectin benzoate for treatment of Lepeophtheirus salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patti G; Hammell, K Larry; Dohoo, Ian R; Revie, Crawford W

    2012-12-03

    Emamectin benzoate (an avermectin chemotherapeutant administered to fish as an in-feed treatment) has been used to treat infestations of sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada, since 1999. This retrospective study examined the effectiveness of 114 emamectin benzoate treatment episodes from 2004 to 2008 across 54 farms. Study objectives were to establish whether changes in the effectiveness of emamectin benzoate were present for this period, examine factors associated with treatment outcome, and determine variables that influenced differences in L. salmonis abundance after treatment. The analysis was carried out in 2 parts: first, trends in treatment effectiveness and L. salmonis abundance were explored, and second, statistical modelling (linear and logistic regression) was used to examine the effects of multiple variables on post-treatment abundance and treatment outcome. Post-treatment sea lice abundance increased in the later years examined. Mean abundance differed between locations in the Bay of Fundy, and higher numbers were found at farms closer to the mainland and lower levels were found in the areas around Grand Manan Island. Treatment effectiveness varied by geographical region and decreased over time. There was an increased risk for unsuccessful treatments in 2008, and treatments applied during autumn months were more likely to be ineffective than those applied during summer months.

  16. Endangered Right Whales Enhance Primary Productivity in the Bay of Fundy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Roman

    Full Text Available Marine mammals have recently been documented as important facilitators of rapid and efficient nutrient recycling in coastal and offshore waters. Whales enhance phytoplankton nutrition by releasing fecal plumes near the surface after feeding and by migrating from highly productive, high-latitude feeding areas to low-latitude nutrient-poor calving areas. In this study, we measured NH4+ and PO43- release rates from the feces of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis, a highly endangered baleen whale. Samples for this species were primarily collected by locating aggregations of whales in surface-active groups (SAGs, which typically consist of a central female surrounded by males competing for sexual activity. When freshly collected feces were incubated in seawater, high initial rates of N release were generally observed, which decreased to near zero within 24 hours of sampling, a pattern that is consistent with the active role of gut microflora on fecal particles. We estimate that at least 10% of particulate N in whale feces becomes available as NH4+ within 24 hours of defecation. Phosphorous was also abundant in fecal samples: initial release rates of PO43- were higher than for NH4+, yielding low N/P nutrient ratios over the course of our experiments. The rate of PO43- release was thus more than sufficient to preclude the possibility that nitrogenous nutrients supplied by whales would lead to phytoplankton production limited by P availability. Phytoplankton growth experiments indicated that NH4+ released from whale feces enhance productivity, as would be expected, with no evidence that fecal metabolites suppress growth. Although North Atlantic right whales are currently rare (approximately 450 individuals, they once numbered about 14,000 and likely played a substantial role in recycling nutrients in areas where they gathered to feed and mate. Even though the NH4+ released from fresh whale fecal material is a small fraction of total whale

  17. Sea lice population and sex differences in P-glycoprotein expression and emamectin benzoate resistance on salmon farms in the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igboeli, Okechukwu O; Burka, John F; Fast, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Parasitic sea lice are a major challenge for salmon aquaculture. This is especially due to the recent development of resistance to emamectin benzoate (EMB) in the parasite. We investigated: (1) whether EMB treatment success in Grand Manan, Bay of Fundy, NB, Canada can be explained through EMB bioassay and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mRNA expression studies; (2) if other populations of sea lice not under EMB selective pressure possess similar EMB sensitivity as Grand Manan sea lice populations; and (3) the heritability of EMB resistance in Lepeophtheirus salmonis. EMB bioassay results indicated population, species, sex and temporal differences in EMB EC50 values. RT-qPCR analyses revealed population and sex differences in P-gp mRNA levels, correlating with the bioassay results. Laboratory-reared sea lice maintained their EMB sensitivity status up to the F3 generation. Caligus elongatus, collected from Grand Manan showed more than twofold lower EMB EC50 values compared with L. salmonis collected from the same site. Concurrent exposure to EMB and verapamil yielded no increase in C. elongatus sensitivity to the parasiticide. Sea lice bioassay and P-gp mRNA studies can be used to track EMB resistance and sex differences in EMB sensitivity and P-gp mRNA levels exist in the parasite. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. A comparison of morphological and molecular-based surveys to estimate the species richness of Chaetoceros and Thalassiosira (bacillariophyta, in the Bay of Fundy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Hamsher

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to compare the ability of morphology and molecular-based surveys to estimate species richness for two species-rich diatom genera, Chaetoceros Ehrenb. and Thalassiosira Cleve, in the Bay of Fundy. Phytoplankton tows were collected from two sites at intervals over two years and subsampled for morphology-based surveys (2010, 2011, a culture-based DNA reference library (DRL; 2010, and a molecular-based survey (2011. The DRL and molecular-based survey utilized the 3' end of the RUBISCO large subunit (rbcL-3P to identify genetic species groups (based on 0.1% divergence in rbcL-3P, which were subsequently identified morphologically to allow comparisons to the morphology-based survey. Comparisons were compiled for the year (2011 by site (n = 2 and by season (n = 3. Of the 34 taxa included in the comparisons, 50% of taxa were common to both methods, 35% were unique to the molecular-based survey, and 12% were unique to the morphology-based survey, while the remaining 3% of taxa were unidentified genetic species groups. The morphology-based survey excelled at identifying rare taxa in individual tow subsamples, which were occasionally missed with the molecular approach used here, while the molecular methods (the DRL and molecular-based survey, uncovered nine cryptic species pairs and four previously overlooked species. The last mentioned were typically difficult to identify and were generically assigned to Thalassiosira spp. during the morphology-based survey. Therefore, for now we suggest a combined approach encompassing routine morphology-based surveys accompanied by periodic molecular-based surveys to monitor for cryptic and difficult to identify taxa. As sequencing technologies improve, molecular-based surveys should become routine, leading to a more accurate representation of species composition and richness in monitoring programs.

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean Sea and others from 2009-03-15 to 2009-12-20 (NODC Accession 0108229)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108229 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean Sea and others from 2010-01-14 to 2011-01-02 (NODC Accession 0108230)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108230 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean Sea and others from 2011-01-02 to 2011-11-20 (NODC Accession 0108231)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108231 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean...

  2. Ecomorphodynamic Response of Foreshore Saltmarsh to the Implementation of Flood and Erosion Mitigation and Adaptation Structures in a Hypertidal Estuary: Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, G.; van Proosdij, D.; Ross, C.

    2017-12-01

    Flood and erosion mitigations and adaptation structures are often implemented in anthropogenically modified coastal regions, such as dykelands, to protect against coastal hazards. If saltmarshes are to be incorporated into a coastal management plan as a source of coastal defence, it is paramount to understand how ecomorphodynamic feedbacks triggered by implementing these structures can impact saltmarshes. This study examines how these structures, in combination with natural drivers, have precipitated changes in foreshore saltmarsh erosion and progradation rates over varying spatial scales in the hypertidal Minas Basin, located in the upper Bay of Fundy, during the past 80 years. Foreshore change rates (in 25m segments) are obtained using empirical field measurements, geomatics techniques in a geographical information system (GIS), as well as imagery and digital surface models (DSMs) derived from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Furthermore, UAV DSMs were used to determine infill rates and short-term sediment budgets in saltmarsh borrow pits. Natural cyclical foreshore change rates are observed in the Minas Basin, but are often augmented by the presence of anthropogenic structures. Erosion and progradation rates in individual transects have been observed to be as much as -14.9m/yr and 20.1m/yr, respectively. In individual saltmarsh communities, average change rates have been observed to be as much -3.4m/yr and 2.1m/yr across the entire foreshore. Furthermore, results suggest that under specific environmental conditions some structures (e.g. kickers) work in tandem with saltmarshes to protect the upland by precipitating ecomorphodynamic feedbacks that promote saltmarsh progradation. Conversely, other structures (e.g. foreshore rocking) can exacerbate natural cycles of erosion, locally. Borrow pit studies reveal that although local suspended sediment concentrations, which can vary from 50mg/l to 50000mg/l, play an integral role in pit sedimentation, channel geometry

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Bay of Fundy, Coastal Waters of Florida and others from 2015-03-03 to 2015-10-25 (NCEI Accession 0157408)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157408 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Bay of Fundy, Coastal...

  4. The geology and hydrocarbon possibilities of the Triassic-Jurassic Fundy Basin, eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, J.A.; Fensome, R.A. [Geological Survey of Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Atlantic Geoscience Centre; Brown, D.E. [Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    The development of the Mesozoic sedimentary basins beneath the waters of the eastern coast of North America was discussed. These basins have been linked to the rifting of the central part of Pangaea during Mid and Late Triassic time that ended in the formation of a series of grabens extending from Florida to The Grand Banks of Newfoundland, one of them being the Bay of Fundy Basin which is about 16,500 square kilometres in size. Onshore and offshore geologic mapping and seismic interpretations have shown their age range to be from the Mid Triassic Anisian or Ladinian to Mid Jurassic. Up to 12 km of Mesozoic rocks were deposited in the basin with up to 9 km still present. The depositional history of the area was described. The two areas with greatest hydrocarbon potential are the Bay of Fundy and the Chignecto subbasins.

  5. Prospects for Fundy tidal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Bay of Fundy in Canada probably possesses the most favourable conditions in the world for the exploitation of tidal energy. The results of the comprehensive investigations carried out during the past quarter-century are reviewed together with operating and environmental aspects of the modest (20 MW) Annapolis Tidal Power Station, commissioned in 1984, the primary purpose of which was to evaluate the operation of a large (7.6 m) diameter Straflo turbine unit under low heads. The results of the operating and maintenance experience for the Annapolis Station are reviewed as well as the results of the environmental/ecological studies that have been on-going in the Annapolis Basin. The tidal power investigations have shown that a 1400 MW development at the mouth of the Cumberland Basin, at the head of the bay of Fundy, is technically and economically feasible and that its output would probably be competitive with fossil-fired plants, particularly if a 'green' accounting technique were applied to such energy sources. The importance of timing, if the exploitation of this non-polluting, renewable and completely predicable source is to be used to meet the future electrical energy needs of the maritime provinces, is discussed. (author)

  6. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the Bay of Fundy and North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-09-06 to 2013-11-19 (NCEI Accession 0115901)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115901 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  7. Underway physical and meteorological data collected aboard NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV in the North Pacific and Bay of Fundy from 2005-08-13 to 2005-11-04 (NODC Accession 0002440)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, conductivity, and wind direction/speed data were collected using meteorological sensors and CTD casts from NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV in the North...

  8. Underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the Bay of Fundy and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-09-07 to 2014-11-13 (NODC Accession 0123520)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0123520 contains raw underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer...

  9. Underway composition & location, meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter in the Bay of Fundy and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-06-18 to 2015-07-24 (NCEI Accession 0130005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0130005 contains raw underway composition & location, meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the...

  10. Misdiagnosis of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa in a choroideremia patient with heavily pigmented fundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, A; Salvetti, A P; Martinez-Fernandez de la Camara, C; MacLaren, R E

    2018-06-01

    Inherited retinal diseases are thought to be the leading cause of sight loss in the working age population. Mutations found in the RPGR and CHM genes cause retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and choroideremia, respectively. In the first instance, an X-linked family history of visual field loss commonly raises the suspicion of one of these two genes. In choroideremia, the classic description of a white fundal reflex secondary to the widespread chorioretinal degeneration was made over a hundred years ago in Caucasians. But, it is not so obvious in heavily pigmented fundi. Hence, the clinical diagnosis of CHM in non-Caucasian patients may be challenging in the first stages of the disease. Here we report a case of a Southeast Asian gentleman who has a family history of X-linked retinal degeneration and was found to have a confirmed in-frame deletion of 12 DNA nucleotides in exon 15 of the RPGR gene. Later in life, however, his fundal appearance showed unusual areas of circular pigment hypertrophy and clumping. He was therefore tested for carrying a disease-causing mutation in the CHM gene and a null mutation was found. Since gene therapy trials are ongoing for both of these conditions, it has now become critically important to establish the correct genetic diagnosis in order to recruit suitable candidates. Moreover, this case demonstrates the necessity to remain vigilant in the interpretation of genetic results which are inconsistent with clinical features.

  11. E-Fundi as a Viable Way to Do E-Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, George A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes E-fundi as a learning management system developed for the now more than 65,000 students of by the North-West University in South Africa. In this paper, it will be proposed that e-mentoring as a recent development of traditional mentoring, may be pursued by way of E-fundi to the enrichment and growth of students wherever they…

  12. Submarine glacial landforms on the Bay of Fundy–northern Gulf of Maine continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, B.J.; Shaw, J.; Valentine, Page C.

    2016-01-01

    The Bay of Fundy–northern Gulf of Maine region surrounds the southern part of Nova Scotia, encompassing, from west to east, the Bay of Fundy, Grand Manan Basin, German Bank, Browns Bank, Northeast Channel and northeastern Georges Bank (Fig. 1a, b). During the last glacial maximum (c. 24–20 14C ka BP), the SE margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) occupied the study area, the rest of the Gulf of Maine and the continental Scotian Shelf off Atlantic Canada (see Dyke et al. 2002, fig. 1; Shaw et al. 2006, fig. 8; Hundert & Piper 2008, fig. 16). Early mapping of the glaciated region on the Scotian Shelf using side-scan sonar imagery and seismic-reflection profiles revealed topographic features interpreted to be recessional moraines indicative of retreat of the LIS (King et al. 1972; King 1996). Subsequently, multibeam sonar seafloor mapping of local-scale glacial landforms on the inner Scotian Shelf off Halifax, Nova Scotia (Fig. 1b) provided further information on the dynamics of the advance and retreat of the ice sheet (Loncarevic et al.1994). Interpretation of seismic-reflection profiles across Georges Bank revealed that the surficial sediment is a veneer of glacial debris transported to Georges Bank by the LIS during the late Pleistocene from continental areas to the north (Shepard et al. 1934; Knott & Hoskins 1968; Schlee 1973; Twichell et al. 1987; Fader et al. 1988). Recent high-resolution multibeam sonar surveys of German Bank and the Bay of Fundy mapped a complex of ice-advance and ice-retreat features attributed to the activity of the LIS (Todd et al. 2007; Todd & Shaw 2012).

  13. The fitness of copings constructed over UCLA abutments and the implant, constructed by different techniques: casting and casting with laser welding Adaptação de copings de ritânio ao implante, construídos sobre pilares UCLA por duas técnicas: fundição e fundição com soldagem de bordo laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Maria Valadares da Costa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The alternative for the reposition of a missing tooth is the osteointegrated implant being the passive adaptation between the prosthodontic structure and the implant a significant factor for the success of this experiment, a comparative study was done between the two methods for confectioning a single prosthodontic supported by an implant. To do so a screwed implant with a diameter of 3.75mm and a length of 10.0mm (3i Implant innovations, Brasil was positioned in the middle of a resin block and over it we screwed 15 UCLA abutments shaped and anti-rotationable (137CNB, Conexão Sistemas de Próteses, Brasil with a torque of 20N.cm without any laboratorial procedure (control group - CTRLG. From a silicon model 15 UCLA-type calcinatable compounds (56CNB, Conexão Sistemas de Próteses, Brasil were screwed (20 N.cm, received a standard waxing (plain buccal surface and were cast in titanium (casting group - CG and other 15 compounds, UCLA - type shaped in titanium (137 CNB, Conexão Sistemas de Próteses, Brasil received the same standard waxing. These last copings were cast in titanium separated from each other and were laser-welded to the respective abutments on their border (Laser-welding group - LWG. The border adaptation was observed in the implant/compound interface, under measurement microscope, on the y axis, in 4 vestibular, lingual, mesial and distal referential points previously marked on the block. The arithmetical means were obtained and an exploratory data analysis was performed to determine the most appropriate statistical test. Descriptive statistics data (µm for Control (mean±standard deviation: 13.50 ± 21.80; median 0.00, for Casting (36.20±12.60; 37.00, for Laser (10.50 ±12.90; 3.00 were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, alpha = 5%. Results test showed that distorsion median values differ statistically (kw = 17.40; df =2; p = 0.001A reposição de um elemento dentário pode ser feita por um implante osseointegrado sendo que a

  14. Chumbo no sangue de crianças e passivo ambiental de uma fundição de chumbo no Brasil Blood lead levels in children and environmental legacy of a lead foundry in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martins Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar os níveis de chumbo no sangue de crianças que moravam próximo a uma fundição de chumbo desativada na Cidade de Santo Amaro da Purificação, Estado da Bahia, em setembro de 1998; e identificar fatores associados à variação destes níveis. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal com crianças de 1 a 4 anos de idade que residiam a menos de 1 km da fundição. Mães ou responsáveis por 47 crianças responderam questionários sobre transtornos do hábito alimentar (comer barro, terra, reboco ou outros materiais e outros aspectos epidemiológicos relevantes. A concentração de chumbo no sangue foi determinada por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. RESULTADOS: O nível médio de chumbo foi de 17,1 ± 7,3 mig/dL. Os níveis de chumbo no sangue foram cerca de 5 mig/dL mais elevados em crianças que tinham transtorno do hábito alimentar, independentemente da idade, presença de escória visível no peridomicílio, situação de emprego do pai, história familiar de intoxicação pelo chumbo e desnutrição. CONCLUSÕES: O passivo ambiental da fundição de chumbo, desativada em 1993, permanece como um fator de risco relevante para elevar os níveis desse metal no sangue de crianças, particularmente aquelas que apresentam transtornos do hábito alimentar.OBJECTIVE: To determine the blood lead levels in children living an inactive lead foundry in the city of Santo Amaro da Purificação,state of Bahia, in September of 1998; and to identify factors associated with differences in these levels. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with children between 1 and 4 years of age living within 1 km of the lead foundry. Mothers or guardians of 47 children answered a questionnaire concerning ingestion of clay, soli, plaster and / or other materias (pica,and other relevant epidemiological aspects. The concentration of lead in blood was determined by atermined by atomic absorption espectrophotometry. RESULTS: The mean lead level was 17

  15. Forest insects and diseases in Fundy National Park in 1994. Technical note No. 310

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meikle, O.A.

    1995-11-01

    Personnel of the Forest Insect and Disease Survey regularly survey national parks for forest insect and disease conditions. This document discusses briefly some of the conditions encountered in Fundy National Park during the year, including insects and diseases found throughout the Park that are likely to recur: Gypsy moth, winter drying, sirococcus shoot blight, forest tent caterpillar, balsam fir needle cast and yellow witches` broom, birch decline, and hemlock looper.

  16. Forest insects and diseases in Fundy National Park in 1993. Technical note No. 296

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meikle, O.A.

    1994-01-01

    Personnel of the Forest Insect and Disease Survey regularly survey national parks for forest insect and disease conditions. This document discusses briefly some of the conditions encountered in Fundy National Park during the year, including insects and diseases found throughout the Park that are likely to recur: Gypsy moth, winter drying, sirococcus shoot blight, forest tent caterpillar, balsam fir needle cast and yellow witches' broom, birch decline, and hemlock looper.

  17. 78 FR 52753 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Harbor Porpoise Take...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... strategy enacted in 2010 based on deliberations by the Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Team. This action is... information (e.g., name, address, etc.), confidential business information, or otherwise sensitive information... Protection Act (MMPA) to reduce the level of serious injury and mortality of the Gulf of Maine/Bay of Fundy...

  18. 77 FR 38488 - Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY... restrict vessels from a portion of the St. Lawrence River during the Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce... of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence...

  19. Forest insects and diseases in Fundy National Park in 1992. Technical note No. 276. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cormier, J.R.; McPhee, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Personnel of the Forest Insect and Disease Survey regularly survey national parks for forest insect and disease conditions. This document discusses briefly some of the conditions encountered in Fundy National Park in 1992, including insects and diseases found throughout the Park that are likely to recur: Balsam gall midge, balsam twig aphid, birch casebearer, gypsy moth, porcupines, sirococcus shoot blight, white pine weevil, whitespotted sawyer beetle, yellowheaded spruce sawfly, leaf blister of yellow birch, snow damage, yellow witches' broom of balsam fir, and fall webworm.

  20. Distribution and behavior of major and trace elements in Tokyo Bay, Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki; Kimura, Ken-ichiro

    2003-01-01

    Fourteen major and trace elements in marine sediment core samples collected from the coasts along eastern Japan, i.e. Tokyo Bay (II) (the recess), Tokyo Bay (IV) (the mouth), Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay and the Northwest Pacific basin as a comparative subject were determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The sedimentation rates and sedimentary ages were calculated for the coastal sediment cores by the 210 Pb method. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows: (1) Lanthanoid abundance patterns suggested that the major origin of the sediments was terrigenous material. La*/Lu* and Ce*/La* ratios revealed that the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Mutsu Bay more directly reflected the contribution from river than those of other regions. In addition, the Th/Sc ratio indicated that the coastal sediments mainly originated in the materials from the volcanic island-arcs, Japanese islands, whereas those from the Northwest Pacific mainly from the continent. (2) The correlation between the Ce/U and Th/U ratios with high correlation coefficients of 0.920 to 0.991 indicated that all the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Funka Bay were in reducing conditions while at least the upper sediments from Tokyo Bay (IV) and Mutsu Bay were in oxidizing conditions. (3) It became quite obvious that the sedimentation mechanism and the sedimentation environment at Tokyo Bay (II) was different from those at Tokyo Bay (IV), since the sedimentation rate at Tokyo Bay (II) was approximately twice as large as that at Tokyo Bay (IV). The sedimentary age of the 5th layer (8∼10 cm in depth) from Funka Bay was calculated at approximately 1940∼50, which agreed with the time, 1943∼45 when Showa-shinzan was formed by the eruption of the Usu volcano. (author)

  1. The onset of deglaciation of Cumberland Bay and Stromness Bay, South Georgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Putten, N.; Verbruggen, C.

    Carbon dating of basal peat deposits in Cumberland Bay and Stromness Bay and sediments from a lake in Stromness Bay, South Georgia indicates deglaciation at the very beginning of the Holocene before c. 9500 14C yr BP. This post-dates the deglaciation of one local lake which has been ice-free since

  2. Estrutura fundiária e desenvolvimento humano: uma análise para as microrregiões do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Arend

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A partir da perspectiva do desenvolvimento como expansão das capacitações de Amartya Sen, o artigo testa a hipótese de que a concentração fundiária pode ser um fator prejudicial ao desenvolvimento humano nas microrregiões do Rio Grande do Sul. A pesquisa se caracteriza como histórico-empírica na medida em que busca na história a contextualização da atual estrutura fundiária e, como estatística, uma vez que estima a relação entre indicadores de desenvolvimento humano e de estrutura fundiária. Para tanto, calcula-se a correlação e ajustam-se regressões múltiplas entre indicadores de estrutura fundiária e de desenvolvimento humano. Um dos resultados encontrados é que as microrregiões com estrutura fundiária maisdesigual possuem piores indicadores de expectativa de vida ao nascer.Abstract From the perspective of Amartya Sen´s development as expansion of human capabilities, the article tests the hypothesis that the concentration land may be a factor harmful to human development in Rio Grande do Sul. The research is characterized as historic-empirical in so far as seeking in history the contextualization of the current land structure and statistical once estimates the relationship between indicators of human development and land structure. To this end, it is estimated the correlation and adjusted multiple regressions between indicators of land structure and human development. One of the results is that the microregions with a land structure more unequal have worst indicators of life expectancy at birth.

  3. Hierarchical mixtures of naive Bayes classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Naive Bayes classifiers tend to perform very well on a large number of problem domains, although their representation power is quite limited compared to more sophisticated machine learning algorithms. In this pa- per we study combining multiple naive Bayes classifiers by using the hierar- chical

  4. The Holocene History of Placentia Bay, Newfoundland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Reynisson, Njall

    2013-01-01

    Marine sediments analyzed from cores taken in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland, located in the Labrador Sea, captured oceanographic and climatic changes from the end of the Younger Dryas through the Holocene. Placentia Bay is an ideal site to capture changes in both the south-flowing Labrador Current ...

  5. Otimização da programação de cargas de forno em uma fábrica de fundição em aço-inox Optimizing the scheduling of furnace loadings in a inox-steel foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raida de Jesus Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresenta-se uma abordagem para otimizar a programação de cargas de forno em fundições de mercado de pequeno porte. Tal abordagem consiste, basicamente, em definir a programação dos fornos para produzir uma carteira de pedidos composta de diversas peças em ligas metálicas variadas, de maneira a maximizar a produtividade (ou a margem de contribuição ao lucro e satisfazer prazos de entrega e restrições de processo. O procedimento proposto é baseado na teoria dos problemas de corte e empacotamento; ele combina uma heurística construtiva gulosa com o clássico problema da mochila. Para validá-lo, um estudo de caso foi realizado numa fundição em aço-inox localizada em São Carlos, SP. Os resultados da simulação de duas semanas de produção da empresa mostraram que o procedimento é capaz de produzir soluções melhores do que as utilizadas pela empresa.This study presents an approach to optimize the scheduling of furnace loadings in small size foundries. The approach consists of determining a furnace scheduling to produce all ordered items in such a way as to maximize productivity (or profit contribution and satisfy due dates and process restraints. It is based on the theory of cutting and packing problems; it combines a greedy constructive heuristic and the classical knapsack problem. To validate the approach, a case study was developed in a inox-steel foundry located in São Carlos, SP. The results obtained simulating two weeks of the company production showed that the procedure is able to generate better solutions than the ones used by the company.

  6. Profit, rent, patrimony, and risk on the large landed estates in southern Portugal toward the end of the nineteenth century Lucro, renda, património e risco nos grandes domínios fundiários do sul de Portugal nos finais do século xix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Novais

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the economic rationality of large landed estates in the Iberian Peninsula. It assumes these estates submit to a rational land use, that is sensitive to economic change. Its goal is to discuss the main criteria for economic management of landed estates in Southern Portugal during the last decades of the nineteenth century: namely profit, risk, rent, and patrimony. A multiple-criteria programming model, farming economic accounts, and compared analysis are used in developing a case study. The article concludes for a patrimonial logic within which a policy for compromise between income and risk was followed.Este estudo discute a racionalidade económica dos grandes domínios fundiários da Península Ibérica. Assume-se que a exploração agrícola destas terras se baseia em critérios de racionalidade económica, sensíveis às transformações económicas. Pretende identificar os principais critérios presentes na gestão dos grandes domínios fundiários do Sul de Portugal, nos últimos decénios do século xix: lucro, renda, risco e património. A discussão parte do estudo da Casa de Ficalho, e apoia-se num modelo de programação multi-critério, na contabilidade dos domínios, e numa análise comparativa. Conclui-se que esta racionalidade se alicerça num compromisso entre a maximização do rendimento e a minimização do risco económico, dentro de uma lógica patrimonial.

  7. Benthic harpacticoid copepods of Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Li, Xinzheng

    2017-09-01

    The species richness of benthic harpacticoid copepod fauna in Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, on the southern coast of Shandong Peninsula, has not been comprehensively studied. We present a preliminary inventory of species for this region based on material found in nine sediment samples collected from 2011 to 2012. Our list includes 15 species belonging to 15 genera in 9 families, the most speciose family was the Miraciidae Dana, 1846 (seven species); all other families were represented by single species only. Sediment characteristics and depth are determined to be important environmental determinants of harpacticoid distribution in this region. We briefly detail the known distributions of species and provide a key to facilitate their identification. Both harpacticoid species richness and the species/genus ratio in Jiaozhou Bay are lower than in Bohai Gulf and Gwangyang Bay. The poor knowledge of the distribution of benthic harpacticoids, in addition to low sampling effort in Jiaozhou Bay, likely contribute to low species richness.

  8. Reaproveitamento da areia de fundição como material de base e sub-base de pavimentos flexíveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Gutiérrez Klinsky

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O principal resíduo das indústrias de fundição é a areia de fundição de descarte que, no ano 2007, no Brasil, ultrapassou os três milhões de toneladas. Com o objetivo de preservar os recursos naturais e diminuir a degradação do meio ambiente, procuram-se alternativas para reutilizar a areia de fundição em grandes quantidades e a utilização na construção de rodovias fornece oportunidades. Assim, este trabalho avaliou a possibilidade de reutilizar a areia de fundição, misturada a solos argilosos, como material de base e subbase para rodovias de baixo volume de tráfego e vias urbanas para a região de Sertãozinho/SP, que é geradora de resíduo de areia de fundição, mas carece de jazidas de solos arenosos para a construção de rodovias. No estudo foi empregada a técnica de estabilização granulométrica para obter misturas solo-areia em diferentes proporções, nas quais foram realizados ensaios de classificação, propriedades mecânicas e ambientais. Os resultados dos ensaios mostraram que solos argilosos com 60% de areia de fundição adicionada poderiam ser utilizados como material de sub-base e base para pavimentos de tráfego leve, com baixo risco de poluir o meio ambiente.

    Abstract: The main residue of the foundry industries is the foundry sand that in 2007, in Brazil, exceeded three millions tons. The modern world searches the preservation of the natural resources and the reduction of the environment degeneration. Aiming at these objectives, new alternatives are researched to reuse the foundry sand in large amounts and the pavement construction provides opportunities. This paper evaluated the reuse of the foundry sand in pavement sub-bases and bases, through its incorporation to clay soils from Sertaozinho/SP. This region has a high production of foundry metals and residues, and does not have natural sandy soils deposits for pavement construction. This study used the mechanic

  9. 78 FR 27126 - East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted Areas AGENCY: U.S. Army... read as follows: Sec. 334.665 East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, Restricted Areas...

  10. Description of gravity cores from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Donald L.; John L. Chin,; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa A.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-06-27

    Seventy-two gravity cores were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1990, 1991, and 2000 from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, California. The gravity cores collected within San Pablo Bay contain bioturbated laminated silts and sandy clays, whole and broken bivalve shells (mostly mussels), fossil tube structures, and fine-grained plant or wood fragments. Gravity cores from the channel wall of Carquinez Strait east of San Pablo Bay consist of sand and clay layers, whole and broken bivalve shells (less than in San Pablo Bay), trace fossil tubes, and minute fragments of plant material.

  11. Gradient Analysis and Classification of Carolina Bay Vegetation: A Framework for Bay Wetlands Conservation and Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diane De Steven,Ph.D.; Maureen Tone,PhD.

    1997-10-01

    This report address four project objectives: (1) Gradient model of Carolina bay vegetation on the SRS--The authors use ordination analyses to identify environmental and landscape factors that are correlated with vegetation composition. Significant factors can provide a framework for site-based conservation of existing diversity, and they may also be useful site predictors for potential vegetation in bay restorations. (2) Regional analysis of Carolina bay vegetation diversity--They expand the ordination analyses to assess the degree to which SRS bays encompass the range of vegetation diversity found in the regional landscape of South Carolina's western Upper Coastal Plain. Such comparisons can indicate floristic status relative to regional potentials and identify missing species or community elements that might be re-introduced or restored. (3) Classification of vegetation communities in Upper Coastal Plain bays--They use cluster analysis to identify plant community-types at the regional scale, and explore how this classification may be functional with respect to significant environmental and landscape factors. An environmentally-based classification at the whole-bay level can provide a system of templates for managing bays as individual units and for restoring bays to desired plant communities. (4) Qualitative model for bay vegetation dynamics--They analyze present-day vegetation in relation to historic land uses and disturbances. The distinctive history of SRS bays provides the possibility of assessing pathways of post-disturbance succession. They attempt to develop a coarse-scale model of vegetation shifts in response to changing site factors; such qualitative models can provide a basis for suggesting management interventions that may be needed to maintain desired vegetation in protected or restored bays.

  12. BOOK REVIEW OF "CHESAPEAKE BAY BLUES: SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND THE STRUGGLE TO SAVE THE BAY"

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a book review of "Chesapeake Bay Blues: Science, Politics, and the Struggle to Save the Bay". This book is very well written and provides an easily understandable description of the political challenges faced by those proposing new or more stringent environmental regulat...

  13. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Reddy, G.V.; Araligidad, N.; Shenoy, Shrikant

    Surface layer temperature inversion occurring in the Bay of Bengal has been addressed. Hydrographic data archived in the Indian Oceanographic Data Center are used to understand various aspects of the temperature inversion of surface layer in the Bay...

  14. Lost lake - restoration of a Carolina bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlin, H.G.; McLendon, J.P. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology; Wike, L.D. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Dietsch, B.M. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Carolina bays are shallow wetland depressions found only on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Although these isolated interstream wetlands support many types of communities, they share the common features of having a sandy margin, a fluctuating water level, an elliptical shape, and a northwest to southeast orientation. Lost Lake, an 11.3 hectare Carolina bay, was ditched and drained for agricultural production before establishment of the Savannah River Site in 1950. Later it received overflow from a seepage basin containing a variety of chemicals, primarily solvents and some heavy metals. In 1990 a plan was developed for the restoration of Lost Lake, and restoration activities were complete by mid-1991. Lost Lake is the first known project designed for the restoration and recovery of a Carolina bay. The bay was divided into eight soil treatment zones, allowing four treatments in duplicate. Each of the eight zones was planted with eight species of native wetland plants. Recolonization of the bay by amphibians and reptiles is being evaluated by using drift fences with pitfall traps and coverboard arrays in each of the treatment zones. Additional drift fences in five upland habitats were also established. Hoop turtle traps, funnel minnow traps, and dip nets were utilized for aquatic sampling. The presence of 43 species common to the region has been documented at Lost Lake. More than one-third of these species show evidence of breeding populations being established. Three species found prior to the restoration activity and a number of species common to undisturbed Carolina bays were not encountered. Colonization by additional species is anticipated as the wetland undergoes further succession.

  15. Concentration of PSP (Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning) Toxin On Shellfish From Inner Ambon Bay and Kao Bay North Halmahera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pello, F. S.; Haumahu, S.; Huliselan, N. V.; Tuapattinaja, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    The Inner Ambon Bay and Kao Bay have potential on fisheries resources which one of them is molluscs. Molluscs especially for class bivalve have economical values and are consumed by coastal community. The research had been done to analyze saxitoxin (STX) concentration on bivalves from Kao Bay and Inner Ambon Bay. The Saxitoxin Elisa Test Kit Protocol was used to determine saxitoxin concentration. The measurement showed that the highest concentration of saxitoxin (392.42 µg STXeq/100g shellfish meat) was Gafrarium tumidum from Ambon Bay, whereas concentration of saxitoxin (321.83 µg STXeq/100g shellfish meat) was Mactra mera from Kao Bay

  16. Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalles, J.F. (Creighton Univ., Omaha, NE (USA)); Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.; Leversee, G.J.; Knox, J.N. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Much of the research to date on the Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant and elsewhere has focused on certain species or on environmental features. Different levels of detail exist for different groups of organisms and reflect the diverse interests of previous investigators. This report summarizes aspects of research to date and presents data from numerous studies. 70 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Responses of upland herpetofauna to the restoration of Carolina Bays and thinning of forested Bay Margins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledvina, Joseph A.

    2008-05-01

    Research on the effects of wetland restoration on reptiles and amphibians is becoming more common, but almost all of these studies have observed the colonization of recently disturbed habitats that were completely dry at the time of restoration. In a similar manner, investigations herpetofaunal responses to forest management have focused on clearcuts, and less intensive stand manipulations are not as well studied. To evaluate community and population responses of reptiles and amphibians to hydrology restoration and canopy removal in the interior of previously degraded Carolina bays, I monitored herpetofauna in the uplands adjacent to six historically degraded Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for four years after restoration. To evaluate the effects of forest thinning on upland herpetofauna, forests were thinned in the margins of three of these bays. I used repeated measures ANOVA to compare species richness and diversity and the abundance of selected species and guilds between these bays and with those at three reference bays that were not historically drained and three control bays that remained degraded. I also used Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) to look for community-level patterns based treatments.

  18. Underwater Gravity Survey of Northern Monterey Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    stations were occupied just above the swash zone. A complete Bouguer anomaly map was drawn and tied in with the previous land surveys and with one...covering the southern half of the bay. The isolines of the complete Bouguer anomaly indicate the relative vertical position of the basement complex Santa

  19. Microbial biogeography of San Francisco Bay sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. A.; Francis, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The largest estuary on the west coast of North America, San Francisco Bay is an ecosystem of enormous biodiversity, and also enormous human impact. The benthos has experienced dredging, occupation by invasive species, and over a century of sediment input as a result of hydraulic mining. Although the Bay's great cultural and ecological importance has inspired numerous surveys of the benthic macrofauna, to date there has been almost no investigation of the microbial communities on the Bay floor. An understanding of those microbial communities would contribute significantly to our understanding of both the biogeochemical processes (which are driven by the microbiota) and the physical processes (which contribute to microbial distributions) in the Bay. Here, we present the first broad survey of bacterial and archaeal taxa in the sediments of the San Francisco Bay. We conducted 16S rRNA community sequencing of bacteria and archaea in sediment samples taken bimonthly for one year, from five sites spanning the salinity gradient between Suisun and Central Bay, in order to capture the effect of both spatial and temporal environmental variation on microbial diversity. From the same samples we also conducted deep sequencing of a nitrogen-cycling functional gene, nirS, allowing an assessment of evolutionary diversity at a much finer taxonomic scale within an important and widespread functional group of bacteria. We paired these sequencing projects with extensive geochemical metadata as well as information about macrofaunal distribution. Our data reveal a diversity of distinct biogeographical patterns among different taxa: clades ubiquitous across sites; clades that respond to measurable environmental drivers; and clades that show geographical site-specificity. These community datasets allow us to test the hypothesis that salinity is a major driver of both overall microbial community structure and community structure of the denitrifying bacteria specifically; and to assess

  20. Morphological features in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.

    history of the Fan. After India's soft collision with the Eurasian plate, these events may have played a critical role in shaping various morphological features since late Eocene in the Bay of Bengal. The present 12 kHz Echo sounder data collected along...

  1. Elemental analysis of Uranouchi bay seabed sludge using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, M. Hasnat; Narusawa, Tadashi; Nishiyama, Fumitaka; Sumi, Katsuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Elemental analyses were carried out for the seabed sludge collected from Uranouchi bay (Kochi, Japan) using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Seabed-sludge contamination with heavy metals as well as toxic elements becomes one of the most serious environmental problems. The aim of the present study is to investigate the polluted areas in the bay by heavy and toxic elements. As a results of analyses of samples collected from eleven different places in the bay, seventeen elements including toxic ones were detected. The results suggest that the center region of the bay is seriously contaminated by heavy and toxic elements in comparison with the other areas in the bay. (author)

  2. Holocene evolution of Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, L.E.; Twichell, D.C.; Poore, R.Z.

    2009-01-01

    A program of geophysical mapping and vibracoring was conducted to better understand the geologic evolution of Apalachicola Bay. Analyses of the geophysical data and sediment cores along with age control provided by 34 AMS 14C dates on marine shells and wood reveal the following history. As sea level rose in the early Holocene, fluvial deposits filled the Apalachicola River paleochannel, which extended southward under the central part of the bay and seaward across the continental shelf. Sediments to either side of the paleochannel contain abundant wood fragments, with dates documenting that those areas were forested at 8,000 14C years b.p. As sea level continued to rise, spits formed of headland prodelta deposits. Between ???6,400 and ???2,500 14C years b.p., an Apalachicola prodelta prograded and receded several times across the inner shelf that underlies the western part of the bay. An eastern deltaic lobe was active for a shorter time, between ???5,800 and 5,100 14C years b.p. Estuarine benthic foraminiferal assemblages occurred in the western bay as early as 6,400 14C years b.p., and indicate that there was some physical barrier to open-ocean circulation and shelf species established by that time. It is considered that shoals formed in the region of the present barrier islands as the rising sea flooded an interstream divide. Estuarine conditions were established very early in the post-glacial flooding of the bay. ?? 2009 US Government.

  3. POTENTIAL HAZARDS OF SEDIMENT IN KENDARI BAY, SOUTHEAST SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Adi Kristanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kendari bay is located in front of Kendari city. There are two harbors in the inner part of bay which very important to support economic activities such as shipping and passenger transportation. The result of coastal characteristic mapping and physical oceanography survey show various coastal morphology, vegetation, weathering processes, sedimentation, currents, and water depth and sea floor morphology. Kendari bay is an enclosed bay; the area is wide in the inner part and narrow in mouth of bay (outlet, the morphology look like a bottle’s neck. Numerous mouth rivers are concentrate around the bay. The rivers load material from land since erosion on land is intensive enough. There is indication that sediment supplies from land trough river mouth not equivalent with outlet capacity. Sediment load is trapped in the inner bay caused the outlet morphology. So high sediment rate play an important role in the process of shallow of water depth in Kendari bay. This condition make the Kendari bay is a prone area of sediment hazard due to height rate of sedimentary process. Therefore, to anticipate the hazards, precaution should be taken related to the Kendari bay as the center of activities in southeast of Sulawesi. The further survey is needed such as marine geotechnique and on land environmental to collect data, which can be used as database for development planning. Key words: Potential hazard, sediment, Kendari Bay Teluk

  4. 77 FR 30443 - Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ...The Coast Guard proposes to establish a temporary safety zone on the St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY. This proposed rule is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the St. Lawrence River during the Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce fireworks display. The safety zone established by this proposed rule is necessary to protect spectators and vessels from the hazards associated with a fireworks display.

  5. Pb’s high sedimentation inside the bay mouth of Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Miao, Zhenqing; Huang, Xinmin; Wei, Linzhen; Feng, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Sedimentation is one of the key environmental behaviors of pollutants in the ocean. This paper analyzed the seasonal and temporal variations of Pb’s sedimentation process in Jiaozhou Bay in 1987. Results showed that Pb contents in bottom waters in Jiaozhou Bay in May, July and November 1987 were 1.87-2.60 μg L-1, 15.11-19.68 μg L-1 and 11.08-15.18 μg L-1, and the pollution levels of Pb in May, July and November 1987 were slight, heavy and heavy, respectively. In May 1987, there was low sedimentation process in waters in the outside of the bay mouth, yet were high sedimentation process in waters in the middle and inside of the bay mouth. In July and November 1987, there was low sedimentation process in waters in the outside of the bay mouth, yet were high sedimentation process in waters in the inside of the bay mouth. The seasonal-temporal variation of sedimentation processes of Pb were determined by the variations of sources input and the vertical water’s effect.

  6. Marine littoral diatoms from the Gordon’s bay region of False Bay, Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available and Comic/i for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (Received: 5.2. 1970) The Gordon?s Bay region occupies the north western corner of False Bay, a large rectangular bay, bounded on the west by the Cape Peninsula ending at Cape Point...

  7. Topobathymetric model of Mobile Bay, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Brock, John C.; Howard, Daniel M.; Gesch, Dean B.; Bonisteel-Cormier, Jamie M.; Travers, Laurinda J.

    2013-01-01

    Topobathymetric Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are a merged rendering of both topography (land elevation) and bathymetry (water depth) that provides a seamless elevation product useful for inundation mapping, as well as for other earth science applications, such as the development of sediment-transport, sea-level rise, and storm-surge models. This 1/9-arc-second (approximately 3 meters) resolution model of Mobile Bay, Alabama was developed using multiple topographic and bathymetric datasets, collected on different dates. The topographic data were obtained primarily from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (NED) (http://ned.usgs.gov/) at 1/9-arc-second resolution; USGS Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data (2 meters) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/400/); and topographic lidar data (2 meters) and Compact Hydrographic Airborne Rapid Total Survey (CHARTS) lidar data (2 meters) from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) (http://www.csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/data/coastallidar/). Bathymetry was derived from digital soundings obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/geodas/geodas.html) and from water-penetrating lidar sources, such as EAARL and CHARTS. Mobile Bay is ecologically important as it is the fourth largest estuary in the United States. The Mobile and Tensaw Rivers drain into the bay at the northern end with the bay emptying into the Gulf of Mexico at the southern end. Dauphin Island (a barrier island) and the Fort Morgan Peninsula form the mouth of Mobile Bay. Mobile Bay is 31 miles (50 kilometers) long by a maximum width of 24 miles (39 kilometers) with a total area of 413 square miles (1,070 square kilometers). The vertical datum of the Mobile Bay topobathymetric model is the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). All the topographic datasets were originally referenced to NAVD 88 and no transformations

  8. The Bay of Pigs: Revisiting Two Museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Museum of Playa Giron (the Bay of Pigs in the region of Cienega De Zapata, Cuba, celebrates the repulse of Brigade 2506 as the first reverse of US imperialism on the American continents. The equivalent Brigade 2506 Museum in Miami, dedicated to and maintained by the members of Brigade 2506, celebrates defeat at the Bay of Pigs as moral victory for the Cuban exiles. The forces were indeed implacable foes. Yet between the museums can be detected some curious similarities. Both present the common theme of the confrontation between forces of good and evil. Both celebrate the philosophy that dying for one’s country is the greatest good a citizen may achieve. Both museums fly the common Cuban flag. Both museums identify a common enemy: the United States of America. This article, by comparing the displays in the two museums, analyses some cultural elements of what, despite decades of separation, in some ways remains a common Cuban culture.

  9. An overview of San Francisco Bay PORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ralph T.; McKinnie, David; English, Chad; Smith, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    The Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS) provides observations of tides, tidal currents, and meteorological conditions in real-time. The San Francisco Bay PORTS (SFPORTS) is a decision support system to facilitate safe and efficient maritime commerce. In addition to real-time observations, SFPORTS includes a nowcast numerical model forming a San Francisco Bay marine nowcast system. SFPORTS data and nowcast numerical model results are made available to users through the World Wide Web (WWW). A brief overview of SFPORTS is presented, from the data flow originated at instrument sensors to final results delivered to end users on the WWW. A user-friendly interface for SFPORTS has been designed and implemented. Appropriate field data analysis, nowcast procedures, design and generation of graphics for WWW display of field data and nowcast results are presented and discussed. Furthermore, SFPORTS is designed to support hazardous materials spill prevention and response, and to serve as resources to scientists studying the health of San Francisco Bay ecosystem. The success (or failure) of the SFPORTS to serve the intended user community is determined by the effectiveness of the user interface.

  10. Geochemistry of sediments in the Back Bay and Yellowknife Bay of the Great Slave Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudroch, A.; Joshi, S.R.; Sutherland, D.; Mudroch, P.; Dickson, K.M.

    1989-01-01

    Gold mining activities have generated wastes with high concentrations of arsenic and zinc in the vicinity of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. Some of the waste material has been discharged into Yellowknife Bay of Great Slave Lake. Concentrations of arsenic and zinc were determined in sediment cores collected at the depositional areas of Yellowknife Bay. Sedimentation rates were estimated using two different radiometric approaches: the depth profiles of cesium 137 and lead 210. Geochemical analysis of the sediment cores indicated input of similar material into sampling areas over the past 50 yr. Age profiles of the sediment constructed from the radionuclide measurements were used to determine historical trends of arsenic and zinc inputs into Yellowknife Bay. The historical record was in good agreement with implemented remedial actions and the usage patterns of both elements. 16 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Whose Bay Street? Competing Narratives of Nassau's City Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nona Patara Martin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Bay Street has always been at the centre of commercial, cultural and political life in the Bahama Islands. It also acts as a gateway for millions of tourists who come to Nassau, the Bahamian capital, via cruise ships every year. Not surprisingly, Bahamians and non-Bahamians have widely divergent impressions of Bay Street. The need to accommodate the tourists who are critical to the Bahamian economy has meant that Bay Street, despite its deep social significance for Bahamians, has increasingly become a tourist space. With reference to the ‘sense of place’ and place attachment literature, this paper traces the transformation of Bay Street and attempts to tease out the most obvious tensions between the Bay Street that Bahamians experience and Bay Street as a port of call.

  12. Upgrade of Daya Bay full scope simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Daya Bay full scope simulator was manufactured by French THOMSON Company in earlier 1990s. It was put into operation in August 1992, one year before the plant's unit-1 was commissioned. During nearly 10 years, the Daya Bay simulator was used to train the control room operators. As many as 220 operators obtained their operator licenses or senior operators licenses. The Daya Bay simulator made a great contribution to the plant's operation. 2) Owing to the limitation of simulation technology and computer capacity in that age, Daya Bay simulator had its deficiencies from the beginning, making maintenance difficult, gradually bringing more and more impact on operator training. - Bad performance: The main computer was the Gould CONCEPT 32/67. Its calculation speed is quite low and memory very limited. Even in the normal operation mode, the average CPU load was up to 80%. The simulation fidelity and scope were not sufficient, which could not meet the deep level of training demand. Many special plant scenarios were not simulated; therefore it was not possible to undertake the verification exercises for the corresponding plant operations. - Poor maintainability: - In hardware aspect, due to that Gould CONCEPT 32/67 is with multi-board architecture. Thousands of tiny connection pins between boards and chasses was the weak link, after many times board plug in-out repair the connection became worse and worse. In addition, the spare parts are difficult to order. Computer crashes happened very often. Each time, the failures each took a few hours, even a few days to fix. - In software aspect, simulation modules suspension, OUT OF TIME error and software breakdown were often occurring. To restart the system took over half an hour each time, which seriously interrupted normal training. - In software maintenance aspect, most modules are manually coded and the development tools are difficult to use. Less than 10% of modifications related to the plant upgrade could be implemented on

  13. Spatial-temporal migration laws of Cd in Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Li, Haixia; Zhang, Xiaolong; Wang, Qi; Miao, Zhenqing

    2018-02-01

    Many marine bays have been polluted by various pollutants, and understanding the migration laws is essential to scientific research and pollution control. This paper analyzed the spatial and temporal migration laws of Cd in waters in Jiaozhou Bay during 1979—1983. Results showed that there were twenty spatial-temporal migration law for the migration processes of Cd. These laws were helpful for better understanding the migration of Cd in marine bay, providing basis for scientific research and pollution control.

  14. Heavy metals in superficial sediment of Algiers Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamar, M.A.; Toumert, C.L.; Chaouch, L.; Bacha, L.; Tobbeche, S.

    1996-01-01

    Sediment samples were collected in 33 stations from the bay of Algiers for the potential sources of pollution. the analyses were made x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) the results give information about level of concentrations morphology of the bay (funnel form of bay). only Co,Mn,Fe, and Cd present a particular repartition (unrelated to the sedimentary facies). the level pollution bu heavy metals of the bottom sediments in algiers bay have been compared with those of Surkouk considered as a region with low anthropogenic activities

  15. Florida Bay: A history of recent ecological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourqurean, J.W.; Robblee, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Florida Bay is a unique subtropical estuary at the southern tip of the Florida peninsula. Recent ecological changes (seagrass die-off, algal blooms, increased turbidity) to the Florida Bay ecosystem have focused the attention of the public, commercial interests, scientists, and resource managers on the factors influencing the structure and function of Florida Bay. Restoring Florida Bay to some historic condition is the goal of resource managers, but what is not clear is what an anthropogenically-unaltered Florida Bay would look like. While there is general consensus that human activities have contributed to the changes occurring in the Florida Bay ecosystem, a high degree of natural system variability has made elucidation of the links between human activity and Florida Bay dynamics difficult. Paleoecological analyses, examination of long-term datasets, and directed measurements of aspects of the ecology of Florida Bay all contribute to our understanding of the behavior of the bay, and allow quantification of the magnitude of the recent ecological changes with respect to historical variability of the system.

  16. On watermass mixing ratios and regenerated silicon in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.P.; Sarma, V.V.; Rao, V.S.; Sudhakar, U.; Gupta, G.V.M.

    Regeneration of silicon on mixing in the Bay of Bengal have been computed from six water masses [Bay of Bengal low saline water (BBLS), Bay of Bengal subsurface water (BBSS), northern southeast high salinity water (NSEHS), north Indian intermediate...

  17. Delineation of marsh types from Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, to Perdido Bay, Alabama, in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Michael G. Brasher,; Jenneke M. Visser,; Michael K. Mitchell,; Bart M. Ballard,; Mark W. Parr,; Barry C. Wilson,

    2015-07-23

    Coastal zone managers and researchers often require detailed information regarding emergent marsh vegetation types (that is, fresh, intermediate, brackish, and saline) for modeling habitat capacities and needs of marsh dependent taxa (such as waterfowl and alligator). Detailed information on the extent and distribution of emergent marsh vegetation types throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico coast has been historically unavailable. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Gulf Coast Joint Venture, the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Ducks Unlimited, Inc., and the Texas A&M University-Kingsville, produced a classification of emergent marsh vegetation types from Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, to Perdido Bay, Alabama.

  18. Sediment depositional environment in some bays in Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajamanickam, G.V.; Gujar, A.R.

    negatively and Ratnagiri Bay positively skewed. Kalbadevi sediments show high kurtosis values while those of Mirya Bay show medium and Ratnagiri Bay low values. Bivariant plots between various textural parameters predict mixed environments, viz. for Kalbadevi...

  19. Diagnosis of potential stressors adversely affecting benthic invertebrate communities in Greenwich Bay, Rhode Island, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwich Bay is an urbanized embayment of Narragansett Bay potentially impacted by multiple stressors. The present study identified the important stressors affecting Greenwich Bay benthic fauna. First, existing data and information were used to confirm that the waterbody was imp...

  20. Influence of net freshwater supply on salinity in Florida Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttle, William K.; Fourqurean, James W.; Cosby, Bernard J.; Zieman, Joseph C.; Robblee, Michael B.

    2000-01-01

    An annual water budget for Florida Bay, the large, seasonally hypersaline estuary in the Everglades National Park, was constructed using physically based models and long‐term (31 years) data on salinity, hydrology, and climate. Effects of seasonal and interannual variations of the net freshwater supply (runoff plus rainfall minus evaporation) on salinity variation within the bay were also examined. Particular attention was paid to the effects of runoff, which are the focus of ambitious plans to restore and conserve the Florida Bay ecosystem. From 1965 to 1995 the annual runoff from the Everglades into the bay was less than one tenth of the annual direct rainfall onto the bay, while estimated annual evaporation slightly exceeded annual rainfall. The average net freshwater supply to the bay over a year was thus approximately zero, and interannual variations in salinity appeared to be affected primarily by interannual fluctuations in rainfall. At the annual scale, runoff apparently had little effect on the bay as a whole during this period. On a seasonal basis, variations in rainfall, evaporation, and runoff were not in phase, and the net freshwater supply to the bay varied between positive and negative values, contributing to a strong seasonal pattern in salinity, especially in regions of the bay relatively isolated from exchanges with the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Changes in runoff could have a greater effect on salinity in the bay if the seasonal patterns of rainfall and evaporation and the timing of the runoff are considered. One model was also used to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of salinity responses expected to result from changes in net freshwater supply. Simulations in which runoff was increased by a factor of 2 (but with no change in spatial pattern) indicated that increased runoff will lower salinity values in eastern Florida Bay, increase the variability of salinity in the South Region, but have little effect on salinity in the Central

  1. Sepetiba Bay: an integrated study of an harbour location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandeira, J.V.; Aun, P.E.; Castro, J.O.N.M. de; Moreira, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Several aspects of the construction of an iron-ore and coal terminal in Sepetiba bay (RJ, Brazil) in the region of south of Madeira Island, are presented. The studies include a general view of the geomorphology of the region, analyses of current measurements, water circulation and sedimentology of the bay by conventional methods and by radioactive tracers. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. Baseline surveys of Lac Bay benthic and fish communities, Bonaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Hylkema, A.; Vogelaar, W.; Meesters, H.W.G.; Engel, M.S.; Leon, R.; Prud'homme van Reine, W.F.; Nagelkerken, I.

    2012-01-01

    Lac Bay is a clear-water, 5 m deep shallow tropical lagoon of 7 km2 opening onto the wave and wind exposed east coast of the island of Bonaire, southern Caribbean. Over the last decades land reclamation by mangroves in Lac has been expanding the surface of turbid, saline backwaters into the bay at

  3. The changing ecology of Narragansett Bay as told by habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narragansett Bay has changed in many ways over millennia due to natural and human forces, and the rate of this change increased greatly after European colonization. We evaluated distributions of three stressors and four habitats in eight subdivisions of the Bay for aspects of ec...

  4. Inputs and spatial distribution patterns of Cr in Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Miao, Zhenqing; Huang, Xinmin; Wei, Linzhen; Feng, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Cr pollution in marine bays has been one of the critical environmental issues, and understanding the input and spatial distribution patterns is essential to pollution control. In according to the source strengths of the major pollution sources, the input patterns of pollutants to marine bay include slight, moderate and heavy, and the spatial distribution are corresponding to three block models respectively. This paper analyzed input patterns and distributions of Cr in Jiaozhou Bay, eastern China based on investigation on Cr in surface waters during 1979-1983. Results showed that the input strengths of Cr in Jiaozhou Bay could be classified as moderate input and slight input, and the input strengths were 32.32-112.30 μg L-1 and 4.17-19.76 μg L-1, respectively. The input patterns of Cr included two patterns of moderate input and slight input, and the horizontal distributions could be defined by means of Block Model 2 and Block Model 3, respectively. In case of moderate input pattern via overland runoff, Cr contents were decreasing from the estuaries to the bay mouth, and the distribution pattern was parallel. In case of moderate input pattern via marine current, Cr contents were decreasing from the bay mouth to the bay, and the distribution pattern was parallel to circular. The Block Models were able to reveal the transferring process of various pollutants, and were helpful to understand the distributions of pollutants in marine bay.

  5. Summer survival of Phytophthora ramorum in California bay laurel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth J. Fichtner; David M. Rizzo; Shannon C. Lynch; Jennifer Davidson; Gerri Buckles; Jennifer Parker

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death manifests as non-lethal foliar lesions on bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), which support sporulation and survival of Phytophthora ramorum in forest ecosystems. Infected bay laurel leaves are more likely to abscise than uninfected leaves, resulting in an accumulation of inoculum at the forest floor. The pathogen survives the dry...

  6. Intertidal sediments and benthic animals of Roebuck Bay, Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, M.; Piersma, T.; Pearson, G.; Lavaleye, M.

    1999-01-01

    Roebuck Bay near Broome (NW Australia) is with itsextensive tidal flats one of the foremost internationallyimportant sites for shorebirds in the Asia-Pacificflyway system. It is home to 150,000 shorebirds (or‘waders’) in the nonbreeding season, which suggeststhat the intertidal flats of the bay have

  7. A Bayes linear Bayes method for estimation of correlated event rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, John; Wilson, Kevin J; Walls, Lesley; Bedford, Tim

    2013-12-01

    Typically, full Bayesian estimation of correlated event rates can be computationally challenging since estimators are intractable. When estimation of event rates represents one activity within a larger modeling process, there is an incentive to develop more efficient inference than provided by a full Bayesian model. We develop a new subjective inference method for correlated event rates based on a Bayes linear Bayes model under the assumption that events are generated from a homogeneous Poisson process. To reduce the elicitation burden we introduce homogenization factors to the model and, as an alternative to a subjective prior, an empirical method using the method of moments is developed. Inference under the new method is compared against estimates obtained under a full Bayesian model, which takes a multivariate gamma prior, where the predictive and posterior distributions are derived in terms of well-known functions. The mathematical properties of both models are presented. A simulation study shows that the Bayes linear Bayes inference method and the full Bayesian model provide equally reliable estimates. An illustrative example, motivated by a problem of estimating correlated event rates across different users in a simple supply chain, shows how ignoring the correlation leads to biased estimation of event rates. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. The effect of loss functions on empirical Bayes reliability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camara Vincent A. R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the sensitivity of empirical Bayes estimates of the reliability function with respect to changing of the loss function. In addition to applying some of the basic analytical results on empirical Bayes reliability obtained with the use of the “popular” squared error loss function, we shall derive some expressions corresponding to empirical Bayes reliability estimates obtained with the Higgins–Tsokos, the Harris and our proposed logarithmic loss functions. The concept of efficiency, along with the notion of integrated mean square error, will be used as a criterion to numerically compare our results. It is shown that empirical Bayes reliability functions are in general sensitive to the choice of the loss function, and that the squared error loss does not always yield the best empirical Bayes reliability estimate.

  9. Bayes reconstruction of missing teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sporring, Jon; Jensen, Katrine Hommelhoff

    2008-01-01

    contains two major parts: A statistical model of a selection of tooth shapes and a reconstruction of missing data. We use a training set consisting of 3D scans of dental cast models obtained with a laser scanner, and we have build a model of the shape variability of the teeth, their neighbors...... or equivalently noise elimination and for data analysis. However for small sets of high dimensional data, the log-likelihood estimator for the covariance matrix is often far from convergence, and therefore reliable models must be obtained by use of prior information. We propose a natural and intrinsic...

  10. Studies of movement of sediments in Santos bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandeira, J.V.; Aun, P.E.; Bomtempo, V.L.; Salim, L.H.; Minardi, P.S.P.; Santos, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    In the years of 1973, 74, 80, 81 and 85 several studies were performed at Santos bay, using radioactive tracers, with the following main objectives: to evaluate the behaviour (on the bottom and in suspension) of the mixture of silt and clay which is dredged from the estuary and from its access channel and dumped at pre-determined sites, in the bay and surrounding regions, with the objective of optimizing dredging disposal operations; to quantify the movement of sandy sediments on the bottom, in 3 areas of the bay, in summer and winter conditions, to obtain pertinent information related to the siltation of the access channel. As results of these studies, it was found that: the ancient dumping site, near Itaipu Point, in the western limit of the bay, was inadequate, since the material could return to the bay and to the estuary. The dumping site was moved to a region at the south of Moela Island, located eastwards relative to the bay, which brought substantial economies in dredging works; the bottom sediment transport was quantified, following clouds of tagged materials for about 8 months, thus obtaining important conclusions about transport rates in different regions of the bay. An analysis of the intervening hydrodynamic agents is also presented. (author) (L.J.C.)

  11. Monitoring of bird abundance and distribution at McKinley Bay and Hutchison Bay, Northwest Territories, 1981 to 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornish, B J; Dickson, D L

    1994-04-01

    McKinley Bay has been identified as a preferred site for a harbor to support oil and gas production in the Beaufort Sea. As the bay is a molting area for several species of diving duck, a study was initiated to monitor the effect of harbor development on birds using the bay. Baseline information on the natural annual fluctuations in the number of birds were collected for nine years at McKinley Bay and eight years at neighboring Hutchinson Bay, an area chosen as the control. The final report of the predevelopment phase of the monitoring study is presented, including results of the 1993 surveys and a summary of results of all years of surveys. There were significantly more diving ducks in McKinley Bay in early August 1990 to 1993, on average, than from 1981 to 1985. No statistically significant change in total diving ducks was noted at Hutchinson Bay. Numbers of species of divers varied substantially between years at the two bays but not to the same degree. Significantly more Pacific loons, red-throated loons, and northern pintails were recorded in the 1990-1993 surveys at McKinley Bay than in earlier surveys. Potential explanations for the large between-year fluctuations in diving duck numbers are discussed. The variations may be due to bird responses to changes in the physical environment or related to the limitations of the aerial survey techniques used. Because of the large natural fluctuations in numbers of molting diving ducks using these bays in early August, it will be difficult to detect future impacts of industrial disturbance, even when sources of survey bias are minimized. It is concluded that aerial surveys of molting diving ducks in the two bays are unsuitable for monitoring the effects of industrial development. 41 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  12. Characterization of Dredged Sediments from Santander Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, M.; Ibanez, R.; Viguri, J.R.; Irabien, A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the physico- chemical characterisation of Santander Bay (North Spain) inter-tidal sediments, with the determination of levels of selected organic compounds pollution. A sampling strategy has been developed based on characteristic parameters of the study. The physico-chemical seasonal characterisation of sediments has been performed by determination of waster content, Ph, density, humidity, lost on ignition (LOI), particle size distribution, and chemical analysis of three categories of organic compounds (VOCs,EOX and PAHs) selected for its ubiquity, persistence and high potential of environmental hazard. The EOX analysis give a picture of the total load of organo halogen compounds in the estuarine area and the VOC and ph values obtained, allow the characterization of sediments in two areas in function of the closeness to the urban and industrial activities

  13. Nonparametric Bayes Modeling of Multivariate Categorical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, David B; Xing, Chuanhua

    2012-01-01

    Modeling of multivariate unordered categorical (nominal) data is a challenging problem, particularly in high dimensions and cases in which one wishes to avoid strong assumptions about the dependence structure. Commonly used approaches rely on the incorporation of latent Gaussian random variables or parametric latent class models. The goal of this article is to develop a nonparametric Bayes approach, which defines a prior with full support on the space of distributions for multiple unordered categorical variables. This support condition ensures that we are not restricting the dependence structure a priori. We show this can be accomplished through a Dirichlet process mixture of product multinomial distributions, which is also a convenient form for posterior computation. Methods for nonparametric testing of violations of independence are proposed, and the methods are applied to model positional dependence within transcription factor binding motifs.

  14. 76 FR 70480 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego Bay National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego Bay National Wildlife...), intend to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the proposed Otay River Estuary Restoration... any one of the following methods. Email: [email protected] . Please include ``Otay Estuary NOI'' in the...

  15. Physical oceanography of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Murty, V.S.N.; Suryanarayana, A.

    Physical oceanography of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea is reviewed for the first time. All available information for over 50 years is consolidated in this review. To begin with, information on peripheral or related aspects of climate...

  16. Water quality of Tampa Bay, Florida, June 1972-May 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Carole L.; Goodwin, Carl R.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the water quality of Tampa Bay, Florida, was initiated in 1970 to provide background information to evaluate the effects of widening and deepening the ship channel to the port of Tampa. This report provides results of water-quality sampling in the bay from 1972 to 1976, prior to dredging. Measurements of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, specific conductance, biochemical oxygen demand, and total organic carbon were made as well as measurements for several nutrient, metal, and pesticide parameters. Many parameters were measured at as many as three points in the vertical. These data indicate that Tampa Bay is well-mixed vertically with little density stratification. Time histories of average temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, specific conductance and nutrient values within four subareas of Tampa Bay are given to reveal seasonal or other trends during the period of record. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, specific conductance, nutrient, biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and metal data are also presented as areal distributions. Nutrient concentrations were generally higher in Hillsborough Bay than in other sub-areas of Tampa Bay. Biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and total organic nitrogen distribution patterns show regions of highest concentrations to be along bay shorelines near population centers. Of the metals analyzed, all were present in concentrations of less than 1 milligram per liter. (USGS)

  17. Theories of transporting processes of Cu in Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Su, Chunhua; Zhu, Sixi; Wu, Yunjie; Zhou, Wei

    2018-02-01

    Many marine bays have been polluted along with the rapid development of industry and population size, and understanding the transporting progresses of pollutants is essential to pollution control. In order to better understanding the transporting progresses of pollutants in marine, this paper carried on a comprehensive research of the theories of transporting processes of Cu in Jiaozhou Bay. Results showed that the transporting processes of Cu in this bay could be summarized into seven key theories including homogeneous theory, environmental dynamic theory, horizontal loss theory, source to waters transporting theory, sedimentation transporting theory, migration trend theory and vertical transporting theory, respectively. These theories helpful to better understand the migration progress of pollutants in marine bay.

  18. Tectonic framework of the Hanoe Bay area, southern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wannaes, K.O.; Floden, T.

    1994-06-01

    The tectonic framework and the general geologic development of the Hanoe Bay, from the Scanian coast in the west to south of Oeland in the east, has been investigated by means of reflection seismic methods. The Hanoe Bay is in this paper subdivided into four areas of different geologic settings. These are: 1) The Hanoe Bay slope, which forms a southward dipping continuation of the rigid Blekinge coastal plain. 2) The eastward dipping Kalmarsund Slope, which southwards from Oeland forms the western part of the Paleozoic Baltic Syneclise. 3) The Mesozoic Hanoe Bay Halfgraben, which forms the central and southern parts of the Hanoe Bay. The ongoing subsidence of the Halfgraben is estimated to be in the order of 20-60 m during the Quaternary. 4) The Yoldia Structural Element, which forms a deformed, tilted and possibly rotated block of Paleozoic bedrock located east of the Hanoe Bay Halfgraben. Two tectonic phases dominate the post-Paleozoic development of the Hanoe Bay, these are: 1) The Early Kimmerian phase, which initiated subsidence and reactivated older faults. 2) The Late Cretaceous phase, which is the main subsidence phase of the Hanoe Bay Halfgraben. The tectonic fault pattern of the Hanoe Bay is dominated by three directions, i.e. NW-SE, NE-SW and WNW-ESE. The two main tectonic elements of the area are the Kullen-Christiansoe Ridge System (NW-SE) and the Bornholm Gat Tectonic Zone (NE-SW). Sinistral strike-slip movements in order of 2-3 km are interpreted to have occurred along the Bornholm Gat Tectonic Zone during the late Cretaceous. 20 refs, 19 figs

  19. Social and environmental impacts of the James Bay hydroelectric project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornig, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    The book, which is an analysis and not an advocacy, examines the anatomy of the controversy that has swirled around the James Bay project - the La Grande and Great Whale projects combined - from the 1970s to the 1990s, and seeks, in the process, to determine whether there are lessons that can be learned from such an analysis that are applicable to other cases as well as to James Bay itself. The contributors are interested, at one and the same time, in finding ways to integrate the knowledge of natural scientists and social scientists to deepen the understanding of human/environment relations and to link science and policy to encourage a productive dialogue between practitioners and scholars in this increasingly important area of inquiry. The contributor's papers include the following: introduction to the issues; hydroelectric power development at James Bay: establishing a frame of reference; James Bay: environmental considerations for building large hydroelectric dams and reservoirs in Quebec; elevated mercury in fish as a result of the James Bay hydroelectric power development: perception and reality; the Cree people of James Bay: assessing the social impacts of hydroelectric dams and reservoirs; culture, social change, and Cree opposition to the James Bay hydroelectric development; and the impact of James Bay hydroelectric development on the art and craft of the James Bay Cree. The authors of the volume have attempted to stand back and examine just a few of these issues from the perspective of a variety of disciplines, and their purpose is to inform and stimulate thoughtful consideration by providing an overall perspective that might might serve to broaden the context in which specific issues can be debated. refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  20. The effect of loss functions on empirical Bayes reliability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent A. R. Camara

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the sensitivity of empirical Bayes estimates of the reliability function with respect to changing of the loss function. In addition to applying some of the basic analytical results on empirical Bayes reliability obtained with the use of the “popular” squared error loss function, we shall derive some expressions corresponding to empirical Bayes reliability estimates obtained with the Higgins–Tsokos, the Harris and our proposed logarithmic loss functions. The concept of efficiency, along with the notion of integrated mean square error, will be used as a criterion to numerically compare our results.

  1. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tain?; C?novas, Alba; de Paula, S?rgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rog?rio de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of...

  2. Environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Giovana De Oliveira Fistarol; Felipe H. Coutinho; Ana Paula Barbosa Moreira; Tainá eVenas; Alba eCanovas; Sergio E M de Paula Jr; Ricardo eCoutinho; Rodrigo L de Moura; Jean L Valentin; Denise R Tenenbaum; Rodolfo eParanhos; Rogerio eValle; Rogerio eValle; Cristiane eTHOMPSON; Paulo eSalomon

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of...

  3. Improvement of FLOWER code and its application in Daya Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shaodong; Zhang Yongxing

    1995-01-01

    FLOWER, a computer code recommended by USNRC for assessing the environmental impact in tidal regions, was adapted and improved so as to be suitable to deal with the influence of drift stream along seashore to the dilution of contaminants and heat in the bay mouth. And the code outputs were presented with more mid-results such as average concentrations and temperature values for all tides considered. Finally, the modified code is applied to the dispersion calculation of heat and liquid effluents from Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant, and the impacts from routine operation of the plant on Daya Bay sea waters were given

  4. Spatiotemporal appraisal of TBT contamination and imposex along a tropical bay (Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artifon, Vanda; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    A spatiotemporal evaluation of butyltin contamination was performed between 2010 and 2012 along Todos os Santos Bay (Northeast Brazil) using surface sediments, bivalve tissues (Anomalocardia brasiliana and Mytella guyanensis), and imposex occurrence (Stramonita rustica). The spatial study detected high tributyltin (TBT) levels (maximum values of 262 ng Sn g (-1) - 21,833 ng Sn g(-1) of total organic carbon - for surface sediments and 421 ng Sn g(-1) for bivalve tissues) in the innermost part of the bay. The TBT levels detected in M. guyanensis tissues might cause human health risk since local population consumes these organisms. These high concentrations observed in the bivalves might result in ingestions higher than the safe limits established by European Food Safety Authority (250 ng TBT kg(-1) day(-1)). Considering the temporal evaluation, no difference (p > 0.05) was observed between TBT concentrations in sediments obtained during the two sampling campaigns (2010/2011 and 2012). However, the increasing predominance of TBT metabolites (butyltin degradation index (BDI) >1) in more recent sediments indicates further degradation of old TBT inputs. In spite of that, recent inputs are still evident at this region. Nevertheless, a reduction of imposex parameters in S. rustica over the last decade suggests an overall decline in the TBT contamination, at least in the outermost and possible less impacted region of the bay. The TBT contamination is probably reducing due to the national and international legislative restrictions on the use of TBT as antifouling biocide. The contamination levels, however, are still relevant especially in the inner part of Todos os Santos Bay since they are above those that are likely to cause toxicity to the biota.

  5. Bayes Empirical Bayes Inference of Amino Acid Sites Under Positive Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ziheng; Wong, Wendy Shuk Wan; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    , with > 1 indicating positive selection. Statistical distributions are used to model the variation in among sites, allowing a subset of sites to have > 1 while the rest of the sequence may be under purifying selection with ... probabilities that a site comes from the site class with > 1. Current implementations, however, use the naive EB (NEB) approach and fail to account for sampling errors in maximum likelihood estimates of model parameters, such as the proportions and ratios for the site classes. In small data sets lacking...... information, this approach may lead to unreliable posterior probability calculations. In this paper, we develop a Bayes empirical Bayes (BEB) approach to the problem, which assigns a prior to the model parameters and integrates over their uncertainties. We compare the new and old methods on real and simulated...

  6. Circulation and geostrophic transport in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.P.; Murty, V.S.N.

    Utilising the hydrographic data collected during the early northeast monsoon of 1983 and southwest monsoon of 1984, the circulation of waters of the Bay of Bengal and the associated volume transport have been studied in the upper 1000 m...

  7. Diffusion characteristics of the Kakinada Bay for effluent assessment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Asthana, V.

    The present study reports the determination of diffusion characteristics of the Kakinada Bay to choose a suitable marine outfall location for industrial discharge of effluents from a proposed fertilizer plant. The study consisted of dye diffusion...

  8. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Reddy, G.V.; Araligidad, N.

    Hydrographic and XBT data archived in the Indian Oceanographic Data Centre (IODC) are used to understand the process of temperature inversions occurring in the Bay of Bengal. The following aspects of the inversions are addressed: i) annual...

  9. Field guide to fishes of the chesapeake bay

    CERN Document Server

    Murdy, Edward O.

    2013-01-01

    The only comprehensive field guide to the Chesapeake’s fishes, this book is an indispensable resource for both anglers and students of the Bay. Vivid illustrations by Val Kells complement the expertise of researchers Edward O. Murdy and John A. Musick. They describe fishes that inhabit waters ranging from low-salinity estuaries to the point where the Bay meets the Atlantic Ocean. Key features of this field guide include• full-color illustrations of more than 200 species• text that is presented adjacent to illustrations for easy reference• detailed descriptions of physical characteristics, range, occurrence in the Bay, reproduction, diet, and statistics from fisheries research• spot illustrations that highlight critical features of certain fish• illustrations of juveniles when they look different from adults• appendices that include identification keys Formatted as a compact field guide for students, scientists, researchers, and fishermen, Field Guide to Fishes of the Chesapeake Bay should be a ...

  10. Salt balance and mixing in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Basic fields of temperature salinity, density and currents in the Bay of Bengal are investigated using data archieved at the National Oceanographic Data Centre (NODC) Washington, D.C. and the Indian National Oceanographic Data Centre (INODC...

  11. Assembly and Installation of the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, H R; Heeger, K M; Hinrichs, P; Brown, R L; Gill, R; Carr, R; Dwyer, D A; Chen, X C; Chu, M C; Chen, X H; Heng, Y K; Cherwinka, J J; Greenler, L S; Draeger, E; Edwards, W R; Hoff, M; Goett, J; Gu, W Q; Ho, T H; He, W S

    2013-01-01

    The Daya Bay reactor antineutrino experiment is designed to make a precision measurement of the neutrino mixing angle θ 13 , and recently made the definitive discovery of its non-zero value. It utilizes a set of eight, functionally identical antineutrino detectors to measure the reactor flux and spectrum at baselines of ∼ 300–2000 m from the Daya Bay and Ling Ao Nuclear Power Plants. The Daya Bay antineutrino detectors were built in an above-ground facility and deployed side-by-side at three underground experimental sites near and far from the nuclear reactors. This configuration allows the experiment to make a precision measurement of reactor antineutrino disappearance over km-long baselines and reduces relative systematic uncertainties between detectors and nuclear reactors. This paper describes the assembly and installation of the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors

  12. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  13. Long-term morphologic evolution of the Hangzhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, W.; Zhijun, D.; Hualiang, X.

    2013-12-01

    Estuaries are the most productive ecosystems of coastal zones in the world, which are significant to mankind as places of navigation, recreation and commerce as well as extensive and diverse habitats for wildlife. However, most estuary environments in the world had occurred greatly changes in recent decades. These estuaries have suffered from impacts of forcing factors including wave climate, mean sea level change and storm surge, especial to the intensive human activities such as training wall construction, channel dredging, sand mining and dam constructions. Thus, there have been increasing concerns about estuary environment changes under effects of different factors. Riverine loads into the Changjiang Estuary have declined dramatically with the construction of Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003. The morphological evolution of the Hangzhou bay that located the southern proximity of the Yangtze estuary starts to attract increasing attentions due to most material of the Hangzhou bay received from Yangtze estuary. In this paper, historical bathymetric charts were digitized and analyzed within a GIS to provide quantitative estimate of changes in volumes in different regions below 0 m elevation. The results show that Hangzhou bay has experienced a major loss in estuarine volume of about 15% with annual mean sediment deposition rate of 80 million m3/a during the last 75 years. However, there is a large-scale spatial adjustment in Hangzhou bay: Bathymetric changes of the Hangzhou bay can be rapidly shifted within the range of 8-10 classes. Volume of the Jinshanzui upstream of the Hangzhou bay has obviously decreased in the last 75 years, especially during 2003-2008. However, Volume of the southern Hangzhou bay has experienced slowly decrease with minor deposition. The northern Hangzhou bay had largely volume changes with rapidly decrease during 1931-1981, and drastically increase since 2003. Further analysis of the bathymetric data relating to possible factors indicates

  14. Magnitude and Distribution of Flows into Northeastern Florida Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Eduardo; Hittle, Clinton D.

    2000-01-01

    Changes in water-management practices have been made to accommodate a large and rapidly growing urban population along the Atlantic Coast and to meet the demand for intensive agricultural activities. These changes have resulted in a highly managed hydrologic system consisting of numerous canals, levees, control structures, and pumping stations that have altered the hydrology of the Everglades and Florida Bay ecosystems. Over the past decade, Florida Bay has experienced sea-grass die-off and algal blooms, which are indicators of ecological change attributed primarily to the increase in salinity and nutrient content of bay waters. Because plans are to restore sheetflow in the Everglades wetlands to its natural state, water managers anticipate a change in the magnitude and timing of freshwater exiting the mainland through the creeks that cut through the embankment or as sheetflow into Florida Bay.

  15. Influence of orographically steered winds on Mutsu Bay surface currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2005-09-01

    Effects of spatially dependent sea surface wind field on currents in Mutsu Bay, which is located at the northern end of Japanese Honshu Island, are investigated using winds derived from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and a numerical model. A characteristic wind pattern over the bay was evidenced from analysis of 118 SAR images and coincided with in situ observations. Wind is topographically steered with easterly winds entering the bay through the terrestrial gap and stronger wind blowing over the central water toward its mouth. Nearshore winds are weaker due to terrestrial blockages. Using the Princeton Ocean Model, we investigated currents forced by the observed spatially dependent wind field. The predicted current pattern agrees well with available observations. For a uniform wind field of equal magnitude and average direction, the circulation pattern departs from observations demonstrating that vorticity input due to spatially dependent wind stress is essential in generation of the wind-driven current in Mutsu Bay.

  16. DDT residues in sediments from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; SenGupta, R.

    in the sediments from the Bay of Bengal. Peterson grab and hydrographic winch was used to collect the sediment samples. Each sample was extracted and cleaned. Residues were detected by electron capture gas chromatography. A range variation in the concentration...

  17. Primary production in the Bay of Bengal during August 1977

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devassy, V.P.; Bhattathiri, P.M.A.; Radhakrishna, K.

    Primary production, chlorophyll @ia@@, phaeophytin, phytoplankton and particulate organic carbon (POC) were studied at 14 stations in the Bay of Bengal during August 1977. Column primary production, chlorophyll @ia@@, and phaeopigments varied from 0...

  18. Canonical sound speed profile for the central Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Sastry, J.S.; De Figueiredo, R.J.P.

    Following Munk's canonical theory, an algorithm has been presented for computing sound channel parameters in the western and southern Bay of Bengal. The estimated canonical sound speed profile using these parameters has been compared with computed...

  19. The Neoglacial landscape and human history of Glacier Bay, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, southeast Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, C.; Streveler, G.; Post, A.; Monteith, D.; Howell, W.

    2009-01-01

    The Neoglacial landscape of the Huna Tlingit homeland in Glacier Bay is recreated through new interpretations of the lower Bay's fjordal geomorphology, late Quaternary geology and its ethnographic landscape. Geological interpretation is enhanced by 38 radiocarbon dates compiled from published and unpublished sources, as well as 15 newly dated samples. Neoglacial changes in ice positions, outwash and lake extents are reconstructed for c. 5500?????"200 cal. yr ago, and portrayed as a set of three landscapes at 1600?????"1000, 500?????"300 and 300?????"200 cal. yr ago. This history reveals episodic ice advance towards the Bay mouth, transforming it from a fjordal seascape into a terrestrial environment dominated by glacier outwash sediments and ice-marginal lake features. This extensive outwash plain was building in lower Glacier Bay by at least 1600 cal. yr ago, and had filled the lower bay by 500 cal. yr ago. The geologic landscape evokes the human-described landscape found in the ethnographic literature. Neoglacial climate and landscape dynamism created difficult but endurable environmental conditions for the Huna Tlingit people living there. Choosing to cope with environmental hardship was perhaps preferable to the more severely deteriorating conditions outside of the Bay as well as conflicts with competing groups. The central portion of the outwash plain persisted until it was overridden by ice moving into Icy Strait between AD 1724?????"1794. This final ice advance was very abrupt after a prolonged still-stand, evicting the Huna Tlingit from their Glacier Bay homeland. ?? 2009 SAGE Publications.

  20. Recipient Capacity of Tvaeren, a Baltic Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnedal, P.O.; Bergstroem, S.O.W.

    1966-07-01

    The research station at Studsvik is situated on the Baltic coast and includes several reactors and laboratories, a waste disposal plant serving both the station and waste producers outside Studsvik. A storage plant for irradiated fuel from power reactors has also been built. A total of 850 people are employed. The waste disposal plant was designed for a personnel of 900 using foreign information to correlate waste amounts to personnel. After a delay production has increased at a rate very close to the one expected. The composition of the waste is varied and difficult to predict. Minor amounts of fission products, active corrosion products, and fissile materials have been detected. Most of the waste activity is released to a strait leading into the Bay. Large volumes of water with very low specific activity are released immediately off the coast. Hydrological and dispersion data for the bay are quoted from a paper presented at the symposium mentioned below. The Baltic has brackish water. Both the chemistry and the biology are quite different from those of marine or fresh water recipients. A short description is given of the fauna and flora and important food webs are discussed. The different ways in which man is exposed to radioactivity in waste releases are dependent upon biological accumulation in living organisms and adsorption to dead materials. Fish consumption is the type of exposure which is likely to be the most critical, though it is possible that the exposure from sunbathing and fishing-gear handling could reach similar significance if conservative calculations are used. Accumulation factors from water to fish are given for iron, cobalt,and zinc . Permissible releases have been calculated using relevant accumulation factors. Fission products and corrosion products seem to be of similar significance with regard to possible human exposure. Permission to release liquid waste is granted by water courts in Sweden and operations inspected by special authorities

  1. Environmental geology of Harrison Bay, northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.D.; Thrasher, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The surficial and shallow subsurface geology of Harrison Bay on the Beaufort Sea coast was mapped as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's prelease evaluation for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 71. During the 1980 summer season, approximately 1600 km of multisensored, high-resolution geophysical profile data were collected along a rectangular grid with 4.8 km line spacing. Interpretation of these data is presented on five maps showing bathymetry, sea-floor microrelief, ice-gouge characteristics, Holocene sediment thickness, and geologic structure to depths of approximately 1000 m. On a broad scale, the seafloor is shallow and almost flat, although microrelief features produced by sediment transport and ice-gouge processes typically vary up to several meters in amplitude. Microrelief bedforms related to hydraulic processes are predominant in water depths less than 12 m. Microrelief caused by ice gouging generally increases with water depth, reaching a maximum of 2 m or more in water depths beyond the 20 m isobath. This intensely gouged area lies beneath the shear zone between the seasonal landfast ice and the mobile polar ice pack. The thickness of recent (Holocene) sediment increases offshore, from 2 m near the Colville River delta to 30 m or more on the outer shelf. The thin Holocene layer is underlain by a complex horizon interpreted to be the upper surface of a Pleistocene deposit similar in composition to the present Arctic Coastal Plain. The base of the inferred Pleistocene section is interpreted to be a low-angle unconformity 100 m below sea level. Beneath this Tertiary-Quaternary unconformity, strata are interpreted to be alluvial fan-delta plain deposits corresponding to the Colville Group and younger formations of Late Cretaceous to Tertiary age. Numerous high-angle faults downthrown to the north trend across the survey area. With few exceptions, these faults terminate at or below the 100 m unconformity, suggesting that most tectonism

  2. Recipient Capacity of Tvaeren, a Baltic Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnedal, P O; Bergstroem, S O.W.

    1966-07-15

    The research station at Studsvik is situated on the Baltic coast and includes several reactors and laboratories, a waste disposal plant serving both the station and waste producers outside Studsvik. A storage plant for irradiated fuel from power reactors has also been built. A total of 850 people are employed. The waste disposal plant was designed for a personnel of 900 using foreign information to correlate waste amounts to personnel. After a delay production has increased at a rate very close to the one expected. The composition of the waste is varied and difficult to predict. Minor amounts of fission products, active corrosion products, and fissile materials have been detected. Most of the waste activity is released to a strait leading into the Bay. Large volumes of water with very low specific activity are released immediately off the coast. Hydrological and dispersion data for the bay are quoted from a paper presented at the symposium mentioned below. The Baltic has brackish water. Both the chemistry and the biology are quite different from those of marine or fresh water recipients. A short description is given of the fauna and flora and important food webs are discussed. The different ways in which man is exposed to radioactivity in waste releases are dependent upon biological accumulation in living organisms and adsorption to dead materials. Fish consumption is the type of exposure which is likely to be the most critical, though it is possible that the exposure from sunbathing and fishing-gear handling could reach similar significance if conservative calculations are used. Accumulation factors from water to fish are given for iron, cobalt,and zinc . Permissible releases have been calculated using relevant accumulation factors. Fission products and corrosion products seem to be of similar significance with regard to possible human exposure. Permission to release liquid waste is granted by water courts in Sweden and operations inspected by special authorities

  3. NUMERICAL MODELS AS TOOLS TO UNDERSTAND THE DYNAMICS IN BAYS: CASE OF STUDY CHETUMAL BAY, QUINTANA ROO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Avalos-Cueva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study performed the simulation of currents generated by the wind on the Bay of Chetumal, Quintana Roo through the use of a stationary shallow-water model. A homogeneous climatic wind was used for the entire Bay, with a velocity of 3m·s-1 , and directions North, South, Northeast, Northwest, East, Southeast, Southwest and West. The results showed a rather complex dynamics in Chetumal Bay, in which important turns were observed in deep areas, with speeds reaching up to 13 cm·s-1 .

  4. Observation on Heavy Metals in Sediment of Jakarta Bay Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rozak

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Observation on heavy metals in Jakarta Bay, from June and September 2003. Heavy metals Pb in sediment at the West have been conductet of Jakarta Bay Waters varied between Pb = 8,49-31,22 ppm, Cd = <0,001-0,47 ppm, Cu = 13,81-193,75 ppm, Zn = 82,18-533,59 ppm and Ni = 0,99-35,38 ppm,while those at the Center of Jakarta Bay, varied between Pb = 2,21-69,22 ppm, Cd = <0,001-0,28 ppm, Cu = 3,36-50,65 ppm, Zn = 71,13-230,54 ppm and Ni = 0,42-15,58 ppm and at the East of Jakarta Bay, Pb content varied between 0,25-77,42 ppm, Cd = <0,001-0,42 ppm, Cu = 0,79-44,94 ppm, Zn = 93,21-289,00 ppm and Ni = 0,42-128,47 ppm. Hevy metals content in sediment the West of Jakarta Bay was high of equivalent the Center and East of Jakarta Bay. At than those composition sediment at the west was black, that indicated high heavy metals content.

  5. THE RESPONSE OF MONTEREY BAY TO THE 2010 CHILEAN EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence C. Breaker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary frequencies contained in the arrival sequence produced by the tsunami from the Chilean earthquake of 2010 in Monterey Bay were extracted to determine the seiche modes that were produced. Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA and Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD were employed to extract the primary frequencies of interest. The wave train from the Chilean tsunami lasted for at least four days due to multipath arrivals that may not have included reflections from outside the bay but most likely did include secondary undulations, and energy trapping in the form of edge waves, inside the bay. The SSA decomposition resolved oscillations with periods of 52-57, 34-35, 26-27, and 21-22 minutes, all frequencies that have been predicted and/or observed in previous studies. The EEMD decomposition detected oscillations with periods of 50-55 and 21-22 minutes. Periods in the range of 50-57 minutes varied due to measurement uncertainties but almost certainly correspond to the first longitudinal mode of oscillation for Monterey Bay, periods of 34-35 minutes correspond to the first transverse mode of oscillation that assumes a nodal line across the entrance of the bay, a period of 26- 27 minutes, although previously observed, may not represent a fundamental oscillation, and a period of 21-22 minutes has been predicted and observed previously. A period of ~37 minutes, close to the period of 34-35 minutes, was generated by the Great Alaskan Earthquake of 1964 in Monterey Bay and most likely represents the same mode of oscillation. The tsunamis associated with the Great Alaskan Earthquake and the Chilean Earthquake both entered Monterey Bay but initially arrived outside the bay from opposite directions. Unlike the Great Alaskan Earthquake, however, which excited only one resonant mode inside the bay, the Chilean Earthquake excited several modes suggesting that the asymmetric shape of the entrance to Monterey Bay was an important factor and that the

  6. [Reflectance of sea ice in Liaodong Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhan-tang; Yang, Yue-zhong; Wang, Gui-fen; Cao, Wen-xi; Kong, Xiang-peng

    2010-07-01

    In the present study, the relationships between sea ice albedo and the bidirectional reflectance distribution in Liaodong Bay were investigated. The results indicate that: (1) sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is closely related to the components of sea ice, the higher the particulate concentration in sea ice surface is, the lower the sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is. On the contrary, the higher the bubble concentration in sea ice is, the higher sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is. (2) Sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is similar to the bidirectional reflectance factor R(f) when the probe locates at nadir. The R(f) would increase with the increase in detector zenith theta, and the correlation between R(f) and the detector azimuth would gradually increase. When the theta is located at solar zenith 63 degrees, the R(f) would reach the maximum, and the strongest correlation is also shown between the R(f) and the detector azimuth. (3) Different types of sea ice would have the different anisotropic reflectance factors.

  7. Plant diversity and biomass of Marudu bay mangroves in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanum, F.; Kudus, K.A.; Saari, N.S

    2012-01-01

    The mangroves of Marudu Bay in the state of Sabah is situated at the tip of Borneo Island, and at the southern limit of the Coral Triangle whose waters hold the highest diversity of corals, fish, molluscks, crustaceans and marine plant species in the world. The ecosystem shows a deterioration due to unsustainable fishing, pollution and encroachment, and these are impacting the Marudu Bay coastal communities economically. Fishing is the major economic activity here. Realising the importance of conserving the mangroves to uplift the socio-economic livelihood of the coastal community, a resource inventory of the mangroves and its productivity study were carried out. A total of 16 plant species in 12 genera and 9 families were identified. It was also found that 0.7 ha is capable of capturing all the species in the mangrove forest. The mangrove forests of Marudu Bay are dominated by Rhizopora apiculata and R. mucronata. The highest Importance Value index (IVI) was given by Rhizophora mucronata. Total Above Ground Biomass (TAGB) for 1-ha of mangrove forest in Marudu Bay was estimated to be 98.4 t/ha. It was found in other parallel studies that the mangroves of Marudu Bay are productive ecosystems that provide valuable habitats, nurseries and spawning grounds for various commercially important species of fish and invertebrates such as shrimp besides many species of wildlife. The mangroves at Marudu Bay are not only aesthetically attractive but provide opportunities for ecotourism activities that can be undertaken by the local community inhabiting the area to uplift their meagre income, These activities include mangrove cruising, recreational fishing, educational tourism and mangrove honey production, amongst others. This way, the degradation of the mangrove in Marudu Bay can be halted and reversed. (author)

  8. A field study of littoral processes in Estero Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingler, J.R.; Anima, R.J.; Molzan, D.E.; Luepke, Gretchen; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Estero Bay, which lies on the central California coast, has rocky headlands at both ends and sandy beaches within it. The shoreline of the bay has adjusted to be in equilibrium with the predominant wave climate, which is from the northwest. Because of its present shoreline configuration, the net southward littoral transport found along much of the California coast does not occur within Estero Bay. Instead, the sand primarily moves on- and offshore with a reversing longshore component. This sand transport pattern produces a littoral cell within Estero Bay even though there is no submarine canyon in the area. The primary sand sinks for this cell appear to be the sand spit south of Morro Rock and the entrance to Morro Bay itself, although this opinion was not experimentally verified. Field work during one summer (1978) and the following winter (1979) produced baseline data on the profile of and grain-size distribution across the littoral zone. In the offshore part of the littoral zone we also studied ripple size and type, internal structure, depth of erosion, and mineralogy. Although these data, which were collected along nine transects spaced 2 km apart, are inadequate to yield transport and energy rates, they indicate a northward decrease in wave energy within Estero Bay and a mixing of the sediments in the offshore. Box core and rod height data from grid points in seven meters of water showed that on the order of a meter of erosion occurred in the central part of the bay between the two sampling periods. Offshore, the data were incomplete, but at one station, in 17 m of water, at least 20 cm of erosion occurred.

  9. Seafloor studies of Mamala Bay, Honolulu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torresan, Michael E.

    No comprehensive study of the effects of disposal of dredge spoils has been conducted to determine if the environment has suffered. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has regularly dredged the shipping channels of Honolulu Harbor and Pearl Harbor for commercial and military purposes. The 5-year frequency for new dredging activity has led to the formation of extensive offshore wide deposits of relatively coarse sediments being created in a sedimentary environment that naturally collects much finer-grained materials. At the same time, the rapid growth of Honolulu and its suburban region over the past 3 decades has added nutrient-enriched sewage outfall to the artificially-heavy sediment load. The combined effects of dredge-spoil disposal and contaminant loads are not well-documented, and are poorly understood. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a comprehensive study to characterize the seafloor of Mamala Bay.In 1993, the USGS initiated a program sponsored by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that produced a detailed map of the seafloor, especially of the distribution of dredge spoils, and a preliminary analysis of the environmental effects of dredge-spoils disposal and the chemical effects of the introduction of nutrient-rich outfall. Part of the work would involve sediment sampling, biological testing, and evaluation. Of particular interest is tissue sampling and analysis of endemic shrimp to determine the rates of absorption of toxic elements, such as heavy metals, that are easily brought into the food chain.

  10. Synoptic volumetric variations and flushing of the Tampa Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.; Meyers, S. D.; Luther, M. E.

    2014-03-01

    Two types of analyses are used to investigate the synoptic wind-driven flushing of Tampa Bay in response to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle from 1950 to 2007. Hourly sea level elevations from the St. Petersburg tide gauge, and wind speed and direction from three different sites around Tampa Bay are used for the study. The zonal (u) and meridional (v) wind components are rotated clockwise by 40° to obtain axial and co-axial components according to the layout of the bay. First, we use the subtidal observed water level as a proxy for mean tidal height to estimate the rate of volumetric bay outflow. Second, we use wavelet analysis to bandpass sea level and wind data in the time-frequency domain to isolate the synoptic sea level and surface wind variance. For both analyses the long-term monthly climatology is removed and we focus on the volumetric and wavelet variance anomalies. The overall correlation between the Oceanic Niño Index and volumetric analysis is small due to the seasonal dependence of the ENSO response. The mean monthly climatology between the synoptic wavelet variance of elevation and axial winds are in close agreement. During the winter, El Niño (La Niña) increases (decreases) the synoptic variability, but decreases (increases) it during the summer. The difference in winter El Niño/La Niña wavelet variances is about 20 % of the climatological value, meaning that ENSO can swing the synoptic flushing of the bay by 0.22 bay volumes per month. These changes in circulation associated with synoptic variability have the potential to impact mixing and transport within the bay.

  11. Abundance patterns of macrofauna and infauna in nursery habitats of Christmas Bay, Texas: July 1984 through June 1985.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between July 1984 and June 1985, monthly samples were collected from marsh, seagrass, and nonvegetated habitats in Christmas Bay and West Bay in the Galveston Bay...

  12. Study on origin and sedimentary environment of marine sediments from Kii Channel, Hiroshima Bay and Tosa Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Misaki

    2008-01-01

    The trace amounts of elements in the sediments of sea bottom in Kii Channel, Hiroshima Bay and Tosa Bay were determined quantitatively by the neutron activation analysis. The following facts were illustrated particularly from the quantitative analysis of scandium, rare earths, thorium and uranium: 1) It was known from Ce/La ratio that the geological feature in the west part of Japan is reflected in Kii Channel, Hiroshima Bay and Tosa Bay; 2) The rare-earth element pattern and La/Lu ratio suggest the fact that Kii Channel, Hiroshima Bay and Tosa Bay are essentially composed of the materials of which origin is land; 3) From the fact that Ce/La ratio in these sites are slightly under 1.0, these sites are considered to be affected mainly by the materials of which origin is land; 4) The sedimentary environment in the marine bottom of the Japanese coasts has been found to be mostly under a reductive state. (M.H.)

  13. Causal Bayes Model of Mathematical Competence in Kindergarten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božidar Tepeš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper authors define mathematical competences in the kindergarten. The basic objective was to measure the mathematical competences or mathematical knowledge, skills and abilities in mathematical education. Mathematical competences were grouped in the following areas: Arithmetic and Geometry. Statistical set consisted of 59 children, 65 to 85 months of age, from the Kindergarten Milan Sachs from Zagreb. The authors describe 13 variables for measuring mathematical competences. Five measuring variables were described for the geometry, and eight measuring variables for the arithmetic. Measuring variables are tasks which children solved with the evaluated results. By measuring mathematical competences the authors make causal Bayes model using free software Tetrad 5.2.1-3. Software makes many causal Bayes models and authors as experts chose the model of the mathematical competences in the kindergarten. Causal Bayes model describes five levels for mathematical competences. At the end of the modeling authors use Bayes estimator. In the results, authors describe by causal Bayes model of mathematical competences, causal effect mathematical competences or how intervention on some competences cause other competences. Authors measure mathematical competences with their expectation as random variables. When expectation of competences was greater, competences improved. Mathematical competences can be improved with intervention on causal competences. Levels of mathematical competences and the result of intervention on mathematical competences can help mathematical teachers.

  14. Derivation of Delaware Bay tidal parameters from space shuttle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Quanan; Yan, Xiaohai; Klemas, V.

    1993-01-01

    The tide-related parameters of the Delaware Bay are derived from space shuttle time-series photographs. The water areas in the bay are measured from interpretation maps of the photographs with a CALCOMP 9100 digitizer and ERDAS Image Processing System. The corresponding tidal levels are calculated using the exposure time annotated on the photographs. From these data, an approximate function relating the water area to the tidal level at a reference point is determined. Based on the function, the water areas of the Delaware Bay at mean high water (MHW) and mean low water (MLW), below 0 m, and for the tidal zone are inferred. With MHW and MLW areas and the mean tidal range, the authors calculate the tidal influx of the Delaware Bay, which is 2.76 x 1O 9 m 3 . Furthermore, the velocity of flood tide at the bay mouth is determined using the tidal flux and an integral of the velocity distribution function at the cross section between Cape Henlopen and Cape May. The result is 132 cm/s, which compares well with the data on tidal current charts

  15. Spatial and temporal characterizations of water quality in Kuwait Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mutairi, N; Abahussain, A; El-Battay, A

    2014-06-15

    The spatial and temporal patterns of water quality in Kuwait Bay have been investigated using data from six stations between 2009 and 2011. The results showed that most of water quality parameters such as phosphorus (PO4), nitrate (NO3), dissolved oxygen (DO), and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) fluctuated over time and space. Based on Water Quality Index (WQI) data, six stations were significantly clustered into two main classes using cluster analysis, one group located in western side of the Bay, and other in eastern side. Three principal components are responsible for water quality variations in the Bay. The first component included DO and pH. The second included PO4, TSS and NO3, and the last component contained seawater temperature and turbidity. The spatial and temporal patterns of water quality in Kuwait Bay are mainly controlled by seasonal variations and discharges from point sources of pollution along Kuwait Bay's coast as well as from Shatt Al-Arab River. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Norway's role in international collaboration towards rehabilitation of Andreeva Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdall, M; Sneve, M; Standring, W J F; Amundsen, I

    2009-12-01

    Andreeva Bay is one of the largest and most hazardous nuclear legacy sites in northwest Russia. The site is the location of large amounts of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and radioactive wastes and the risks associated with the site have precipitated an extensive international collaborative effort towards securing and rehabilitating the site. Given the location and proximity of the site, Norway has and continues to contribute in a number of ways towards this effort. Norway's activities in relation to rehabilitative efforts at Andreeva Bay are focused on both infrastructural and remediative initiatives as well as regulatory collaboration with Russia towards ensuring effective and safe operations during handling and removal of SNF and radioactive materials. This article describes Norway's role within international efforts in the context of the rehabilitation of Andreeva Bay and outlines previous activities and Norway's future direction with respect to the site.

  17. The inauguration of Robert-Bourassa Park at James Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiquette, M.

    1997-01-01

    Robert Bourassa's contributions to the hydroelectric development at James Bay were acknowledged with the inauguration of a park in the ex-prime minister's name. Phase 1 of the James Bay hydroelectric project constituted the world's biggest construction site, employing more than 180,000 people from beginning to project completion. The James Bay project allowed Hydro-Quebec to gain one of the world's largest electric power utilities and to gain significant competitive edge over its competitors. The Robert Bourassa Park contains a picnic area and a visitor interpretation centre which describes the history of the project. A sequence of 5 signposts summarize the contributions that Robert Bourassa made to the megaproject which cost over $20.6 billion. The complex consists of 65 turbines which produce 15,235 megawatts of electricity. 1 fig

  18. Forcing mechanisms of the Bay of Bengal circulation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shetye, S.R.; Sengupta, D.; Gadgil, S.

    A state-of-the-art ocean general circulation model, set up for the North Indian Ocean and driven by climatological wind stress simulates most of the observed features of the near-surface circulation of the Bay of Bengal. The prominent features...

  19. Use of Geographic Information Systems to examine cumulative impacts of development on Mobile Bay, AL and Galveston Bay, TX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosigno, P.F.; McNiff, M.E.; Watzin, M.C.; Ji, W.

    1993-01-01

    Databases from Mobile Bay, Alabama and Galveston Bay, Texas were compiled using ARC/INFO Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to examine the cumulative impacts from urbanization and industrialization on these two Gulf of Mexico estuaries. The databases included information on wetland habitats, pollution sources, metal contamination, bird-nesting sites, and oyster reefs, among others. A series of maps were used to represent the impacts within and between each ecosystem. These two estuaries share many similarities in the types of developmental pressures that each experience. However, difference in the magnitude of industrial activity, pollution loading, and urban growth coupled with distinct hydrodynamic and geochemical differences in sediment mineralogy, freshwater inflows and salinity regimens results in differing responses. With growing human population and extensive oil and gas development, the demands on Galveston Bay are quite different than those placed on Mobile Bay which has lower growth and less extensive oil and gas infrastructure. Mobile Bay tends to retain whatever contamination enters into the system because of the high levels of clay and organic carbon found in its sediment. Some of these chemicals bioaccumulate, posing an extra risk to natural resources. Geographic Information Systems provide natural resource managers with the technology to manage complex databases. The analytical and mapping capabilities of GIS can be used to consider cumulative effects in a regional context and to develop plans to protect ecologically sensitive areas

  20. Strong variability in bacterioplankton abundance and production in central and western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, V.; Ramaiah, N.; Paul, J.T.; Sardessai, S.; Jyothibabu, R.; Gauns, M.

    to low or no nutrient injections into the surface, primary production in Bay of Bengal is reportedly low. As a consequence, the Bay of Bengal is considered as a region of low biological productivity. Along with many biological parameters, bacterioplankton...

  1. Is the biological productivity in the Bay of Bengal light limited?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Narvekar, J.; Nuncio, M.; Kumar, A.; Ramaiah, N.; Sardessai, S.; Gauns, M.; Fernandes, V.; Paul, J.

    Recent measurements of chlorophyll, primary productivity (PP) and nutrients along the central Bay of Bengal (BOB) during summer, fall and spring intermonsoons showed that the northern bay becomes less productive compared to the south in summer...

  2. Theories on migration processes of Cd in Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Li, Haixia; Wang, Qi; Ding, Jun; Zhang, Longlei

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the migration progress is essential to pollution control, while developing theories for the migration progress is the scientific basis. This paper further developed five key theories on migration processes of Cd including homogeneous theory, environmental dynamic theory, horizontal loss theory, migration trend theory and vertical migration theory, respectively. The performance and practical values of these theories were demonstrated in the application of these on analyzing the migration process of Cd in Jiaozhou Bay. Results these theory helpful to better understand the migration progress of pollutants in marine bay.

  3. Characteristics of Tides in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sindhu, B.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    gradually from the northern end to the 2.5°N and decreases towards southern boundary. The co-tidal and co-range charts of M2 and S2 tidal constituents also show the presence of two degenerate amphidromic points in the head bay. A virtual amphidromic point...

  4. The biology of the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gauns, M.

    This article focusses on the variability in physics and chemistry of the region and investigate its influence on the biology. This article is largely based on the recent observations made during the India JGOFS and BOBPS (Bay of Bengal Process Study...

  5. A survey of cardinalfish (Apogonidae) of Antsira- nana Bay, northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were observed including one species not previously recorded in Madagascar ... against existing records. Overall the ... tions include oceanic currents, temperature, depth, disturbance .... mentation as a result of terrestrial activities occurs within the bay ... of particularly abundant species in samples (Clarke and Gorley. 2006).

  6. Unheard voices: James Bay II and the women of Kuujjuarapik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, S.

    1991-01-01

    The attitudes held by the aboriginal peoples of the James Bay region toward the James Bay II hydroelectric power development are described. These attitudes are communicated primarily through the comments of Innu women. Major concerns with the Great Whale project relate to its impact on country food, mercury contamination, and camps. The entire community of Kuujjuarapik was totally opposed to the Great Whale project. While direct impacts such as mercury contamination or reduced wildlife harvest are the most obvious impacts, indirect impacts relating to cultural damage, increased abuse and alcoholism, and influx of non-native construction workers will also have significant effects, and warrant further study

  7. Identification of Cu’s sources in Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Li, Haixia; Ding, Jun; Zhang, Longlei; Li, Jiangmin

    2017-12-01

    Many marine bays have been polluted by Cu along with the rapid development of industry, economy and population size, and identification the sources of Cu is essential to environmental protection. This paper identified the sources of Cu in according to the horizontal distribution in Jiaozhou Bay during 1982-1986. Results showed that there were five Cu sources during study years including marine current, stream flow, island top, overland runoff and marine traffic, respectively. These findings were helpful information in decision-making of pollution control and environmental remediation practice.

  8. Unheard voices: James Bay II and the women of Kuujjuarapik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, S. (Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada))

    The attitudes held by the aboriginal peoples of the James Bay region toward the James Bay II hydroelectric power development are described. These attitudes are communicated primarily through the comments of Innu women. Major concerns with the Great Whale project relate to its impact on country food, mercury contamination, and camps. The entire community of Kuujjuarapik was totally opposed to the Great Whale project. While direct impacts such as mercury contamination or reduced wildlife harvest are the most obvious impacts, indirect impacts relating to cultural damage, increased abuse and alcoholism, and influx of non-native construction workers will also have significant effects, and warrant further study.

  9. 76 FR 77780 - Availability of Seats for the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  10. 76 FR 41763 - Availability of Seats for the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  11. 75 FR 16075 - Availability of Seats for the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  12. 75 FR 57442 - Availability of Seats for the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  13. 77 FR 56190 - Availability of Seats for the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seat on the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  14. 76 FR 1386 - Safety Zone; Centennial of Naval Aviation Kickoff, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Centennial of Naval Aviation Kickoff, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast... zone on the navigable waters of San Diego Bay in San Diego, CA in support of the Centennial of Naval... February 12, 2010, the Centennial of Naval Aviation Kickoff will take place in San Diego Bay. In support of...

  15. A survey of cardinalfish (Apogonidae) of Antsiranana Bay, northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cardinalfish of Antsiranana Bay, northern Madagascar, were surveyed over an 11 month period by underwater census employing a simple search pattern using self-contained underwater breathing apparatus. Over this period 15 species were observed including one species not previously recorded in Madagascar, ...

  16. Petroleum possibilities of the James Bay Lowland area: Drilling in the James Bay Lowland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martison, N W

    1954-12-31

    Interest in the possible occurrence of petroleum and natural gas in the James Bay lowland arises from the presence there of Palaeozoic sedimentary formations resembling those in south-western Ontario. The first part of this report reviews earlier geologic surveys conducted in the lowland and reports results of field work and drill core studies 1946-51. It describes the area`s topography, climate, stratigraphy and palaeontology (Ordovician to Lower Cretaceous, plus Pleistocene and recent glacial deposits), structural geology, and evidence of petroleum. Lists of fossils and correlations are included. The appendices include a list of fossil locations and drill logs. The second part details the drilling programs carried out in the lowland by the Ontario Dept. of Mines, including detailed logs, as well as drilling carried out by some other organisations.

  17. Linking Indian rivers vs Bay of Bengal monsoon Activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajamani, V.; Mohanty, U.C.; Ramesh, R.; Bhat, G.S.; Vinayachandran, P.N.; Sengupta, D.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Kolli, R.K.

    stream_size 12553 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name CurrSci_2006_Linking_rivers.pdf.txt stream_source_info CurrSci_2006_Linking_rivers.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859.... Stratification below the mixed layer also affects the chemical and bi o logical pro c esses in the Bay. It is worth noting here that because the low salinity layer in the BOB prevents vertical mi x ing, the Bay is not a source of CO 2 to the atmo s- phere...

  18. Subtidal distribution of Exxon Valdez oil in two bays in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.S.; Gilfillan, E.S.; Boehm, P.D.; Bence, A.E.; Burns, W.A.; Mankiewicz, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    This 1991 study assessed the subtidal fate of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 2 bays. A subtidal stratified random sampling design compared stations in the oiled Bay of Isles with stations in the reference Drier Bay. Thirty-five random sampling stations over 3 depth zones in each of the oiled and reference bays enabled generalization of the results. 12 non-randomly chosen stations were also sampled in the two bays. Sediment samples were analyzed for saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons, grain size and organic carbon. The statistical comparisons between the oiled and reference bays were based on PAH analyses. Four types of PAH were identified in the two bays; Alaska North Slope (ANS) petrogenic spill PAH; seep-derived natural petrogenic background PAH; pyrogenic PAH; and diagenetic PAH (perylene). The Bay of Isles sediments contained significantly higher levels of weathered ANS-PAH than Drier Bay. These levels were generally small compared with those of the petrogenic background PAH naturally present. The concentration of the natural petrogenic PAH component increased with increasing depth zone for each bay. Drier Bay, a location of past cannery and mining activity, had significantly greater levels of pyrogenic PAH than the Bay of Isles. All sediment PAH concentrations were well below the 4,000 ng/g total PAH concentration reported in the literature as a sublethal toxicity threshold value in sediments. The highest sediment ANSPAH concentration (201 ng/g) was 20 times lower than this value

  19. The ichthyoplankton assemblage of the Algoa Bay nearshore region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ichthyoplankton assemblage of the Algoa Bay nearshore region in relation to coastal zone utilization by juvenile fish. ... The various taxa occurring in the ichthyoplankton are discussed in terms of distribution of adults and juveniles, breeding biology and available information on early life history. The paucity of larvae of ...

  20. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative AGENCY...: Notice of availability of program funds for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative. SUMMARY: The... through the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative for agricultural producers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  1. Ecological studies of Ulva reticulata Forsskal in Chapora bay (Goa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    The patchy occurrence of Ulva reticulata Forskal along the west coast of India lead to its ecological studies. The total annual yield of . reticulata calculated for 3800 sq. m. area of the bay amounts to 6.74 tonnes wet weight and 0.932 tonnes dry...

  2. Magnetic basement in the central Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Rao, M.M.M.

    Analyses of about 6000 km of processed magnetic data in the central Bay of Bengal using Analytical Signal Processing and Werner Deconvolution techniques revealed that the depth to top of the magnetic basement varies between 5 and 12 km from the sea...

  3. Geophysical investigations off Vijaydurg bay, Maharashtra, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Ramana, M.V.

    Bathymetry of the bay indicates a smooth gradient in the sandy zone while steep gradient is marked off cliffs and headlands. In general, the results of the wave action have been seen by the presence of undulation to the level of 3 m in sand covered...

  4. Concentrations of PAHs (Polycyclicaromatic Hydrocarbons Pollutant in Sediment of The Banten Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khozanah Munawir

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Banten Bay is end of stream for a few rivers from Banten mainland where many manufactures and petrochemical industries are built. This may give environmental pressure of water quality of the bay due to pollutant input, such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs. This study is to identify those pollutants and determine their total concentration and distribution in sediments. Surface sediment samples were collected in four zones: inner coastline within the bay, middle bay, coastline off the bay and outer of the Bay in April 2016. PAH components were extracted and measured using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Levels of total PAHs in sediments in inner coastline within the bay ranged between 0.381-2.654 ppm with an average of 1.288 ppm, middle of the bay ranged between 0.747-1.762 ppm with an average of 1.198 ppm, outer of the bay ranged between 0.192-1.394 ppm with an average of 0.921 ppm, and east coast of the bay ranged between 0.191-1.394 ppm and an average of 0.778 ppm. The levels of total PAH contamination is apparently lower than those of PAH threshold in sediments (i.e. 4.5 ppm. Keywords: PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Banten Bay

  5. 78 FR 16500 - Rolling Bay, LLC and Indus; Transfer of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... contract to perform work for OPP, and access to this information will enable Rolling Bay, LLC and its subcontractor, Indus, to fulfill the obligations of the contract. DATES: Rolling Bay, LLC and its subcontractor... Under Contract No. GS-35F-0072Y, Rolling Bay, LLC and its subcontractor, Indus, will: Capture data that...

  6. Aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments of Placentia Bay, Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiceniuk, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the potential for contamination of recent sediments with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons due to tanker and refinery activity in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland, an area without large local anthropogenic sources of aromatics. Sediment samples were taken from the vicinity of the Come By Chance refinery, Woody Island, Wild Cove, and Port Royal Arm, all in the north end of the bay. The samples were extracted by two methods, dichloromethane extraction of dried sediment for determination of total aromatic hydrocarbon content and hexane extraction of wet sediment for estimation of the bioavailability of hydrocarbons and determination of more volatile compounds. Class analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons was conducted on a NH 2 column with detection at 255 nm. Total concentrations of di-tricyclic aromatics were highest at the Woody Island site (0.6 μg/g). The sediments from the Come By Chance site, Wild Cove, and Port Royal Arm sediments contained 0.3, 0.1, and 0.2 μg/g respectively. The hexane extracts from Come By Chance were lowest in di-tricyclic aromatics (0.007 μg/g), with the other sites being equal in concentration (0.01 μg/g). It is evident from the study that aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in Placentia Bay are elevated in some parts of the bay in the absence of local combustion sources, and that the most likely source is petroleum. 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  7. eBay's Business Format: An example of Participatory Democracy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eBay's Business Format: An example of Participatory Democracy? ... on it 'not being the traditional auctioneer' hold in light of its business model and the ... from the larger cloud of crimes which can be perpetrated by such a business model.

  8. Economics of wild salmon ecosystems: Bristol Bay, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Duffield; Christopher J. Neher; David A. Patterson; Oliver S. Goldsmith

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an estimate of the economic value of wild salmon ecosystems in the major watershed of Bristol Bay, Alaska. The analysis utilizes both regional economic and social benefit-cost accounting frameworks. Key sectors analyzed include subsistence, commercial fishing, sport fishing, hunting, and nonconsumptive wildlife viewing and tourism. The mixed cash-...

  9. Conservation of biodiversity in the Sango Bay area, southern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of biodiversity and socio-economic surveys carried out in the Sango Bay area of southern Uganda revealed high biodiversity values for some taxa in some sites. Use of this biodiversity and reliance on it by local communities was widespread. Biodiversity scores were given to all species and these were coupled with ...

  10. View of OMS burn from the payload bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    View of Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) burn from the payload bay. The closed cradles which held the communication satellites Columbia deployed are visible in the center of the frame. Parts of the spacecraft's wings can be seen on both the port and starboard sides can be seen. The vertical stabilizer is flanked by the twin OMS pods.

  11. Changes in Landscape Pattern of Wetland around Hangzhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenpeng; Li, Yuan; Xu, Dan; Zeng, Ying

    2018-04-01

    Hangzhou Bay is an important estuarial coastal wetland, which offers a large number of land and ecological resources. It plays a significant role in the sustainable development of resources, environment and economy. In this paper, based on the remote sensing images in 1996, 2005 and 2013, we extracted the coastal wetland data and analyzed the wetland landscape pattern of the Hangzhou Bay in the past 20 years. The results show that: (1) the area of coastal wetland is heading downwards in the recent decades. Paddy field and the coastal wetland diminish greatly. (2) the single dynamic degree of wetland of the Hangzhou Bay displays that paddy fields and coastal wetlands are shrinking, but lakes, reservoirs and ponds are constantly expanding. (3) the wetland landscape pattern index shows that total patch area of the coastal wetland and paddy fields have gradually diminished. The Shannon diversity index, the Shannon evenness index as well as the landscape separation index of the coastal wetlands in the Hangzhou Bay increase steadily. The landscape pattern in the study area has shown a trend of high fragmentation, dominance decreases, but some dominant landscape still exist in this region. (4) Urbanization and natural factors lead to the reduction of wetland area. Besides the pressure of population is a major threat to the wetland. The study will provide scientific basis for long-term planning for this region.

  12. Spatial variation of phytoplankton community structure in Daya Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Wang, You-Shao; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Fei, Jiao

    2015-10-01

    Daya Bay is one of the largest and most important gulfs in the southern coast of China, in the northern part of the South China Sea. The phylogenetic diversity and spatial distribution of phytoplankton from the Daya Bay surface water and the relationship with the in situ water environment were investigated by the clone library of the large subunit of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) gene. The dominant species of phytoplankton were diatoms and eustigmatophytes, which accounted for 81.9 % of all the clones of the rbcL genes. Prymnesiophytes were widely spread and wide varieties lived in Daya Bay, whereas the quantity was limited. The community structure of phytoplankton was shaped by pH and salinity and the concentration of silicate, phosphorus and nitrite. The phytoplankton biomass was significantly positively affected by phosphorus and nitrite but negatively by salinity and pH. Therefore, the phytoplankton distribution and biomass from Daya Bay were doubly affected by anthropic activities and natural factors.

  13. Contaminant exposure of birds nesting in Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W; Dummer, Paul M; Custer, Christine M; Franson, J Christian; Jones, Michael

    2014-08-01

    In earlier studies, elevated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were reported in double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings collected from lower Green Bay (WI, USA) in 1994 and 1995 and black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs collected in 1991. Comparable samples collected in 2010 and 2011 indicated that concentrations of PCBs were 35%, 62%, 70%, and 88% lower than in the early 1990s in tree swallow eggs, tree swallow nestlings, double-crested cormorant eggs, and black-crowned night-heron eggs, respectively; concentrations of DDE were 47%, 43%, 51%, and 80% lower, respectively. These declines are consistent with regional contaminant trends in other species. Concentrations of PCBs were higher in herring gull (Larus argentatus) than in black-crowned night-heron eggs collected from Green Bay in 2010; PCB concentrations in double-crested cormorant and tree swallow eggs were intermediate. The estimated toxicity of the PCB mixture in eggs of the insectivorous tree swallow was the equal to or greater than toxicity in the 3 piscivorous bird species. A multivariate analysis indicated that the composition percentage of lower-numbered PCB congeners was greater in eggs of the insectivorous tree swallow than in eggs of the 3 piscivorous species nesting in Green Bay. Dioxin and furan concentrations and the toxicity of these chemicals were also higher in tree swallows than these other waterbird species nesting in Green Bay. Published 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Bayes estimation of the general hazard rate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarhan, A.

    1999-01-01

    In reliability theory and life testing models, the life time distributions are often specified by choosing a relevant hazard rate function. Here a general hazard rate function h(t)=a+bt c-1 , where c, a, b are constants greater than zero, is considered. The parameter c is assumed to be known. The Bayes estimators of (a,b) based on the data of type II/item-censored testing without replacement are obtained. A large simulation study using Monte Carlo Method is done to compare the performance of Bayes with regression estimators of (a,b). The criterion for comparison is made based on the Bayes risk associated with the respective estimator. Also, the influence of the number of failed items on the accuracy of the estimators (Bayes and regression) is investigated. Estimations for the parameters (a,b) of the linearly increasing hazard rate model h(t)=a+bt, where a, b are greater than zero, can be obtained as the special case, letting c=2

  15. Upwelling features near Sri Lanka in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShreeRam, P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    , the southwest monsoon in summer and the northeast monsoon in winter. The wind stress associated with these winds cause mass drift of oceanic waters leading to upwelling and downwelling. The upwelling features in the Bay of Bengal with a special mention about...

  16. On the null distribution of Bayes factors in linear regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    We show that under the null, the 2 log (Bayes factor) is asymptotically distributed as a weighted sum of chi-squared random variables with a shifted mean. This claim holds for Bayesian multi-linear regression with a family of conjugate priors, namely, the normal-inverse-gamma prior, the g-prior, and...

  17. Late Quaternary sedimentation in eastern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S; Mascarenhas, A; Paropkari, A; Rao, Ch.M.

    This study presents variations in various size measures, calcium carbonate, organic carbon, clay mineralogy and major and trace elements in a core (5.40 m long, 2713 m depth) from the eastern Bay of Bengal. On a CM diagram, the sediments of the core...

  18. Bay of Bengal Process Studies (BOBPS) Final Report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Sardessai, S.; Ramaiah, N.; Bhosle, N.B.; Ramaswamy, V.; Ramesh, R.; Sharada, M.K.; Sarin, M.M.; Sarupria, J.S.; Muraleedharan, U.

    E, and 4 were along western boundary - were covered. In all 35 parameters were measured. Several new insights are emerging out of the BOBPS data analysis. We now understand why Bay of Bengal is a biologically low productive basin. This is largely due...

  19. Nitrous oxide in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Jayakumar, D; Nair, M.; DileepKumar, M.; George, M.D

    Extensive observations on nitrous oxide (N@d2@@O) in the atmosphere and waters of the western Bay of Bengal during March-April 1991 yield surface saturations and atmospheric fluxes ranging from 89.3 to 213.9% (mean 125.2%), and from 0.10 to 10...

  20. Establishment of a community managed marine reserve in the Bay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Bay of Ranobe, in southwest Madagascar, once noted for its high biodiversity and fish abundance, is under increasing pressure from overfishing, pollution, sedimentation and tourism. The declining health of the coral reef is reflected in fishery productivity and survey data on biological diversity. Sustainable conservation ...

  1. Daya Bay PWRs will be state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Preparations for commissioning and startup of the Daya Bay nuclear plant in Guangdong, China, have been underway for some time. The project which incorporates two imported French 900 MWe Pressurized Water Reactors, represents a major technology transfer effort between the Chinese and European contractors, resulting in the highest standards of quality. (author)

  2. Cetacean strandings along the coast of Izmir Bay, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guclusoy, H.; Veryeri, N.; Cirik, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper provides information on the stranding of cetaceans in Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea, between 1992 and 2004. The data were collected opportunistically during sightings and stranding data collection for Monk Seals. A total of 12 cetaceans, namely Bottle-nosed Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus

  3. The effect of fog on radionuclide deposition velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibb, R.; Carson, P.; Thompson, W.

    1997-01-01

    Current nuclear power station release models do not evaluate deposition under foggy atmospheric conditions. Deposition velocities and scavenging coefficients of radioactive particles entrained in fog are presented for the Point Lepreau area of the Bay of Fundy coast. It is recommended to calculate deposition based on fog deposition velocities. The deposition velocities can be calculated from common meteorological data. The range of deposition velocities is approximately 1 - 100 cm/s. Fog deposition is surface roughness dependent with forests having larger deposition and deposition velocities than soil or grasses. (author)

  4. Recolonisation of the Robberg Peninsula (Plettenberg Bay, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cape fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus colony at Robberg Peninsula, Plettenberg Bay, on the south-east coast of South Africa, was driven to extinction by indiscriminate harvesting by the late 1800s. Seals only began to recolonise this site in the 1990s. This study describes the recolonisation process from 2000 to ...

  5. Automação industrial e sistemas informatizados de gestão da produção em fundições de mercado Industrial automation and computerized production management systems in make-to-order foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Cesar F. Fernandes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundição é um processo de fabricação que vem crescendo em importância. O principal objetivo deste artigo é analisar, em termos de automação e sistemas informatizados de gestão da produção (SIGP, as fundições de mercado (fundições que produzem sob encomenda um grande número de pedidos vindos, em geral, de um grande número de clientes no interior do Estado de São Paulo pertencentes aos 5 principais pólos (Piracicaba, Indaiatuba, Limeira, São Carlos e Itu com 10 a 250 trabalhadores. Das 61 empresas do interior de São Paulo, 35 situam-se nesses 5 pólos (ou em suas imediações; entrevistamos pessoalmente os diretores industriais e visitamos o chão de fábrica de 30 fundições dentre essas 35. Analisamos quase 200 tabelas de freqüência e de contingência e extraímos várias conclusões, por exemplo: (i entre os três principais problemas e necessidades relativos à produção, dois deles estão diretamente relacionados com a automação industrial e com os SIGP; (ii são coincidentes os interesses em automação e SIGP.Foundry is a manufacturing process with a growing importance. The main objective of this paper is to analyze, in terms of automation and of computerized production management systems (CPMS, the make-to-order foundry in the interior of the state of São Paulo belonging to 5 main foundry industrial districts (Piracicaba, Indaiatuba, Limeira, São Carlos and Itu with 10 to 250 workers. From the 61 enterprises in the interior of São Paulo State, 35 are situated in these 5 industrial districts (or in their neighborhood; we interviewed personally the industrial executive officer and visited the shop-floor of 30 among this 35 foundries. We have analyzed almost 200 frequency and contingency tables and draw several conclusions, for example: (i among the three main problems and necessities related with production, two of them are directly related with automation and CPMS; (ii automation and CPMS generate coincident

  6. Temporal variations of Cu in Jiaozhou Bay 1982-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Zhu, Sixi; Wang, Zhikang; Su, Chunhua; Wang, Qiang

    2017-12-01

    This paper analyzed the temporal variations of Cu in Jiaozhou Bay during 1982-1986. Results showed that Cu contents in study years were 0.15-5.31 μg L-1, 0.77-20.60 μg L-1, 0.11-4.00 μg L-1, 0.10-0.43 μg L-1 and 0.18-0.77 μg L-1, respectively. The Cu pollution level in this bay was moderate during 1982-1983, yet for temporal variations Cu contents in surface waters were showing decreasing trend. Cu contents in spring, summer and autumn were 0.11-20.60 μg L-1, 0.10-4.86 μg L-1 and 0.11-3.56 μg L-1, respectively. This bay was moderate pollution in spring in 1982-1983, while in other seasons in study years was still slight. These indicated that the temporal variations of Cu pollution in this bay should be taken in to account in decision-making of pollution control practice.

  7. The critical role of islands for waterbird breeding and foraging habitat in managed ponds of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark P.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Yee, Julie L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project aims to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds into tidal marsh in South San Francisco Bay, California. However, large numbers of waterbirds use these ponds annually as nesting and foraging habitat. Islands within ponds are particularly important habitat for nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds. To maintain current waterbird populations, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project plans to create new islands within former salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay. In a series of studies, we investigated pond and individual island attributes that are most beneficial to nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds.

  8. Observations and a linear model of water level in an interconnected inlet-bay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretxabaleta, Alfredo; Ganju, Neil K.; Butman, Bradford; Signell, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A system of barrier islands and back-barrier bays occurs along southern Long Island, New York, and in many coastal areas worldwide. Characterizing the bay physical response to water level fluctuations is needed to understand flooding during extreme events and evaluate their relation to geomorphological changes. Offshore sea level is one of the main drivers of water level fluctuations in semienclosed back-barrier bays. We analyzed observed water levels (October 2007 to November 2015) and developed analytical models to better understand bay water level along southern Long Island. An increase (∼0.02 m change in 0.17 m amplitude) in the dominant M2 tidal amplitude (containing the largest fraction of the variability) was observed in Great South Bay during mid-2014. The observed changes in both tidal amplitude and bay water level transfer from offshore were related to the dredging of nearby inlets and possibly the changing size of a breach across Fire Island caused by Hurricane Sandy (after December 2012). The bay response was independent of the magnitude of the fluctuations (e.g., storms) at a specific frequency. An analytical model that incorporates bay and inlet dimensions reproduced the observed transfer function in Great South Bay and surrounding areas. The model predicts the transfer function in Moriches and Shinnecock bays where long-term observations were not available. The model is a simplified tool to investigate changes in bay water level and enables the evaluation of future conditions and alternative geomorphological settings.

  9. A reevaluation of the late quaternary sedimentation in todos os Santos Bay (BA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILHERME C. LESSA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Todos os Santos Bay is a large ( 1000 km², structurally controlled tidal bay in northeast Brazil. Three main drainage basins debouch into the bay, providing a mean freshwater discharge of 200 m³/s (prior to 1985, or less than 1% of the spring tidal discharge through the bay mouth. Based on the result of several sedimentological studies performed in the 1970's, five surface sedimentary facies were identified inside the bay, namely i transgressive siliciclastic marine sand facies; ii transgressive bay sand-mud facies; iii a transgressive carbonate marine sand facies; iv regressive bay-mud facies, and v regressive fluvial sand facies. The spatial distribution of these facies would follow, somewhat closely, the hydrodynamic-energy distribution inside the bay. Seismic profiles along the bay bottom indicate the existence of several paleochannels, 5-10 m deep, blanketed at least by three different sedimentary units. The topmost sedimentary unit, 5-20 m thick, appears to be associated with the regressive bay-mud facies, and assuming that it was laid down within the last 5000 years, sedimentation rates for the central and northeastern part of the bay would average at 2,4 mm/y.

  10. Seafloor geomorphology of western Antarctic Peninsula bays: a signature of ice flow behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Munoz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Glacial geomorphology is used in Antarctica to reconstruct ice advance during the Last Glacial Maximum and subsequent retreat across the continental shelf. Analogous geomorphic assemblages are found in glaciated fjords and are used to interpret the glacial history and glacial dynamics in those areas. In addition, understanding the distribution of submarine landforms in bays and the local controls exerted on ice flow can help improve numerical models by providing constraints through these drainage areas. We present multibeam swath bathymetry from several bays in the South Shetland Islands and the western Antarctic Peninsula. The submarine landforms are described and interpreted in detail. A schematic model was developed showing the features found in the bays: from glacial lineations and moraines in the inner bay to grounding zone wedges and drumlinoid features in the middle bay and streamlined features and meltwater channels in the outer bay areas. In addition, we analysed local variables in the bays and observed the following: (1 the number of landforms found in the bays scales to the size of the bay, but the geometry of the bays dictates the types of features that form; specifically, we observe a correlation between the bay width and the number of transverse features present in the bays. (2 The smaller seafloor features are present only in the smaller glacial systems, indicating that short-lived atmospheric and oceanographic fluctuations, responsible for the formation of these landforms, are only recorded in these smaller systems. (3 Meltwater channels are abundant on the seafloor, but some are subglacial, carved in bedrock, and some are modern erosional features, carved on soft sediment. Lastly, based on geomorphological evidence, we propose the features found in some of the proximal bay areas were formed during a recent glacial advance, likely the Little Ice Age.

  11. Seafloor geomorphology of western Antarctic Peninsula bays: a signature of ice flow behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Yuribia P.; Wellner, Julia S.

    2018-01-01

    Glacial geomorphology is used in Antarctica to reconstruct ice advance during the Last Glacial Maximum and subsequent retreat across the continental shelf. Analogous geomorphic assemblages are found in glaciated fjords and are used to interpret the glacial history and glacial dynamics in those areas. In addition, understanding the distribution of submarine landforms in bays and the local controls exerted on ice flow can help improve numerical models by providing constraints through these drainage areas. We present multibeam swath bathymetry from several bays in the South Shetland Islands and the western Antarctic Peninsula. The submarine landforms are described and interpreted in detail. A schematic model was developed showing the features found in the bays: from glacial lineations and moraines in the inner bay to grounding zone wedges and drumlinoid features in the middle bay and streamlined features and meltwater channels in the outer bay areas. In addition, we analysed local variables in the bays and observed the following: (1) the number of landforms found in the bays scales to the size of the bay, but the geometry of the bays dictates the types of features that form; specifically, we observe a correlation between the bay width and the number of transverse features present in the bays. (2) The smaller seafloor features are present only in the smaller glacial systems, indicating that short-lived atmospheric and oceanographic fluctuations, responsible for the formation of these landforms, are only recorded in these smaller systems. (3) Meltwater channels are abundant on the seafloor, but some are subglacial, carved in bedrock, and some are modern erosional features, carved on soft sediment. Lastly, based on geomorphological evidence, we propose the features found in some of the proximal bay areas were formed during a recent glacial advance, likely the Little Ice Age.

  12. Summary of Test Results for Daya Bay Rock Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Celia Tiemi; Dobson, Patrick; Nakagawa, Seiji

    2004-01-01

    A series of analytical tests was conducted on a suite of granitic rock samples from the Daya Bay region of southeast China. The objective of these analyses was to determine key rock properties that would affect the suitability of this location for the siting of a neutrino oscillation experiment. This report contains the results of chemical analyses, rock property measurements, and a calculation of the mean atomic weight

  13. Ecological risk assessment of TBT in Ise Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Joji; Yonezawa, Yoshitaka; Nakata, Kisaburo; Horiguchi, Fumio

    2009-02-01

    An ecological risk assessment of tributyltin (TBT) in Ise Bay was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) method. The assessment endpoint was defined to protect the survival, growth and reproduction of marine organisms. Sources of TBT in this study were assumed to be commercial vessels in harbors and navigation routes. Concentrations of TBT in Ise Bay were estimated using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, an ecosystem model and a chemical fate model. Estimated MOEs for marine organisms for 1990 and 2008 were approximately 0.1-2.0 and over 100 respectively, indicating a declining temporal trend in the probability of adverse effects. The chemical fate model predicts a much longer persistence of TBT in sediments than in the water column. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the harmful effects of TBT on benthic organisms.

  14. MANAGEMENT OF LOBSTER FISHERY WITH EAFM APPROACH IN PALABUHANRATU BAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Hesty Rombe

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in the Palabuhanratu Bay-Sukabumi in March 2016. The purpose of this study is to diagnose the Palabuhanratu Lobster Fishery using factors of Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management (EAFM. Water sampling was conducted at two lobster fishing ground. Measuring and weighing morphology lobster were conducted in collectors’s house. The results of this study showed that Palabuhanratu bay water quality was still within tolerable limits for live lobster. Panulirus homarus  is the most widely lobster caught below the size of a decent catch, reaching 2528.9 Kg. CPUE of lobster was declining which indicates a decline in the stock of lobster. The income of fishermen were still very far from the average wage and stakeholder participation was still lacking in the management of the lobster fishery. Keywords: EAFM factors, lobster, palabuhanratu

  15. Mapping of reed in shallow bays. SFR-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemgren, Maarten; Lindgren, Fredrik (Umeaa Univ. (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    The regolith-lake development model (RLDM) describes the development of shallow bays to lakes and the infilling of lakes in the Forsmark area during an interglacial. The sensitivity analysis has shown the need for an update of the infill procedure in the RLDM. Data from the mapping of reed in shallow bays in the Forsmark area will be used to improve the infill procedure of an updated RLDM. The field work was performed in August 26-31, 2010. The mapping of reed was done in 124 points. In these points, coordinates and water depth were mapped using an echo sounder and a DGPS. Quaternary deposits and the thickness of soft sediments were mapped using an earth probe. Measurement points were delivered in ESRI shape format with coordinates in RT90 2.5 gon W and altitudes in the RHB70 system for storage in SKB's GIS data base

  16. Food habits of mute swans in the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Osenton, P.C.; Lohnes, E.J.R.; Perry, Matthew C.

    2004-01-01

    Unlike the tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) that migrate to the Bay for the winter, the mute swan (Cygnus olor) is a year long resident and therefore has raised concerns among research managers over reports of conflicts with nesting native water birds and the consumption of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Although data on the reduction of SAV by nesting mute swans and their offspring during the spring and summer are limited, food-habits data show that mute swans rely heavily on SAV during these months. Analyses of the gullet and gizzard of mute swans indicate that widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) and eelgrass (Zostera marina) were the most important food items to mute swans during the winter and spring. Other organisms were eaten by mute swans, but represent small percentages of food. Corn (Zea mays) fed to the swans by Bay residents in late winter probably supplements their limited vegetative food resources at that time of year.

  17. Occurance and survival of Vibrio alginolyticus in Tamouda Bay (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, M; Cohen, N; Boukhanjer, A; Ennaji, M M

    2011-10-15

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the spatial and seasonal fluctuations of Vibrio alginolyticus in marine environment of the Tamouda Bay on the Mediterranean coast of Morocco and to determine the dominant factors of the environment that govern these fluctuations. The samples (sea water, plankton, shellfish and sediment) were collected fortnightly for two years from three study sites on the coast Tamouda Bay in northern Morocco. The charge of Vibrio alginolyticus is determined by MPN method. The physicochemical parameters including temperature of sea water, pH, salinity, turbidity and chlorophyll a concentration were determined. Analysis of variance of specific variables and several principal component analyses showed that the temperature of seawater is the major determinant of seasonal distribution of Vibrio alginolyticus. The results showed a positive linear correlation between Vibrio alginolyticus and the water temperature, pH, turbidity and chlorophyll a. Similarly, there are seasonal variations and spatial of Vibrio alginolyticus in marine environment of the Tamouda bay and the highest concentrations were recorded in both years of study during the warm season whereas it was minimal during the cold season. Linear positive correlation was recorded between Vibrio alginolyticus populations in all ecological types of samples studied.

  18. A fast EM algorithm for BayesA-like prediction of genomic breeding values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Sun

    Full Text Available Prediction accuracies of estimated breeding values for economically important traits are expected to benefit from genomic information. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP panels used in genomic prediction are increasing in density, but the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC estimation of SNP effects can be quite time consuming or slow to converge when a large number of SNPs are fitted simultaneously in a linear mixed model. Here we present an EM algorithm (termed "fastBayesA" without MCMC. This fastBayesA approach treats the variances of SNP effects as missing data and uses a joint posterior mode of effects compared to the commonly used BayesA which bases predictions on posterior means of effects. In each EM iteration, SNP effects are predicted as a linear combination of best linear unbiased predictions of breeding values from a mixed linear animal model that incorporates a weighted marker-based realized relationship matrix. Method fastBayesA converges after a few iterations to a joint posterior mode of SNP effects under the BayesA model. When applied to simulated quantitative traits with a range of genetic architectures, fastBayesA is shown to predict GEBV as accurately as BayesA but with less computing effort per SNP than BayesA. Method fastBayesA can be used as a computationally efficient substitute for BayesA, especially when an increasing number of markers bring unreasonable computational burden or slow convergence to MCMC approaches.

  19. Vanadium levels in marine organisms of Onagawa Bay in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Suzuki, H.; Saito, K.; Chatt, A.

    2009-01-01

    Vanadium in marine organisms from Onagawa Bay in Miyagi, Japan, was determined by an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method using anticoincidence gamma-ray spectrometry at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) facility in Canada. Seaweeds, cultivated oysters, plankton, and four different species of sea squirt were collected from Onagawa Bay during 2005-2008. Vanadium levels around 20 μg g -1 (dry weight) were found in Japanese tangle and hijiki seaweeds. One species of sea squirt (Ciona savignyi) contained 160-500 ppm of V and it was highest among the four species of sea squirts studied. Protein-bound V species were separated by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and the element determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). (author)

  20. Atmospheric deposition of organochlorine contaminants to Galveston Bay, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June-Soo; Wade, Terry L.; Sweet, Stephen

    Atmospheric monitoring of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides (e.g., HCHs, chlordanes, and DDTs) in Galveston Bay was conducted at Seabrook, Texas. Air and wet deposition samples were collected from 2 February 1995 and continued through 6 August 1996. Vapor total PCB ( tPCB) concentrations in air ranged from 0.21 to 4.78 ng m -3 with a dominance of tri-chlorinated PCBs. Dissolved tPCBs in rain ranged from 0.08 to 3.34 ng l -1, with tetra-chlorinated PCBs predominating. The predominant isomers found in air and rain were α- and γ-HCH, α- and γ-chlordanes, 4,4'-DDT, and dieldrin. The concentrations of PCBs and pesticides in the air and rain revealed no clear seasonal trend. Elevated levels of PCBs in the air occurred when temperatures were high and wind came from urban and industrialized areas (S, SW, NW, and W of the site). Concentrations of HCHs were elevated in April, May, and October, perhaps due to local and/or regional applications of γ-HCH (lindane). Other pesticides showed no notable temporal variation. When winds originated from the Gulf of Mexico (southeasterly), lower concentrations of organochlorines were detected in the air. The direct deposition rate (wet+dry) of PCBs to Galveston Bay (6.40 μg m -2 yr -1) was significantly higher than that of pesticides by a factor of 5-10. The net flux from gas exchange estimated for PCBs was from Galveston Bay water to the atmosphere (78 μg m -2 yr -1). Gas exchange of PCBs from bay water to the atmosphere was the dominant flux.

  1. Sedimentation rate in Trombay bay, west coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkar, M.D.; Pillai, K.C.

    1991-01-01

    The sedimentation rate plays a significant role in the distribution of pollutants discharged into the water bodies. Of the several methods available for determining the sedimentation rate in the shallow water environment, the one based on exponential profile of excess 210 Pb in undisturbed sediment core, has been widely used. Based on this, the sedimentation rate in the Trombay bay ranges between 3 and 4 mm.y -1 . (author). 13 refs

  2. Waves off Gopalpur, northern Bay of Bengal during cyclone Phailin.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amrutha, M.M.; SanilKumar, V.; Anoop, T.R.; Nair, T.M.B.; Nherakkol, A.; Jeyakumar, C.

    , 1073–1083, 2014 www.ann-geophys.net/32/1073/2014/ doi:10.5194/angeo-32-1073-2014 © Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Waves off Gopalpur, northern Bay of Bengal during Cyclone Phailin M. M. Amrutha1, V. Sanil Kumar1, T. R. Anoop1, T. M..., 1073–1083, 2014 www.ann-geophys.net/32/1073/2014/ M. M. Amrutha et al.: Waves off Gopalpur, northern Bay of Bengal during Cyclone Phailin 1075 Figure 1. Track of the Cyclone Phailin from 8 October 2013 03:00 UTC to 13 October 2013 06:00 UTC. S(f )= αg 2...

  3. Variation of phytoplankton biomass and primary production in Daya Bay during spring and summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xingyu; Huang Liangmin; Zhang Jianlin; Huang, Xiaoping; Zhang Junbin; Yin Jianqiang; Tan Yehui; Liu Sheng

    2004-01-01

    Environmental factors, phytoplankton biomass (Chl a) and primary production of two water areas in Daya Bay (Dapeng'ao Bay and Aotou Bay) were investigated during the transition period from spring to summer. Chl a ranged from 3.20 to 13.62 and 13.43 to 26.49 mg m -3 in Dapeng'ao Bay and Aotou Bay respectively, if data obtained during red tides are excluded. Primary production varied between 239.7 and 1001.4 mgC m -2 d -1 in Dapeng'ao Bay. The regional distribution of Chl a and primary production were mostly consistent from spring to summer in both bays. Seasonal transition characters have been found in Daya Bay from spring to summer, including high values of DO, nitrate and silicate. Size structures of phytoplankton and its primary production do not change very much from spring to summer, with micro-phytoplankton dominating and contributing about 50% of the whole. In Daya Bay, phytoplankton is limited by nitrogen in spring, and by phosphate in summer. Artificial impacts are evident from high temperature effluent from nuclear power stations, aquaculture and sewage. During the investigation, a red tide occurred in Aotou Bay, with a maximum Chl a of 103.23 mg m -3 at surface and primary production of 2721.9 mgC m -2 d -1 in the red tide center. Raised water temperature and nutrient supply from land-sources help to stimulate annual red tides

  4. Inhomogeneity of optical turbulence over False Bay (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullwer, Carmen; Sprung, Detlev; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Gunter, Willi; Stein, Karin

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric turbulence impacts on the propagation of electro-optical radiation. Typical manifestations of optical turbulence are scintillation (intensity fluctuations), beam wander and (for laser systems) reduction of beam quality. For longer propagation channels, it is important to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution (inhomogeneity) of the optical turbulence. In the framework of the First European South African Transmission ExpeRiment (FESTER) optical turbulence was measured between June 2015 and February 2016 on a 2 km over-water link over False Bay. The link ran from the Institute of Maritime Technology (IMT) in Simons Town to the lighthouse at Roman Rock Island. Three Boundary layer scintillometers (BLS900) allowed assessing the vertical distribution of optical turbulence at three different heights between 5 and 12 m above the water surface. The expected decrease of Cn2 with height is not always found. These results are analyzed in terms of the meteorological scenarios, and a comparison is made with a fourth optical link providing optical turbulence data over a 8.7 km path from IMT to Kalk Bay, roughly 36° to the north of the three 2 km paths. The results are related to the inhomogeneous meteorological conditions over the Bay as assessed with the numerical weather prediction tool, the Weather Forecast and Research model WRF.

  5. Resilience of coastal wetlands to extreme hydrologicevents in Apalachicola Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, S. C.; Singh, A.; Tahsin, S.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme hydrologic events such as hurricanes and droughts continuously threaten wetlands which provide key ecosystem services in coastal areas. The recovery time for vegetation after impact fromthese extreme events can be highly variable depending on the hazard type and intensity. Apalachicola Bay in Florida is home to a rich variety of saltwater and freshwater wetlands and is subject to a wide rangeof hydrologic hazards. Using spatiotemporal changes in Landsat-based empirical vegetation indices, we investigate the impact of hurricane and drought on both freshwater and saltwater wetlands from year 2000to 2015 in Apalachicola Bay. Our results indicate that saltwater wetlands are more resilient than freshwater wetlands and suggest that in response to hurricanes, the coastal wetlands took almost a year to recover,while recovery following a drought period was observed after only a month.

  6. Biomass and Carbon Stocks of Sofala Bay Mangrove Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida A. Sitoe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves could be key ecosystems in strategies addressing the mitigation of climate changes through carbon storage. However, little is known regarding the carbon stocks of these ecosystems, particularly below-ground. This study was carried out in the mangrove forests of Sofala Bay, Central Mozambique, with the aim of quantifying carbon stocks of live and dead plant and soil components. The methods followed the procedures developed by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR for mangrove forests. In this study, we developed a general allometric equation to estimate individual tree biomass and soil carbon content (up to 100 cm depth. We estimated the carbon in the whole mangrove ecosystem of Sofala Bay, including dead trees, wood debris, herbaceous, pneumatophores, litter and soil. The general allometric equation for live trees derived was [Above-ground tree dry weight (kg = 3.254 × exp(0.065 × DBH], root mean square error (RMSE = 4.244, and coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.89. The average total carbon storage of Sofala Bay mangrove was 218.5 Mg·ha−1, of which around 73% are stored in the soil. Mangrove conservation has the potential for REDD+ programs, especially in regions like Mozambique, which contains extensive mangrove areas with high deforestation and degradation rates.

  7. Bayes-LQAS: classifying the prevalence of global acute malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagano Marcello

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS applications in health have generally relied on frequentist interpretations for statistical validity. Yet health professionals often seek statements about the probability distribution of unknown parameters to answer questions of interest. The frequentist paradigm does not pretend to yield such information, although a Bayesian formulation might. This is the source of an error made in a recent paper published in this journal. Many applications lend themselves to a Bayesian treatment, and would benefit from such considerations in their design. We discuss Bayes-LQAS (B-LQAS, which allows for incorporation of prior information into the LQAS classification procedure, and thus shows how to correct the aforementioned error. Further, we pay special attention to the formulation of Bayes Operating Characteristic Curves and the use of prior information to improve survey designs. As a motivating example, we discuss the classification of Global Acute Malnutrition prevalence and draw parallels between the Bayes and classical classifications schemes. We also illustrate the impact of informative and non-informative priors on the survey design. Results indicate that using a Bayesian approach allows the incorporation of expert information and/or historical data and is thus potentially a valuable tool for making accurate and precise classifications.

  8. Bayes-LQAS: classifying the prevalence of global acute malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olives, Casey; Pagano, Marcello

    2010-06-09

    Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) applications in health have generally relied on frequentist interpretations for statistical validity. Yet health professionals often seek statements about the probability distribution of unknown parameters to answer questions of interest. The frequentist paradigm does not pretend to yield such information, although a Bayesian formulation might. This is the source of an error made in a recent paper published in this journal. Many applications lend themselves to a Bayesian treatment, and would benefit from such considerations in their design. We discuss Bayes-LQAS (B-LQAS), which allows for incorporation of prior information into the LQAS classification procedure, and thus shows how to correct the aforementioned error. Further, we pay special attention to the formulation of Bayes Operating Characteristic Curves and the use of prior information to improve survey designs. As a motivating example, we discuss the classification of Global Acute Malnutrition prevalence and draw parallels between the Bayes and classical classifications schemes. We also illustrate the impact of informative and non-informative priors on the survey design. Results indicate that using a Bayesian approach allows the incorporation of expert information and/or historical data and is thus potentially a valuable tool for making accurate and precise classifications.

  9. Ecosystem history of South Florida; Biscayne Bay sediment core descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    The 'Ecosystem History of Biscayne Bay and the southeast Coast' project of the U.S. Geological Survey is part of a multi-disciplinary effort that includes Florida Bay and the Everglades to provide paleoecologic reconstructions for the south Florida region. Reconstructions of past salinity, nutrients, substrate, and water quality are needed to determine ecosystem variability due to both natural and human-induced causes. Our understanding of the relations between the south Florida ecosystem and introduced forces will allow managers to make informed decisions regarding the south Florida ecosystem restoration and monitoring. The record of past ecosystem conditions can be found in shallow sediment cores. This U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report describes six shallow sediment cores collected from Biscayne Bay. The cores described herein are being processed for a variety of analytical procedures, and this provides the descriptive framework for future analyses of the included cores. This report is preliminary and has not been reviewed for conformity with U.S. Geological Survey editorial standards or with the North American Stratigraphic Code. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

  10. Stereo photo series for quantifying natural fuels.Volume XIII: grasslands, shrublands, oak-bay woodlands, and eucalyptus forests in the East Bay of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton S. Wright; Robert E. Vihnanek

    2014-01-01

    Four series of photographs display a range of natural conditions and fuel loadings for grassland, shrubland, oak-bay woodland, and eucalyptus forest ecosystems on the eastern slopes of the San Francisco Bay area of California. Each group of photos includes inventory information summarizing vegetation composition, structure, and loading; woody material loading and...

  11. Microbial diversity in restored wetlands of San Francisco Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theroux, Susanna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Hartman, Wyatt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; He, Shaomei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tringe, Susannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2013-12-09

    Wetland ecosystems may serve as either a source or a sink for atmospheric carbon and greenhouse gases. This delicate carbon balance is influenced by the activity of belowground microbial communities that return carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere. Wetland restoration efforts in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region may help to reverse land subsidence and possibly increase carbon storage in soils. However, the effects of wetland restoration on microbial communities, which mediate soil metabolic activity and carbon cycling, are poorly studied. In an effort to better understand the underlying factors which shape the balance of carbon flux in wetland soils, we targeted the microbial communities in a suite of restored and historic wetlands in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with greenhouse gas monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of the wetland soil microbial communities along biogeochemical and wetland age gradients. Our results show relationships among geochemical gradients, availability of electron acceptors, and microbial community composition. Our study provides the first genomic glimpse into microbial populations in natural and restored wetlands of the San Francisco Bay-Delta region and provides a valuable benchmark for future studies.

  12. Assessment of sediment contamination in Casco Bay, Maine, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, Terry L. [Geochemical and Environmental Research Group, Texas A and M University, 833 Graham Road, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Sweet, Stephen T. [Geochemical and Environmental Research Group, Texas A and M University, 833 Graham Road, College Station, TX 77845 (United States)], E-mail: sweet@gerg.tamu.edu; Klein, Andrew G. [Geography Department, Texas A and M University, 814B Eller O and M Building, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    The current status of contaminant concentrations in Casco Bay, decadal trends of these contaminants and changes in their geographical distribution are assessed using sediment samples collected approximately 10 years apart. In general, regulated contaminants appeared to be decreasing in concentration. Total PAH and dioxins/furans concentrations did not significantly change over this period. Total organochlorine pesticides, 4,4-DDE, 4,4-DDD, total DDT, PCB, tributyltin and total butyltin decreased in concentration. Trace element concentrations in sediments decreased at the majority of the sampling sites for chromium, nickel, and selenium while arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc remained relatively constant. None of the contaminants measured has increased by more than a factor of 2. Selected sites located in the Inner Bay, where concentrations are higher and new inputs were more likely, showed increased concentrations of contaminants. Most contaminants were not found at concentrations expected to adversely affect sediment biota based on ERL/ERM guidelines. - Sediment studies indicate decadal decreases for many chemical contaminants in Casco Bay.

  13. Assessment of sediment contamination in Casco Bay, Maine, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, Terry L.; Sweet, Stephen T.; Klein, Andrew G.

    2008-01-01

    The current status of contaminant concentrations in Casco Bay, decadal trends of these contaminants and changes in their geographical distribution are assessed using sediment samples collected approximately 10 years apart. In general, regulated contaminants appeared to be decreasing in concentration. Total PAH and dioxins/furans concentrations did not significantly change over this period. Total organochlorine pesticides, 4,4-DDE, 4,4-DDD, total DDT, PCB, tributyltin and total butyltin decreased in concentration. Trace element concentrations in sediments decreased at the majority of the sampling sites for chromium, nickel, and selenium while arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc remained relatively constant. None of the contaminants measured has increased by more than a factor of 2. Selected sites located in the Inner Bay, where concentrations are higher and new inputs were more likely, showed increased concentrations of contaminants. Most contaminants were not found at concentrations expected to adversely affect sediment biota based on ERL/ERM guidelines. - Sediment studies indicate decadal decreases for many chemical contaminants in Casco Bay

  14. Apparent characteristics and taxonomic study of macroalgae in Pattani Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naruemol Pianthumdee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available 2A survey on macroalgae in Pattani Bay was carried out to build up a database resource for the management of algae in the area. From February 2004 to March 2005, samples of macroalgae from 10 sites were randomly collected monthly. Macroalgae were found at 4 sites in the north of the bay, namely Laem Tachi, Lighthouse, Ban Bu Di and Ban Ta Lo Samilae; 3 sites in the east, namely Ban Da To, the Yaring River Mouth and Ban Bang Pu and only one site in the south at Ban Tanyong Lu Lo. Twelve species of 3 divisions of macroalgae were detected. They were Division Cyanophyta, Lyngbya majuscula (Dillwyn Harvey ex Gomont; Division Chlorophyta; Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus, U. pertusa Kjellman and U. reticulata Forsskal, Rhizoclonium riparium (Roth Harvey, R. tortuosum Kutzing, Chaetomorpha crassa (C. Agardh Kutzing and Cladophora sp.; and Division Rhodophyta, namely Gracilaria tenuistipitata Chang et Xia, G. fisheri (Xia et Abbott Abbott, Zhang et Xia, Hypnea spinella (C. Agardh Kutzing and Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl B∅rgesen. Among them, four species were new recordings at Pattani Bay: Lyngbya majuscula, Rhizoclonium riparium, R. tortuosum and Acanthophora spicifera. Most of these seaweeds were found at the east sites in the dry season from February to September 2004 and from January to March 2005. Only a few species could be found in the wet season from November to December 2004.

  15. Ecophysiology of a Mangrove Forest in Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARIEL E. LUGO; ERNESTO MEDINA; ELVIRA CUEVAs; CINTR& #211; GILBERTO N; EDDIE N. LABOY NIEVES; SCH& #196; YARA EFFER NOVELLI

    2007-01-01

    We studied gas exchange, leaf dimensions, litter production, leaf and litterfall chemistry, nutrient flux to the forest floor, retranslocation rates, and nutrient use efficiency of mangroves in Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico. The fringe forest had a salinity gradient from the ocean (35‰) to a salt flat (100‰) and a basin (about 80‰). Red (Rhizophora mangle), white (...

  16. Unusual Bloom of Tetraselmis sp. in the Valparaiso Bay, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    de Valparaíso, Centro de Investigación y Gestión de los Recursos Naturales , Facultad de Ciencias , Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaíso, Chile. 2University...RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 31-05-2013 Journal Article Unusual Bloom of Tetraselmis sp. in the Valparasiso Bay...Invited speaker Classification X U c (X I Journal article (refereed) ( I Oral Presentation, published Journal article (not refereed) Oral Presentation

  17. Mex Bay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-02-23

    Feb 23, 2015 ... surveys to assess the vulnerability of the most important physical and eutrophication parameters along. El- Mex Bay coast. As a result of increasing population and industrial development, poorly untreated industrial waste, domestic sewage, shipping industry and agricultural runoff are being released to the.

  18. The dynamics of İzmir Bay under the effects of wind and thermohaline forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayın, Erdem; Eronat, Canan

    2018-04-01

    The dominant circulation pattern of İzmir Bay on the Aegean Sea coast of Turkey is studied taking into consideration the influence of wind and thermohaline forces. İzmir Bay is discussed by subdividing the bay into outer, middle and inner areas. Wind is the most important driving force in the İzmir coastal area. There are also thermohaline forces due to the existence of water types of different physical properties in the bay. In contrast to the two-layer stratification during summer, a homogeneous water column exists in winter. The free surface version of the Princeton model (Killworth's 3-D general circulation model) is applied, with the input data obtained through the measurements made by the research vessel K. Piri Reis. As a result of the simulations with artificial wind, the strong consistent wind generates circulation patterns independent of the seasonal stratification in the bay. Wind-driven circulation causes cyclonic or anticyclonic movements in the middle bay where the distinct İzmir Bay Water (IBW) forms. Cyclonic movement takes place under the influence of southerly and westerly winds. On the other hand, northerly and easterly winds cause an anticyclonic movement in the middle bay. The outer and inner bay also have the wind-driven recirculation patterns expected.

  19. The tectonic origin of the Bay of Bengal and Bangladesh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Talwani, M.; Desa, M.; Ismaiel, M.; Krishna, K.S.

    direction for the Indian plate.  4. The 85°E Ridge was initially evolved as a fracture zone, and subsequently associated with volcanism.   5. The oceanic crust of the Western Basin of the Bay of Bengal is older than the crust of the Eastern Basin and Bangla... it a northern extension of the 86°E fracture zone, while Sar et al. [2009] suggested it could have a continental origin. Gibbons et al. [2013] inferred that the 85°E Ridge and the Kerguelen Fracture Zone formed as conjugate flanks of a 'leaky...

  20. Status of macrobenthic community of Manifa-Tanajib Bay System of Saudi Arabia based on a once-off sampling event

    KAUST Repository

    Joydas, Thadickal Viswanathan; Krishnakumar, P. K.; Qurban, Mohammad Ali; Ali, Said M.; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Al-Abdulkader, Khaled

    2011-01-01

    Shallow water bays located in the western Arabian Gulf experience harsh environmental conditions. Some of these bays, including Manifa-Tanajib Bay System (MTBS), were also exposed to the 1991 oil pollution event. This study investigates the status

  1. Dynamical significance of tides over the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagawati, Chirantan; Pandey, Suchita; Dandapat, Sumit; Chakraborty, Arun

    2018-06-01

    Tides play a significant role in the ocean surface circulations and vertical mixing thereby influencing the Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) as well. This, in turn, plays an important role in the global circulation when used as a lower boundary condition in a global atmospheric general circulation model. Therefore in the present study, the dynamics of tides over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) is investigated through numerical simulations using a high resolution (1/12°) Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). Based on statistical analysis it is observed that incorporation of explicit tidal forcing improves the model performance in simulating the basin averaged monthly surface circulation features by 64% compared to the simulation without tides. The model simulates also Mixed Layer Depth (MLD) and SST realistically. The energy exchange between tidal oscillations and eddies leads to redistribution of surface kinetic energy density with a net decrease of 0.012 J m-3 in the western Bay and a net increase of 0.007 J m-3 in the eastern Bay. The tidal forcing also affects the potential energy anomaly and vertical mixing thereby leading to a fall in monthly MLD over the BoB. The mixing due to tides leads to a subsequent reduction in monthly SST and a corresponding reduction in surface heat exchange. These results from the numerical simulation using ROMS reveal that tides have a significant influence over the air-sea heat exchange which is the most important parameter for prediction of Tropical Cyclone frequency and its future variability over the BoB.

  2. Investigation of the biota of Burgas Bay, Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Klisarova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Burgas Bay is the largest one on the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Industrial plants along the coast as well as ports for liquid and solid cargoes create conditions of anthropogenic pressure on hydrobionts in that area. Macrozoobenthos and phytoplankton samples were collected under a specific scheme in connection with the construction of the Burgas-Alexandroupolis oil pipeline, at stations located around the designated places for unloading tankers. During the study period (2009 – 2010, 88 phytoplankton species distributed in 13 classes were identified and over 50 species of benthic species distributed in four main groups: Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea and the mixed group Diversa

  3. Avaliação do reaproveitamento de areia de fundição como agregado em misturas asfálticas densas

    OpenAIRE

    Benedito Coutinho Neto

    2004-01-01

    A areia de fundição é um resíduo sólido industrial oriundo da etapa de desmoldagem de peças metálicas no processo de produção de fundidos. Esse resíduo, dependendo do processo de fundição utilizado (moldagem a verde, moldagem em casca, moldagem com resina sintética e outros) e do material moldado, pode conter elementos e/ou compostos químicos que podem causar impacto ambiental. As substâncias que podem estar presentes na areia de fundição são provenientes, em parte, do tipo de metal moldado e...

  4. An investigation of recent storm histories using Ground Penetrating Radar at Bay-Bay Spit, Bicol, Central Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Adam D.; Pile, Jeremy; Soria, Janneli Lea A.; Siringan, Fernando; Daag, Arturo; Brill, Dominik

    2016-04-01

    The Philippine archipelago lies in the path of seasonal tropical cyclones, and much of the coast is prone to periodic inundation and overwash during storm surges. On example is typhoon Durian a category 3 storm that made landfall on the 30th November 2006, in Bicol province, on the east central Philippine coast. Satellite imagery from May 2007 reveal that Durian breached a sandy spit that runs southeast from the mouth of the Quinale River at Bay-Bay village towards Tabaco City. The imagery also showed that, although the breach site showed signs of partial recovery, geomorphological evidence of the inundation event associated with typhoon Durian still remains. In 2012 we mapped the geomorphological features of Durian. In June 2013 we returned to conduct Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys on the Bay-Bay spit to investigate potential subsurface evidence of previous storm events. The GPR surveys comprised five, 1.5 km, longshore profiles and 12 cross-shore profiles, of 50 m - 200 m in length. The GPR system used for this study was a Sensors and Software Noggin with 100 Mhz antennas. Near surface velocities were determine using Hyperbolae matching in order to estimate depth. Topographic and positional data were collected using a dGPS system. After minimal processing depth of penetration during the survey varied from 2 - 8 m. The cross-shore GPR profiles reveal at least two erosional events prior to 2006 typhoon Durian, with approximately 10 m of recovery and progradation between each erosion surface. The GPR profiles that captured the erosional features were revisited in September 2013 for trial pitting, stratigraphic description, and sediment sampling. Sediment cores were taken horizontally from the trench walls and vertically from the trench bases to date sediments using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL), which eventually could constrain the timing of the erosional surfaces.

  5. Hypoxia in Korean Coastal Waters: A Case Study of the Natural Jinhae Bay and Artificial Shihwa Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoung Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Several coastal regions in Korea have suffered from hypoxia since the 1970s. We present the first review of Korean coastal hypoxia, focusing on its spatiotemporal variation, controlling factors, and effects on marine ecosystems. The review considers the two hotspots of the natural Jinhae Bay (JB and artificial Shihwa Bay (SB, which are referred to as “Korean dead zones.” The hypoxia in the JB is attributed to eutrophication due to domestic and land-used waste input and thermal stratification based on the naturally sluggish water circulation, whereas the hypoxia in the SB is due to eutrophication resulting from domestic, land-used, and industrial waste input and haline stratification as a consequence of the artificially created water stagnation. The bottom-water hypoxia and stratification has led to an imbalance in nitrogen:phosphorus ratio between surface and bottom waters. Hypoxia has also created undesirable benthic community changes in the both bays: (1 mass mortality of large species and recolonization with elevated abundances of opportunists in JB, and (2 decrease of the number of species, abundance, and diversity of benthic communities in SB. Therefore, it behooves us to pay attention to these environmental changes. This review will be helpful in determining the direction of future studies of Korean coastal hypoxia.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey Science—Improving the value of the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Scott W.; Hyer, Kenneth; Goldbaum, Elizabeth

    2017-05-05

    IntroductionCongress directed the Federal Government to work with States to restore the Nation’s largest estuary.Chesapeake Bay restoration provides important economic and ecological benefits:18 million people live and work in the Bay watershed and enjoy its benefits.3,600 types of fish, wildlife, and plants underpin the economic value of the Bay ecosystem.Poor water quality and habitat loss threaten restoration and negatively impact the economy.10 Goals to meet by 2025 through the Chesapeake Bay Program, a voluntary partnership.

  7. DISTRIBUTIONAND DIVERSITY OF MACRO ALGAE COMMUNITIES IN THE AMBON BAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Litaay

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Water conditions affected by natural and anthropogenic parameters such as sedimentation and solid waste disposal can influence the growth and distribution of macro algae. Sustainable management efforts can reduce damage on the Gulf coast of Ambon due to human activities and land clearing. This study was conducted in October 2008 using the transect method with 3 replicates in five locations i.e., Tantui, Air Salobar, Hative Besar, Halong, and Lateri. The interior and exterior waters of Ambon Bay contained different habitat conditions due to  sedimentation processes. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution and diversity of macro algae communities in the Ambon Bay. The results found 21 species of macro- algae consisting of 10 species of Rhodhophyceae, 6 species of Chlorophyceae, and 5 species of Phaeophyceae. The highest density value of seaweed in Tantui was 389.0 g/m² of Chlorophyceae of Halimeda genus. In Air Salobar and Halong, the highest density value was Rhodophyceae of Gracilaria genus of 172.0 g/m² and 155.0 g/m², respectively. For the other genus in the Tantui and Lateri regions were dominated by Ulva at 92.10 gr/m2 and Padina of 20.0 gr/m2, respectively. The highest dominance of macro algae in the Hative Besar was found Chlorophyceae of Halimeda genus of 2.93 %, in the Air Salobar of Phaeophyceae of Turbinaria genus of 1.43 %. The difference values in density and the dominance of macro algae indicated an influence of habitat and environment due to seasons, sediment, and solid waste disposal to the diversity of macro algae. Keywords: Diversity, macro algae, Ambon Bay.

  8. Restoration of Lost Lake, recovery of an impacted Carolina Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wike, L.D.; Gladden, J.B.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Rogers, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Lost Lake is one of approximately 200 Carolina bays found on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Until 1984 Lost Lake was contaminated by heavy metals and solvents overflowing from a nearby settling basin. Up to 12 inches of surface soil and all vegetation was removed from the bay as part of a RCRA removal action. A plan for restoration was initiated in 1989 and implemented in 1990 and 1991. Extensive planning led to defined objectives, strategies, treatments, and monitoring programs allowing successful restoration of Lost Lake. The primary goal of the project was to restore the wetland ecosystem after a hazardous waste clean up operation. An additional goal was to study the progress of the project and the success of the restoration activity. Several strategy considerations were necessary in the restoration plan. The removal of existing organic soils had to have compensation, a treatment scheme for planting and the extent of manipulation of the substrate had to be considered, monitoring decisions had to be made, and the decision whether or not to actively control the hydrology of the restored system

  9. Observed seasonal variability of barrier layer in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Rao, R.R.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Reddy, G.V.; Revichandran, C.

    The observed formation of Barrier Layer (BL) and the seasonal variability of BL thickness (BLT) in the Bay of Bengal are examined utilizing the most comprehensive data set. Thick BL (~50m) first appears in the coastal region of the northeastern bay...

  10. Enhanced particle fluxes in Bay of Bengal inducEd. by injection of freshwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ittekkot, V.; Nair, R.R.; Honjo, S.; Ramaswamy, V.; Bartsch, M.; Manganini, S.J.; Desai, B.N.

    deployed three sediment-trap moorings (two traps in each mooring) in the northern, central and southern parts of the Bay of Bengal, respectively. The Bay of Bengal is suitable for such a study, because some of the world's largest rivers supply pulses...

  11. 78 FR 13476 - Modification of the Port Limits of Green Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... the townships of Ashwaubenon, Allouez, Preble and Howard and the city of De Pere, all in the State of... port limits in the docket as ``Attachment A: Green Bay (Current).'' CBP proposed to amend the port... limits is included in the docket as ``Attachment B: Green Bay (Proposed).'' Interested parties were given...

  12. High-resolution modeling assessment of tidal stream resource in Western Passage of Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Feng, Xi; Xue, Huijie; Kilcher, Levi

    2017-04-01

    Although significant efforts have been taken to assess the maximum potential of tidal stream energy at system-wide scale, accurate assessment of tidal stream energy resource at project design scale requires detailed hydrodynamic simulations using high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) numerical models. Extended model validation against high quality measured data is essential to minimize the uncertainties of the resource assessment. Western Passage in the State of Maine in U.S. has been identified as one of the top ranking sites for tidal stream energy development in U.S. coastal waters, based on a number of criteria including tidal power density, market value and transmission distance. This study presents an on-going modeling effort for simulating the tidal hydrodynamics in Western Passage using the 3-D unstructured-grid Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). The model domain covers a large region including the entire the Bay of Fundy with grid resolution varies from 20 m in the Western Passage to approximately 1000 m along the open boundary near the mouth of Bay of Fundy. Preliminary model validation was conducted using existing NOAA measurements within the model domain. Spatial distributions of tidal power density were calculated and extractable tidal energy was estimated using a tidal turbine module embedded in FVCOM under different tidal farm scenarios. Additional field measurements to characterize resource and support model validation were discussed. This study provides an example of high resolution resource assessment based on the guidance recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Specification.

  13. Effects of environmental variables on the survival of Phytophthora ramorum in bay laurel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.V. DiLeo; R.M. Bostock; D.M. Rizzo

    2008-01-01

    Bay laurel (Umbellularia californica (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt.) is the primary reservoir host of Phytophthora ramorum Werres, De Cock & Man n?t Veld in coastal California woodlands. Non-lethal foliar lesions on bay laurel trees support the majority of pathogen sporulation during the winter et season and appear to provide the...

  14. A comparative study of vertical stabilities in the Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sastry, J.S.; Rao, D.P.

    Stabilities in the upper 300 m in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal are computed and presented seasonwise. The water column in the Bay of Bengal is more strongly stratified than that in the Arabian Sea. These studies suggest that the vertical...

  15. Radionuclides in the ecological system of the Boka Kotorska Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martic, M.; Ajdacic, N.

    1988-01-01

    In order to determine radioactive contamination in the South Adriatic region after May, 1986, activities of 21 radionuclides of natural and artificial origin were determined by gamma-spectrometry in the samples of sea water, sediments and several characteristic types of organisms collected on several locations in the Boka Kotorska Bay and open sea. Quantitative data on radionuclide contents are presented. Change of activity levels with respect to the 'zero state' determined for this region during previous years is also discussed. (author) 6 refs.; 4 tabs

  16. Forecasting system predicts presence of sea nettles in Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher W.; Hood, Raleigh R.; Li, Zhen; Decker, Mary Beth; Gross, Thomas F.; Purcell, Jennifer E.; Wang, Harry V.

    Outbreaks of noxious biota, which occur in both aquatic and terrestrial systems, can have considerable negative economic impacts. For example, an increasing frequency of harmful algal blooms worldwide has negatively affected the tourism industry in many regions. Such impacts could be mitigated if the conditions that give rise to these outbreaks were known and could be monitored. Recent advances in technology and communications allow us to continuously measure and model many environmental factors that are responsible for outbreaks of certain noxious organisms. A new prototype ecological forecasting system predicts the likelihood of occurrence of the sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha), a stinging jellyfish, in the Chesapeake Bay.

  17. The effect of radioactive waste storage in Andreev Bay on contamination of the Barents Sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matishov, G. G.; Ilyin, G. V.; Usyagina, I. S.; Moiseev, D. V.; Dahle, Salve; Kasatkina, N. E.; Valuyskaya, D. A.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of temporary radioactive waste storage on the ecological status of the sea and biota in the littoral of Andreev and Malaya Andreev bays and near the shore of Motovskii Gulf (including the mouth part of the Zapadnaya Litsa Bay) was analyzed. The littoral sediments contaminated by the 137Cs, 90Sr, 238Pu, and 239,240Pu isotopes are located in the zones of constant groundwater discharge on the shores of Andreev and Malaya Andreev bays. The littoral slopes and bottom depressions of the bays accumulate finely dispersed terrigenous material and 137Cs. The investigations have shown that the storage does not exert a significant adverse effect on the radioactive conditions and the status of the sea ecosystems beyond Andreev Bay.

  18. Multiscale Reduced Order Modeling of Complex Multi-Bay Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    fuselage panel studied in [28], see Fig. 2 for a picture of the actual hardware taken from [28]. The finite element model of the 9-bay panel, shown in...discussed. Two alternatives to reduce the computational time for the solution of these problems are explored. iii A mi familia ...results at P=0.98-1.82 lb/in, P=1.4-2.6 lb/in. The baseline solution P=1.4-2.6 lb/in has a 46 mean value of 2 lb/in and it is actually very close to

  19. Usability and Accessibility of eBay by Screen Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, Maria Claudia; Buzzi, Marina; Leporini, Barbara; Akhter, Fahim

    The evolution of Information and Communication Technology and the rapid growth of the Internet have fuelled a great diffusion of eCommerce websites. Usually these sites have complex layouts crowded with active elements, and thus are difficult to navigate via screen reader. Interactive environments should be properly designed and delivered to everyone, including the blind, who usually use screen readers to interact with their computers. In this paper we investigate the interaction of blind users with eBay, a popular eCommerce website, and discuss how using the W3C Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) suite could improve the user experience when navigating via screen reader.

  20. 226Ra and 228Ra in the mixing zones of the Pee Dee River-Winyah Bay, Yangtze River and Delaware Bay Estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsinger, R.J.; Moore, W.S.

    1984-01-01

    226 Ra and 228 Ra have non-conservative excess concentrations in the mixing zones of the Pee Dee River-Winyah Bay estuary, the Yangtze River estuary, and the Delaware Bay estuary. Laboratory experiments, using Pee Dee River sediment, indicate desorption of 226 Ra to increase with increasing salinities up to 20 per mille. In Winyah Bay desorption from river-borne sediments could contribute almost all of the increases for both isotopes. Desorption adds only a portion of the excess 228 Ra measured in the Yangtze River and adjacent Shelf waters and Delaware Bay. In the Yangtze River the mixing zone extends over a considerable portion of the Continental Shelf where 228 Ra is added to the water column by diffusion from bottom sediments, while 226 Ra concentrations decrease from dilution. Diffusion of 228 Ra from bottom sediments in Delaware Bay primarily occurs in the upper part of the bay ( 228 Ra of 0.33 dpm cm -2 year was determined for Delaware Bay. (author)

  1. Distribution of uranium at Mumbai Harbour Bay (MHB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugandhi, S.; Prabhu, S.P.; Mishra, D.G.; Ravi, P.M.; Hegde, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Mumbai Harbour Bay (MHB) is a recipient of low level treated effluents from BARC, Trombay. In addition, the Bay is also a recipient of domestic and industrial wastes from the city of Mumbai and adjoining areas. Uranium though considered as a rare element, occurs in seawater. The present study is dealt with the distribution of uranium in seawater of Mumbai Harbour Bay (MHB). Uranium is mainly present as Tricarbanato uranyl anion ((UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ) 4- ) in seawater and its concentration varies with the locality and depth. The average value of uranium concentration reported for Indian Bay water at Tarapur and Mumbai is ∼ 3.0 ppb which is comparable with the reported value for Arabian sea. As such the global average is reported to be ∼ 3.3 ppb by Oceanologists. A total of 18 seawater samples covering the upstream, downstream and middle stream of MHB were collected and filtered through 0.22 μm filter paper. 10 L of filtered sample was subjected to chemical separation using ion-exchange technique which involved the following steps: the filtered samples were acidified with conc. HNO 3 and digested. Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 was precipitated at pH 8-9 by addition of liquid ammonia which coprecipitates uranium. The precipitate was allowed to settle overnight, supernatant discarded; precipitate was washed thoroughly with distilled water twice, dissolved in electronic grade conc. HNO 3 and evaporated to dryness. Residue formed was heated with electronic grade conc. HCI and taken up in 8M HCI and loaded on to Dowex 1x8 (Cl -1 for, 1.5 g, 100-200 mesh, anion exchanger), preconditioned with 8M HCI. Uranium adsorbed on the resin was eluted with 1 M HNO 3 . The eluant was evaporated to dryness and electrodeposited on a stainless steel planchette and the uranium content was estimated by alpha spectrometry (PIPS, Type IPC). The uranium activity in MHB by alpha spectrometry was found to be between 1.0-4.4 ppb with an average concentration of 2.5 ppb which is comparable with the earlier

  2. Environmental consequences of the flooding of the Bay Park Sewage Treatment Plant during Superstorm Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, R Lawrence; Wilson, Robert; Brownawell, Bruce; Willig, Kaitlin

    2017-08-15

    Failure of the Bay Park Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) during Superstorm Sandy led to adverse effects in the waters of Hempstead Bay, Long Island, NY. These appear to be related to large discharges of partially treated sewage through its primary and auxiliary outfalls. Modeled dilution discharges indicate that sewage infiltrated the bay, remaining up to 10days. Water column impacts included salinity and dissolved oxygen declines, and biological oxygen demand and nitrogen concentration increases. While the STP does not appear to have released fecal coliform, there were elevated levels of enterococci within the bay for a considerable period following the storm, probably from multiple sources. The STP's reduced functioning and associated environmental impacts, even with resilience upgrades, are not conducive to removing the bay from the list of Impaired Water Bodies. The results reinforce the need to transfer the discharge from the existing outfall to the ocean. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Observation of sediment resuspension in Old Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhamer, David H.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Equipment and methodology have been developed to monitor sediment resuspension at two sites in Old Tampa Bay. Velocities are measured with electromagnetic current meters and suspended solids and turbidity are monitored with optical backscatterance sensors. In late November 1989, a vertical array of instrument pairs was deployed from a permanent platform at a deep-water site, and a submersible instrument package with a single pair of instruments was deployed at a shallow-water site. Wind waves caused resuspension at the shallow-water site, but not at the deeper platform site, and spring tidal currents did not cause resuspension at either site.

  4. Evaluation of telluric current effects on the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boteler, D.H. [Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada, Geomagnetic Laboratory, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Gummow, R.A.; Rix, B.C. [CORRENG Consulting Services, Inc., Downsview, ON (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline, currently under construction, runs through an area where large geomagnetic disturbances, and electric fields amplified by the coast effect, can be reasonably expected. Because of this, and because of the high tide in the Bay of Fundy, significant telluric currents (a current flowing through the ground, such as the earth's geomagnetic field) are anticipated. Under these circumstances, it was essential to consider the likely effects of telluric currents as one of the factors in designing the cathodic protection system for the new pipeline. Likely effects of the geomagnetic disturbances and their extent were evaluated and pipeline response to these electric fields examined by means of a computer model. Pipe-to-soil potentials were calculated with different coating resistances and placement of insulating flanges and ground beds. Telluric current potentials were found to vary with increased electric field, with electric fields more parallel to the pipeline, and higher resistance coatings. The potential difference between the pipe and the soil was found to be greatest at the Goldboro end of the pipeline due to potential gradients produced in the land near the coast during geomagnetic disturbances. Tidal water movements in the Bay of Fundy generate electrical fields in the water which cause potential gradients in the lands, however, because of the nature of the potential gradients in this instance, the dynamo effect on pipe-to soil potentials is expected to be very small. 19 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  5. Future trends in urbanization and coastal water pollution in the Bay of Bengal: the lived experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinia, N.J.; Kroeze, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Bay of Bengal includes coastal seas of several countries, including Bangladesh, India, and Myanmar. We present scenarios for future river export of eutrophying nutrients into the Bay of Bengal, and the role of urbanization therein. We used NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model to analyze

  6. Marine litter in submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Beld, Inge M. J.; Guillaumont, Brigitte; Menot, Lénaïck; Bayle, Christophe; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Bourillet, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    Marine litter is a matter of increasing concern worldwide, from shallow seas to the open ocean and from beaches to the deep-seafloor. Indeed, the deep sea may be the ultimate repository of a large proportion of litter in the ocean. We used footage acquired with a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and a towed camera to investigate the distribution and composition of litter in the submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay. This bay contains many submarine canyons housing Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs) such as scleractinian coral habitats. VMEs are considered to be important for fish and they increase the local biodiversity. The objectives of the study were to investigate and discuss: (i) litter density, (ii) the principal sources of litter, (iii) the influence of environmental factors on the distribution of litter, and (iv) the impact of litter on benthic communities. Litter was found in all 15 canyons and at three sites on the edge of the continental shelf/canyon, in 25 of 29 dives. The Belle-île and Arcachon Canyons contained the largest amounts of litter, up to 12.6 and 9.5 items per 100 images respectively. Plastic items were the most abundant (42%), followed by fishing-related items (16%). The litter had both a maritime and a terrestrial origin. The main sources could be linked to fishing activities, major shipping lanes and river discharges. Litter appeared to accumulate at water depths of 801-1100 m and 1401-1700 m. In the deeper of these two depth ranges, litter accumulated on a geologically structured area, accounting for its high frequency at this depth. A larger number of images taken in areas of coral in the shallower of these two depth ranges may account for the high frequency of litter detection at this depth. A larger number of litter items, including plastic objects in particular, were observed on geological structures and in coral areas than on areas of bare substratum. The distribution of fishing-related items was similar for the various types of

  7. Review and synthesis of historical Tampa Bay water quality data. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargo, G.; Weisberg, R.; Bendis, B.; Rutherford, E.H.

    1992-11-01

    The review and synthesis of historical water quality data was one of the first characterization projects administered by the Tampa Bay National Estuary Program (NEP). The objective of the project was to describe the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of Tampa Bay. The report examines the spatial and temporal trends from the acquired data for possible interrelationships and develops them statistically

  8. Wind stress, curl and vertical velocity in the Bay of Bengal during southwest monsoon, 1984

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, M.T.; Heblekar, A.K.; Murty, C.S.

    Wind distribution observed during southwest monsoon of 1984 has used to derive the mean wind stress for the season at every 1 degree square grid and curl over the Bay of Bengal. Two regions of maximum wind stress are present over the Bay of Bengal...

  9. Patterns of alien plant invasion across coastal bay areas in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Ren; Qinfeng Guo; Hong Liu; Jing Li; Qianmei Zhang; Hualin Xu; Fanghong Xu

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the ways in which levels of invasions by alien species are correlated with environmental factors is helpful to manage the negative impacts of these invasive species. Two tropical coastal areas in South China, Shenzhen Bay and Leizhou Bay, are national nature reserves, but they are threatened by invasive plants. Here, we investigated the level of...

  10. High-pressure liquid chromatographic assay of Bay n 7133 in human serum.

    OpenAIRE

    Fasching, C E; Hughes, C E; Hector, R F; Peterson, L R

    1984-01-01

    A high-pressure liquid chromatographic method that includes a Sep-Pak (Waters Associates, Inc., Milford , Mass.) preparation of human serum was employed for the quantitative assay of Bay n 7133. Drug levels of 0.1 to 20 micrograms/ml could be detected. No interference from amphotericin B was found in the chromatographic analysis of Bay n 7133.

  11. Exploring the environmental effects of shale gas development in the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientific and Technical Committee [STAC]. Chesapeake Bay Program

    2013-01-01

    On April 11-12, 2012, the Chesapeake Bay Program's Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) convened an expert workshop to investigate the environmental effects of shale gas development in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. The purpose of this workshop was to engage scientists from across the nation in a review of the state-of-the-science regarding shale gas...

  12. 77 FR 65815 - Expansion of Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Regulatory Changes, and Sanctuary Name...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    .... 070726412-1300-02] RIN 0648-BA24 Expansion of Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Regulatory Changes, and Sanctuary Name Change; Notice of Effective Date AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries... geographical areas to the sanctuary and change the name of the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary (FBNMS or...

  13. Development of an integrated ecosystem model to determine effectiveness of potential watershed management projects on improving Old Tampa Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward T. Sherwood; Holly Greening; Lizanne Garcia; Kris Kaufman; Tony Janicki; Ray Pribble; Brett Cunningham; Steve Peene; Jim Fitzpatrick; Kellie Dixon; Mike Wessel

    2016-01-01

    The Tampa Bay estuary has undergone a remarkable ecosystem recovery since the 1980s despite continued population growth within the region. However during this time, the Old Tampa Bay (OTB) segment has lagged behind the rest of the Bay’s recovery relative to improvements in overall water quality and seagrass coverage. In 2011, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program, in...

  14. Mercury in mussels of Bellingham Bay, Washington, (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesijadi, G.; Drum, A.S.; Bridge, J.R.

    1978-11-01

    Laboratory experiments demonstrated the existence of metallothionein-like, low molecular weight, mercury-binding proteins in the marine mussel Mytilus edulis. Relatively large quantities of mercury were associated with such proteins in gills and digestive gland, the organs of interest in the present study. /sup 14/C-incorporation indicated induction of the protein in gills, but not in digestive gland. Mercury in digestive gland may have bound to existing metal-binding proteins. Short-term incorporation of mercury occurred primarily in gills. The induction of mercury-binding proteins in gills may have facilitated detoxification of mercury at the site of uptake. Mercury in mussels of Bellingham Bay were shown to have decreased from 1970 to 1978, the collection date for the present study. Mercury levels were low but approximately three times higher than those from uncontaminated areas. Mercury associated with the mercury-binding protein of gills and digestive glands of Bellingham Bay mussels were low and reflected the concentrations measured in the whole tissues. However, the highest concentration of mercury was associated with the low molecular pool components, the identity of which is not presently known.

  15. Water characteristics, mixing and circulation in the Bay of Bengal during southwest monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Rao, D.P.; Murty, C.S.

    in the western, central and southeastern regions of the Bay respectively. The wind-stress-curl-induced upwelling effect is confined to depth limits of 50-100 m as is supportEd. by a band of cold (24 degrees -19 degrees C) water in the central Bay. In the southern...

  16. 78 FR 64186 - Boundary Expansion of Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    .... 130403324-3 376-01 RIN 0648-BC94] Boundary Expansion of Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... boundary of the Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary (78 FR 35776). On August 15, NOAA re-opened the...

  17. 78 FR 73112 - Boundary Expansion of Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    .... 130403324-3376-01] RIN 0648-BC94 Boundary Expansion of Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... boundary of the Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary. This document re-opens the public comment period...

  18. 78 FR 49700 - Boundary Expansion of Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    .... 130403324-3376-01] RIN 0648-BC94 Boundary Expansion of Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... boundary of the Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary (78 FR 35776). This notice reopens the public comment...

  19. Deformed glacial deposits of Passamaquoddy Bay area, New Brunswick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumarapeli, S.

    1990-03-01

    The New Brunswick-Maine border area, centred around Passamaquoddy Bay, is characterized by a distinctly higher level of seismic activity compared with the very low level background activity of the region. In this same general area, post-glacial deformation including faulting, has been observed in glaciofluvial and ice contact deposits and the possibility that these structures may in some way related to neotectonic movements in the area has been suggested. A study was undertaken to document these structures and to investigate their origin. The studies show that structures related to collapse of sediments due to melting of buried ice masses are the most prominent post-depositional structures in the glacial sediments. A second group of structures includes failure phenomena such as slumping. These require the action of a mechanism leading to reduction of sediment strength which could be achieved by seismic shaking. However, such failure phenomena could also be brought about by non-seismic processes, thus a unique interpretation of the origin of these structures is difficult, if not impossible. Since seismic shaking is the most effective, regionally extensive trigger of a broad group of failure phenomena in soft sediments, the related structures are usually spread over a large area, but are restricted to a very short time gap. Although the establishment of such space and time relationships may be feasible, for example in extensive lake deposits, it is difficult to do so in patchy laterally variable deposits such as the glacial deposits in Passamaquoddy Bay area

  20. Mercury in Pelecanus occidentalis of the Cispata bay, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saudith Burgos N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Assessment the total concentration of mercury in the liver and feathers of Pelecanus occidentalis of the Cispata bay, Colombia. Materials and methods. Mercury concentrations in liver and feather of Pelecanus occidentalis residents in the Cispata bay – Colombia were evaluated by digestion with an acidic mixture of H2SO4–HNO3 and KMnO4 to eliminate organic matter. The concentration of mercury was determined by the Atomic Absorption - Cold Vapor method (CVAAS. Results. Total mercury levels found in this study were higher in feathers (0.31-9.17 mgHg/kg than in the liver (0.63–6.29 mgHg/kg, being higher than those reported in other seabirds studies. Conclusions. The high levels of total mercury in feathers and liver can be explained by the feeding habits of the organisms under study, showing the utility of feathers as a potential non-invasive tool for the monitoring of the ecosystem and thereby preventing the sacrifice of specimens.

  1. Spatial and temporal distribution of two diazotrophic bacteria in the Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Steven M; Jenkins, Bethany D; Zehr, Jonathan P

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was to initiate autecological studies on uncultivated natural populations of diazotrophic bacteria by examining the distribution of specific diazotrophs in the Chesapeake Bay. By use of quantitative PCR, the abundance of two nifH sequences (907h22 and 912h4) was quantified in water samples collected along a transect from the head to the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay during cruises in April and October 2001 and 2002. Standard curves for the quantitative PCR assays demonstrated that the relationship between gene copies and cycle threshold was linear and highly reproducible from 1 to 10(7) gene copies. The maximum number of 907h22 gene copies detected was approximately 140 ml(-1) and the maximum number of 912h4 gene copies detected was approximately 340 ml(-1). Sequence 912h4 was most abundant at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, and in general, its abundance increased with increasing salinity, with the highest abundances observed in April 2002. Overall, the 907h22 phylotype was most abundant at the mid-bay station. Additionally, 907h22 was most abundant in the April samples from the mid-bay and mouth of the Chesapeake Bay. Despite the fact that the Chesapeake Bay is rarely nitrogen limited, our results show that individual nitrogen-fixing bacteria have distinct nonrandom spatial and seasonal distributions in the Chesapeake Bay and are either distributed by specific physical processes or adapted to different environmental niches.

  2. Life history of lake herring of Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1956-01-01

    Although the lake herring has been an important contributor to the commercial fish production of Green Bay, little has been known about it. This study is based on field observations and data from about 6,500 lake herring collected over the period 1948 to 1952. Relatively nonselective commercial pound nets were a primary source of material for the study of age and growth. Commercial and experimental gill nets were used to obtain data on gear selectivity and vertical distribution. Scales were employed to investigate age and growth. Age group IV normally dominated commercial catches during the first half of the calendar year and age group III the last half. At these ages the fish averaged about 10.5 inches in length. The season's growth started in May, was most rapid in July, and terminated near the end of October. The sexes grew at the same rate. Selectivity of fishing gear was found to influence the estimation of growth. Geographical and annual differences in growth are shown. Factors that might contribute to discrepancies in calculated growth are evaluated. Possible real and apparent causes of growth compensation are given. The relation between length and weight is shown to vary with sex, season, year, and method of capture. Females were relatively more plentiful in commercial catches in February than in May through December. The percentage of females decreased with increase in age in pound-net catches but increased with age in gill-net samples. Within a year class the percentage of females decreased with increase in age. Most Green Bay lake herring mature during their second or third year of life. They are pelagic spawners with most intensive spawning over shallow areas. Spawning takes place between mid-November and mid-December, and eggs hatch in April and May. Lake herring ovaries contained from 3,500 to 11,200 eggs (averaged 6,375). Progress of spawning by age, sex, and length is given. Lake herring were distributed at all depths in Green Bay in early May, were

  3. Random noise suppression of seismic data using non-local Bayes algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, De-Kuan; Yang, Wu-Yang; Wang, Yi-Hui; Yang, Qing; Wei, Xin-Jian; Feng, Xiao-Ying

    2018-02-01

    For random noise suppression of seismic data, we present a non-local Bayes (NL-Bayes) filtering algorithm. The NL-Bayes algorithm uses the Gaussian model instead of the weighted average of all similar patches in the NL-means algorithm to reduce the fuzzy of structural details, thereby improving the denoising performance. In the denoising process of seismic data, the size and the number of patches in the Gaussian model are adaptively calculated according to the standard deviation of noise. The NL-Bayes algorithm requires two iterations to complete seismic data denoising, but the second iteration makes use of denoised seismic data from the first iteration to calculate the better mean and covariance of the patch Gaussian model for improving the similarity of patches and achieving the purpose of denoising. Tests with synthetic and real data sets demonstrate that the NL-Bayes algorithm can effectively improve the SNR and preserve the fidelity of seismic data.

  4. The regulation of bacterial production in the Chesapeake Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin-Leo, G.

    1988-01-01

    In this study, the possibility that periods when the rates of macromolecule syntheses become uncoupled occur in natural assemblages of bacteria was examined by comparing rates of bacterial DNA and protein synthesis. A dual-label method which measures incorporation rates of [ 3 H]thymidine (TdR) into macromolecules (DNA) and of [ 14 C]leucine (Leu) into protein was developed to facilitate simultaneous estimation of these cellular activities in a single incubation. Under controlled conditions, changes in rates of Leu incorporation preceded fluctuations in TdR incorporation and the Leu:TdR ratio varied prior to shifts in growth rate indicating the uncoupling of protein and DNA synthesis which occurs during unbalanced growth. The delay between this uncoupling and a change in growth rate was always shorter than the generation time. In Chesapeake Bay, during October 1986, the Leu:TdR ratio was quite constant over a diel cycle and with depth, but during July 1987, the magnitude of this ratio and its variation through time increased with depth. Growth conditions for heterotrophic bacteria in Chesapeake Bay during summer in surface waters and throughout the water column in fall may be relatively constant leading to balanced growth. In contrast, fluctuating growth conditions in subsurface waters during summer may lead to unbalanced growth

  5. Transport and potential vorticity in the Bay of Bengal during the southwest monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Murty, C.S.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Rao, D.P.; Sastry, J.S.; Rao, G.R.L.

    Current (EBC) contributed to an influx of 3.5 x 10 sup(6 m sup(3/s water respectively. The influence of overlying less saline, fresher water at the northern Bay: Ekman suction due to the wind stress curl in the central Bay; and the east-flowing IMC...

  6. Exploration and practice on contract management of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yonggang

    2002-01-01

    In the market economy, Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station needs to out source or allow to suppliers among industries, while concentrating its core competitive capability, for safely and stable operation. By evaluating the features of contract management in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, set up the organization and process of the supply management

  7. Survival and chlamydospore production of Phytophthora ramorum in California bay laurel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Fichtner; D. Rizzo; S. Lynch; D. Rizzo; G. Buckles; J. Parke

    2009-01-01

    Sudden oak death manifests as non-lethal foliar lesions on bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), which support sporulation and survival of Phytophthora ramorum in forest ecosystems. The pathogen survives the dry summers in a proportion of attached bay leaves, but the propagules responsible for survival are...

  8. 77 FR 3646 - Proposed Expansion of Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Regulatory Changes, and Sanctuary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    .... 100908440-1615-01] RIN 0648-BA24 Proposed Expansion of Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Regulatory Changes, and Sanctuary Name Change AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean... in the Federal Register to revise the regulations for the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary (76...

  9. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart M of... - Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary... OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. A Appendix A to Subpart M of Part 922...

  10. Safety and Efficacy of BAY 94-9027, a Prolonged-Half-Life Factor VIII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reding, M T; Ng, H J; Poulsen, Lone Hvitfeldt

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BAY 94-9027 is a B-domain-deleted prolonged-half-life recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) conjugates in a site-specific manner with polyethylene glycol. OBJECTIVE: Assess efficacy and safety of BAY 94-9027 for prophylaxis and treatment of bleeds in patients with severe hemophilia A PATIEN...

  11. Determination of 226Ra and 228Ra in surface seawater around Sagami bay and its vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano-Ohta, T.; Kubota, T.; Mahara, Y.; Yoshikawa, M.; Sato, J.

    2006-01-01

    Activity ratios of 228 Ra/ 226 Ra in surface seawaters were observed at 5 ports of Izu-Oshima, Ajiro port of Sagami bay and Umizuri park of Tokyo bay. The 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratio in surface seawaters were from 0.2 to 0.7 for Izu-Oshima, from 0.2 to 0.7 for Ajiro port and from 0.6 to 0.8 for Tokyo bay. The activity ratio in surface seawaters of Izu-Oshima and Atami of Sagami bay showed lower in spring and highly in autumn, while narrow variation pattern was observed in Umizuri park of Tokyo bay. The observed variation patterns of 228 Ra/ 226 Ra in surface seawaters at Izu-oshima, Ajiro park and Umizuri park may be reflected by difference of contribution from amount of seawater far off coast with low 228 Ra concentration. (author)

  12. The outflow of radionuclides from Novaya Zemlya bays. Modeling and monitoring strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, I.H.; Povinec, P.P.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrodynamic model results are used to evaluate possible monitoring strategies for a continuous survey of underwater dump sites. The Hamburg Shelf Ocean Model (HAMSOM) is applied to Abrosimov Bay and forced with realistic, transient wind fields and air temperatures. The three-dimensional circulation model is coupled to a dynamic-thermodynamic ice model that accounts for surface heat fluxes, fractional ice cover and ice thickness. Model results show significant variations in the bay circulation due to a pronounced seasonality in the wind forcing and the ice cover. The circulation is weakest in early summer when wind speeds are low and the ice still covers most parts of the bay. In autumn, circulation and flushing of the bay is most enhanced, due to increasing wind speeds and the absence of an ice cover. Dispersion scenarios were carried out assuming a leakage at dumped objects. During most of the year the obtained tracer concentrations in the bay are higher in the upper layers than close to the bottom, indicating an outflow at the surface and a compensatory inflow below. This general pattern is only reversed during spring and early summer, when the wind directions change. Since ice problems make it almost impossible to monitor surface waters or even the whole water column in a shallow bay, the only way to install a monitoring system, is at the bottom of the bay, as close as possible to dumped objects. Data transmission via satellite or radio could be realized from a small station located on the bay's edge

  13. The outflow of radionuclides from Novaya Zemlya bays--modeling and monitoring strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, I H; Povinec, P P

    1999-09-30

    Hydrodynamic model results are used to evaluate possible monitoring strategies for a continuous survey of underwater dump sites. The Hamburg Shelf Ocean Model (HAMSOM) is applied to Abrosimov Bay and forced with realistic, transient wind fields and air temperatures. The three-dimensional circulation model is coupled to a dynamic-thermodynamic ice model that accounts for surface heat fluxes, fractional ice cover and ice thickness. Model results show significant variations in the bay circulation due to a pronounced seasonality in the wind forcing and the ice cover. The circulation is weakest in early summer when wind speeds are low and the ice still covers most parts of the bay. In autumn, circulation and flushing of the bay is most enhanced, due to increasing wind speeds and the absence of an ice cover. Dispersion scenarios were carried out assuming a leakage at dumped objects. During most of the year the obtained tracer concentrations in the bay are higher in the upper layers than close to the bottom, indicating an outflow at the surface and a compensatory inflow below. This general pattern is only reversed during spring and early summer, when the wind directions change. Since ice problems make it almost impossible to monitor surface waters or even the whole water column in a shallow bay, the only way to install a monitoring system, is at the bottom of the bay, as close as possible to dumped objects. Data transmission via satellite or radio could be realized from a small station located on the bay's edge.

  14. Evaluation of older bay mud sediment from Richmond Harbor, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-09-01

    The older, bay mud (OBM) unit predates modem man and could act as a barrier to the downward transport of contaminants from the younger bay mud (YBM) because of its hard-packed consistency. However, its chemical and biological nature have not been well characterized. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted three independent studies of OBM sediment in January 1993, January 1994, and October 1994. These studies evaluated potential chemical contamination and biological effects of OBM that could occur as a result of dredging and disposal activities. These evaluations were performed by conducting chemical analysis, solid-phase toxicity tests, suspended- particulate-phase (SPP) toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests on the OBM sediment. If the sediment chemistry and toxicity results showed no or minimal contamination and toxicological responses, then either the OBM could be left exposed in Richmond Harbor after dredging the YBM without leaving a source of contamination, or if the project depths necessitate, the OBM would be acceptable for disposal at an appropriate disposal site.

  15. Butiltins Compound in Seawater and Sediment of Banten Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidah Razak

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available bservation on butiltin (BTs compound content in seawater and sediments from Banten Bay were conducted in August 2003 and October 2003. Butiltin content including TBT, DBT and MBT on August 2003 respectively range between <2ng Sn/l, <2 to 9 ng Sn/l and < 5 to 17 ng Sn/l and on October 2003 was found respectively nd to <2 ng Sn/l, <0.5 to 12 ng Sn/g, 0.5 to 2.7 ng Sn/g and <0.5 to 2.2 ng Sn/g, and on October 2003 was found varied from <0.5 to 4.2ng Sn/g, <0.5 to 1.1ng Sn/g and <0.5 to 1 ng Sn/g. Content of TBT was found on August 2003 higher than October 03 and also the content of TBT compound in sediments was high compared to waters. It indicated that there was accumulation of TBT in sediment. The minimal risk of TBT in seaport and for marine life according to Minister of environment in Keputusan Menteri Negara Kependudukan dan Lingkungan Hidup No.51 tahun 2004 is 10 ng/l. The results showed that Banten Bay is still appropiate for seaport and marine life.

  16. Impact of industrial pollution on recent dinoflagellate cysts in Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Hilal; Yürür, Emine Erdem; Uzar, Serdar; Küçüksezgin, Filiz

    2015-05-15

    The spatial distribution of dinoflagellate cysts was studied to understand the impact of industrial pollution on the surface sediment of Izmir Bay, Turkey. Forty two dinoflagellate cyst morphotypes belonging to 12 genera were identified and qualified at 12 sampling points. The cyst of Gymnodinium nolleri dominated the bay and had the highest abundance in most of the stations, following Spiniferites bulloideus and Lingulodinium machaerophorum. The highest cyst concentration was recorded in the inner part of the bay. Cyst concentration ranged between 384 and 9944 cyst g(-1) dry weight of sediment in the sampling area. Sediment metal concentrations were determined. Heavy metal levels in Izmir Inner Bay were higher than the Middle and Outer Bay. L. machaerophorum, Dubridinium caperatum and Polykrikos kofoidii showed significant positive correlation with some metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) and organic carbon content. However, there was no significant correlation between dinoflagellate cyst abundance and sediment type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. On Measurements of the Tide at Churchill, Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1990s the semi-diurnal tide at Churchill, on the western shore of Hudson Bay, has been decreasing in amplitude, with M(sub 2) amplitudes falling from approximately 154 cm in 1998 to 146 cm in 2012 and 142 cm in 2014. There has been a corresponding small increase in phase lag. Mean low water, decreasing throughout most of the twentieth century, has levelled off. Although the tidal changes could reflect merely a malfunctioning tide gauge, the fact that there are no other measurements in the region and the possibility that the tide is revealing important environmental changes calls for serious investigation. Satellite altimeter measurements of the tide in Hudson Bay are complicated by the seasonal ice cover; at most locations less than 40% of satellite passes return valid ocean heights and even those can be impacted by errors from sea ice. Because the combined TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason-2 time series is more than 23 years long, it is now possible to obtain sufficient data at crossover locations near Churchill to search for tidal changes. The satellites sense no changes in M(sub 2) that are comparable to the changes seen at the Churchill gauge. The changes appear to be localized to the harbour, or to the Churchill River, or to the gauge itself.

  18. 33 CFR 162.65 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of... All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to..., which are tributary to or connected by other waterways with the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay...

  19. 76 FR 41515 - Proclaiming Certain Lands, Maier Property, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian Community of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian Community of Michigan AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior... Secretary-- Indian Affairs proclaimed approximately 40 acres, more or less, to be added to the Bay Mills... and part of the Bay Mills Indian Community of Michigan for the exclusive use of Indians on that...

  20. Mesozoic anomalies in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Nair, R.R.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramprasad, T.; Krishna, K.S.; Subrahmanyam, V.; D; Subrahmanyam, C.; Paul, J.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Sekhar, D

    . The configuration of the offsets of the isochrons allowed us to propose approximately N120~'E-trending oceanic fracture zones. The Mesozoic crust of 132.5-118 Ma is estimated to evolve with an average half-spreading rate of 3.5 cm/yr, except for the ocean floor...

  1. Ethnoarcheology of the Bay Springs Farmsteads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-20

    including: sweet potatoes, potatoes, various types of beans, peas, squash, tomatoes, onions, okra, lettuce, melons, pumpkins , and turnips. These vegetables...7) adaptive food and feed complex including cattle, hogs, corn, peas, squash, collards, pumpkins , potatoes, cabbage, cucumbers, okra, and turnips. (8...population replacement in the area of the waterfront occurred during the lifetime of the town as it did in iarger centers at least on the east coast

  2. Holocene coastal paleoenvironmental record, Bay of Brest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernane, Assia; Gandouin, Emmanuel; Goslin, Jérôme; Penaud, Aurélie; Van Vliet lanoë, Brigitte

    2013-04-01

    Coastal areas are sensitive environments regarding the risk of submersion and the impact on biodiversity induced by salinity changes. These areas thus provide good palaeocecological archives to monitor palaeo sea level changes and the associated adaptation of different biological communities. The north-western coast of France has poorly been investigated regarding its Holocene palaeoecological signatures (Morzadec-Kerfourn, 1974; Naughton et al., 2007). Chironomids have been recognized to be an efficient tool for palaeoclimate and palaeosalinity reconstructions in lakes (Brooks, 2006), and more recently in river floodplains (Gandouin et al, 2006). In this study, environmental changes related to both climate processes and human disturbances, were reconstructed over the last 5000 years, based on pollen and chironomid assemblages from two coastal cores retrieved at Pors Milin (Brittany, NW France). The sedimentary sequences consist of terrestrial peaty layers interdigited with marine clastic deposits. The study area is composed by a sandy beach, truncating the peat, limited by a high sandy bar, and a back marsh developed at + 4 m NGF. Pollen and chironomid results reveal that anthropogenic factors would mainly control environmental changes that occurred in this sector. The disappearance of many chironomid taxa (inhabitants of main river channel) and the dramatic fall in diversity may have been induced by the development of the Merovingian forest clearance at Pors Milin. Indeed, we suggest that the development of agriculture, the river embankment and the draining of wetlands may explain the chironomid habitat loss and the subsequent fall of biodiversity. This change in faunal assemblages occurred synchronously with a decrease in the "arborean / non arborean" pollen ratio reflecting the land opening of the watershed. Several nitrophilous and anthropogenic pollen taxa reinforce our hypothesis concerning the development of agricultural and livestock farming activities at

  3. Wind Atlas of Bay of Bengal with Satellite Wind Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadi, Navila Rahman

    footstep towards offshore wind energy analysis for this region. Generally, it is difficult to find offshore wind data relative to the wind turbine hub heights, therefore a starting point is necessary to identify the possible wind power density of the region. In such scenario, Synthetic aperture radars (SAR......The objective of this study is to obtain appropriate offshore location in the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh for further development of wind energy. Through analyzing the previous published works, no offshore wind energy estimation has been found here. That is why, this study can be claimed as the first......) have proven useful. In this study, SAR based dataset- ENVISAT ASAR has been used for Wind Atlas generation. Furthermore, a comparative study has been performed with Global Wind Atlas (GWA) to determine a potential offshore wind farm. Additionally, the annual energy production of that offshore windfarm...

  4. Paleontology and stratigraphy of the Upper Triassic Kamishak Formation in the Puale Bay-Cape Kekurnoi-Alinchak Bay area, Karluk C-4 and C-5 quadrangle

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the paleontological character and stratigraphy of the Kamishak Formation in the Puale Bay–Cape Kekurnoi–Alinchak Bay area, Karluk C-4 and C-5...

  5. IRST infrared background analysis of bay environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schwering, PBW

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Present-day naval operations take place in coastal environments as well as narrow straits all over the world. Coastal environments around the world are exhibiting a number of threats to naval forces. In particular a large number of asymmetric...

  6. BOBMEX: The Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, G.S.; Gadgil, S.; Kumar, P.V.H.; Kalsi, S.R.; Madhusoodanan, P.; Murty, V.S.N.; Rao, C.V.K.P.; RameshBabu, V.; Rao, L.V.G.; Rao, R.R.; Ravichandran, M.; Reddy, K.G.; Rao, P.Sanjeeva; Sengupta, D.; Sikka, D.R.; Swain, J.; Vinayachandran, P.N.

    . However, unforeseen difficulties were faced in pro- curing radiosondes for one of the ships. Hence, radio- sondes (Vaisala model RS80-15G) were launched only from SK. More than 90 ascents covering active and weak phases of convection are available. The fre...- diosonde processor adjusted the calibration constants to take care of these minor differences. Before each launch, the radio- sonde humidity sensor was tested in a 100% RH chamber. The RH measured by the radio- sonde increased quickly to 90% within a few...

  7. Traditional Fisheries of Antongil Bay, Madagascar | Doukakis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 2 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. 75 FR 38723 - Safety Zone; St. Ignace 4th of July Fireworks, East Moran Bay, Lake Huron, St. Ignace, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; St. Ignace 4th of July Fireworks, East Moran Bay, Lake Huron, St. Ignace, MI AGENCY... safety zone on East Moran Bay, Lake Huron, St. Ignace, Michigan. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of East Moran Bay during the St. Ignace 4th of July Fireworks display, July 4, 2010...

  9. Watermass structure in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sastry, J.S.; Rao, D.P.; Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Suryanarayana, A.; Babu, M.T.

    as due to the penetration of the isohaline layer which forms (at the boundary) when Persian Gulf watermass and Red Sea watermass come in contact in the Arabian Sea. The geostrophic flow pattern shows that the flow is primarily westward except between 12...

  10. Safety assessment of a dry storage container drop into irradiated fuel bays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlatan, Y.; Oh, D.; Arguner, D.; Lei, Q.M.; Kulpa, T.; Bayoumi, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    In Pickering nuclear stations, Dry Storage Containers (DSCs) are employed to transfer used (irradiated) fuel from an irradiated fuel bay to a dry storage facility for interim storage. Each DSC is wet-loaded in the bay water with 4 fuel modules containing up to a total of 384 used fuel bundles that have been out of the reactor core for at least 10 years. Once the DSC is fully loaded, the crane in the bay raises the DSC for spray-wash such that the bottom of the DSC is never more than 2 m above the bay water surface. This paper presents a safety assessment of consequences of an unlikely event that a fully loaded DSC is accidentally dropped into an irradiated fuel bay from the highest possible elevation. Experiments and analyses performed elsewhere show that the DSC drop-generated shock waves will not threaten the structural integrity of an irradiated fuel bay. Therefore, this assessment only assesses the potential damage to the spent fuel bundles in the bay due to pressure transients generated by an accidental DSC drop. A bounding estimate approach has been used to calculate the upper limit of the pressure pulse and the resulting static and dynamic stresses on the fuel sheath. The bounding calculations and relevant experimental results demonstrate that an accidental drop of a fully loaded DSC into an irradiated fuel bay will not cause additional failures of the main fuel inventories stored in modules in the bay water, thus no consequential release of fission products into the bay water. (author)

  11. Composition and temporal patterns of larval fish communities in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Ribeiro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparing larval fish assemblages in different estuaries provides insights about the coastal distribution of larval populations, larval transport, and adult spawning locations (Ribeiro et al. 2015. We simultaneously compared the larval fish assemblages entering two Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB estuaries (Delaware Bay and Chesapeake Bay, USA through weekly sampling from 2007 to 2009. In total, 43 taxa (32 families and 36 taxa (24 families were collected in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, respectively. Mean taxonomic diversity, mean richness, and evenness were generally lower in Delaware Bay. Communities of both bays were dominated by Anchoa spp., Gobiosoma spp., Micropogonias undulatus, and Brevoortia tyrannus; Paralichthys spp. was more abundant in Delaware Bay and Microgobius thalassinus was more abundant in Chesapeake Bay. Inter-annual variation in the larval fish communities was low at both sites, with a relatively consistent composition across years, but strong seasonal (intra-annual variation in species composition occurred in both bays. Two groups were identified in Chesapeake Bay: a ‘winter’ group dominated by shelf-spawned species (e.g. M. undulatus and a ‘summer’ group comprising obligate estuarine species and coastal species (e.g. Gobiosoma spp. and Cynoscion regalis, respectively. In Delaware Bay, 4 groups were identified: a ‘summer’ group of mainly obligate estuarine fishes (e.g. Menidia sp. being replaced by a ‘fall’ group (e.g. Ctenogobius boleosoma and Gobionellus oceanicus; ‘winter’ and ‘spring’ groups were dominated by shelf-spawned (e.g. M. undulatus and Paralichthys spp. and obligate estuarine species (e.g. Leiostomus xanthurus and Pseudopleuronectes americanus, respectively. This study demonstrates that inexpensive and simultaneous sampling in different estuaries provides important insights into the variability in community structure of fish assemblages at large spatial scales.

  12. Development of a Hydrodynamic and Transport model of Bellingham Bay in Support of Nearshore Habitat Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Taiping; Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang

    2010-04-22

    In this study, a hydrodynamic model based on the unstructured-grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) was developed for Bellingham Bay, Washington. The model simulates water surface elevation, velocity, temperature, and salinity in a three-dimensional domain that covers the entire Bellingham Bay and adjacent water bodies, including Lummi Bay, Samish Bay, Padilla Bay, and Rosario Strait. The model was developed using Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s high-resolution Puget Sound and Northwest Straits circulation and transport model. A sub-model grid for Bellingham Bay and adjacent coastal waters was extracted from the Puget Sound model and refined in Bellingham Bay using bathymetric light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and river channel cross-section data. The model uses tides, river inflows, and meteorological inputs to predict water surface elevations, currents, salinity, and temperature. A tidal open boundary condition was specified using standard National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) predictions. Temperature and salinity open boundary conditions were specified based on observed data. Meteorological forcing (wind, solar radiation, and net surface heat flux) was obtained from NOAA real observations and National Center for Environmental Prediction North American Regional Analysis outputs. The model was run in parallel with 48 cores using a time step of 2.5 seconds. It took 18 hours of cpu time to complete 26 days of simulation. The model was calibrated with oceanographic field data for the period of 6/1/2009 to 6/26/2009. These data were collected specifically for the purpose of model development and calibration. They include time series of water-surface elevation, currents, temperature, and salinity as well as temperature and salinity profiles during instrument deployment and retrieval. Comparisons between model predictions and field observations show an overall reasonable agreement in both temporal and spatial scales. Comparisons of

  13. ASYMPTOTIC COMPARISONS OF U-STATISTICS, V-STATISTICS AND LIMITS OF BAYES ESTIMATES BY DEFICIENCIES

    OpenAIRE

    Toshifumi, Nomachi; Hajime, Yamato; Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University:Miyakonojo College of Technology; Faculty of Science, Kagoshima University

    2001-01-01

    As estimators of estimable parameters, we consider three statistics which are U-statistic, V-statistic and limit of Bayes estimate. This limit of Bayes estimate, called LB-statistic in this paper, is obtained from Bayes estimate of estimable parameter based on Dirichlet process, by letting its parameter tend to zero. For the estimable parameter with non-degenerate kernel, the asymptotic relative efficiencies of LB-statistic with respect to U-statistic and V-statistic and that of V-statistic w...

  14. Distribution of some biochemical compounds in the sediments of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Dhople, V.M.

    Surficial sediment samples collected from the continental shelf and slope of the Bay of Bengal were studied for the distribution of organic carbon and its constituent fractions such as carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids and lipids. Organic carbon...

  15. Holocene depositional history of a large glaciated estuary, Penobscot Bay, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Data from seismic-reflection profiles, sidescan sonar images, and sediment samples reveal the Holocene depositional history of the large (1100 km2) glaciated Penobscot Bay estuary of coastal Maine. Previous work has shown that the late Wisconsinan ice sheet retreated from the three main passages of the bay between 12,700 and 13,500 years ago and was accompanied by a marine transgression during which ice and sea were in contact. Isostatic recovery of the crust caused the bay to emerge during the immediate postglacial period, and relative sea level fell to at least -40 m sometime between 9000 and 11,500 years ago. During lowered sea level, the ancestral Penobscot River flowed across the subaerially exposed head of the bay and debouched into Middle Passage. Organic-matter-rich mud from the river was deposited rapidly in remnant, glacially scoured depressions in the lower reaches of Middle and West Passages behind a shallow (???20 m water depth) bedrock sill across the bay mouth. East Passage was isolated from the rest of the bay system and received only small amounts of locally derived fine-grained sediments. During the Holocene transgression that accompanied the eustatic rise of sea level, the locus of sedimentation shifted to the head of the bay. Here, heterogeneous fluvial deposits filled the ancestral valley of the Penobscot River as base level rose, and the migrating surf zone created a gently dipping erosional unconformity, marked by a thin (energy conditions and the waning influence of the Penobscot River at the head of the bay. In contrast, relatively thick (up to 25 m) silty clays accumulated within a subbottom trough in the western half of the bay head. This deposit apparently developed late in the transgression after sea level had reached -20 m and after the westward transport of fine-grained sediments from the Penobscot River had been established. During and since the late Holocene transgression of sea level, waves and currents have eroded, reworked, and

  16. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of surface circulation in the Bay of Bengal from TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Somayajulu, Y.K.; Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, Y.V.B.

    - west monsoon period, (Fig. 5c) reflected the Fig.3. Variation of (a) Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and (b) SST anomaly(Del. SST) in the Western Equatorial Pacific (WEP, NINO4, 51N–51S; 1601E–1501W) during the 5-year period (January1993–December 1997.... Inter-annual variation of SSH anomalyat selected locations: (a) off Sumatra (EEIO), (b) southern bay(SB), (c) eastern bay (EB), (d) northern bay(NB), (e) western bay(WB), and (f) central bay(CB). SST anomaly(Del. SST) is shown bydashed line in (a). Y...

  17. Differential effects of human activity on Hawaiian spinner dolphins in their resting bays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Heenehan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hawaiian spinner dolphins display predictable daily behavior, using shallow bays to rest during the daytime, bays that are also frequented by humans. All previous research on the potential response of Hawaiian spinner dolphins to human activity has been conducted visually, at the surface. In this study we take a different approach by using passive acoustic monitoring to analyze dolphin behavior and assess whether human activity affects the behavior of the animals. We used days (n=99 and hours (n=641 when dolphins were confirmed present in visual surveys between January 9, 2011 and August 15, 2012 and metrics generated from concomitant 30-second sound recordings (n=9615. Previous research found that the dolphins were predictably silent during rest and that acoustic activity matched general activity of the dolphins with higher acoustic activity before and after rest, and silence during rest. The daily pattern of dolphin whistle activity in Bay 2 and 4 (Kealakekua and Kauhako matched what would be expected from this earlier work. However, in Bay 1 and 3 (Makako and Honaunau there was no drop in dolphin whistle activity during rest. After assessing the relationship between time of day and dolphin acoustic activity, data on human presence were used to determine how variability in the dolphins’ acoustic activity might be explained by human activity (i.e. the number of vessels, kayaks and swimmer snorkelers present. Bay 2, the bay with the most human activity, showed no relationship between dolphin whistle activity and human presence (either vessels, kayaks, or swimmer/snorkelers. Although the relationships were weak, Bay 1 displayed a positive relationship between dolphin whistle activity and the number of vessels and swimmer/snorkelers present in the bay. Bay 4 also showed a positive relationship between dolphin whistle activity and the number of swimmer snorkelers. We also documented less sound being added to the soundscape with each additional

  18. Influence of environmental settings on the prevalence of Trichodesmium spp. in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hegde, S.; Anil, A.C.; Patil, J.S.; Mitbavkar, S.; Venkat, K.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.

    ) Influence of physical pro- cesses and freshwater discharge on the seasonality of phytoplankton regime in the Bay of Bengal. Cont Shelf Res 20:313–330 Gordon AL (2001) Interocean exchange. In: Sidler G, Church J, Gould J (eds) Ocean circulation and climate...: acanil@nio.org Influence of environmental settings on the prevalence of Trichodesmium spp. in the Bay of Bengal Sahana Hegde, Arga Chandrashekar Anil*, Jagadish S. Patil, Smita Mitbavkar, Venkat Krishnamurthy, Vissa V. Gopalakrishna National Institute...

  19. The geology of the Collins Bay uranium deposit, Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Collins Bay deposit lies within the Churchill Province on the western edge of the Wollaston lithostructural domain where it underlies the eastern edge of the Helikian Athabasca Formation. It is 6 miles north-northeast of the Rabbit Lake mine. Two principal zones of uranium mineralization are described. The A zone, a partly eroded, high-grade pod of metal oxide and arsenides sheathed by clay-like minerals, which trends north-northeast and lies under 25 to 40 feet of water; and the B zone, which lies 6 000 ft south of the A, subcrops under till cover and is a partly eroded zone composed of metal oxide and arsenides which occur within variably altered Athabasca Formation. The deposit is typical of the unconformity-type uranium-nickel deposits of the Athabasca Basin. Observed features fit well with the diagenetic-hydrothermal model for such deposts. (auth)

  20. Analysis of Level of Technogenic Impact on Water Area of Uglovoy Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, V. I.; Petrova, E. A.; Losev, O. V.

    2017-11-01

    Industrial effluent discharge and man-induced soil fills play a decisive role in increased pollutant concentrations. Several areas which are unfavorable in terms of the heavy metal and oil product content have been identified by the environmental monitoring results in the Uglovoy Bay in February 2015. Maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) of heavy metals and oil products were exceeded in the northeastern part of the Uglovoy Bay in locations where the Peschanka River and the Aerodromnaya River drain into the sea. Integral heavy-metal index calculations showed that this area is the most polluted in the Uglovoy Bay. Other significantly polluted areas were identified off the Zima Yuzhnaya settlement in the mouth of the bay and in vicinity of the low-level bridge.

  1. Status of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Oscillation Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Cheng-Ju Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The last unknown neutrino mixing angle θ 13 is one of the fundamental parameters of nature; it is also a crucial parameter for determining the sensitivity of future long-baseline experiments aimed to study CP violation in the neutrino sector. Daya Bay is a reactor neutrino oscillation experiment designed to achieve a sensitivity on the value of sin 2 (2*θ 13 ) to better than 0.01 at 90% CL. The experiment consists of multiple identical detectors placed underground at different baselines to minimize systematic errors and suppress cosmogenic backgrounds. With the baseline design, the expected anti-neutrino signal at the far site is about 360 events per day and at each of the near sites is about 1500 events per day. An overview and current status of the experiment will be presented.

  2. Trends and habitat associations of waterbirds using the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; Strong, Cheryl; Krause, John; Wang, Yiwei; Takekawa, John Y.

    2018-04-02

    Executive SummaryThe aim of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (hereinafter “Project”) is to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds to tidal marsh in San Francisco Bay (SFB). However, hundreds of thousands of waterbirds use these ponds over winter and during fall and spring migration. To ensure that existing waterbird populations are supported while tidal marsh is restored in the Project area, managers plan to enhance the habitat suitability of ponds by adding islands and berms to change pond topography, manipulating water salinity and depth, and selecting appropriate ponds to maintain for birds. To help inform these actions, we used 13 years of monthly (October–April) bird abundance data from Project ponds to (1) assess trends in waterbird abundance since the inception of the Project, and (2) evaluate which pond habitat characteristics were associated with highest abundances of different avian guilds and species. For comparison, we also evaluated waterbird abundance trends in active salt production ponds using 10 years of monthly survey data.We assessed bird guild and species abundance trends through time, and created separate trend curves for Project and salt production ponds using data from every pond that was counted in a year. We divided abundance data into three seasons—fall (October–November), winter (December–February), and spring (March–April). We used the resulting curves to assess which periods had the highest bird abundance and to identify increasing or decreasing trends for each guild and species.

  3. Sources and historical record of tin and butyl-tin species in a Mediterranean bay (Toulon Bay, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Frédérique; Schäfer, Jörg; Dutruch, Lionel; Garnier, Cédric; Tessier, Erwan; Dang, Duc Huy; Lanceleur, Laurent; Mullot, Jean-Ulrich; Lenoble, Véronique; Blanc, Gérard

    2014-05-01

    Concentrations of inorganic tin (Sn(inorg)), tributyltin (TBT) and its degradation products dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) were measured in surface sediments and in two cores from the Toulon Bay, hosting the major French military harbour. Anticipating planned dredging, the aim of the present work is to map and evaluate for the first time the recent and historic contamination of these sediments by inorganic and organic Sn species derived from antifouling paints used for various naval domains including military, trade, tourism and leisure. Tin and butyl-Sn concentrations in the bay varied strongly (4 orders of magnitude), depending on the site, showing maximum values near the shipyards. The concentrations of total Sn (1.3-112 μg g(-1)), TBT (product Sn(inorgBT) is by far the dominant species after 10-12 half-life periods and (c) using recent data to reliably assess former TBT contamination requires the use of a modified butyl-Sn degradation index BDI(mod). Resuspension of extremely contaminated subsurface sediments by the scheduled dredging will probably result in mobilization of important amounts of butyl-Sn species.

  4. Autumn photoproduction of carbon monoxide in Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chunyan; Yang, Guipeng; Lu, Xiaolan

    2014-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) plays a significant role in global warming and atmospheric chemistry. Global oceans are net natural sources of atmospheric CO. CO at surface ocean is primarily produced from the photochemical degradation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). In this study, the effects of photobleaching, temperature and the origin (terrestrial or marine) of CDOM on the apparent quantum yields (AQY) of CO were studied for seawater samples collected from Jiaozhou Bay. Our results demonstrat that photobleaching, temperature and the origin of CDOM strongly affected the efficiency of CO photoproduction. The concentration, absorbance and fluorescence of CDOM exponentially decreased with increasing light dose. Terrestrial riverine organic matter could be more prone to photodegradation than the marine algae-derived one. The relationships between CO AQY and the dissolved organic carbon-specific absorption coefficient at 254 nm for the photobleaching study were nonlinear, whereas those of the original samples were strongly linear. This suggests that: 1) terrestrial riverine CDOM was more efficient than marine algae-derived CDOM for CO photoproduction; 2) aromatic and olefinic moieties of the CDOM pool were affected more strongly by degradation processes than by aliphatic ones. Water temperature and the origin of CDOM strongly affected the efficiency of CO photoproduction. The photoproduction rate of CO in autumn was estimated to be 31.98 μmol m-2 d-1 and the total DOC photomineralization was equivalent to 3.25%-6.35% of primary production in Jiaozhou Bay. Our results indicate that CO photochemistry in coastal areas is important for oceanic carbon cycle.

  5. Degradation of tributyltin in San Diego Bay, California, waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seligman, P.F.; Valkirs, A.O.; Lee, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Several experiments were carried out to determine the degradation rate of tributyltin (TBT) in microcosms containing harbor water. Unlabeled or 14 C-labeled tributyltin was added to water samples collected from two stations in San Diego Bay, CA. Degradation rates were determined by calculating the rate of loss of the added parent TBT compound. Calculated half-lives in water collected from a yacht harbor (ambient concentration was 0.5 μg of TBT/L) were 6 and 7 days for light and dark treatments, respectively. Half-lives from a clean-water site ( 14 CO 2 , proceeded slowly with a half-life of 50-75 days. Tributyltin at high concentrations (744 μg/L) was not degraded in sunlight, indicating that photolysis was not taking place and that biological degradation was the primary degradative process for TBT at low ambient concentrations

  6. Recent 137Cs deposition in sediments of Admiralty Bay, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Santos, Isaac R.; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R.; Schaefer, Carlos; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.

    2010-01-01

    Cesium-137, radium-226 and lead-210 profiles of a 25 cm sediment core give an indication of recent changes in land-ocean interactions at a polar coastal environment (Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica). The linear sedimentation accumulation rate at the study site calculated from the unsupported 210 Pb profile was 6.7 mm/year from 1965 to 2005. A 3.5-fold increase in 137 Cs concentrations was observed in the top layer of this sediment core. This sharp increase seems to indicate a recent redistribution of fallout radionuclides previously deposited on soil, vegetation and snow. These results imply enhanced land-ocean interactions at this site likely as a result of climate change. Because our results are based on a single core, additional investigations are needed to confirm our observations.

  7. Nesting ecology of roseate spoonbills at Nueces Bay, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Donald H.; Mitchell, Christine A.; Cromartie, E.

    1982-01-01

    We conducted a study in 1978-1980 of the nesting ecology of Roseate Spoonbills (Ajaia ajaja) in a relatively polluted environment at Nueces Bay, Texas. For 154 marked nests, the average clutch size was 3.0 eggs; 73% of the eggs hatched, and 87% of the nests were successful (hatched at least 1 young). The average nest success rate (total fledglings:total eggs) was 50% or 1.5 fledglings per total nests. Incubation began the day after the first egg was laid, and the incubation period for each egg was 22 days. Eggs hatched in the order that they were laid; the first and second eggs hatched on consecutive days, and the second, third, and fourth eggs hatched every other day. Nest composition and size were highly consistent, but nest placement varied considerably and was dependent on the vegetative configuration of the dredge-material islands. Growth rate of nestlings conformed to a 'standard' growth curve, where body weight of nestlings at fledging equaled that of adults. There was no difference in weight gain among siblings based on actual age. Nestlings fledged at about 6 weeks of age, when feather development was complete. At fledging, the bills of juveniles had almost reached adult width, but bill length was only 67% that of adults. In general, environmental pollutants were low (<2 ppm) in spoonbill eggs, though a few eggs contained elevated concentrations of DDE (up to 15 ppm, wet weight). Some eggshells were 5% thinner than those in museum collections, but the degree of thinning was not within the range known to cause population declines. We conclude that organochlorine pollutants are not adversely affecting spoonbill reproduction at Nueces Bay, Texas, though the area is surrounded by industries and agricultural lands. Apparently, spoonbills are less sensitive to these contaminants than are other aquatic species.

  8. Mixing Bayes and empirical Bayes inference to anticipate the realization of engineering concerns about variant system designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, John; Walls, Lesley

    2011-01-01

    Mixing Bayes and Empirical Bayes inference provides reliability estimates for variant system designs by using relevant failure data - observed and anticipated - about engineering changes arising due to modification and innovation. A coherent inference framework is proposed to predict the realization of engineering concerns during product development so that informed decisions can be made about the system design and the analysis conducted to prove reliability. The proposed method involves combining subjective prior distributions for the number of engineering concerns with empirical priors for the non-parametric distribution of time to realize these concerns in such a way that we can cross-tabulate classes of concerns to failure events within time partitions at an appropriate level of granularity. To support efficient implementation, a computationally convenient hypergeometric approximation is developed for the counting distributions appropriate to our underlying stochastic model. The accuracy of our approximation over first-order alternatives is examined, and demonstrated, through an evaluation experiment. An industrial application illustrates model implementation and shows how estimates can be updated using information arising during development test and analysis.

  9. The preliminary success of ALARA implementation in Daya Bay NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Maochun; Chen Degan

    2000-01-01

    Based on the practical condition of the plant and in reference to advanced management experiences worldwide, Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant has established its own peculiar management system for radiation protection management and ALARA implementation. The characteristics of the system are: radiation protection training to all workers, active involvement of all managers and staffs, and whole process safety control to maintenance activities. The management philosophy of 'workers are responsible for their own radiation safety' is adopted in the plant. A strict, formalized and systematic whole staff radiation protection training, evaluation, authorization and periodically refreshing mechanism had been established and executed in the plant. In the organizational point of view, the responsibilities of line managers were specified in plant procedures, ALARA coordination organization on plant level and for specific activities were established. Meanwhile, the plant highlighted the defining, following up, controlling and advertising of radiation protection targets. All these measures made radiation protection management be the responsibilities of a safety network in which whole staffs are involved. In the practical radiation protection activities, the plant focuses on works of high radiation risk and performs whole process control. In addition, professional radiation protection staff played an important and active role in technical advisory and control of radiation protection. Satisfactory results have been achieved in Daya Bay NPP in radiation protection in the past years. The collective dose including that of contractors per unit and year have been declining from 0.99 man·Sv/Unit·Year in 1995 to 0.667 man·Sv/Unit·Year in 1998, which were consistently lower than the best quartile result of PWR plants in WANO reports each year. Individual dose was also controlled at a very low level, no one was overexposed in the past years

  10. Coordinated Field Campaigns in Chesapeake Bay and Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Antonio; Novak, Michael; Tzortziou, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's GEOstationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission concept recommended by the U.S. National Research Council (2007) focuses on measurements of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols and aquatic coastal ecology and biogeochemistry from geostationary orbit (35,786 km altitude). Two GEO-CAPE-sponsored multi-investigator ship-based field campaigns were conducted to coincide with the NASA Earth Venture Suborbital project DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaigns: (1) Chesapeake Bay in July 2011 and (2) northwestern Gulf of Mexico in September 2013. Goal: to evaluate whether GEO-CAPE coastal mission measurement and instrument requirements are optimized to address science objectives while minimizing ocean color satellite sensor complexity, size and cost - critical mission risk reduction activities. NASA continues to support science studies related to the analysis of data collected as part of these coordinated field campaigns and smaller efforts.

  11. DNA Barcoding of Ichthyoplankton in Hampton Roads Bay Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, N.; Rodríguez, Á. E.

    2016-02-01

    Zooplankton is composed of animals that drift within the water column. The study of zooplankton biodiversity and distribution is crucial to understand oceanic ecosystems and anticipate the effects of climate change. In this study our focus is on ichthyoplankton (fish eggs and larvae). Our aim is to employ molecular genetic techniques such as DNA barcoding to begin a detailed characterization of ichthyoplankton diversity, abundance and community structure in the Hampton Roads Bay Estuary (HRBE). A sampling of zooplankton was performed on June 19, 2015. Samples were taken with a 0.5m, 200 µm mesh net in triplicates at two stations: inner shore in the mouth of Jones Creek and 5 miles off Hampton in the lower part of Chesapeake Bay. Physical parameters (dissolved oxygen, salinity, and temperature and water transparency) were measured simultaneously. Species were identified by DNA barcoding using the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the Cytochrome Oxidase 1 (CO1) gene. Fish eggs were identified from Opistonema oglinum (Atlantic Thread Herring) at the offshore stations while, Anchoa mitchilli was found at both stations. These species are common to the area and as observed, differences in species between stations were found. O. oglinum eggs were found in the offshore stations, which is their reported habitat. A. mitchilli eggs were found in both stations; both known to exhibit a wider salinity tolerance. This work indicates that using mtDNA-CO1 barcoding is suitable to identify ichthyoplankton to the species level and helped validate DNA barcoding as a faster taxonomic approach. The long term objective of this project is to provide taxonomic composition and biodiversity assessment of ichthyoplankton in HRBE. This data will be a reference for broad monitoring programs; for a better understanding and management of ecologically and commercially important species in the HRBE. Monthly samplings will be performed for a year beginning September 2015.

  12. Impact of Bay-Breeze Circulations on Surface Air Quality and Boundary Layer Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughner, Christopher P.; Tzortziou, Maria; Follette-Cook, Melanie; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Goldberg, Daniel; Satam, Chinmay; Weinheimer, Andrew; Crawford, James H.; Knapp, David J.; Montzka, Denise D.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Meteorological and air-quality model simulations are analyzed alongside observations to investigate the role of the Chesapeake Bay breeze on surface air quality, pollutant transport, and boundary layer venting. A case study was conducted to understand why a particular day was the only one during an 11-day ship-based field campaign on which surface ozone was not elevated in concentration over the Chesapeake Bay relative to the closest upwind site and why high ozone concentrations were observed aloft by in situ aircraft observations. Results show that southerly winds during the overnight and early-morning hours prevented the advection of air pollutants from the Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan areas over the surface waters of the bay. A strong and prolonged bay breeze developed during the late morning and early afternoon along the western coastline of the bay. The strength and duration of the bay breeze allowed pollutants to converge, resulting in high concentrations locally near the bay-breeze front within the Baltimore metropolitan area, where they were then lofted to the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Near the top of the PBL, these pollutants were horizontally advected to a region with lower PBL heights, resulting in pollution transport out of the boundary layer and into the free troposphere. This elevated layer of air pollution aloft was transported downwind into New England by early the following morning where it likely mixed down to the surface, affecting air quality as the boundary layer grew.

  13. Particulate carbohydrate in the euphotic zone of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N; De; Shirodkar, P.V.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Particulate matter collected from the Bay of Bengal was analysed for carbohydrate and chlorophyll a. The distribution of chlorophyll a was different from that of carbohydrate. Chlorophyll a increased from north to south, whereas carbohydrate levels...

  14. Evaluation of Pollution Level in Zolotoy Rog Bay (Peter the Great Gulf, the Sea of Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazachkova, Y.; Lazareva, L.; Petukhov, V.

    2017-11-01

    The results of the hydrochemical research of water and bottom sediments of the Zolotoy Rog Bay in July 2015 are presented below. It is shown that, as a result of a large amount of polluted sewage entering The Zolotoy Rog Bay, the concentrations of organic substances (BOD5) and petroleum hydrocarbons in the water exceed the MPC. The concentrations of heavy metals in soils exceed both the background level and the level of permissible values. As a result of the calculation of the bottom accumulation (CBA) coefficient for oil hydrocarbons, the situation in the Zolotoy Rog Bay can be classified as an ecological disaster. According to the total pollution index (Zc) of heavy metals, the bottom sediments of the Zolotoy Rog Bay are characterized as strongly and very strongly polluted.

  15. Soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates of Rajapur Bay, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Thirtyfour species of soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates were recorded in Rajapur Bay at the proposed effluent discharge location of nuclear power plant. The fauna mainly composed of polychaetes (42.52%), molluscs (39.03%), crustaceans (7...

  16. Surface layer conditions of the atmosphere over western Bay of Bengal during Monex

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anto, A.F.; Rao, L.V.G.; Somayajulu, Y.K.

    Based on surface meteorological data and wave data collected from 2 stations in the western Bay of Bengal in July 1979, surface layer (SL) conditions of the atmosphere for different situations of surface circulations and the associated sea surface...

  17. Distribution of calanoid copepods in the Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stephen, R.

    The distribution of calanoid copepods from the northern Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal is discussed in relation to thermocline. The inshore offshore zonation of a neritic, shelf an oceanic communities was traced based on the species composition...

  18. Ocean acidification buffering effects of seagrass in Tampa Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Moyer, Ryan P.; Moore, Christopher; Tomasko, David A.; Smiley, Nathan A.; Torres-Garcia, Legna; Powell, Christina E.; Chappel, Amanda R.; Bociu, Ioana; Smiley, Nathan; Torres-Garcia, Legna M.; Powell, Christina E.; Chappel, Amanda R.; Bociu, Ioana

    2016-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has identified ocean acidification as a critical threat to marine and estuarine species in ocean and coastal ecosystems around the world. However, seagrasses are projected to benefit from elevated atmospheric pCO2, are capable of increasing seawater pH and carbonate mineral saturation states through photosynthesis, and may help buffer against the chemical impacts of ocean acidification. Additionally, dissolution of carbonate sediments may also provide a mechanism for buffering seawater pH. Long-term water quality monitoring data from the Environmental Protection Commission of Hillsborough County indicates that seawater pH has risen since the 1980‘s as seagrass beds have continued to recover since that time. We examined the role of seagrass beds in maintaining and elevating pH and carbonate mineral saturation state in northern and southern Tampa Bay where the percent of carbonate sediments is low (40%), respectively. Basic water quality and carbonate system parameters (including pH, total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, partial pressure of CO2, and carbonate mineral saturation state) were measured over diurnal time periods along transects (50-100 m) including dense and sparse Thalassia testudinum. seagrass beds, deep edge seagrass, and adjacent bare sand bottom. Seagrass density and productivity, sediment composition and hydrodynamic parameters were also measured, concurrently. Results indicate that seagrass beds locally elevate pH by up to 0.5 pH unit and double carbonate mineral saturation states relative to bare sand habitats. Thus, seagrass beds in Tampa Bay may provide refuge for marine organisms from the impacts of ocean acidification.

  19. Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science - Tampa Bay Study - Data Information Management System (DIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James

    2004-01-01

    The Tampa Bay Integrated Science Study is an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that combines the expertise of federal, state and local partners to address some of the most pressing ecological problems of the Tampa Bay estuary. This project serves as a template for the application of integrated research projects in other estuaries in the Gulf of Mexico. Efficient information and data distribution for the Tampa Bay Study has required the development of a Data Information Management System (DIMS). This information system is being used as an outreach management tool, providing information to scientists, decision makers and the public on the coastal resources of the Gulf of Mexico.

  20. An Intrathermocline Eddy and a tropical cyclone in the Bay of Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Arnold L.; Shroyer, Emily; Murty, V. S. N.

    2017-01-01

    The Bay of Bengal, subjected to monsoonal forcing and tropical cyclones, displays a complex field of ocean eddies. On 5 December 2013 a sub-surface vortex or Intrathermocline Eddy (ITE) composed of water characteristic of the Andaman Sea was observed within the thermocline of the western Bay of Bengal. We propose that the ITE was the product of Tropical Cyclone Lehar interaction on 27 November 2013 with a westward propagating surface eddy from the eastern Bay of Bengal. While Lehar?s interact...

  1. Mineralogy of a Mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Ming, D. W.; Bristow, T. F.; Morris, R. V.; Blake, D. F.; Chipera, S. J.; Morrison, S. M.; Treiman, A. H.; Rampe, E. B.; Rice, M.; Achilles, C. N.; Grotzinger, J. P.; McLennan, S. M.; Williams, J.; Bell, J. F.; Newsom, H. E.; Downs, R. T.; Maurice, S.; Sarrazin, P.; Yen, A. S.; Morookian, J. M.; Farmer, J. D.; Stack, K.; Milliken, R. E.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Sumner, D. Y.; Berger, G.; Crisp, J. A.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Anderson, R.; Des Marais, D. J.; Stolper, E. M.; Edgett, K. S.; Gupta, S.; Spanovich, N.; Agard, Christophe; Alves Verdasca, José Alexandre; Anderson, Ryan; Archer, Doug; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Arvidson, Ray; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Atreya, Sushil; Aubrey, Andrew; Baker, Burt; Baker, Michael; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Baratoux, David; Baroukh, Julien; Barraclough, Bruce; Bean, Keri; Beegle, Luther; Behar, Alberto; Bender, Steve; Benna, Mehdi; Bentz, Jennifer; Berger, Jeff; Berman, Daniel; Blanco Avalos, Juan J.; Blaney, Diana; Blank, Jen; Blau, Hannah; Bleacher, Lora; Boehm, Eckart; Botta, Oliver; Böttcher, Stephan; Boucher, Thomas; Bower, Hannah; Boyd, Nick; Boynton, Bill; Breves, Elly; Bridges, John; Bridges, Nathan; Brinckerhoff, William; Brinza, David; Brunet, Claude; Brunner, Anna; Brunner, Will; Buch, Arnaud; Bullock, Mark; Burmeister, Sönke; Cabane, Michel; Calef, Fred; Cameron, James; Campbell, John “Iain”; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Caride Rodríguez, Javier; Carmosino, Marco; Carrasco Blázquez, Isaías; Charpentier, Antoine; Choi, David; Clark, Benton; Clegg, Sam; Cleghorn, Timothy; Cloutis, Ed; Cody, George; Coll, Patrice; Conrad, Pamela; Coscia, David; Cousin, Agnès; Cremers, David; Cros, Alain; Cucinotta, Frank; d'Uston, Claude; Davis, Scott; Day, Mackenzie “Kenzie”; de la Torre Juarez, Manuel; DeFlores, Lauren; DeLapp, Dorothea; DeMarines, Julia; Dietrich, William; Dingler, Robert; Donny, Christophe; Drake, Darrell; Dromart, Gilles; Dupont, Audrey; Duston, Brian; Dworkin, Jason; Dyar, M. Darby; Edgar, Lauren; Edwards, Christopher; Edwards, Laurence; Ehresmann, Bent; Eigenbrode, Jen; Elliott, Beverley; Elliott, Harvey; Ewing, Ryan; Fabre, Cécile; Fairén, Alberto; Farley, Ken; Fassett, Caleb; Favot, Laurent; Fay, Donald; Fedosov, Fedor; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Fisk, Marty; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Flesch, Greg; Floyd, Melissa; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Forni, Olivier; Fraeman, Abby; Francis, Raymond; François, Pascaline; Franz, Heather; Freissinet, Caroline; French, Katherine Louise; Frydenvang, Jens; Gaboriaud, Alain; Gailhanou, Marc; Garvin, James; Gasnault, Olivier; Geffroy, Claude; Gellert, Ralf; Genzer, Maria; Glavin, Daniel; Godber, Austin; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Golovin, Dmitry; Gómez Gómez, Felipe; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Gondet, Brigitte; Gordon, Suzanne; Gorevan, Stephen; Grant, John; Griffes, Jennifer; Grinspoon, David; Guillemot, Philippe; Guo, Jingnan; Guzewich, Scott; Haberle, Robert; Halleaux, Douglas; Hallet, Bernard; Hamilton, Vicky; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Harpold, Daniel; Harri, Ari-Matti; Harshman, Karl; Hassler, Donald; Haukka, Harri; Hayes, Alex; Herkenhoff, Ken; Herrera, Paul; Hettrich, Sebastian; Heydari, Ezat; Hipkin, Victoria; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Hudgins, Judy; Huntress, Wesley; Hviid, Stubbe; Iagnemma, Karl; Indyk, Steve; Israël, Guy; Jackson, Ryan; Jacob, Samantha; Jakosky, Bruce; Jensen, Elsa; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Johnson, Jeffrey; Johnson, Micah; Johnstone, Steve; Jones, Andrea; Jones, John; Joseph, Jonathan; Jun, Insoo; Kah, Linda; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kahre, Melinda; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kasprzak, Wayne; Kauhanen, Janne; Keely, Leslie; Kemppinen, Osku; Keymeulen, Didier; Kim, Myung-Hee; Kinch, Kjartan; King, Penny; Kirkland, Laurel; Kocurek, Gary; Koefoed, Asmus; Köhler, Jan; Kortmann, Onno; Kozyrev, Alexander; Krezoski, Jill; Krysak, Daniel; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Lacour, Jean Luc; Lafaille, Vivian; Langevin, Yves; Lanza, Nina; Lasue, Jeremie; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Lee, Ella Mae; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Lees, David; Lefavor, Matthew; Lemmon, Mark; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Leshin, Laurie; Léveillé, Richard; Lewin-Carpintier, Éric; Lewis, Kevin; Li, Shuai; Lipkaman, Leslie; Little, Cynthia; Litvak, Maxim; Lorigny, Eric; Lugmair, Guenter; Lundberg, Angela; Lyness, Eric; Madsen, Morten; Mahaffy, Paul; Maki, Justin; Malakhov, Alexey; Malespin, Charles; Malin, Michael; Mangold, Nicolas; Manhes, Gérard; Manning, Heidi; Marchand, Geneviève; Marín Jiménez, Mercedes; Martín García, César; Martin, Dave; Martin, Mildred; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Mauchien, Patrick; McAdam, Amy; McCartney, Elaina; McConnochie, Timothy; McCullough, Emily; McEwan, Ian; McKay, Christopher; McNair, Sean; Melikechi, Noureddine; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Meyer, Michael; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Miller, Hayden; Miller, Kristen; Minitti, Michelle; Mischna, Michael; Mitrofanov, Igor; Moersch, Jeff; Mokrousov, Maxim; Molina Jurado, Antonio; Moores, John; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Muller, Jan-Peter; Muñoz Caro, Guillermo; Nachon, Marion; Navarro López, Sara; Navarro-González, Rafael; Nealson, Kenneth; Nefian, Ara; Nelson, Tony; Newcombe, Megan; Newman, Claire; Nikiforov, Sergey; Niles, Paul; Nixon, Brian; Noe Dobrea, Eldar; Nolan, Thomas; Oehler, Dorothy; Ollila, Ann; Olson, Timothy; Owen, Tobias; de Pablo Hernández, Miguel Ángel; Paillet, Alexis; Pallier, Etienne; Palucis, Marisa; Parker, Timothy; Parot, Yann; Patel, Kiran; Paton, Mark; Paulsen, Gale; Pavlov, Alex; Pavri, Betina; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pepin, Robert; Peret, Laurent; Perez, Rene; Perrett, Glynis; Peterson, Joe; Pilorget, Cedric; Pinet, Patrick; Pla-García, Jorge; Plante, Ianik; Poitrasson, Franck; Polkko, Jouni; Popa, Radu; Posiolova, Liliya; Posner, Arik; Pradler, Irina; Prats, Benito; Prokhorov, Vasily; Purdy, Sharon Wilson; Raaen, Eric; Radziemski, Leon; Rafkin, Scot; Ramos, Miguel; Raulin, François; Ravine, Michael; Reitz, Günther; Rennó, Nilton; Richardson, Mark; Robert, François; Robertson, Kevin; Rodriguez Manfredi, José Antonio; Romeral-Planelló, Julio J.; Rowland, Scott; Rubin, David; Saccoccio, Muriel; Salamon, Andrew; Sandoval, Jennifer; Sanin, Anton; Sans Fuentes, Sara Alejandra; Saper, Lee; Sautter, Violaine; Savijärvi, Hannu; Schieber, Juergen; Schmidt, Mariek; Schmidt, Walter; Scholes, Daniel “Dan”; Schoppers, Marcel; Schröder, Susanne; Schwenzer, Susanne; Sebastian Martinez, Eduardo; Sengstacken, Aaron; Shterts, Ruslan; Siebach, Kirsten; Siili, Tero; Simmonds, Jeff; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Slavney, Susie; Sletten, Ronald; Smith, Michael; Sobrón Sánchez, Pablo; Spray, John; Squyres, Steven; Stalport, Fabien; Steele, Andrew; Stein, Thomas; Stern, Jennifer; Stewart, Noel; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Stoiber, Kevin; Sucharski, Bob; Sullivan, Rob; Summons, Roger; Sun, Vivian; Supulver, Kimberley; Sutter, Brad; Szopa, Cyril; Tan, Florence; Tate, Christopher; Teinturier, Samuel; ten Kate, Inge; Thomas, Peter; Thompson, Lucy; Tokar, Robert; Toplis, Mike; Torres Redondo, Josefina; Trainer, Melissa; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; VanBommel, Scott; Varenikov, Alexey; Vasavada, Ashwin; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Vicenzi, Edward; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Voytek, Mary; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Ward, Jennifer; Webster, Chris; Weigle, Eddie; Wellington, Danika; Westall, Frances; Wiens, Roger Craig; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Williams, Amy; Williams, Rebecca; Williams, Richard B. “Mouser”; Wilson, Mike; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Wolff, Mike; Wong, Mike; Wray, James; Wu, Megan; Yana, Charles; Yingst, Aileen; Zeitlin, Cary; Zimdar, Robert; Zorzano Mier, María-Paz

    2014-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks at Yellowknife Bay (Gale crater) on Mars include mudstone sampled by the Curiosity rover. The samples, John Klein and Cumberland, contain detrital basaltic minerals, calcium sulfates, iron oxide or hydroxides, iron sulfides, amorphous material, and trioctahedral smectites. The John Klein smectite has basal spacing of ~10 angstroms, indicating little interlayer hydration. The Cumberland smectite has basal spacing at both ~13.2 and ~10 angstroms. The larger spacing suggests a partially chloritized interlayer or interlayer magnesium or calcium facilitating H2O retention. Basaltic minerals in the mudstone are similar to those in nearby eolian deposits. However, the mudstone has far less Fe-forsterite, possibly lost with formation of smectite plus magnetite. Late Noachian/Early Hesperian or younger age indicates that clay mineral formation on Mars extended beyond Noachian time.

  2. Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale crater, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, D T; Bish, D L; Ming, D W; Bristow, T F; Morris, R V; Blake, D F; Chipera, S J; Morrison, S M; Treiman, A H; Rampe, E B; Rice, M; Achilles, C N; Grotzinger, J P; McLennan, S M; Williams, J; Bell, J F; Newsom, H E; Downs, R T; Maurice, S; Sarrazin, P; Yen, A S; Morookian, J M; Farmer, J D; Stack, K; Milliken, R E; Ehlmann, B L; Sumner, D Y; Berger, G; Crisp, J A; Hurowitz, J A; Anderson, R; Des Marais, D J; Stolper, E M; Edgett, K S; Gupta, S; Spanovich, N

    2014-01-24

    Sedimentary rocks at Yellowknife Bay (Gale crater) on Mars include mudstone sampled by the Curiosity rover. The samples, John Klein and Cumberland, contain detrital basaltic minerals, calcium sulfates, iron oxide or hydroxides, iron sulfides, amorphous material, and trioctahedral smectites. The John Klein smectite has basal spacing of ~10 angstroms, indicating little interlayer hydration. The Cumberland smectite has basal spacing at both ~13.2 and ~10 angstroms. The larger spacing suggests a partially chloritized interlayer or interlayer magnesium or calcium facilitating H2O retention. Basaltic minerals in the mudstone are similar to those in nearby eolian deposits. However, the mudstone has far less Fe-forsterite, possibly lost with formation of smectite plus magnetite. Late Noachian/Early Hesperian or younger age indicates that clay mineral formation on Mars extended beyond Noachian time.

  3. Account of the littoral diatoms from Langebaan, Saldanha bay, Cape province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available collec ted in a small bay near the holiday resort of Langebaan (long. 18,02 E, lat. 33,05 5) on the eastern shore of Saldanha Bay. Saldanha Bay is situated on the western coast of South Africa some 110 km north of Cape Town, and forms a long narrow... per annum about 79% during April to September (i.e. winter rainfall). The region can therefore be regarded as semi-desert. The salinity of the sea water at Langebaan was 35 0/00. The average temperature range of the air in summer is from 16.5? C...

  4. A theory of causal learning in children: causal maps and Bayes nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopnik, Alison; Glymour, Clark; Sobel, David M; Schulz, Laura E; Kushnir, Tamar; Danks, David

    2004-01-01

    The authors outline a cognitive and computational account of causal learning in children. They propose that children use specialized cognitive systems that allow them to recover an accurate "causal map" of the world: an abstract, coherent, learned representation of the causal relations among events. This kind of knowledge can be perspicuously understood in terms of the formalism of directed graphical causal models, or Bayes nets. Children's causal learning and inference may involve computations similar to those for learning causal Bayes nets and for predicting with them. Experimental results suggest that 2- to 4-year-old children construct new causal maps and that their learning is consistent with the Bayes net formalism.

  5. Seasonality in the Mesozooplankton Community of Delaware Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickline, A.; Cohen, J.

    2016-02-01

    Zooplankton communities in temperate estuaries undergo seasonal shifts in abundance and species composition, though the physical/biological mechanisms behind these shifts vary among systems. Delaware Bay is a well-mixed estuary on the mid-Atlantic coast with predictable seasonal variation in environmental conditions and circulation. To understand factors influencing mesozooplankton community dynamics in this system, we conducted seasonal sampling at 16 stations over the estuary's salinity range in 2014-2015. Sampling paralleled the last similar investigation into Delaware Bay zooplankton, conducted in the early 1950s. Biomass, measured as dry weight and totaled for all stations, was low in late summer and high in spring and fall. Bio-volume, measured either as displacement volume or calculated from ZooScan processing to exclude detritus, also showed a similar pattern. Across seasons, the mesozooplankton community was dominated by copepods, representing over 60% of the relative abundance at each station. Acartia tonsa was the dominant calanoid species in summer and fall, with abundances up to 7,353 ind. m-3, which is similar to the 1950s. In spring, Centropages hamatus and C. typicus were dominant at densities up to 2,550 ind. m-3 throughout the estuary, which is an increase from the 1950s. Environmental data suggest the seasonal shift in dominance from neritic Centropages to estuarine Acartia could be driven by increased stratification of the estuary during periods of high river discharge in spring, creating a two-layer system with a bottom advection current fed by the coastal ocean, bringing coastal species into the estuary. As river discharge decreases, the advection current is reduced, creating a well-mixed estuary and allowing Acartia to dominante. As river discharge is ultimately determined by precipitation, which is predicted to increase during winter with climate change in this region, the phenology of mesozooplankton species dynamics could shift as well.

  6. Biochemical composition and caloric potential of zooplankton from Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreepada, R.A.; Rivonker, C.U.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Proximate composition and variations in protein, lipid, carbohydrate, ash and organic carbon in zooplankton from 42 stations in the Bay of Bengal are reported. Average percentages of moisture, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, ash and carbon were 85...

  7. Detection of Bay of Bengal eddies from TOPEX and in situ observations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, A.K.S.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Ali, M.M.; Sharma, R.

    good qualitative agreement with the subsurface isotherm features (troughs and ridges) of the in situ temperature profiles. However, this agreement does not extend to the surface and hence SST patterns are not good indicators of eddy positions in the Bay...

  8. Circulation and distribution of some hydrographical properties during the late winter in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.P.; Sastry, J.S.

    Charts showing dynamic topography, mass distribution, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and inorganic phosphate in the upper layers of the Bay of Bengal for the late winter period were analysed and presented. The near surface circulation has...

  9. Estimates of vertical velocities and eddy coefficients in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.

    Vertical velocities and eddy coefficients in the intermediate depths of the Bay of Bengal are calculated from mean hydrographic data for 300 miles-squares. The linear current density (sigma- O) versus log-depth plots show steady balance between...

  10. Eficiência Energética na Indústria da Fundição

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Miguel Alexandre da Silva

    2016-01-01

    O trabalho proposto teve como objetivo a redução no consumo de energia elétrica de uma empresa de fundição, através do desenvolvimento de atividades e operações de melhoria contínua para suporte na gestão de produção. A ação teve como meta atingir uma redução de custos até 20% do nível do consumo de energia elétrica global pela empresa. Esta redução visou permitir e contribuir para a melhoria de várias condições: a redução do impacto ambiental ao nível da redução das emissões através de um...

  11. Occurrence and distribution of antibiotics in coastal water of the Bohai Bay, China: Impacts of river discharge and aquaculture activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Shichun; Xu Weihai; Zhang Ruijie; Tang Jianhui; Chen Yingjun; Zhang Gan

    2011-01-01

    The presence of 21 antibiotics in six different groups was investigated in coastal water of the Bohai Bay. Meantime, to illuminate the potential effects caused by the river discharge and aquaculture activities, wastewater from three breeding plants and surface water from six rivers flowing into the Bohai Bay were also analyzed for the selected antibiotics. The result revealed that measured antibiotics in the North Bobai Bay were generally higher than those in the South, highlighting the remarkable effects of high density of human activities on the exposure of antibiotics in environment. The antibiotics found in the six rivers were generally higher than those in the Bohai Bay reflecting the important antibiotics source of river discharge. This study reveals that the high consumption of some antibiotics in aquaculture activities may pose high ecological risk to the bay. - Highlights: → Some antibiotics were ubiquitous with high concentration in the Bohai bay, North China. → The antibiotics were mainly from the six rivers discharge around the Bay. → Antibiotics are commonly used in aquaculture activities around the Bay. → Aquaculture was suggested to be an important antibiotics source in the Bay. - River discharge and aquaculture were suggested to be important sources for antibiotics occurred in the coastal water of the Bohai Bay, North China.

  12. Data from studies of previous radioactive waste disposal in Massachusetts Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, W.R.; Mardis, H.M.

    1984-12-01

    This report presents the results of studies conducted in Massachusetts Bay during 1981 and 1982. Included are data from: (1) a side scan sonar survey of disposal areas in the Bay that was carried out by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for EPA; (2) Collections of sediment and biota by NOAA for radiochemical analysis by EPA; (3) collections of marketplace seafood samples by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for radioanalysis by both FDA and EPA; and (4) a radiological monitoring survey of LLW disposal areas by EPA to determine whether there should be any concern for public health resulting from previous LLW disposals in the Bay

  13. Remotely Sensing Pollution: Detection and Monitoring of PCBs in the San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, A.; Kudela, R. M.; Bausell, J.

    2016-12-01

    While the EPA banned polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 1977, they continue to persist in San Francisco Bay (SF Bay), often at dangerously high concentrations due to their long half-life. However, in spite of their associated health and environmental risks, PCB monitoring within SF Bay is extremely limited, due in large part to the high costs, both in terms of labor and capital that are associated with it. In this study, a cost effective alternative to in-situ PCB sampling is presented by demonstrating the feasibility of PCB detection via remote sensing. This was done by first establishing relationships between in-situ measurements of sum of 40 PCB concentrations and total suspended sediment concentration (SSC) collected from 1998-2006 at 37 stations distributed throughout SF Bay. A correlation was discovered for all stations at (R2 =0.32), which improved markedly upon partitioning stations into north bay, (R2 =0.64), central bay (R2 =0.80) and south bay (R2 =0.52) regions. SSC was then compared from three USGS monitoring stations with temporally consistent Landsat 8 imagery. The resulting correlation between Landsat 8 (Rrs 654) and SSC measured at USGS stations (R2 =0.50) was validated using an Airborne Visible/ Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) image. The end product is a two-step empirical algorithm that can derive PCB from Landsat 8 imagery within SF Bay. This algorithm can generate spatial PCB concentration maps for SF Bay, which can in turn be utilized to increase ability to forecast PCB concentration. The observation that correlation between AVIRIS (Rrs 657) and SSC was stronger than that of Landsat 8 suggests that the accuracy of this algorithm could be enhanced with improved atmospheric correction.

  14. Benthic foraminiferal census data from Mobile Bay, Alabama--counts of surface samples and box cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richwine, Kathryn A.; Osterman, Lisa E.

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken in order to understand recent environmental change in Mobile Bay, Alabama. For this study a series of surface sediment and box core samples was collected. The surface benthic foraminiferal data provide the modern baseline conditions of the bay and can be used as a reference for changing paleoenvironmental parameters recorded in the box cores. The 14 sampling locations were chosen in the bay to cover the wide diversity of fluvial and marine-influenced environments on both sides of the shipping channel.

  15. Late Holocene evolution of the Northeast intertidal region of Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Fernandes Souza Pinto; Maria Virgínia Alves Martins; Maria Antonieta da Conceição Rodrigues; Leandro Nogueira; Lazaro Luiz Mattos Laut; Egberto Pereira

    2016-01-01

    This work is based on the study of the core T1 collected in the Guaratiba Mangrove, located on the northeastern margin of Sepetiba Bay. Few studies dealing with the application of benthic foraminifera to study sea level changes during the Holocene have been conducted in Sepetiba Bay, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In order to fill this gap, the core T1 was studied using textural, geochemical (carbonate, total organic carbon, total sulfur and stable isotopes evaluated in Ammonia tepida) and ...

  16. Occurrence of chlorinated pesticides in mussels of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier de Brito, A.P.; De Andrade Bruening, I.M.R.; Moreira, I.; Loureiro, I.

    1999-01-01

    Present work investigates the contamination of some chlorinated pesticides in common mussels (Perna perna) from the Guanabara Bay. These mussels can be found in several points near the entrance of the Bay, where they either grow naturally or are cultivated by fishermen which make their living of this activity. Five collecting areas were studied and the concentrations of eight pesticides, namely HCB, γ-HCH, total DDT, DDD and DDE, Aldrin, Dieldrin and Endrin were determined

  17. Seasonal cycle of physical forcing and biological response in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Nuncio, M.; Narvekar, J.; Ramaiah, N.; Sardessai, S.; Gauns, M.; Fernandes, V.; Paul, J.T.; Jyothibabu, R.; Jayaraj, K.A.

    supported an efficient nutrient supply by cold core eddies. It resulted in the highest mean column integrated chlorophyll as well as primary productivity. Perennially low surface chlorophyll in the Bay of Bengal was largely controlled by the physical...

  18. Waste water discharge and its effect on the quality of water of Mahim creek and bay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Desai, B.N.

    Coastal environment around Mahim was monitored to evaluate the effects of domestic and industrial waste water discharge in Mahim Creek, Maharashtra, India. Vertical salinity and DO gradient occasionally observed in the Mahim Bay during postmonsoon...

  19. Detection of Bay of Bengal eddies from TOPEX and insitu observations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ali, M.M.; Sharma, R.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.

    Oceanic eddies are characterised by gradients in the sea surface height (SSH) and temperature both at the surface and the subsurface. However, since the Bay of Bengal waters are more stratified, the gradients in SST may not develop though...

  20. Data supporting study of Ecosystem Metabolism in Pensacola Bay estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These files house the data collected during 2013 in lower Pensacola Bay. The data were used to estimate aquatic primary production and respiration. This dataset is...

  1. A LEOPARD SEAL FROM HOUT BAY, SOUTH AFRICA Division of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On 14 October 1969 a leopard seal Hydrurga leptonyx came ashore alive at Hout Bay, Cape. Province .... 5 mm in diameter: on histological examination these proved to be small nematodes Para- filaroides sp. ... Seals, sea lions and walruses.

  2. Biodiversity inventories and conservation of the marine fishes of Bootless Bay, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The effective management and conservation of biodiversity is predicated on clearly defined conservation targets. Species number is frequently used as a metric for conservation prioritization and monitoring changes in ecosystem health. We conducted a series of synoptic surveys focusing on the fishes of the Bootless Bay region of Papua New Guinea to generate a checklist of fishes of the region. Bootless Bay lies directly south of Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea, and experiences the highest human population density of any marine area in the country. Our checklist will set a baseline against which future environmental changes can be tracked. Results We generated a checklist of 488 fish species in 72 families found in Bootless Bay during a two-week sampling effort. Using incident-based methods of species estimation, we extrapolate there to be approximately 940 fish species in Bootless Bay, one of the lowest reported numbers in Papua New Guinea. Conclusions Our data suggest that the Bootless Bay ecosystem of Papua New Guinea, while diverse in absolute terms, has lower fish biodiversity compared to other shallow marine areas within the country. These differences in faunal diversity are most likely a combination of unequal sampling effort as well as biophysical factors within Bootless Bay compounded by historical and/or contemporary anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:22849436

  3. Propagation of Tsunami-like Surface Long Waves in the Bays of a Variable Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Yu. Bazykina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the nonlinear long wave theory the regularities of solitary long wave propagation in the semi-closed bays of model and real geometry are numerically studied. In the present article the zones of wave amplification in the bay are found. The first one is located near the wave running-up on the beach (in front of the bay entrance and the other one – in the middle part of the sea basin. Wave propagation in these zones is accompanied both by significant rise and considerable fall of the sea level. Narrowing of the bay entrance and increase of the entering wave length result in decrease of the sea level maximum rises and falls. The Feodosiya Gulf in the Black Sea is considered as a real basin. In general the dynamics of the waves in the gulf is similar to wave dynamics in the model bay. Four zones of the strongest wave amplification in the Feodosiya Gulf are revealed in the article. The sea level maximum rises and extreme falls which tend to grow with decrease of the entering wave length are observed in these zones. The distance traveled by the wave before the collapse (due to non-linear effects, was found to reduce with decreasing wavelength of the entrance to the bay (gulf.

  4. Biodiversity inventories and conservation of the marine fishes of Bootless Bay, Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Joshua A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effective management and conservation of biodiversity is predicated on clearly defined conservation targets. Species number is frequently used as a metric for conservation prioritization and monitoring changes in ecosystem health. We conducted a series of synoptic surveys focusing on the fishes of the Bootless Bay region of Papua New Guinea to generate a checklist of fishes of the region. Bootless Bay lies directly south of Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea, and experiences the highest human population density of any marine area in the country. Our checklist will set a baseline against which future environmental changes can be tracked. Results We generated a checklist of 488 fish species in 72 families found in Bootless Bay during a two-week sampling effort. Using incident-based methods of species estimation, we extrapolate there to be approximately 940 fish species in Bootless Bay, one of the lowest reported numbers in Papua New Guinea. Conclusions Our data suggest that the Bootless Bay ecosystem of Papua New Guinea, while diverse in absolute terms, has lower fish biodiversity compared to other shallow marine areas within the country. These differences in faunal diversity are most likely a combination of unequal sampling effort as well as biophysical factors within Bootless Bay compounded by historical and/or contemporary anthropogenic disturbances.

  5. Growth of Tripneustes Gratilla in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii 2003, (NODC Accession 0001459)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of a study of the possibility of using the urchin T. gratilla to control the growth of macroscopic algae on shallow reefs in Kaneohe Bay, we examined the...

  6. Growth of Tripneustes gratilla in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii in 2003 (NODC Accession 0001459)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of a study of the possibility of using the urchin T. gratilla to control the growth of macroscopic algae on shallow reefs in Kaneohe Bay, we examined the...

  7. Interannual evolution of (submesoscale dynamics in the Bay of Biscay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Charria

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the north-east Atlantic Ocean, the Bay of Biscay is an intersection between a coastal constrained dynamics (wide continental shelf and shelf break regions and an eastern boundary circulation system. In this framework, the eddy kinetic energy is 1 order of magnitude lower than in western boundary systems. To explore this coastal complex system, a high-resolution (1 km, 100 vertical sigma layers model experiment including tidal dynamics over a period of 10 years (2001–2010 has been implemented. The ability of the numerical environment to reproduce main patterns over interannual scales is demonstrated. Based on this experiment, the features of the (submesoscale processes are described in the deep part of the region (i.e. abyssal plain and continental slope. A system with the development of mixed layer instabilities at the end of winter is highlighted. Beyond confirming an observed behaviour of seasonal (submesoscale activity in other regions, the simulated period allows exploring the interannual variability of these structures. A relationship between the winter maximum of mixed layer depth and the intensity of (submesoscale related activity (vertical velocity, relative vorticity is revealed and can be explained by large-scale atmospheric forcings (e.g. the cold winter in 2005. The first submesoscale-permitting exploration of this 3-D coastal system shows the importance of (submesoscale activity in this region with its evolution implying a potentially significant impact on vertical and horizontal mixing.

  8. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company...

  9. Detection of dechallenge in spontaneous reporting systems: a comparison of Bayes methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, A Bazila; Alias Balamurugan, S Appavu; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah

    2014-01-01

    Dechallenge is a response observed for the reduction or disappearance of adverse drug reactions (ADR) on withdrawal of a drug from a patient. Currently available algorithms to detect dechallenge have limitations. Hence, there is a need to compare available new methods. To detect dechallenge in Spontaneous Reporting Systems, data-mining algorithms like Naive Bayes and Improved Naive Bayes were applied for comparing the performance of the algorithms in terms of accuracy and error. Analyzing the factors of dechallenge like outcome and disease category will help medical practitioners and pharmaceutical industries to determine the reasons for dechallenge in order to take essential steps toward drug safety. Adverse drug reactions of the year 2011 and 2012 were downloaded from the United States Food and Drug Administration's database. The outcome of classification algorithms showed that Improved Naive Bayes algorithm outperformed Naive Bayes with accuracy of 90.11% and error of 9.8% in detecting the dechallenge. Detecting dechallenge for unknown samples are essential for proper prescription. To overcome the issues exposed by Naive Bayes algorithm, Improved Naive Bayes algorithm can be used to detect dechallenge in terms of higher accuracy and minimal error.

  10. Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in eggs of wading birds from San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, R.L.; Roster, D.L.; King, K.A.; Keldsen, T.J.; Marois, Katherine C.; Wainwright, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1991, reproduction by black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) and snowy egrets (Egretta thula) was studied at sites in San Francisco Bay. Eggs were collected from these and other bay sites and from South Wilbur Flood Area, a reference site in California's San Joaquin Valley. Eggs were analyzed for inorganic trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Results were compared among sites and years and with results of previous studies. There was some evidence of impaired reproduction, but concentrations of contaminants were generally lower than threshold levels for such effects. Egg hatchability was generally good, with predation being the factor that most limited reproductive success. Mean PCB concentrations were generally higher in eggs from the south end of San Francisco Bay than from the north, but the only temporal change, an increase, was observed at Alcatraz Island. There were spatial differences for p,p'-DDE in night-heron eggs in 1990, but the highest mean concentration of DDE was in night-heron eggs from South Wilbur in 1991. Temporal declines in maximum concentrations of DDE in eggs were observed in the bay, but means did not change significantly over time, At Bair Island in the southern end of the bay, mean concentrations of mercury decreased while selenium increased in night-heron eggs over time, but there were no clear bay-wide spatial or temporal trends for either element.

  11. Late Miocene radiolarian biostratigraphy and paleoceanography of Sawai Bay formation, Neill Island, Andamans, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, S.M.; Srinivasan, M.S.

    Late Miocene radiolarian zones are encountered from mudstone strata of Sawai Bay Formation, Neill Island, Andamans. Percentage data of forty-five coarser taxonomic groups of radiolarians were subjected to Q-mode cluster analysis. Based...

  12. Physical and chemical properties of San Francisco Bay waters, 1969-1976 (NODC Accession 8400194)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — One magnetic tape containing the physical and chemical properties of San Francisco Bay waters was forwarded to NODC by Mr. Richard Smith of the U.S Geological Survey...

  13. A supervision on stretch out mode of Guangdong Daya Bay NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hong; Chai Guohan; Dong Xiuchen; Mao Haiyun

    2004-01-01

    The supervision of stretch out mode in the Guangdong Daya Bay nuclear power plant is described. It is also discussed some problems and suggestions of supervision in the new fields of the nuclear power plan. (authors)

  14. Zooplankton biomass and composition in the western Bay of Bengal during late sw monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Madhupratap, M.; Nair, V.R.; Nair, S.R.S.; Rao, T.S.S.

    and neritic regions of the southwestern Bay of Bengal. Other groups like chaetognaths, ostracods, amphipods, euphausiids, fish eggs, fish larvae, polychaetes, cladocerans, planktonic molluscs, etc. contributed to a lesser percentage of the general composition...

  15. The levels of certain heavy metals in marine organisms from Aguada Bay (Goa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singbal, S.Y.S.; George, M.D.; Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.

    The levels of manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc and mercury have been measured in marine organisms from Aguada Bay which is one of the major fishing zones in Goa, India. The concentration of metals varied from species to species...

  16. Restoration Potential of Ruppia Maritima and Potamogeton Perfoliatus by Seed in the Mid-Chesapeake Bay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ailstock, Steve

    2004-01-01

    ... in the mesohaline reaches of the mid-Chesapeake Bay. Once reproductive potential by seed is defined for healthy populations of these species, their life cycles can be evaluated to identify nondestructive methods of harvesting seeds for restoration projects...

  17. High new production in the Bay of Bengal: Possible causes and implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Sardessai, S.; Sheshshayee, M.S.

    The first measurements of new production (sup(15) N tracer technique), the component of primary production that sustains on extraneous nutrient inputs to the euphotic zone, in the Bay of Bengal is reported. Experiments done in two different seasons...

  18. Strategy and system of fire protection at Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Weihong

    1999-12-01

    The fire protection is an important safety issue of nuclear power utilities. The author depicts the strategy and management system of fire protection implemented successfully at Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant of China

  19. THE RESPONSE OF MONTEREY BAY TO THE GREAT TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE OF 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Carroll

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of Monterey Bay to the Great Tohoku earthquake of 2011 is examined in this study. From a practical standpoint, although the resulting tsunami did not cause any damage to the open harbors at Monterey and Moss Landing, it caused extensive damage to boats and infrastructure in Santa Cruz Harbor, which is closed to surrounding waters. From a scientific standpoint, the observed and predicted amplitudes of the tsunami at 1 km from the source were 21.3 and 22.5 m based on the primary arrival from one DART bottom pressure recorder located 986 km ENE of the epicenter. The predicted and observed travel times for the tsunami to reach Monterey Bay agreed within 3%. The predicted and observed periods of the tsunami-generated wave before it entered the bay yielded periods that approached 2 hours. Once the tsunami entered Monterey Bay it was transformed into a seiche with a primary period of 36-37 minutes, corresponding to quarter-wave resonance within the bay. Finally, from a predictive standpoint, major tsunamis that enter the bay from the northwest, as in the present case, are the ones most likely to cause damage to Santa Cruz harbor.

  20. Spatial dynamics of juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo; Peñ a, Marian; Cotano, Unai; Irigoien, Xabier; Rubio, Anna; Nogueira, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    In autumn 2009, the implementation of two successive acoustic surveys targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay allowed us to monitor the changes in the spatial distribution and aggregation patterns of juveniles of this species during 45 days under fairly stable meteorological conditions. Juvenile anchovy changed its biological condition and behavior in a different manner in two distinct areas. In the Spanish sector, the juveniles migrated 20 nautical miles (n.mi.) towards the coast, but they remained on the shelf and near the surface during the whole surveyed period. As the advance towards the shelf break progressed, their area of distribution decreased, their density increased and the juveniles spread in fewer but heavier shoals. In the French sector, the juveniles also migrated from slope waters towards the coast at a similar velocity, but they crossed the shelf break into the continental shelf, where they increased their mean depth significantly until gradually adopting the typical nyctemeral migrations of adult anchovy. The mean length of the juveniles that adopted the nyctemeral migrations was significantly higher than that of the juveniles remaining at the surface, suggesting that body size is relevant to accomplish this change. Besides, the stronger temperature gradients between the shelf and oceanic waters in the Spanish sector, favored by a narrow shelf, may have acted as a barrier influencing the distinct observed spatial patterns in the two areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  1. Spatial dynamics of juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo

    2016-07-08

    In autumn 2009, the implementation of two successive acoustic surveys targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay allowed us to monitor the changes in the spatial distribution and aggregation patterns of juveniles of this species during 45 days under fairly stable meteorological conditions. Juvenile anchovy changed its biological condition and behavior in a different manner in two distinct areas. In the Spanish sector, the juveniles migrated 20 nautical miles (n.mi.) towards the coast, but they remained on the shelf and near the surface during the whole surveyed period. As the advance towards the shelf break progressed, their area of distribution decreased, their density increased and the juveniles spread in fewer but heavier shoals. In the French sector, the juveniles also migrated from slope waters towards the coast at a similar velocity, but they crossed the shelf break into the continental shelf, where they increased their mean depth significantly until gradually adopting the typical nyctemeral migrations of adult anchovy. The mean length of the juveniles that adopted the nyctemeral migrations was significantly higher than that of the juveniles remaining at the surface, suggesting that body size is relevant to accomplish this change. Besides, the stronger temperature gradients between the shelf and oceanic waters in the Spanish sector, favored by a narrow shelf, may have acted as a barrier influencing the distinct observed spatial patterns in the two areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  2. Toxin profiles of five geographical isolates of Dinophysis spp. from North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fux, Elie; Smith, Juliette L; Tong, Mengmeng; Guzmán, Leonardo; Anderson, Donald M

    2011-02-01

    Marine dinoflagellates of the genus Dinophysis can produce toxins of the okadaic acid (OA) and pectenotoxin (PTX) groups. These lipophilic toxins accumulate in filter-feeding shellfish and cause an illness in consumers called diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). In 2008, a bloom of Dinophysis led to the closure of shellfish harvesting areas along the Texas coast, one of the first DSP-related closures in the U.S. This event resulted in a broad study of toxin production in isolates of Dinophysis spp. from U.S. waters. In the present study, we compared toxin profiles in geographical isolates of Dinophysis collected in the U.S. (Eel Pond, Woods Hole MA; Martha's Vineyard, MA; and Port Aransas Bay, Texas), and in those from Canada (Blacks Harbour, Bay of Fundy) and Chile (Reloncavi Estuary), when cultured in the laboratory under the same conditions. For each isolate, the mitochondrial cox1 gene was sequenced to assist in species identification. Strains from the northeastern U.S. and Canada were all assigned to Dinophysis acuminata, while those from Chile and Texas were most likely within the D. acuminata complex whereas precise species designation could not be made with this marker. Toxins were detected in all Dinophysis isolates and each isolate had a different profile. Toxin profiles of isolates from Eel Pond, Martha's Vineyard, and Bay of Fundy were most similar, in that they all contained OA, DTX1, and PTX2. The Eel Pond isolate also contained OA-D8 and DTX1-D7, and low levels (unconfirmed structurally) of DTX1-D8 and DTX1-D9. D. acuminata from Martha's Vineyard produced DTX1-D7, along with OA, DTX1, and PTX2, as identified in both the cells and the culture medium. D. acuminata from the Bay of Fundy produced DTX1 and PTX2, as found in both cells and culture medium, while only trace amounts of OA were detected in the medium. The Dinophysis strain from Texas only produced OA, and the one from Chile only PTX2, as confirmed in both cells and culture medium. Published

  3. Atmospheric deposition having been one of the major source of Pb in Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Miao, Zhenqing; Zhang, Xiaolong; Wang, Qi; Li, Haixia

    2018-03-01

    Many marine bays have been polluted by Pb due to the rapid development of industry, and identifying the major source of Pb is essential to pollution control. This paper analyzed the distribution and pollution source of Pb in Jiaozhou Bay in 1988. Results showed that Pb contents in surface waters in Jiaozhou Bay in April, July and October 1988 were 5.52-24.61 μg L‑1, 7.66-38.62 μg L‑1 and 6.89-19.30 μg L‑1, respectively. The major Pb sources in this bay were atmospheric deposition, and marine current, whose source strengths were 19.30-24.61μg L‑1 and 38.62 μg L‑1, respectively. Atmospheric deposition had been one of the major Pb sources in Jiaozhou Bay, and the source strengths were stable and strong. The pollution level of Pb in this bay in 1988 was moderate to heavy, and the source control measurements were necessary.

  4. Unmixing of spectral components affecting AVIRIS imagery of Tampa Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Kendall L.; Lee, Z. P.; Chen, Robert F.; Davis, Curtiss O.

    1993-09-01

    According to Kirk's as well as Morel and Gentili's Monte Carlo simulations, the popular simple expression, R approximately equals 0.33 bb/a, relating subsurface irradiance reflectance (R) to the ratio of the backscattering coefficient (bb) to absorption coefficient (a), is not valid for bb/a > 0.25. This means that it may no longer be valid for values of remote-sensing reflectance (above-surface ratio of water-leaving radiance to downwelling irradiance) where Rrs4/ > 0.01. Since there has been no simple Rrs expression developed for very turbid waters, we developed one based in part on Monte Carlo simulations and empirical adjustments to an Rrs model and applied it to rather turbid coastal waters near Tampa Bay to evaluate its utility for unmixing the optical components affecting the water- leaving radiance. With the high spectral (10 nm) and spatial (20 m2) resolution of Airborne Visible-InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, the water depth and bottom type were deduced using the model for shallow waters. This research demonstrates the necessity of further research to improve interpretations of scenes with highly variable turbid waters, and it emphasizes the utility of high spectral-resolution data as from AVIRIS for better understanding complicated coastal environments such as the west Florida shelf.

  5. 1988 Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Branch, for Salt River Bay...

  6. Cumulative impacts of hydroelectric development on the fresh water balance in Hudson Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anctil, F.; Couture, R.

    1994-01-01

    A study is presented of the impacts of hydroelectric development on the surface water layer of Hudson Bay, including James Bay and the Foxe Basin. These impacts are directly related to the modifications in the fresh water balance of Hudson Bay and originate from the management of hydroelectric complexes. The fresh water balance is determined by identifying, at different scales, the modifications caused by each complex. The main inputs are the freezing and thawing of the ice cover, runoff water, and mass exchange at the air-water interface. Three spatial scales were used to obtain the resolution required to document the cumulative effects of fresh water balance modifications on the water surface layer, one each for Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, and the Labrador Sea. Finally, the addition of the proposed Great Whale hydroelectric complex is examined from the available information and forecasts. 18 refs,. 6 figs., 1 tab

  7. 2010 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic from Color Aerial Imagery of CHOCTAWHATCHEE BAY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative of CHOCTAWHATCHEE BAY....

  8. Investigation of Spatial and Temporal Trends in Water Quality in Daya Bay, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Dong, Jun-De; Sun, Cui-Ci; Wang, Yu-Tu; Sun, Fu-Lin; Cheng, Hao

    2011-01-01

    The objective is to identify the spatial and temporal variability of the hydrochemical quality of the water column in a subtropical coastal system, Daya Bay, China. Water samples were collected in four seasons at 12 monitoring sites. The Southeast Asian monsoons, northeasterly from October to the next April and southwesterly from May to September have also an important influence on water quality in Daya Bay. In the spatial pattern, two groups have been identified, with the help of multidimensional scaling analysis and cluster analysis. Cluster I consisted of the sites S3, S8, S10 and S11 in the west and north coastal parts of Daya Bay. Cluster I is mainly related to anthropogenic activities such as fish-farming. Cluster II consisted of the rest of the stations in the center, east and south parts of Daya Bay. Cluster II is mainly related to seawater exchange from South China Sea. PMID:21776234

  9. Geographic Information System (GIS) characterization of Perdido Bay historical seagrass coverage, 1940 (NODC Accession 0000604)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GIS representations of 1940 Historical seagrass coverage in Perdido Bay from United States Geological Survey/National Wetlands Research Center (USGS/NWRC).

  10. Reef fish survey data from Fagatele Bay, American Samoa during November of 2007 (NODC Accession 0068717)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish surveys were conducted in November 2007 using visual census techniques at Fagatele Bay under the guidance of Dr. Alison Green, the Nature Conservancy. This data...

  11. 2000 Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Branch, for Salt River Bay...

  12. Benthic and Landcover Characterization of Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Branch, for Salt River Bay...

  13. 1992 Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Branch, for Salt River Bay...

  14. Sound field computations in the Bay of Bengal using parabolic equation method

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Navelkar, G.S.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Murty, C.S.

    Effect of the cold core eddy in the Bay of Bengal on acoustic propagation was analysed by parabolic equation (PE) method. Source depth, frequency and propagation range considered respectively for the two numerical experiments are 150 m, 400 Hz, 650...

  15. Numerical Simulation of Salinity and Dissolved Oxygen at Perdido Bay and Adjacent Coastal Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC), a numerical estuarine and coastal ocean circulation hydrodynamic model, was used to simulate the distribution of the salinity, temperature, nutrients and dissolved oxygen (DO) in Perdido Bay and adjacent Gulf of Mexico. External forcing fa...

  16. Trends in Accretion Rates of Riverine Sediments in a Distal Bay and Wetlands Using 7-Beryllium as a Tracer: Fourleague Bay, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restreppo, G. A.; Bentley, S. J.; Wang, J.; Xu, K.

    2017-12-01

    To combat land loss along the Mississippi River Delta, Louisiana has launched a historic campaign to sustain and regrow coastal lands using, in part, sediment diversions. Previous research has focused primarily on sand sized sediment load, which is usually deposited proximal to a river's delta or a diversion's outlet. Fine sediments constitute the majority of sediment load in the Mississippi, but are under-studied with respect to dispersal processes, particularly in terms of sediment supply to distal deltaic bays and wetlands. The Atchafalaya River and associated wetlands serve as prime study areas for this purpose. Bimonthly time-series push cores were collected from May 2015 to May 2016 along ten sites within Fourleague Bay, Louisiana. Fourleague Bay has remained stable against the deteriorative effects of relative sea level rise, standing out along Louisiana's declining coastline. Of the ten field sites, five are located across a longitudinal transect in the middle bay, while the other five are located in adjacent marshes. All sites fall within 10 to 30 km of the Atchafalaya Delta, extending south towards the Gulf of Mexico. Cores were extruded in 2 cm intervals, dried, ground, and analyzed via gamma spectrometry for the presence of 7Be. Inventories of 7Be were then calculated and used to determine daily mass accretion rate (MAR) over twelve months. Average MAR values for the bay and the marshes are compared with Atchafalaya River discharge, wind data, and atmospheric pressure through the year of sampling. Peak marsh MAR, 0.88 ± 0.20 kg m-2 d-1, occurs just after historically high river discharge. Peak bay MAR, 1.2 ± 0.67 kg m-2 d-1, occurs during seasonal low river discharge and calm winds. Average bay and marsh MARs have a moderate to strong, negative correlation when compared. Results indicate sediment bypass of the bay floor during periods of moderate to high river discharge, entering the marshes directly when inundation occurs and enhanced by the passage

  17. Rate of Loaded Sediments in Honda Bay, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Becira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A study in Honda Bay, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines was conducted to determine and compare the rate of loaded sediments of and among six sites in Honda Bay and during two seasons, and to discuss sedimentation rate in relation to selected environmental parameters commencing on April 2003 to November 2003.Results showed that the Babuyan River significantly contributed to the amounts of sediments being loaded to Honda Bay, Puerto Princesa City of which the amount of sediments loaded between the two sampling season and among the six sampling events had no significant difference. Sediment's color and texture affirmed the land-based activities in Babuyan and Mauyon watersheds, which eventually carried into the Bay during storm weather condition.The amount of trapped sediments in all stations is probably affected by the river's discharge capacity and the river's water velocity, although the duration sediment traps were mounted could also affect the measurement of sedimentation rate.

  18. Seasonal variation of iron speciation in a pearl-raising bay sediment by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Akihito; Matsuo, Motoyuki; Chiba, Satoshi; Yamagata, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    Ago Bay in Mie Prefecture, central Japan, is world-famous for the site of Mikimoto pearl culture, but recently the production of pearls has considerably declined. Environmental deterioration of the bay is suspected of having caused the decline. The periodic investigation into iron speciation of the bay sediment by 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy revealed its high pyrite (FeS 2 ) content from the surface to the 20-cm depth. The pyrite in the surface sediment decreased only in spring, three months after the dissolved oxygen in the bottom water was at maximum. Such oxygen-consuming material as pyrite accumulated through long-term biotic activity is a most-likely explanation for the prolonged environmental deterioration of the bay, which appears in the high chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the sediment. (author)

  19. Review of suspended sediment in lower South Bay relevant to light attenuation and phytoplankton blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhamer, David H.; Shellenbarger, Gregory; Downing-Kunz, Maureen; Manning, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Lower South Bay (LSB), a shallow subembayment of San Francisco Bay (SFB), is situated south of the Dumbarton Bridge, and is surrounded by, and interconnected with, a network of sloughs, marshes, and former salt ponds undergoing restoration (Figure ES.1). LSB receives 120 million gallons per day of treated wastewater effluent from three publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) that service San Jose and the densely populated surrounding region. During the dry season, when flows from creeks and streams are at their minimum, POTW effluent comprises the majority of freshwater flow to Lower South Bay. Although LSB has a large tidal prism, it experiences limited net exchange with the surrounding Bay, because much of the water that leaves on ebb tides returns during the subsequent flood tides. The limited exchange leads to distinctly different biogeochemical conditions in LSB compared to other SFB subembayments, including LSB having the highest nutrient concentrations and highest phytoplankton biomass.

  20. Characterization of water and lake sediments in Laguna de Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Diego, Cherry Ann; Francisco, Pattrice Armynne; Navoa, Joshua Antonio; Johnson, Bryan; Dave, Harshil; Cryer, Karl; Panemanglor, Rajeev; Rama, Mariecar; Sucgang, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we studied elemental distributions of trace elements, dissolved oxygen and microbiological allotment (total plate count, Coliform, and E. coli) in sediment and surface water from 3 sites in Laguna de Bay. The measured parameters were associated with the quality of the water and to anthropogenic and geogenic processes taking place in the lake. In all cases sediment samples were collected and analyzed for elemental composition using an X-ray fluorescence technique. Water samples were collected and analyzed for nitrate, chloride, and sulfate ions using selective electrodes. Bicarbonate ions in the lake water were determined by titration. The microbial load (total plate count, total coliform and E,. Coli) were determined using Simplate. Field parameters such as pH and conductivity were likewise measured. Preliminary assumptions suggest that proximity to anthropogenic sources has substantially contributed to the combined loads of major ions pollution in the lake. Laguna de Bay is classified as Class C (DENR Administrative Order No. 34). For all the sites, the conductivity of the water were considerably elevated, which ranged from 929 to 933 uS/cm; Site 1 water exceeded the permissible range for pH for Class C water which is 6.5 to 8.5 for the support and rearing of fish. None of the lake waters exceeded the limits for the ions, chloride (set at 350 mg/L) and nitrate (set at 10 mg/L), for Class C water criteria. All the sites meet the dissolved oxygen, DO, criterion for Class C waters which is set at 5 mg/L. In terms of microbiological load, Site 1 had the least most probable number per ml of water, MPN/ml: total plate count (6720), Coliform (less that detection limit) and E. coli (less than LLD); Site 3 was the most contaminated: total plate count (greater than 70,000), Coliform(48768) and E. Coli (23808). X-ray fluorescence analyses of sediments allowed the determination of elements Na, Mg, Al, P, Si, Cl, K. Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Br, Rb

  1. Effects of waves on water dispersion in a semi-enclosed estuarine bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpey, M. T.; Ardhuin, F.; Otheguy, P.

    2012-04-01

    The bay of Saint Jean de Luz - Ciboure is a touristic destination located in the south west of France on the Basque coast. This small bay is 1.5km wide for 1km long. It is semi-enclosed by breakwaters, so that the area is mostly protected from waves except in its eastern part, where wave breaking is regularly observed over a shallow rock shelf. In the rest of the area the currents are generally weak. The bay receives fresh water inflows from two rivers. During intense raining events, the rivers can introduce pollutants in the bay. The input of pollutants combined with the low level dynamic of the area can affect the water quality for several days. To study such a phenomenon, mechanisms of water dispersion in the bay are investigated. The present paper focuses on the effects of waves on bay dynamics. Several field experiments were conducted in the area, combining wave and current measurements from a set of ADCP and ADV, lagrangian difter experiments in the surfzone, salinity and temperature profile measurements. An analysis of this set of various data is provided. It reveals that the bay combines remarkable density stratification due to fresh water inflows and occasionally intense wave-induced currents in the surfzone. These currents have a strong influence on river plume dynamics when the sea state is energetic. Moreover, modifications of hydrodynamics in the bay passes are found to be remarkably correlated with sea state evolutions. This result suggests a significant impact of waves on the bay flushing. To further analyse these phenomena, a three dimensional numerical model of bay hydrodynamics is developed. The model aims at reproducing fresh water inflows combined with wind-, tide- and wave-induced currents and mixing. The model of the bay is implemented using the code MOHID , which has been modified to allow the three dimensional representation of wave-current interactions proposed by Ardhuin et al. [2008b] . The circulation is forced by the wave field modelled

  2. Zonasi Pemanfaatan Kawasan Perikanan Tangkap Di Teluk Banten (Zonation of Utilization Fishing Zone in Banten Bay)

    OpenAIRE

    Ernaningsih, D; Simbolon, Domu; Wiyono, Eko Sri; Purbayanto, Ari

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of fishing area in Banten Bay by various activities may cause multi sectors conflicts related to management of the bay. The integrated zone system in that area has not been established yet; therefore it is needed to be studied. The objectives of this study were to 1) determine fishing season and fishing ground; 2) determine indicators and criteria of fishing zone; 3) establish fishing zone. The study was conducted in four fish landing centers which are located in Karangantu, Terat...

  3. Bayes Clustering and Structural Support Vector Machines for Segmentation of Carotid Artery Plaques in Multicontrast MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Guan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate segmentation of carotid artery plaque in MR images is not only a key part but also an essential step for in vivo plaque analysis. Due to the indistinct MR images, it is very difficult to implement the automatic segmentation. Two kinds of classification models, that is, Bayes clustering and SSVM, are introduced in this paper to segment the internal lumen wall of carotid artery. The comparative experimental results show the segmentation performance of SSVM is better than Bayes.

  4. Acute and chronic toxicity of sediment samples from Guanabara Bay (RJ) during the rainy period

    OpenAIRE

    Maranho,Luciane Alves; Abreu,Ilene Matanó; Santelli,Ricardo Erthal; Cordeiro,Renato Campelo; Soares-Gomes,Abílio; Moreira,Lucas Buruaem; Morais,Rodofley Davino; Abessa,Denis Moledo de Sousa

    2010-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is a marine-estuarine environment of high ecological and socio-economic importance, subject to a variety of environmental impacts. Sediment is the eventual repository for most substances introduced into water bodies and may, therefore, provide an integrated measure of the environmental quality, which can be assessed by many different approaches. In this project, the quality of sediments from Guanabara Bay was evaluated by the ecotoxicological approach: whole-sediment toxicity te...

  5. A study on the structure of the convective atmosphere over the Bay ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The latent heat released by the cumulus cloud is known to drive monsoon circulation ... influences its embedding environment by interaction through various scales. This study shows ... ICRP (Indian Climate Research Program) over the Bay of ...

  6. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal: Main characteristics and related mechanisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Suresh, I.; Gautham, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Lengaigne, M.; Rao, R.R.; Neetu, S.; Hegde, A.

    Surface layer temperature inversion (SLTI), a warm layer sandwiched between surface and subsurface colder waters, has been reported to frequently occur in conjunction with barrier layers in the Bay of Bengal (BoB), with potentially commensurable...

  7. Drying characteristics of bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) fruits in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-24

    Jun 24, 2011 ... cosmetic industry, food and medicinal purposes. The ... Fresh bay laurel fruits procured from Black Sea Region of Turkey ..... rice. ASAE Paper No: 3531, ASAE, St. Joseph, MI. Afifi FU, Khalil E, Tamimi SO, Disi A (1997).

  8. 78 FR 30389 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LITTLE BAY WATCH; Invitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... entered into this docket is available on the World Wide Web at http://www.regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER... LITTLE BAY WATCH is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Snorkel trips and marine science education...

  9. Marine magnetic studies in the northern Bay of Bengal, preliminary results

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Murty, G.P.S.; Murty, P.S.N.; Rao, D.G.; Mittal, G.S.; Drolia, R.K.

    The bathymetric and total magnetic intensity data collected along six E-W tracks were analysed and presented as stacked anomaly profiles. A first order basement configuration model was generated across the Bay of Bengal. The model studies indicate...

  10. Toward Determination of Venous Thrombosis Ages by Using Fuzzy Logic and Supervised Bayes Classification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lim, P

    2001-01-01

    .... Thus, the proposed learning base is constructed in a 3-tuple: observation, label, membership value in term of fuzzy logic for each class and not a 2-tuple as in the usual supervised Bayes classification application...

  11. Application of a circulation model in waters, based in the difference method, for bays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, P.A.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Knowledge of circulation of water in bays, in addition to the possibility of simulation future conditions, can be of great interest in solving problems related to the cooling water for Nuclear Power Plants, study of sediments and water polution, in addition to the study of civil engineering works planned in bays. A Numerical Circulation Model of water in bays, is applied to the conditions of Sepetiba Bay at Rio de Janeiro coast. This System of Partial Differential Equations that constitute the Model, were solved by the Finite Difference Method, using a uniform cartesian grid for uniform time steps generating a bi-dimensional flow measurement of depth. The results obtained by comparing the values of the Model and measurements taken a bay were satisfactory, assuring its credibility and efficiency. A programming code was developed for the application providing outputing at any preditermined time steps, with discrimination of 30 seconds, the average levels, flows, velocities and depths of water of each grid spacing along the length of the bay in addition to a graphic of the flow. (Author) [pt

  12. [Mercury concentration of fish in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Kashima, Y; Matsui, M; Okabe, T; Doi, R

    2001-07-01

    Total mercury in the muscles of three fish species was analyzed in fish caught in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea areas, Sagami Bay and Choshi. Tokyo Bay is a semi-closed sea area surrounded by Tokyo, Kanagawa and Chiba prefectures. Sagami Bay and Choshi are open to the Pacific Ocean. A total of 412 fish consisting of northern whiting (Sillago japonica), flatfish (Limanda yokohamae) and sardine (Sardinops melanosticta) were caught in these areas over a 6 months period from November 1998 to April 1999. Total mercury concentration ranged from 0.008-0.092 microgram/g (wet wt.) in northern whiting, 0.006-0.065 microgram/g in flatfish and 0.001-0.045 microgram/g in sardine. All concentrations were below the restriction limit of fish mercury in Japan, 0.4 microgram/g of total mercury concentration. A significant correlation was found between mercury concentrations and body length or body weight in northern whiting and flatfish, irrespective of the sea area. A correlation was also found between mercury concentration in fish and their feeding habits: among the 3 species caught in the same area, crustacean feeding northern whiting had the highest, polychaete feeding flatfish moderate, and plankton feeding sardine had the lowest mercury concentration. In a comparison of mercury concentration in the same species caught in different sea areas, a higher concentration was noted in fish caught in the semi-closed sea area of Tokyo Bay, than in fish caught in the open sea areas of Sagami Bay and Choshi. This difference was most marked in fish caught at the bottom of Tokyo Bay and we considered that the mercury concentration of seawater and sediment in these areas was the cause of mercury accumulation in fish. These findings suggest that improved water quality control and environmental monitoring is necessary in semi-closed sea areas such as Tokyo Bay.

  13. Responses of water environment to tidal flat reduction in Xiangshan Bay: Part I hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Guan, Weibing; Hu, Jianyu; Cheng, Peng; Wang, Xiao Hua

    2018-06-01

    Xiangshan Bay consists of a deep tidal channel and three shallow inlets. A large-scale tidal flat has been utilized through coastal construction. To ascertain the accumulate influences of these engineering projects upon the tidal dynamics of the channel-inlets system, this study uses FVCOM to investigate the tides and flow asymmetries of the bay, and numerically simulate the long-term variations of tidal dynamics caused by the loss of tidal flats. It was found that the reduction of tidal flat areas from 1963 to 2010 slightly dampened M2 tidal amplitudes (0.1 m, ∼6%) and advanced its phases by reducing shoaling effects, while amplified M4 tidal amplitudes (0.09 m, ∼27%) and advanced its phases by reducing bottom friction, in the inner bay. Consequently, the ebb dominance was dampened indicated by reduced absolute value of elevation skewness (∼20%) in the bay. The tides and tidal asymmetry were impacted by the locations, areas and slopes of the tidal flats through changing tidal prism, shoaling effect and bottom friction, and consequently impacted tidal duration asymmetry in the bay. Tides and tidal asymmetry were more sensitive to the tidal flat at the head of the bay than the side bank. Reduced/increased tidal flat slopes around the Tie inlet dampened the ebb dominance. Tidal flat had a role in dissipating the M4 tide rather than generating it, while the advection only play a secondary role in generating the M4 tide. The full-length tidal flats reclamation would trigger the reverse of ebb to flood dominance in the bay. This study would be applicable for similar narrow bays worldwide.

  14. Application of macrobenthos functional groups to estimate the ecosystem health in a semi-enclosed bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shitao; Zhou, Ran; Qin, Xuebo; Shi, Honghua; Ding, Dewen

    2013-09-15

    In this study, the functional group concept was first applied to evaluate the ecosystem health of Bohai Bay. Macrobenthos functional groups were defined according to feeding types and divided into five groups: a carnivorous group (CA), omnivorous group (OM), planktivorous group (PL), herbivorous group (HE), and detritivorous group (DE). Groups CA, DE, OM, and PL were identified, but the HE group was absent from Bohai Bay. Group DE was dominant during the study periods. The ecosystem health was assessed using a functional group evenness index. The functional group evenness values of most sampling stations were less than 0.40, indicating that the ecosystem health was deteriorated in Bohai Bay. Such deterioration could be attributed to land reclamation, industrial and sewage effluents, oil pollution, and hypersaline water discharge. This study demonstrates that the functional group concept can be applied to ecosystem health assessment in a semi-enclosed bay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study on the carry capacity of edible jellyfish fishery in Liaodong Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kui; Bian, Yongning; Ma, Caihua; Chi, Xupeng; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yuyu

    2016-06-01

    Jellyfish fishing is a special type of fishery that mainly exists in some countries of East and Southeast Asia. China has the largest jellyfish fishery yield in the world with an annual harvest of around 300 thousand tons. Liaodong Bay is the most important jellyfish fishery ground in China. However, due to the high benefits of jellyfish fishery, which leads to illegal and out-of-season jellyfish fishing occurring each year in Liaodong Bay. Illegal jellyfish fishery in Liaodong Bay is a typical example of the tragedy of the commons. The key problem is that fishermen seek to an illegally initiate jellyfish fishing as early as possible. In this paper, basing on the data of edible jellyfish's biology and ecology, we mainly analyzed the history of jellyfish fishery in China, especially in Liaodong bay, and then we calculated the carry capacity of edible jellyfish in Liaodong Bay which is about 300 thousand tons one year. This number is equal to the recent annual yield of edible jellyfish in China. Furthermore, basing on the carry capacity and reasonable quotas price analysis, we set up a Jellyfish fishing quotas and deficit quotas buyback system which could be a suitable and effective solution for jellyfish fishery management and development in Liaodong Bay at the underlying roots. Although China is the first country with edible jellyfish aquaculture, the annual yield of jellyfish aquaculture is only one fifth of jellyfish fishing. So, there is a very bright developing prospect about edible jellyfish aquaculture in China.

  16. Pharmacodynamic study of Bay41-4109 in HBV transgenic mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-mei LI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the pharmacodynamics of Bay41-4109,a novel anti-HBV compound,in HBV transgenic mouse model.Methods specific pathogen frce(SPF level TgM(HBV D1.3mice were divided into 3 groups: Bay41-4109 group [30mg/(kg·d],lamivudine group [30mg/(kg·d] and vehicle group(0.5% sodium carboxymethycellulose,with 32 in each.Antiviral effect of Bay41-4109 was tested in HBV transgenic mice including the analysis of HBcAg changes in liver tissue by immunohistochemistry,and changes in HBV DNA in liver and serum by quantitative real time PCR analysis.Serum transaminase(ALT and AST and body weight were assayed to evaluate the safety of the compound.Results Oral Bay41-4109 significantly reduced the number of HBV core antigen(HBcAg positive cell nucleus,average area of HBcAg positive cell nucleus and the rate of OD compared with vehicle group after 50 days treatment(P 0.05.However,Bay41-4109 could not significantly reduce HBV-specific DNA in HBV transgenic mice,both in liver and plasma.No significant impact was found on ALT,AST and body weigh of Bay41-4109-treated mice.Conclusions Bay41-4109 can more effectively reduce cytoplasmic HBcAg in liver sections than lamivudine.It is suggested that Bay41-4109,a different mode of action from lamivudine,represents a promising anti-HBV drug candidate with good antiviral effect and safety.

  17. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in riverine and marine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xiaohui; Tang Jianhui; Chen Yingjun; Li Jun; Zhang Gan

    2011-01-01

    PCN congeners were analyzed in marine and riverine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China. Concentrations of PCNs ranged from 0.12 to 5.1 ng g -1 dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 1.1 ng g -1 dw. The levels of PCNs varied largely, with industrial group approximately ten folds higher than those of the rural in riverine sediment. A strong impact by direct discharge from local factories was suggested. Similar compositional profiles were found within groups. High resemblance of compositional profiles between industrial samples and Halowax 1014 was observed. It was indicated that PCNs in riverine sediments were mainly from release of industrial usage, with additional contributions from industrial thermal process at certain sites. In marine sediments, it was suggested that PCNs along the coast of Laizhou Bay were mainly controlled by riverine input. While in the central bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - Highlights: → We investigated the PCN levels both in the riverine and marine surface sediments of Laizhou Bay. → PCN concentrations in the river sediments of industrial group were ten times higher than in the rural group. → Leakage from industrial materials and thermal processes were the major sources. → PCNs in the coastal sites were more influenced by the river discharge. → In the centre bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - A systematic sampling of riverine and marine sediments was conducted in Laizhou Bay area to investigate the distribution and possible sources of PCNs.

  18. DDT Analysis of Wetland Sediments in Upper Escambia Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopko, M. N.; Wright, J.; Liebens, J.; Vaughan, P.

    2017-12-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was a commonly used pesticide from World War II through the 1960's. DDT is generally used to control mosquito populations and as an agricultural insecticide. The pesticide and its degradation products (DDD and DDE) can bioaccumulate within ecosystems having negative implications for animal and human health. Consequently, DDT usage was banned in the United States in 1973. In a contaminant study performed in Escambia Bay, Florida, in 2009, DDT was present in 25% of study sites, most of which were located in the upper bay wetlands. Concentrations were well above the Florida Department of Environmental Protection's (FDEP) Probable Effect Level (PEL) and ratios of DDT and its metabolites indicated a recent introduction to the system. A follow-up study performed in 2016 found no DDT, but did show DDE at several sites. The current study repeated sampling in May 2017 at sites from the 2009 and 2016 studies. Sediment samples were collected in triplicate using a ponar sampler and DDT, DDD and DDE were extracted using EPA methods 3540c and 3620c. Extracts were analyzed using a gas chromatograph with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) as per EPA method 8081c. Sediment was also analyzed for organic carbon and particle size using an elemental NC analyzer and a laser diffraction particle sizer. Results show the presence of breakdown products DDE and DDD at multiple sites, but no detectable levels of DDT at any site. Sampling sites with high levels of DDT contamination in 2009 show only breakdown products in both 2016 and 2017. Particle size has little influence on DDD or DDE concentrations but OC is a controlling factor as indicated for contaminated sites by Pearson correlations between OC and DDE and DDD of 0.82 and 0.92, respectively. The presence of only DDD and/or DDE in the 2016 and 2017 studies indicates that the parent, DDT, has not been re-introduced into the watershed since 2009 but is degrading in the environment.

  19. Ecology of selected marine communities in Glacier Bay: Zooplankton, forage fish, seabirds and marine mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Martin D.; Drew, Gary S.; Piatt, John F.; Anson, Jennifer Marie; Abookire, Alisa A.; Bodkin, James L.; Hooge, Philip N.; Speckman, Suzann G.

    2003-01-01

    We studied oceanography (including primary production), secondary production, small schooling fish (SSF), and marine bird and mammal predators in Glacier Bay during 1999 and 2000. Results from these field efforts were combined with a review of current literature relating to the Glacier Bay environment. Since the conceptual model developed by Hale and Wright (1979) ‘changes and cycles’ continue to be the underlying theme of the Glacier Bay ecosystem. We found marked seasonality in many of the parameters that we investigated over the two years of research, and here we provide a comprehensive description of the distribution and relative abundance of a wide array of marine biota. Glacier Bay is a tidally mixed estuary that leads into basins, which stratify in summer, with the upper arms behaving as traditional estuaries. The Bay is characterized by renewal and mixing events throughout the year, and markedly higher primary production than in many neighboring southeast Alaska fjords (Hooge and Hooge, 2002). Zooplankton diversity and abundance within the upper 50 meters of the water column in Glacier Bay is similar to communities seen throughout the Gulf of Alaska. Zooplankton in the lower regions of Glacier Bay peak in abundance in late May or early June, as observed at Auke Bay and in the Gulf of Alaska. The key distinction between the lower Bay and other estuaries in the Gulf of Alaska is that a second smaller peak in densities occurs in August. The upper Bay behaved uniformly in temporal trends, peaking in July. Densities had begun to decline in August, but were still more than twice those observed in that region in May. The highest density of zooplankton observed was 17,870 organisms/m3 in Tarr Inlet during July. Trends in zooplankton community abundance and diversity within the lower Bay were distinct from upper-Glacier Bay trends. Whereas the lower Bay is strongly influenced by Gulf of Alaska processes, local processes are the strongest influence in the upper-Bay

  20. A preliminary appraisal of sediment sources and transport in Kings Bay and vicinity, Georgia and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, J.B.; Radtke, D.B.; Hale, T.W.; Buell, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    Water-quality, bottom-material, suspended-sediment, and current-velocity data were collected during November 1981 in Kings Bay and vicinity to provide information on the sources and transport of estuarine sediments. Kings Bay and Cumberland Sound , the site of the Poseidon Submarine Base in southeast Georgia, are experiencing high rates of sediment deposition and accumulation, which are causing serious navigational and operational problems. Velocity, bathymetry, turbidity, and bottom-material data suggest that the area in the vicinity of lower Kings Bay is accumulating deposits of suspended sediment transported from Cumberland Sound on the floodtide and from upper Kings Bay and the tidal marsh drained by Marianna Creek on the ebbtide. Suspended-sediment discharges computed for consecutive 13-hour ebbtides and floodtides showed that a net quantity of suspended sediment was transported seaward from upper Kings Bay and Marianna Creek. A net landward transport of suspended sediment computed at the St. Marys Entrance indicated areas seaward of St. Marys Entrance may be supplying sediment to the shoaling areas of the estuary, including lower Kings Bay. (USGS)

  1. Parameterization of surface irradiance and primary production in Århus Bay, SW Kattegat, Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten; Sørensen, Helene Munk

    2009-01-01

    . The study is based on a one year long time-series of PAR, CTD-casts (n = 45), and primary production measurements (n = 24) from Århus Bay (56°09′ N; 10°20′ E), south west Kattegat. Results showed a high and positive correlation between observed and calculated primary production in the bay, as based...

  2. Multielemental analysis of surface sediments in Havana bay (Cuba) using X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelen, A.; Corrales, Y.; Lopez, N.; Manso Guevara, M. V.; Casanova, A. O.; Alessandro, K. D'; Diaz, O.; Espen, P. Van; Beltran, J.; Soto, J.

    2006-01-01

    Multielemental Analysis was performed in Superficial Sediments in Havana Bay. Twenty one samples were analysed by Dispersive Energy X- Ray Fluorescence using an spectrometer based on Si (Li) semiconductor detector an a 109 Cd source. The results showed a similar behaviour in the levels of contamination related with neutron activation analysis. The data suggest that an anthropogenic input into the bay from domestic sewage and industries occurred. (Full text)

  3. Study on the Calculation Models of Bus Delay at Bays Using Queueing Theory and Markov Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion at bus bays has decreased the service efficiency of public transit seriously in China, so it is crucial to systematically study its theory and methods. However, the existing studies lack theoretical model on computing efficiency. Therefore, the calculation models of bus delay at bays are studied. Firstly, the process that buses are delayed at bays is analyzed, and it was found that the delay can be divided into entering delay and exiting delay. Secondly, the queueing models of bus bays are formed, and the equilibrium distribution functions are proposed by applying the embedded Markov chain to the traditional model of queuing theory in the steady state; then the calculation models of entering delay are derived at bays. Thirdly, the exiting delay is studied by using the queueing theory and the gap acceptance theory. Finally, the proposed models are validated using field-measured data, and then the influencing factors are discussed. With these models the delay is easily assessed knowing the characteristics of the dwell time distribution and traffic volume at the curb lane in different locations and different periods. It can provide basis for the efficiency evaluation of bus bays.

  4. Identification of High Potential Bays for HABs Occurrence in Peninsular Malysia Using Palsar Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, A. B.; Hashim, M.

    2016-09-01

    Increasing frequency, intensity, and geographic distribution of Harmful algal blooms (HABs) poses a serious threat to the coastal fish/shellfish aquaculture and fisheries in Malaysian bays. Rising in sea level, shoreline erosion, stresses on fisheries, population pressure, interference of land-use and lack of institutional capabilities for integrated management make major challenges. Recent investigations and satellite observations indicate HABs originated from specific coast that have favourable geographic, geomorphic and coastal geology conditions to bring the green macro algae from the coast offshore. Therefore, the identification of high HABs frequented bays using remote sensing and geology investigations in Malaysian waters is required to reduce future challenges in this unique case. This research implemented comprehensive geomorphic and coastal geology investigations combined with remote sensing digital image processing approach to identify Malaysian bays frequented with HABs occurrence in Malaysian waters territory. The landscape and geomorphological features of the Malaysian bays were constructed from the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) remote sensing satellite data combined with field observations and surveying. The samples for laboratory analysis were collected from the sediment stations with different distance across shorelines features and watersheds of the Johor Bahru estuary. This research identified that semi-enclosed bays such as Kuala Lumpur and Johor Bahru bays with connection to estuaries have high potential to be frequented with HABs occurrence.

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF HIGH POTENTIAL BAYS FOR HABs OCCURRENCE IN PENINSULAR MALYSIA USING PALSAR REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Pour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing frequency, intensity, and geographic distribution of Harmful algal blooms (HABs poses a serious threat to the coastal fish/shellfish aquaculture and fisheries in Malaysian bays. Rising in sea level, shoreline erosion, stresses on fisheries, population pressure, interference of land-use and lack of institutional capabilities for integrated management make major challenges. Recent investigations and satellite observations indicate HABs originated from specific coast that have favourable geographic, geomorphic and coastal geology conditions to bring the green macro algae from the coast offshore. Therefore, the identification of high HABs frequented bays using remote sensing and geology investigations in Malaysian waters is required to reduce future challenges in this unique case. This research implemented comprehensive geomorphic and coastal geology investigations combined with remote sensing digital image processing approach to identify Malaysian bays frequented with HABs occurrence in Malaysian waters territory. The landscape and geomorphological features of the Malaysian bays were constructed from the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR remote sensing satellite data combined with field observations and surveying. The samples for laboratory analysis were collected from the sediment stations with different distance across shorelines features and watersheds of the Johor Bahru estuary. This research identified that semi-enclosed bays such as Kuala Lumpur and Johor Bahru bays with connection to estuaries have high potential to be frequented with HABs occurrence.

  6. Phase 1 studies summary of major findings of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valoppi, Laura

    2018-04-02

    Executive SummaryThe South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (Project) is one of the largest restoration efforts in the United States. It is located in South San Francisco Bay of California. It is unique not only for its size—more than 15,000 acres—but also for its location adjacent to one of the nation’s largest urban areas, home to more than 4 million people (Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties). The Project is intended to restore and enhance wetlands in South San Francisco Bay while providing for flood management, wildlife-oriented public access, and recreation. Restoration goals of the project are to provide a mosaic of saltmarsh habitat to benefit marsh species and managed ponds to benefit waterbirds, throughout 3 complexes and 54 former salt ponds.Although much is known about the project area, significant uncertainties remain with a project of this geographic and temporal scale of an estimated 50 years to complete the restoration. For example, in order to convert anywhere from 50 to 90 percent of the existing managed ponds to saltmarsh habitat, conservation managers first enhance the habitat of managed ponds in order to increase use by waterbirds, and provide migratory, wintering, and nesting habitat for more than 90 species of waterbirds. Project managers have concluded that the best way to address these uncertainties is to carefully implement the project in phases and learn from the outcome of each phase. The Adaptive Management Plan (AMP) identifies specific restoration targets for multiple aspects of the Project and defines triggers that would necessitate some type of management action if a particular aspect is trending negatively. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) biologist Laura Valoppi served as the project Lead Scientist and oversaw implementation of the AMP in coordination with other members of the Project Management Team (PMT), comprised of representatives from the California State Coastal Conservancy, California Department of Fish and

  7. Geophysical mapping of oyster habitats in a shallow estuary; Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, David C.; Andrews, Brian D.; Edmiston, H. Lee; Stevenson, William R.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents high-resolution geophysical data, interpretive maps, and a preliminary discussion about the oyster habitat and estuary-floor geology within Apalachicola Bay, Florida (fig. 1). During two research cruises, conducted in 2005 and 2006, approximately 230 km² of the bay floor were surveyed using interferometric-bathymetry, sidescan-sonar, and chirp seismic-reflection techniques. The research was conducted as part of a cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Services Center (CSC), and the Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve was established in 1979 to provide opportunities for long-term monitoring and research to provide a basis for more informed coastal management decisions for this estuary. Apalachicola Bay is the largest oyster fishery in Florida (Whitfield and Beaumariage, 1977), and the primary objective of this program is to develop a suite of maps that define oyster habitat distribution and estuary-floor geology within the bay. The resulting maps will assist in effective management of oyster resources and provide a reference geologic framework for future scientific and applied research.

  8. Records of contaminant input to San Francisco Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geen, A. van; Luoma, S.N.; Hornberger, M.; Fuller, C.; Pereira, W.; Hostettler, F.; Kvenvolden, K.; Anima, R.; Ritson, P.; Flegal, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    San Francisco Bay, one of the few large estuaries on the West Coast of North America, was subjected to great change as mining, agriculture, industrialization and urbanization accelerated after 1849, and river flows were diverted for agriculture. Trends in contamination were evident in sediment cores analyzed from seven sites. Sedimentation rates increased with human activities. Industrialization was a greater source of contamination than mining. Nearest the mouth of the estuary, concentrations of Hg, Cu, Zn, Pb and PAH began to increase around 1900. Isotopes of Pb indicated sediments were affected by a mixture of atmospheric, industrial and erosional inputs. Peaks in some contaminants were evident since the 1950s, notably Ag, Cd in water (as recorded in foraminifers tests), and DDT. Chromium and vanadium were naturally enriched throughout the cores. Declines in metal concentrations in surface sediments were not evident. Vertical mixing could delay response of sediments to changed metal inputs. Nearer the head of the estuary, contaminant concentrations, TOC and indicators of terrigenous carbon increased sharply where 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu was present (presumably post-1950). Diversion of river flows may have affected accumulation of sediments contaminated by post-war industrialization and acceleration of agricultural development

  9. Impacts of James Bay project on Cree communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senecal, P.; Egre, D.

    1993-01-01

    The LaGrande hydroelectric project in northwest Quebec, originally begun in 1972, was blocked by the Cree Indians and a negotiated settlement was reached in 1975 to continue it in exchange for compensation, land rights, and other matters. The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement contained provisions regulating the use of land and aimed at preserving the traditional Cree way of life. Other complementary agreements were signed in the 1980s. The impact of river-system modifications on wildlife harvesting and the effect of access roads on Cree communities are discussed. Flooding of hunting lands affected some traplines, and the low productivity of shore habitats and the high levels of mercury in some fish have greatly limited use of the LaGrande reservoirs for other purposes. Stream navigation at some communities was made more difficult because of changed river flows. The impact of the roads has been more positive, since the roads have facilitated trade and reduced local prices of many goods, and made wildlife harvesting easier and more evenly distributed. An income security program for hunters, fishers, and trappers has helped preserve a traditional lifestyle. A sharp increase in salary income, indicating consolidation of the employment market in the region, is the most significant economic impact of the LaGrande project agreement. 6 refs

  10. Isotope systematic of contaminant leads in Monterey Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flegal, A.R.; Rosman, K.J.R.; Stephenson, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    Isotopic compositions of stable lead ( 204 Pb, 206 Pb, 207 Pb, and 208 Pb) were utilized to identify a lead slag deposit as the principal source of contaminant lead in Monterey Bay. This point source had been indicated by anomalously high lead concentrations in native mussels (Mytilus californianus) near that deposit, which were orders of magnitude above the base-line concentration of the species (0.5 μg/g). Subsequent analyses revealed that the lead concentrations of both transplanted mussels and intertidal sediments were positively correlated with their proximity to the slag deposit. Complementary lead isotopic compositions substantiated those empirical correlations by demonstrating that the slag was the predominant source of contaminant lead in both the mussels and the sediments. Analyses of the digestive tracts of mussels from the slag deposit indicated that ingested slag particulates accounted for their elevated lead concentrations, while analyses of their gonads indicated that dissolved lead from other industrial sources was also being bioaccumulated by passive adsorption on exposed surfaces. Therefore, this study has demonstrated the potential of lead isotope systematics both to identify sources of lead contamination in marine organisms and to trace its biogeochemical cycle in the marine environment. 26 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  11. Complexation of lead by organic matter in Luanda Bay, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Anabela; Santos, Ana Maria; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2015-10-01

    Speciation is defined as the distribution of an element among different chemical species. Although the relation between speciation and bioavailability is complex, the metal present as free hydrated ion, or as weak complexes able to dissociate, is usually more bioavailable than the metal incorporated in strong complexes or adsorbed on colloidal or particulate matter. Among the analytical techniques currently available, anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) has been one of the most used in the identification and quantification of several heavy metal species in aquatic systems. This work concerns the speciation study of lead, in original (natural, non-filtered) and filtered water samples and in suspensions of particulate matter and sediments from Luanda Bay (Angola). Complexes of lead with organics were identified and quantified by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry technique. Each sample was progressively titrated with a Pb(II) standard solution until complete saturation of the organic ligands. After each addition of Pb(II), the intensity, potential and peak width of the voltammetric signal were measured. The results obtained in this work show that more than 95 % of the lead in the aquatic environment is bound in inert organic complexes, considering all samples from different sampling sites. In sediment samples, the lead is totally (100 %) complexed with ligands adsorbed on the particles surface. Two kinds of dominant lead complexes, very strong (logK >11) and strong to moderately strong (8< logK <11), were found, revealing the lead affinity for the stronger ligands.

  12. Origins of Eddy Kinetic Energy in the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gengxin; Li, Yuanlong; Xie, Qiang; Wang, Dongxiao

    2018-03-01

    By analyzing satellite observational data and ocean general circulation model experiments, this study investigates the key processes that determine the spatial distribution and seasonality of intraseasonal eddy kinetic energy (EKE) within the Bay of Bengal (BOB). It is revealed that a complicated mechanism involving both local and remote wind forcing and ocean internal instability is responsible for the generation and modulation of EKE in this region. High-level EKE mainly resides in four regions: east of Sri Lanka (Region 1), the western BOB (Region 2), northwest of Sumatra (Region 3), and the coastal rim of the BOB (Region 4). The high EKE levels in Regions 1 and 2 are predominantly produced by ocean internal instability, which contributes 90% and 79%, respectively. Prominent seasonality is also observed in these two regions, with higher EKE levels in boreal spring and fall due to enhanced instability of the East Indian Coast Current and the Southwest Monsoon Current, respectively. In contrast, ocean internal instability contributes 49% and 52% of the total EKE in Regions 3 and 4, respectively, whereas the atmospheric forcing of intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) also plays an important role. ISOs produce EKE mainly through wind stress, involving both the remote effect of equatorial winds and the local effect of monsoonal winds. Equatorial-origin wave signals significantly enhance the EKE levels in Regions 3 and 4, in the form of reflected Rossby waves and coastal Kelvin waves, respectively. The local wind forcing effect through Ekman pumping also has a significant contribution in Regions 3 and 4 (24% and 22%, respectively).

  13. Improved Measurement of Electron-antineutrino Disappearance at Daya Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    With 2.5× the previously reported exposure, the Daya Bay experiment has improved the measurement of the neutrino mixing parameter sin 2 2θ 13 =0.089±0.010(stat)±0.005(syst). Reactor anti-neutrinos were produced by six 2.9 GW th commercial power reactors, and measured by six 20-ton target-mass detectors of identical design. A total of 234,217 anti-neutrino candidates were detected in 127 days of exposure. An anti-neutrino rate of 0.944±0.007(stat)±0.003(syst) was measured by three detectors at a flux-weighted average distance of1648 m from the reactors, relative to two detectors at 470 m and one detector at 576 m. Detector design and depth underground limited the background to 5±0.3% (far detectors) and 2±0.2% (near detectors) of the candidate signals. The improved precision confirms the initial measurement of reactor anti-neutrino disappearance, and continues to be the most precise measurement of θ 13

  14. Carbon storage in the seagrass meadows of Gazi Bay, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Githaiga

    Full Text Available Vegetated marine habitats are globally important carbon sinks, making a significant contribution towards mitigating climate change, and they provide a wide range of other ecosystem services. However, large gaps in knowledge remain, particularly for seagrass meadows in Africa. The present study estimated biomass and sediment organic carbon (Corg stocks of four dominant seagrass species in Gazi Bay, Kenya. It compared sediment Corg between seagrass areas in vegetated and un-vegetated 'controls', using the naturally patchy occurence of seagrass at this site to test the impacts of seagrass growth on sediment Corg. It also explored relationships between the sediment and above-ground Corg, as well as between the total biomass and above-ground parameters. Sediment Corg was significantly different between species, range: 160.7-233.8 Mg C ha-1 (compared to the global range of 115.3 to 829.2 Mg C ha-1. Vegetated areas in all species had significantly higher sediment Corg compared with un-vegetated controls; the presence of seagrass increased Corg by 4-6 times. Biomass carbon differed significantly between species with means ranging between 4.8-7.1 Mg C ha-1 compared to the global range of 2.5-7.3 Mg C ha-1. To our knowledge, these are among the first results on seagrass sediment Corg to be reported from African seagrass beds; and contribute towards our understanding of the role of seagrass in global carbon dynamics.

  15. Improved Measurement of Electron-antineutrino Disappearance at Daya Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, D.A. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-02-15

    With 2.5× the previously reported exposure, the Daya Bay experiment has improved the measurement of the neutrino mixing parameter sin{sup 2}2θ{sub 13}=0.089±0.010(stat)±0.005(syst). Reactor anti-neutrinos were produced by six 2.9 GW{sub th} commercial power reactors, and measured by six 20-ton target-mass detectors of identical design. A total of 234,217 anti-neutrino candidates were detected in 127 days of exposure. An anti-neutrino rate of 0.944±0.007(stat)±0.003(syst) was measured by three detectors at a flux-weighted average distance of1648 m from the reactors, relative to two detectors at 470 m and one detector at 576 m. Detector design and depth underground limited the background to 5±0.3% (far detectors) and 2±0.2% (near detectors) of the candidate signals. The improved precision confirms the initial measurement of reactor anti-neutrino disappearance, and continues to be the most precise measurement of θ{sub 13}.

  16. [Application of Bayes Probability Model in Differentiation of Yin and Yang Jaundice Syndromes in Neonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chun-sun; Zhang, Ping; Kong, Chun-yan; Li, Yang-ning

    2015-09-01

    To study the application of Bayes probability model in differentiating yin and yang jaundice syndromes in neonates. Totally 107 jaundice neonates who admitted to hospital within 10 days after birth were assigned to two groups according to syndrome differentiation, 68 in the yang jaundice syndrome group and 39 in the yin jaundice syndrome group. Data collected for neonates were factors related to jaundice before, during and after birth. Blood routines, liver and renal functions, and myocardial enzymes were tested on the admission day or the next day. Logistic regression model and Bayes discriminating analysis were used to screen factors important for yin and yang jaundice syndrome differentiation. Finally, Bayes probability model for yin and yang jaundice syndromes was established and assessed. Factors important for yin and yang jaundice syndrome differentiation screened by Logistic regression model and Bayes discriminating analysis included mothers' age, mother with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), gestational age, asphyxia, or ABO hemolytic diseases, red blood cell distribution width (RDW-SD), platelet-large cell ratio (P-LCR), serum direct bilirubin (DBIL), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cholinesterase (CHE). Bayes discriminating analysis was performed by SPSS to obtain Bayes discriminant function coefficient. Bayes discriminant function was established according to discriminant function coefficients. Yang jaundice syndrome: y1= -21. 701 +2. 589 x mother's age + 1. 037 x GDM-17. 175 x asphyxia + 13. 876 x gestational age + 6. 303 x ABO hemolytic disease + 2.116 x RDW-SD + 0. 831 x DBIL + 0. 012 x ALP + 1. 697 x LCR + 0. 001 x CHE; Yin jaundice syndrome: y2= -33. 511 + 2.991 x mother's age + 3.960 x GDM-12. 877 x asphyxia + 11. 848 x gestational age + 1. 820 x ABO hemolytic disease +2. 231 x RDW-SD +0. 999 x DBIL +0. 023 x ALP +1. 916 x LCR +0. 002 x CHE. Bayes discriminant function was hypothesis tested and got Wilks' λ =0. 393 (P =0. 000). So Bayes

  17. The Bio Bay Game: Three-Dimensional Learning of Biomagnification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasti, Chandana; Lauren, Hillary; Wallon, Robert C; Hug, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Pressing concerns about sustainability and the state of the environment amplify the need to teach students about the connections between ecosystem health, toxicology, and human health. Additionally, the Next Generation Science Standards call for three-dimensional science learning, which integrates disciplinary core ideas, scientific practices, and crosscutting concepts. The Bio Bay Game is a way to teach students about the biomagnification of toxicants across trophic levels while engaging them in three-dimensional learning. In the game, the class models the biomagnification of mercury in a simple aquatic food chain as they play the roles of anchovies, tuna, and humans. While playing, the class generates data, which they analyze after the game to graphically visualize the buildup of toxicants. Students also read and discuss two articles that draw connections to a real-world case. The activity ends with students applying their understanding to evaluate the game as a model of biomagnification. Throughout the activity, students practice modeling and data analysis and engage with the crosscutting concepts of patterns and cause and effect to develop an understanding of core ideas about the connections between humans and the environment.

  18. Improved measurement of electron antineutrino disappearance at Daya Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Fengpeng; Bai Jingzhi; An Qi

    2013-01-01

    We report an improved measurement of the neutrino mixing angle θ13 from the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. We exclude a zero value for sin 2 2θ 13 with a significance of 7.7 standard deviations. Electron antineutrinos from six reactors of 2.9 GW th were detected in six antineutrino detectors deployed in two near (flux-weighted baselines of 470 m and 576 m) and one far (1648 m) underground experimental halls. Using 139 days of data, 28909 (205308) electron antineutrino candidates were detected at the far hall (near halls). The ratio of the observed to the expected number of antineutrinos assuming no oscillations at the far hall is 0.944±0.007(stat.)±0.003(syst.). An analysis of the relative rates in six detectors finds sin 2 2θ 13 =0.089±0.010(stat.)±0.005(syst.) in a three-neutrino framework. (authors)

  19. Total mercury of selected fish species from Laguna de Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relon, Milagros Lontoc

    1996-01-01

    Dalag Ophicephalus striatus Block, kanduli Arius thalassinus Ruppell, bia Amblygobius phalaena Cuvier et Valenciennes and tilapia Tilapia nilotica Linnnaeus collected from Laguna de Bay between Taguig and Binangonan area in August 1989 to July 1990 were analyzed for total mercury by atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest metal concentration in soft muscle tissue was observed in Dalag followed by kanduli, less in bia and least in tilapia with mean values of 0.021, 0.020, 0.013, and 0.008 ug/g, respectively. Analysis using two-way ANOVA showed a significant difference in the mean total mercury in ug/g in the difference fish samples, among the different months and the interaction between these two variables. Mean total mercury of the four fish samples were significantly higher in April than in October. The results show that the levels of total mercury in the fish samples are below the World Health Organization maximum tolerable consumption of mercury in food of 300 ug or 0.03 mg of total mercury per week. (author)

  20. Proposta de metodologia para o cadastro territorial para fins de regularização fundiária em áreas de interesse social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Rafael de Almeida

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta o modelo de regularização fundiária adotado pela Prefeitura Municipal de Quatro Barras - PR, através do Programa Moradia Legal, visando a regulamentação das áreas da Vila Pinheirinho e, desta forma, legalizando a permanência dos moradores na região, de modo a garantir a qualidade de vida e bem estar da população com a implantação de infraestrutura urbana adequada. Atualmente os programas de regularização fundiária necessitam de uma correta mensuração dos limites da propriedade e um banco de dados. Para tanto, foi idealizada uma metodologia específica de cadastro territorial e regularização fundiária, a qual permitiu a tomada de decisões nesses processos junto à Defensoria Pública do Município. Assim, para a aplicação da referida metodologia foi definida uma área piloto composta de ocupações irregulares, sendo utilizados os dados cadastrais constantes no banco de dados geográfico da prefeitura. Confirmou-se com este experimento a função social do cadastro urbano como um instrumento de acesso à propriedade.

  1. Application of decision science to resilience management in Jamaica Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Mitchell; Fuller, Angela K.; Johnson, Fred A.; Hare, M. P.; Stedman, Richard C.; Sanderson, E.W.; Solecki, W. D.; Waldman, J.R.; Paris, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the growing interest in management interventions designed to enhance the resilience of the Jamaica Bay socio-ecological system. Effective management, whether the focus is on managing biological processes or human behavior or (most likely) both, requires decision makers to anticipate how the managed system will respond to interventions (i.e., via predictions or projections). In systems characterized by many interacting components and high uncertainty, making probabilistic predictions is often difficult and requires careful thinking not only about system dynamics, but also about how management objectives are specified and the analytic method used to select the preferred action(s). Developing a clear statement of the problem(s) and articulation of management objectives is often best achieved by including input from managers, scientists and other stakeholders affected by the decision through a process of joint problem framing (Marcot and others 2012; Keeney and others 1990). Using a deliberate, coherent and transparent framework for deciding among management alternatives to best meet these objectives then ensures a greater likelihood for successful intervention. Decision science provides the theoretical and practical basis for developing this framework and applying decision analysis methods for making complex decisions under uncertainty and risk.

  2. Culture-based Identification Of Microcystin-Degrading Bacteria In the Sandusky Bay and Maumee Bay of Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormiston, A.; Mou, X.

    2012-12-01

    Harmful cyanobacteria blooms (cyanoHABs) are a serious issue that affects wildlife, human health, recreation and local economics worldwide. CyanoHABs produce cyanotoxins, such as microcystins (MCs) that lead to skin irritation, illness and liver tumors. Bacterially mediated degradation of MCs plays a key role to transform these toxic substrates to less harmful metabolites in natural environments. However, only a few Sphingomonos species have been isolated for degradation of MCs and many of which are from other habitats such as water plants. This project aims to isolate and identify bacteria that can degrade MC-LR and MC-RR, two major forms of MCs found during cyanoHABs in Lake Erie. Water samples were collected from the surface of Sandusky Bay and Maumee Bay of Lake Erie and immediately filtered through 3.0 -μm-pore-size membrane filters to obtain bacterioplankton fraction. The filtrates were amended with excessive inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus compounds and incubated in the dark for a week to purposely establish a carbon-limited condition. Afterwards, enrichment microcosms were established in flasks filled with pre-incubated bacterioplankton and single MC compounds (final concentration 10 μM). Once cell growth was confirmed by flow cytometry-based cell counting, bacterial cells in enriched microcosms were transferred onto solid surfaces, i.e., GFF filter and noble agar for colony isolation. Obtained single colonies were inoculated in defined liquid media with MCs as single carbon source. DNA was extracted from each purified isolate and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP). A total of 18 different RFLP banding patterns were found, indicating MC-degrading bacteria may be heterogeneous in studied water samples. 16S rRNA genes of selected bacterial isolates were PCR amplified and sequenced for taxonomic identification. Our results demonstrated that MCs can be degraded by multiple bacterial species in Lake Erie. Future directions

  3. Spatial and seasonal patterns of ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Haizhou Bay and its adjacent waters of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zengguang; Ye, Zhenjiang; Wan, Rong

    2015-12-01

    Surveys were conducted in five voyages in Haizhou Bay and its adjacent coastal area from March to December 2011 during full moon spring tides. The ichthyoplankton assemblages and the environmental factors that affect their spatial and seasonal patterns were determined. Totally 35 and 12 fish egg and larvae taxa were identified, respectively. Over the past several decades, the egg and larval species composition has significantly changed in Haizhou Bay and its adjacent waters, most likely corresponding with the alteration of fishery resources, which are strongly affected by anthropogenic activities and climate change. The Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index identified four assemblages: near-shore bay assemblage, middle bay assemblage and two closely related assemblages (near-shore/middle bay assemblage and middle/edge of bay assemblage). The primary species of each assemblage principally reflected the spawning strategies of adult fish. The near-shore bay assemblage generally occurred in near-shore bay, with depths measuring ichthyoplankton in each assemblage were determined by interactions between biological behavioral traits and oceanographic features, particularly the variation of local conditions within the constraint of a general reproductive strategy. The results of Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicated that both fish egg and larval abundance were positively correlated with depth, which is critical to the oceanographic features in Haizhou Bay.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF COASTAL CONDITIONS TO TSUNAMI INUNDATION OF BIMA BAY, WEST NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudhicara Yudhicara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Area along the coast that includes the territorial waters of the Bima Bay, West Nusa Tenggara, is prone to tsunamis, evidenced by the historical tsunamis record in 1815 due to the volcanic eruption of Tambora, 1818, 1836 and 1992 caused by earthquakes associated with tectonic system in the north of the island of Sumbawa, and 1892 were sourced from a distant source. Based on the coastal characteristics, the research area was divided into four types of beaches, namely: Steep rocky beach; Coastal walled plain; Flat coastal mangroves; and Flat sandy beaches. According to the lateral measurement, houses were built in the plains with a minimum height difference of 0.04 m at Rababuntu beach and a maximum of 22.63 m in New Asakota area. The settlement closest distance to the coastline is 10.3 m in Rababuntu, while the farthest extent is at Kawananta 194.58 m from the shoreline. The local bathymetry range between 1 and 42.5 m, where the inside of the very shallow waters of the Bay of Bima, gradually steeper at the mouth of the bay to the open sea. This conditions will influence the wave when entering the bay. It will come with large enough speed at the mouth of the bay, spread along the coastal waters of the eastern and continue spreading to all parts with the diminishing velocity, but the height increasing when it reaches shallow water, especially in the waters of the western Gulf of Bima. Several factors can affect the amount of risk that would be caused by the tsunami, in the research area include are: (1 The research area is located in an enclosed bay; (2 The local sea floor depths around the bay is relatively shallow waters; (3 Coastal characteristics of the research area is dominated by a gently sloping beach morphology with low relief, especially in the area of ??Bajo, Rababuntu and Bontokape and other beaches in the city of Bima; (4 Residential location very close to the shoreline; (5 Minimal vegetation cover; and (6 The presence of the

  5. Study on the Coastline Change of Jiaozhou Bay Based on High Resolution Remote Sensing Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H.; Xing, B.; Ni, S.; Wei, P.

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of the Jiaozhou Bay area of Qingdao, the influence of human activities on the coastline of Jiaozhou Bay is becoming more and more serious. Based on the high resolution remote sensing image data of 10 periods from 2001 to 2017 in the Jiaozhou Bay area, and combined with the data of on-the-spot survey and expert knowledge, this paper have completed the interpretation and extraction of coastline data of each year, and analyzed the distribution, size, rate of change, and trend of the increase and decrease of the coastal area of Jiaozhou Bay in different time periods, combined with the economic construction and the marine hydrodynamic environment of the region to analyze the reasons for the change of the coastline of Jiaozhou Bay. The results show that the increase and reduction of the coastal area of Jiaozhou Bay was mainly affected by human activities such as sea reclamation and marine aquaculture, resulting in a gradual change in the rate of increase and decrease with human development. For coastal advance part,2001-2013, the average increase rate on the coastal area of Jiaozhou Bay was 2.30 km2/a, showing a trend of rapid growth, 2013-2017 the average increase rate of 0.53 km2/a, and the growth rate slowed down. For coastal retreat part, 2001-2013, the average decrease rate was 2.58 × 10-3 km2/a. 2013-2014, the decrease rate reached a peak value of 1.11 km2/a. 2014-2017, the average decrease rate was 0.14 km2/a. The decrease rate shows a trend of increasing first and then slowing down.

  6. Time series monitoring of water quality and microalgal diversity in a tropical bay under intense anthropogenic interference (SW coast of the Bay of Bengal, India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaik, Aziz ur Rahman [CSIR — National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, 176 Lawson' s Bay Colony, Visakhapatnam, AP 530017 (India); Biswas, Haimanti, E-mail: haimanti.biswas@nio.org [CSIR — National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, 176 Lawson' s Bay Colony, Visakhapatnam, AP 530017 (India); Reddy, N.P.C.; Srinivasa Rao, V. [CSIR — National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, 176 Lawson' s Bay Colony, Visakhapatnam, AP 530017 (India); Bharathi, M.D. [Present address: ICMAM Project Directorate, 2nd Floor, NIOT Campus, Velacherry-Tambaram Main Road, Pallikkaranai, Chennai 600100 (India); Subbaiah, Ch.V. [CSIR — National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, 176 Lawson' s Bay Colony, Visakhapatnam, AP 530017 (India)

    2015-11-15

    In recent decades, material fluxes to coastal waters from various land based anthropogenic activities have significantly been enhanced around the globe which can considerably impact the coastal water quality and ecosystem health. Hence, there is a critical need to understand the links between anthropogenic activities in watersheds and its health. Kakinada Bay is situated at the SW part of the Bay of Bengal, near to the second largest mangrove cover in India with several fertilizer industries along its bank and could be highly vulnerable to different types of pollutants. However, virtually, no data is available so far reporting its physicochemical status and microalgal diversity at this bay. In order to fill this gap, we conducted three time series observations at a fixed station during January, December and June 2012, at this bay measuring more than 15 physical, chemical and biological parameters in every 3 h over a period of 36 h in both surface (0 m) and subsurface (4.5 m) waters. Our results clearly depict a strong seasonality between three sampling months; however, any abnormal values of nutrients, biological oxygen demand or dissolved oxygen level was not observed. A Skeletonema costatum bloom was observed in December which was probably influenced by low saline, high turbid and high Si input through the river discharge. Otherwise, smaller diatoms like Thalassiosira decipiens, Thalassiothrix frauenfeldii, and Thalassionema nitzschioides dominated the bay. It is likely that the material loading can be high at the point sources due to intense anthropogenic activities, however, gets diluted with biological, chemical and physical processes in the offshore waters. - Highlights: • No signature of enormous nutrient loading was observed over the diel cycle • Dissolved oxygen and BOD concentrations did not show any exceptional trend • Diatoms dominated more than 90% of the total phytoplankton communities • A Skeletonema Costatum (a centric diatom) bloom was

  7. Time series monitoring of water quality and microalgal diversity in a tropical bay under intense anthropogenic interference (SW coast of the Bay of Bengal, India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaik, Aziz ur Rahman; Biswas, Haimanti; Reddy, N.P.C.; Srinivasa Rao, V.; Bharathi, M.D.; Subbaiah, Ch.V.

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, material fluxes to coastal waters from various land based anthropogenic activities have significantly been enhanced around the globe which can considerably impact the coastal water quality and ecosystem health. Hence, there is a critical need to understand the links between anthropogenic activities in watersheds and its health. Kakinada Bay is situated at the SW part of the Bay of Bengal, near to the second largest mangrove cover in India with several fertilizer industries along its bank and could be highly vulnerable to different types of pollutants. However, virtually, no data is available so far reporting its physicochemical status and microalgal diversity at this bay. In order to fill this gap, we conducted three time series observations at a fixed station during January, December and June 2012, at this bay measuring more than 15 physical, chemical and biological parameters in every 3 h over a period of 36 h in both surface (0 m) and subsurface (4.5 m) waters. Our results clearly depict a strong seasonality between three sampling months; however, any abnormal values of nutrients, biological oxygen demand or dissolved oxygen level was not observed. A Skeletonema costatum bloom was observed in December which was probably influenced by low saline, high turbid and high Si input through the river discharge. Otherwise, smaller diatoms like Thalassiosira decipiens, Thalassiothrix frauenfeldii, and Thalassionema nitzschioides dominated the bay. It is likely that the material loading can be high at the point sources due to intense anthropogenic activities, however, gets diluted with biological, chemical and physical processes in the offshore waters. - Highlights: • No signature of enormous nutrient loading was observed over the diel cycle • Dissolved oxygen and BOD concentrations did not show any exceptional trend • Diatoms dominated more than 90% of the total phytoplankton communities • A Skeletonema Costatum (a centric diatom) bloom was

  8. Preliminary bathymetry of Blackstone Bay and Neoglacial changes of Blackstone Glaciers, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Austin

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary bathymetry (at 1:20,000 scale) and scientific studies of Blackstone Bay Alaska, by the Research Vessel Growler in 1978 disclose that the head of the bay consists of two basins separated by Willard Island and a submarine ridge. Both basins are closed on the north by terminal-moraine bars where Blackstone Glacier and its tributaries terminated as recently as about A.D. 1350; a carbon-14 date of 580 years before present on Badger Point, and old trees farther up the bay, disclose that the glaciers retreated to two narrow inlets at the head of the bay before 1400. The inlets were still glacier-covered until at least 1909. Glaciers in both inlets have continued to retreat; at present they terminate at the head of tidewater, where they discharge small icebergs. Only relatively thin sediments have accumulated in the eastern basin south of the terminal-moraine bar, and most of the bottom is hard and irregular as disclosed by soundings and profiles. The northern part of Blackstone Bay is very deep; at more than 1,100 feet below sea level a large, level accumulation of sediment is present which is presumably as much as 1,000 feet deep and has been accumulating since late Pleistocene glaciers retreated. (USGS)

  9. Presence of selected chemicals of emerging concern in water and bottom sediment from the St. Louis River, St. Louis Bay, and Superior Bay, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Lee, Kathy E.; Kieta, Kristen A.; Elliott, Sarah M.

    2012-01-01

    The St. Louis Bay of Lake Superior receives substantial urban runoff, wastewater treatment plant effluent, and industrial effluent. In 1987, the International Joint Commission designated the St. Louis Bay portion of the lower St. Louis River as one of the Great Lakes Areas of Concern. Concerns exist about the potential effects of chemicals of emerging concern on aquatic biota because many of these chemicals, including endocrine active chemicals, have been shown to affect the endocrine systems of fish. To determine the occurrence of chemicals of emerging concern in the St. Louis River, the St. Louis Bay, and Superior Bay, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources collected water and bottom-sediment samples from 40 sites from August through October 2010. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify the extent to which chemicals of emerging concern, including pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic chemicals, occur in the St. Louis River, St. Louis Bay, and Superior Bay, and (2) identify the extent to which the chemicals may have accumulated in bottom sediment of the study area. Samples were analyzed for selected wastewater indicators, hormones, sterols, bisphenol A, and human-health pharmaceuticals. During this study, 33 of 89 chemicals of emerging concern were detected among all water samples collected and 56 of 104 chemicals of emerging concern were detected in bottom-sediment samples. The chemical N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) was the most commonly detected chemical in water samples and 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene was the most commonly detected chemical in bottom-sediment samples. In general, chemicals of emerging concern were detected at a higher frequency in bottom-sediment samples than in water samples. Estrone (a steroid hormone) and hexahydrohexamethyl cyclopentabensopyran (a synthetic fragrance) were the most commonly detected endocrine active chemicals in

  10. Hydrogeologic setting and ground water flow beneath a section of Indian River Bay, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, David E.; Manheim, Frank T.; Bratton, John F.; Phelan, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    The small bays along the Atlantic coast of the Delmarva Peninsula (Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia) are a valuable natural resource, and an asset for commerce and recreation. These coastal bays also are vulnerable to eutrophication from the input of excess nutrients derived from agriculture and other human activities in the watersheds. Ground water discharge may be an appreciable source of fresh water and a transport pathway for nutrients entering the bays. This paper presents results from an investigation of the physical properties of the surficial aquifer and the processes associated with ground water flow beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware. A key aspect of the project was the deployment of a new technology, streaming horizontal resistivity, to map the subsurface distribution of fresh and saline ground water beneath the bay. The resistivity profiles showed complex patterns of ground water flow, modes of mixing, and submarine ground water discharge. Cores, gamma and electromagnetic-induction logs, and in situ ground water samples collected during a coring operation in Indian River Bay verified the interpretation of the resistivity profiles. The shore-parallel resistivity lines show subsurface zones of fresh ground water alternating with zones dominated by the flow of salt water from the estuary down into the aquifer. Advective flow produces plumes of fresh ground water 400 to 600 m wide and 20 m thick that may extend more than 1 km beneath the estuary. Zones of dispersive mixing between fresh and saline ground water develop on the upper, lower, and lateral boundaries of the the plume. the plumes generally underlie small incised valleys that can be traced landward to stream draining the upland. The incised valleys are filled with 1 to 2 m of silt and peat that act as a semiconfining layer to restrict the downward flow of salt water from the estuary. Active circulation of both the fresh and saline ground water masses beneath the bay is inferred from the geophysical

  11. Bloom dynamics of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae in two coastal bays (NW Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Quijano-Scheggia

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal variations in the composition of Pseudo-nitzschia during bloom events from August 2005 to February 2006 were characterised in two bays of the NW Mediterranean Sea (Alfacs and Fangar Bay by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The study provides detailed records of the Pseudo-nitzschia community at the species level and describes its relationship with both the surrounding environmental conditions and biotic factors such as the accompanying phytoplankton community. The size distributions of several species of Pseudo-nitzschia were monitored during the bloom events. These measurements may serve as indicators of the physiological status of the cells. The species observed in the two bays were Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha, P. delicatissima, P. fraudulenta, P. multistriata, and P. pungens. In Alfacs Bay, a mixed species bloom of P. calliantha and P. delicatissima began in late August 2005 and lasted 11 weeks. In Fangar Bay, the Pseudo-nitzschia bloom was limited to the period from early August to late September 2005 and comprised P. calliantha and P. delicatissima. Commonly, the proliferation of Pseudo-nitzschia was mono-specific or was accompanied by other diatoms. Two objectively defined groups were identified by the statistical analysis in Alfacs bay; the first was made up only of winter samples and the second of summer and autumn samples. The first group was defined by a high concentration of NO3¯ and low concentrations of NH4+, conditions associated with a high abundance of P. delicatissima and a low abundance of P. calliantha. The second group expressed the opposite characteristics. A succession of different blooming species of Pseudo-nitzschia lasting months in Alfacs Bay is described.

  12. Influence of urbanization and industrialization on metal enrichment of sediment cores from Shantou Bay, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Yongmin; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Jiangang; Tao, Ran; Xu, Ronghua

    2013-01-01

    Four sediment cores were collected to investigate geochemical sources and to assess enrichment and pollution of metals in sediments from Shantou Bay, an area experiencing rapid economic development on the Southeastern Coast of China. The results indicated that the concentrations of the majority of metals showed a decrease with depth, with overall maximum values in the top layers, and that different sampling locations in the Bay received slightly different types of inputs. Three major sources were identified by correlation analysis and principal component analysis: river inputs, metropolitan, and port facilities discharge. Calculation of a pollution load index revealed overall low values, but the enrichment factor values for Pb and Cd were typically high for all cores. The mean concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn and to some extent Cd exceeded the Effects-Range-Low values in the majority of the cases, indicating that there were possible ecotoxicological risks to organisms in Shantou Bay. -- Highlights: •Metals had downward decrease with overall maximum value at top layers. •River input, metropolitan and port facilities discharge are identified as major sources. •Pb and Cd are mainly enriched metals. •Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd had potential ecotoxicological risks to organisms in Shantou Bay. -- Shantou Bay was polluted by Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, and showed an increase trend along time. River input, metropolitan and port facilities were identified as their sources based on multi-analysis

  13. Sources and transformations of dissolved lignin phenols and chromophoric dissolved organic matter in Otsuchi Bay, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jung eLu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved lignin phenols and optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM were measured to investigate the sources and transformations of terrigenous DOM (tDOM in Otsuchi Bay, Japan. Three rivers discharge into the bay, and relatively high values of syringyl:vanillyl phenols (0.73 ± 0.07 and cinnamyl:vanillyl phenols (0.33 ± 0.10 indicated large contributions of non-woody angiosperm tissues to lignin and tDOM. The physical mixing of river and seawater played an important role in controlling the concentrations and distributions of lignin phenols and chromophoric DOM (CDOM optical properties in the bay. Lignin phenol concentrations and the CDOM absorption coefficient at 350 nm, a(350, were strongly correlated in river and bay waters. Measurements of lignin phenols and CDOM in bay waters indicated a variety of photochemical and biological transformations of tDOM, including oxidation reactions, photobleaching and a decrease in molecular weight. Photodegradation and biodegradation of lignin and CDOM were investigated in decomposition experiments with river water and native microbial assemblages exposed to natural sunlight or kept in the dark. There was a rapid and substantial removal of lignin phenols and CDOM during the first few days in the light treatment, indicating transformations of tDOM and CDOM can occur soon after discharge of buoyant river water into the bay. The removal of lignin phenols was slightly greater in the dark (34% than in the light (30% during the remaining 59 days of the incubation. Comparison of the light and dark treatments indicated biodegradation was responsible for 67% of total lignin phenol removal during the 62-day incubation exposed to natural sunlight, indicating biodegradation is a dominant removal process in Otsuchi Bay.

  14. Petrographic Studies of Rocks from The Chesapeake Bay Impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shock petrographic investigations were carried out on samples collected from drill cores from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure (USA). The late Eocene Chesapeake impact structure is, at 85 km diameter, currently the largest impact structure known in the United States, buried at shallow to moderate depths beneath ...

  15. Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale crater, Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Bish, D.L.; Ming, D.W.; Bristow, T.F.; Morris, R.V.; Blake, D.F.; Chipera, S.J.; Morrison, S.M.; Treiman, A.H.; Rampe, E.B.; Rice, M.; Achilles, C.N.; Grotzinger, J.P.; McLennan, S.M.; Williams, J.; Bell III, J.F.; Newsom, H.E.; Downs, R.T.; Maurice, S.; Sarrazin, P.; Yen, A.S.; Morookian, J.M.; Farmer, J.D.; Stack, K.; Milliken, R.E.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Sumner, D.Y.; Berger, G.; Crisp, J.A.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Anderson, R.; Des Marais, D.J.; Stolper, E.M.; Edgett, K.S.; Gupta, S.; Spanovich, N.; MSL Science Team, the|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292012217

    2014-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks at Yellowknife Bay (Gale crater) on Mars include mudstone sampled by the Curiosity rover. The samples, John Klein and Cumberland, contain detrital basaltic minerals, calcium sulfates, iron oxide or hydroxides, iron sulfides, amorphous material, and trioctahedral smectites. The John

  16. Bioinvasion in a Brazilian bay: filling gaps in the knowledge of southwestern Atlantic biota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara L Ignacio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are a major cause of global species change. Nevertheless, knowledge about the distribution and ecology of introduced species is regionally biased, and many gaps in knowledge exist for most developing countries.To study the zoobenthos on the hard substratum of the Ilha Grande Bay, a survey was conducted on both natural and artificial substrata at three depths and seven sites. The species recorded were classified as native, cryptogenic or introduced. Multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the prevalence of introduced species in these communities and to compare the distribution of species on natural and artificial substrata of this bay to identify possible discrepancies in habitat use. Of the 61 species, 25 were cryptogenic, 10 were introduced and 26 were native. Similar numbers of introduced species were found on both natural and artificial substrata, though the community composition was significantly different between them. We also compared the species composition of the Ilha Grande Bay survey to other inventories taken around the world. The highest similarities were found between the Ilha Grande Bay inventory and the Atlantic coastal region (Tampa Bay, USA and the Gulf of Mexico, American Samoa and Pearl Harbor (USA inventories.This study presents the first published comprehensive list of hard substratum sessile marine invertebrate species in a Brazilian bay. The high percentage of cryptogenic species reveals gaps in both zoological records and information on introduced species for the Brazilian coast. The introduced species successfully colonized different sites in the Ilha Grande Bay, including both natural and artificial substrata. In addition, we find that artificial structures may not be good surrogates for natural rocky shores and may represent an ecological threat. Comparisons with other inventories suggest a history of broad-scale invasion, though more evidence is needed to support this conclusion.

  17. Sustainable development in the Hudson Bay/James Bay bioregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of projects planned for the James Bay/Hudson Bay region, and the expected environmental impacts of these projects. The watershed of James Bay and Hudson Bay covers well over one third of Canada, from southern Alberta to central Ontario to Baffin Island, as well as parts of north Dakota and Minnesota in the U.S.A. Hydroelectric power developments that change the timing and rate of flow of fresh water may cause changes in the nature and duration of ice cover, habitats of marine mammals, fish and migratory birds, currents into and out of Hudson Bay/James Bay, seasonal and annual loads of sediments and nutrients to marine ecosystems, and anadromous fish populations. Hydroelectric projects are proposed for the region by Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba. In January 1992, the Canadian Arctic Resources Committee (CARC), the Environmental Committee of Sanikuluaq, and the Rawson Academy of Arctic Science will launch the Hudson Bay/James Bay Bioregion Program, an independent initiative to apply an ecosystem approach to the region. Two main objectives are to provide a comprehensive assessment of the cumulative impacts of human activities on the marine and freshwater ecosystems of the Hudson Bay/James Bay bioregion, and to foster sustainable development by examining and proposing cooperative processes for decision making among governments, developers, aboriginal peoples and other stakeholders. 1 fig

  18. Flexible Modeling of Epidemics with an Empirical Bayes Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Logan C.; Farrow, David C.; Hyun, Sangwon; Tibshirani, Ryan J.; Rosenfeld, Roni

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza epidemics cause consistent, considerable, widespread loss annually in terms of economic burden, morbidity, and mortality. With access to accurate and reliable forecasts of a current or upcoming influenza epidemic’s behavior, policy makers can design and implement more effective countermeasures. This past year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention hosted the “Predict the Influenza Season Challenge”, with the task of predicting key epidemiological measures for the 2013–2014 U.S. influenza season with the help of digital surveillance data. We developed a framework for in-season forecasts of epidemics using a semiparametric Empirical Bayes framework, and applied it to predict the weekly percentage of outpatient doctors visits for influenza-like illness, and the season onset, duration, peak time, and peak height, with and without using Google Flu Trends data. Previous work on epidemic modeling has focused on developing mechanistic models of disease behavior and applying time series tools to explain historical data. However, tailoring these models to certain types of surveillance data can be challenging, and overly complex models with many parameters can compromise forecasting ability. Our approach instead produces possibilities for the epidemic curve of the season of interest using modified versions of data from previous seasons, allowing for reasonable variations in the timing, pace, and intensity of the seasonal epidemics, as well as noise in observations. Since the framework does not make strict domain-specific assumptions, it can easily be applied to some other diseases with seasonal epidemics. This method produces a complete posterior distribution over epidemic curves, rather than, for example, solely point predictions of forecasting targets. We report prospective influenza-like-illness forecasts made for the 2013–2014 U.S. influenza season, and compare the framework’s cross-validated prediction error on historical data to

  19. Temporal and spatial distribution of beryllium-7 in the sediments of Chesapeake Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibb, J.E.; Rice, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    The sediment inventory of 7 Be was determined at six stations in the main stem of Chesapeake Bay nine times between April, 1986, and September, 1987. The inventories ranged from -2 . Comparison to the atmospherically supported 7 Be inventory (range 2-4 dpm cm -2 ) showed significant focusing of 7 Be in the sediments in the zone of the turbidity maximum during the summer, and suggested that the spatial distribution of 7 Be in the lower Bay apparently had a recurrence frequency greater than the sampling frequency in this investigation. The temporal pattern of 7 Be accumulation at the six stations over the first year of this investigation allowed estimation of sedimentation rates, which suggested that the processes governing the distribution of 7 Be in Chesapeake Bay sediments were similar to the processes determining sedimentation patterns over about the past 100 years. (author)

  20. Temporal trends and bioavailability assessment of heavy metals in the sediments of Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-12-15

    Thirteen sites in Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia were sampled three times over a period of 7 months and assessed for contamination by a range of heavy metals, primarily As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Hg. Fraction analysis, enrichment factors and Principal Components Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) analysis were conducted in order to identify the potential bioavailability of these elements of concern and their sources. Hg and Te were identified as the elements of highest enrichment in Deception Bay while marine sediments, shipping and antifouling agents were identified as the sources of the Weak Acid Extractable Metals (WE-M), with antifouling agents showing long residence time for mercury contamination. This has significant implications for the future of monitoring and regulation of heavy metal contamination within Deception Bay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Status of macrobenthic community of Manifa-Tanajib Bay System of Saudi Arabia based on a once-off sampling event

    KAUST Repository

    Joydas, Thadickal Viswanathan

    2011-06-01

    Shallow water bays located in the western Arabian Gulf experience harsh environmental conditions. Some of these bays, including Manifa-Tanajib Bay System (MTBS), were also exposed to the 1991 oil pollution event. This study investigates the status of the macrobenthos in MTBS during 2006. This bay system is characterized by very shallow inner bays with elevated salinity and temperature compared to the rest of the bay area. As a result mainly of the hyper salinity, the inner bay communities are distinct from the outer bay communities. Overall, fairly high species richness with several rare species was observed. High Shannon-Wiener diversity values and ABC plots indicated the healthy status of the polychaete communities, while BOPA index indicated slightly polluted status in 20% of the stations. The oil sensitive amphipods were not completely re-colonized in 20% of the stations, even after 15. years of recovery from the 1991 oil spill. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started in...

  3. Humboldt Bay Orthoimages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-meter pixel resolution, four band orthoimages covering the Humboldt Bay area. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  4. A parameter quantifying radiation damping of bay oscillations excited by incident tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, Takahiro; Inazu, Daisuke; Waseda, Takuji; Hibiya, Toshiyuki

    2018-04-01

    The transient response of a bay with a narrow mouth to incident tsunamis is interpreted as the convolution of the input signal with the impulse response obtained by an inverse Fourier transform of the response curve of the oscillatory system with one degree of freedom. The rate of radiation damping associated with energy escaping seaward through the bay mouth is expressed in terms of the quality factor Q, which determines the decaying envelope of the impulse response. The value of Q of the resonant peak is approximated by the ratio of the resonant frequency ω0 to the bandwidth between frequencies at which the power spectral density of sea level within the bay drops to half of the peak value. Since the shape of the frequency power spectrum during the tsunami event is almost similar to that in the normal state in the neighborhood of ω0, Q can be estimated from sea level datasets in the normal state. Although the amplitude and phase of the impulse response need to be adjusted using the first crest or trough of the observed leading wave, this approach proves to work well in examining the transient responses of Miyako Bay and Kushimoto Bay on the Japanese Pacific coast to incident tsunamis.

  5. Exploitation of tidal power in the Bay of Cadiz: ancient tidal mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Alonso del Rosario

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Tidal mills were the main industrial activity in the Bay of Cadiz for centuries. They were the last step in the production of salt and flour made by grinding grains. They were installed along the shallow channels, called “caños”, around the Bay, where the frictional and geometrical effects are very strong. The authors have analyzed the propagation of the semidiurnal tidal waves along the Caño de Sancti Petri and the available tidal power in the area. The ancient tidal mills were located where the available tidal potential energy is highest, which ensured productivity for grinding salt and wheat in ancient times. Some considerations about the possibility of installing tidal power plants in the Bay of Cadiz now are given, which show that it could be a real and renewal alternative source of energy for the area.

  6. Holistic assessment of Chwaka Bay's multi-gear fishery - Using a trophic modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehren, Jennifer; Wolff, Matthias; Jiddawi, Narriman

    2018-04-01

    East African coastal communities highly depend on marine resources for not just income but also protein supply. The multi-species, multi-gear nature of East African fisheries makes this type of fishery particularly difficult to manage, as there is a trade-off between maximizing total catch from all gears and species and minimizing overfishing of target species and the disintegration of the ecosystem. The use and spatio-temporal overlap of multiple gears in Chwaka Bay (Zanzibar) has led to severe conflicts between fishermen. There is a general concern of overfishing in the bay because of the widespread use of small mesh sizes and destructive gears such as dragnets and spear guns. We constructed an Ecopath food web model to describe the current trophic flow structure and fishing pattern of the bay. Based on this model, we explored the impact of different gears on the ecosystem and the fishing community in order to give advice for gear based management in the bay. Results indicate that Chwaka bay is a productive, shallow water system, with biomass concentrations around the first and second trophic level. The system is greatly bottom-up driven and dominated by primary producers and invertebrates. The trophic and network indicators as well as the community energetics characterize Chwaka Bay as relatively mature. Traps and dragnets have the strongest impact on the ecosystem and on the catches obtained by other gears. Both gears potentially destabilize the ecosystem by reducing the biomass of top-down controlling key species (including important herbivores of macroalgae). The dragnet fishery is the least profitable, but provides most jobs for the fishing community. Thus, a complete ban of dragnets in the bay would require the provision of alternative livelihoods. Due to the low resource biomass of fish in the bay and the indication of a loss of structural control of certain fish groups, Chwaka Bay does not seem to provide scope for further expansion of the fishery

  7. The value of delay in tidal energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDougall, Shelley L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite robust research, prototype development and demonstration of in-stream tidal energy devices, progress to the commercialization stage has been slow. Some of this can be attributed to a lack readiness or financing. However, when uncertainty is high, a developer may choose to delay a project until more is known. The option to delay has value for a company. This study applies the real option valuation model to an investment in a 10 MW array of in-stream tidal energy conversion devices at the Fundy Ocean Research Centre for Energy (FORCE) in the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada. The values of investing and the option to delay are calculated. A sensitivity analysis of key drivers and scenarios with various input values to the option model are constructed to observe the impact on the 'invest versus delay' decision. The analysis suggests there is value in owning the option to develop, by leasing a FORCE berth, but waiting while uncertainty is resolved. Implications for policy-setting are discussed. - Highlights: • Analyze an invest-vs-delay decision in tidal energy conversion using real options. • Assess whether conditions are conducive to an economically rational decision to delay. • Identify aspects of the decision that can be influenced by government policy.

  8. Occurrence and distribution of antibiotics in coastal water of the Bohai Bay, China: impacts of river discharge and aquaculture activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shichun; Xu, Weihai; Zhang, Ruijie; Tang, Jianhui; Chen, Yingjun; Zhang, Gan

    2011-10-01

    The presence of 21 antibiotics in six different groups was investigated in coastal water of the Bohai Bay. Meantime, to illuminate the potential effects caused by the river discharge and aquaculture activities, wastewater from three breeding plants and surface water from six rivers flowing into the Bohai Bay were also analyzed for the selected antibiotics. The result revealed that measured antibiotics in the North Bobai Bay were generally higher than those in the South, highlighting the remarkable effects of high density of human activities on the exposure of antibiotics in environment. The antibiotics found in the six rivers were generally higher than those in the Bohai Bay reflecting the important antibiotics source of river discharge. This study reveals that the high consumption of some antibiotics in aquaculture activities may pose high ecological risk to the bay. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of shore-level displacement on the ecology of Baltic Sea bays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Joakim P. [AquaBiota Water Rsearch, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    This report presents the up to date understanding of changes in ecological structure of small Baltic Sea bays following shore-level displacement and isolation of bays from the sea. It was produced as a part of the biosphere research programme, which has a strong emphasis on the characterization of properties and processes affecting the fate of potentially released radionuclides from the suggested repository of nuclear waste in the bedrock of the Forsmark area. The report has a focus on ecology and gives a description of input data, methodology and results on changes in flora and fauna communities, as well as some abiotic factors, with topographic isolation of bays from the sea. It is intended to describe the properties and conditions at the Forsmark site and to give information essential for demonstrating site specific understanding of processes and properties linked to a sea-to lake succession. Long-term landscape development in the Forsmark area is dependent on two main and partly interdependent factors; shore-level displacement and climate variations. These two factors in combination strongly affect a number of processes, which in turn influence the development of ecosystems. Some examples of such processes are erosion and sedimentation, primary production and decomposition of organic matter. In this work focus has been to report changes in the structure and biomass of flora and fauna communities, which affect primary production, and influence the processes of decomposition of organic matter and sedimentation. A section of the study also deals with the biological processes of primary production, auto trophic carbon uptake and influence of allochtonous energy. The study is part of a description of the Forsmark ecosystem succession during a glacial cycle, which is one of the main objectives of the biosphere modelling at the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The biomass of macro fauna was found to decrease with increasing isolation of bays

  10. Effects of shore-level displacement on the ecology of Baltic Sea bays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Joakim P.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents the up to date understanding of changes in ecological structure of small Baltic Sea bays following shore-level displacement and isolation of bays from the sea. It was produced as a part of the biosphere research programme, which has a strong emphasis on the characterization of properties and processes affecting the fate of potentially released radionuclides from the suggested repository of nuclear waste in the bedrock of the Forsmark area. The report has a focus on ecology and gives a description of input data, methodology and results on changes in flora and fauna communities, as well as some abiotic factors, with topographic isolation of bays from the sea. It is intended to describe the properties and conditions at the Forsmark site and to give information essential for demonstrating site specific understanding of processes and properties linked to a sea-to lake succession. Long-term landscape development in the Forsmark area is dependent on two main and partly interdependent factors; shore-level displacement and climate variations. These two factors in combination strongly affect a number of processes, which in turn influence the development of ecosystems. Some examples of such processes are erosion and sedimentation, primary production and decomposition of organic matter. In this work focus has been to report changes in the structure and biomass of flora and fauna communities, which affect primary production, and influence the processes of decomposition of organic matter and sedimentation. A section of the study also deals with the biological processes of primary production, auto trophic carbon uptake and influence of allochtonous energy. The study is part of a description of the Forsmark ecosystem succession during a glacial cycle, which is one of the main objectives of the biosphere modelling at the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The biomass of macro fauna was found to decrease with increasing isolation of bays

  11. Internal structure of the 85°E ridge, Bay of Bengal: Evidence for multiphase volcanism

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ismaiel, M.; Krishna, K.S.; Srinivas, K.; Mishra, J.; Saha, D.

    fragments 3 of Elan Bank and part of the present Kerguelen Plateau (Talwani et al., 2016). As a result, age of the oceanic floor in the Western Basin of the Bay of Bengal is older than the other parts. In southeastern quarter of the Bay of Bengal... interpreted as carbonate bank (Gopala Rao et al., 1997; Karuppuswamy, 2013), therefore, we too conjecture the lens shaped reflection free zone identified on our profiles as a carbonate bank, and this may have formed when the defunct volcanic structure...

  12. The influence of seagrass on shell layers and Florida Bay mudbanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, E.J.; Halley, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Aerial photography indicates that sometime since the early 1970's, an emergent ridge of shell debris developed on a mudbank north of Calusa Key in Florida Bay. Coarse shell deposits on and within the Bay's shallow mudbanks are believed to be the product of transport during major storm events and subsequent winnowing. However, shell material from the ridge contains nuclear bomb 14C, supporting formation within the past 30 years and the last major hurricanes to influence Florida Bay were Donna and Betsy (1960 and 1965). Results from this study suggest that the Calusa ridge and other coarse shell deposits in Florida Bay can result from, 1) periodic seagrass mortality and wave-induced transport during frequent winter cold fronts and/or 2) mollusc blooms and subsequent burial. A survey of bottom types indicates that dense to intermediate beds of seagrass, mainly Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass), occur within the shallow basins of western Florida Bay and along the margins of Bay mudbanks. Wave measurements and modeling indicate that Thalassia along mudbank margins can reduce incoming wave-energy by over 80%. Seagrass beds also host particularly dense populations of molluscs from periodic 'blooms' and are believed to be the major source of coarse sediments in the Bay. Thus, if bank-edge seagrass dies, sediments, including shell debris, become exposed and subject to greatly increased wave energy. Modeling indicates that winds typical of winter cold fronts in South Florida can produce near-bottom velocities and shear stress at a grass-free bank edge which are sufficient to transport coarse carbonate grains. Shell layers found at depth in mudbank cores can also be explained by previous episodes of sediment accretion over mollusc-rich seagrass beds or grass bed mortality at the edge of a mudbank and shell transport during cold front passage. The latter implies that mortality of marginal seagrass beds has occurred throughout the history of Florida Bay and that the

  13. Oil spill aftermath : temporal evaluation of hydrocarbon sources in Guanabara Bay, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meniconi, M.F.G.; Massone, C.G.; Scofield, A.L.; Junior, V.J.F.

    2005-01-01

    The sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in environmental ecosystems are both natural and anthropogenic. PAHs interact with different types of environmental compartments and are subject to processes that lead to geochemical fates such as physical-chemical transformation, biodegradation and photo-oxidation. This study examined the sources of PAHs in the estuarine sediment of Guanabara Bay, Brazil following an accidental oil spill from an oil refinery in January 2000. The main portion of the oil was carried by tidal currents and wind. It spread over the water and reached islands and shorelines at the north part of the bay. The objective of this study was to determine the likely sources of hydrocarbons in the bay where untreated municipal sewage and industrial wastes are also dumped. Sediment samples were collected using cores and dredges from the intertidal and subtidal regions of the bay, reflecting both affected and unaffected areas. This paper summarized the results of 16 EPA priority PAH and their alkylated homologues from 21 sediment samples collected in the bay 10 days after the oil spill, immediately after the clean up effort, and then 3 years later. The hydrocarbon source was determined using PAH ratios for the samples studied. The highest PAH concentration was observed in 2000 as a result of the petrogenic and pyrolytic contribution to the sediments. 38 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs

  14. Mesozooplankton of an impacted bay in North Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Pinto Silva

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Mesozooplankton abundance and distribution at Suape Bay, Pernambuco, was studied to assess the impacts caused by the construction of an internal port to increase the capacity of the Suape Port Complex. Zooplankton sampling was done at 3 stations during the dry (November-December/1997 and rainy (April-May/1998 seasons. A plankton net with 300 µm mesh size was used. Wet weight plankton biomass ranged from 44 mg.m-3 to 3,638 mg.m-3. Forty-five macrozooplankton taxa were registered. The most abundant was Copepoda. Among copepods, Acartia lilljeborgi, Parvocalanus crassirostris, Oithona hebes, Corycaeus (C. speciosus and Temora turbinata were most frequent. Minimum abundance was 9 ind.m-3 and maximum was 2,532 ind.m-3. Average species diversity was 2.55 bits.ind-1. As a whole, Suape Bay has been under severe environmental stress and it seemed reasonable to assume that the recent modifications of the basin have resulted in changes in species composition and trophic structure, with an increase in marine influence.A abundância e a distribuição do mesozooplâncton na baía de Suape, Pernambuco, foram estudadas objetivando-se levantar os impactos causados pela construção de um porto interno para aumentar a capacidade do Complexo Portuário de Suape. Amostragens do zooplâncton foram feitas em três estações fixas, nos períodos seco (novembro-dezembro/1997 e chuvoso (abril-maio/1998. Uma rede de plâncton com 300 µm de abertura de malha foi usada. A biomassa do plâncton em termos de peso úmido variou de 44 mg.m-3 a 3.638 mg.m-3. Foram registrados 45 taxa zooplanctônicos, sendo Copepoda o mais abundante. Dentre os copépodes destacaram-se em termos de freqüência Acartia lilljeborgi, Parvocalanus crassirostris, Oithona hebes, Corycaeus (C. speciosus e Temora turbinata. A abundância mínima foi de 9 ind.m-3 e a máxima 2.532 ind.m-3. A média da diversidade de espécies foi 2,55 bits.ind-1. De forma geral, a baía de Suape mostrou-se sob

  15. Bathymetry in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 4x4 meter resolution bathymetric surface for Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The depth values are in meters referenced to the...

  16. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  17. Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science - Tampa Bay Study - Characterization of Tidal Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIvor, Carole

    2005-01-01

    Tidal wetlands in Tampa Bay, Florida, consist of mangrove forests and salt marshes. Wetlands buffer storm surges, provide fish and wildlife habitat, and enhance water quality through the removal of water-borne nutrients and contaminants. Substantial areas of both mangroves and salt marshes have been lost to agricultural, residential, and industrial development in this urban estuary. Wetlands researchers are characterizing the biological components of tidal wetlands and examining the physical factors such as salinity, tidal flushing, and sediment deposition that control the composition of tidal wetland habitats. Wetlands restoration is a priority of resource managers in Tampa Bay. Baseline studies such as these are needed for successful restoration planning and evaluation.

  18. 33 CFR 334.640 - Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. 334.640 Section 334.640 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.640 Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. (a) The...

  19. A review on the sources and spatial-temporal distributions of Pb in Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ming; Zhu, Sixi; Wu, Yunjie

    2017-12-01

    This paper provided a review on the source, spatial-distribution, temporal variations of Pb in Jiaozhou Bay based on investigation of Pb in surface and waters in different seasons during 1979-1983. The source strengths of Pb sources in Jiaozhou Bay were showing increasing trends, and the pollution level of Pb in this bay was slight or moderate in the early stage of reform and opening-up. Pb contents in the marine bay were mainly determined by the strength and frequency of Pb inputs from human activities, and Pb could be moving from high content areas to low content areas in the ocean interior. Surface waters in the ocean was polluted by human activities, and bottom waters was polluted by means of vertical water’s effect. The process of spatial distribution of Pb in waters was including three steps, i.e., 1), Pb was transferring to surface waters in the bay, 2) Pb was transferring to surface waters, and 3) Pb was transferring to and accumulating in bottom waters.

  20. Shifting shoals and shattered rocks : How man has transformed the floor of west-central San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, John L.; Wong, Florence L.; Carlson, Paul R.

    2004-01-01

    San Francisco Bay, one of the world's finest natural harbors and a major center for maritime trade, is referred to as the 'Gateway to the Pacific Rim.' The bay is an urbanized estuary that is considered by many to be the major estuary in the United States most modified by man's activities. The population around the estuary has grown rapidly since the 1850's and now exceeds 7 million people. The San Francisco Bay area's economy ranks as one of the largest in the world, larger even than that of many countries. More than 10 million tourists are estimated to visit the bay region each year. The bay area's population and associated development have increasingly changed the estuary and its environment. San Francisco Bay and the contiguous Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta encompass roughly 1,600 square miles (4,100 km2) and are the outlet of a major watershed that drains more than 40 percent of the land area of the State of California. This watershed provides drinking water for 20 million people (two thirds of the State's population) and irrigates 4.5 million acres of farmland and ranchland. During the past several decades, much has been done to clean up the environment and waters of San Francisco Bay. Conservationist groups have even bought many areas on the margins of the bay with the intention of restoring them to a condition more like the natural marshes they once were. However, many of the major manmade changes to the bay's environment occurred so long ago that the nature of them has been forgotten. In addition, many changes continue to occur today, such as the introduction of exotic species and the loss of commercial and sport fisheries because of declining fish populations. The economy and population of the nine counties that surround the bay continue to grow and put increasing pressure on the bay, both direct and indirect. Therefore, there are mixed signals for the future health and welfare of San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay estuary consists of three

  1. Pollution of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in tidal flat of Hangzhou Bay 2009-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Gong, Wenjie; Mao, Guohua; Li, Jige; Xu, Fenfen; Shi, Jiawei

    2016-05-01

    The concentration and distribution of three persistent organic pollutants (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) was assessed in tidal flat sediments collected from the south bank of Hangzhou Bay, China from 2009 to 2013. Gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was used for analysis, based on United States Environmental Protection Agency methods EPA8080A, EPA8081B, and EPA3550B. The results showed that the levels of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs decreased in the order of DDTs transformer or electronic equipment in the south bank of Hangzhou Bay.

  2. Caracterização e influência do teor do resíduo de areia de fundição fenólica em argamassas de revestimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Machado Casali

    Full Text Available Resumo Um dos resíduos gerados pela indústria de fundição que tem potencial de aplicação na construção civil é a areia de fundição. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar e verificar a influência do teor do resíduo de areia de fundição fenólica em argamassas de revestimentos trabalháveis. Foram confeccionadas argamassas mistas, substituindo a areia natural, em volume, nos teores de 0%, 10%, 30% e 100% pelo resíduo de areia de fundição. Para os resíduos de areia de fundição e das argamassas foram realizados ensaios de corrosividade, reatividade, lixiviação e solubilização. Com os dados obtidos foi possível verificar a influência do resíduo de areia de fundição nas propriedades do estado fresco (principalmente na argamassa com 100% do resíduo de areia de fundição, que demandou uma quantidade de água maior para a mesma consistência e do endurecido (redução nas resistências, na densidade de massa e no módulo de elasticidade. Notou-se que as argamassas com resíduos de areia de fundição, em comparação com o resíduo de areia de fundição, apresentaram menor concentração de ferro, fluoreto e sódio, e maior de alumínio, cromo total e fenóis totais. Os resíduos estudados foram classificados como não perigosos - Classe II A - não inertes, segundo a NBR 10004 (ABNT, 2004.

  3. Contribution of chronic petroleum inputs to Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vleet, E S; Quin, J G

    1978-05-01

    Sediment cores from Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound have been analyzed for petroleum hydrocarbons and compared with a relatively unpolluted sediment core from the Gulf of Maine. The sediments were analyzed for unbound hydrocarbons, hydrocarbons bound or closely associated with humic substances, and residual hydrocarbons bound or closely associated with the clay mineral or kerogen matrix. Results indicated that in general 90-100% of the hydrocarbons were in the unbound form and could be easily extracted with organic solvents. The petroleum hydrocarbons decreased with depth at all stations. Biogenic hydrocarbons (nC/sub 25/, nC/sub 27/, nC/sub 29/, and nC/sub 31/) made up an increasingly greater percentage of the total with increasing depth. The hydrocarbons in the Narragansett Bay sediments and near surface Rhode Island Sound sediments strongly resembled the hydrocarbons previously reported for the Providence River and upper Narragansett Bay. These petroleum-like hydrocarbons were shown to be largely introduced to the river and bay through chronic inputs from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. These hydrocarbons then undergo sedimentation throughout the entire bay and into Rhode Island Sound. Preliminary calculations indicate that over 0.2 million t (tonne) of petroleum hydrocarbons may be transported to the marine environment annually from municipal treatment plants. Most of these hydrocarbons appear to accumulate in estuarine and coastal sediments.

  4. Bird communities of contrasting semi-natural habitats of Lac bay, Bonaire, during the fall migration season, 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Bemmelen, van R.S.A.; Ligon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The mangrove and seagrass lagoon of Lac Bay on Bonaire covers an area of roughly 700 ha. It is home to endangered green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, and the Caribbean queen conch, Strombus gigas, and is a roosting and breeding area for several birds. Based on its nature values this 7 km2 bay has

  5. Chemical characteristics of aerosols in MABL of Bay of Bengal and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the water-soluble ion composition of bulk-aerosols over BoB, in contrast to Arabian Sea, arises from advective transport of continental pollutants to the. Bay region. This is further reflected in the higher abundance of OC and EC over BoB. The near quantitative Cl. −. -depletion from sea-salts by chemi- cal interaction with ...

  6. A modeling study of the processes of surface salinity seasonal cycle in the Bay of Bengal.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Akhil, V.P.; Durand, F.; Lengaigne, M.; Vialard, J.; Keerthi, M.G.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Deltel, C.; Papa, F.; Montegut, C.deB.

    of Science, Bangalore, India, 5LOS, IFREMER, Plouzan�e, France Abstract In response to the Indian Monsoon freshwater forcing, the Bay of Bengal exhibits a very strong seasonal cycle in sea surface salinity (SSS), especially near the mouths of the Ganges...

  7. Evidence for the existence of Persian Gulf Water and Red Sea Water in the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vineet; Shankar, D.; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Kankonkar, A.; Chatterjee, Abhisek; Amol, P.; Almeida, A. M.; Michael, G. S.; Mukherjee, A.; Chatterjee, Meenakshi; Fernandes, R.; Luis, R.; Kamble, Amol; Hegde, A. K.; Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Das, Umasankar; Neema, C. P.

    2017-05-01

    The high-salinity water masses that originate in the North Indian Ocean are Arabian Sea High-Salinity Water (ASHSW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW), and Red Sea Water (RSW). Among them, only ASHSW has been shown to exist in the Bay of Bengal. We use CTD data from recent cruises to show that PGW and RSW also exist in the bay. The presence of RSW is marked by a deviation of the salinity vertical profile from a fitted curve at depths ranging from 500 to 1000 m; this deviation, though small (of the order of 0.005 psu and therefore comparable to the CTD accuracy of 0.003 psu), is an order of magnitude larger than the 0.0003 psu fluctuations associated with the background turbulence or instrument noise in this depth regime, allowing us to infer the existence of RSW throughout the bay. PGW is marked by the presence of a salinity maximum at 200-450 m; in the southwestern bay, PGW can be distinguished from the salinity maximum due to ASHSW because of the intervening Arabian Sea Salinity Minimum. This salinity minimum and the maximum associated with ASHSW disappear east and north of the south-central bay (85°E, 8°N) owing to mixing between the fresher surface waters that are native to the bay (Bay of Bengal Water or BBW) with the high-salinity ASHSW. Hence, ASHSW is not seen as a distinct water mass in the northern and eastern bay and the maximum salinity over most of the bay is associated with PGW. The surface water over most of the bay is therefore a mixture of ASHSW and the low-salinity BBW. As a corollary, we can also infer that the weak oxygen peak seen within the oxygen-minimum zone in the bay at a depth of 250-400 m is associated with PGW. The hydrographic data also show that these three high-salinity water masses are advected into the bay by the Summer Monsoon Current, which is seen to be a deep current extending to 1000 m. These deep currents extend into the northern bay as well, providing a mechanism for spreading ASHSW, PGW, and RSW throughout the bay.

  8. Geomorphic change in Dingzi Bay, East China since the 1950s: impacts of human activity and fluvial input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qing; Wang, Qing; Liu, Yalong

    2017-06-01

    This study examines the geomorphic evolution of Dingzi Bay, East China in response to human activity and variations in fluvial input since the 1950s. The analysis is based on data from multiple mathematical methods, along with information obtained from Remote Sensing, Geographic Information System and Global Position System technology. The results show that the annual runoff and sediment load discharged into Dingzi Bay display significant decreasing trends overall, and marked downward steps were observed in 1966 and 1980. Around 60%-80% of the decline is attributed to decreasing precipitation in the Wulong River Basin. The landform types in Dingzi Bay have changed significantly since the 1950s, especially over the period between 1981 and 1995. Large areas of tidal flats, swamp, salt fields, and paddy fields have been reclaimed, and aquaculture ponds have been constructed. Consequently, the patterns of erosion and deposition in the bay have changed substantially. Despite a reduction in sediment input of 65.68% after 1966, low rates of sediment deposition continued in the bay. However, deposition rates changed significantly after 1981 owing to large-scale development in the bay, with a net depositional area approximately 10 times larger than that during 1961-1981. This geomorphic evolution stabilized following the termination of large-scale human activity in the bay after 1995. Overall, Dingzi Bay has shown a tendency towards silting-up during 1952-2010, with the bay head migrating seaward, the number of channels in the tidal creek system decreasing, and the tidal inlet becoming narrower and shorter. In conclusion, largescale development and human activity in Dingzi Bay have controlled the geomorphic evolution of the bay since the 1950s.

  9. 77 FR 2972 - Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application for Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene Thunder Bay Power Company Project No. 2404-095 Thunder Bay Power, LLC Midwest Hydro, Inc...

  10. Preponderance of a few diatom species among the highly diverse microphytoplankton assemblages in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paul, J.T.; Ramaiah, N.; Gauns, M.; Fernandes, V.

    The microphytoplankton assemblages were studied from water samples collected at eight discrete depths in the top 120 m at five central [open ocean] and four western [shelf/slope region] locations in the Bay of Bengal. The Bay is a low...

  11. A trophic model of fringing coral reefs in Nanwan Bay, southern Taiwan suggests overfishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pi-Jen; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Jan, Rong-Quen; Fan, Tung-Yung; Wong, Saou-Lien; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Chen, Jen-Ping; Chen, Chung-Chi; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2009-09-01

    Several coral reefs of Nanwan Bay, Taiwan have recently undergone shifts to macroalgal or sea anemone dominance. Thus, a mass-balance trophic model was constructed to analyze the structure and functioning of the food web. The fringing reef model was comprised of 18 compartments, with the highest trophic level of 3.45 for piscivorous fish. Comparative analyses with other reef models demonstrated that Nanwan Bay was similar to reefs with high fishery catches. While coral biomass was not lower, fish biomass was lower than those of reefs with high catches. Consequently, the sums of consumption and respiratory flows and total system throughput were also decreased. The Nanwan Bay model potentially suggests an overfished status in which the mean trophic level of the catch, matter cycling, and trophic transfer efficiency are extremely reduced.

  12. Numerical simulations of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wulp, Simon A; Damar, Ario; Ladwig, Norbert; Hesse, Karl-J

    2016-09-30

    The present application of numerical modelling techniques provides an overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay. A hydrological model simulated river discharges with a total of 90 to 377m(3)s(-1) entering Jakarta Bay. Daily total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads ranged from 40 to 174tons and 14 to 60tons, respectively. Flow model results indicate that nutrient gradients are subject to turbulent mixing by tides and advective transport through circulation driven by wind, barotropic and baroclinic pressure gradients. The bulk of nutrient loads originate from the Citarum and Cisadane rivers flowing through predominantly rural areas. Despite lower nutrient loads, river discharges from the urban area of Jakarta exhibit the highest impact of nutrient concentrations in the near shore area of Jakarta Bay and show that nutrient concentrations were not only regulated by nutrient loads but were strongly regulated by initial river concentrations and local flow characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental determinants of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benjamin J K; Jacobs, John M; Davis, Meghan F; Schwab, Kellogg J; DePaola, Angelo; Curriero, Frank C

    2017-08-25

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus naturally-occurs in brackish and marine waters and is one of the leading causes of seafood-borne illness. Previous work studying the ecology of V. parahaemolyticus is often limited in geographic extent and lacking a full range of environmental measures. This study used a unique, large dataset of surface water samples in the Chesapeake Bay ( n =1,385) collected from 148 monitoring stations from 2007 to 2010. Water was analyzed for over 20 environmental parameters with additional meteorological and surrounding land use data. V. parahaemolyticus -specific genetic markers thermolabile hemolysin ( tlh ), thermostable direct hemolysin ( tdh ), and tdh -related hemolysin ( trh ) were assayed using quantitative PCR (qPCR), and interval-censored regression models with non-linear effects were estimated to account for limits of detection and quantitation. tlh was detected in 19.6% of water samples; tdh or trh markers were not detected. Results confirmed previously reported positive associations for V. parahaemolyticus abundance with temperature and turbidity and negative associations with high salinity (> 10-23‰). Furthermore, the salinity relationship was determined to be a function of both low temperature and turbidity, with an increase of either nullifying the high salinity effect. Associations with dissolved oxygen and phosphate also appeared stronger when samples were taken nearby human developments. Renewed focus on the V. parahaemolyticus ecological paradigm is warranted to protect public health. Importance Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the leading causes of seafood-borne illness in the United States and across the globe. Exposure is often through consuming raw or undercooked shellfish. Given the natural presence of the bacterium in the marine environment, improved understanding of its environmental determinants is necessary for future preventative measures. This analysis of environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of only a few that

  14. Analysis of payload bay magnetic fields due to dc power multipoint and single point ground configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of magnetic fields in the Orbiter Payload Bay resulting from the present grounding configuration (structure return) was presented and the amount of improvement that would result from installing wire returns for the three dc power buses was determined. Ac and dc magnetic fields at five points in a cross-section of the bay are calculated for both grounding configurations. Y and Z components of the field at each point are derived in terms of a constant coefficient and the current amplitude of each bus. The dc loads assumed are 100 Amperes for each bus. The ac noise current used is a spectrum 6 db higher than the Orbiter equipment limit for narrowband conducted emissions. It was concluded that installing return wiring to provide a single point ground for the dc Buses in the Payload Bay would reduce the ac and dc magnetic field intensity by approximately 30 db.

  15. Appearance and water quality of turbidity plumes produced by dredging in Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Carl R.; Michaelis, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Turbidity plumes in Tampa Bay, Florida, produced during ship-channel dredging operations from February 1977 to August 1978, were monitored in order to document plume appearance and water quality, evaluate plume influence on the characteristics of Tampa Bay water, and provide a data base for comparison with other areas that have similar sediment, dredge, placement, containment, and tide conditions. The plumes investigated originated from the operation of one hopper dredge and three cutterhead-pipeline dredges. Composition of bottom sediment was found to vary from 85 percent sand and shell fragments to 60 percent silt and clay. Placement methods for dredged sediment included beach nourishment, stationary submerged discharge, oscillating surface discharge, and construction of emergent dikes. Tidal currents ranged from slack water to flow velocities of 0.60 meter per second. Plumes were monitored simultaneously by (1) oblique and vertical 35-millimeter aerial photography and (2) water-quality sampling to determine water clarity and concentrations of nutrients, metals, pesticides, and industrial compounds. Forty-nine photographs depict plumes ranging in length from a few tens of meters to several kilometers and ranging in turbidity level from hopper-dredge unloading operations also produced plumes of low visibility. Primary turbidity plumes were produced directly by dredging and placement operations; secondary plumes were produced indirectly by resuspension of previously deposited material. Secondary plumes were formed both by erosion, in areas of high-velocity tidal currents, and by turbulence from vessels passing over fine material deposited in shallow areas. Where turbidity barriers were not used, turbidity plumes visible at the surface were good indicators of the location of turbid water at depth. Where turbidity barriers were used, turbid bottom water was found at locations having no visible surface plumes. A region of rapidly accelerating then decelerating flow

  16. Assessment of Kerch Bay environmental pollution using neuroglial proteins of ground fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Sukharenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The modern ecology situation in waters of the Kerch Strait requires assessment of disturbances in biotopes and monitoring of the degree of impact of industrial pollutants on ecosystem. Deposit of oil products after the 2007 year ships’ accidents might have considerable impact on the water biocenosis area. The investigation of cytoskeleton marker of astrocytes glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in brain of the bullhead (Neogobius fluviatilis, which is the typical representative of the commercial ground fish of the Kerch Strait, has been carried out. The results of comparative analysis of GFAP content in the brain of fish from the Kerch Bay near-shore waters and fish from conditionally clear area of Vorskla river shows the reliable (2.18 times increasing of GFAP in the area of industrial pollution. Rising GFAP content indicates the astrogliosis development as a result of metabolic disturbances which can be induced by higher content of oil products in the near-bottom biotopes of the Kerch Bay. Increase in lipid peroxidation level was observed in the brain of fish from the Kerch Bay. The results provided with regard to violations of the state of astrocyte cytoskeleton and oxidative stress in the brain of bullhead from the Kerch Bay prove the sublethal biology effect of industrial pollutants in hydrobionts from this area. Results of this investigation also indicate the necessity of continuous ecology monitoring and comprehensive study of hydrobiont populations in the industrial regions and ecological disaster zones.

  17. Stable-isotope analysis of canvasback winter diet in upper Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, Dennis G.; Macko, S.A.; Walker, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    A major decline in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Chesapeake Bay has altered the diet of wintering Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) from historically plant to a combination of benthic animal foods, especially the ubiquitous Baltic clam (Macoma balthica), supplemented with anthropogenic corn (Zea mays). Because the isotopic signature of corn is readily discriminated from bay benthos, but not SAV, we used stable-isotope methodology to investigate the corn–SAV component of the winter diet of Canvasbacks. Feeding trials with penned Canvasbacks were conducted to establish turnover rates and fractionation end-point loci of δ13C and δ15N signatures of whole blood for individual ducks fed ad libitum diets of (1) Baltic clams, (2) Baltic clams and corn, and (3) tubers of wild celery (Vallisneria americana). Turnover time constants averaged 4.5 weeks, indicating that signatures of wild ducks would be representative of bay diets by late February. Isotopic signatures of wild Canvasbacks sampled in February fell on a continuum between end-point loci for the Baltic clam and the combination Baltic clam and corn diet. Although that finding verifies a clear dependence on corn–SAV for wintering Canvasbacks, it also reveals that not enough corn–SAV is available to establish ad libitum consumption for the 15,000+ Canvasbacks wintering in the upper bay. On the basis of mean δ13C signature of bay Canvasbacks (n = 59) and ingestion rates from feeding trials, we estimated that 258 kg corn per day would account for the observed δ13C enrichment and supply 18% of daily energetic needs for 15,000 Canvasbacks. That level of corn availability is so realistic that we conclude that SAV is likely of little dietary importance to Canvasbacks in that portion of the bay.

  18. Design and optimization for strength and integrity of tidal turbine rotor blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Pengfei; Veitch, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Tidal turbine rotor blade fractures and failures have resulted in substantial damage and hence cost of repair and recovery. The present work presents a rotor blade design and optimization method to address the blade structural strength design problem. The generic procedure is applicable to both turbine rotors and propellers. The optimization method seeks an optimum blade thickness distribution across the span with a prescribed constant safety factor for all the blade sections. This optimization procedure serves two purposes: while maintaining the required structural strength and integrity for an ultimate inflow speed, it aims to reduce the material to a minimum and to maintain power generation efficiency or improve the hydrodynamic efficiency. The value of the chosen minimum safety factor depends on the actual working conditions of the turbine in which the sectional peak loading and frequency are used: the harsher the environment, the larger the required safety factor. An engineering software tool with both hydrodynamic and structural capabilities was required to predict the instantaneous loading acting on all the blade sections, as well as the strength of a local blade section with a given blade geometry and chosen material. A time-domain, 3D unsteady panel method was then implemented based on a marine propeller software tool and used to perform the optimization. A 3-blade 20-m tidal turbine that was prototyped in parallel with the current work for the Bay of Fundy was used as an example for optimization. The optimum thickness distribution for a required safety factor at the ultimate possible inflow speed resulted in 37.6% saving in blade material. The blade thickness and distribution as a function of a maximum inflow speed of 6 m/s is also presented. The blade material used in the example was taken as nickel–aluminium–bronze (NAB) but the procedure was developed to be applicable to propeller or turbine blades of basically any material. -- Highlights: ► A

  19. Analysis of the Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Flux Changes with Fuel Burnup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.; Jungman, Gerard; McCutchan, E. A.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Garvey, G. T.; Wang, X. B.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the recent Daya Bay results on the changes in the antineutrino flux and spectrum with the burnup of the reactor fuel. We find that the discrepancy between current model predictions and the Daya Bay results can be traced to the original measured U 235 /Pu 239 ratio of the fission β spectra that were used as a base for the expected antineutrino fluxes. An analysis of the antineutrino spectra that is based on a summation over all fission fragment β decays, using nuclear database input, explains all of the features seen in the Daya Bay evolution data. However, this summation method still allows for an anomaly. We conclude that there is currently not enough information to use the antineutrino flux changes to rule out the possible existence of sterile neutrinos.

  20. A Constraint Programming Model for Fast Optimal Stowage of Container Vessel Bays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado-Ortegon, Alberto; Jensen, Rune Møller; Janstrup, Kira

    2012-01-01

    Container vessel stowage planning is a hard combinatorial optimization problem with both high economic and environmental impact. We have developed an approach that often is able to generate near-optimal plans for large container vessels within a few minutes. It decomposes the problem into a master...... planning phase that distributes the containers to bay sections and a slot planning phase that assigns containers of each bay section to slots. In this paper, we focus on the slot planning phase of this approach and present a constraint programming and integer programming model for stowing a set...... of containers in a single bay section. This so-called slot planning problem is NP-hard and often involves stowing several hundred containers. Using state-of-the-art constraint solvers and modeling techniques, however, we were able to solve 90% of 236 real instances from our industrial collaborator to optimality...

  1. Cenozoic stratigraphy and structure of the Chesapeake Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, David S.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Kidwell, Susan M.; Schindler, J. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The Salisbury embayment is a broad tectonic downwarp that is filled by generally seaward-thickening, wedge-shaped deposits of the central Atlantic Coastal Plain. Our two-day field trip will take us to the western side of this embayment from the Fall Zone in Washington, D.C., to some of the bluffs along Aquia Creek and the Potomac River in Virginia, and then to the Calvert Cliffs on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay. We will see fluvial-deltaic Cretaceous deposits of the Potomac Formation. We will then focus on Cenozoic marine deposits. Transgressive and highstand deposits are stacked upon each other with unconformities separating them; rarely are regressive or lowstand deposits preserved. The Paleocene and Eocene shallow shelf deposits consist of glauconitic, silty sands that contain varying amounts of marine shells. The Miocene shallow shelf deposits consist of diatomaceous silts and silty and shelly sands. The lithology, thickness, dip, preservation, and distribution of the succession of coastal plain sediments that were deposited in our field-trip area are, to a great extent, structurally controlled. Surficial and subsurface mapping using numerous continuous cores, auger holes, water-well data, and seismic surveys has documented some folds and numerous high-angle reverse and normal faults that offset Cretaceous and Cenozoic deposits. Many of these structures are rooted in early Mesozoic and/or Paleozoic NE-trending regional tectonic fault systems that underlie the Atlantic Coastal Plain. On Day 1, we will focus on two fault systems (stops 1–2; Stafford fault system and the Skinkers Neck–Brandywine fault system and their constituent fault zones and faults). We will then see (stops 3–5) a few of the remaining exposures of largely unlithified marine Paleocene and Eocene strata along the Virginia side of the Potomac River including the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum boundary clay. These exposures are capped by fluvial-estuarine Pleistocene terrace

  2. The design and test of VME clock distribution module of the Daya Bay RPC readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Heng; Liang Hao; Zhou Yongzhao

    2011-01-01

    It describes the design of the VME Clock Distribution module of the Daya Bay RPC readout system, including the function and the hardware structure of the module and the logic design of the FPGA on the module. After the building and debugging of the module, a series of tests have been made to check its function and stability. (authors)

  3. Lithostratigraphy and radiocarbon dates of the Akunoura-oki core from Nagasaki bay, western Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Shusaku; Tsujimoto, Akira; Murakami, Akiko; Mitamura, Muneki; Nagaoka, Shinji; Yamazaki, Hideo

    2008-01-01

    The latest Pleistocene to Holocene deposits are distributed in Nagasaki Bay and its surrounding area. In this study, sedimentary facies and radiocarbon dates of the Akunoura-oki core were analyzed for clarifying lithostratigraphy and depositional environments of Nagasaki Bay in the Holocene. The depositional environments inferred from the core succession are as follows: The lower sandy silt and clay (Unit 1), 3.55 m thick, are estuary deposits showing rapid deposition (about 19 mm/yr); the middle gravelly sand and sand (Unit 2), 0.60 m thick, are sandy tidal-sandbar deposits, and deposited extremely slowly (about 0.1 mm/yr) during rapid rising stage of sea-level; the upper clay and silt (Unit 3), 5.32 m thick, are inner bay deposits of slow deposition (about 1.3 mm/yr) during a persistent highstand in sea-level. (author)

  4. Improving Sediment Transport Prediction by Assimilating Satellite Images in a Tidal Bay Model of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerical models being one of the major tools for sediment dynamic studies in complex coastal waters are now benefitting from remote sensing images that are easily available for model inputs. The present study explored various methods of integrating remote sensing ocean color data into a numerical model to improve sediment transport prediction in a tide-dominated bay in Hong Kong, Deep Bay. Two sea surface sediment datasets delineated from satellite images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectra-radiometer (MODIS were assimilated into a coastal ocean model of the bay for one tidal cycle. It was found that remote sensing sediment information enhanced the sediment transport model ability by validating the model results with in situ measurements. Model results showed that root mean square errors of forecast sediment both at the surface layer and the vertical layers from the model with satellite sediment assimilation are reduced by at least 36% over the model without assimilation.

  5. Concentrations of some elements in the coastal sea sediments. Bays with marinas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obhodas, J.; Kutle, A.; Valkovic, V.

    2006-01-01

    Surface sediments and sediment cores from two bays in the Adriatic sea (Punat Bay and Soline Bay, Croatia) have been analyzed for a number of elements, in particular: Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As and Pb, by using XRF. Maps of elemental distribution in surface sediments show increased concentrations for some elements present in antifouling paints (Cu, Zn, Pb) near the service areas in the villages or marinas. Core profiles for these elements were used to evaluate the environmental impact of newly constructed marinas. Source partition indicates the influence of other sources located in near by villages. The critical factor in these considerations was shown to be water exchange with the open sea. (author)

  6. 77 FR 14471 - Safety Zone; Festival of States 2012 Night Parade Fireworks Display, Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... Zone; Festival of States 2012 Night Parade Fireworks Display, Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, FL AGENCY... safety zone on the waters of Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida during Festival of States 2012 Night... Thursday, March 22, 2012, the Festival of States 2012 Night Parade Fireworks Display is scheduled to take...

  7. Effects of nutrients and zooplankton on the phytoplankton community structure in Marudu Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kar Soon; Ransangan, Julian

    2017-07-01

    Current study was carried out to provide a better understanding on spatial and temporal variations in the phytoplankton community structure in Marudu Bay, an important nursery ground for fishery resources within the Tun Mustapha Marine Park and Coral Triangle Initiative, and their relationship with environmental variables. Samplings were conducted monthly from April 2014 to April 2015 in Marudu Bay, Malaysia. Water samples were collected for nutrients analysis, zooplankton and phytoplankton counting. Moreover, the in situ environmental parameters were also examined. The field study showed a total of forty seven phytoplankton genera, representative of 33 families were identified. The nutrient concentrations in Marudu Bay was low (mesotrophic) throughout the year, where the phytoplankton community was often dominated by Chaetoceros spp. and Bacteriastrum spp. In general, increase in nitrate concentration triggered the bloom of centric diatom, Chaetoceros spp. and Bacteriastrum spp. in Marudu Bay. However, the bloom of these phytoplankton taxa did not occur in the presence of high ammonia concentration. In addition, high abundance of zooplankton also a limiting factor of the phytoplankton blooms particularly at end of southwest monsoon. High silica concentration promoted the growth of pennate diatoms, Proboscia spp. and Thallassionema spp., but the depletion of silica quickly terminated the bloom. Interestingly, our study showed that Chaetoceros spp., tolerated silica depletion condition, but the average cell size of this taxon reduced significantly. In summary, the phytoplankton community structure in mesotrophic environment is more sensitive to the changes in zooplankton abundance, nutrient concentration and its ratio than that in nutrient rich environments. This study also recommends that bivalve farming at industrial scale is not recommended in Marudu Bay because it potentially depletes the primary productivity hence jeopardizing the availability of live food for

  8. Literature Review of Unconsolidated Sediment in San Francisco Bay and Nearby Pacific Ocean Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry R. Keller

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of the geologic literature regarding sedimentation in the San Francisco Bay estuarine system shows that the main part of the bay occupies a structural tectonic depression that developed in Pleistocene time. Eastern parts, including San Pablo Bay and Suisun Bay, have had sedimentation throughout late Mesozoic and Tertiary. Carquinez Strait and the Golden Gate may represent antecedent stream erosion. Sedimentation has included estuarine, alluvial, and eolian deposition. The ages of estuarine deposition includes the modern high sea level stand and earlier Pleistocene interglacial periods. Sediment sources can be generally divided into the Coast Ranges, particularly the Franciscan Complex, and “Sierran.” Much of the estuarine system is floored by very fine sediment, with local areas of sand floor. Near the Golden Gate, sediment size decreases in both directions away from the deep channel. Bedforms include sand waves (submarine dunes, flat beds, and rock and boulders. These are interpreted in terms of dominant transport directions. Near the Golden Gate is an ebb-tidal delta on the outside (including San Francisco bar and a flood-tidal delta on the inside (parts of Central Bay. The large tidal prism causes strong tidal currents, which in the upper part of the estuary are normally much stronger than river currents, except during large floods. Cultural influences have altered conditions, including hydraulic mining debris, blasting of rocks, dredging of navigation channels, filling of the bay, and commercial sand mining. Many of these have served to decrease the tidal prism, correspondingly decreasing the strength of tidal currents.

  9. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all...

  10. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. 162.125 Section 162.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.125 Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship...

  11. Benthic flux of nutrients and trace metals in the northern component of San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Parcheso, Francis; Engelstad, Anita C.; Greene, Valerie E.

    2009-01-01

    Two sets of sampling trips were coordinated in late summer 2008 (weeks of July 8 and August 6) to sample the interstitial and overlying bottom waters at 10 shallow locations (9 sites meters in depth) within the northern component of the San Francisco Bay/Delta (herein referred to as North Bay). The work was performed to better understand sources of biologically reactive solutes (namely, dissolved macronutrients and trace metals) that may affect the base of the food web in this part of the estuary. A nonmetallic pore-water profiler was used to obtain the first centimeter-scale estimates of the vertical solute-concentration gradients for diffusive-flux determinations. This study, performed in collaboration with scientists from San Francisco State University?s Romberg Tiburon Center for Environmental Studies, provides information to assist in developing and refining management strategies for the Bay/Delta system and supports efforts to monitor changes in food-web structure associated with regional habitat modifications directed by the California Bay-Delta Authority. On July 7, 2008, and August 5, 2008, pore-water profilers were successfully deployed at six North Bay sites per trip to measure the concentration gradient of dissolved macronutrients and trace metals near the sediment-water interface. Only two of the sites (433 and SSB009 within Honker Bay) were sampled in both series of profiler deployments. At each sampling site, profilers were deployed in triplicate, while discrete samples and dataloggers were used to collect ancillary data from both the water column and benthos to help interpret diffusive-flux measurements. Benthic flux of dissolved (0.2-micron filtered) inorganic phosphate (that is, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP)) ranged from negligible levels (-0.003?0.005 millimole per square meter per day (mmole m-2d-1) at Site 4.1 outside Honker Bay) to 0.060?0.006 mmole m-2d-1 near the northern coast of Brown?s Island. Except for the elevated flux at Browns

  12. Anthropogenic radionuclides in Kola and Motovsky Bays of the Barents Sea, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matishov, G.G.; Matishov, D.G.; Namjatov, A.A.; Carroll, J.; Dahle, S.

    1999-01-01

    Russia's military and civilian nuclear powered maritime fleets operate in the Kola and Motovsky Bays on the northwest Arctic coast of Russia. Levels of anthropogenic radionuclides were measured in sediment grab samples collected from approximately 100 stations in areas near military and civilian nuclear installations and in the open waters of the two bays. In most areas, radionuclide levels are similar to those reported for other Arctic seas: 137 Cs=1-24 Bq kg -1 d.w., 60 Co= -1 d.w. and 239,240 Pu=0.8-1.6 Bq kg -1 d.w. However, the presence of 60 Co (up to 27 Bq kg -1 d.w.) indicates that minor leakage of radioactive waste has occurred near several military installations. Sites where leakage is detected include Pala, Sayda, Olenya and Ekaterininskaya Bays in the Kola Bay and Zapadnaya Litsa in Motovsky Bay. 137 Cs levels of 40-50 Bq kg -1 d.w. and 239,240 Pu levels of up to 2.2 Bq kg -1 d.w. were measured near several military installations but these levels do not indicate leakage as the source.Some of the highest 60 Co activities were detected in sediments collected near the civilian nuclear installation, Atomflot. The sediments also contained higher 137 Cs activities compared to samples from other regions of the study area with similar particle size distributions. Routine discharges of purified radioactive waste from the Atomflot facility are the likely source of 60 Co and enhanced 137 Cs levels. With this investigation, we have detected evidence of radioactive waste leakage in the marine environment, but the environmental impact on the bays has been minimal. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. An Alternative Version of Conditional Probabilities and Bayes' Rule: An Application of Probability Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Eiki; Amato, Philip P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative version of formulas of conditional probabilities and Bayes' rule that demonstrate how the truth table of elementary mathematical logic applies to the derivations of the conditional probabilities of various complex, compound statements. This new approach is used to calculate the prior and posterior probabilities…

  14. An Alternative Teaching Method of Conditional Probabilities and Bayes' Rule: An Application of the Truth Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Eiki; Vashlishan Murray, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of three approaches to the teaching of probability to demonstrate how the truth table of elementary mathematical logic can be used to teach the calculations of conditional probabilities. Students are typically introduced to the topic of conditional probabilities--especially the ones that involve Bayes' rule--with…

  15. Energy and generating mechanism of a subsurface, cold core eddy in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Babu, M.T.; Rao, D.P.

    Computation of available potential energy (APE) of a recently observed cold core, subsurface eddy (centered at 17 degrees 40'N and 85 degrees 19'E) in the Bay of Bengal revealed that the energy maxima associated with the eddy was of the order of 1...

  16. Seasonal cyclogenesis and the role of near-surface stratified layer in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, M.S.S.; Tilvi, V.

    The role of the near-surface stratified layer developed due to the spread of low salinity waters under the influence of freshwater influx on the cyclogenesis over the Bay of Bengal is addressed. The seasonal variation of the Effective Oceanic Layer...

  17. Multi-decadal variation in size of juvenile Summer Flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) in Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Lauren N.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Tuckey, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    During the last quarter-century, management of Summer Flounder Paralichthys dentatus along the Atlantic coast resulted in significant increases in abundance such that rebuilding targets were recently achieved. Although spawning stock biomass is high, recruitment of young-of-the-year (YOY) Summer Flounder remains variable. Chesapeake Bay is one of the principal nursery areas for this species, but processes such as growth and survival that affect production of YOY Summer Flounder in this estuary have not been explored. Here, we investigated the relationship between abundance and size of Summer Flounder recruits from the 1988 to 2012 year classes in Chesapeake Bay. We also considered the effects of environmental factors on fish size because conditions in the bay vary spatially during the time that fish occupy nursery areas. To describe variations in Summer Flounder size, we used monthly length observations from 13,018 YOY fish captured by bottom trawl from the lower Chesapeake Bay and the James, York, and Rappahannock river subestuaries where Summer Flounder are commonly observed. We applied a generalized additive model to describe spatial, temporal, and environmental effects on observed fish size; we also considered the density of Summer Flounder and an index of productivity as factors in the model. Summer Flounder in Chesapeake Bay exhibited density-dependent and spatially related variations in mean length: larger fish were found mostly in the Bay and smaller fish in the subestuaries. Additionally, low ( 26 °C) temperatures and low salinities (indicating that individuals found in these environments were typically smaller than conspecifics inhabiting areas of moderate temperatures and higher salinities. Variable nursery habitat conditions in temperate estuaries affect fish size and, subsequently, may influence production of Summer Flounder year classes through effects on maturation and survival. As water temperatures in the mid-Atlantic region continue to increase

  18. Arbovirus circulation, temporal distribution, and abundance of mosquito species in two Carolina bay habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, D I; Wozniak, A; Tolson, M W; Turner, P E

    2005-01-01

    Carolina bays, a type of geomorphic feature, may be important in the ecology of mosquito vectors in South Carolina. Their hydrology varies from wetland habitats with marked flooding/drying regimes to permanently flooded spring-fed lakes. Moreover, they possess characteristics that contribute to the support of a particularly abundant and diverse invertebrate fauna. Although it has been estimated that 2,700+ bays exist in South Carolina, approximately 97% have been altered; Heritage Preserve (SBHP) and Woods Bay State Park (WBSP), from June 1997 to July 1998 to determine mosquito temporal distribution, species composition, and the occurrence of arbovirus activity. The largest mosquito collection was obtained at WBSP (n = 31,172) representing 25 species followed by SBHP (n = 3,940) with 24 species. Anopheles crucians complex were the most common species encountered in both bays. Two virus isolates were obtained from SBHP in 1997: Keystone (KEY) virus from Ochlerotatus atlanticus-tormentor and Cache Valley (CV) virus from Oc. canadensis canadensis. Twenty-nine (29) arbovirus-positive pools were obtained from WBSP: 28 in 1997 and one in 1998. KEY virus was isolated from three pools of Oc. atlanticus-tormentor and Tensaw (TEN) virus was isolated from two pools of An. crucians complex; 10 isolates could not be identified with the sera available. Additionally, 14 pools of An. crucians complex tested positive for Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus antigen. These represent the first record of KEY and CV viruses in South Carolina. Our data indicate the presence of high mosquito density and diversity in both Carolina bay habitats, which may be influenced, in part, by seasonal changes in their hydroperiods. The study of mosquito and arbovirus ecology in Carolina Bay habitats could provide more information on the transmission dynamics of arboviruses and its impact on human and animal arboviral disease occurrence in South Carolina.

  19. Chlorophyll data collected from the old outfall site in the south sector of Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, February 2001 to May 2004 (NODC Accession 0002805)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Kaneohe Bay received increasing amounts of sewage from the 1950s through 1977. Most sewage was diverted from the bay in 1977 and early 1978. Data were collected...

  20. Arrival and expansion of the invasive foraminifera Trochammina hadai Uchio in Padilla Bay, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, Mary; Grossman, Eric E.; Takesue, Renee K.; Penttila, Dan; Walsh, John P.; Corbett, Reide

    2012-01-01

    Trochammina hadai Uchio, a benthic foraminifera native to Japanese estuaries, was first identified as an invasive in 1995 in San Francisco Bay and later in 16 other west coast estuaries. To investigate the timing of the arrival and expansion of this invasive species in Padilla Bay, Washington, we analyzed the distribution of foraminifera in two surface samples collected in 1971, in nine surface samples collected by Scott in 1972–1973, as well as in two cores (Padilla Flats 3 and Padilla V1/V2) obtained in 2004. Trochanimina hadai, originally identified as the native Trochammina pacifica Cushman in several early foraminiferal studies, dominates the assemblage of most of the surface samples. In the Padilla V1/V2 and Padilla Flats 3 cores, the species' abundance follows a pattern of absence, first appearance, rapid expansion commonly seen shortly after the arrival of a successful biological invasion, setback, and second expansion. Using Q-mode cluster analysis, pre-expansion and expansion assemblages were identified. Pb-210 dating of these cores proved unsuccessful. However, based on T. hadai's first appearance occurring stratigraphically well above sedimentological changes in the cores that reflect deposition of sediments in the bay due to previous diversions of the Skagit River, and its dominance in the early 1970s surface samples, we conclude that the species arrived in Padilla Bay somewhere between the late 1800s and 1971. Trochammina hadai may have been introduced into the bay in the 1930s when oyster culturing began there or, at a minimum, ten years prior to its appearance in San Francisco Bay.