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Sample records for bay odp leg

  1. Revisiting the Ceara Rise, equatorial Atlantic Ocean: isotope stratigraphy of ODP Leg 154

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, Roy; Drury, Anna Joy; Westerhold, Thomas; Lyle, Mitchell; Gorgas, Thomas; Tian, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Isotope stratigraphy has become the method of choice for investigating both past ocean temperatures and global ice volume. Lisiecki and Raymo (2005) published a stacked record of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records versus age (LR04 stack). In this study LR04 is compared to high resolution records collected at all of the sites drilled during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 154 on the Ceara Rise, in the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Newly developed software - the Code for Ocean Drilling Data (CODD) - is used to check data splices of the Ceara sites and better align out-of-splice data with in-splice data. CODD allows to depth and age scaled core images recovered from core table photos enormously facilitating data analysis. The entire splices of ODP Sites 925, 926, 927, 928 and 929 were reviewed. Most changes were minor although several large enough to affect age models based on orbital tuning. We revised the astronomically tuned age model for the Ceara Rise by tuning darker, more clay rich layers to Northern Hemisphere insolation minima. Then we assembled a regional composite benthic stable isotope record from published data. This new Ceara Rise stack provides a new regional reference section for the equatorial Atlantic covering the last 5 million years with an independent age model compared to the non-linear ice volume models of the LR04 stack. Comparison shows that the benthic δ18O composite is consistent with the LR04 stack from 0 - 4 Ma despite a short interval between 1.80 and 1.90 Ma, where LR04 exhibits 2 maxima but where Ceara Rise contains only 1. The interval between 4.0 and 4.5 Ma in the Ceara Rise compilation is decidedly different from LR04, reflecting both the low amplitude of the signal over this interval and the limited amount of data available for the LR04 stack. Our results also point out that precession cycles have been misinterpreted as obliquity in the LR04 stack as suggested by the Ceara Rise composite at 4.2 Ma.

  2. Archive of Historic Core Data from the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Legs 101-129 (Pre-JANUS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) operated the drilling vessel JOIDES Resolution from 1984-2003 for over 100 cruises worldwide. The ODP was funded by the U.S....

  3. Revisiting the Ceara Rise, equatorial Atlantic Ocean: isotope stratigraphy of ODP Leg 154 from 0 to 5 Ma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Wilkens

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Isotope stratigraphy has become the method of choice for investigating both past ocean temperatures and global ice volume. Lisiecki and Raymo (2005 published a stacked record of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records versus age (LR04 stack. In this study LR04 is compared to high-resolution records collected at all of the sites drilled during ODP Leg 154 on the Ceara Rise, in the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Newly developed software is used to check data splices of the Ceara Rise sites and better align out-of-splice data with in-splice data. Core images recovered from core table photos are depth and age scaled and greatly assist in the data analysis. The entire splices of ODP sites 925, 926, 927, 928 and 929 were reviewed. Most changes were minor although several were large enough to affect age models based on orbital tuning. A Ceara Rise composite record of benthic δ18O is out of sync with LR04 between 1.80 and 1.90 Ma, where LR04 exhibits two maxima but Ceara Rise data contain only one. The interval between 4.0 and 4.5 Ma in the Ceara Rise compilation is decidedly different from LR04, reflecting both the low amplitude of the signal over this interval and the limited amount of data available for the LR04 stack. A regional difference in benthic δ18O of 0.2 ‰ relative to LR04 was found. Independent tuning of Site 926 images and physical property data to the Laskar et al. (2004 orbital solution and integration of available benthic stable isotope data from the Ceara Rise provides a new regional reference section for the equatorial Atlantic covering the last 5 million years.

  4. Revisiting the Ceara Rise, equatorial Atlantic Ocean: isotope stratigraphy of ODP Leg 154 from 0 to 5 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, Roy H.; Westerhold, Thomas; Drury, Anna J.; Lyle, Mitchell; Gorgas, Thomas; Tian, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Isotope stratigraphy has become the method of choice for investigating both past ocean temperatures and global ice volume. Lisiecki and Raymo (2005) published a stacked record of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records versus age (LR04 stack). In this study LR04 is compared to high-resolution records collected at all of the sites drilled during ODP Leg 154 on the Ceara Rise, in the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Newly developed software is used to check data splices of the Ceara Rise sites and better align out-of-splice data with in-splice data. Core images recovered from core table photos are depth and age scaled and greatly assist in the data analysis. The entire splices of ODP sites 925, 926, 927, 928 and 929 were reviewed. Most changes were minor although several were large enough to affect age models based on orbital tuning. A Ceara Rise composite record of benthic δ18O is out of sync with LR04 between 1.80 and 1.90 Ma, where LR04 exhibits two maxima but Ceara Rise data contain only one. The interval between 4.0 and 4.5 Ma in the Ceara Rise compilation is decidedly different from LR04, reflecting both the low amplitude of the signal over this interval and the limited amount of data available for the LR04 stack. A regional difference in benthic δ18O of 0.2 ‰ relative to LR04 was found. Independent tuning of Site 926 images and physical property data to the Laskar et al. (2004) orbital solution and integration of available benthic stable isotope data from the Ceara Rise provides a new regional reference section for the equatorial Atlantic covering the last 5 million years.

  5. Water in orthopyroxene from abyssal spinel peridotites of the East Pacific Rise (ODP Leg 147: Hess Deep)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Kirsten T.; Gose, Jürgen; Stalder, Roland; Schmädicke, Esther

    2015-09-01

    Abyssal spinel peridotites from Hess Deep, East Pacific Rise (ODP Leg 147) were investigated concerning their major, minor, and trace element mineral chemistry and the incorporation of structural water in orthopyroxene. The rocks are partially serpentinized harzburgites containing primary minerals of olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and spinel. Orthopyroxene is enstatitic with Mg# (Mg/(Mg + Fe)) between 0.90 and 0.92 and Al2O3 from 0.5 to 2.9 wt.%. The residual harzburgite experienced high degrees of melt removal in the spinel peridotite stability field. The average degree of partial melting was calculated to be 17.5% (range: 16.4-17.8%). Trace element data of ortho- and clinopyroxenes reflect this strong depletion, characteristic for the restitic nature of abyssal peridotites. Mantle re-equilibration temperatures around 1000 °C indicate that, after melt extraction and before exhumation to the ocean floor, the rocks experienced significant cooling in the spinel peridotite facies. Water contents of orthopyroxene range from 86 to 233 wt. ppm H2O with an average concentration of 142 wt. ppm H2O. These results represent the first data on water contents in the sub-pacific mantle obtained by direct measurements of sub-oceanic peridotite. The water contents are not related to mineral chemistry, stratigraphy, melting degree, mantle equilibrium conditions or oxidation state. Calculated post-melt peridotite water contents vary between 40 and 100 wt. ppm H2O. Compared to Mid-Atlantic Ridge peridotites, the East Pacific Rise samples of Leg 147 contain somewhat lower water concentrations than samples from Leg 153 and considerably higher contents than those of Leg 209 (Gose et al., 2009; Schmädicke et al., 2011). In Leg 147, the strongest OH absorbtion band occurs at 3420 cm- 1, wheras orthopyroxene from MAR peridotite (Legs 153 and 209) has its strongest absorbtion band at 3566 and 3522 cm- 1. The mantle equilibrium temperature of Leg 147 peridotites is lower than that

  6. Refining the Early and Middle Eocene Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale: new results from ODP Leg 208 (Walvis Ridge)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhold, T.; Roehl, U.; Frederichs, T.; Bohaty, S. M.; Florindo, F.; Zachos, J. C.; Raffi, I.; Agnini, C.

    2015-12-01

    Astronomical calibration of the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) for the Eocene (34-56 Ma) has advanced tremendously in recent years. Combining a cyclostratigraphic approach based on the recognition of the stable 405-kyr eccentricity cycle of Earth's orbit with high-resolution bio- and magnetostratigraphy from deep-sea sedimentary records (ODP Legs 171B, 189 and 207; IODP Exp. 320/321) resulted in a new calibration of the middle-to-late Eocene GPTS spanning Chrons C12r to C19n (30.9-41.3 Ma). A fully astronomically calibrated GPTS for the Eocene was established recently by integrating cyclo-bio-magnetostratigraphy from ODP Sites 702 and 1263 records spanning the middle Eocene with Site 1258 records covering the early Eocene. Comparison of this deep sea-derived GPTS with GTS2012 and GPTS calibration points from terrestrial successions show overall consistent results, but there are still major offsets for the duration of Chrons C20r, C22r and C23n.2n. Because of the relatively large uncertainty of the calibration point, a radioisotopic dated ash layer in DSDP 516F, at C21n.75 (46.24±0.5 Ma) the duration of C20r in GPTS2012 (2.292 myr) is uncertain. Offsets in durations of C22r and C23n.2n between GPTS2012 and the new astronomical GPTS (~400-kyr longer C22r; ~400-kyr shorter C23n.2n) could be due to uncertainties in the interpretation of Site 1258 magnetostratigraphic data. Here we present new results toward establishing a more accurate and complete bio-, magneto- and chemostratigraphy for South Atlantic Leg 208 sites encompassing magnetochrons C13 to C24 (33 to 56 Ma). Our study aims to integrate paleomagnetic records from multiple drilled sites with physical property data, stable isotope data and XRF core scanning data to construct an astronomically calibrated framework for refining GPTS age estimates. This effort will complete the Early-to-Middle Eocene GPTS and allow evaluation of the relative position of calcareous nannofossil events to magnetostratigraphy.

  7. ODP Leg 210 Drills the Newfoundland Margin in the Newfoundland-Iberia Non-Volcanic Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucholke, B. E.; Sibuet, J.

    2003-12-01

    The final leg of the Ocean Drilling Project (Leg 210, July-September 2003) was devoted to studying the history of rifting and post-rift sedimentation in the Newfoundland-Iberia rift. For the first time, drilling was conducted in the Newfoundland Basin along a transect conjugate to previous drill sites on the Iberia margin (Legs 149 and 173) to obtain data on a complete `non-volcanic' rift system. The prime site during this leg (Site 1276) was drilled in the transition zone between known continental crust and known oceanic crust at chrons M3 and younger. Extensive geophysical work and deep-sea drilling have shown that this transition-zone crust on the conjugate Iberia margin is exhumed continental mantle that is strongly serpentinized in its upper part. Transition-zone crust on the Newfoundland side, however, is typically a kilometer or more shallower and has much smoother topography, and seismic refraction data suggest that the crust may be thin (about 4 km) oceanic crust. A major goal of Site 1276 was to investigate these differences by sampling basement and a strong, basinwide reflection (U) overlying basement. Site 1276 was cored from 800 to 1737 m below seafloor with excellent recovery (avg. 85%), bottoming in two alkaline diabase sills >10 m thick that are estimated to be 100-200 meters above basement. The sills have sedimentary contacts that show extensive hydrothermal metamorphism. Associated sediment structural features indicate that the sills were intruded at shallow levels within highly porous sediments. The upper sill likely is at the level of the U reflection, which correlates with lower Albian - uppermost Aptian(?) fine- to coarse-grained gravity-flow deposits. Overlying lower Albian to lower Oligocene sediments record paleoceanographic conditions similar to those on the Iberia margin and in the main North Atlantic basin, including deposition of `black shales'; however, they show an extensive component of gravity-flow deposits throughout.

  8. In-situ petrophysical properties of hotspot volcanoes. Results from ODP Leg 197, Detroit Seamount and HSDP II borehole, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, I.; Pechnig, R.; Buysch, A.; Clauser, C.

    2003-04-01

    During ODP Leg 197 an extensive logging program was run on Site 1203, Detroit Seamount. This seamount is part of the Emperor seamount chain, a continuation of the Hawaiian volcanic chain. Standard ODP/LDEO logging tool strings were used to measure porosity, density, resistivity, p- and s-wave velocities and gamma ray activity. The FMS-tool yielded detailed high resolution resistivity images of the borehole wall. By interpretation and statistical analysis of the logging parameters a petrophysical classification of the drilled rock content could be derived. The pillow lava recovered in the cores exhibits low porosity, low resistivity and high density. This indicates no or very little vesicles in the non-fractured rock unit. Compared to the pillow basalts, subaerial basalts show increasing porosity, gamma ray and potassium content and decreasing density, resistivity and velocity. A basalt with no or little vesicles and a basalt with average or many vesicles can clearly be distinguished. The volcaniclastics show lower resistivity, lower sonic velocities, higher porosities and lower densities than the basalts. Three different rock types can be distinguished within the volcaniclastics: Tuffs, resedimented tephra and breccia. The tuff shows medium porosity and density, low gamma ray and potassium content. The log responses from the resedimented tephra suggest that the tephra is more easily altered than the tuff. The log responses from the breccia lie between the tuff and tephra log responses, but the breccia can clearly be identified in the FMS borehole images. A similar rock content was found in the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project borehole. Gamma ray activity, electrical resistivity and sonic velocity were measured down to 2700 mbsl.. Compared to the 72-76 Ma old Detroit seamount basalts, the HSDP subaerial and submarine lava flows show a significant lower gamma ray activity, while sonic velocity and electrical resistivity are comparable. Deviations between the

  9. Novel degenerate PCR method for whole genome amplification applied to Peru Margin (ODP Leg 201 subsurface samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eMartino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A degenerate PCR-based method of whole-genome amplification, designed to work fluidly with 454 sequencing technology, was developed and tested for use on deep marine subsurface DNA samples. The method, which we have called Random Amplification Metagenomic PCR (RAMP, involves the use of specific primers from Roche 454 amplicon sequencing, modified by the addition of a degenerate region at the 3’ end. It utilizes a PCR reaction, which resulted in no amplification from blanks, even after 50 cycles of PCR. After efforts to optimize experimental conditions, the method was tested with DNA extracted from cultured E. coli cells, and genome coverage was estimated after sequencing on three different occasions. Coverage did not vary greatly with the different experimental conditions tested, and was around 62% with a sequencing effort equivalent to a theoretical genome coverage of 14.10X. The GC content of the sequenced amplification product was within 2% of the predicted values for this strain of E. coli. The method was also applied to DNA extracted from marine subsurface samples from ODP Leg 201 site 1229 (Peru Margin, and results of a taxonomic analysis revealed microbial communities dominated by Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Euryarchaeota, and Crenarchaeota, among others. These results were similar to those obtained previously for those samples; however, variations in the proportions of taxa show that community analysis can be sensitive to both the amplification technique used and the method of assigning sequences to taxonomic groups. Overall, we find that RAMP represents a valid methodology for amplifying metagenomes from low biomass samples.

  10. Novel Degenerate PCR Method for Whole-Genome Amplification Applied to Peru Margin (ODP Leg 201) Subsurface Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Amanda J.; Rhodes, Matthew E.; Biddle, Jennifer F.; Brandt, Leah D.; Tomsho, Lynn P.; House, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    A degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method of whole-genome amplification, designed to work fluidly with 454 sequencing technology, was developed and tested for use on deep marine subsurface DNA samples. While optimized here for use with Roche 454 technology, the general framework presented may be applicable to other next generation sequencing systems as well (e.g., Illumina, Ion Torrent). The method, which we have called random amplification metagenomic PCR (RAMP), involves the use of specific primers from Roche 454 amplicon sequencing, modified by the addition of a degenerate region at the 3′ end. It utilizes a PCR reaction, which resulted in no amplification from blanks, even after 50 cycles of PCR. After efforts to optimize experimental conditions, the method was tested with DNA extracted from cultured E. coli cells, and genome coverage was estimated after sequencing on three different occasions. Coverage did not vary greatly with the different experimental conditions tested, and was around 62% with a sequencing effort equivalent to a theoretical genome coverage of 14.10×. The GC content of the sequenced amplification product was within 2% of the predicted values for this strain of E. coli. The method was also applied to DNA extracted from marine subsurface samples from ODP Leg 201 site 1229 (Peru Margin), and results of a taxonomic analysis revealed microbial communities dominated by Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Euryarchaeota, and Crenarchaeota, among others. These results were similar to those obtained previously for those samples; however, variations in the proportions of taxa identified illustrates well the generally accepted view that community analysis is sensitive to both the amplification technique used and the method of assigning sequences to taxonomic groups. Overall, we find that RAMP represents a valid methodology for amplifying metagenomes from low-biomass samples. PMID:22319519

  11. Basaltic magmatism at the Juan de Fuca Ridge, NE Pacific ocean (ODP Leg 168): geological control on chemical zonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesogno, L.; Gaggero, L.; Marescotti, P.

    2003-04-01

    Basalts, from around 0.8 to 3.5 Ma in age, were recovered during Leg 168 from nine sites (Sites 1023-1029 and 1031-1032), drilled across the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR). The sites are located from about 20 km to roughly 100 km east of the ridge axis and were subdivided into the Hydrothermal Transition (HT, Sites 1023-1025), Buried Basement (BB, Sites 1028-1031), and Rough Basement (RB, Sites 1026 and 1027) transects, described in the Leg 168 Initial Reports (Davis, Fisher, Firth, et al., 1997). The igneous rocks mainly consists of aphyric to moderately phyric pillow basalt (Sites 1023-1029 and 1031-1032), subordinate aphyric massive basalt (Site 1025), basalt-hyaloclastite breccia (Site 1026), and fine- to medium-grained diabase (Site 1027). On the whole, samples are weakly altered: the alteration style and intensity vary systematically from Site to Site being related to several factors, including the ageing of the igneous crust, the increase of temperatures from younger to older Sites (from 15.5 ^oC at the youngest 1023 Site to 62.8^oC at the oldest 1027 Site), the local and regional variations in lithology and primary porosity, and the degree of fracturing. Over 90 samples of basalts representative of the nine Sites were studied for mineralogy and petrography; 30 selected samples, representative of the igneous chemistry were analyzed for major, minor, trace and rare earth elements by XRF, ICP, ICP-MS, and INAA. An overall MORB high-Ti tholeiitic affinity arises from the Ti - LaN/SmN, Ti/Cr-Ni, Cr - Y diagrams. The sequence ranges from very primitive (Sites 1023, 1027: Mg# ≈ 70, Zr ≈ 60 ppm) to highly evolved Fe-basaltic compositions (Mg# up to 46). The FMM-normalized patterns of the most primitive compositions compared with the melting models for major oceans (Pearce & Parkinson, 1993) evidence a good analogy with magmas from 10-15% partial melting of a Fertile MORB Mantle source. The progressive decrease of compatible elements and the

  12. Ash layer at ∼ 8 Ma in ODP site 758 from the Bay of Bengal: evidence from Sr, Nd isotopic compositions and rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmakumari, V.M.; Ahmad, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Strontium and neodymium isotopic compositions are widely used to delineate the provenance of sedimentary formations. These isotopes have characteristic signatures for crust and mantle material and therefore can distinguish between volcanic and other rock types. 87 Sr/ 86 Sr. ε Nd (0) and rare earth elements REE of clay sediments from ODP site 758 in the Bay of Bengal is reported here. Our results clearly show that Sr and Nd isotopes can identify thin ash layers that otherwise may not easily be recognized

  13. The Pleistocene evolution of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet in the Prydz bay region: Stable isotopic evidence from ODP Site 1167

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theissen, K.M.; Dunbar, R.B.; Cooper, A. K.; Mucciarone, D.A.; Hoffmann, D.

    2003-01-01

    Ocean Drilling Program Leg 188, Prydz Bay, East Antarctica is part of a larger initiative to explore the Cenozoic history of the Antarctic Ice Sheet through direct drilling and sampling of the continental margins. In this paper, we present stable isotopic results from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1167 located on the Prydz Channel Trough Mouth Fan (TMF), the first Antarctic TMF to be drilled. The foraminifer-based ??18O record is interpreted along with sedimentary and downhole logging evidence to reconstruct the Quaternary glacial history of Prydz Bay and the adjacent Lambert Glacier Amery Ice Shelf System (LGAISS). We report an electron spin resonance age date of 36. 9 ?? 3.3 ka at 0.45 m below sea floor and correlate suspected glacial-interglacial cycles with the global isotopic stratigraphy to improve the chronology for Site 1167. The ??18O record based on planktonic (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (s.)) and limited benthic results (Globocassidulina crassa), indicates a trend of ice sheet expansion that was interrupted by a period of reduced ice volume and possibly warmer conditions during the early-mid-Pleistocene (0.9-1.38 Ma). An increase in ?? 18O values after ??? 900 ka appears to coincide with the mid-Pleistocene climate transition and the expansion of the northern hemisphere ice sheet. The ??18O record in the upper 50 m of the stratigraphic section indicates as few as three glacial-interglacial cycles, tentatively assigned as marine isotopic stages (MIS) 16-21, are preserved since the Brunhes/Matuyama paleomagnetic reversal (780 ka). This suggests that there is a large unconformity near the top of the section and/or that there may have been few extreme advances of the ice sheet since the mid-Pleistocene climate transition resulting in lowered sedimentation rates on the Prydz Channel TMF. The stable isotopic record from Site 1167 is one of the few available from the area south of the Antarctic Polar Front that has been linked with the global isotopic

  14. Uppermost Cretaceous to middle Oligocene carbon and oxygen isotope stratigraphy of Southwest Pacific : holes 1121B and 1124C, ODP Leg 181

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, K.-Y.; Mii, H.-S.; Shu, I-T.; Lin, Y.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotopic ratios of bulk sediments from ODP Leg 181, holes 1121B and 1124C, in the Southwest Pacific were measured. The isotopic signals are mainly contributed by calcareous nannofossils with minimal diagenetic alteration. A complete section of the late Paleogene age between 60.7 and 57.5 Ma was recovered from Hole 1121B. However, the Paleogene sedimentary sequence of Hole 1124C was truncated by three major hiatuses: late Paleocene to middle Eocene (59-42 Ma), middle Eocene to early Oligocene (40-33.5 Ma), and early Oligocene to middle Oligocene (31.3-27.5 Ma). The middle Eocene shows the most negative δ 18 O values (c. -0.8 permille) compared to the early Paleocene (c. -0.2 to -0.3 permille) and Oligocene (c. 0.6-0.9 permille). The δ 18 O pattern is consistent with previous understanding of the Paleogene paleoclimate: a warmth optimum in the early-middle Eocene followed by a major glaciation in the early Oligocene at c. 34 Ma. The hiatus of 33.5-40 Ma indicates that the Tasmanian Gateway had deepened enough by 33.5 Ma, allowing the breakthrough of cold, bottom water and consequently the formation of the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC). With the aid of independent biochronological and magnetochronological markers, the Paleocene carbon isotopic profiles were correlated with that of DSDP 577 in the North Pacific. Both sites record the early part of the Paleocene carbon isotopic maximum event, while only Hole 1124C extends back to the early Paleocene and latest Cretaceous. A short hiatus of 60.5-62.5 Ma age may exist. Although the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary is not directly recorded, a significant cooling trend across the boundary is evident. The surface water became warmer after 64.5 Ma, and reached a stable warmth level during 64-59 Ma. A major cooling took place during c. 59-57 Ma in the late Paleocene. The temperature gradients between the two sites (ODP 1121 and 1124, paleolatitudes 64 degrees S versus 53 degrees S) are estimated to be c

  15. Geochemistry of Fast-Spreading Lower Oceanic Crust: Results from Drilling at the Hess Deep Rift (ODP Leg 147 and IODP Expedition 345; East Pacific Rise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, M.; Falloon, T.; Gillis, K. M.; Akizawa, N.; de Brito Adriao, A.; Koepke, J.; Marks, N.; Meyer, R.; Saha, A.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Hess Deep Rift, where the Cocos Nazca Ridge propagates into the young, fast-spread East Pacific Rise crust, exposes a dismembered, but nearly complete, lower crustal section. The extensive exposures of the plutonic crust were drilled at 3 sites during ODP Leg 147 (Nov. 1992-Jan. 1993) and IODP Expedition 345 (Dec. 2012-Feb. 2013). We report preliminary results of a bulk rock geochemical study (major and trace elements) carried out on 109 samples representative of the different drilled lithologies. The shallowest gabbroic rocks were sampled at ODP Site 894. They comprise gabbronorite, gabbro, olivine gabbro and gabbronorite. They have evolved compositions with Mg# 39-55, Yb 4-8 x chondrite and Eu/Eu* 1-1.6. Olivine gabbro and troctolite were dominant at IODP Site U1415, with minor gabbro, gabbronorite and clinopyroxene oikocryst-bearing troctolite and gabbro. All U1415 gabbroic rocks have primitive compositions except for one gabbronorite rubble that is similar in composition to the shallow gabbros. Olivine gabbro, gabbro and gabbronorite overlap in composition: they have high Mg# (79-87) and Ni (130-570 ppm), low TiO2 (0.1-0.3 wt.%) and Yb (1.3-2.3 x chondrite) and positive Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*=1.9-2.7). Troctolite has high Mg# (81-89), Ni (260-1500 ppm) and low TiO2 (4). ODP Site 895 recovered sequences of highly depleted harzburgite, dunite and troctolite (Yb down to <0.1xchondrite) that are interpreted as a mantle-crust transition zone. Basalts were recovered at Sites 894 and U1415: they have low Yb (0.5-0.9xN6MORB) and are depleted in the most incompatible elements (Ce/Yb=0.6-0.9xN-MORB). The main geochemical characteristics of Site U1415 and 894 gabbroic rocks are consistent with formation as a cumulate sequence from a common parental MORB melt; troctolites are the most primitive end-member of this sequence. They overlap in composition with the most primitive of slow and fast spread crust gabbroic rocks.

  16. Rare earth elements in Japan Sea sediments and diagenetic behavior of Ce/Ce∗: results from ODP Leg 127

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R.; Buchholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.; Brumsack, Hans-Juergen; Gerlach, David C.; Russ III, G. Price

    1991-01-01

    The relative effects of paleoceanographic and paleogeographic variations, sediment lithology, and diagenetic processes on the recorded rare earth element (REE) chemistry of Japan Sea sediments are evaluated by investigating REE total abundances and relative fractionations in 59 samples from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 127.

  17. Polyphase serpentinization history of Mariana forearc mantle: observations on the microfabric of ultramafic clasts from ODP Leg 195, Site 1200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Jöns, Niels; Bach, Wolfgang; Klein, Frieder

    2013-04-01

    In the forearc of the Mariana subduction zone system, a number of seamounts form from extrusion of blueschist and serpentine mud. Ocean Drilling Program Leg 195 drilled the South Chamorro seamount, where ultramafic clasts occur within the mud matrix. These clasts show a complex serpentinization history, which bears the potential for tracking the alteration history during uplift and cooling of mantle wedge rocks to the seafloor. Moreover, the microfabrics of the highly serpentinized harzburgite and dunite clasts exhibit evidence for multiple fracturing events in the forearc mantle. These, in turn, lead to fluid influx and varied styles of serpentinization of harzburgite and dunite. The serpentinized ultramafic clasts exhibit a variety of microfabrics that range from virtually undeformed to strongly deformed samples. Pervasively serpentinized harzburgites feature either an equigranular fabric of serpentinized olivine and orthopyroxene crystals, or different vein generations related to multiple stages of serpentinization. Several types of fluid pathways in harzburgites are present: (i) veins containing brucite and iron oxides, developed linearly without marked conformance with the rock fabric. In places, these veins developed mm-cm wide halos with finger-shaped serpentinization fronts. Veins of type (i) are either developed as syntaxial veins from a single crack-seal event with large magnetite crystals growing from one wall to the other (as confirmed with high-resolution X-ray microtomography), or formed by multiple fluid events. (ii) serpentine veins that encompass regions of marginally serpentinized, microgranular olivine and large orthopyroxene crystals. (iii) extensional serpentine veins (known as "Frankenstein" type). In the clasts studied, their occurrence is restricted to the halo region of type (i) veins. (iv) as a late-stage feature, extensional veins documenting multiple crack-seal events can be present in the serpentinites (either in undeformed regions with

  18. Si-metasomatism in serpentinized peridotite: The effects of talc-alteration on strontium and boron isotopes in abyssal serpentinites from Hole 1268a, ODP Leg 209

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jason; Savov, Ivan P.; Agostini, Samuele; Cliff, Robert A.; Walshaw, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Ultramafic rocks recovered from Hole 1268a, Ocean Drilling Program Leg 209, to the south of the 15°20‧N Fracture Zone on the Mid-Atlantic ridge have experienced a complex history of melt depletion and subsequent interaction with a series of fluids under varying temperature and pH conditions. After intense melt depletion, varying degrees of serpentinization at 100-200 °C took place, initially under seawater-like pH conditions. Subsequently, interaction with a higher temperature (300-350 °C) fluid with low (4-5) pH and low MgO/SiO2 resulted in the heterogeneous alteration of these serpentinites to talc-bearing ultramafic lithologies. The proximity of the currently active, high temperature Logatchev hydrothermal field, located on the opposite flank of the Mid-Atlantic ridge, suggests that unlike more distal localities sampled during ODP Leg 209, Hole 1268a has experienced Si-metasomatism (i.e. talc-alteration) by a Logatchev-like hydrothermal fluid. Serpentinite strontium isotope ratios were not materially shifted by interaction with the subsequent high-T fluid, despite the likelihood that this fluid had locally interacted with mid-ocean ridge gabbro. 87Sr/86Sr in the ultramafic lithologies of Hole 1268a are close to that of seawater (c.0.709) and even acid leached serpentinites retain 87Sr/86Sr in excess of 0.707, indistinguishable from Logatchev hydrothermal fluid. On the other hand, boron isotope ratios appear to have been shifted from seawater-like values in the serpentinites (δ11B = c.+40‰) to much lighter values in talc-altered serpentinites (δ11B = +9 to +20‰). This is likely a consequence of the effects of changing ambient pH and temperature during the mineralogical transition from serpentine to talc. Heterogeneous boron isotope systematics have consequences for the composition of ultramafic portions of the lithosphere returned to the convecting mantle by subduction. Inhomogeneities in δ11B, [B] and mineralogy introduce significant uncertainties in

  19. Tectonic erosion and consequent collapse of the Pacific margin of Costa Rica: Combined implications from ODP leg 170, seismic offshore data, and regional geology of the Nicoya Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, P.; Scholl, D. W.; Meschede, M.; McDougall-Reid, K.

    2001-01-01

    The convergent margin off the Pacific coast of the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica exhibits evidence for subduction erosion caused by the underthrusting Cocos plate. Critical evidence for efficacy of this process was recovered at the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drilling Site 1042 (Leg 170), positioned ???7 km landward of the Middle America trench axis off the Nicoya Peninsula. The primary drilling objective at this site was to identify the age and origin of a regionally extensive and prominent seismic discontinuity, the so-called base-of-slope sediment (BOSS) horizon or surface. The BOSS horizon, which can be traced landward from near the trench to the Nicoya coastal area and parallel to it for hundreds of kilometers, separates a low-velocity (??? 2.0-2.5 km s-1) sequence of slope sediment, from an underlying sequence of much higher-velocity (> 4-4.5 km s-1) rock. Site 1042 reached the acoustically defined BOSS horizon at a below sea level depth of ??? 3900 m and yielded a carbonate-cemented calcarenitic breccia of early-middle Miocene age. Sedimentological, geochemical, paleontological, and cement paragenesis data document that the breccia accumulated in a shallow water depositional environment. On the basis of coastal exposures, the BOSS horizon, as a margin-wide geologic interface, can be temporally and lithostratigraphically correlated to a regional angular unconformity. This unconformity, known as the Mal Pais unconformity, separates Neogene and younger shelf-to-littoral beds from the underlying mafic units of the Mesozoic Nicoya Complex and Cretaceous and early Tertiary sedimentary sequences. At Site 1042 it is inferred that tectonism caused the vertical subsidence of the early Neogene breccia from a shallow to a deep water setting. The Mal Pais unconformity of the BOSS horizon thus connects the rock fabric of the outermost part of margin to that of coastal Nicoya and implies that in the early Neogene the Nicoya shelf extended seaward to near the present

  20. Hydrothermal alteration of deep sea sediments from the Izu-Bonin fore arc basin, leg 126, ODp. Izuter dot Ogasawara ko no shinkaitei taisekibutsu ni okeru netsusui henshitsu sayo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazaki, K. (Shimane Univ., Shimane (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1991-08-25

    The deep sea drilling according to ODP has been performed in the Izu-Bonin arc during a period of April 22 to June 19 in 1989, and the drilling across the forearc, island arc and backarc was successful in the Leg 126 of it. The drill length of 1682 m at Site 793 was achieved and it is the deepest world record including the drilling of basement. In this report, the various measurements and observations were performed focussing the hydrothermal effects accompanied with the volcanic activities, on the Site 793 achieved the longest drilling in the forearc basin and the Site 792 in the same forearc. As a result, there are many dehydration veins, clastic dikes and small faults in the volcanic sediments, and the gypsum, smectite, zeolite and prehnite etc. are filled in these parts as a zonal distribution, suggesting the thermal gradient and thermal history at that time. The volcanic glass and feldspar etc. are changed partly to the smectite and zeolite etc. by the hydrothermal alteration. The effective keys as mentioned above were obtained about the temperature condition of hydrothermal alteration and the paleo-environment. 31 refs., 15figs.

  1. Magma source evolution beneath the Caribbean oceanic plateau: New insights from elemental and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic studies of ODP Leg 165, Site 1001 basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, A. C.; Pearson, G.; Nowell, G.

    2008-12-01

    Ocean Drilling Project Leg 165 sampled 38m of the basaltic basement of the Caribbean plate at Site 1001 on the Hess Escarpment. The recovered section consists of 12 basaltic flow units which yield a weighted mean Ar-Ar age of 80.9±0.9 Ma (Sinton et al., 2000). The basalts (6.4-8.5 wt.% MgO) are remarkably homogeneous in composition and are more depleted in incompatible trace elements than N-MORB. Markedly, depleted initial radiogenic isotope ratios reveal a long-term history of depletion. Although the Site 1001 basalts are superficially similar to N-MORB, radiogenic isotopes in conjunction with incompatible trace element ratios show that the basalts have more similarity to the depleted basalts and komatiites of Gorgona Island. This chemical composition strongly implies that the Site 1001 basalts are derived from a depleted mantle plume component and not from depleted ambient upper mantle. Therefore the Site 1001 basalts are, both compositionally and tectonically, a constituent part of the Caribbean oceanic plateau. Mantle melt modelling suggests that the Site 1001 lavas have a composition which is consistent with second-stage melting of compositionally heterogeneous mantle plume source material which had already been melted, most likely to form the 90Ma basalts of the plateau. The prolonged residence (>10m.y.) of residual mantle plume source material below the region, confirms computational model predictions and places significant constraints on tectonic models of Caribbean evolution in the late Cretaceous, and the consequent environmental impact of oceanic plateau volcanism. Reference Sinton, C.W., et al., 2000. Geochronology and petrology of the igneous basement at the lower Nicaraguan Rise, Site 1001. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. Leg 165. pp. 233-236.

  2. Iron and Sulfur Species and Sulfur Isotopic Compositions of Authigenic Pyrite in Gas Hydrate-Bearing Sediments from Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia Margin (ODP Leg 204): A Proposal of Conceptual Models to Indicate the Non-Steady State Depositional and Diagenetic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Jiang, S. Y.; Su, X.

    2017-12-01

    Two accretionary sediment sequences from Sites 1245 and 1252 recovered during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 204 at Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia Margin were investigated to explore the non-steady state depositional and diagenetic history. Five iron species and three sulfur species were chemically extracted, and their concentrations and the sulfur isotopic compositions of pyrite were determined. After the mineral recognitions of these species and detailed comparative analyses, the aerobic history of bottom seawater has been determined. The formation of pyrite is thought to be controlled by the limited production of hydrogen sulfide relative to the supply of reactive iron. Also, the intrusion of oxygen by bioturbation would oxidize the reduced sulfur species and further suppress pyritization. To explain the geochemical relationship between pyrite and siderite and the sulfur isotope characteristics of pyrite, we propose seven conceptual models based on the variations in depositional rate and methane flux, and the models succeed in explaining the geochemical results and are validated by the observed non-steady state events. These models may contribute to the reconstruction of the non-steady state processes in other research areas in the future.

  3. SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF YELLOW-LEGGED GULL (LARUS CACHINNANS PALLAS, 1811 OF ISLANSDS OF OBITOCHNAYA BAY (NORTH-WEST AZOV SEA AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubinina U.U.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considered territorial connection of Yellow-legged gull in breeding colony on islands Obitochnaya Bay. Analysis of the basic stages of the annual life cycle of Larus cachinnans Pallas, 1811 with taking into account the seasonal characteristics of each age group of seagulls (young, immature, adult. Based on this data set direction and distance of displacement, among whom were identified intra-continental migrations, domestic migrations within the territory of Ukraine and migrations within the nesting area. Settlement species on islands Obitochnaya Bay characterized by: high degree conservatism of adult Yellow-legged gull a wide range in season after nesting migrations and variance of young birds, the exchange of individuals between neighbouring settlements and the establishment of new colonies at the expense of immature individuals.

  4. Phosphorites from the Oman Margin, ODP Leg 117

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Lamboy, M.

    and lowest sedimentation rates. Bioturbation probably favoured the production of different initial substrates which subsequently phosphatized. Light-brown nodules are formed by a rapid, early diagenetic process. The abundant nodule formation in the Late...

  5. RM - ODP to express nuclear licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, E.A.; Martucci, M. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The scope of CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear) is established by standards and procedures, which allow one context where several activities for nuclear licensing are realized by persons, machines and other entities of real world and by software systems. The CNEN objectives for licensing nuclear installations can be specified and they define how the systems are consisted, its nature, and which important elements were considered relevant for its constitution. The behavior, where the software will be operated, was likely defined in this paper through all aspects of its business process, which means from its licensing context. The concepts and definition showed here defined one specifics business domain, through ODP context. The functionalities of nuclear licensing process, the relationship scope and the rules of interaction that contributed for to specify the nuclear licensing process were defined, too. Therefore, the definition of the domain follows the orientation of architecture concepts and allows to implement the reflection model, where, with the auxiliary from IDEF0 (Integration Definition for Function Modeling) diagrams, the interactions between extern domains were mapped

  6. A new approach to Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, R. W.; Daniel, J. S.; Yu, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) is given by the time integrated global ozone loss of an ozone depleting substance (ODS) relative to a reference ODS (usually CFC-11). The ODP is used by the Montreal Protocol (and subsequent amendments) to inform policy decisions on the production of ODSs. Since the early 1990s, ODPs have usually been estimated using an approximate formulism that utilizes the lifetime and the fractional release factor of the ODS. This has the advantage that it can utilize measured concentrations of the ODSs to estimate their fractional release factors. However, there is a strong correlation between stratospheric lifetimes and fractional release factors of ODSs and that this can introduce uncertainties into ODP calculations when the terms are estimated independently. Instead, we show that the ODP is proportional to the average global ozone loss per equivalent chlorine molecule released in the stratosphere by the ODS loss process (which we call the Γ factor) and, importantly, this ratio varies only over a relatively small range ( 0.3-1.5) for ODPs with stratospheric lifetimes of 20 to more than 1,000 years. The Γ factor varies smoothly with stratospheric lifetime for ODSs with loss processes dominated by photolysis and is larger for long-lived species, while stratospheric OH loss processes produce relatively small Γs that are nearly independent of stratospheric lifetime. The fractional release approach does not accurately capture these relationships. We propose a new formulation that takes advantage of this smooth variation by parameterizing the Γ factor using ozone changes computed using the chemical climate model CESM-WACCM and the NOCAR two-dimensional model. We show that while the absolute Γ's vary between WACCM and NOCAR models, much of the difference is removed for the Γ/ΓCFC-11 ratio that is used in the ODP formula. This parameterized method simplifies the computation of ODPs while providing enhanced accuracy compared to the

  7. An ODP computational model of a cooperative binding object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logé, Christophe; Najm, Elie; Chen, Ken

    1997-12-01

    A next generation of systems that should appear will have to manage simultaneously several geographically distributed users. These systems belong to the class of computer-supported cooperative work systems (CSCW). The development of such complex systems requires rigorous development methods and flexible open architectures. Open distributed processing (ODP) is a standardization effort that aims at providing such architectures. ODP features appropriate abstraction levels and a clear articulation between requirements, programming and infrastructure support. ODP advocates the use of formal methods for the specification of systems and components. The computational model, an object-based model, one of the abstraction levels identified within ODP, plays a central role in the global architecture. In this model, basic objects can be composed with communication and distribution abstractions (called binding objects) to form a computational specification of distributed systems, or applications. Computational specifications can then be mapped (in a mechanism akin to compilation) onto an engineering solution. We use an ODP-inspired method to computationally specify a cooperative system. We start from a general purpose component that we progressively refine into a collection of basic and binding objects. We focus on two issues of a co-authoring application, namely, dynamic reconfiguration and multiview synchronization. We discuss solutions for these issues and formalize them using the MT-LOTOS specification language that is currently studied in the ISO standardization formal description techniques group.

  8. Archive of Core and Site/Hole Data and Photographs from the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) operated the drilling vessel JOIDES Resolution from 1984-2003 for over 100 cruises worldwide. The ODP was funded by the U.S....

  9. Leg pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the blood Medicines (such as diuretics and statins) Muscle fatigue or strain from overuse, too much exercise, or holding a muscle in the same position for a long time An injury can also cause leg pain from: A torn or overstretched muscle ( strain ) Hairline ...

  10. Broken Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the leg, which can result in a fracture. Stress fractures outside of sport situations are more common in people who have: ... shoes. Choose the appropriate shoe for your favorite sports or activities. And ... can prevent stress fractures. Rotate running with swimming or biking. If ...

  11. Marine Export Production and Remineralization During Early Eocene Hyperthermal Events at ODP Site 1263, Walvis Ridge, ODP Site 1209, Shatsky Rise and ODP Site 1215, Equatorial Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A.; Griffith, E. M.; Thomas, E.; Winguth, A. M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the impacts of global hyperthermal events on marine productivity and remineralization is important for understanding the reaction of the ocean to major climate change. Marine export production and remineralization was reconstructed using marine (pelagic) barite accumulation rates (BAR) coupled with records of benthic foraminiferal assemblages across the Paleocene - Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) at 55.3 Ma, Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2) 2 Ma later, and ETM3 3.1 Ma after the PETM. Marine barite accumulates in deep sea sediment precipitating in the overlying water column during degradation of organic matter exported from the photic zone. Foraminiferal data indicate the amount of organic matter reaching the seafloor. We use the difference between these records to infer changes in rates of remineralization. We present data from ODP Site on Walvis Ridge, Southeastern Atlantic; ODP Site 1209 on Shatsky Rise, North Pacific; and ODP Site 1215, equatorial Pacific. Sites 1263 and 1215 had maximum BAR roughly centered over the maximum negative PETM CIE, whereas at Site 1209 the maximum was before the PETM. The maximum BAR across ETM2 and ETM3 (0.5 and 0.25 of that at the PETM, respectively) was centered over the maximum negative CIE at Site 1263. At Site 1209, the BAR (0.5 the maximum value before the PETM) peaked before ETM2. Barite concentration at Site 1215 was low across at the smaller hyperthermals, but the onset of ETM2 had a maximum value food arrival at the seafloor during elevated BAR, thus indicating enhanced remineralization. During the PETM, at all 3 sites, increases in barite coincided with reduced BFAR. Similar trends were observed during ETM2 at Sites 1263 and 1215, suggesting dramatic changes in remineralization over all hyperthermal events at these sites. Increased remineralization rates could partly account for differences in planktonic and benthic extinction, as observed during the PETM.

  12. The Mediterranean sediments (ODP Hole 967): memory of the last interglacial stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briqueu, L.; Lauer-Leredde, C.

    2003-04-01

    Many studies have shown that the alternation between carbonated levels (nanofossil ooze) and rich organic matter levels (sapropels) in the oriental Mediterranean Sea is driven for the Plio-quaternary by the climatic variations resulting from the astronomical forcings (e.g. Emeis and Sakamoto, 1998). The high resolution digitalisation of the colour photos of the ODP Leg 160 sedimentary cores, and the extraction (using image processing software) of the 3 fundamental colour components RGB allow to obtain high resolution continuous signals. This leads to a resolution more resolving (˜500 times) than the one resulting from the arctic and antarctic ice core sampling. The strong correlations between the obtained signals and the variations of the δO18 isotopic composition of sea water allow to establish a precise age model. After the time-tuning of the sedimentary column, the succession of climatic events, with periods lower than the precession one (˜23 ka), can be explored. About twenty climatic events, which induced significant variations of the sediment composition, can then be observed during the last interglacial period (100 to 128 kyr). For example, the temperature high, responsible of the Heinrich 11 event during the isotopic stage 5e (Eemien) in the atlantic ocean, is clearly registered in the oriental Mediterranean sea by a 4-cm-thick marl layer. The sapropel stage S5 is found during the following cooling stage. The sapropel development is stopped by a cold event, quite short (˜500 years), well-known in the occidental Mediterranean sea (Sanchez-Goñi et al., 2000) and also visible on the Greenland δO18 data. On the contrary, this event does not appear on the Vostok data, which seems to have been filtered for the high frequencies and to be slightly out of phase (˜5 kyr). The strong correlation between the Mediterranean and the Greenland signals should also be pointed out. References: Emeis K.C, and Sakamoto T. (Eds), 1998. The sapropel theme of Leg 160. Proc

  13. Radiolarian Indices of Paleoproductivity Variation in the late Pleistocene Benguela Upwelling System, ODP Site 1084

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittniok, B. B.; Lazarus, D. B.; Diester-Haass, L.; Billups, K.; Meyers, P.

    2006-12-01

    Changes in export productivity play a significant role in ocean carbon budgets and global climate change. Proxies for export productivity can be difficult to interpret: benthic foraminifera accumulation rates (BFAR) can be affected by carbonate dissolution in organic-carbon rich sediments; bulk opal can be affected by silica limitation of source waters. Recent work (Lazarus et al. 2006; Mar. Micropal.) has shown that a new index based on radiolarian faunal changes (WADE ratio) correlates well to total organic carbon (TOC) values from the same samples over the long term (latest Miocene-Recent) history of productivity in the Benguela Upwelling System (BUS). We present new data on variation in export productivity proxies (WADE, TOC, carbonate, radiolarian opal, BFAR) for the last glacial-interglacial cycle from ODP Site 1084, located just offshore from the main coastal upwelling cells of the BUS. Our age model, from mean Quaternary sedimentation rates (Leg 175 Scientific Results), is in accordance with cyclic variation in other climate sensitive parameters (carbonate and color reflectance). Although opal content and radiolarian preservation is only moderate in our samples, WADE values vary significantly and suggest higher productivity during the last glacial, in accordance with current interpretations of BUS history. Radiolarian opal accumulation is also higher during the last glacial, suggesting that silica limitation (opal paradox) conditions did not dominate over this time period. Similar results for bulk opal have been reported from late Quaternary piston cores from the more northerly Congo upwelling region (Schneider et al, 1997; Paleoc.). We conclude that WADE ratios are a useful proxy for late Pleistocene productivity in the BUS at glacial- interglacial time scales.

  14. Building enterprise systems with ODP an introduction to open distributed processing

    CERN Document Server

    Linington, Peter F; Tanaka, Akira; Vallecillo, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The Reference Model of Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) is an international standard that provides a solid basis for describing and building widely distributed systems and applications in a systematic way. It stresses the need to build these systems with evolution in mind by identifying the concerns of major stakeholders and then expressing the design as a series of linked viewpoints. Although RM-ODP has been a standard for more than ten years, many practitioners are still unaware of it. Building Enterprise Systems with ODP: An Introduction to Open Distributed Processing offers a gentle pa

  15. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are important for motion and standing. Playing sports, running, falling, or having an accident can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint dislocations, and fractures. ...

  16. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot in the leg Is older Has ...

  17. Upper Eocene Spherules at ODP Site 1090B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Kyte, F. T.; Glass, B. P.; Gersonde, R.

    2000-01-01

    Our two labs independently discovered upper Eocene microtektites and microkrystites at ODP Site 1090, a new South Atlantic locality near the Agulhus Ridge. This is a significant new data point for the strewn fields of these spherules, which were recently extended into the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean when they were reported at ODP Site 689 on the Maude Rise. The microtektites have been regarded as related to North American tektites and the microkrystites as belonging to the clinopyroxene-bearing (cpx) spherule strewn field. Initial reports indicate that Site 1090 contains a complete sequence of upper Eocene sediments composed of diatom and nannofossil oozes. The magneto- and bio-stratigraphy indicate that impact-age sediments should occur in core 30X of Hole 1090B. One of us (FTK) took 2 cc samples at 10 cm intervals over 600 cm of core for Ir analyses and the senior author (SL) took 3 cc samples at 20 cm intervals to search for spherules. Both studies proved successful and additional samples were obtained to confirm initial results and better define the Ir anomaly and spherule abundances. Peak Ir concentrations of 0.97 ng/g were found at 1090B-30X-5, 105-106cm and 0.78 ng/g at 115-116 cm. Anomalous Ir concentrations (greater than 0.1 ng/g) extend over about 100 cm of core. Preliminary results indicate that the excess Ir at this site is about 25 ng per sq cm. About 380 microtektites (>63 pm) and 2492 microkrystites (>63 pm) were recovered over a 1.8 m interval with a peak abundance of microtektites (106/gram) and microkrystites (562/gram) at 1090B-30X- 5, 114-115 cm. The largest microtektite is approximately 960 x 1140 micron in size. About 55 % are spherical, and the rest are disc, cylinder, dumbbell, teardrop, or fragments. Most of the microtektites are transparent colorless, but a few are transparent pale brown or green. Preliminary data indicate that the microtektites at Site 1090 have similar major oxide compositions to those at Site 689. About 50% of

  18. Lyden-af-Leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Herdis

    Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform.......Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform....

  19. Late Miocene to early Pliocene climate variability off NW Africa (ODP Site 659)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colin, C.; Siani, G.; Liu, Z.; Blamart, D.; Skonieczny, C.; Zhao, Y.; Bory, A.; Frank, N.; Duchamp-Alphonse, S.; Thil, F.; Richter, T.; Kissel, C.; Gargani, J.

    2014-01-01

    A high resolution delta O-18 record obtained on benthic foraminifera (Cibicides wuellerstorfi) combined with clay mineralogy, major element concentrations and Sr-Nd isotopes have been investigated for the ODP Site 659 located off North Africa in order to reconstruct African monsoon intensity between

  20. On the foundation for roles in RM-ODP: contributions from conceptual modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guizzardi, G.; Andrade Almeida, João; Linington, P.F.; Vallecillo, A.; Wood, B.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to provide a semantic foundation for the role-related concepts in the RM-ODP. We believe that some theories of conceptual modelling may help us to provide a well-founded underpinning for these concepts, and to harmonize competing proposals for them. As a starting point of

  1. Sediment compaction and pore pressure prediction in deepwater basin of the South China Sea: Estimation from ODP and IODP drilling well data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yangbing; Wu, Tuoyu; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Hanyu; Wang, Jiliang; Gao, Jinwei; Chen, Chuanxu

    2018-02-01

    Overpressure in deepwater basins not only causes serious soft sediment deformation, but also significantly affects the safety of drilling operations. Therefore, prediction of overpressure in sediments has become an important task in deepwater oil exploration and development. In this study, we analyze the drilling data from ODP Leg 184 Sites 1144, 1146, and 1148, and IODP Leg 349 Sites U1431, U1432, U1433, and U1435 to study the sediment compaction and controls in the northern South China Sea. Sedimentation rate, sediment content, distribution area, and buried depth are the factors that influence sediment compaction in the deepwater basin of the South China Sea. Among these factors, the sediment content is the most important. The fitted normal compacted coefficients and mudline porosity for an interval of 50 m shows disciplinary variation versus depth. The pore pressure predicted from different fitted results shows varying overpressure situations. The normal compaction trend from Site 1144 reflects the porosity variation trend in stable deposition basins in the northern South China Sea. The predicted pore pressure shows overpressure at Site 1144, which is attributed to compaction disequilibrium. Nevertheless, the mixed lithology column may influence the predicted over-pressure at Site 1148, which is responsible for the confusing result. Above all, we find that sediment compaction should serve as a proxy for pore pressure in the deepwater basin of the South China Sea.

  2. RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Valer'evich Artem'ev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment of restless legs syndrome. Recommendations are given how to choose therapeutic modalities and drugs in relation to different factors.

  3. Approach to leg edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Pomero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Edema is defined as a palpable swelling caused by an increase in interstitial fluid volume. Leg edema is a common problem with a wide range of possible causes and is the result of an imbalance in the filtration system between the capillary and interstitial spaces. Major causes of edema include venous obstruction, increased capillary permeability and increased plasma volume secondary to sodium and water retention. In both hospital and general practice, the patient with a swollen leg presents a common dilemma in diagnosis and treatment. The cause may be trivial or life-threatening and it is often difficult to determine the clinical pathway. The diagnosis can be narrowed by categorizing the edema according to its duration, distribution (unilateral or bilateral and accompanying symptoms. This work provides clinically oriented recommendations for the management of leg edema in adults.

  4. Leg som ustyrlig deltagelseskultur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Herdis

    2017-01-01

    - og spilteoretikere Johan Huizinga og Roger Caillois. Deres teorier og begrebsdannelser har været brugt til at påpege leg dels som et æstetisk baseret betydningssystem, dels som et affektivt og stemningsbaseret oplevelsessystem samt endelig som et socialt baseret relationssystem. I artiklen vælger vi...... at fokusere på leg som et socialt baseret relationssystem og yderligere zoome ind på et af legens systemiske væsenstræk, nemlig brugen af regulerbare regelsæt, som legerne uden ’politi’ forhandler sig frem til før, under og efter legen. Fælles for Huizinga og Caillois er, at de knytter leg uløseligt sammen...

  5. Leg og dannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2017-01-01

    lederen i det pædagogiske tidskrift Asterisk: ”Leg i skolen, leg i klasserummet, ja legende læring i skolen udgør derimod en enorm, seriøs og ubrugt læringsressource – ikke alene med effekter på kreativiteten, men også på den faglige læring” (Holm, 2015, p. 2). Legens værdi gøres altså først og fremmest...

  6. Venous leg ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 80 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide, thromboxane alpha2 antagonists, zinc), peri

  7. Restless Legs Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder, particularly if they experience onset at an early age; many years may pass before symptoms occur regularly. top What causes restless legs syndrome? In most cases, the cause of RLS is unknown (called primary RLS). However, RLS has a genetic component and ...

  8. The mangled lower leg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, Jochem Maarten

    2002-01-01

    A surgeon faced with a patient presenting with an open tibial/fibular fracture in combination with severe damage of the surrounding soft tissues, has to make the difficult decision whether to attempt salvage or to perform an immediate amputation of the leg. Until late in the nineteenth century the

  9. Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-27

    digitai~y thro)ugh a ribbon cable. lhe dcsign effort required to mount power sources and computing u(m board would hive distracted us fiorn our main...angular momentum. "The model used in this paper, shown in Fig. 6-1, has 3 single springy leg that articular •s ,ith respect to a body about a simple hince

  10. Two Legged Walking Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus, V.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to construct a two-legged wirelessly controlled walking robot. This paper describes the construction of the robot, its control electronics, and the solution of the wireless control. The article also includes a description of the application to control the robot. The control electronics of the walking robot are built using the development kit Arduino Mega, which is enhanced with WiFi module allowing the wireless control, a set of ultrasonic sensors for detecting obstacl...

  11. Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-30

    the laboratory. Harry Asada, Wayne Book, Nancy Cornelius, Sesh Murthy and Ivan Sutherland read various drafts of this report, for which we are...particularly helpful in providing an atmosphere where things could get started. Craig Fields and Clint Kelly deserve special credit for letting the idea of...legged technology capture their imaginations, even before we could show them tangible results. We are especially indebted to Ivan Sutherland for his

  12. Legāti

    OpenAIRE

    Segliņa, Aiga

    2010-01-01

    Autore teorētiski analizē legāta jēdzienu testamentārās mantošanas ietvaros un atspoguļo praktiska pētījuma rezultātus. Teorētiskā daļa apskata legāta nodibināšanas formu un spēkā esamību, tā iegūšanu un atraidīšanu, izpildi un zaudēšanu, novēlējuma robežas un aprobežojumus. Pētījums veikts aptaujas veidā ar mērķi noskaidrot, cik liela Latvijas iedzīvotāju daļa apzinās legāta nodrošinātās priekšrocības testamentārajā mantošanā. Apskatīts notāra neitralitātes jautājums attiecībā pret mantošana...

  13. Paleo-Productivity across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Walvis Ridge Transect (ODP Sites 1262, 1263, and 1266)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, C. O.; Delaney, M. L.; Zachos, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    Walvis Ridge transect (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 208) provides the first high-resolution depth-transect of deep-sea sediments recovered from the south Atlantic across the P/E boundary. A geographically restricted depth transect (~ 2.2 km, water depths between 2500 and 4770 m) allows us to constrain the surface waters by assuming marine productivity conditions in the overlying water column are similar across all sites. The sediment record will reveal variations for processes that are water-depth dependent. We use the geochemical tracers; biogenic barium, phosphorus, calcium carbonate, and the redox sensitive trace elements manganese and uranium, to reconstruct nutrient burial, paleoproductivity, and bottom water redox chemistry across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). We calculate our concentrations on a calcium carbonate-free basis to account for dilution by non-carbonate sediments. Trace metal enrichment factors (EFs) are calculated relative to bulk crustal averages. We chose three sites from the depth transect: the shallowest (Site 1263, 2717 m water depth), an intermediate site (Site 1266, 3798 m water depth), and the deepest site (Site 1262, 4755 m water depth). We sampled each site at a sample resolution of ~ 1-2 kyr for 5 m.y. centered at 55 Ma. Uranium EFs at the shallow site exhibits values ~ 5 pre-event and drop to values near crustal averages during and after the carbon isotope excursion (CIE). No dramatic changes in U EFs across the P/E boundary are recorded at the deep and intermediate sites. Mn EFs range between 2.9 -8.6 prior to the event across all three sites, suggesting an oxygenated depositional environment. At the boundary, Mn EFs drop to crustal averages at all sites, then gradually return to pre-event values, indicating more reducing environments during the CIE, a possible explanation for the benthic extinction event (BEE) observed across this transect. Ba excess and reactive phosphorus exhibit decreased concentrations during

  14. Stable walking with asymmetric legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merker, Andreas; Rummel, Juergen; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric leg function is often an undesired side-effect in artificial legged systems and may reflect functional deficits or variations in the mechanical construction. It can also be found in legged locomotion in humans and animals such as after an accident or in specific gait patterns. So far, it is not clear to what extent differences in the leg function of contralateral limbs can be tolerated during walking or running. Here, we address this issue using a bipedal spring-mass model for simulating walking with compliant legs. With the help of the model, we show that considerable differences between contralateral legs can be tolerated and may even provide advantages to the robustness of the system dynamics. A better understanding of the mechanisms and potential benefits of asymmetric leg operation may help to guide the development of artificial limbs or the design novel therapeutic concepts and rehabilitation strategies.

  15. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP); PRIA, BAK; Long: -176.46025, Lat: 00.19005 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.90m; Data Range: 20020201-20040122.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  16. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.88112, Lat: 27.78204 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 21.34m; Data Range: 20060922-20070805.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  17. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP); Guam, SRR; Long: 144.41778, Lat: 12.83819 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 20.42m; Data Range: 20051007-20070121.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  18. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.88110, Lat: 27.78209 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 21.34m; Data Range: 20070806-20070912.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  19. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.88112, Lat: 27.78206 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 21.64m; Data Range: 20080923-20100913.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  20. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP); PRIA, BAK; Long: -176.46012, Lat: 00.18994 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 19.81m; Data Range: 20080210-20100130.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  1. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); PRIA, JAR; Long: -160.01545, Lat: -00.37912 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 15.24m; Data Range: 20060320-20080326.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  2. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); PRIA, JAR; Long: -160.01540, Lat: -00.37916 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 14.63m; Data Range: 20080326-20100401.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  3. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); PRIA, BAK; Long: -176.46012, Lat: 00.18994 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 19.81m; Data Range: 20080209-20100206.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  4. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP); PRIA, BAK; Long: -176.46012, Lat: 00.18994 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.80m; Data Range: 20060131-20080209.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  5. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); PRIA, BAK; Long: -176.46025, Lat: 00.19005 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.90m; Data Range: 20020201-20031215.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  6. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); PRIA, BAK; Long: -176.46025, Lat: 00.19005 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.90m; Data Range: 20040123-20050123.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  7. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); PRIA, JAR; Long: -160.01553, Lat: -00.37917 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 15.00m; Data Range: 20020310-20031209.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  8. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP); PRIA, JAR; Long: -160.01553, Lat: -00.37917 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 15.00m; Data Range: 20020311-20040325.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  9. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP); AMSM, SWA; Long: -171.09092, Lat: -11.05848 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 15.00m; Data Range: 20020227-20021207.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  10. CRED Ocean Data Platform (ODP), Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP); PRIA, BAK; Long: -176.46025, Lat: 00.19005 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.90m; Data Range: 20040123-20060130.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Data Platform (ODP) is placed on the sea floor to measure water current profiles, waves, temperature and conductivity. The ODP consists of an upward...

  11. Technical note: Late Pliocene age control and composite depths at ODP Site 982, revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khélifi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocean Drilling Program (ODP Site 982 provided a key sediment section at Rockall Plateau for reconstructing northeast Atlantic paleoceanography and monitoring benthic δ18O stratigraphy over the late Pliocene to Quaternary onset of major Northern Hemisphere glaciation. A renewed hole-specific inspection of magnetostratigraphic reversals and the addition of epibenthic δ18O records for short Pliocene sections in holes 982A, B, and C, crossing core breaks in the δ18O record published for Hole 982B, now imply a major revision of composite core depths. After tuning to the orbitally tuned reference record LR04, the new composite δ18O record results in a hiatus, where the Kaena magnetic subchron might have been lost, and in a significant age reduction for all proxy records by 130 to 20 ky over the time span 3.2–2.7 million years ago (Ma. Our study demonstrates the general significance of reliable composite-depth scales and δ18O stratigraphies in ODP sediment records for generating ocean-wide correlations in paleoceanography. The new concept of age control makes the late Pliocene trends in SST (sea surface temperature and atmospheric pCO2 at Site 982 more consistent with various paleoclimate trends published from elsewhere in the North Atlantic.

  12. LEGS data acquisition facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeVine, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The data acquisition facility for the LEGS medium energy photonuclear beam line is composed of an auxiliary crate controller (ACC) acting as a front-end processor, loosely coupled to a time-sharing host computer based on a UNIX-like environment. The ACC services all real-time demands in the CAMAC crate: it responds to LAMs generated by data acquisition modules, to keyboard commands, and it refreshes the graphics display at frequent intervals. The host processor is needed only for printing histograms and recording event buffers on magnetic tape. The host also provides the environment for software development. The CAMAC crate is interfaced by a VERSAbus CAMAC branch driver

  13. Mex Bay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-02-23

    Feb 23, 2015 ... surveys to assess the vulnerability of the most important physical and eutrophication parameters along. El- Mex Bay coast. As a result of increasing population and industrial development, poorly untreated industrial waste, domestic sewage, shipping industry and agricultural runoff are being released to the.

  14. Assessing Children's Legs and Feet

    OpenAIRE

    Wedge, John H.

    1985-01-01

    Shoes are necessary for protection and warmth. Normal children do not require shoes for support. There is no scientific evidence that shoes—‘orthopedic’ or otherwise—influence or alter the growth or shape of the normal child's foot except, perhaps, adversely if they fit poorly. Family physicians must understand common variations of normal foot and leg development if they are to effectively advise and reassure parents about appropriate footwear. Flat feet, knock knees, bow legs, in-toeing, and...

  15. Improving venous leg ulcer management

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, Carolina Dragica

    2017-01-01

    This thesis reports several different methods to develop and evaluate complex interventions designed to improve venous leg ulcer management. Chronic venous leg ulcers (VLU) are the most common chronic wound problem in the community. Its health and economic burden is predicted to increase due to ageing of the community and increase in prevalence of diabetes and obesity. Although many patients seek health care for VLU, most do not receive the most effective management. Patients with this condi...

  16. Reinforcing the North Atlantic backbone: revision and extension of the composite splice at ODP Site 982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Anna Joy; Westerhold, Thomas; Hodell, David; Röhl, Ursula

    2018-03-01

    Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 982 represents a key location for understanding the evolution of climate in the North Atlantic over the past 12 Ma. However, concerns exist about the validity and robustness of the underlying stratigraphy and astrochronology, which currently limits the adequacy of this site for high-resolution climate studies. To resolve this uncertainty, we verify and extend the early Pliocene to late Miocene shipboard composite splice at Site 982 using high-resolution XRF core scanning data and establish a robust high-resolution benthic foraminiferal stable isotope stratigraphy and astrochronology between 8.0 and 4.5 Ma. Splice revisions and verifications resulted in ˜ 11 m of gaps in the original Site 982 isotope stratigraphy, which were filled with 263 new isotope analyses. This new stratigraphy reveals previously unseen benthic δ18O excursions, particularly prior to 6.65 Ma. The benthic δ18O record displays distinct, asymmetric cycles between 7.7 and 6.65 Ma, confirming that high-latitude climate is a prevalent forcing during this interval. An intensification of the 41 kyr beat in both the benthic δ13C and δ18O is also observed ˜ 6.4 Ma, marking a strengthening in the cryosphere-carbon cycle coupling. A large ˜ 0.7 ‰ double excursion is revealed ˜ 6.4-6.3 Ma, which also marks the onset of an interval of average higher δ18O and large precession and obliquity-dominated δ18O excursions between 6.4 and 5.4 Ma, coincident with the culmination of the late Miocene cooling. The two largest benthic δ18O excursions ˜ 6.4-6.3 Ma and TG20/22 coincide with the coolest alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from Site 982, suggesting a strong connection between the late Miocene global cooling, and deep-sea cooling and dynamic ice sheet expansion. The splice revisions and revised astrochronology resolve key stratigraphic issues that have hampered correlation between Site 982, the equatorial Atlantic and the Mediterranean

  17. Reinforcing the North Atlantic backbone: revision and extension of the composite splice at ODP Site 982

    OpenAIRE

    Drury, Anna Joy; Westerhold, Thomas; Hodell, David; Röhl, Ursula

    2018-01-01

    Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 982 represents a key location for understanding the evolution of climate in the North Atlantic over the past 12 Ma. However, concerns exist about the validity and robustness of the underlying stratigraphy and astrochronology, which currently limits the adequacy of this site for high-resolution climate studies. To resolve this uncertainty, we verify and extend the early Pliocene to late Miocene shipboard composite splice at Site 982 using hig...

  18. Decreased expression of LamB and Odp1 complex is crucial for antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiang-min; Yang, Man-jun; Li, Hui; Wang, Chao; Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2014-02-26

    We previously revealed a negative regulation of LamB in chlortetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli strain. In the present study, we first showed that the negative regulation, which was characterized by decreased abundance of LamB with elevated growth of its gene-deleted mutant in medium with antibiotics, was a general response in resistance to different classes of antibiotics using 2-DE based proteomics or/and genetically gene-deletion mutant of LamB. Then, we revealed the interaction of LamB and Odp1 which catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO2, and found the decrease of the complex in antibiotic-resistant strains with a minimum inhibitory concentration dose-dependent manner. Further spectrofluorometry assay indicated that LamB served as a porin to influx an antibiotic. Finally, we showed that the decreased expression of LamB and Odp1 was detected in almost of all 34 multidrug-resistant strains, which suggested that LamB and Odp1 were biomarkers for identification of antibiotic-resistant E. coli. Our results indicated that the interaction of an outer membrane protein with an energy metabolic enzyme constructed an efficient pathway to resist antibiotics. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Our data indicate that the negative regulation by LamB is widely detected in antibiotic-resistant E. coli. LamB serves as a porin to influx an antibiotic and is interacted with Odp1. The complex decreases in antibiotic-resistant strains with a MIC dose-dependent manner. Our findings indicate that interaction of outer membrane protein with energy metabolic enzyme constructs an efficient pathway to resist antibiotics and provides novel insights into the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Diatom and silicoflagellate biostratigraphy for the late Eocene: ODP 1090 (sub-Antarctic Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, John A.; Bukry, David B.; Gersonde, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Abundant and well-preserved diatoms and silicofl agellate assemblages are documented through a complete late Eocene sequence, ODP Hole 1090B, recovered from the southern Agulhas Ridge in the sub-Antarctic South Atlantic. A sequence of Cestodiscus (diatom) species occurrence events involving C. pulchellus var. novazealandica, C. fennerae, C. antarcticus, C. convexus, C. trochus, and C. robustus is tied with paleomagnetic stratigraphy and provides the basis of proposing a new diatom zonation for the latest middle Eocene to early Oligocene (~37.6–33.4 Ma) of the sub-Antarctic South Atlantic. Comparison with previously published diatom occurrence charts suggested this zonation should be applicable throughout the low latitude regions of the world’s oceans. Silicofl agellates belong to the Dictyocha hexacantha and the overlying Corbisema apiculata Zones. The late Eocene succession of silicofl agellate species is dominated by Naviculopsis (20–60%). Naviculopsis constricta and N. foliacea dominate the D. hexacantha Zone, followed by the N. constricta, then N. biapiculata in the C. apiculata Zone. Cold-water Distephanus is most abundant in the latest Eocene along with N. biapiculata. The tops of zonal guide fossils Dictyocha hexacantha and Hannaites quadria (both 36.6 Ma) and Dictyocha spinosa (37.1 Ma) are tied with paleomagnetic stratigraphy.

  20. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs

  1. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.

  2. Offset-Vertical Seismic Profiling for Marine Gas Hydrate Exploration -- Is it a Suitable Technique? First Results from ODP Leg 164

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pecher, L

    1997-01-01

    .... We identified several shear (S-) wave arrivals in the horizontal components of the geophone array in the borehole and in data recorded with an ocean bottom seismometer deployed at the seafloor...

  3. Evidence of Himalayan erosional event at approx. 0.5 Ma from a sediment core from the equatorial Indian Ocean in the vicinityof ODP Leg 116 sites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Gupta, S.M.; Mislankar, P.G.; Rao, B.R.; Parthiban, G.; Roelandts, I.; Patil, S.K.

    ; discrimination plots of Ca/Ti versus K/Ti and K sub(2)O/Al sub(2) O sub(3) and La/Yb ratios suggest a highly metamorphosed source such as higher Himalayan crystalline (HHC) series indicating two events of increased physical weathering and erosion in the Himalayan...

  4. Leg ulcers due to hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa Shankar D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic leg ulcers are rare in young adults and generally indicate a vascular cause. We report a case of a 26-year-old man with leg ulcers of eight months duration. Doppler study indicated venous incompetence and a postphlebitic limb. However, as the distribution and number of ulcers was not consistent with stasis alone and no features of collagen vascular disease were noted, a hyperviscosity state was considered and confirmed with significantly elevated homocysteine level in the serum. Administration of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B12, trimethyl-glycine, mecobalamine, folic acid and povidone iodine dressings with culture-directed antibiotic therapy led to a satisfactory healing of ulcers over a period of one month. Hyperhomocysteinemia must be considered in the differential diagnosis of leg ulcers in young individuals.

  5. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept

  6. The one-leg standing radiograph

    OpenAIRE

    Pinsornsak, P.; Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis wa...

  7. Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral vascular disease - Doppler; PVD - Doppler; PAD - Doppler; Blockage of leg arteries - Doppler; Intermittent claudication - Doppler; Arterial insufficiency of the legs - Doppler; Leg pain and ...

  8. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  9. New Magnetic and 10Be/9Be results from ODP site 851 (East Equatorial Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, J. P.; Savranskaia, T.; Anojh, T.; Meynadier, L.; Thouveny, N.; Gacem, L.; L2NC, A. T.; Bassinot, F. C.; Simon, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The paleomagnetic record from ODP site 851 was the first long data of relative paleointensity that attempted to describe 4 Ma of geomagnetic variations. Among other features, it was characterized by an asymmetrical saw-tooth pattern of the intensity changes across reversals. The upper part of the record (0 to 1.1 Ma) was documented by stepwise alternating field (af) demagnetization of U-channels, while the deeper part could not be sampled by U-channels and instead combined shipboard measurements and stepwise demagnetized single samples within specific intervals. Thermal demagnetization was also conducted within specific intervals to assess the absence of viscous component. We performed a new detailed study using U-channels and single samples that were taken along a continuous splice section that covers the upper 80 meters of sediment. Stepwise demagnetization of the natural magnetization and of the anhysteretic magnetization were carried out for all samples and U-channels in order to improve the resolution and the reliability of relative paleointensity for the older part of the record. The new results improve the detailed magnetostratigraphy that was formerly established and provide additional details to the paleointensity results. In parallel, 10Be/9Be measurements were carried out at the same levels as the magnetic measurements to test further the controversial asymmetrical pattern of relative paleointensity. Unfortunately, the 10Be/9Be results did not provide any consistent signal. This failure most likely results from high carbonate concentration (about 85%) that yields poor adsorption of beryllium by the sediment particles and therefore generates large fluctuations. The reliability of the paleointensity record is linked to downcore homogeneity of the sediment that is characterized by little variability of carbonate content and therefore little changes in the magnetization response to the field. Summarizing poor clay content appears to be a favorable situation

  10. [Etiological diagnosis of leg ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debure, Clélia

    2010-09-20

    Etiological diagnosis of leg ulcers must be the first step of treatment, even if we know that veinous disease is often present. We can build a clinical decisional diagram, which helps us to understand and not forget the other causes of chronic wounds and choose some basic examination, like ultrasound and histological findings. This diagnosis helps to choose the right treatment in order to cure even the oldest venous ulcers. Educational programs should be improved to prevent recurrence.

  11. Astronomical calibration of upper Campanian–Maastrichtian carbon isotope events and calcareous plankton biostratigraphy in the Indian Ocean (ODP Hole 762C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Husson, Dorothée; Harlou, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    An integrated framework of magnetostratigraphy, calcareous microfossil bio-events, cyclostratigraphy and d13C stratigraphy is established for the upper Campanian–Maastrichtian of ODP Hole 762C (Exmouth Plateau, Northwestern Australian margin). Bulk-carbonate d13C events and nannofossil bio-events...

  12. A Hydroxyurea-induced Leg Ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Seon-Wook; Hong, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Seo, Jong-Keun; Lee, Deborah; Sung, Ho-Suk

    2009-01-01

    Hydroxyurea is a cytostatic agent that has recently become the drug of choice in the treatment of various myeloproliferative diseases. The cutaneous side effects of hydroxyurea include xerosis, hyperpigmentation, nail discoloration, and scaling. Leg ulcers have only rarely been reported in association with hydroxyurea treatment. A 75-year-old woman presented with leg ulcers, nail discoloration, and xerosis. The leg ulcers were refractory to conventional treatment. She had been taking oral hyd...

  13. Epilepsy and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, James D; Geyer, Emery E; Fetterman, Zachary; Carney, Paul R

    2017-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological movement disorder occurring in approximately 10% of the general population. The prevalence of moderately severe RLS is 2.7% overall (3.7% for women and 1.7% for men). Epilepsy is also a common neurological disorder with significant associated morbidity and impact on quality of life. We evaluated the severity and frequency of primary RLS in patients with localization-related temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and investigated the role of prodromal RLS symptoms as a warning sign and lateralizing indicator. All epilepsy patients seen in the outpatient clinic were screened for movement disorders from 2005 to 2015. Ninety-eight consecutive patients with localization-related TLE (50 right TLE and 48 left TLE) who met inclusion criteria were seen in the outpatient clinic. The control group consisted of 50 individuals with no history or immediate family history of epilepsy. Each patient was evaluated with the International Restless Legs Study Group (IRLSSG) questionnaire, NIH RLS diagnostic criteria, ferritin level, and comprehensive sleep screening including polysomnography. Furthermore, patients with obstructive sleep apnea or a definite cause of secondary restless legs syndrome such as low serum ferritin or serum iron levels were also excluded from the study. There was a significant association between the type of epilepsy and whether or not patients had RLS χ 2 (1)=10.17, p<.01, using the χ 2 Goodness of Fit Test. Based on the odds ratio, the odds of patients having RLS were 4.60 times higher if they had right temporal epilepsy than if they had left temporal epilepsy, serving as a potential lateralizing indicator. A prodromal sensation of worsening RLS occurred in some patients providing the opportunity to intervene at an earlier stage in this subgroup. We identified frequent moderate to severe RLS in patients with epilepsy. The frequency of RLS was much more common than would typically be seen in patients of similar

  14. The Relationship among Leg Strength, Leg Power and Alpine Skiing Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettman, Larry R.; Huckel, Jack R.

    The purpose of this study was to relate leg strength and power to alpine skiing success as measured by FIS points. Isometric leg strength was represented by the knee extension test described by Clarke. Leg power was measured by the vertical jump test and the Margaria-Kalamen stair run. Results in the strength and power tests were correlated with…

  15. Leg ischemia post-varicocelectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Wahbi AM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah M Al-Wahbi1, Shaza Elmoukaied2 1Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Surgery, Dr Sulaiman Al Habib Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Varicocelectomy is the most commonly performed operation for the treatment of male infertility. Many surgical approaches are used as each of them has advantages over the other and is preferred by surgeons. Vascular injury has never been reported as a complication of varicocelectomy apart from testicular artery injury. We present a 36-year-old male who developed leg ischemia post-varicocelectomy due to common femoral artery injury. He was successfully treated by using a vein graft. Keywords: varicocele, varicocelectomy, complications, vascular injuries

  16. Intensive treatment of leg lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira de Godoy Jose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite of all the problems caused by lymphedema, this disease continues to affect millions of people worldwide. Thus, the identification of the most efficacious forms of treatment is necessary. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel intensive outpatient treatment for leg lymphedema. Methods: Twenty-three legs of 19 patients were evaluated in a prospective randomized study. The inclusion criteria were patients with Grade II and III lymphedema, where the difference, measured by volumetry, between the affected limb below the knee and the healthy limb was greater than 1.5 kg. Intensive treatment was carried out for 6- to 8-h sessions in the outpatient clinic. Analysis of variance was utilized for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% (P-value < 0.05 being considered significant. Results: All limbs had significant reductions in size with the final mean loss being 81.1% of the volume of edema. The greatest losses occurred in the first week (P-value < 0.001. Losses of more than 90% of the lymphedema occurred in 9 (39.13% patients; losses of more than 80% in 13 (56.52%, losses of more than 70% in 17 (73.91% and losses of more than 50% were recorded for 95.65% of the patients; only 1 patient lost less than 50% (37.9% of the edema. Conclusion: The intensive treatment of lymphedema in the outpatient clinic can produce significant reductions in the volume of edema over a short period of time and can be recommended for any grade of lymphedema, in particular the more advanced degrees.

  17. Børns leg og eksperimenterende virksomhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard Warrer, Sarah; Broström, Stig

    Børns leg og eksperimenterende virksomhed er et rigt felt med mange perspektiver, indgangsvinkler og nuancer. I denne bog kædes leg og det eksperimenterende og skabende sammen som to gensidigt forbundne fænomener og belyses i pædagogisk og didaktisk perspektiv. Desuden beskrives potentialet i båd...

  18. Clinical quality indicators of venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Monica L; Mainz, Jan; Soernsen, Lars T

    2005-01-01

    In the clinical setting, diagnosis and treatment of venous leg ulcers can vary considerably from patient to patient. The first step to reducing this variation is to document venous leg ulcer care through use of quantitative scientific documentation principles. This requires the development of val...

  19. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company...

  20. CONTRIBUIÇÃO AOS ESTUDOS DA PRECIPITAÇÃO NO ESTADO DO PARANÁ: A OSCILAÇÃO DECADAL DO PACÍFICO - ODP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindberg Nascimento Júnior

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A Oscilação Decadal do Pacífico – ODP tem sido discutida como a teleconexão de baixa frequência mais recorrente do Oceano Pacífico. A oscilação é caracterizada por meio das temperaturas da superfície do mar e pela temporalidade de atuação na escala de 20 a 30 anos. No Brasil, associações entre ODP nas dinâmicas climáticas regionais e locais são verificadas principalmente na variabilidade pluviométrica. No Paraná, estudos que associaram a oscilação à dinâmica pluviométrica e/ou climática foram obtidos de forma indireta. Neste contexto, o objetivo do trabalho é apresentar as características por meio de associações e correlações espaciais e temporais obtidas por testes estatísticos para a precipitação no estado. O intuito é contribuir aos estudos sobre a gênese das chuvas na região, considerando a variabilidade pluviométrica em escala decadal, e destacando a ODP como um fenômeno que auxilia na produção das chuvas no estado. Foram utilizadas séries históricas de 1976 a 2011: a com dados mensais de chuva e número de dias com chuva, agrupados em escalas trimestrais, sazonais e anuais; e b com índices anuais padronizados da ODP. A caracterização foi processada pela associação em função da similaridade temporal da ODP e das chuvas no Paraná e as correlações foram obtidas pelo coeficiente de correlação linear de Pearson. Em geral, a participação da ODP se mostrou com sinal fraco para chuvas, numa relação de 11% a 20%, considerando o coeficiente de determinação (r². Para os números de dias com chuva a correlação foi de 17 a 46%, sugerindo uma relação com sinal moderado-fraco. Os resultados corroboram para o melhor entendimento das gêneses das chuvas em regiões de clima tropical, especialmente para o Paraná, e aponta abordagens interpretativas dos impactos regionais e locais de teleconexões climáticas de baixa frequência.

  1. Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Munne

    2006-01-01

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP)

  2. Quantifying Leg Movement Activity During Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Fulda, Stephany

    2016-12-01

    Currently, 2 sets of similar rules for recording and scoring leg movement (LM) exist, including periodic LM during sleep (PLMS) and periodic LM during wakefulness. The former were published in 2006 by a task force of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group, and the second in 2007 by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. This article reviews the basic recording methods, scoring rules, and computer-based programs for PLMS. Less frequent LM activities, such as alternating leg muscle activation, hypnagogic foot tremor, high-frequency LMs, and excessive fragmentary myoclonus are briefly described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Does a crouched leg posture enhance running stability and robustness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Yvonne; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra; Daley, Monica A; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-07-21

    Humans and birds both walk and run bipedally on compliant legs. However, differences in leg architecture may result in species-specific leg control strategies as indicated by the observed gait patterns. In this work, control strategies for stable running are derived based on a conceptual model and compared with experimental data on running humans and pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). From a model perspective, running with compliant legs can be represented by the planar spring mass model and stabilized by applying swing leg control. Here, linear adaptations of the three leg parameters, leg angle, leg length and leg stiffness during late swing phase are assumed. Experimentally observed kinematic control parameters (leg rotation and leg length change) of human and avian running are compared, and interpreted within the context of this model, with specific focus on stability and robustness characteristics. The results suggest differences in stability characteristics and applied control strategies of human and avian running, which may relate to differences in leg posture (straight leg posture in humans, and crouched leg posture in birds). It has been suggested that crouched leg postures may improve stability. However, as the system of control strategies is overdetermined, our model findings suggest that a crouched leg posture does not necessarily enhance running stability. The model also predicts different leg stiffness adaptation rates for human and avian running, and suggests that a crouched avian leg posture, which is capable of both leg shortening and lengthening, allows for stable running without adjusting leg stiffness. In contrast, in straight-legged human running, the preparation of the ground contact seems to be more critical, requiring leg stiffness adjustment to remain stable. Finally, analysis of a simple robustness measure, the normalized maximum drop, suggests that the crouched leg posture may provide greater robustness to changes in terrain height

  4. Acupuncture for restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ye; Wang, Yin; Liu, Zhishun

    2008-10-08

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common movement disorder for which patients may seek treatment with acupuncture. However, the benefits of acupuncture in the treatment of RLS are unclear and have not been evaluated in a systematic review until now. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy in patients with RLS. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2007), MEDLINE (January 1950 to February 2007), EMBASE (January 1980 to 2007 Week 8), Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1978 to February 2007), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1979 to February 2007), VIP Database (1989 to February 2007), Japana Centra Revuo Medicina (1983 to 2007) and Korean Medical Database (1986 to 2007). Four Chinese journals, relevant academic conference proceedings and reference lists of articles were handsearched. Randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials comparing acupuncture with no intervention, placebo acupuncture, sham acupuncture, pharmacological treatments, or other non-acupuncture interventions for primary RLS were included. Trials comparing acupuncture plus non-acupuncture treatment with the same non-acupuncture treatment were also included. Trials that only compared different forms of acupuncture or different acupoints were excluded. Two authors independently identified potential articles, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. Relative risk (RR) was used for binary outcomes and weighted mean difference for continuous variables. Results were combined only in the absence of clinical heterogeneity. Fourteen potentially relevant trials were identified initially, but twelve of them did not meet the selection criteria and were excluded. Only two trials with 170 patients met the inclusion criteria. No data could be combined due to clinical heterogeneity between trials. Both trials had methodological and/or reporting shortcomings. No significant difference was detected

  5. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started in...

  6. Bathymetry in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 4x4 meter resolution bathymetric surface for Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The depth values are in meters referenced to the...

  7. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  8. Humboldt Bay Orthoimages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-meter pixel resolution, four band orthoimages covering the Humboldt Bay area. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  9. Flexural characteristics of a stack leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1979-06-01

    A 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator is at present under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The insulating stack of the machine is of modular construction, each module being 860 mm in length. Each live section stack module contains 8 insulating legs mounted between bulkhead rings. The design, fabrication (from glass discs bonded to stainless steel discs using an epoxy film adhesive) and testing of the stack legs is described. (U.K.)

  10. Genetic parameters for claw and leg health, foot and leg conformation, and locomotion in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M. V.; Boelling, D.; Mark, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    was defined as absence of hock infection, swollen hock, and bruising. The potential indicators were locomotion and foot and leg conformation, represented by rear leg side view, rear leg rear view, foot angle, and apparent hock quality and bone structure. The study was conducted using records from 429......,877 Danish Holstein cows in first lactation. Binary health traits were divided into 3 subcategories: claw health, leg health, and absence of all claw and leg disorders. Genetic (r(g)) and phenotypic correlations were estimated using a bivariate linear sire model and REML. Estimated heritabilities were 0.......01 for all 3 combined claw and leg health traits (on the observed binary scale), 0.09 for locomotion, 0.14 for rear leg rear view, 0.19 for rear leg side view, 0.13 for foot angle, 0.22 for apparent hock quality, and 0.27 for apparent bone structure. Heritabilities were 0.06 and 0.01 for claw health and leg...

  11. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative AGENCY...: Notice of availability of program funds for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative. SUMMARY: The... through the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative for agricultural producers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  12. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York...

  13. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in "turnout".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Luke S; Sato, Nahoko; Weidemann, Andries L

    2016-01-01

    The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve "turning out" or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in "turned out" postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat.

  14. Reinforcing the North Atlantic backbone: revision and extension of the composite splice at ODP Site 982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Drury

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean Drilling Program (ODP Site 982 represents a key location for understanding the evolution of climate in the North Atlantic over the past 12 Ma. However, concerns exist about the validity and robustness of the underlying stratigraphy and astrochronology, which currently limits the adequacy of this site for high-resolution climate studies. To resolve this uncertainty, we verify and extend the early Pliocene to late Miocene shipboard composite splice at Site 982 using high-resolution XRF core scanning data and establish a robust high-resolution benthic foraminiferal stable isotope stratigraphy and astrochronology between 8.0 and 4.5 Ma. Splice revisions and verifications resulted in  ∼  11 m of gaps in the original Site 982 isotope stratigraphy, which were filled with 263 new isotope analyses. This new stratigraphy reveals previously unseen benthic δ18O excursions, particularly prior to 6.65 Ma. The benthic δ18O record displays distinct, asymmetric cycles between 7.7 and 6.65 Ma, confirming that high-latitude climate is a prevalent forcing during this interval. An intensification of the 41 kyr beat in both the benthic δ13C and δ18O is also observed  ∼  6.4 Ma, marking a strengthening in the cryosphere–carbon cycle coupling. A large  ∼  0.7 ‰ double excursion is revealed  ∼  6.4–6.3 Ma, which also marks the onset of an interval of average higher δ18O and large precession and obliquity-dominated δ18O excursions between 6.4 and 5.4 Ma, coincident with the culmination of the late Miocene cooling. The two largest benthic δ18O excursions  ∼  6.4–6.3 Ma and TG20/22 coincide with the coolest alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST estimates from Site 982, suggesting a strong connection between the late Miocene global cooling, and deep-sea cooling and dynamic ice sheet expansion. The splice revisions and revised astrochronology resolve key stratigraphic issues that

  15. Constraints On Fluid Evolution During Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Circulation From Anhydrite Sampled by ODP Hole 1256D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Duque, C.; Teagle, D. A.; Alt, J. C.; Cooper, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Anhydrite is potentially a useful mineral for recording the evolution of seawater-derived fluids during mid- ocean ridge hydrothermal circulation because it exhibits retrograde solubility, and hence may precipitate due to the heating of seawater or the sub-surface mixing of seawater with black smoker-like fluids. Here we provide new insights into the chemical and thermal evolution of seawater during hydrothermal circulation through analyses of anhydrite recovered from ODP Hole 1256D, the first complete penetration of intact upper oceanic crust down to gabbros. Previously, crustal anhydrite has been recovered only from Hole 504B. Measurements of 87Sr/86Sr, major element ratios, Rare Earth Elements and δ18O in anhydrite constrain the changing composition of fluids as they chemically interact with basalt. Anhydrite fills veins and pore-space in the lower lava sequences from ~530 to ~1000 meters sub- basement (msb), but is concentrated in the lava-dike transition (754 to 811 msb) and uppermost sheeted dikes. Although present in greater quantities than in Hole 504B, the amount of anhydrite recovered from the Site 1256 crust is low compared to that predicted by models of hydrothermal circulation (e.g., Sleep, 1991). Two distinct populations of anhydrite are indicated by measurements of 87Sr/86Sr suggesting different fluid evolution paths within Site 1256. One group of anhydrites have 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7070 to 0.7085, close to that of 15 Ma seawater (0.70878), suggesting that some fluids penetrate through the lavas and into the sheeted dikes with only minimal Sr-exchange with the host basalts. A second group, with low 87Sr/86Sr between 0.7048 and 0.7052, indicates precipitation from a fluid that has undergone far greater interaction with basalt. This range is close to that estimated from Sr-isotopic analyses of epidote for the Hole 1256D hydrothermal fluids (87Sr/86Sr ~0.705). Sr/Ca and 87Sr/86Sr indicate a similar relationship to that seen at ODP Hole 504B suggesting that

  16. Increasing trunk flexion transforms human leg function into that of birds despite different leg morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminiaghdam, Soran; Rode, Christian; Müller, Roy; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Pronograde trunk orientation in small birds causes prominent intra-limb asymmetries in the leg function. As yet, it is not clear whether these asymmetries induced by the trunk reflect general constraints on the leg function regardless of the specific leg architecture or size of the species. To address this, we instructed 12 human volunteers to walk at a self-selected velocity with four postures: regular erect, or with 30 deg, 50 deg and maximal trunk flexion. In addition, we simulated the axial leg force (along the line connecting hip and centre of pressure) using two simple models: spring and damper in series, and parallel spring and damper. As trunk flexion increases, lower limb joints become more flexed during stance. Similar to birds, the associated posterior shift of the hip relative to the centre of mass leads to a shorter leg at toe-off than at touchdown, and to a flatter angle of attack and a steeper leg angle at toe-off. Furthermore, walking with maximal trunk flexion induces right-skewed vertical and horizontal ground reaction force profiles comparable to those in birds. Interestingly, the spring and damper in series model provides a superior prediction of the axial leg force across trunk-flexed gaits compared with the parallel spring and damper model; in regular erect gait, the damper does not substantially improve the reproduction of the human axial leg force. In conclusion, mimicking the pronograde locomotion of birds by bending the trunk forward in humans causes a leg function similar to that of birds despite the different morphology of the segmented legs. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Chesapeake Bay under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to extensive data obtained over its 13,000 km of shoreline, the Chesapeake Bay has been suffering a major, indeed unprecedented, reduction in submerged vegetation. Chesapeake Bay is alone in experiencing decline in submerged vegetation. Other estuary systems on the east coast of the United States are not so affected. These alarming results were obtained by the synthesis of the findings of numerous individual groups in addition to large consortium projects on the Chesapeake done over the past decade. R. J. Orth and R. A. Moore of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science pointed to the problem of the severe decline of submerged grasses on the Bay and along its tributaries. In a recent report, Orth and Moore note: “The decline, which began in the 1960's and accelerated in the 1970's, has affected all species in all areas. Many major river systems are now totally devoid of any rooted vegetation” (Science, 222, 51-53, 1983).

  18. [Physical treatment modalities for chronic leg ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemond, J

    2010-05-01

    An increasing numbers of physical treatment options are available for chronic leg ulcer. In this review article, compression therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, negative pressure therapy, extracorporeal shock wave therapy, electrostimulation therapy, electromagnetic therapy, photodynamic therapy, water-filtered infrared-A-radiation and hydrotherapy are discussed in terms of their practical applications and the underlying evidence. With the exception of compression therapy for most of these treatments, good scientific data are not available. However this is a widespread problem in the treatment of chronic wounds. Nevertheless, several of the described methods such as negative pressure therapy represent one of the gold standards in practical treatment of patients with chronic leg ulcers. Although the use of physical treatment modalities may improve healing in patients with chronic leg ulcers, the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying causes are essential for long-lasting success.

  19. Conjoined legs: Sirenomelia or caudal regression syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakti Prasad Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting revealed pigeon chest and elevated right shoulder. Posterior examination of the trunk showed thoracic scoliosis with convexity to right. The patient was operated and at 1 year followup the boy had two separate legs with a good aesthetic and functional results.

  20. Conjoined legs: Sirenomelia or caudal regression syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sakti Prasad; Ojha, Niranjan; Ganesh, G Shankar; Mohanty, Ram Narayan

    2013-07-01

    Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting revealed pigeon chest and elevated right shoulder. Posterior examination of the trunk showed thoracic scoliosis with convexity to right. The patient was operated and at 1 year followup the boy had two separate legs with a good aesthetic and functional results.

  1. Mobile Bay turbidity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, G. F.; Schroeder, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The termination of studies carried on for almost three years in the Mobile Bay area and adjacent continental shelf are reported. The initial results concentrating on the shelf and lower bay were presented in the interim report. The continued scope of work was designed to attempt a refinement of the mathematical model, assess the effectiveness of optical measurement of suspended particulate material and disseminate the acquired information. The optical characteristics of particulate solutions are affected by density gradients within the medium, density of the suspended particles, particle size, particle shape, particle quality, albedo, and the angle of refracted light. Several of these are discussed in detail.

  2. Dipoles on a Two-leg Ladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We study polar molecules with long-range dipole-dipole interactions confined to move on a two-leg ladder for different orientations of the molecular dipole moments with respect to the ladder. Matrix product states are employed to calculate the many-body ground state of the system as function...... that there is a critical angle at which ordering disappears. This angle is slightly larger than the angle at which the dipoles are non-interacting along a single leg. This behavior should be observable using current experimental techniques....

  3. Task driven optimal leg trajectories in insect-scale legged microrobots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Neel; Goldberg, Benjamin; Jayaram, Kaushik; Wood, Robert

    Origami inspired layered manufacturing techniques and 3D-printing have enabled the development of highly articulated legged robots at the insect-scale, including the 1.43g Harvard Ambulatory MicroRobot (HAMR). Research on these platforms has expanded its focus from manufacturing aspects to include design optimization and control for application-driven tasks. Consequently, the choice of gait selection, body morphology, leg trajectory, foot design, etc. have become areas of active research. HAMR has two controlled degrees-of-freedom per leg, making it an ideal candidate for exploring leg trajectory. We will discuss our work towards optimizing HAMR's leg trajectories for two different tasks: climbing using electroadhesives and level ground running (5-10 BL/s). These tasks demonstrate the ability of single platform to adapt to vastly different locomotive scenarios: quasi-static climbing with controlled ground contact, and dynamic running with un-controlled ground contact. We will utilize trajectory optimization methods informed by existing models and experimental studies to determine leg trajectories for each task. We also plan to discuss how task specifications and choice of objective function have contributed to the shape of these optimal leg trajectories.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF SINGLE LEG HOP PROGRESSION AND DOUBLE LEGS HOP PROGRESSION EXERCISE TO INCREASE SPEED AND EXPLOSIVE POWER OF LEG MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining W. Kusnanik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise to increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. Plyometric is one of the training methods that can increase explosive power. There are many models of plyometric training including single leg hop progression and double leg hop progression. This research was experimental using match subject design techniques. The subjects of this study were 39 students who joined basketball school club. There were 3 groups in this study: Group 1 were 13 students who given sin¬gle leg hop progression exercise, Group 2 were 13 students who given double legs hop progression exercise, Group 3 were 13 students who given conventional exercise. The data was collected during pre test and post test by testing 30m speed running and vertical jump. The data was analyzed using Analysis of Varians (Anova. It was found that there were significantly increased on speed and explosive power of leg muscles of Group 1 and Group 2. It can be stated that single leg hop progression exercise was more effective than double leg hop progression exercise. The recent findings supported the hypothesis that single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise can increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. These finding were supported by some previous studies (Singh, et al, 2011; Shallaby, H.K., 2010. The single leg hop progression is more effective than double legs hop progression. This finding was consistent with some previous evidences (McCurdy, et al, 2005; Makaruk et al, 2011.

  5. Assessment of the vibration on the foam legged and sheet metal-legged passenger seat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dahil

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aim ed to decrease the vibration reaching to passenger from the legs of vehicle seats. In order to determine the levels of vibrations reaching at passengers, a test pad placed under the passenger seat was used, and HVM100 device was used for digitizing the information obtained. By transferring the vibration data to system by using HVM100 device, the acceleration graphics were prepared with Blaze software. As a result, it was determined that the acceleration values of seat legs made of foam material were lower than that of seat legs made of 2 mm thick sheet metal, so they damped the vibration better.

  6. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available of major concern identified in the effluent are the large volume of byproduct calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) which would smother marine life, high concentrations of fluoride highly toxic to marine life, heavy metals, chlorinated organic material... ........................ 9 THE RICHARDS BAY PIPELINE ........................................ 16 Environmental considerations ................................... 16 - Phosphogypsum disposal ................................... 16 - Effects of fluoride on locally occurring...

  7. Bayes and Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, F.

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation consists of research in three subjects in two themes—Bayes and networks: The first studies the posterior contraction rates for the Dirichlet-Laplace mixtures in a deconvolution setting (Chapter 1). The second subject regards the statistical inference in preferential attachment

  8. Transcutaneous laser treatment of leg veins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Arne A.; Pitassi, Luiza H. U.; Campos, Valeria; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Dierickx, Christine C.

    2014-01-01

    Leg telangiectasias and reticular veins are a common complaint affecting more than 80% of the population to some extent. To date, the gold standard remains sclerotherapy for most patients. However, there may be some specific situations, where sclerotherapy is contraindicated such as needle phobia,

  9. Leg og læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Leg synes at have et potentiale som metode til at fremme læring. Men hvordan? Legen har en vis grad af parallelitet med den virkelige verden i dens interaktive og relationelle strukturer. Det bliver muligt at finde nye meninger i interaktioner, som refererer til vante interaktionsformer, men...

  10. An automatic hinge system for leg orthoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, J. S.; Goudsmit, J.; Meulemans, D.; Halbertsma, J. P. K.; Geertzen, J. H. B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a new automatic hinge system for leg orthoses, which provides knee stability in stance, and allows knee-flexion during swing. Indications for the hinge system are a paresis or paralysis of the quadriceps muscles. Instrumented gait analysis was performed in three patients, fitted

  11. An automatic hinge system for leg orthoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, J.S.; Goudsmit, J.; Meulemans, D.; Halbertsma, J.P.K.; Geertzen, J.H.B.

    This paper describes a new, automatic hinge system for leg orthoses, which provides knee stability in stance, and allows knee-flexion during swing. Indications for the hinge system are a paresis or paralysis of the quadriceps muscles. Instrumented gait analysis was performed in three patients,

  12. Parallel kinematics robot with five legs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, P.

    2011-01-01

    Robot with multiple degrees of freedom comprising five legs (2) linked at a first of their ends to a base ( 3), and at a second of their ends opposite to the first ends to a mobile platform (4), which platform carries at least one tool (5, 6, 121, 12 "), and wherein the robot further comprises an

  13. Omnidirectional Wheel-Legged Hybrid Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Vilikó

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of developing hybrid locomotion systems is to merge the advantages and to eliminate the disadvantages of different type of locomotion. The proposed solution combines wheeled and legged locomotion methods. This paper presents the mechatronic design approach and the development stages of the prototype.

  14. Clinical aspects of lower leg compartment syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Johan Gerard Henric van den

    2004-01-01

    A compartment syndrome is a condition in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and function of tissues within that space. Although pathofysiology is roughly similar in chronic exertional and acute compartment syndrome of the lower leg, the clinical

  15. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) KidsHealth / For Parents / X- ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  16. Parental smoking during pregnancy shortens offspring's legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żądzińska, E; Kozieł, S; Borowska-Strugińska, B; Rosset, I; Sitek, A; Lorkiewicz, W

    2016-12-01

    One of the most severe detrimental environmental factors acting during pregnancy is foetal smoke exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal, paternal and parental smoking during pregnancy on relative leg length in 7- to 10-year-old children. The research conducted in the years 2001-2002 included 978 term-born children, 348 boys and 630 girls, at the age of 7-10 years. Information concerning the birth weight of a child was obtained from the health records of the women. Information about the mother's and the father's smoking habits during pregnancy and about the mothers' education level was obtained from a questionnaire. The influence of parental smoking on relative leg length, controlled for age, sex, birth weight and the mother's education, as a proxy measure of socioeconomic status, and controlled for an interaction between sex and birth weight, was assessed by an analysis of covariance, where relative leg length was the dependent variable, smoking and sex were the independent variables, and birth weight as well as the mother's education were the covariates. Three separate analyses were run for the three models of smoking habits during pregnancy: the mother's smoking, the father's smoking and both parents' smoking. Only both parents' smoking showed a significant effect on relative leg length of offspring. It is probable that foetal hypoxia caused by carbon monoxide contained in smoke decelerated the growth of the long bones of foetuses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronic leg ulcer caused by Mycobacterium immunogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loots, Miriam A. M.; de Jong, Menno D.; van Soolingen, Dick; Wetsteyn, José C. F. M.; Faber, William R.

    2005-01-01

    Rare tropical skin diseases are seen more frequently in Western countries because of the increased popularity of visiting tropical regions. A 55-year-old white man developed a painless leg ulcer after traveling in Guatemala and Belize. A mycobacterium was cultured from a biopsy specimen and was

  18. Sustainable development in the Hudson Bay/James Bay bioregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of projects planned for the James Bay/Hudson Bay region, and the expected environmental impacts of these projects. The watershed of James Bay and Hudson Bay covers well over one third of Canada, from southern Alberta to central Ontario to Baffin Island, as well as parts of north Dakota and Minnesota in the U.S.A. Hydroelectric power developments that change the timing and rate of flow of fresh water may cause changes in the nature and duration of ice cover, habitats of marine mammals, fish and migratory birds, currents into and out of Hudson Bay/James Bay, seasonal and annual loads of sediments and nutrients to marine ecosystems, and anadromous fish populations. Hydroelectric projects are proposed for the region by Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba. In January 1992, the Canadian Arctic Resources Committee (CARC), the Environmental Committee of Sanikuluaq, and the Rawson Academy of Arctic Science will launch the Hudson Bay/James Bay Bioregion Program, an independent initiative to apply an ecosystem approach to the region. Two main objectives are to provide a comprehensive assessment of the cumulative impacts of human activities on the marine and freshwater ecosystems of the Hudson Bay/James Bay bioregion, and to foster sustainable development by examining and proposing cooperative processes for decision making among governments, developers, aboriginal peoples and other stakeholders. 1 fig

  19. Early Palaeogene planktic foraminiferal and carbon isotope stratigraphy, ODP hole 762C, Exmouth plateau, Northwest Australian margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, H.J.L.; Dickens, G.R.; Henderson, R.R.; Chaproniere, G.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Although the North West Shelf of Australia is an important region for petroleum exploration and palaeoceanographic investigations the stratigraphy for the Palaeogene is poorly documented, especially for foraminifera. Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 762 on the Exmouth Plateau contains an expanded Palaeogene sequence with abundant, calcareous microfossils. Early Palaeogene cores from this location were examined in this study for their planktic foraminiferal assemblages and carbon isotope compositions (Subbotina spp.). The sequence from 502.96 to 307.8 mbsf was deposited between the early Paleocene and Middle Eocene, and contains all planktic foraminiferal Zones Plc through P10 of the current global scheme, except Subzone P4b. Planktic foraminifera are generally very well preserved and 75 species belonging to 17 genera were identified. Despite a relatively high latitude Palaeogene location for Site 762, planktic foraminiferal biozones are generally in phase with those of the currently used global scheme for subtropical locations (Berggren et al., 1995). However, rare, patchy or non-occurrences of the zonal marker species Globanomalina pseudomenardii, Morozovella velascoensis, M formosa, Planorotalites palmerae and Hanfkenina nuttalli, make some correlations difficult. Planktic foraminiferal assemblages show three increasing diversity trends: at the P3a P3b boundary with the first appearance of muricate Acarinina species; in the middle of P4a b with the first appearances of many warm water Morozovella and Acarinina species and at the P8/P9 zonal boundary with the arrival of late early Eocene Acarinina species. Overall, trends in 13 C of planktic foraminifera are similar in shape to global isotope curves spanning the early Palaeogene, although the prominent short term negative excursion across the latest Paleocene thermal maximum (LPTM) is partly missing, probably because of a gap in core recovery. Combined with nannofossil biostratigraphy and a

  20. Restless Legs Syndrome -- Self-Tests and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... legs syndrome Diagnosis Talk to a board certified sleep medicine physician if you think you have restless legs ... He or she can refer you to a sleep medicine physician if necessary. The sleep physician may ask ...

  1. Six-legged walking robot for service operations

    OpenAIRE

    Ihme, T.; Schneider, A.; Schmucker, U.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the control system of a six-legged vehicle including force control. Considered control schemes are control of forces and control of body motion. The experimental result with a six-legged robot is presented.

  2. Atmospheric chemistry of short-chain haloolefins: photochemical ozone creation potentials (POCPs), global warming potentials (GWPs), and ozone depletion potentials (ODPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, T J; Sulbaek Andersen, M P; Nielsen, O J

    2015-06-01

    Short-chain haloolefins are being introduced as replacements for saturated halocarbons. The unifying chemical feature of haloolefins is the presence of a CC double bond which causes the atmospheric lifetimes to be significantly shorter than for the analogous saturated compounds. We discuss the atmospheric lifetimes, photochemical ozone creation potentials (POCPs), global warming potentials (GWPs), and ozone depletion potentials (ODPs) of haloolefins. The commercially relevant short-chain haloolefins CF3CFCH2 (1234yf), trans-CF3CHCHF (1234ze(Z)), CF3CFCF2 (1216), cis-CF3CHCHCl (1233zd(Z)), and trans-CF3CHCHCl (1233zd(E)) have short atmospheric lifetimes (days to weeks), negligible POCPs, negligible GWPs, and ODPs which do not differ materially from zero. In the concentrations expected in the environment their atmospheric degradation products will have a negligible impact on ecosystems. CF3CFCH2 (1234yf), trans-CF3CHCHF (1234ze(Z)), CF3CFCF2 (1216), cis-CF3CHCHCl (1233zd(Z)), and trans-CF3CHCHCl (1233zd(E)) are environmentally acceptable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Leg intravenous pressure during head-up tilt.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, J.T.; Poelkens, F.; Wouters, C.W.; Kooijman, H.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2008-01-01

    Leg vascular resistance is calculated as the arterial-venous pressure gradient divided by blood flow. During orthostatic challenges it is assumed that the hydrostatic pressure contributes equally to leg arterial, as well as to leg venous pressure. Because of venous valves, one may question whether,

  4. Spider diffraction: a comparison of curved and straight legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    It has been known for some time that, if curved legs rather than the usual straight ones are used in the spider that supports the secondary optics in certain telescopes, the visible diffraction effect is reduced. Fraunhofer theory is used to calculate the diffraction effects due to the curved leg spider. Calculated and photographic diffraction patterns are compared for straight and curved leg spiders

  5. Immediate effects of the trunk stabilizing exercise on static balance parameters in double-leg and one-leg stances

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jwa-jun; Park, Se-yeon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of stabilizing exercise using the PNF technique on standing balance in one-leg and double-leg stances. [Subjects and Methods] The present study recruited 34 healthy participants from a local university. The Participants performed four balance tests (double-leg stance with and without vision, one-leg stance with and without vision), before and after exercise. The exercise consisted of exercises performed using PNF techniq...

  6. Pictorial essay: Ultrasonography in 'tennis leg'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jeshil R; Shah, Bipin R; Shah, Ankit B

    2010-11-01

    Tennis leg is caused by a rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle, usually at its distal musculotendinous junction region. However, tears in this muscle and its tendon are also included under the term 'tennis leg'. It is seen regularly in practice and is an important cause of a painful calf. The common USG findings include: disruption of the pinnate pattern of the distal medial gastrocnemius, usually near the junction of the triceps surae (which is the echogenic line between the gastrocnemius, the soleus, and the plantaris muscles), fluid tracking along the fascia, adjacent hematoma, and intramuscular tears as well as hematomas. USG is useful for confirming the diagnosis, excluding other causes of a painful calf, for assessing the severity of the disease, and in follow-up.

  7. Experimental research on pedestrian lower leg impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, B. A.; Iozsa, D. M.; Stan, C.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper is centred on the research of deceleration measured at the level of the lower leg during a pedestrian impact in multiple load cases. Basically, the used methodology for physical test setup is similar to EuroNCAP and European Union regulatory requirements. Due cost reduction reasons, it was not used a pneumatic system in order to launch the lower leg impactor in the direction of the vehicle front-end. During the test it was used an opposite solution, namely the vehicle being in motion, aiming the standstill lower leg impactor. The impactor has similar specifications to those at EU level, i.e. dimensions, materials, and principle of measurement of the deceleration magnitude. Therefore, all the results obtained during the study comply with the requirements of both EU regulation and EuroNCAP. As a limitation, due to unavailability of proper sensors in the equipment of the lower leg impactor, that could provide precise results, the bending angle, the shearing and the detailed data at the level of knee ligaments were not evaluated. The knee joint should be improved for future studies as some bending angles observed during the post processing of several impact video files were too high comparing to other studies. The paper highlights the first pedestrian impact physical test conducted by the author, following an extensive research in the field. Deceleration at the level of pedestrian knee can be substantially improved by providing enough volume between the bumper fascia and the front-end structure and by using pedestrian friendly materials for shock absorbers, such as foams.

  8. Dynamic legged locomotion in robots and animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibert, Marc; Playter, Robert; Ringrose, Robert; Bailey, Dave; Leeser, Karl

    1995-01-01

    This report documents our study of active legged systems that balance actively and move dynamically. The purpose of this research is to build a foundation of knowledge that can lead both to the construction of useful legged vehicles and to a better understanding of how animal locomotion works. In this report we provide an update on progress during the past year. Here are the topics covered in this report: (1) Is cockroach locomotion dynamic? To address this question we created three models of cockroaches, each abstracted at a different level. We provided each model with a control system and computer simulation. One set of results suggests that 'Groucho Running,' a type of dynamic walking, seems feasible at cockroach scale. (2) How do bipeds shift weight between the legs? We built a simple planar biped robot specifically to explore this question. It shifts its weight from one curved foot to the other, using a toe-off and toe-on strategy, in conjunction with dynamic tipping. (3) 3D biped gymnastics: The 3D biped robot has done front somersaults in the laboratory. The robot changes its leg length in flight to control rotation rate. This in turn provides a mechanism for controlling the landing attitude of the robot once airborne. (4) Passively stabilized layout somersault: We have found that the passive structure of a gymnast, the configuration of masses and compliances, can stabilize inherently unstable maneuvers. This means that body biomechanics could play a larger role in controlling behavior than is generally thought. We used a physical 'doll' model and computer simulation to illustrate the point. (5) Twisting: Some gymnastic maneuvers require twisting. We are studying how to couple the biomechanics of the system to its control to produce efficient, stable twisting maneuvers.

  9. Asymptomatic Petechial Eruption on the Lower Legs

    OpenAIRE

    Mendese, Gary; Grande, Donald

    2013-01-01

    The authors report an unusual case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that presented as an asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is rare in New England and, as such, is typically not on the differential diagnosis when presented with such patients. What began as an asymptomatic eruption progressed to more classic signs of the disease, including a positive Rocky Mountain spotted fever titer. The patient was successfully treated with doxycydine and within a...

  10. Proprioceptive Actuation Design for Dynamic Legged locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangbae; Wensing, Patrick; Biomimetic Robotics Lab Team

    Designing an actuator system for highly-dynamic legged locomotion exhibited by animals has been one of the grand challenges in robotics research. Conventional actuators designed for manufacturing applications have difficulty satisfying challenging requirements for high-speed locomotion, such as the need for high torque density and the ability to manage dynamic physical interactions. It is critical to introduce a new actuator design paradigm and provide guidelines for its incorporation in future mobile robots for research and industry. To this end, we suggest a paradigm called proprioceptive actuation, which enables highly- dynamic operation in legged machines. Proprioceptive actuation uses collocated force control at the joints to effectively control contact interactions at the feet under dynamic conditions. In the realm of legged machines, this paradigm provides a unique combination of high torque density, high-bandwidth force control, and the ability to mitigate impacts through backdrivability. Results show that the proposed design provides an impact mitigation factor that is comparable to other quadruped designs with series springs to handle impact. The paradigm is shown to enable the MIT Cheetah to manage the application of contact forces during dynamic bounding, with results given down to contact times of 85ms and peak forces over 450N. As a result, the MIT Cheetah achieves high-speed 3D running up to 13mph and jumping over an 18-inch high obstacle. The project is sponsored by DARPA M3 program.

  11. Sleep board review question: restless legs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omobomi O

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Ms. Jones (not her real name is a 63-year-old woman who states that she gets very fidgety when sitting in a theater, watching a movie or when flying long distances on a plane. She is unable to find words to describe the sensation but she states that moving her legs make them feel better. Lately, she has been getting this feeling almost every night. She reports no leg discomfort in the daytime. She denies muscle cramps her legs. She had some recent investigations done by her primary care physician because of complaints of fatigue. Which of the following will be helpful in the diagnosis and management in this patient? 1. An overnight polysomnogram showing apnea hypopnea index of 1.6 events per hour and no periodic limb movements (PLMs 2. Ferritin level of 18 ng/ml (normal range 20-200 ng/ml 3. Serum Bicarbonate of 29 mEq/L (normal range 23-29 mEq/L 4. Thyroid …

  12. Duplex sonography of the near-surface leg veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, E.

    2007-01-01

    The book contains the following contributions: The ultrasonograph, selection of the ultrasonic transducer, anatomy of the near-surface vein system, physiology of the near-surface vein system, varicose status classification, systematics of the duplex sonography of near-surface leg veins, provocational maneuver for the duplex sonographic varicose diagnostics, exploration of vena saphena parva, perforans veins, side branches, phlebitis, sonography for varicose therapy, postsurgical sonography, deep leg veins, examination of near-surface leg veins for the pathology of the deep vein system, differential diagnostic clarification of leg oedema from the phlebologic-lymphological view, diagnostic side features along the near-surface leg veins

  13. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  14. Sedimentary Characterization of Nazca Ridge ODP Site 1237: Plio-Pleistocene Record of Continental Erosion and Bottom Water Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileo, K. V.; Joseph, L. H.

    2005-12-01

    Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1237 (16°0.421'S, 76°22.685'W), drilled ~140 km off the east coast of Peru on the easternmost flank of Nazca Ridge, provides an opportunity to study climatic shifts in the southeastern Pacific Ocean over the last thirty million years. Sediment deposition at this location has been influenced by movement through various oceanic current systems, from a relatively low productivity open ocean setting to a high productivity upwelling zone along the coast of Peru, as the tectonic plate subducts under South America. Today, near the eastern edge of the Peru-Chile current at a water depth of 3212 m, this site is located in the transition zone between Antarctic Circumpolar Deep Water and Pacific Central Water and is close enough to the continent to collect terrigenous sediment from South America. Plio-Pleistocene sediment (~100 mcd) from Site 1237 is comprised of white to light greenish gray clayey nannofossil ooze (Lithologic Unit IB) and clay to ooze with similar percentages of clay minerals, nannofossils, and diatoms (Unit IA). Shipboard results indicated linear sedimentation rates of ~20-30 m/my and siliciclastic mass accumulation rates (MARs) of ~1 g/cm2/ky during this time period. Approximately 90 Plio-Pleistocene samples were analyzed for bulk magnetic susceptibility, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS; P' and T), organic carbon content, and calcium carbonate content to aid in interpretation of climatic and oceanic conditions that existed at the time of sediment deposition. Bulk magnetic susceptibility values are very low (10-6 to 10-7 SI, or negative) at the base of the record through ~60 mcd(~3 Ma), gradually increase to a peak value of ~3.7 x 10-4 SI at ~22 mcd (~1 Ma), decreasing and subsequently increasing for the remainder of the record. In the upper part of the record (above 60 mcd) where bulk magnetic susceptibility values are >10-6, P' values (strength of magnetic susceptibility), which can be used to interpret the

  15. Elemental concentration variations in Plio-Pleistocene sediments from ODP Site 1143 (southern South China Sea) obtained by XRF analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, J.; Xie, X.; Jin, H.; Wang, P.; Jian, Z.

    2009-12-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning technology provides the most accurate and most economic analytical methods for the determination of major and minor elements of the deep-sea sediment ranging from sodium (11) to uranium (92). Scanning on the smooth core surface by XRF Core scanner is reliable and non-destructive to the sediment, requiring little or no time to prepare the core. This method overcomes the drawback of the traditional analytical method by ICP-AES or ICP-MS which requires long time for sample preparation. Thus, it makes it viable to reconstruct long and high-resolution elemental time series from sediment cores. We have performed relatively elemental concentration analyses on the deep sea sediment cores from ODP site 1143 (southern SCS) down to 190.77 mcd (meters composite depth) by XRF core scanner. The depth resolution of the scanning is 1 cm, equivalent to a time resolution of ~250 years. The age model is based on tuning the benthic foraminiferal d18O at Site 1143 to obliquity and precession (Tian et al., 2002) which indicates that the 190.77 meters long sediment spans the past 5 Myr. We compared the records between 99.5 and 136.46 mcd with the elemental records from the same site obtained by Philips PW 2400 X-ray spectrometer (Wehausen et al., online publication). Comparison reveals, regardless of the absolute changes of the elements, that the elemental records (Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mn, Ca, K, P, Ba, Rb, Sr) obtained by two methods are nearly the same. Results show that the relative concentration variations of the productivity related elements such as Ba and Ca display distinctive glacial-interglacial cycles for the past 5 Myr. These productivity cycles recorded show one-on-one relationship with the glacial-interglacial cycles of the global ice volume change recorded in the benthic foraminiferal d18O. The glacial-interglacial cycles in productivity and global ice volume changes are consistent with each other not only in amplitude but also

  16. The interpretation of geochemical logs from the oceanic basement: mineral modelling in Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 735B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, P.K.; Lovell, M.A.; Bristow, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Leg 118 of the Ocean Drilling Program was carried out in the vicinity of the Southwest Indian Ridge. Of the boreholes drilled, by far the most important and scientifically spectacular is Hole 735B which was located on a shallow platform adjacent to the Atlantis II Transform. This hole penetrates some 500 m of gabbroic rocks representing Layer 3 of the oceanic crust. The recovered gabbros show considerable variation both in mineralogy and in the degree of deformation. Core recovery averages 87% and there is excellent control and correlation between the core and the wide range of logs obtained. Mineralogy logs are derived and presented using both core sample data and downhole geochemical logs for Hole 735B. The problems of transforming these data for the particular mineralogy encountered are discussed. (Author)

  17. Humic Substances from Manila Bay and Bolinao Bay Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Llaguno

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The C,H,N composition of sedimentary humic acids (HA extracted from three sites in Manila Bay and six sites in Bolinao Bay yielded H/C atomic ratios of 1.1-1.4 and N/C atomic ratios of 0.09 - 0.16. The Manila Bay HA's had lower H/C and N/C ratios compared to those from Bolinao Bay. The IR spectra showed prominent aliphatic C-H and amide I and II bands. Manila Bay HA's also had less diverse molecular composition based on the GC-MS analysis of the CuO and alkaline permanganate oxidation products of the humic acids.

  18. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key pointsAccurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance.Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower quantities

  19. Robust and efficient walking with spring-like legs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummel, J; Blum, Y; Seyfarth, A, E-mail: juergen.rummel@uni-jena.d, E-mail: andre.seyfarth@uni-jena.d [Lauflabor Locomotion Laboratory, University of Jena, Dornburger Strasse 23, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    The development of bipedal walking robots is inspired by human walking. A way of implementing walking could be performed by mimicking human leg dynamics. A fundamental model, representing human leg dynamics during walking and running, is the bipedal spring-mass model which is the basis for this paper. The aim of this study is the identification of leg parameters leading to a compromise between robustness and energy efficiency in walking. It is found that, compared to asymmetric walking, symmetric walking with flatter angles of attack reveals such a compromise. With increasing leg stiffness, energy efficiency increases continuously. However, robustness is the maximum at moderate leg stiffness and decreases slightly with increasing stiffness. Hence, an adjustable leg compliance would be preferred, which is adaptable to the environment. If the ground is even, a high leg stiffness leads to energy efficient walking. However, if external perturbations are expected, e.g. when the robot walks on uneven terrain, the leg should be softer and the angle of attack flatter. In the case of underactuated robots with constant physical springs, the leg stiffness should be larger than k-tilde = 14 in order to use the most robust gait. Soft legs, however, lack in both robustness and efficiency.

  20. Robust and efficient walking with spring-like legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummel, J; Blum, Y; Seyfarth, A

    2010-01-01

    The development of bipedal walking robots is inspired by human walking. A way of implementing walking could be performed by mimicking human leg dynamics. A fundamental model, representing human leg dynamics during walking and running, is the bipedal spring-mass model which is the basis for this paper. The aim of this study is the identification of leg parameters leading to a compromise between robustness and energy efficiency in walking. It is found that, compared to asymmetric walking, symmetric walking with flatter angles of attack reveals such a compromise. With increasing leg stiffness, energy efficiency increases continuously. However, robustness is the maximum at moderate leg stiffness and decreases slightly with increasing stiffness. Hence, an adjustable leg compliance would be preferred, which is adaptable to the environment. If the ground is even, a high leg stiffness leads to energy efficient walking. However, if external perturbations are expected, e.g. when the robot walks on uneven terrain, the leg should be softer and the angle of attack flatter. In the case of underactuated robots with constant physical springs, the leg stiffness should be larger than k-tilde = 14 in order to use the most robust gait. Soft legs, however, lack in both robustness and efficiency.

  1. Sleep disturbances in restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Jasmina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Resteless legs syndrome (RLS is chronical neurological disorder characterized by urge to move legs that is usually accompanied by unpleasant sensations in the lower extremities. Sleep disturbance is one of the main accompanying symptoms of RLS which exists in approximatelly 90% of patients. Impairment of sleep is related to daily sleepiness, depressive and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to detect frequency and characterisitics of sleep-related symptoms in patients with RLS, and its impairrment to daily sleepiness, fatique, anxiety and depression. Methods. We have examinated 94 patients with RLS. The diagnose of RLS was based on questionnaire with 4 specific questions according to the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG criteria updated in 2003. Severity of symptoms was astimated with IRLSSG Rating Scale, depression and anxiety with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS and sleepiness with Epworth Sleepiness scale (ESS. We astimated sleep characteristics and disturbances with specific questionnaire. Results. In our study 79.9% of patients had sleep-related symptoms. Average sleep duration was 6.50 ± 1.42 hours, with average frequency of awakening 2.34 ± 1.69 times per night. Average ESS score was 5.12 ± 4.08 (0–17. Patients with more severe symptoms had higher degree of sleepiness (p = 0.005. Patients with higher symptoms frequency, significantly more often had sleep disturbance (p = 0.016, tiredness and daily sleepiness (p = 0.001. Daily sleepiness (ESS also significantly correlates with depression (p < 0.05 and anxiety (p = 0.012. Conclusion. Our results confirm that sleep disturbances are one of the key accompanying symptoms of RLS which cause daily sleepiness, tiredness, depression and anxiety. Therefore, their early recognition and appropriate treatment must be a priority in RLS patients.

  2. Painful legs and moving toes syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-ying Ma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Painful legs and moving toes syndrome (PLMT is a rare movement disorder with low diagnostic rate, which is characterized by lower limb pain with involuntary movements of feet or toes. Etiology and pathogenesis of this disease is still unclear. Patients have different clinical manifestations, so the diagnosis is difficult. Treatment methods for PLMT are numerous, but so far the treatment of this disease is still a major challenge for clinicians. Further research is still needed to guide clinical work. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.10.013

  3. Optimal powering schemes for legged robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Paul; Bednarz, David; Czerniak, Gregory P.; Cheok, Ka C.

    2010-04-01

    Legged Robots have tremendous mobility, but they can also be very inefficient. These inefficiencies can be due to suboptimal control schemes, among other things. If your goal is to get from point A to point B in the least amount of time, your control scheme will be different from if your goal is to get there using the least amount of energy. In this paper, we seek a balance between these extremes by looking at both efficiency and speed. We model a walking robot as a rimless wheel, and, using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle (PMP), we find an "on-off" control for the model, and describe the switching curve between these control extremes.

  4. Asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendese, Gary; Grande, Donald

    2013-09-01

    The authors report an unusual case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that presented as an asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is rare in New England and, as such, is typically not on the differential diagnosis when presented with such patients. What began as an asymptomatic eruption progressed to more classic signs of the disease, including a positive Rocky Mountain spotted fever titer. The patient was successfully treated with doxycydine and within a short period of time, was completely back at baseline.

  5. Are the hamstrings from the drive leg or landing leg more active in baseball pitchers? An electromyographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Brandon J; Zaferiou, Antonia; Chalmers, Peter N; Ruby, Deana; Malloy, Phillip; Luchetti, Timothy J; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A

    2017-11-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) has become a common procedure among baseball players of all levels. There are several graft choices in performing UCLR, one of which is a hamstring (gracilis or semitendinosus) autograft. It is unclear whether the hamstring muscle from a pitcher's drive leg (ipsilateral side of the UCLR) or landing leg (contralateral side of the UCLR) is more active during the pitching motion. We hypothesized that the landing leg semitendinosus will be more electromyographically active than the drive leg. Healthy, elite male pitchers aged 16-21 years were recruited. Sixteen pitchers (average age, 17.6 ± 1.6 years; 67% threw right handed) underwent electromyographic analysis. Pitchers threw 5 fastballs at 100% effort from the wind-up with electromyographic analysis of every pitch. Activation of the semitendinosus and biceps femoris in both legs was compared within pitchers and between pitchers. Hamstring activity was higher in the drive leg than in the landing leg during each phase and in sum, although the difference was significant only during the double support phase (P = .021). On within-pitcher analysis, 10 of 16 pitchers had significantly more sum hamstring activity in the drive leg than in the landing leg, while only 4 of 16 had more activity in the landing leg (P = .043). During the baseball pitch, muscle activity of the semitendinosus was higher in the drive leg than in the landing leg in most pitchers. Surgeons performing UCLR using hamstring autograft should consider harvesting the graft from the pitcher's landing leg to minimize disruption to the athlete's pitching motion. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An Ultralightweight and Living Legged Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo Doan, Tat Thang; Tan, Melvin Y W; Bui, Xuan Hien; Sato, Hirotaka

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we describe the most ultralightweight living legged robot to date that makes it a strong candidate for a search and rescue mission. The robot is a living beetle with a wireless electronic backpack stimulator mounted on its thorax. Inheriting from the living insect, the robot employs a compliant body made of soft actuators, rigid exoskeletons, and flexure hinges. Such structure would allow the robot to easily adapt to any complex terrain due to the benefit of soft interface, self-balance, and self-adaptation of the insect without any complex controller. The antenna stimulation enables the robot to perform not only left/right turning but also backward walking and even cessation of walking. We were also able to grade the turning and backward walking speeds by changing the stimulation frequency. The power required to drive the robot is low as the power consumption of the antenna stimulation is in the order of hundreds of microwatts. In contrast to the traditional legged robots, this robot is of low cost, easy to construct, simple to control, and has ultralow power consumption.

  7. Restless Legs Syndrome with Current Diagnostic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Bilgilisoy Filiz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS, also known as Willis-Ekbom disease, is a chronic movement disorder, characterized by an urge to move legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensations and sleep disorders. The prevalence of the syndrome ranges from 1% to 15% in the general population, and about 2% during childhood. RLS is the most common movement disorder in pregnancy. However RLS still remains underdiagnosed probably due to lack of accurate information about the disease. Family history is positive in 50-70% of the primary RLS patients. The secondary form of the syndrome is associated with iron deficiency, renal failure, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus and many rheumatologic disorders. Secondary forms generally manifest at older ages and have a rapid progression with a poorer prognosis. The pathophysiology of RLS is focused on the dopaminergic system, reduced central nervous system iron levels and genetic linkages. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and the diagnostic criteria suggested by International RLS Study Group. Secondary causes must be carefully investigated before the treatment. In mild forms of the disease non-pharmacologic therapies might be useful, while in moderate or severe forms of the disease generally pharmacologic therapies such as dopamine agonists, anticonvulsants, opioids and benzodiazepines are required. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2015;21: 87-95

  8. Restless legs syndrome in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Rafie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a neurological disorder characterized by uncomfortable sensation of paresthesia in legs that subsequently causes involuntary and continuous movement of the lower limbs, especially at rest. Its prevalence in hemodialysis is more than that in the general population. Different risk factors have been suggested for RLS. We studied the prevalence and risk factors of RLS in 137 hemodialysis patients followed up at our center. The patients completed at least three months on dialysis and fulfilled four criteria for the diagnosis of RLS. We compared the patients with and without RLS, and the odds ratios (ORs were estimated by the logistic regression models. The prevalence of RLS was 36.5% in the study patients. Among the variables, diabetes was the only predicting factor for the development of RLS. The diabetic patients may be afflicted with RLS 2.25 times more than the non-diabetics. Women developed severe RLS 5.23 times more than men. Neurodegeneration, decrease in dopamine level, higher total oxidant status, and neuropathy in diabetic patients may explain the RLS symptoms.

  9. Bioinspired template-based control of legged locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Sharbafi, Maziar

    2018-01-01

    cient and robust locomotion is a crucial condition for the more extensive use of legged robots in real world applications. In that respect, robots can learn from animals, if the principles underlying locomotion in biological legged systems can be transferred to their artificial counterparts. However, legged locomotion in biological systems is a complex and not fully understood problem. A great progress to simplify understanding locomotion dynamics and control was made by introducing simple mo...

  10. Bay of Fundy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The highest tides on Earth occur in the Minas Basin, the eastern extremity of the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada, where the tide range can reach 16 meters when the various factors affecting the tides are in phase. The primary cause of the immense tides of Fundy is a resonance of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine system. The system is effectively bounded at this outer end by the edge of the continental shelf with its approximately 40:1 increase in depth. The system has a natural period of approximately 13 hours, which is close to the 12h25m period of the dominant lunar tide of the Atlantic Ocean. Like a father pushing his daughter on a swing, the gentle Atlantic tidal pulse pushes the waters of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine basin at nearly the optimum frequency to cause a large to-and-fro oscillation. The greatest slosh occurs at the head (northeast end) of the system. The high tide image (top) was acquired April 20, 2001, and the low tide image (bottom) was acquired September 30, 2002. The images cover an area of 16.5 by 21 km, and are centered near 64 degrees west longitude and 45.5 degrees north latitude. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying

  11. Six weeks' aerobic retraining after two weeks' immobilization restores leg lean mass and aerobic capacity but does not fully rehabilitate leg strenght in young and older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Gram, Martin; Wiuff, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of aerobic retraining as rehabilitation after short-term leg immobilization on leg strength, leg work capacity, leg lean mass, leg muscle fibre type composition and leg capillary supply, in young and older men. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Seventeen young (23 ± 1 years...... immobilization had marked effects on leg strength, and work capacity and 6 weeks' retraining was sufficient to increase, but not completely rehabilitate, muscle strength, and to rehabilitate aerobic work capacity and leg lean mass (in the young men)....

  12. Protection against high intravascular pressure in giraffe legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karin K; Hørlyck, Arne; Østergaard, Kristine Hovkjær

    2013-01-01

    The high blood pressure in giraffe leg arteries renders giraffes vulnerable to edema. We investigated in 11 giraffes whether large and small arteries in the legs and the tight fascia protect leg capillaries. Ultrasound imaging of foreleg arteries in anesthetized giraffes and ex vivo examination....... All three findings can contribute to protection of the capillaries in giraffe legs from a high arterial pressure....... revealed abrupt thickening of the arterial wall and a reduction of its internal diameter just below the elbow. At and distal to this narrowing, the artery constricted spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine and intravascular pressure recordings revealed a dynamic, viscous pressure drop along...

  13. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the nation's estuaries have been environmentally stressed since the turn of the 20th century and will continue to be impacted in the future. Tampa Bay, one the Gulf of Mexico's largest estuaries, exemplifies the threats that our estuaries face (EPA Report 2001, Tampa Bay Estuary Program-Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (TBEP-CCMP)). More than 2 million people live in the Tampa Bay watershed, and the population constitutes to grow. Demand for freshwater resources, conversion of undeveloped areas to resident and industrial uses, increases in storm-water runoff, and increased air pollution from urban and industrial sources are some of the known human activities that impact Tampa Bay. Beginning on 2001, additional anthropogenic modifications began in Tampa Bat including construction of an underwater gas pipeline and a desalinization plant, expansion of existing ports, and increased freshwater withdrawal from three major tributaries to the bay. In January of 2001, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) and its partners identifies a critical need for participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in providing multidisciplinary expertise and a regional-scale, integrated science approach to address complex scientific research issue and critical scientific information gaps that are necessary for continued restoration and preservation of Tampa Bay. Tampa Bay stakeholders identified several critical science gaps for which USGS expertise was needed (Yates et al. 2001). These critical science gaps fall under four topical categories (or system components): 1) water and sediment quality, 2) hydrodynamics, 3) geology and geomorphology, and 4) ecosystem structure and function. Scientists and resource managers participating in Tampa Bay studies recognize that it is no longer sufficient to simply examine each of these estuarine system components individually, Rather, the interrelation among system components must be understood to develop conceptual and

  14. The origin of an oceanic plateau: Isotope geochemistry (Sr, Nd, Pb and Hf) of volcanic rocks from IODP Site U1347 and ODP Site 1213 (Hf data) on the Shatsky Rise (Northwest Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydolph, K.; Geldmacher, J.; Hoernle, K.

    2011-12-01

    K.HEYDOLPH1*, J.GELDMACHER2, 1 ,K.HOERNLE1 1IFM-GEOMAR, Wischhofstr. 1-3. D-24148 Kiel, Germany, (*correspondence: kheydolph@ifm-geomar.de) 2 Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A&M University, 1000 Discovery Drive, College Station, Texas 77845-9547 (geldmacher@iodp.tamu.edu) The submarine Shatsky Rise plateau, a unique large igneous province (LIP) in the northwest Pacific Ocean ca. 1500 km east of Japan, is the only large intraoceanic plateau, which formed during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous at a time period with numerous reversals of the Earth's magnetic field. These magnetic reversals combined with bathymetric data allow a detailed reconstruction of the tectonic history. Accordingly the three main volcanic edifices Tamu, Ori and Shirshov massifs formed by massive volcanism during a short time span along a southwest - northeast trending, rapidly spreading triple junction. Therefore, the magnetic and bathymetric data suggest that the Shatsky Rise formed through the interaction of a mantle plume head with a ridge [1, 2]. We present new Sr, Nd and Pb (double spike) and for the first time Hf isotope data from volcanic rocks of relatively fresh basaltic lava flows from recent IODP Exp. 324 Site U1347 and ODP Leg 198 Site 1213 (Hf data) both located on Tamu massif the southernmost (oldest) volcanic edifice of Shtasky Rise. Initial 176Hf/177Hf and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic compositions are fairly uniform throughout the entire holes ranging between 0.283076 to 0.283100 and 0.512903 to 0.512981 respectively, showing neither distinct MORB nor intraplate (plume) affinity. Relatively unradiogenic 87Sr/86Sr data ranging from 0.70276 to 0.70296 mostly overlaps with Pacific MORB like values. In a Nd vs Hf isotope plot they form a tight cluster at the edge of the Pacific MORB field below the present-day Hf-Nd mantle array. Although initial Pb double spike 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb isotopic compositions for Site U1347 range from 18.13 to 18.46 and 37.71 to 37

  15. Core Description and a Preliminarily Sedimentology Study of Site 1202D, Leg 195, in the Southern Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yue Huang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available ODP Site 1202 of Leg 195 was designed primarily for a high-resolution study of the paleoceanography of the Kuroshio Current in the southern Okinawa Trough off NE Taiwan. Four holes were drilled in which Hole 1202D is described in detail in this study for an assessment of core quality for paleoceanography study and understanding of sedimentological features, especially turbidite sedimentation and the sediment provenances during the Late Quaternary in the southern Okinawa Trough. Pelagic mud with insignificant silt or sand layers is observed from the core top down to 133 m (mbsf; Marine Isotope Stages 1-3, but the silt-sand layer ratio (SLR: total thickness of silt and sand layers / 1.5 m of core increases gradually from a value of 50 % between 223 and 279 m, followed by decreases to values 250 _ Slate fragments are commonly found in fine-grained turbidite dominant intervals (160 - 280 m, while mica flakes can be observed in the muds throughout the core. The major detrital components were derived primarily from the Miocene slate belt of the pre-collision accretionary prism of the Central Range in northern Taiwan. The occurrence of volcanics could represent submarine volcanic activity in the active-opening Okinawa Trough back-arc basin off NE Taiwan. Shallow-marine fossils including benthic foraminifers, echinoids, bryozoans and mollusks are also found in the fine-grained turbidite dominant intervals. These fossil assemblages could have been deposited in the shallow shelf and then transported to the depositional site along with voluminous terrigenous materials derived from Taiwan, via submarine channels or by slope failures due to frequent earthquakes induced by plate convergence/collision and extension in the southwestern Okinawa Trough off NE Taiwan. It is concluded that the top 133 m of the core is better suited for paleoceanographic reconstruction.

  16. Intermediate Leg SBLOCA - Long Lasting Pressure Transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konjarek, D.; Bajs, T.; Vukovic, J.

    2010-01-01

    The basic phenomenology of Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) for PWR plant is described with focus on analysis of scenario in which reactor coolant pressure decreases below secondary system pressure. Best estimate light water reactor transient analysis code RELAP5/mod3.3 was used in calculation. Rather detailed model of the plant was used. The break occurs in intermediate leg on lowest elevation near pump suction. The size of the break is chosen to be small enough to cause cycling of safety valves (SVs) on steam generators (SGs) for some time, but, afterwards, it is large enough to remove decay heat through the break, causing cooling the secondary side. In this case of SBLOCA, when primary pressure decreases below secondary pressure, long lasting pressure transients with significant amplitude occur. Reasons for such behavior are explained.(author).

  17. Lavaca Bay 1985-1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples were collected from October 15, 1985 through June 12, 1987 in emergent marsh and non-vegetated habitats throughout the Lavaca Bay system to characterize...

  18. FL BAY SPECTROUT-DIET

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  19. Restless legs syndrome in patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mohammad Yaser Salman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is common among dialysis patients, with a reported prevalence of 6-60%. The prevalence of RLS in Syrian patients on hemodialysis (HD is not known. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of RLS in patients on regular HD, and to find the possible correlation between the presence of RLS and demographic, clinical, and biochemical factors. One hundred and twenty-three patients (male/female = 70/53, mean age = 41.95 ± 15.11 years on HD therapy at the Aleppo University Hospital were enrolled into the study. RLS was diagnosed based on criteria established by the International Restless Legs Syn-drome Study Group (IRLSSG. Data procured were compared between patients with and without RLS. Applying the IRLSSG criteria for the diagnosis, RLS was seen in 20.3% of the study pa-tients. No significant difference in age, gender, and intake of nicotine and caffeine was found between patients with and without the RLS. Similarly, there was no difference between the two groups in the duration of end-stage renal disease (ESRD, the period of dialysis dependence, dialysis adequacy, urea and creatinine levels, and the presence of anemia. The co-morbidities and the use of drugs also did not differ in the two groups. Our study suggests that the high prevalence of RLS among patients on HD requires careful attention and correct diagnosis can lead to better therapy and better quality of life. The pathogenesis of RLS is not clear and further studies are required to identify any possible cause as well as to discover the impact of this syndrome on sleep, quality of life, and possibly other complications such as cardiovasculare disease.

  20. Deep vein thrombosis of the leg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Hee; Rhee, Kwang Woo; Jeon, Suk Chul; Joo, Kyung Bin; Lee, Seung Ro; Seo, Heung Suk; Hahm, Chang Kok [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-04-15

    Ascending contrast venography is the definitive standard method for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities. Authors analysed 22 cases of DVT clinically and radiographically. 1.The patients ranged in age from 15 to 70 yrs and the most prevalent age group was 7th decade (31%). There was an equal distribution of males and females. 2.In 11 cases of 22 cases, variable etiologic factors were recognized, such as abdominal surgery, chronic bedridden state, local trauma on the leg, pregnancy, postpartum, Behcet's syndrome, iliac artery aneurysm, and chronic medication of estrogen. 3.Nineteen cases out of 22 cases showed primary venographic signs of DVT, such as well-defined filling defect in opacified veins and narrowed, irregularly filled venous lumen. In only 3 cases, the diagnosis of DVT was base upon the segmental nonvisualization of deep veins with good opacification of proximal and distal veins and presence of collaterals. 4.Extent of thrombosis: 3 cases were confined to calf vein, 4 cases extended to femoral vein, and 15 cases had involvement above iliac vein. 5.In 17 cases involving relatively long segment of deep veins, propagation pattern of thrombus was evaluated by its radiologic morphology according to the age of thrombus: 9 cases suggested central or antegrade propagation pattern and 8 cases, peripheral or retrograde pattern. 6.None of 22 cases showed clinical evidence of pulmonary embolism. The cause of the rarity of pulmonary embolism in Korean in presumed to be related to the difference in major involving site and propagation pattern of DVT in the leg.

  1. Deep vein thrombosis of the leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Hee; Rhee, Kwang Woo; Jeon, Suk Chul; Joo, Kyung Bin; Lee, Seung Ro; Seo, Heung Suk; Hahm, Chang Kok

    1987-01-01

    Ascending contrast venography is the definitive standard method for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities. Authors analysed 22 cases of DVT clinically and radiographically. 1.The patients ranged in age from 15 to 70 yrs and the most prevalent age group was 7th decade (31%). There was an equal distribution of males and females. 2.In 11 cases of 22 cases, variable etiologic factors were recognized, such as abdominal surgery, chronic bedridden state, local trauma on the leg, pregnancy, postpartum, Behcet's syndrome, iliac artery aneurysm, and chronic medication of estrogen. 3.Nineteen cases out of 22 cases showed primary venographic signs of DVT, such as well-defined filling defect in opacified veins and narrowed, irregularly filled venous lumen. In only 3 cases, the diagnosis of DVT was base upon the segmental nonvisualization of deep veins with good opacification of proximal and distal veins and presence of collaterals. 4.Extent of thrombosis: 3 cases were confined to calf vein, 4 cases extended to femoral vein, and 15 cases had involvement above iliac vein. 5.In 17 cases involving relatively long segment of deep veins, propagation pattern of thrombus was evaluated by its radiologic morphology according to the age of thrombus: 9 cases suggested central or antegrade propagation pattern and 8 cases, peripheral or retrograde pattern. 6.None of 22 cases showed clinical evidence of pulmonary embolism. The cause of the rarity of pulmonary embolism in Korean in presumed to be related to the difference in major involving site and propagation pattern of DVT in the leg

  2. Recent results from Daya Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Ming-chung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing powerful nuclear reactors as antineutrino sources, high mountains to provide ample shielding from cosmic rays in the vicinity, and functionally identical detectors with large target volume for near-far relative measurement, the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment has achieved unprecedented precision in measuring the neutrino mixing angle θ13 and the neutrino mass squared difference |Δm2ee|. I will report the latest Daya Bay results on neutrino oscillations and light sterile neutrino search.

  3. Diurnal variations in lower leg subcutaneous blood flow rate in patients with chronic venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Kristensen, J K

    1991-01-01

    The blood flow rate in subcutaneous adipose tissue was measured on the lower legs of 11 patients with chronic lower-leg venous insufficiency and ulceration and in eight age-matched control subjects for 12-20 h, under ambulatory conditions, using the 133Xe wash-out technique with portable Cadmium...... telluride (CdTe(Cl)) detectors. In both groups, the change from an upright to a supine position at the beginning of the night period elicited an instantaneous increment in the blood flow rate of 30-40% with a decrease in the central and local postural sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity. After...... approximately 1 h of sleep, a considerable increase in blood flow rate was seen in both patient and control groups which persisted for nearly 100 min. In the patient group, the mean increase was 137% compared to a mean increase of 68% in the control group (P less than 0.01). The blood flow then returned...

  4. Treatment of vasovagal syncope: pacemaker or crossing legs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, N.; Harms, M. P.; Linzer, M.; Wieling, W.

    2000-01-01

    A 50-year-old male patient continued to experience syncope after implantation of a pacemaker. During cardiovascular examination, the patient showed a typical vasovagal response, with normal pacemaker function. Leg crossing, which prohibits the pooling of blood in the legs and abdomen, at the onset

  5. Ubx regulates differential enlargement and diversification of insect hind legs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmus Mahfooz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Differential enlargement of hind (T3 legs represents one of the hallmarks of insect evolution. However, the actual mechanism(s responsible are yet to be determined. To address this issue, we have now studied the molecular basis of T3 leg enlargement in Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug and Acheta domesticus (house cricket. In Oncopeltus, the T3 tibia displays a moderate increase in size, whereas in Acheta, the T3 femur, tibia, and tarsus are all greatly enlarged. Here, we show that the hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx is expressed in the enlarged segments of hind legs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of Ubx during embryogenesis has a primary effect in T3 legs and causes shortening of leg segments that are enlarged in a wild type. This result shows that Ubx is regulating the differential growth and enlargement of T3 legs in both Oncopeltus and Acheta. The emerging view suggests that Ubx was co-opted for a novel role in regulating leg growth and that the transcriptional modification of its expression may be a universal mechanism for the evolutionary diversification of insect hind legs.

  6. Secondary hyperparathyroidism: Uncommon cause of a leg ulcer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijssen, L. B.; Brenninkmeijer, E. E. A.; Nieveen van Dijkum, E. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Most leg ulcers are vascular based. Only if vascular therapy fails other causes are considered. We report the case of a female with incapacitating leg ulcers caused by a rare condition which was only diagnosed after failing treatment. PRESENTATION OF CASE: The female had an extensive previous

  7. Laboratory on Legs: An Architecture for Adjustable Morphology with Legged Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    including walking, running,7 pronking,8,9 leaping and flipping,10 climbing stairs ,11,12 recovering from failures,13 and even running upright on (modified...speed activities requiring large leg torques, such as clambering over rocks and climbing stairs , as well as high speed activities with moderate torques...8] McMordie, D. and Buehler, M., “Towards pronking with a hexapod robot ,” in [International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots

  8. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas H. Hart, Jodie L. Cochrane, Tania Spiteri, Sophia Nimphius, Robert U. Newton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2 each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15 and inaccurate (n = 16 kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701. Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631, while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083. Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy.

  9. Frustrated S = 1/2 Two-Leg Ladder with Different Leg Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonegawa, Takashi; Okamoto, Kiyomi; Hikihara, Toshiya; Sakai, Tôru

    2017-04-01

    We explore the ground-state phase diagram of the S = 1/2 two-leg ladder. The isotropic leg interactions J1,a and J1,b between nearest neighbor spins in the legs a and b, respectively, are different from each other. The xy and z components of the uniform rung interactions are denoted by Jr and ΔJr, respectively, where Δ is the XXZ anisotropy parameter. This system has a frustration when J1,aJ1,b employ the physical consideration, the level spectroscopy analysis of the results obtained by the exact diagonalization method and also the density-matrix renormalization-group method. It is found that the non-collinear ferrimagnetic (NCFR) state appears as the ground state in the frustrated region of the parameters. Furthermore, the direct-product triplet-dimer (TD) state in which all rungs form the TD pair is the exact ground state, when J1,a + J1,b = 0 and 0≤ Δ ≲ 0.83. The obtained phase diagrams consist of the TD, XY and Haldane phases as well as the NCFR phase.

  10. A survey of bio-inspired compliant legged robot designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaodong; Bi Shusheng

    2012-01-01

    The roles of biological springs in vertebrate animals and their implementations in compliant legged robots offer significant advantages over the rigid legged ones in certain types of scenarios. A large number of robotics institutes have been attempting to work in conjunction with biologists and incorporated these principles into the design of biologically inspired robots. The motivation of this review is to investigate the most published compliant legged robots and categorize them according to the types of compliant elements adopted in their mechanical structures. Based on the typical robots investigated, the trade-off between each category is summarized. In addition, the most significant performances of these robots are compared quantitatively, and multiple available solutions for the future compliant legged robot design are suggested. Finally, the design challenges for compliant legged robots are analysed. This review will provide useful guidance for robotic designers in creating new designs by inheriting the virtues of those successful robots according to the specific tasks. (topical review)

  11. Adaptive leg coordination with a biologically inspired neurocontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braught, Grant; Thomopoulos, Stelios C.

    1996-10-01

    Natural selection is responsible for the creation of robust and adaptive control systems. Nature's control systems are created only from primitive building blocks. Using insect neurophysiology as a guide, a neural architecture for leg coordination in a hexapod robot has been developed. Reflex chains and sensory feedback mechanisms from various insects and crustacea form the basis of a pattern generator for intra-leg coordination. The pattern generator contains neural oscillators which learn from sensory feedback to produce stepping patterns. Using sensory feedback as the source of learning information allows the pattern generator to adapt to changes in the leg dynamics due to internal or external causes. A coupling between six of the single leg pattern generators is used to produce the inter-leg coordination necessary to establish stable gaits.

  12. Evidence of Himalayan uplift as seen in Neogene records of Indian monsoon variability from ODP Hole 722B, NW Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Prakasam; Gupta, Anil K.; Saini, Naresh K.

    2013-04-01

    The Indian monsoon is one of the most interesting climatic features on Earth impacting most populous countries of South and East Asia. It is marked by seasonal reversals of wind direction with southwesterly winds in summer (June-September) and northeasterly winds in winter (December-February). The monsoon not only impacts socioeconomic conditions of Asia but also brings important changes in fauna and flora, ocean upwelling and primary productivity in the Arabian Sea. The Himalaya has undergone several phases of rapid uplift and exhumation since the early Miocene which led to major intensification of the Indian monsoon. The monsoon is driven by the thermal contrast between land and sea, and is intimately linked with the latitudinal movement of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The effect of Indian monsoon variability and the Himalayan uplift can be seen in numerous proxy records across the region. In this study we discussed about the Indian monsoon intensification and the Himalayan uplift since the early Miocene based on multi proxy records such as planktic foraminiferal relative abundances (Globigerina bulloides, Globigerinita glutinata and mixed layer species), total organic carbon (TOC), CaCO3 and elemental data from ODP Hole 722B (2028 mbsf), northwestern Arabian Sea. The TOC, CaCO3 and elemental variations of the ODP Hole 722B suggest multi phase of monsoonal intensification and Himalayan uplifts. Our results suggest that in the early Miocene (23.03 Ma) to ~15Ma, the wind strength and productivity were low. A major change is observed at ~15 Ma, during which time numerous proxies show abrupt changes. TOC, CaCO3 and Elemental analyses results reveal that a major change in the productivity, wind strength and chemical weathering starts around 15 Ma and extends up to 10 Ma. This suggests that a major Himalayan uplift occurred during ~15-10 Ma that drove Indian monsoon intensification. A similar change is also observed during 5 to 1 Ma. These long

  13. Late Neogene benthic stable isotope record of ODP Site 999: Implications for Caribbean paleoceanography, organic carbon burial and the Messininian salinity crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickert, T.; Haug, G.; Tiedemann, R.

    2003-04-01

    The late Neogene closure of the seaway between the North and South American continents is thought to have caused extensive changes in ocean circulation and Northern Hemisphere climate. The timing and consequences of the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama for the ocean circulation have been addressed in several papers which indicate a marked reorganization of surface and deep ocean circulation starting 4.6 million years ago. However, the biogeographic development of marine faunas and floras on both sides of the Panama Isthmus suggests that the paleoceanographic changes related to the closing of the isthmus started much earlier. Furthermore, the closing history of the Panama Seaway overlaps with the tectonic evolution of other ocean gateways in the late Miocene, especially the closure of the Strait of Gibraltar, which led to a transient isolation of the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean, known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis. We report on epibenthic foraminiferal d18O and d13C and percentage sand records of the carbonate fraction from Caribbean ODP Site 999 (12°44´N, 78° 44´W, water depth 2828 m) spanning the interval from 8.6 to 5.3 Ma. Low epibenthic d13C values and low sand contents indicate a poorly ventilated deep Caribbean throughout the late Miocene. At this time the deep Caribbean was dominated by a nutrient-rich Southern Ocean water mass. A mostly constant d13C gradient between the Caribbean and deep Atlantic records suggests that the fluctuations in d13C reflect rather global changes in d13C of the dissolved inorganic carbon due to varying erosion of organic carbon from terrigenous soils and shelf sediments. The observed 100-ky cyclicity of epibenthic d13C is in well accordance with the variability of the terrigenous input to the equatorial Atlantic as recorded by susceptibility records of the Ceara Rise. However, some gradient changes between 6.8 and 5.6 Ma indicate a poorer ventilation of the deep Atlantic related to a reduced production of

  14. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in “turnout”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Luke S; Sato, Nahoko; Weidemann, Andries L

    2016-01-01

    The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve “turning out” or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in “turned out” postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat. PMID:27895518

  15. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in “turnout”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopper LS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Luke S Hopper,1 Nahoko Sato,2 Andries L Weidemann1 1Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts, Edith Cowan University, Mt Lawley, WA, Australia; 2Department of Physical Therapy, Nagoya Gakuin University, Seto, Japan Abstract: The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve “turning out” or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in “turned out” postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat. Keywords: injury, motion capture, clinical assessment

  16. Artificial Leg Design and Control Research of a Biped Robot with Heterogeneous Legs Based on PID Control Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualong Xie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A biped robot with heterogeneous legs (BRHL is proposed to provide an ideal test-bed for intelligent bionic legs (IBL. To make artificial leg gait better suited to a human, a four-bar mechanism is used as its knee joint, and a pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM is used as its driving source. The static mathematical model of PAM is established and the mechanical model of a single degree of freedom of a knee joint driven by PAM is analyzed. A control simulation of an artificial leg based on PID control algorithm is carried out and the simulation results indicate that the artificial leg can simulate precisely a normal human walking gait.

  17. Restless legs syndrome in patients on dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlJahdali, Hamdan H; AlQadhi, Waleed A; Khogeer, Haithm A; AlHejaili, Fayez F; Al Sayyari, Abdullah A; AlGhamdi, Saeed M

    2009-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is an extremely distressing problem experienced by patients on dialysis; the prevalence appears to be greater than in the general population, with a wide variation from 6.6% to 80%. The diagnosis of RLS is a clinical one, and its definition has been clarified and standardized by internationally recognized diagnostic criteria, published in 1995 by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). This study was designed to find out the prevalence of RLS in Saudi patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance dialysis. This is a cross sectional study carried out between May and Sept 2007 at two centers, King Abdulaziz Medical City-King Fahad National Guard Hospital (KAMC-KFNGH), Riyadh and King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFHRC), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were gathered on 227 Saudi patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis or chronic peritoneal dialysis. The prevalence of RLS was measured using IRLSSG's RLS Questionnaire (RLSQ). Potential risk factors for RLS including other sleep disorders, underlying cause of chronic renal failure, duration on dialysis, dialysis shift, biochemical tests and demographic data were also evaluated. The overall prevalence of RLS was 50.22% including 53.7% males and 46.3% females. Their mean age was 55.7 + - 17.2 years and mean duration on dialysis 40.4 + - 37.8 months. Significant predictors of RLS were history of diabetes mellitus (DM), coffee intake, afternoon dialysis, gender and type of dialysis (P= 0.03, 0.01, < 0.001, 0.05 and 0.009 respectively). Patients with RLS were found to be at increased risk of having insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) (P= < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Our study suggests that RLS is a very common problem in dialysis population and was significantly associated with other sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, and EDS. Optimal care of dialysis patient should include particular attention to the diagnosis and

  18. Restless legs syndrome in patients on dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jahdali Hamdan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is an extremely distressing problem experienced by patients on dialysis; the prevalence appears to be greater than in the general population, with a wide variation from 6.6% to 80%. The diagnosis of RLS is a clinical one, and its definition has been clarified and standardized by internationally recognized diagnostic criteria, published in 1995 by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG. This study was designed to find out the prevalence of RLS in Saudi patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD on maintenance dialysis. This is a cross sectional study carried out between May and Sept 2007 at two centers, King Abdulaziz Medical City-King Fahad National Guard Hospital (KAMC-KFNGH, Riyadh and King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFHRC, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were gathered on 227 Saudi patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis or chronic peritoneal dialysis. The prevalence of RLS was measured using IRLSSG′s RLS Questionnaire (RLSQ. Potential risk factors for RLS including other sleep disorders, underlying cause of chronic renal failure, duration on dialysis, dialysis shift, biochemical tests and demographic data were also evaluated. The overall prevalence of RLS was 50.22% including 53.7% males and 46.3% females. Their mean age was 55.7 ± 17.2 years and mean duration on dialysis 40.4 ± 37.8 months. Significant predictors of RLS were history of diabetes mellitus (DM, coffee intake, afternoon dialysis, gender and type of dialysis (P= 0.03, 0.01, < 0.001, 0.05 and 0.009 respectively. Patients with RLS were found to be at increased risk of having insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS (P= < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively. Our study suggests that RLS is a very common problem in dialysis population and was significantly associated with other sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, and EDS. Optimal care of dialysis patient should include particular attention to the diagnosis

  19. Don't break a leg: running birds from quail to ostrich prioritise leg safety and economy on uneven terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V; Hubicki, Christian M; Blum, Yvonne; Renjewski, Daniel; Hurst, Jonathan W; Daley, Monica A

    2014-11-01

    Cursorial ground birds are paragons of bipedal running that span a 500-fold mass range from quail to ostrich. Here we investigate the task-level control priorities of cursorial birds by analysing how they negotiate single-step obstacles that create a conflict between body stability (attenuating deviations in body motion) and consistent leg force-length dynamics (for economy and leg safety). We also test the hypothesis that control priorities shift between body stability and leg safety with increasing body size, reflecting use of active control to overcome size-related challenges. Weight-support demands lead to a shift towards straighter legs and stiffer steady gait with increasing body size, but it remains unknown whether non-steady locomotor priorities diverge with size. We found that all measured species used a consistent obstacle negotiation strategy, involving unsteady body dynamics to minimise fluctuations in leg posture and loading across multiple steps, not directly prioritising body stability. Peak leg forces remained remarkably consistent across obstacle terrain, within 0.35 body weights of level running for obstacle heights from 0.1 to 0.5 times leg length. All species used similar stance leg actuation patterns, involving asymmetric force-length trajectories and posture-dependent actuation to add or remove energy depending on landing conditions. We present a simple stance leg model that explains key features of avian bipedal locomotion, and suggests economy as a key priority on both level and uneven terrain. We suggest that running ground birds target the closely coupled priorities of economy and leg safety as the direct imperatives of control, with adequate stability achieved through appropriately tuned intrinsic dynamics. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of arm-leg coordination in flat breaststroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, D; Seifert, L; Leblanc, H; Boulesteix, L; Carter, M

    2004-10-01

    This study proposes a new method to evaluate arm-leg coordination in flat breaststroke. Five arm and leg stroke phases were defined with a velocity-video system. Five time gaps quantified the time between arm and leg actions during three paces of a race (200 m, 100 m and 50 m) in 16 top level swimmers. Based on these time gaps, effective glide, effective propulsion, effective leg insweep and effective recovery were used to identify the different stroke phases of the body. A faster pace corresponded to increased stroke rate, decreased stroke length, increased propulsive phases, shorter glide phases, and a shorter T1 time gap, which measured the effective body glide. The top level swimmers showed short time gaps (T2, T3, T4, measuring the timing of arm-leg recoveries), which reflected the continuity in arm and leg actions. The measurement of these time gaps thus provides a pertinent evaluation of swimmers' skill in adapting their arm-leg coordination to biomechanical constraints.

  1. Evaluation of Thermoelectric Performance and Durability of Functionalized Skutterudite Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skomedal, Gunstein; Kristiansen, Nils R.; Sottong, Reinhard; Middleton, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    Thermoelectric generators are a promising technology for waste heat recovery. As new materials and devices enter a market penetration stage, it is of interest to employ fast and efficient measurement methods to evaluate the long-term stability of thermoelectric materials in combination with metallization and coating (functionalized thermoelectric legs). We have investigated a method for measuring several thermoelectric legs simultaneously. The legs are put under a common temperature gradient, and the electrical characteristics of each leg are measured individually during thermal cycling. Using this method, one can test different types of metallization and coating applied to skutterudite thermoelectric legs and look at the relative changes over time. Postcharacterization of these initial tests with skutterudite legs using a potential Seebeck microprobe and an electron microscope showed that oxidation and interlayer diffusion are the main reasons for the gradual increase in internal resistance and the decrease in open-circuit voltage. Although we only tested skutterudite material in this work, the method is fully capable of testing all kinds of material, metallization, and coating. It is thus a promising method for studying the relationship between failure modes and mechanisms of functionalized thermoelectric legs.

  2. Laterality of the legs in young female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antosiak-Cyrak Katarzyna Z.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present study was assessment of laterality of the legs of young female soccer players and their non-training counterparts. Methods. The study sample comprised 9 female soccer players and 19 non-training girls. They underwent three measurement sessions, one every six months. The applied tests included kinesthetic differentiation, rate of local movements, static balance, single-leg hop, rate of global movements, strength and speed, and functional asymmetry of the legs tests. Results. The soccer players were better than the controls in their performance of the rate of local movements, rate of global movements, kinesthetic differentiation, single-leg 15m timed hop and static balance tests. Smaller differences between the results of the left and the right legs in soccer players, than in non-training girls, were noted in the rate of local movements, rate of global movements and kinesthetic differentiation tests. In the static balance test, the differences were greater in the group of soccer players. Conclusions. Lateralization of the lower limbs is a highly complex characteristic with a different variability in athletes than in nontraining individuals. The results of the present study also point to the specialization of soccer players’ left legs in body balance and single-leg hop tests.

  3. [Design and application of medical electric leg-raising machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jintang; Chen, Jinyuan; Zhao, Zixian; Lin, Jinfeng; Li, Juanhong; Zhong, Jingliang

    2017-08-01

    Passive leg raising is widely used in clinic, but it lacks of specialized mechanical raise equipment. It requires medical staff to raise leg by hand or requires a multi-functional bed to raise leg, which takes time and effort. Therefore we have developed a new medical electric leg-raising machine. The equipment has the following characteristics: simple structure, stable performance, easy operation, fast and effective, safe and comfortable. The height range of the lifter is 50-120 cm, the range of the angle of raising leg is 10degree angle-80degree angle, the maximum supporting weight is 40 kg. Because of raising the height of the lower limbs and making precise angle, this equipment can completely replace the traditional manner of lifting leg by hand with multi-functional bed to lift patients' leg and can reduce the physical exhaustion and time consumption of medical staff. It can change the settings at any time to meet the needs of the patient; can be applied to the testing of PLR and dynamically assessing the hemodynamics; can prevent deep vein thrombosis and some related complications of staying in bed; and the machine is easy to be cleaned and disinfected, which can effectively avoid hospital acquired infection and cross infection; and can also be applied to emergency rescue of various disasters and emergencies.

  4. Late Paleocene-middle Eocene benthic foraminifera on a Pacific seamount (Allison Guyot, ODP Site 865): Greenhouse climate and superimposed hyperthermal events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreguín-Rodríguez, Gabriela J.; Alegret, Laia; Thomas, Ellen

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the response of late Paleocene-middle Eocene (~60-37.5 Ma) benthic foraminiferal assemblages to long-term climate change and hyperthermal events including the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 865 on Allison Guyot, a seamount in the Mid-Pacific Mountains. Seamounts are isolated deep-sea environments where enhanced current systems interrupt bentho-pelagic coupling, and fossil assemblages from such settings have been little evaluated. Assemblages at Site 865 are diverse and dominated by cylindrical calcareous taxa with complex apertures, an extinct group which probably lived infaunally. Dominance of an infaunal morphogroup is unexpected in a highly oligotrophic setting, but these forms may have been shallow infaunal suspension feeders, which were ecologically successful on the current-swept seamount. The magnitude of the PETM extinction at Site 865 was similar to other sites globally, but lower diversity postextinction faunas at this location were affected by ocean acidification as well as changes in current regime, which might have led to increased nutrient supply through trophic focusing. A minor hyperthermal saw less severe effects of changes in current regime, with no evidence for carbonate dissolution. Although the relative abundance of infaunal benthic foraminifera has been used as a proxy for surface productivity through bentho-pelagic coupling, we argue that this proxy can be used only in the absence of changes in carbonate saturation and current-driven biophysical linking.

  5. [Innovative therapy for leg ulcers: Electrostimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, H

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wounds can take a long time to heal despite appropriate therapy based upon aetiology and use of suitable dressings. The success of electrostimulation is based upon the existence within the skin of the endogenous currents involved in the wound healing process. Where skin continuity is broken by a wound, these electrical potentials are short-circuited, resulting in leakage of electrical current. Woundel(®) therapy is the only such treatment currently available in France and is based on the use of continuous pulsed current that generates an electrical field near the endogenous electrical fields. It utilises a console to deliver the electrical impulses, a dressing electrode and a dispersion electrode. The electrode dressing is left on the wound for 3 days, and venous compression bandaging may be applied to the leg, taking care to leave the connector free. Negative polarity stimulates migration of fibroblasts, resulting in elimination of fibrin. Positive polarity causes keratinocyte migration, which in turn leads to epidermisation. Electrostimulation is of recognised utility in the healing of chronic wounds: it has been assigned a high-level recommendation in the European and American guidelines for the treatment of venous ulcers and bedsores with proof level of A. Further, the analgesic effect of electrostimulation has been demonstrated in several studies. Electrostimulation is already well developed in France among wound specialists, but prospective studies are planned so that it may be used at patients' homes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Peripheral Dopamine in Restless Legs Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike H. Mitchell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective/BackgroundRestless Legs Syndrome (RLS is a dopamine-dependent disorder characterized by a strong urge to move. The objective of this study was to evalulate blood levels of dopamine and other catecholamines and blood D2-subtype dopamine receptors (D2Rs in RLS.Patients/MethodsDopamine levels in blood samples from age-matched unmedicated RLS subjects, medicated RLS subjects and Controls were evaluated with high performance liquid chromatography and dopamine D2R white blood cell (WBC expression levels were determined with fluorescence-activated cell sorting and immunocytochemistry.ResultsBlood plasma dopamine levels, but not norepinepherine or epinephrine levels, were significantly increased in medicated RLS subjects vs unmedicated RLS subjects and Controls. The percentage of lymphocytes and monocytes expressing D2Rs differed between Control, RLS medicated and RLS unmedicated subjects. Total D2R expression in lymphocytes, but not monocytes, differed between Control, RLS medicated and RLS unmedicated subjects. D2Rs in lymphocytes, but not monocytes, were sensitive to dopamine in Controls only.ConclusionDownregulation of WBCs D2Rs occurs in RLS. This downregulation is not reversed by medication, although commonly used RLS medications increase plasma dopamine levels. The insensitivity of monocytes to dopamine levels, but their downregulation in RLS, may reflect their utility as a biomarker for RLS and perhaps brain dopamine homeostasis.

  7. RAW CHICKEN LEG AND BREAST SENSORY EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Baston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we presented a method of sensorial evaluation for chicken meat (red and white. This is a descriptive method of analysis. It was perform with trained assessors for chicken refrigerated raw meat organoleptical evaluation. The sensorial attributes considered were: external aspect of anatomical part of chicken analyzed by slime, the surface odor, the skin and muscle color and muscular elasticity. Color was determined for the skin and white and red muscles. Our scale of analysis is formed by three values that characterize each quality attribute. The trained assessor appreciated the sensorial quality of raw anatomical part of chicken as excellent, acceptable and unacceptable. The objectives were: to establish the sensorial attributes to be analyzed for each type of muscular fiber, to describe the quality of each considered attribute and to realize a sensorial scale of quantification for the considered sensorial attributes. Our purpose was to determine the quality of the red and white refrigerated raw chicken anatomical parts (respectively for legs and breasts after one week of storage.

  8. Adjuvant Biological Therapies in Chronic Leg Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Burgos-Alonso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current biological treatments for non-healing wounds aim to address the common deviations in healing mechanisms, mainly inflammation, inadequate angiogenesis and reduced synthesis of extracellular matrix. In this context, regenerative medicine strategies, i.e., platelet rich plasmas and mesenchymal stromal cell products, may form part of adjuvant interventions in an integral patient management. We synthesized the clinical experience on ulcer management using these two categories of biological adjuvants. The results of ten controlled trials that are included in this systematic review favor the use of mesenchymal stromal cell based-adjuvants for impaired wound healing, but the number and quality of studies is moderate-low and are complicated by the diversity of biological products. Regarding platelet-derived products, 18 controlled studies investigated their efficacy in chronic wounds in the lower limb, but the heterogeneity of products and protocols hinders clinically meaningful quantitative synthesis. Most patients were diabetic, emphasizing an unmet medical need in this condition. Overall, there is not sufficient evidence to inform routine care, and further clinical research is necessary to realize the full potential of adjuvant regenerative medicine strategies in the management of chronic leg ulcers.

  9. Analytical Study of Active Prosthetic Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kyosuke; Katsumata, Mie

    Walking with prosthesis has not been well analyzed mathematically and it seems that the design of powered prosthesis has been done empirically so far. This paper presents a dynamic simulation of a normal human walking and walking with an active prosthesis. We also studied the two controlling methods of a powered thigh prosthesis based on multi-body simulation of human walking. First we measured the normal human walking gait, then, we showed that a 3-DOF human walking model can walk on level ground by applying tracking control to the measured walking gait within a certain range of tuned walking period. Next, we applied the tracking control and self-excited control to the powered thigh prosthesis and compared the robustness and efficiency of the two control methods by numerical simulation. As a result, we found that the self-excited control can significantly decrease the hip joint torque and specific cost to 1/3 compared with the tracking control. Moreover, the self-excited control is superior to the tracking control because tuning for the walking period is not needed for the active prosthetic leg.

  10. Primary headaches in restless legs syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies conducted among migraineurs have shown an association between migraine and restless legs syndrome (RLS. We chose RLS patients and looked for migraine to exclude sample bias. Materials and Methods: 99 consecutive subjects of idiopathic RLS were recruited from the sleep clinic during four months period. Physician diagnosis of headache and depressive disorder was made with the help of ICHD-2 and DSM-IV-TR criteria, respectively. Sleep history was gathered. Severity of RLS and insomnia was measured using IRLS (Hindi version and insomnia severity index Hindi version, respectively. Chi-square test, one way ANOVA and t-test were applied to find out the significance. Results: Primary headache was seen in 51.5% cases of RLS. Migraine was reported by 44.4% subjects and other types of ′primary headaches′ were reported by 7.1% subjects. Subjects were divided into- RLS; RLS with migraine and RLS with other headache. Females outnumbered in migraine subgroup (χ2 =16.46, P<0.001. Prevalence of depression (χ2 =3.12, P=0.21 and family history of RLS (χ2 =2.65, P=0.26 were not different among groups. Severity of RLS (P=0.22 or insomnia (P=0.43 were also similar. Conclusion: Migraine is frequently found in RLS patients in clinic based samples. Females with RLS are prone to develop migraine. Depression and severity of RLS or insomnia do not affect development of headache.

  11. Clinical correlates of the restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fabiano Marin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical correlates of the restless legs syndrome (RLS in a Brazilian sleep disorders center. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 118 patients with RLS from January, 2004, to December, 2010. The analyzed variables were: age at disease onset, gender, race, years of school instruction, primary and secondary RLS, and treatment options. RESULTS: Among the studied patients, 83.9% were women with a female/male sex ratio of 5:1. Mean age of the patients at symptom onset ± standard deviation was 41.7±17.9 years-old. The primary RLS was found in 85% of patients. The other 15% remainders consisted of secondary forms, and they were associated with neuropathy, iron deficiency anemia, end-stage renal disease, or Parkinson's disease. Drug therapy for RLS was introduced in 67% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients presented primary RLS with an early disease onset. Further epidemiological studies are welcomed to provide better information on secondary RLS in Brazil.

  12. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all...

  13. 77 FR 2972 - Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application for Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene Thunder Bay Power Company Project No. 2404-095 Thunder Bay Power, LLC Midwest Hydro, Inc...

  14. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. 162.125 Section 162.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.125 Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship...

  15. 77 FR 38488 - Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY... restrict vessels from a portion of the St. Lawrence River during the Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce... of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence...

  16. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  17. Humboldt Bay Benthic Habitats 2009 Aquatic Setting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  18. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  19. South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  20. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  1. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  2. Radiating leg pain and positive straight leg raising in spondylolysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, N; Copeliovitch, L; Schachner, E

    1983-09-01

    Three children presented with low back pain radiating to the leg and with spasm of the hamstring and paravertebral muscles. Since the pain could not be ascribed to trauma, it was necessary to exclude the presence of infection or tumors. All the signs--localization of the pain, tenderness on one side of the back, X-ray film findings of unilateral or bilateral spondylolysis, and localized positive bone scan--pointed to spondylolysis as the cause of pain. All three children exhibited symptoms resembling those found in the facet syndrome described by Mooney and Robertson.

  3. Analysis of large break loss of coolant accident with simultaneous injection into cold leg and hot leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Bangqi

    1997-01-01

    When a large break loss of coolant accident occurs, the most part of the safety injection water injected into the cold leg by the safety injection system will flow through the channel between the pressure vessel and the barrel out of the break into the containment, only a little part of the safety injection water can flow into the reactor core. If the safety injection can inject into both the cold leg and the hot leg simultaneously, the safety injection water injected from the cold leg will flow into the core more easily, because the safety injection water injected from the hot leg will carry out more heat from the upper plenum and the core, so the upper plenum and the core is depressed. In addition, a small part of the safety injection water injected from the hot leg will flow down in the core after impinging the guide tubes in the upper plenum, so the core will get more safety injection water than only cold leg injection, and the core will be much safer

  4. Contaminant transport in Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford

    Construction of a new treatment plant and outfall to clean up Boston Harbor is currently one of the world's largest public works projects, costing about $4 billion. There is concern about the long-term impact of contaminants on Massachusetts Bay and adjacent Gulf of Maine because these areas are used extensively for transportation, recreation, fishing, and tourism, as well as waste disposal. Public concern also focuses on Stellwagen Bank, located on the eastern side of Massachusetts Bay, which is an important habitat for endangered whales. Contaminants reach Massachusetts Bay not only from Boston Harbor, but from other coastal communities on the Gulf of Maine, as well as from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the pathways, mechanisms, and rates at which pollutants are transported throughout these coastal environments is needed to address a wide range of management questions.

  5. Bayes linear statistics, theory & methods

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian methods combine information available from data with any prior information available from expert knowledge. The Bayes linear approach follows this path, offering a quantitative structure for expressing beliefs, and systematic methods for adjusting these beliefs, given observational data. The methodology differs from the full Bayesian methodology in that it establishes simpler approaches to belief specification and analysis based around expectation judgements. Bayes Linear Statistics presents an authoritative account of this approach, explaining the foundations, theory, methodology, and practicalities of this important field. The text provides a thorough coverage of Bayes linear analysis, from the development of the basic language to the collection of algebraic results needed for efficient implementation, with detailed practical examples. The book covers:The importance of partial prior specifications for complex problems where it is difficult to supply a meaningful full prior probability specification...

  6. With Prudhoe Bay in decline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.; Pollock, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Almost every day, it seems, someone is mentioning Prudhoe Bay---its development activities, the direction of its oil production, and more recently its decline rate. Almost as frequently, someone is mentioning the number of companies abandoning exploration in Alaska. The state faces a double-edged dilemma: decline of its most important oil field and a diminished effort to find a replacement for the lost production. ARCO has seen the Prudhoe Bay decline coming for some time and has been planning for it. We have reduced staff, and ARCO and BP Exploration are finding cost-effective ways to work more closely together through such vehicles as shared services. At the same time, ARCO is continuing its high level of Alaskan exploration. This article will assess the future of Prudhoe Bay from a technical perspective, review ARCO's exploration plans for Alaska, and suggest what the state can do to encourage other companies to invest in this crucial producing region and exploratory frontier

  7. Distribution and behavior of major and trace elements in Tokyo Bay, Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki; Kimura, Ken-ichiro

    2003-01-01

    Fourteen major and trace elements in marine sediment core samples collected from the coasts along eastern Japan, i.e. Tokyo Bay (II) (the recess), Tokyo Bay (IV) (the mouth), Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay and the Northwest Pacific basin as a comparative subject were determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The sedimentation rates and sedimentary ages were calculated for the coastal sediment cores by the 210 Pb method. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows: (1) Lanthanoid abundance patterns suggested that the major origin of the sediments was terrigenous material. La*/Lu* and Ce*/La* ratios revealed that the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Mutsu Bay more directly reflected the contribution from river than those of other regions. In addition, the Th/Sc ratio indicated that the coastal sediments mainly originated in the materials from the volcanic island-arcs, Japanese islands, whereas those from the Northwest Pacific mainly from the continent. (2) The correlation between the Ce/U and Th/U ratios with high correlation coefficients of 0.920 to 0.991 indicated that all the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Funka Bay were in reducing conditions while at least the upper sediments from Tokyo Bay (IV) and Mutsu Bay were in oxidizing conditions. (3) It became quite obvious that the sedimentation mechanism and the sedimentation environment at Tokyo Bay (II) was different from those at Tokyo Bay (IV), since the sedimentation rate at Tokyo Bay (II) was approximately twice as large as that at Tokyo Bay (IV). The sedimentary age of the 5th layer (8∼10 cm in depth) from Funka Bay was calculated at approximately 1940∼50, which agreed with the time, 1943∼45 when Showa-shinzan was formed by the eruption of the Usu volcano. (author)

  8. Mobile Bay turbidity plume study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field transmissometer studies on the effect of suspended particulate material upon the appearance of water are reported. Quantitative correlations were developed between remotely sensed image density, optical sea truth data, and actual sediment load. Evaluation of satellite image sea truth data for an offshore plume projects contours of transmissivity for two different tidal phases. Data clearly demonstrate the speed of change and movement of the optical plume for water patterns associated with the mouth of Mobile bay in which relatively clear Gulf of Mexico water enters the bay on the eastern side. Data show that wind stress in excess of 15 knots has a marked impact in producing suspended sediment loads.

  9. Automation in tube finishing bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Prateek; Satyadev, B.; Raghuraman, S.; Syama Sundara Rao, B.

    1997-01-01

    Automation concept in tube finishing bay, introduced after the final pass annealing of PHWR tubes resulted in integration of number of sub-systems in synchronisation with each other to produce final cut fuel tubes of specified length, tube finish etc. The tube finishing bay which was physically segregated into four distinct areas: 1. tube spreader and stacking area, 2. I.D. sand blasting area, 3. end conditioning, wad blowing, end capping and O.D. wet grinding area, 4. tube inspection, tube cutting and stacking area has been studied

  10. Chesapeake Bay plume dynamics from LANDSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Fedosh, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT images with enhancement and density slicing show that the Chesapeake Bay plume usually frequents the Virginia coast south of the Bay mouth. Southwestern (compared to northern) winds spread the plume easterly over a large area. Ebb tide images (compared to flood tide images) show a more dispersed plume. Flooding waters produce high turbidity levels over the shallow northern portion of the Bay mouth.

  11. Default Bayes factors for ANOVA designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Morey, Richard D.; Speckman, Paul L.; Province, Jordan M.

    2012-01-01

    Bayes factors have been advocated as superior to p-values for assessing statistical evidence in data. Despite the advantages of Bayes factors and the drawbacks of p-values, inference by p-values is still nearly ubiquitous. One impediment to the adoption of Bayes factors is a lack of practical

  12. The pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Iwanami, Masaoki; Suzuki, Keisuke; Hirata, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder that is frequently associated with periodic leg movements (PLMS). RLS is generally considered to be a central nervous system (CNS)-related disorder although no specific lesion has been found to be associated with the syndrome. Reduced intracortical inhibition has been demonstrated in RLS by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Some MRI studies have revealed the presence of morphologic changes in the somatosensory cortex, motor cortex and thalamic gray matter. The results of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) studies showed that the limbic and opioid systems also play important roles in the pathophysiology of RLS. A functional MRI study revealed abnormal bilateral cerebellar and thalamic activation during the manifestation of sensory symptoms, with additional red nucleus and reticular formation activity during PLMS. PLMS is likely to occur in patients with spinal cord lesions, and some patients with sensory polyneuropathy may exhibit RLS symptoms. RLS symptoms seem to depend on abnormal spinal sensorimotor integration at the spinal cord level and abnormal central somatosensory processing. PLMS appears to depend on increased excitability of the spinal cord and a decreased supraspinal inhibitory mechanism from the A11 diencephalic dopaminergic system. RLS symptoms respond very dramatically to dopaminergic therapy. The results of analysis by PET and SPECT studies of striatal D2 receptor binding in humans are inconclusive. However, studies in animal models suggest that the participation of the A11 dopaminergic system and the D3 receptor in RLS symptoms. The symptoms of RLS are aggravated in those with iron deficiency, and iron treatment ameliorates the symptoms in some patients. Neuroimaging studies, analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid, and studies on postmortem tissue and use of animal models have indicated that low brain iron concentrations and dysfunction of

  13. The Motor and the Brake of the Trailing Leg in Human Walking: Leg Force Control Through Ankle Modulation and Knee Covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toney, Megan E.; Chang, Young-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Human walking is a complex task, and we lack a complete understanding of how the neuromuscular system organizes its numerous muscles and joints to achieve consistent and efficient walking mechanics. Focused control of select influential task-level variables may simplify the higher-level control of steady state walking and reduce demand on the neuromuscular system. As trailing leg power generation and force application can affect the mechanical efficiency of step-to-step transitions, we investigated how joint torques are organized to control leg force and leg power during human walking. We tested whether timing of trailing leg force control corresponded with timing of peak leg power generation. We also applied a modified uncontrolled manifold analysis to test whether individual or coordinated joint torque strategies most contributed to leg force control. We found that leg force magnitude was adjusted from step-to-step to maintain consistent leg power generation. Leg force modulation was primarily determined by adjustments in the timing of peak ankle plantar-flexion torque, while knee torque was simultaneously covaried to dampen the effect of ankle torque on leg force. We propose a coordinated joint torque control strategy in which the trailing leg ankle acts as a motor to drive leg power production while trailing leg knee torque acts as a brake to refine leg power production. PMID:27334888

  14. Development and Physical Control Research on Prototype Artificial Leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To provide an ideal platform for research on intelligent bionic leg (IBL, this paper proposes a model of a biped robot with heterogeneous legs (BRHL. A prototype of an artificial leg is developed based on biological structure and motion principle analysis of human lower extremities. With regard to the driving sources, servomotors are chosen for the hip joint and ankle joint, while pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs are chosen for the knee joint. The control system of the bionic artificial leg is designed and a physical experimental platform is established. The physical control experiments are done based on proportional-integral-derivative (PID control strategy. The experimental results show that such a system can realize the expected goals.

  15. Seismic response analysis for hinged-leg type port crane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwazaki, A.; Kanayama, T.; Arai, K. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Container cranes and unloaders in Kobe Pont were severely damaged during the Southern Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake in 1995. Notably, some of the hinged-leg type of cranes with hinges at the end of sea-or land-side of legs were overturned. These damages were derived from the uplifting of their legs. To explain the uplifting and overturning behavior, we carried out nonlinear analyses and shaking table tests using a 1/8-scale model of the container crane. The results of nonlinear response analyses of hinged-leg type of crane, which are in an agreement with the state of damages in the Southern Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake and the result of shaking table tests, are described. (author)

  16. Emphysematous Pyelonephritis Presenting as Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xiong Ye

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a 50-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus who presented with a painful, swollen right leg. He had also experienced right flank pain for 1 week prior to admission. Physical examination was notable for tenderness over the right flank. The right leg was diffusely swollen and exquisitely tender to touch, with palpable crepitance. Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis and pyuria. Computed tomography showed a right ureteral stone with hydronephrosis and characteristic findings of emphysematous pyelonephritis. Furthermore, a right perirenal gas-forming abscess with extension to the right leg was noted. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy, aggressive control of blood sugar, percutaneous drainage of the hydronephrosis and perirenal abscess, and aggressive debridement of the leg.

  17. Dynamic Leg Exercise Improves Tolerance to Lower Body Negative Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Stout, M. S.; Murthy, G.; Whalen, R. T.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    These results clearly demonstrate that dynamic leg exercise against the footward force produced by LBNP substantially improves tolerance to LBNP, and that even cyclic ankle flexion without load bearing also increases tolerance. This exercise-induced increase of tolerance was actually an underestimate, because subjects who completed the tolerance test while exercising could have continued for longer periods. Exercise probably increases LBNP tolerance by multiple mechanisms. Tolerance was increased in part by skeletal muscle pumping venous blood from the legs. Rosenhamer and Linnarsson and Rosenhamer also deduced this for subjects cycling during centrifugation, although no measurements of leg volume were made in those studies: they found that male subjects cycling at 98 W could endure 3 Gz centrifugation longer than when they remained relaxed during centrifugation. Skeletal muscle pumping helps maintain cardiac filling pressure by opposing gravity-, centrifugation-, or LBNP-induced accumulation of blood and extravascular fluid in the legs.

  18. Epidemiology, etiology, and treatment of chronic leg ulcer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic leg ulcer (CLU) is reported to have an impact on virtually all ... Conclusion: Most patients benefited from debridement with or without split thickness skin graft or flap. .... low incidence of arterial and venous diseases in.

  19. Hereditary Lymphedema of the Leg – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Heinig

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary of hereditary lymphedema is a rare but progressive disease. It is yet not curable. We present a 48-year-old male patient with hereditary lymphedema of his left leg, that was realised by minor trauma (able twist when he was seven years old. He had never been treated for lymphedema but experienced multiple erysipelas during his life. After diagnostic procedures to exclude other causes of leg swelling, the diagnosis of hereditary lymphedema of the leg, stage III was confirmed. We initialized complex decongestive therapy. During two weeks of intensive treatment, the circumference of the left leg could be reduced by 10 cm. This case illustrates the "natural course" hereditary lymphedema. But it raises the hope that even after decades of ignorance, the patients benefits from complex decongestive treatment. Therapeutic nihilism is unnecessary and poses lymphedema patients to risks of infection and secondary malignancies like Stewart-Trewes syndrome.

  20. Quality of Life in People with Leg Ulcer, Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Alves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the main changes in the daily life of people with leg ulcer and how that affects the person’s quality of life. Methodology: We used the methodology PI [C] OD and selected four research articles, taken from EBSCO, PubMed, and EWMA. Results: The main changes identified in the people’s daily live with leg ulcers are physical (pain, decreased mobility, presence of exudate, bad smell from the wound and change in the style of clothing, psychological (sleep disorders, depression, anxiety, feelings of rejection and low self-steem, social (isolation, restriction in leisure activities, inability to perform household chores. Conclusions: The literature about the person’s quality of life with leg ulcer reported a significant impact in the daily life. The care provided by nurses should be centered on the person, integrating all the kind of needs and the leg ulcer must not be the sole focus of care

  1. Reasonable designing method for fillet welding leg length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiso, T; Michiyuki, T; Nagao, S; Yoshikawa, M; Miyazaki, S

    1976-12-01

    In VLCC and ULCC vessels, the scantling of structural members, especially the thickness of web plate, increases naturally. The present rule of each classification society generally prescribes that welding leg length should be based on the thickness of the web plate. Welding leg length between this web plate and skin plate such as shell plate, deck plate, etc., or face plate, increases according to increase of the thickness of the web plate. We investigated the method to decide reasonable welding leg length and its programming by using the results of finite element method structural analysis, without adhering to the above rule about welding leg length. As a result of applying this method to actual ships under classification societies' approval, the amount of welding decreased by from about 10 percent to 15 percent compared with that required by the above rule. The rationality of the method has been already confirmed by successful results of the application to several vessels in service.

  2. Eyelash Transplantation Using Leg Hair by Follicular Unit Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanusi Umar, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Fine hairs of the head and nape areas have been used as donor sources in eyelash transplantation but are straight, coarse, and grow rapidly, requiring frequent eyelash maintenance. This is the first reported case of eyelash transplantation by follicular unit extraction using leg hair as a donor source; findings were compared with that of another patient who underwent a similar procedure with donor hairs from the nape area. Although both patients reported marked improvement in fullness of eyelashes within 3 months postsurgery, the transplanted leg hair eyelashes required less frequent trimming (every 5–6 weeks compared with nape hair eyelashes (every 2–3 weeks. Additionally, in leg hair eyelashes, the need for perming to sustain a natural looking eyelash curl was eliminated. Eyelash transplantation using leg donor hair in hirsute women may result in good cosmetic outcomes and require less maintenance compared with nape donor hair.

  3. Leg-adjustment strategies for stable running in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peuker, Frank; Maufroy, Christophe; Seyfarth, André

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of the center of mass (CoM) in the sagittal plane in humans and animals during running is well described by the spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP). With appropriate parameters, SLIP running patterns are stable, and these models can recover from perturbations without the need for corrective strategies, such as the application of additional forces. Rather, it is sufficient to adjust the leg to a fixed angle relative to the ground. In this work, we consider the extension of the SLIP to three dimensions (3D SLIP) and investigate feed-forward strategies for leg adjustment during the flight phase. As in the SLIP model, the leg is placed at a fixed angle. We extend the scope of possible reference axes from only fixed horizontal and vertical axes to include the CoM velocity vector as a movement-related reference, resulting in six leg-adjustment strategies. Only leg-adjustment strategies that include the CoM velocity vector produced stable running and large parameter domains of stability. The ability of the model to recover from perturbations along the direction of motion (directional stability) depended on the strategy for lateral leg adjustment. Specifically, asymptotic and neutral directional stability was observed for strategies based on the global reference axis and the velocity vector, respectively. Additional features of velocity-based leg adjustment are running at arbitrary low speed (kinetic energy) and the emergence of large domains of stable 3D running that are smoothly transferred to 2D SLIP stability and even to 1D SLIP hopping. One of the additional leg-adjustment strategies represented a large convex region of parameters where stable and robust hopping and running patterns exist. Therefore, this strategy is a promising candidate for implementation into engineering applications, such as robots, for instance. In a preliminary comparison, the model predictions were in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that the 3D SLIP is an

  4. Fatal pox infection in a rough-legged hawk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, G.L.; Pass, D.A.; Beggs, E.C.

    1975-01-01

    Natural pox infection occurred in a free-living rough-legged hawk (Buteo lagopus) in northeastern North Dakota. Gross, histological and electron microscopic findings were typical of pox infection, and characteristic lesions developed in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) but not in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) following inoculation with case material. Death of the rough-legged hawk was attributed to starvation resulting from inability to capture prey and to blood loss from foot lesions.

  5. Leg ulcer assessment techniques in a remote rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Julia

    Community-based leg ulcer clinics are a cost-effective and efficient way of managing patients with leg ulcers in the community (Blair et al, 1988; Moffatt and Oldroyd, 1994). According to the Scottish Clinical Standards for Vascular Services (NHS Quality Improvement Scotland, 2003): 'It is essential that all vascular patients are seen by a nurse with vascular expertise, who is able to provide information, support and health promotion advice'.

  6. Cervical cord compression presenting with sciatica-like leg pain

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Chee Keong; Lee, Ho-Yeon; Choi, Won-Chul; Cho, Ji Young; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Sciatica-like leg pain can be the main presenting symptom in patients with cervical cord compression. It is a false localizing presentation, which may lead to missed or delayed diagnosis, resulting in the wrong plan of management, especially in the presence of concurrent lumbar lesions. Medical history, physical findings and the results of imaging studies were reviewed in two cases of cervical cord compressions, which presented with sciatica-like leg pain. There was multi-level cervical spond...

  7. Modeling posture-dependent leg actuation in sagittal plane locomotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J; Clark, J

    2009-01-01

    The spring loaded inverted pendulum template has been shown to accurately model the steady locomotion dynamics of a variety of running animals, and has served as the inspiration for an entire class of dynamic running robots. While the template models the leg dynamics by an energy-conserving spring, insects and animals have structures that dissipate, store and produce energy during a stance phase. Recent investigations into the spring-like properties of limbs, as well as animal response to drop-step perturbations, suggest that animals use their legs to manage energy storage and dissipation, and that this management is important for gait stability. In this paper, we extend our previous analysis of control of the spring loaded inverted pendulum template via changes in the leg touch-down angle to include energy variations during the stance phase. Energy variations are incorporated through leg actuation that varies the force-free leg length during the stance phase, yet maintains qualitatively correct force and velocity profiles. In contrast to the partially asymptotically stable gaits identified in previous analyses, incorporating energy and leg angle variations in this manner produces complete asymptotic stability. Drop-step perturbation simulations reveal that the control strategy is rather robust, with gaits recovering from drops of up to 30% of the nominal hip height.

  8. Straight leg elevation to rule out pelvic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Caroline; O'Keeffe, Francis; Finnegan, Pete; Dickson, Kristofer; Smit, De Villiers; Fitzgerald, Mark C; Mitra, Biswadev

    2018-02-01

    Pelvic x-ray is frequently used as a screening tool during initial assessment of injured patients. However routine use in the awake and alert blunt trauma patient may be questioned due to low yield. We propose a clinical tool that may avoid unnecessary imaging by examining whether the ability to straight leg raise, without pain, can rule out pelvic injury. We conducted a prospective cohort study with the exposure variables of ability to straight leg raise and presence of pain on doing so, and presence of pelvic fracture on x-ray as the primary outcome variable. Of the 328 participants, 35 had pelvic fractures, and of these 32 were either unable to straight leg raise, or had pain on doing so, with a sensitivity of 91.43% (95% CI: 76.94-98.2%) and a negative predictive value of 98.57% (95% CI: 95.88-99.70%). The 3 participants with a pelvic fracture who could straight leg raise with no pain, all had a GCS of less than 15, and therefore, among the sub-group of patients with GCS15, a 100% sensitivity and 100% negative predictive value for straight leg raise with no pain to rule out pelvic fracture was demonstrated. Among awake, alert patients, painless straight leg raise can exclude pelvic fractures and be incorporated into initial examination during reception and resuscitation of injured patients. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Toward Balance Recovery With Leg Prostheses Using Neuromuscular Model Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lower limb amputees are at high risk of falling as current prosthetic legs provide only limited functionality for recovering balance after unexpected disturbances. For instance, the most established control method used on powered leg prostheses tracks local joint impedance functions without taking the global function of the leg in balance recovery into account. Here we explore an alternative control policy for powered transfemoral prostheses that considers the global leg function and is based on a neuromuscular model of human locomotion. Methods We adapt this model to describe and simulate an amputee walking with a powered prosthesis using the proposed control, and evaluate the gait robustness when confronted with rough ground and swing leg disturbances. We then implement and partially evaluate the resulting controller on a leg prosthesis prototype worn by a non-amputee user. Results In simulation, the proposed prosthesis control leads to gaits that are more robust than those obtained by the impedance control method. The initial hardware experiments with the prosthesis prototype show that the proposed control reproduces normal walking patterns qualitatively and effectively responds to disturbances in early and late swing. However, the response to mid-swing disturbances neither replicates human responses nor averts falls. Conclusions The neuromuscular model control is a promising alternative to existing prosthesis controls, although further research will need to improve on the initial implementation and determine how well these results transfer to amputee gait. Significance This work provides a potential avenue for future development of control policies that help improve amputee balance recovery. PMID:26315935

  10. Ultrasonography of Skin Changes in Legs with Chronic Venous Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiati, A

    2016-10-01

    In daily practice, ultrasonography (US) is used only to designate the location and pattern of venous lesions. Skin US is not performed between routine venous investigations. Skin morphology is evaluated by the same probes used for routine Duplex evaluation of superficial veins. US findings from evident skin lesions are comparatively evaluated with those from the surrounding apparently normal skin and from the contralateral leg. Inflammation and dermal edema can be found in the apparently normal skin of C2 legs. Swollen legs show thickening of the subcutaneous layer as a result of diffuse soaking or anechoic cavities, with or without dermal edema. Chronic hypodermitis is characterized by inflammatory edema in initial phases, and by liposclerosis in advanced cases. Recrudescence of inflammation provokes focal rarefactions of the subcutaneous layer, possibly related to ulcer opening. In legs with venous disorders, sonography refines clinical evaluation of the skin and may reveal changes not highlighted by inspection. Some of these changes could require further investigation because they have not yet been explained or described. Skin sonography should improve knowledge of the natural history of skin changes, as well as contribute to a better grading of venous diseases severity In particular, US evidence of cutaneous and subcutaneous changes in C2 legs should be considered to stratify the treatment in C2 legs, by identifying those in which varicose veins are not simply a cosmetic problem. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of spinal manipulation on imbalances in leg strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilibeck, Philip D; Cornish, Stephen M; Schulte, Al; Jantz, Nathan; Magnus, Charlene R A; Schwanbeck, Shane; Juurlink, Bernhard H J

    2011-09-01

    We hypothesized that spinal manipulation (SM) would reduce strength imbalances between legs. Using an un-blinded randomized design, 28 males and 21 females (54 ± 19y) with at least a 15% difference in isometric strength between legs for hip flexion, extension, abduction, or knee flexion were randomized to treatment or placebo (mock spinal manipulation). Strength of the stronger and weaker legs for hip flexion, extension, abduction, and/or knee flexion was assessed before and after the intervention. SM reduced the relative strength difference between legs for knee flexion (mean ± SD 57 ± 53 to 5 ± 14%) and hip flexion (24 ± 12 to 11 ± 15%) compared to placebo (34 ± 29 to 24 ± 36%, and 20 ± 18 to 22 ± 26%, respectively) (p = 0.05). SM also improved strength in the weak leg for hip abduction (104 ± 43 to 116 ± 43 Nm) compared to placebo (84 ± 24 to 85 ± 31 Nm) (p = 0.03). This study suggests that spinal manipulation may reduce imbalances in strength between legs for knee and hip flexion.

  12. Classification using Hierarchical Naive Bayes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Dyhre Nielsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Classification problems have a long history in the machine learning literature. One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing set of classifiers is the Naïve Bayes models. However, an inherent problem with these classifiers is the assumption that all attributes used to describe......, termed Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models. Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models extend the modeling flexibility of Naïve Bayes models by introducing latent variables to relax some of the independence statements in these models. We propose a simple algorithm for learning Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models...

  13. Latest results from Daya Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobel, Vit; Daya Bay Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment was designed to measure θ 13, the smallest mixing angle in the three-neutrino mixing framework, with unprecedented precision. The experiment consists of eight functionally identical detectors placed underground at different baselines from three pairs of nuclear reactors in South China. Since Dec. 2011, the experiment has been running stably for more than 4 years, and has collected the largest reactor anti-neutrino sample to date. Daya Bay is able to greatly improve the precision on θ 13 and to make an independent measurement of the effective mass splitting in the electron antineutrino disappearance channel. Daya Bay can also perform a number of other precise measurements, such as a high-statistics determination of the absolute reactor antineutrino flux and spectrum, as well as a search for sterile neutrino mixing, among others. The most recent results from Daya Bay are discussed in this paper, as well as the current status and future prospects of the experiment.

  14. Daya bay reactor neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jun

    2010-01-01

    Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment is a large international collaboration experiment under construction. The experiment aims to precisely determine the neutrino mixing angle θ 13 by detecting the neutrinos produced by the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant. θ 13 is one of two unknown fundamental parameters in neutrino mixing. Its magnitude is a roadmap of the future neutrino physics, and very likely related to the puzzle of missing antimatter in our universe. The precise measurement has very important physics significance. The detectors of Daya Bay is under construction now. The full operation is expected in 2011. Three years' data taking will reach the designed the precision, to determine sin 2 2θ 13 to better than 0.01. Daya Bay neutrino detector is an underground large nuclear detector of low background, low energy, and high precision. In this paper, the layout of the experiment, the design and fabrication progress of the detectors, and some highlighted nuclear detecting techniques developed in the detector R and D are introduced. (author)

  15. Late Pliocene/Pleistocene changes in Arctic sea-ice cover: Biomarker and dinoflagellate records from Fram Strait/Yermak Plateau (ODP Sites 911 and 912)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; Matthiessen, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Sea ice is a critical component in the (global) climate system that contributes to changes in the Earth's albedo (heat reduction) and biological processes (primary productivity), as well as deep-water formation, a driving mechanism for global thermohaline circulation. Thus, understanding the processes controlling Arctic sea ice variability is of overall interest and significance. Recently, a novel and promising biomarker proxy for reconstruction of Arctic sea-ice conditions was developed and is based on the determination of a highly-branched isoprenoid with 25 carbons (IP25; Belt et al., 2007; PIP25 when combined with open-water phytoplankton biomarkers; Müller et al., 2011). Here, we present biomarker data from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 911 and 912, recovered from the southern Yermak Plateau and representing information of sea-ice variability, changes in primary productivity and terrigenous input during the last about 3.5 Ma. As Sites 911 and 912 are close to the modern sea-ice edge, their sedimentary records seem to be optimal for studying past variability in sea-ice coverage and testing the applicability of IP25 and PIP25 in older sedimentary sequences. In general, our biomarker records correlate quite well with other climate and sea-ice proxies (e.g., dinoflagellates, IRD, etc.). The main results can be summarized as follows: (1) The novel IP25/PIP25 biomarker approach has potential for semi-quantitative paleo-sea ice studies covering at least the last 3.5 Ma, i.e., the time interval including the onset (intensification) of major Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG). (2) These data indicate that sea ice of variable extent was present in the Fram Strait/southern Yermak Plateau area during most of the time period under investigation. (3) Elevated IP25/PIP25 values indicative for an extended spring sea-ice cover, already occurred between 3.6 and 2.9 Ma, i.e., prior to the onset of major NHG. This may suggest that sea-ice and related albedo effects might

  16. Leg kinematics and kinetics in landing from a single-leg hop for distance. A comparison between dominant and non-dominant leg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Harst, J. J.; Gokeler, A.; Hof, A. L.

    Background. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency can be a major problem for athletes and subsequent reconstruction of the ACL may be indicated if a conservative regimen has failed. After ACL reconstruction signs of abnormality in the use of the leg remain for a long time. It is expected that

  17. Leg symptoms associated with sacroiliac joint disorder and related pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Eiichi; Aizawa, Toshimi; Kurosawa, Daisuke; Noguchi, Kyoko

    2017-06-01

    The symptoms of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) disorders are usually detected in the buttock and groin, and occasionally referred to the thigh and leg. However, lumbar disorders also cause symptoms in these same body regions. The presence of a characteristic, symptomatic pattern in the legs would be useful for diagnosing SIJ disorders. This study aimed to identify specific leg symptoms in patients with SIJ pain originating from the posterior sacroiliac ligament and determine the rate of occurrence of these symptoms. The source population consisted of 365 consecutive patients from February 2005 to December 2007. One hundred patients were diagnosed with SIJ pain by a periarticular SIJ injection (42 males and 58 females, average age 46 years, age range, 18-75 years). A leg symptom map was made by subtracting the symptoms after a periarticular SIJ injection from the initial symptoms, and evaluating the rate of each individual symptom by area. Ninety-four patients reported pain at or around the posterior-superior iliac spine (PSIS). Leg symptoms comprised pain and a numbness/tingling sensation; ≥60% of the patients had these symptoms. Pain was mainly detected in the back, buttock, groin, and thigh areas, while numbness/tingling was mainly detected in the lateral to posterior thigh and back of the calf. Leg symptoms associated with SIJ pain originating from the posterior sacroiliac ligament include both pain and numbness, which do not usually correspond to the dermatome. These leg symptoms in addition to pain around the PSIS may indicate SIJ disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep apnea in patients reporting insomnia or restless legs symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, M T; Goparaju, B; Moro, M

    2016-01-01

    Insomnia and restless legs syndrome (RLS) are defined by self-reported symptoms, and polysomnography (PSG) is not routinely indicated. Occult obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), common even in asymptomatic adults, may complicate management of patients presenting with insomnia or restless legs. To this end, we investigated objective sleep apnea metrics in a large retrospective cohort according to self-reported symptom profiles. We compared sleep apnea findings in patients referred to our center according to self-reported symptoms associated with insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless legs. The cohort included over 1900 adults who underwent diagnostic (n = 1418) or split-night (n = 504) PSGs and completed a symptom and medical history questionnaire. More than 30% of patients who did not endorse any OSA symptoms, but did endorse insomnia or restless legs symptoms, were found to have OSA based on apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) >5 during overnight laboratory testing. Regression models of the full cohort showed that the risk of OSA was related, as expected, to older age, male sex, elevated body mass index, and presence of OSA symptoms. The presence of insomnia symptoms did not alter the risk of OSA. The presence of restless legs symptoms showed a small odds ratio for lowered OSA risk. Objective evidence of OSA occurs similarly in those with insomnia or restless legs symptoms, even among those without self-reported OSA symptoms. Providers should be aware of the potential for occult OSA in populations with insomnia and restless legs, which may complicate their management in addition to presenting an independent medical risk itself. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Comparing the Leg Muscles Electromyography during Single Leg Drop Landing in Pesplanus and Normal Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mostafa bazvand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: pesplanus is one of the changes that brings about changes in muscle activation patterns. Being aware of muscles activity changes in various standing positions among pesplanus patients provides insights into preventing lower extremity injuries in this population. The aim of this study was to compare leg muscles electromyography during various standing positions in pesplanus and normal subjects. Methods: 60 healthy male university students, 30 subjects with pesplanus deformity (with average age 23/54±3/57 year, average height 175/34±7/62 cm, average weight 74/87±10/72 kg and 30 normal subjects (with average age 22/97±2/38 year, average height 176/6±5/59 cm, average weight 73/58±8/36 kg participated in this comparative study. Deformity of pesplanus was assessed with navicular drop test. Each subject performed single-leg landing dropping from 30cm height onto a force platform where muscles activity was recorded with EMG device. For data analysis, Matlab and Spss softwares were used and independent sample t-test was used to compare the dependent variables at a significance level of P &le 0/05. Results: Significant differences were observed between the two groups for the activities of the longus peroneus and anterior tibialis muscles ( p&le0/05 while no significant differences were observed in other muscles. Conclusion: The changes in the normal structure of the foot might affect muscle activities during standing, which can cause changes in the injury patterns. Therefore, it is proposed that focusing on corrective exercises and therapy plan can reduce these risks.

  20. Military boot attenuates axial loading to the lower leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Schlick, Michael; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A

    2014-01-01

    Biomechanical tests to understand injury mechanisms and derive injury tolerance information using Post-Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) have not used foot protection and they have primarily focused on civilian environments such as automotive and athletic- and sports-related events. As military personnel use boots, tests with the boot are required to understand their effect on attenuating lower leg loads. The purpose of this study was therefore, to determine the modulation of human lower leg kinematics with boot compressions and share of the force absorbed by the boot from underbody blast loading. Axial impacts were delivered to the Hybrid III dummy lower leg in the neutral position. The dummy leg was instrumented with its internal upper and lower tibia load cells, and in addition, a knee load cell was attached to the proximal end. Tests were conducted at 4.4 to 8.9 m/s, with and without boots, and repeat tests were done. Morphologies of the force-time responses were similar at the three load cell locations and for all input combinations and booted and unbooted conditions. However, booted tests resulted in considerably lower maximum forces (approximately two-third reduction) than unbooted tests. These results clearly show that boots can absorb a considerable share of the impact energy and decrease impact loads transmitted to the lower leg under vertical loading, thus necessitating the generation of tolerance data using PMHS for this environment.

  1. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  2. Rare earth, major and trace element composition of Leg 127 sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R.W.; Buchholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.; Brumsack, Hans-Juergen; Gerlach, David C.; Russ III, G. Price

    1992-01-01

    The relative effects of paleoceanographic and paleogeographic variations, sediment lithology, and diagenetic processes on the final preserved chemistry of Japan Sea sediments are evaluated by investigating the rare earth element (REE), major element, and trace element concentrations in 59 squeeze-cake whole-round and 27 physical-property sample residues from Sites 794, 795, and 797, cored during ODP Leg 127. The most important variation in sedimentary chemical composition is the increase in SiO2 concentration through the Pliocene diatomaceous sequences, which dilutes most other major and trace element components by various degrees. This biogenic input is largest at Site 794 (Yamato Basin), moderately developed at Site 797 (Yamato Basin), and of only minor importance at Site 795 (Japan Basin), potentially reflecting basinal contrasts in productivity with the Yamato Basin recording greater biogenic input than the Japan Basin and with the easternmost sequence of Site 794 lying beneath the most productive waters. There are few systematic changes in solid-phase chemistry resulting from the opal-A/opal-CT or opal-CT/quartz silica phase transformations. Most major and trace element concentrations are controlled by the aluminosilicate fraction of the sediment, although the effects of diagenetic silica phases and manganese carbonates are of localized importance. REE total abundances (IREE) in the Japan Sea are strongly dependent upon the paleoceanographic position of a given site with respect to terrigenous and biogenic sources. REE concentrations at Site 794 overall correspond well to aluminosilicate chemical indices and are strongly diluted by SiO2 within the upper Miocene-Pliocene diatomaceous sequence. Eu/Eu* values at Site 794 reach a maximum through the diatomaceous interval as well, most likely suggesting an association of Eu/Eu* with the siliceous component, or reflecting slight incorporation of a detrital feldspar phase. XREE at Site 795 also is affiliated strongly

  3. BETHSY ISP-38 flow behaviour in hot leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petelin, S.; Jurkovic, M.

    1998-01-01

    Betsy Test 6.9c OECD ISP-38 RELAP5/MOD3.2 input model was developed and simulation performed for loss of RHR system during mid-loop operation. Initial liquid level in RCS was at horizontal axis of the hot legs. Pressurizer and steam generator manways were opened 1 s after the transient was initiated. Secondary side is full of air and isolated. Results of calculations were satisfied except in surge line and in pressurizer where larger amount of water is presented. Liquid was entrained in that part of the system during bubbly or varies stratified flow in the hot leg. Due to non-physical results in hot leg pipe with connected surge line and pressurizer, RELAP5 horizontal stratification model deficiencies was studied and possible improvements investigated.(author)

  4. [Fractures of the lower leg in professional skiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mückley, T; Kruis, C; Schütz, T; Brucker, P; Bühren, V

    2004-03-01

    Fractures of the lower leg due to skiing accidents remain an important concern. Few studies have focussed on the special demands of professional athletes who sustain these injuries. We present our experience with three cases of lower leg fractures in competitive professional downhill skiers and discuss management and treatment concepts. We performed limited reamed compression nailing in all the patients presented because it offers the advantages of high mechanical stability and optimized fragment apposition. Plate osteosynthesis of the fibula is not required in most typical fractures. All patients resumed ski training. Two of them returned to World Cup. Only one achieved her pre-injury World Cup level of performance and success. In conclusion, a successful return for professional skiers with lower leg fractures is feasible using an optimized treatment strategy.

  5. Why do arms extract less oxygen than legs during exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Holmberg, H-C; Rosdahl, H

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether conditions for O2 utilization and O2 off-loading from the hemoglobin are different in exercising arms and legs, six cross-country skiers participated in this study. Femoral and subclavian vein blood flow and gases were determined during skiing on a treadmill at approximately 76...... exercise (diagonal stride), the corresponding mean values were 93 and 85% (n = 3; P hemoglobin to be 50% saturated (P50: r = 0.93, P ...Hg, respectively. Because conditions for O2 off-loading from the hemoglobin are similar in leg and arm muscles, the observed differences in maximal arm and leg O2 extraction should be attributed to other factors, such as a higher heterogeneity in blood flow distribution, shorter mean transit time, smaller...

  6. Asterixis in the leg induced by anterior cerebral artery infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, Mun Kyung; Jang, Hyun-Soon; Roh, Sook Young; Yoo, Hyun Jung; Jeong, Eun Hye; Kim, Byung-Su; Choe, Yeo Reum; Lee, Ko-Eun

    2016-06-01

    Asterixis commonly occurs in a patient with metabolic encephalopathy, whereas focal brain lesions such as thalamus, cerebellum, or frontal area also cause focal or unilateral asterixis in the arms. We report a novel case of asterixis in the leg after unilateral anterior cerebral artery territory infarction. A 76-year-old man was admitted with sudden-onset mild right leg weakness and postural instability due to knee buckling. He was diagnosed with ischemic stroke in the left prefrontal area and cingulated gyrus by brain magnetic imaging. Needle electromyography of the right vastus lateralis muscle while standing showed intermittent periods of EMG silence, consistent with asterixis. There were no abnormal involuntary movements in the upper extremities. This case suggests that gait disturbance or postural instability after structural lesions in the prefrontal area may be directly related to asterixis in the leg, not in the arm associated with postural failure.

  7. Spill management strategy for the Chesapeake Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, H.L.; Chapman, R.S.; Johnson, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Program is a unique cooperative effort between state and Federal agencies to restore the health and productivity of America's largest estuary. To assist in addressing specific management issues, a comprehensive three-dimensional, time-varying hydrodynamic and water quality model has ben developed. The Bay modeling strategy will serve as an excellent framework for including submodules to predict the movement, dispersion, and weathering of accidental spills, such as for petroleum products or other chemicals. This paper presents sample results from the Bay application to illustrate the success of the model system in simulating Bay processes. Also, a review of model requirements for successful spill modeling in Chesapeake Bay is presented. Recommendations are given for implementing appropriate spill modules with the Bay model framework and establishing a strategy for model use in addressing management issues

  8. Arm to leg coordination in elite butterfly swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, D; Seifert, L; Boulesteix, L; Carter, M

    2006-04-01

    This study proposed the use of four time gaps to assess arm-to-leg coordination in the butterfly stroke at increasing race paces. Fourteen elite male swimmers swam at four velocities corresponding to the appropriate paces for, respectively, the 400-m, 200-m, 100-m, and 50-m events. The different stroke phases of the arm and leg were identified by video analysis and then used to calculate four time gaps (T1: time gap between entry of the hands in the water and the high break-even point of the first undulation; T2: time gap between the beginning of the hands' backward movement and the low break-even point of the first undulation; T3: time gap between the hands' arrival in a vertical plane to the shoulders and the high break-even point of the second undulation; T4: time gap between the hands' release from the water and the low break-even point of the second undulation), the values of which described the changing relationship of arm to leg movements over an entire stroke cycle. With increases in pace, elite swimmers increased the stroke rate, the relative duration of the arm pull, the recovery and the first downward movement of the legs, and decreased the stroke length, the relative duration of the arm catch phase and the body glide with arms forward (measured by T2), until continuity in the propulsive actions was achieved. Whatever the paces, the T1, T3, and T4 values were close to zero and revealed a high degree of synchronisation at key motor points of the arm and leg actions. This new method to assess butterfly coordination could facilitate learning and coaching by situating the place of the leg undulation in relation with the arm stroke.

  9. Vibration transmission characteristics of the legs of freely standing honeybees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrseitz, Kristin; Kilpinen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    as the stimulator. This was also the case in freely standing honeybees, except around 400 Hz, where an average attenuation of approximately 6 dB was observed. In the fixed bee preparation, the vertical movements of the legs were also measured during horizontal stimulation. The vertical vibration amplitude...... of the legs was 15-20 dB lower than the horizontal stimulation amplitude. The electrophysiologically and behaviourally determined thresholds for vibration stimulation increased by approximately 10 dB, when the stimulus direction was changed from vertical to horizontal. These observations support the notion...

  10. Superconductivity in doped two-leg ladder cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Jihong; Yuan Feng; Feng Shiping

    2006-01-01

    Within the t-J ladder model, superconductivity with a modified d-wave symmetry in doped two-leg ladder cuprates is investigated based on the kinetic energy driven superconducting mechanism. It is shown that the spin-liquid ground-state at the half-filling evolves into the superconducting ground-state upon doping. In analogy to the doping dependence of the superconducting transition temperature in the planar cuprate superconductors, the superconducting transition temperature in doped two-leg ladder cuprates increases with increasing doping in the underdoped regime, and reaches a maximum in the optimal doping, then decreases in the overdoped regime

  11. The RiSE climbing robot: body and leg design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, A.; Goldman, D. I.; Full, R. J.; Buehler, M.

    2006-05-01

    The RiSE robot is a biologically inspired, six legged climbing robot, designed for general mobility in scansorial (vertical walls, horizontal ledges, ground level) environments. It exhibits ground reaction forces that are similar to animal climbers and does not rely on suction, magnets or other surface-dependent specializations to achieve adhesion and shear force. We describe RiSE's body and leg design as well as its electromechanical, communications and computational infrastructure. We review design iterations that enable RiSE to climb 90° carpeted, cork covered and (a growing range of) stucco surfaces in the quasi-static regime.

  12. Myonecrosis in the leg caused by Salmonella enteritidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørring, S; Kolmos, H J; Klareskov, B

    1994-01-01

    Five weeks after an episode of gastroenteritis, a 65-year-old diabetic male developed an extensive myonecrosis, with gas production in the left leg caused by Salmonella enteritidis. The patient was treated with surgical revision and antibiotics. To our knowledge, this is the first case of myonecr......Five weeks after an episode of gastroenteritis, a 65-year-old diabetic male developed an extensive myonecrosis, with gas production in the left leg caused by Salmonella enteritidis. The patient was treated with surgical revision and antibiotics. To our knowledge, this is the first case...

  13. Aesthetic refinements in reconstructive microsurgery of the lower leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, Christian; Schwabegger, Anton H; Gardetto, Alexander; Schoeller, Thomas; Hussl, Heribert; Ninkovic, Milomir M

    2004-02-01

    Even if a surgical procedure is performed for reconstructive and functional reasons, a plastic surgeon must be responsible for the visible result of the work and for the social reintegration of the patient; therefore, the aesthetic appearance of a microsurgically reconstructed lower leg must be considered. Based on the experience of 124 free-tissue transfers to the lower leg performed in 112 patients between January 1994 and March 2001 (110 [88.7 percent] were transferred successfully), three cases are presented. Considerations concerning flap selection and technical refinements in designing and tailoring microvascular flaps to improve the quality of reconstruction, also according to the aesthetic appearance, are discussed.

  14. Venous leg ulcer management: single use negative pressure wound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Caroline; Grothier, Lorraine; Henderson, Valerie; Leak, Kathy; Milne, Jeanette; Davis, Lynn; Bielby, Alistair; Timmons, John

    2013-06-01

    A number of leg ulcer specialist/tissue viability specialists from across the UK were invited to evaluate PICO (Smith and Nephew, Hull) as a treatment for venous leg ulcers also in conjunction with a variety of compression bandages and garments. Patients across 5 sites had PICO applied in conjunction with compression therapy. This group of treating clinicians were then asked to give feedback on the outcome of the patients on whom they had used the new device. All feedback was recorded at a meeting and this was used to create a guideline for use.

  15. Report of a man with heterotopic ossification of the legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arpa, Mónica; Flores-Terry, Miguel A; Franco-Muñoz, Monserrat; Villasanti-Rivas, Natalia; González-Ruiz, Lucía; Banegas-Illescas, M Eugenia

    2018-05-21

    Heterotopic ossification is an uncommon disorder that consists of deposition of ectopic bone outside the extraskeletal tissues. In the skin, it can be primary, in association with genetic syndromes, or be secondary to different disorders. The latter include subcutaneous ossification of the legs in chronic venousinsufficiency, an infrequent and unrecognized complication. We report the case of a patient with subcutaneous ossification of both legs secondary to venous insufficiency and review the literature. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Reumatologña y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatologña. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Design of a Single Motor Based Leg Structure with the Consideration of Inherent Mechanical Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha Manzoor, Muhammad; Sohail, Umer; Noor-e-Mustafa; Nizami, Muhammad Hamza Asif; Ayaz, Yasar

    2017-07-01

    The fundamental aspect of designing a legged robot is constructing a leg design that is robust and presents a simple control problem. In this paper, we have successfully designed a robotic leg based on a unique four bar mechanism with only one motor per leg. The leg design parameters used in our platform are extracted from design principles used in biological systems, multiple iterations and previous research findings. These principles guide a robotic leg to have minimal mechanical passive impedance, low leg mass and inertia, a suitable foot trajectory utilizing a practical balance between leg kinematics and robot usage, and the resultant inherent mechanical stability. The designed platform also exhibits the key feature of self-locking. Theoretical tools and software iterations were used to derive these practical features and yield an intuitive sense of the required leg design parameters.

  17. Leg deformation during imaginal ecdysis in the downy emerald, Cordulia aenea (Odonata, Corduliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantsevich, Leonid; Frantsevich, Ludmilla

    2018-04-01

    A dragonfly larva migrates from the water to the shore, perches on a plant stem and grasps it with strongly flexed legs. Adult legs inside the larval exoskeleton fit to the larval legs joint-to-joint. The adult emerges with stretched legs. During the molt, an imaginal leg must follow all the angles in exuvial joints. In turn, larval apodemes are withdrawn from imaginal legs. We visualized transient shapes of the imaginal legs by the instant fixation of insects at different moments of the molt, photographed isolated exuvial legs with the imaginal legs inside and then removed the exuvial sheath. Instant shapes of the imaginal tibia show sharp intrapodomere bends copying the angle in the larval femoro-tibial joint. The site of bending shifts distad during the molt. This is possible if the imaginal leg is pliable. The same problem of leg squeezing is also common in hemimetabolous insects as well as in other arthropods, whereas holometabolous insects overcome problems of a tight confinement either by using leg pliability in other ways but not squeezing (cyclorrhaphan flies, mosquitoes) or by pulling hardened legs out without change of their pupal zigzag configuration (moths, ants, honey bees). The pupal legs are not intended to grasp any external substrate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. 75 FR 8297 - Tongass National Forest, Thorne Bay Ranger District, Thorne Bay, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ..., Thorne Bay, AK AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Cancellation of Notice of intent to prepare an... Roberts, Zone Planner, Thorne Bay Ranger District, Tongass National Forest, P.O. Box 19001, Thorne Bay, AK 99919, telephone: 907-828-3250. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The 47,007-acre Kosciusko Project Area is...

  19. 77 FR 44140 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Maple-Oregon Bridges so vehicular traffic congestion would not develop on downtown Sturgeon Bay streets... movement of vehicular traffic in Sturgeon Bay. The Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal is approximately 8.6 miles long... significant increase in vehicular and vessel traffic during the peak tourist and navigation season between...

  20. The onset of deglaciation of Cumberland Bay and Stromness Bay, South Georgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Putten, N.; Verbruggen, C.

    Carbon dating of basal peat deposits in Cumberland Bay and Stromness Bay and sediments from a lake in Stromness Bay, South Georgia indicates deglaciation at the very beginning of the Holocene before c. 9500 14C yr BP. This post-dates the deglaciation of one local lake which has been ice-free since

  1. 78 FR 46813 - Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION.... This temporary safety zone will restrict vessels from a portion of Sturgeon Bay due to a fireworks... hazards associated with the fireworks display. DATES: This rule is effective from 8 p.m. until 10 p.m. on...

  2. Differential glucose uptake in quadriceps and other leg muscles during one-legged dynamic submaximal knee-extension exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Kari K; Boushel, Robert; Langberg, Henning

    2011-01-01

    One-legged dynamic knee-extension exercise (DKE) is a widely used model to study the local cardiovascular and metabolic responses to exercise of the quadriceps muscles. In this study, we explored the extent to which different muscles of the quadriceps are activated during exercise using positron...... emission tomography (PET) determined uptake of [18F]-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (GU) during DKE. Five healthy male subjects performed DKE at 25 W for 35 min and both the contracting and contralateral resting leg were scanned with PET from mid-thigh and distally. On average, exercise GU was the highest...

  3. Epidemiology, etiology, and treatment of chronic leg ulcer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recovered accounting for 32.61% and 23.91%, respectively. Radiological investigation with plain. X-ray showed evidence of bony involvement in two patients. We managed our patients with wound dressing using. Table 1: Associated medical conditions seen in patients with chronic leg ulcer (n=60). Frequency Percent.

  4. Well-leg compartment syndrome after gynecological laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard-Kjer, Diana H; Boesgaard-Kjer, Daniel; Kjer, Jens Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Well-leg compartment syndrome in the lower extremities after surgery in the lithotomy position is a rare but severe complication requiring early diagnosis and intervention. Several circumstances predispose to this condition as a consequence of increased intra-compartmental pressure, such as posit...

  5. Monocoque structure for the SKITTER three-legged walker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansek, Robert N.; Booth, Andrew J.; Daneman, Steven A.; Dresser, James A.; Haney, Todd G.; Johnson, Gregory R.; Lindzen, Eric C.; Montgomery, Robert C.; Warren, Andrew L.

    1988-01-01

    The SKITTER 2 design is a monocoque version of the proposed lunar three-legged walker. By the definition of monocoque, the body and legs are a shell with no internal ribbing or supports added for absorbing stresses. The purpose of the monocoque is to encase the elements used for power transmission, power supply, and control of the motion. The material for the structure is a vinyl ester resin, Derakane 8084. This material is easily formable and locally obtainable. The body consists of a hexagonally shaped cylinder with truncated hexagonal pyramids on the top and botton. The legs are eight inch diameter cylinders. The legs are comprised of a tibia section and a femur section. The SKITTER 2 is powered by six actuators which provide linear forces that are transformed into rotary torques by a series of chains and sprockets. The joints connect the femur to the body and the tibia to the femur. Surrounding the joints are flexible rubber hoses that fully encase the chains and sprockets. The SKITTER 2 is capable of walking upside down, righting itself after being overturned, and has the ability to perform in many environments. Applications for this walker include lunar transport or drilling, undersea exploration, and operation in severe surroundings such as arctic temperatures or high radiation.

  6. urrent status and assessment of quantitative and qualitative one leg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of only a quantitative assessment. These findings indicate that, when evaluating the one leg balance in children aged 3-6 years, a quantitative and qualitative assessment should be used in combination together to assure a more accurate assessment. (S. African J. for Research in Sport, Physical Ed. and Recreation: 2001 ...

  7. Why Animals Run on Legs, Not on Wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Jared

    1983-01-01

    Speculates why animals have not developed wheels in place of inefficient legs. One study cited suggests three reasons why animals are better off without wheels: wheels are efficient only on hard surfaces, limitation of wheeled motion due to vertical obstructions, and the problem of turning in spaces cluttered with obstacles. (JN)

  8. Biomechanical analysis of the single-leg decline squat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwerver, J.; Bredeweg, S. W.; Hof, A. L.

    Background: The single-leg squat on a 25 decline board has been described as a clinical assessment tool and as a rehabilitation exercise for patients with patellar tendinopathy. Several assumptions have been made about its working mechanism on patellar load and patellofemoral forces, but these are

  9. Biomechanical pole and leg characteristics during uphill diagonal roller skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindinger, Stefan Josef; Göpfert, Caroline; Stöggl, Thomas; Müller, Erich; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2009-11-01

    Diagonal skiing as a major classical technique has hardly been investigated over the last two decades, although technique and racing velocities have developed substantially. The aims of the present study were to 1) analyse pole and leg kinetics and kinematics during submaximal uphill diagonal roller skiing and 2) identify biomechanical factors related to performance. Twelve elite skiers performed a time to exhaustion (performance) test on a treadmill. Joint kinematics and pole/plantar forces were recorded separately during diagonal roller skiing (9 degrees; 11 km/h). Performance was correlated to cycle length (r = 0.77; P Push-off demonstrated performance correlations for impulse of leg force (r = 0.84), relative duration (r= -0.76) and knee flexion (r = 0.73) and extension ROM (r = 0.74). Relative time to peak pole force was associated with performance (r = 0.73). In summary, diagonal roller skiing performance was linked to 1) longer cycle length, 2) greater impulse of force during a shorter push-off with larger flexion/extension ROMs in leg joints, 3) longer leg swing, and 4) later peak pole force, demonstrating the major key characteristics to be emphasised in training.

  10. PWR hot leg natural circulation modeling with MELCOR code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong; Lee, Jong In [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Previous MELCOR and SCDAP/RELAP5 nodalizations for simulating the counter-current, natural circulation behavior of vapor flow within the RCS hot legs and SG U-tubes when core damage progress can not be applied to the steady state and water-filled conditions during the initial period of accident progression because of the artificially high loss coefficients in the hot legs and SG U-tubes which were chosen from results of COMMIX calculation and the Westinghouse natural circulation experiments in a 1/7-scale facility for simulating steam natural circulation behavior in the vessel and circulation modeling which can be used both for the liquid flow condition at steady state and for the vapor flow condition at the later period of in-vessel core damage. For this, the drag forces resulting from the momentum exchange effects between the two vapor streams in the hot leg was modeled as a pressure drop by pump model. This hot leg natural circulation modeling of MELCOR was able to reproduce similar mass flow rates with those predicted by previous models. 6 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  11. Traumatic bowing of forearm and lower leg in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenstroem, R.; Gripenberg, L.; Bergius, A.-R.

    1978-01-01

    Traumatic bowing of the forearm or lower leg is reported in 31 children. It is a relatively rare condition. Bowing occurs most frequently in combination with fracture of the other bone in the same extremity. In a minority of cases a bowing deformity is a single lesion. Age distribution, degree of deformity, mechanism of origin and therapy are presented and discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Compression therapy in patients with venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemond, Joachim; Assenheimer, Bernd; Bültemann, Anke; Gerber, Veronika; Gretener, Silvia; Kohler-von Siebenthal, Elisabeth; Koller, Sonja; Kröger, Knut; Kurz, Peter; Läuchli, Severin; Münter, Christian; Panfil, Eva-Maria; Probst, Sebastian; Protz, Kerstin; Riepe, Gunnar; Strohal, Robert; Traber, Jürg; Partsch, Hugo

    2016-11-01

    Wund-D.A.CH. is the umbrella organization of the various wound care societies in German-speaking countries. The present consensus paper on practical aspects pertinent to compression therapy in patients with venous leg ulcers was developed by experts from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. In Europe, venous leg ulcers rank among the most common causes of chronic wounds. Apart from conservative and interventional wound and vein treatment, compression therapy represents the basis of all other therapeutic strategies. To that end, there are currently a wide variety of materials and systems available. While especially short-stretch bandages or multicomponent systems should be used in the initial decongestion phase, ulcer stocking systems are recommended for the subsequent maintenance phase. Another - to date, far less common - alternative are adaptive Velcro bandage systems. Medical compression stockings have proven particularly beneficial in the prevention of ulcer recurrence. The large number of treatment options currently available enables therapists to develop therapeutic concepts geared towards their patients' individual needs and abilities, thus resulting in good acceptance and adherence. Compression therapy plays a crucial role in the treatment of patients with venous leg ulcers. In recent years, a number of different treatment options have become available, their use and application differing among German-speaking countries. The present expert consensus is therefore meant to outline concrete recommendations for routine implementation of compression therapy in patients with venous leg ulcers. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. PWR hot leg natural circulation modeling with MELCOR code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong; Lee, Jong In [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Previous MELCOR and SCDAP/RELAP5 nodalizations for simulating the counter-current, natural circulation behavior of vapor flow within the RCS hot legs and SG U-tubes when core damage progress can not be applied to the steady state and water-filled conditions during the initial period of accident progression because of the artificially high loss coefficients in the hot legs and SG U-tubes which were chosen from results of COMMIX calculation and the Westinghouse natural circulation experiments in a 1/7-scale facility for simulating steam natural circulation behavior in the vessel and circulation modeling which can be used both for the liquid flow condition at steady state and for the vapor flow condition at the later period of in-vessel core damage. For this, the drag forces resulting from the momentum exchange effects between the two vapor streams in the hot leg was modeled as a pressure drop by pump model. This hot leg natural circulation modeling of MELCOR was able to reproduce similar mass flow rates with those predicted by previous models. 6 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  14. X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) KidsHealth / For ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  15. European guidelines on management of restless legs syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Kohnen, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Since the publication of the first European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) guidelines in 2005 on the management of restless legs syndrome (RLS; also known as Willis-Ekbom disease), there have been major therapeutic advances in the field. Furthermore, the management of RLS is now a pa...

  16. Measuring Clearance Mechanics Based on Dynamic Leg Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Sam; Danino, Barry; Hayek, Shlomo; Carmeli, Eli

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify clearance mechanics during gait. Seventeen children diagnosed with hemiplegic cerebral palsy underwent a three-dimensional gait analysis evaluation. Dynamic leg lengths were measured from the hip joint center to the heel, to the ankle joint center and to the forefoot throughout the gait cycle. Significant…

  17. A tracked robot with novel bio-inspired passive "legs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Jing, Xingjian

    2017-01-01

    For track-based robots, an important aspect is the suppression design, which determines the trafficability and comfort of the whole system. The trafficability limits the robot's working capability, and the riding comfort limits the robot's working effectiveness, especially with some sensitive instruments mounted on or operated. To these aims, a track-based robot equipped with a novel passive bio-inspired suspension is designed and studied systematically in this paper. Animal or insects have very special leg or limb structures which are good for motion control and adaptable to different environments. Inspired by this, a new track-based robot is designed with novel "legs" for connecting the loading wheels to the robot body. Each leg is designed with passive structures and can achieve very high loading capacity but low dynamic stiffness such that the robot can move on rough ground similar to a multi-leg animal or insect. Therefore, the trafficability and riding comfort can be significantly improved without losing loading capacity. The new track-based robot can be well applied to various engineering tasks for providing a stable moving platform of high mobility, better trafficability and excellent loading capacity.

  18. Delivery of Compression Therapy for Venous Leg Ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarchi, Kian; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2014-01-01

    adequate subbandage pressure when treating patients with venous leg ulcers and the factors that predict the ability to achieve optimal pressure. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We performed a cross-sectional study from March 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012, in home care centers in 2 Danish...

  19. Hereditary lymphedema of the leg – A Case Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinig, Birgit; Lotti, T.; Tchernev, Georgi; Wollina, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Primary of hereditary lymphedema is a rare but progressive disease. It is yet not curable. We present a 48-year-old male patient with hereditary lymphedema of his left leg, that was realised by minor trauma (able twist) when he was seven years old. He had never been treated for lymphedema but

  20. Effects of wearing lower leg compression sleeves on locomotion economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Eduard; Anders, Christoph

    2018-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effect of compression sleeves on muscle activation cost during locomotion. Twenty-two recreationally active men (age: 25 ± 3 years) ran on a treadmill at four different speeds (ordered sequence of 2.8, 3.3, 2.2, and 3.9 m/s). The tests were performed without (control situation, CON) and while wearing specially designed lower leg compression sleeves (SL). Myoelectric activity of five lower leg muscles (tibialis anterior, fibularis longus, lateral and medial head of gastrocnemius, and soleus) was captured using Surface EMG. To assess muscle activation cost, the cumulative muscle activity per distance travelled (CMAPD) of the CON and SL situations was determined. Repeated measures analyses of variance were performed separately for each muscle. The analyses revealed a reduced lower leg muscle activation cost with respect to test situation for SL for all muscles (p  0.18). The respective significant reductions of CMAPD values during SL ranged between 4% and 16% and were largest at 2.8 m/s. The findings presented point towards an improved muscle activation cost while wearing lower leg compression sleeves during locomotion that have potential to postpone muscle fatigue.

  1. A radiographic method for measurement of leg length inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, O; Koivisto, E; Wegelius, C

    1985-01-01

    An accurate and simple radiographic method for the measurement of weight-bearing leg length inequality with a minimum of radiated body area is described. The measurement can be made in a conventional chest X-ray unit without other extra equipment than a gonad shield described here.

  2. Leg 201Tl-SPECT in chronic exertional compartment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkadri, N.; Slim, I.; Blondet, C.; Choquet, Ph.; Constantinesco, A.; Lecocq, J.

    2004-01-01

    Leg 201 Tl-SPECT in chronic exertional compartment syndrome Background: The chronic exertional compartment syndrome is one of the most frequent origins regarding leg pain due to sport training. The diagnosis can be established by invasive compartment pressure measurement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role that could have 201 Tl-SPECT for patients with suspicion of compartment syndrome. Patients and methods: 51 leg 201 Tl-SPECT exams were performed (exercise - and rest without reinjection) in 49 patients; 28 had compartment syndrome confirmed by pressure measurement. About 100 MBq of 201 Tl were injected during exercise, when pain appeared or at least after 25 minutes exercise. We studied mean percentages of level uptake for each compartment, referred to the maximal uptake of both legs. Results: 47 compartments were concerned by compartment syndrome and 361 compartments were not. Scintigraphic patterns in compartments are reversible ischaemia (45%), uptake stability (36%) or reverse redistribution (19%); these patterns are not linked to compartment syndrome. However, there is a significant difference of rest 201 Tl level uptake between compartments with and without compartment syndrome and a significant correlation between muscular pressure measurement and rest level uptake. Conclusion: 201 Tl-SPECT shows that only ischaemia does not explain compartment syndrome. Moreover, it allows to predict pressure variation during exercise but it does not offer any interest in order to select patients for muscular invasive pressure measurement. (author)

  3. How Can I Relieve My Pregnancy Leg Cramps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How Can I Relieve My Pregnancy Leg Cramps? KidsHealth / For Parents / How Can I ...

  4. A young woman with weakness of the legs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A previously well 22-year-old woman presented with progressive weakness of her legs and urinary incontinence over 7 days. Clinically she was healthy, with no skin rashes. On neurological examination she had profound bilateral weakness of the lower limbs, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, a positive Babinski sign and a T6 ...

  5. Standard Hip Ventrodorsal Leg Extended View In The Diagnosis Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is hereditary developmental condition that involves a lack of conformity between the femoral head and acetabulum. It invariably leads to osteoarthritis. We hereby review the standard hip ventrodorsal leg extended view to be adopted by our Tanzanian veterinarians. Diagnostic radiography is the ...

  6. Presenting Symptoms in Pediatric Restless Legs Syndrome Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weerd, Al; Arico, Irene; Silvestri, Rosalia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The diagnosis restless legs syndrome (RLS) in children depends on the history told by the child and his parents. The description of symptoms given by the child him or herself is most important. Additional criteria are, among others, the results of polysomnography (PSG). Description of the

  7. Skipping on uneven ground: trailing leg adjustments simplify control and enhance robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Roy; Andrada, Emanuel

    2018-01-01

    It is known that humans intentionally choose skipping in special situations, e.g. when descending stairs or when moving in environments with lower gravity than on Earth. Although those situations involve uneven locomotion, the dynamics of human skipping on uneven ground have not yet been addressed. To find the reasons that may motivate this gait, we combined experimental data on humans with numerical simulations on a bipedal spring-loaded inverted pendulum model (BSLIP). To drive the model, the following parameters were estimated from nine subjects skipping across a single drop in ground level: leg lengths at touchdown, leg stiffness of both legs, aperture angle between legs, trailing leg angle at touchdown (leg landing first after flight phase), and trailing leg retraction speed. We found that leg adjustments in humans occur mostly in the trailing leg (low to moderate leg retraction during swing phase, reduced trailing leg stiffness, and flatter trailing leg angle at lowered touchdown). When transferring these leg adjustments to the BSLIP model, the capacity of the model to cope with sudden-drop perturbations increased.

  8. RSRM Nozzle-to-Case Joint J-leg Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrechtsen, Kevin U.; Eddy, Norman F.; Ewing, Mark E.; McGuire, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program, nozzle-to-case joint polysulfide adhesive gas paths have occurred on several flight motors. These gas paths have allowed hot motor gases to reach the wiper O-ring. Even though these motors continue to fly safely with this condition, a desire was to reduce such occurrences. The RSRM currently uses a J-leg joint configuration on case field joints and igniter inner and outer joints. The J-leg joint configuration has been successfully demonstrated on numerous RSRM flight and static test motors, eliminating hot gas intrusion to the critical O-ring seals on these joints. Using the proven technology demonstrated on the case field joints and igniter joints, a nozzle-to-case joint J-leg design was developed for implementation on RSRM flight motors. This configuration provides an interference fit with nozzle fixed housing phenolics at assembly, with a series of pressurization gaps incorporated outboard of the joint mating surface to aid in joint pressurization and to eliminate any circumferential flow in this region. The joint insulation is bonded to the nozzle phenolics using the same pressure sensitive adhesive used in the case field joints and igniter joints. An enhancement to the nozzle-to-case joint J-leg configuration is the implementation of a carbon rope thermal barrier. The thermal barrier is located downstream of the joint bondline and is positioned within the joint in a manner where any hot gas intrusion into the joint passes through the thermal barrier, reducing gas temperatures to a level that would not affect O-rings downstream of the thermal barrier. This paper discusses the processes used in reaching a final nozzle-to-case joint J-leg design, provides structural and thermal results in support of the design, and identifies fabrication techniques and demonstrations used in arriving at the final configuration.

  9. An MRI volumetric study for leg muscles in congenital clubfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Ernesto; Dragoni, Massimiliano; Antonicoli, Marco; Farsetti, Pasquale; Simonetti, Giovanni; Masala, Salvatore

    2012-10-01

    To investigate both volume and length of the three muscle compartments of the normal and the affected leg in unilateral congenital clubfoot. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (VMRI) of the anterior, lateral and postero-medial muscular compartments of both the normal and the clubfoot leg was obtained in three groups of seven patients each, whose mean age was, respectively, 4.8 months, 11.1 months and 4.7 years. At diagnosis, all the unilateral congenital clubfeet had a Pirani score ranging from 4.5 to 5.5 points, and all of them had been treated according to a strict Ponseti protocol. All the feet had percutaneous lengthening of the Achilles tendon. A mean difference in both volume and length was found between the three muscular compartments of the leg, with the muscles of the clubfoot side being thinner and shorter than those of the normal side. The distal tendon of the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus and triceps surae (Achilles tendon) were longer than normal on the clubfoot side. Our study shows that the three muscle compartments of the clubfoot leg are thinner and shorter than normal in the patients of the three groups. The difference in the musculature volume of the postero-medial compartment between the normal and the affected side increased nine-fold from age group 2 to 3, while the difference in length increased by 20 %, thus, showing that the muscles of the postero-medial compartment tend to grow in both thickness and length much less than the muscles of the other leg compartments.

  10. STRUCTURE OF PROMINENCE LEGS: PLASMA AND MAGNETIC FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levens, P. J.; Labrosse, N. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Schmieder, B. [Observatoire de Paris, Meudon, F-92195 (France); Ariste, A. López, E-mail: p.levens.1@research.gla.ac.uk [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, Toulouse (France)

    2016-02-10

    We investigate the properties of a “solar tornado” observed on 2014 July 15, and aim to link the behavior of the plasma to the internal magnetic field structure of the associated prominence. We made multi-wavelength observations with high spatial resolution and high cadence using SDO/AIA, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectrograph, and the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) instrument. Along with spectropolarimetry provided by the Télescope Héliographique pour l’Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires telescope we have coverage of both optically thick emission lines and magnetic field information. AIA reveals that the two legs of the prominence are strongly absorbing structures which look like they are rotating, or oscillating in the plane of the sky. The two prominence legs, which are both very bright in Ca ii (SOT), are not visible in the IRIS Mg ii slit-jaw images. This is explained by the large optical thickness of the structures in Mg ii, which leads to reversed profiles, and hence to lower integrated intensities at these locations than in the surroundings. Using lines formed at temperatures lower than 1 MK, we measure relatively low Doppler shifts on the order of ±10 km s{sup −1} in the tornado-like structure. Between the two legs we see loops in Mg ii, with material flowing from one leg to the other, as well as counterstreaming. It is difficult to interpret our data as showing two rotating, vertical structures that are unrelated to the loops. This kind of “tornado” scenario does not fit with our observations. The magnetic field in the two legs of the prominence is found to be preferentially horizontal.

  11. Restless Legs Syndrome in a Nigerian Elderly Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawale, Michael B.; Ismaila, Isiaka Alani; Mustapha, Adekunle F.; Komolafe, Morenikeji A.; Adedeji, Tewogbade A.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is highest in the elderly in Caucasian populations; the prevalence of RLS in elderly Africans is not known. This study aimed at determining the frequency and associations of RLS in a Nigerian elderly population. Methods: The study population comprised of 633 consecutive elderly individuals aged 65–105 years attending the general outpatient clinic of the State Hospital, Ilesa, for minor complaints and routine check-up. The diagnosis of RLS was made using the 2003 minimal criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Relevant sociodemographic and clinical data, including sleep duration, were also obtained. Results: Restless legs syndrome was found in 3.5% of the study population with a male-female ratio of 2:1. There was no significant age (p = 0.427) or gender (p = 0.178) influence on the prevalence of RLS except in the 75- to 84-year age group where there was significant male preponderance (p = 0.044). A strong independent association between RLS and sleep duration (OR, 3.229; 95% CI, 1.283–8.486; p = 0.013) and past history of head injury (OR, 4.691; 95% CI, 1.750–12.577; p = 0.002) was found. Conclusions: Our finding support previous reports of a possible lower prevalence of RLS in Africans. Restless legs syndrome independently increases the odds of habitual sleep curtailment in elderly individuals. Head injury may be a risk factor for future RLS; this requires further investigation as indirect evidence for a possible link between RLS and traumatic brain injury exists. Citation: Fawale MB, Ismaila IA, Mustapha AF, Komolafe MA, Adedeji TA. Restless legs syndrome in a Nigerian elderly population. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(7):965–972. PMID:27070251

  12. Unique thermal record in False Bay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grundlingh, ML

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade False Bay has assumed a prime position in terms of research in to large South African bays. This is manifested by investigations that cover flow conditions modelling, thermal structure, management, biology and nutrients, geology...

  13. Hierarchical mixtures of naive Bayes classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Naive Bayes classifiers tend to perform very well on a large number of problem domains, although their representation power is quite limited compared to more sophisticated machine learning algorithms. In this pa- per we study combining multiple naive Bayes classifiers by using the hierar- chical

  14. Safety culture development at Daya Bay NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shanming

    2001-01-01

    From view on Organization Behavior theory, the concept, development and affecting factors of safety culture are introduced. The focuses are on the establishment, development and management practice for safety culture at Daya Bay NPP. A strong safety culture, also demonstrated, has contributed greatly to improving performance at Daya Bay

  15. The Holocene History of Placentia Bay, Newfoundland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Reynisson, Njall

    2013-01-01

    Marine sediments analyzed from cores taken in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland, located in the Labrador Sea, captured oceanographic and climatic changes from the end of the Younger Dryas through the Holocene. Placentia Bay is an ideal site to capture changes in both the south-flowing Labrador Current ...

  16. Towards a sustainable future in Hudson Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okrainetz, G.

    1991-01-01

    To date, ca $40-50 billion has been invested in or committed to hydroelectric development on the rivers feeding Hudson Bay. In addition, billions more have been invested in land uses such as forestry and mining within the Hudson Bay drainage basin. However, there has never been a study of the possible impacts on Hudson Bay resulting from this activity. Neither has there been any federal environmental assessment on any of the economic developments that affect Hudson Bay. To fill this gap in knowledge, the Hudson Bay Program was established. The program will not conduct scientific field research but will rather scan the published literature and consult with leading experts in an effort to identify biophysical factors that are likely to be significantly affected by the cumulative influence of hydroelectric and other developments within and outside the region. An annotated bibliography on Hudson Bay has been completed and used to prepare a science overview paper, which will be circulated for comment, revised, and used as the basis for a workshop on cumulative effects in Hudson Bay. Papers will then be commissioned for a second workshop to be held in fall 1993. A unique feature of the program is its integration of traditional ecological knowledge among the Inuit and Cree communities around Hudson Bay with the scientific approach to cumulative impact assessment. One goal of the program is to help these communities bring forward their knowledge in such a way that it can be integrated into the cumulative effects assessment

  17. Supporting adherence and healthy lifestyles in leg ulcer patients: systematic development of the Lively Legs program for dermatology outpatient clinics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Bartholomew, L.K.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Achterberg, T. van

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of our project was to develop a lifestyle program for leg ulcer patients at outpatient clinics for dermatology. METHODS: We used the intervention-mapping (IM) framework for systematically developing theory and evidence based health promotion programs. We started with a

  18. Bio-Inspired Design and Kinematic Analysis of Dung Beetle-Like Legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aditya, Sai Krishna Venkata; Ignasov, Jevgeni; Filonenko, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    The African dung beetle Scarabaeus galenus can use its front legs to walk and manipulate or form a dung ball. The interesting multifunctional legs have not been fully investigated or even used as inspiration for robot leg design. Thus, in this paper, we present the development of real dung beetle......-like front legs based on biological investigation. As a result, each leg consists of three main segments which were built using 3D printing. The segments were combined with in total four active DOFs in order to mimic locomotion and object manipulation of the beetle. Kinematics analysis of the leg was also...... performed to identify its workspace as well as to design its trajectory. To this end, the study contributes not only novel multifunctional robotic legs but also the methodology of the bio-inspired leg design....

  19. The role of arterial vascularity in pathogenesis of infected pseudoarthrosis of the lower leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konarski, K.

    1993-01-01

    A series of 250 femoral arteriographies performed in patients with leg pseudoarthrosis served to asses condition of arteries of the extremity. It was found that vascular injuries contribute significantly to pathogenesis of union disorders in lower leg fractures. (author)

  20. Embodiment of Legged Robots Emerged in Evolutionary Design: Pseudo Passive Dynamic Walkers

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushita, Kojiro; Yokoi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    An objective of this paper is to illustrate a physical representation of the embodiment on legged locomotion. Embodiment is here defined as physical features that reduce control complexity and energy consumption of legged robots. In this method, the embodiment of

  1. 78 FR 68909 - Agency Information Collection (Knee and Lower Leg Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Lower Leg Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Crystal Rennie, Enterprise Records... Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)''. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Knee and Lower Leg...

  2. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.817 Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform (Morpeth...

  3. Postprandial triacylglycerol uptake in the legs is increased during exercise and post-exercise recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2005-01-01

    plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) uptake and clearance in the exercising legs immediately and for at least 4 h post-exercise, while food intake per se did not change leg plasma TAG uptake or clearance for up to 6 h. It is hypothesized that the effect of exercise on leg plasma TAG metabolism is a result...

  4. 33 CFR 147.809 - Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mars Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.809 Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Mars Tension Leg Platform (Mars TLP) is located at position 28°10′10.29...

  5. Bird surveys at McKinley Bay and Hutchison Bay, Northwest Territories, in 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornish, B J; Dickson, D L; Dickson, H L

    1992-03-01

    McKinley Bay is a shallow protected bay along the eastern Beaufort Sea coast which provides an important habitat for diving ducks. Since 1979, the bay has been the site of a winter harbor and support base for oil and gas exploraton in the Beaufort Sea. Aerial surveys for bird abundance and distribution were conducted in August 1991 as a continuation of long-term monitoring of birds in McKinley Bay and Hutchison Bay, a nearby area used as a control. The main objectives of the 1991 surveys were to expand the set of baseline data on natural annual fluctuations in diving duck numbers, and to determine if numbers of diving ducks had changed since the initial 1981-85 surveys. On the day with the best survey conditions, the population of diving ducks at McKinley bay was estimated at ca 32,000, significantly more than 1981-85. At Hutchison Bay, there were an estimated 11,000 ducks. As in previous years, large numbers of diving ducks were observed off Atkinson Point at the northwest corner of McKinley Bay, at the south end of the bay, and in the northeast corner near a long spit. Most divers in Hutchison Bay were at the west side. Diving ducks, primarily Oldsquaw and scoter, were the most abundant bird group in the study area. Observed distribution patterns of birds are discussed with reference to habitat preferences. 16 refs., 7 figs., 30 tabs.

  6. El Margen Atlántico Ibérico al W de Galicia. Evolución en régimen extensional y sedimentación. (Resultados preliminares del Leg. 103, Ocean Drilling Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boillot, G.

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Leg 101 of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP was devoted discovering the tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Atlantic Margin of the lberian Peninsula. A transect of five sites, with a total of 14 drill-holes was undertaken to the South of the Galicia Bank on the seaward edge of the margin. The data obtained revealed a complex history of subsidence and rifting preceding the initiation of sea floor spreading between Newfoundland and Iberia. The main findings include: 1 The Upper Jurassic-Lowermost Cretaceous shallow-water carbonate platform are the first Messozoic deposits at the margin. The «basement seismic reflector» is made-up of these carbonates. 2 The platform drowning, tilting of fault blocks and rapid subsidence preceded the spreading by as much as 25 million years. 3 A ridge of serpentiniced peridotites is located near the boundary between the oceanic and continental crusts. 4 The seismic reflector «S» does not, as widely believed represent a ductile-brinle boundary within the continental crust but is instead a reflector at the base of the synrift sediments.

    La campaña oceanográfica 103 del Ocean Drilling Program (ODP ha estado dedicada a dilucidar la evolución tectónica y sedimentación del Margen Atlántico-Ibérico. Se realizaron un total de 14 sondeos., en cinco puntos de posicionamiento, sobre el extremo más profundo del margen; al S del Banco de Galicia. Los resultados obtenidos revelan que previamente al inicio de la expansión oceánica entre Terranova e Iberia ocurrió una historia compleja de distensión cortical, fracturación y subsidencia asociadas. Los resultados fundamentales son los siguientes: 1 Carbonatos de plataforma marina somera, de edad Jurásico superior-Cretáceo basal constituyen los primeros depósitos mesozóicos en ese ámbito del margen y dan lugar a un reflector sísmico considerado interiormente como basamento, 2 El hundimiento de la plataforma, fallamiento y basculamiento de los bloques

  7. VDLLA: A virtual daddy-long legs optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaakub, Abdul Razak; Ghathwan, Khalil I.

    2016-08-01

    Swarm intelligence is a strong optimization algorithm based on a biological behavior of insects or animals. The success of any optimization algorithm is depending on the balance between exploration and exploitation. In this paper, we present a new swarm intelligence algorithm, which is based on daddy long legs spider (VDLLA) as a new optimization algorithm with virtual behavior. In VDLLA, each agent (spider) has nine positions which represent the legs of spider and each position represent one solution. The proposed VDLLA is tested on four standard functions using average fitness, Medium fitness and standard deviation. The results of proposed VDLLA have been compared against Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Differential Evolution (DE) and Bat Inspired Algorithm (BA). Additionally, the T-Test has been conducted to show the significant deference between our proposed and other algorithms. VDLLA showed very promising results on benchmark test functions for unconstrained optimization problems and also significantly improved the original swarm algorithms.

  8. Malignant Transformation of Nodular Hidradenoma in the Lower Leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhuan Ngo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nodular hidradenoma (NH is a benign adnexal tumor that arises from either eccrine or apocrine sweat glands. NH can originate from any cutaneous site, but the most common sites are the head and anterior surface of the trunk, with very rare cases in the extremities. Long-standing NH has been reported to undergo malignant transformation to malignant NH (MNH; however, its occurrence in the lower leg is extremely rare with only one other case reported to date. In this report, we present a rare case of MNH occurring in the lower leg which was resected with the intent to make a diagnosis. At the final follow-up after 11 months, no local recurrence or metastasis has been observed.

  9. A Case of Nonhealing Leg Ulcer: Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Didar Balcı

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old woman was admitted to our outpatient clinic with a three-year history of a painless, nonhealing ulcer located on the left lower leg. She had no response to previous therapy with local wound care. Skin examination revealed an ulcer 2.7 x 3.7 cm in size, and the surrounding skin showed minimal erythema. The surface of the ulcer demonstrated shiny granulation tissue. Biopsy of the ulcer edge and base showed basal cell carcinoma. Venous Doppler ultrasonography and dermatological examination did not reveal chronic venous insufficiency. Basal cell carcinomas rarely arise from previous long-term ulcers or developing de novo. We suggest that patients who develop non-healing leg ulcers, should be examined for basal cell carcinoma.

  10. A Novel Perforator Flap Training Model Using a Chicken Leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Ignacio J; Yañez, Ricardo A; Salisbury, Maria C; Rodriguez, José R; Varas, Julian E; Dagnino, Bruno L

    2016-04-01

    Living animal models are frequently used for perforator flap dissection training, but no ex vivo models have been described. The aim of this study is to present a novel nonliving model for perforator flap training based on a constant perforator in the chicken leg. A total of 15 chicken legs were used in this study. Anatomical dissection of the perforator was performed after its identification using ink injection, and in four of these specimens a perforator-based flap was raised. The anatomical dissection revealed a constant intramuscular perforator with a median length of 5.7 cm. Median proximal and distal vessel diameters were 0.93 and 0.4 mm, respectively. The median dissection time was 77.5 minutes. This study introduces a novel, affordable, and reproducible model for the intramuscular dissection of a perforator-based flap using an ex vivo animal model. Its consistent perforator and appropriate-sized vessels make it useful for training.

  11. Quality of life of elderly patients with leg ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Cardoso Tavares

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To identify compromised domains of the 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36 for elderly individuals with leg ulcers and correlate their clinical and sociodemographic variables with the SF-36's components. Method: Exploratory and cross-sectional study conducted with 50 elderly individuals with leg ulcers. The instruments were the sociodemographic and clinical form and the SF-36. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used to analyze data. Results: Most were married, retired, and received one times the minimum wage, were Caucasians or of mixed race, and had hypertension. In regard to the SF-36, the most compromised domain was physical limitations, while social aspects and general health status were the less compromised domains. The SF-36 domains were not correlated with age, income, duration or size of the lesion or pain. Conclusion: The ulcer-related biopsychosocial aspects need to be considered in order to devise more effective nursing interventions.

  12. Ambler: Performance of a six-legged planetary rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, E. P.; Simmons, R. G.; Whittaker, W. L.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we quantify several performance metrics for the Ambler, a six-legged robot configured for autonomous traversal of Mars-like terrain. We present power consumption measures for walking on sandy terrain and for vertical lifts at different velocities. We document the performance of a novel dead-reckoning approach, and analyze its accuracy. We describe the results of autonomous walking experiments in terms of terrain traversed, walking speed and endurance.

  13. Ambler - Performance of a six-legged planetary rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, E. P.; Simmons, R. G.; Whittaker, W. L.

    1992-08-01

    In this paper, several performance metrics are quantified for the Ambler, a six-legged robot configured for autonomous traversal of Mars-like terrain. Power consumption measures are presented for walking on sandy terrain and for vertical lifts at different velocities. The performance of a novel dead reckoning approach is documented, and its accuracy is analyzed. The results of autonomous walking experiments are described in terms of terrain traversed, walking speed, and endurance.

  14. Muscle Activity in Single- vs. Double-Leg Squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFOREST, Bradley A; Cantrell, Gregory S; Schilling, Brian K

    Muscular activity, vertical displacement and ground reaction forces of back squats (BS), rear-leg elevated split squats (RLESS) and split squats (SS) were examined. Nine resistance-trained men reported for two sessions. The first session consisted of the consent process, practice, and BS 1-repetition maximum testing. In the second session, participants performed the three exercises while EMG, displacment and ground reaction force data (one leg on plate) were collected. EMG data were collected from the gluteus maximus (GMX), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (MGas) of the left leg (non-dominant, front leg for unilateral squats). Load for BS was 85% one repetition maximum, and RLESS and SS were performed at 50% of BS load. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare all variables for the three exercises, with Bonferroni adjustments for post hoc multiple comparisons, in addition to calculation of standardized mean differences (ES). Muscle activity was similar between exercises except for biceps femoris, which was significantly higher during RLESS than SS during both concentric and eccentric phases (ES = 2.11; p=0.012 and ES= 2.19; p=0.008), and significantly higher during BS than the SS during the concentric phase (ES = 1.78; p=0.029). Vertical displacement was similar between all exercises. Peak vertical force was similar between BS and RLESS and significantly greater during RLESS than SS (ES = 3.03; p=0.001). These findings may be helpful in designing resistance training programs by using RLESS if greater biceps femoris activity is desired.

  15. Recurrent variational approach to the two-leg Hubbard ladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.H.; Sierra, G.; Duffy, D.

    1999-01-01

    We applied the recurrent variational approach to the two-leg Hubbard ladder. At half filling, our variational ansatz was a generalization of the resonating valence-bond state. At finite doping, hole pairs were allowed to move in the resonating valence-bond background. The results obtained by the recurrent variational approach were compared with results from density matrix renormalization group. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  16. ESR analysis of irradiated frogs' legs and fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffi, J.; Agnel, J.-P.; Evans, J.C.; Rowlands, C.C.; Lesgards, G.

    1989-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectral analysis of different parts (bones, scales, jaw, etc.) from ionized (irradiated) frozen frogs' legs and fishes (brown trout and sardine) were recorded. There is always present, after treatment, a signal due to the irradiation. ESR and ENDOR experiments lead us to assign it to h 1 centers from hydroxyapatite, as in the case of other irradiated meat bones. The use of ESR to prove whether one of these foods has been irradiated or not is discussed. (author)

  17. On the stability of four-legged tables

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, André Jean

    2007-01-01

    We prove that a perfect square table with four legs, placed on continuous irregular ground with a local slope of at most 14.4 degrees and later 35 degrees, can be put into equilibrium on the ground by a "rotation" of less than 90 degrees. We also discuss the case of non-square tables and make the conjecture that equilibrium can be found if the four feet lie on a circle.

  18. Spin ordering in three-leg ladders in Ludwigite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallejo, E.; Avignon, M.

    2007-01-01

    We study the spin ordering in a three-leg ladder present in Ludwigite systems formed of localized spins interacting with an extra electron per rung. We also consider the competition with super exchange interactions resulting in a very rich phase diagram. Among the phases we find the possibility of ferromagnetic rungs ordered antiferromagnetically and a zigzag spin ordering linked to the formation of a charge ordering as observed

  19. Pinch grafting for chronic venous leg ulcers in general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, Keith

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with chronic venous leg ulcers were treated in general practice by pinch grafting. Fifteen of the ulcers (60%) were completely healed one year after grafting. Prior to grafting 19 patients (76%) complained of daily pain in the ulcer. These patients experienced complete relief from pain after grafting. Pinch grafting is a simple, safe and effective therapy when applied in a domiciliary environment.

  20. Simvastatin-induced nocturnal leg pain disappears with pravastatin substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojaković Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Statins have similar side effects that do not always occur at the same rate among the various statins. We present a case of simvastatin-induced muscle toxicity that disappeared when pravastatin was substituted for the original drug. Case Outline. A 74-year-old male, a nonsmoker, complained of severe nocturnal leg cramps. The patient also complained that similar painful cramping occurred when he walked rapidly or jogged. Because some components of his lipid panel exceeded the ‘desirable’ range, and as he had a history of myocardial infarction, his family physician prescribed simvastatin (40 mg/day. The patient had taken this medication for the past eight years. The painful nocturnal episodes started two years ago and affected either one or the other leg. Four months ago we discontinued his simvastatin and prescribed pravastatin (80 mg/day. At a follow-up visit six weeks later, the patient reported that his leg pains at night and the pain experienced after brisk walking had disappeared. Four months after the substitution of pravastatin for simvastatin, the patient reported that his complete lack of symptoms had continued. Conclusion. These painful muscle cramps were probably caused by an inadequate vascular supply to the calf and foot muscles. Perhaps a combination of advanced age and atherosclerotic changes created a predisposition for the simvastatin-induced leg cramps. Pravastatin differs from simvastatin in several ways. It is not metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP 3A4 oxidases, and thus is not influenced by CYP 3A4 inhibitors like simvastatin. Also, simvastatin is associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms located within the SLCO1B1 gene on the chromosome 12 and established myopathy, while pravastatin lacks this association. These differences may contribute to increased tolerance to pravastatin in this particular case.

  1. Simvastatin-lnduced nocturnal leg pain disappears with pravastatin substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojaković, Natasa; Igić, Rajko

    2013-01-01

    Statins have similar side effects that do not always occur at the same rate among the various statins. We present a case of simvastatin-induced muscle toxicity that disappeared when pravastatin was substituted for the original drug. A 74-year-old male, a nonsmoker, complained of severe nocturnal leg cramps. The patient also complained that similar painful cramping occurred when he walked rapidly or jogged. Because some components of his lipid panel exceeded the'desirable' range, and as he had a history of myocardial infarction, his family physician prescribed simvastatin (40 mg/day). The patient had taken this medication for the past eight years. The painful nocturnal episodes started two years ago and affected either one or the other leg. Four months ago we discontinued his simvastatin and prescribed pravastatin (80 mg/day). At a follow-up visit six weeks later, the patient reported that his leg pains at night and the pain experienced after brisk walking had disappeared. Four months after the substitution of pravastatin for simvastatin, the patient reported that his complete lack of symptoms had continued. These painful muscle cramps were probably caused by an inadequate vascular supply to the calf and foot muscles. Perhaps a combination of advanced age and atherosclerotic changes created a predisposition for the simvastatin-induced leg cramps. Pravastatin differs from simvastatin in several ways.l It is not metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 oxidases, and thus is not influenced by CYP 3A4 inhibitors like simvastatin. Also, simvastatin is associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms located within the SLCO1B1 gene on the chromosome 12 and established myopathy, while pravastatin lacks this association. These differences may contribute to increased tolerance to pravastatin in this particular case.

  2. ATLAS Cold Leg Top Slot Break Analysis using RELAP5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Haejung; Lee, Sang Ik; Park, Ju-Hyun; Choi, Tong-Soo [KEPCO NF, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US-NRC) has been reviewing the design certification application for APR1400 submitted by Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). The main concern about cold leg top slot break is that cladding temperature might be increased by core uncover due to four loop seal reformation following flooding of safety injection water. An integral effect test for cold leg top slot break was performed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) using ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-Hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation), which is a scaled down experimental facility for APR1400. In this study, RELAP5/MOD3.3/Patch04 is assessed by experimental result of ATLAS cold leg top slot break. Also, thermal hydraulic phenomena by four loop seals reformation is observed by RELAP5 result. The RELAP5/MOD3.3/Patch04 is assessed by the experimental result of ATLAS cold leg top slot break. The top slot break is described by offtake model, and the mass flow rate is fairly well estimated. The RELAP5 well predicts the correlation between general trend and four loop seal reformation. The pressure of the core region and the cladding temperature tends to increase during four loop seal reformation due to steam path blockage on four loop seals. It is presumed that the code cannot estimate two phase phenomena by loop seal clearing as same as experiments. In terms of cladding temperature, loop seal reformation due to loop seal elevation of APR1400 does not need to be the issue, since the void fraction at the active top core is maintained over 0.4.

  3. ON THE MAGNETISM AND DYNAMICS OF PROMINENCE LEGS HOSTING TORNADOES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez González, M. J.; Ramos, A. Asensio; Arregui, I.; Collados, M.; Beck, C.; Rodríguez, J. de la Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Solar tornadoes are dark vertical filamentary structures observed in the extreme ultraviolet associated with prominence legs and filament barbs. Their true nature and relationship to prominences requires an understanding of their magnetic structure and dynamic properties. Recently, a controversy has arisen: is the magnetic field organized forming vertical, helical structures or is it dominantly horizontal? And concerning their dynamics, are tornadoes really rotating or is it just a visual illusion? Here we analyze four consecutive spectro-polarimetric scans of a prominence hosting tornadoes on its legs, which helps us shed some light on their magnetic and dynamical properties. We show that the magnetic field is very smooth in all the prominence, which is probably an intrinsic property of the coronal field. The prominence legs have vertical helical fields that show slow temporal variation that is probably related to the motion of the fibrils. Concerning the dynamics, we argue that (1) if rotation exists, it is intermittent, lasting no more than one hour, and (2) the observed velocity pattern is also consistent with an oscillatory velocity pattern (waves).

  4. Soft Legged Wheel-Based Robot with Terrestrial Locomotion Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadeghi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years robotics has been influenced by a new approach, soft-robotics, bringing the idea that safe interaction with user and more adaptation to the environment can be achieved by exploiting easily deformable materials and flexible components in the structure of robots. In 2016, the soft-robotics community has promoted a new robotics challenge, named RoboSoft Grand Challenge, with the aim of bringing together different opinions on the usefulness and applicability of softness and compliancy in robotics. In this paper we describe the design and implementation of a terrestrial robot based on two soft legged wheels. The tasks predefined by the challenge were set as targets in the robot design, which finally succeeded to accomplish all the tasks. The wheels of the robot can passively climb over stairs and adapt to slippery grounds using two soft legs embedded in their structure. The soft legs, fabricated by integration of soft and rigid materials and mounted on the circumference of a conventional wheel, succeed to enhance its functionality and easily adapt to unknown grounds. The robot has a semi stiff tail that helps in the stabilization and climbing of stairs. An active wheel is embedded at the extremity of the tail in order to increase the robot maneuverability in narrow environments. Moreover two parallelogram linkages let the robot to reconfigure and shrink its size allowing entering inside gates smaller than its initial dimensions.

  5. A legged anchoring mechanism for capsule endoscopes using micropatterned adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Paul; Cheung, Eugene; Sitti, Metin

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a new concept for an anchoring mechanism to enhance existing capsule endoscopes. The mechanism consists of three actuated legs with compliant feet lined with micropillar adhesives to be pressed into the intestine wall to anchor the device at a fixed location. These adhesive systems are inspired by gecko and beetle foot hairs. Single-leg and full capsule mathematical models of the forces generated by the legs are analyzed to understand capsule performance. Empirical friction models for the interaction of the adhesives with an intestinal substrate were experimentally determined in vitro using dry and oil-coated elastomer micropillar arrays with 140 microm pillar diameter, 105 microm spacing between pillars, and an aspect ratio of 1:1 on fresh porcine small intestine specimens. Capsule prototypes were also tested in a simulated intestine environment and compared with predicted peristaltic loads to assess the viability of the proposed design. The experimental results showed that a deployed 10 gr capsule robot can withstand axial peristaltic loads and anchor reliably when actuation forces are greater than 0.27 N using dry micropillars. Required actuation forces may be reduced significantly by using micropillars coated with a thin silicone oil layer.

  6. ON THE MAGNETISM AND DYNAMICS OF PROMINENCE LEGS HOSTING TORNADOES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez González, M. J.; Ramos, A. Asensio; Arregui, I.; Collados, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Beck, C. [National Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak P.O. Box 62, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Rodríguez, J. de la Cruz [Institute for Solar Physics, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Albanova University Center, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-07-10

    Solar tornadoes are dark vertical filamentary structures observed in the extreme ultraviolet associated with prominence legs and filament barbs. Their true nature and relationship to prominences requires an understanding of their magnetic structure and dynamic properties. Recently, a controversy has arisen: is the magnetic field organized forming vertical, helical structures or is it dominantly horizontal? And concerning their dynamics, are tornadoes really rotating or is it just a visual illusion? Here we analyze four consecutive spectro-polarimetric scans of a prominence hosting tornadoes on its legs, which helps us shed some light on their magnetic and dynamical properties. We show that the magnetic field is very smooth in all the prominence, which is probably an intrinsic property of the coronal field. The prominence legs have vertical helical fields that show slow temporal variation that is probably related to the motion of the fibrils. Concerning the dynamics, we argue that (1) if rotation exists, it is intermittent, lasting no more than one hour, and (2) the observed velocity pattern is also consistent with an oscillatory velocity pattern (waves).

  7. Leg ulcer in Werner syndrome (adult progeria): a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumo, Giuseppe; Pau, Monica; Patta, Federico; Aste, Nicola; Atzori, Laura

    2013-03-15

    Werner syndrome (WS; MIM#277700) or adult progeria, is a rare disease, associated with mutations of a single gene (RECQL2 or WRN), located on chromosome 8 (8p12). It codes a DNA-helicase, whose defects cause genomic instability. The highest incidences are reported in Japan and Sardinia (Italy). On this major island of the Mediterranean Basin, the WS cases have been observed in the northern areas. The authors describe the apparently first case reported in southern Sardinia, a 51-year-old woman, who was born in and resides in the province of Cagliari. She presented with a 9-year history of an intractable leg ulcer and other characteristic symptoms, including "bird-like" face, high-pitched voice, premature greying, short stature, abdominal obesity in contrast with thin body type, scleroderma-like legs, decreased muscle mass, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and premature menopause. A specialized genetic Institute of Research (IRCCS-IDI, Rome) confirmed the clinical diagnosis. There is no cure or specific treatment and patients must be periodically screened for an increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and malignancies. Among the many findings, leg ulcers significantly affect the patient's quality of life. This problem may send the patient to the dermatologist, who finally suspects the diagnosis. Poor response to medical treatment may require aggressive repeated surgery, with poor or temporary results.

  8. Restless legs syndrome and impact on work performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Samara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a neurological sensorimotor disorder characterized by unpleasant sensations in the legs and an uncontrollable urge to move them for relief. The RSL prevalence in the general population is 0.1% - 11.5%, and increases with age, with the highest effect of producing a primary sleep disorder (70%-80%. Women appear to be at increased risk, as do individuals with certain chronic conditions, including renal failure and anemia. The pathophysiology of RLS is incompletely understood, but it probably results from derangements in dopamine and iron metabolism, and has a genetic component. RSL could be idiopathic or secondary (usually related with iron deficiency, terminal renal failure, pregnancy, and spinal cord lesions. RLS patients usually have sleep disorders, so the disease can cause difficulties and problems in occupational and social life. Subjects with RLS symptoms appear to experience significantly more daytime problems, including being late for work, making errors at work, or missing work because of sleepiness. The diagnosis of RLS is made by following the criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG. Pharmacologic RLS therapy, in which dopaminergic drugs constitute the first line, is effective and may have a dramatic effect on symptoms and quality of life. Identifying and treating RLS may improve sleep quality, daytime function and work performance.

  9. Gabapentin enacarbil – clinical efficacy in restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky Agarwal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Pinky Agarwal1, Alida Griffith1, Henry R Costantino2, Narendra Vaish31Booth Gardner Parkinson’s Center, Kirkland, WA, USA; 2Costantino Consulting, Woodinville, WA, USA; 3Kirkland, WA, USAAbstract: Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a sleep-related movement disorder commonly involving an unpleasant urge to move the limbs, typically the legs. Dopaminergic agents represent the first-line therapy for RLS; however, long-term use of such drugs results in worsening symptoms due to “augmentation” or other adverse events. Gabapentin, an analog of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, is an anticonvulsant/analgesic agent. Gabapentin is only mildly effective in relieving RLS symptoms, perhaps a result of its poor absorption from the gastrointestinal (GI tract. Gabapentin enacarbil is a prodrug of gabapentin specifically designed to enhance absorption via the GI tract, and hence provide improved circulating levels of gabapentin on metabolism. Clinical trials to date have demonstrated favorable safety and (compared to traditional gabapentin improved pharmacokinetics and efficacy in treating RLS symptoms. Thus, gabapentin enacarbil may prove to be a useful drug in treating RLS. An application of gabapentin enacarbil for treatment of RLS is currently pending with FDA for approval.Keywords: restless legs syndrome, gabapentin enacarbil, movement disorder

  10. [Problems and complications of leg lengthening with the Wagner apparatus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, R; Hefti, F

    1992-06-01

    Since 1971, we have performed 189 leg lengthening procedures using the Wagner method at our institution. The results obtained in the first 26 cases (1971-1973) showed a high complication rate, which led us to reconsider the indications for this procedure. In the present paper, we analyze the results of 37 leg lengthening procedures carried out in 32 patients during the last 10 years (1981-1990) in the children's unit of the orthopedic department of the University of Basle. We found a complication rate of 78%, and in 46% of cases there was more than one major complication. We did not distinguish between "complications" and "problems", because such distinctions are of little importance to the patient. The average age at the time of surgery was 14.8 years, and the average increase in length was 4.3 (2.2-9.2) cm. For each 1 cm of lengthening, an average of 21 days in hospital and 64 days of reduced weight-bearing were needed. Our conclusion is that the Wagner method makes it possible to attain the goal of leg lengthening, but the second step cannot reduce the length of stay in hospital or the length of time the patient needs the help of crutches. Bone remodeling is disturbed. Our preliminary experience with the Ilizarov method is more encouraging.

  11. Restless legs syndrome and impact on work performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Samara

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a neurological sensorimotor disorder characterized by unpleasant sensations in the legs and an uncontrollable urge to move them for relief. The RSL prevalence in the general population is 0.1% - 11.5%, and increases with age, with the highest effect of producing a primary sleep disorder (70%-80%. Women appear to be at increased risk, as do individuals with certain chronic conditions, including renal failure and anemia. The pathophysiology of RLS is incompletely understood, but it probably results from derangements in dopamine and iron metabolism, and has a genetic component. RSL could be idiopathic or secondary (usually related with iron deficiency, terminal renal failure, pregnancy, and spinal cord lesions. RLS patients usually have sleep disorders, so the disease can cause difficulties and problems in occupational and social life. Subjects with RLS symptoms appear to experience significantly more daytime problems, including being late for work, making errors at work, or missing work because of sleepiness. The diagnosis of RLS is made by following the criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG. Pharmacologic RLS therapy, in which dopaminergic drugs constitute the first line, is effective and may have a dramatic effect on symptoms and quality of life. Identifying and treating RLS may improve sleep quality, daytime function and work performance.

  12. Volume measurement of the leg with the depth camera for quantitative evaluation of edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyomitsu, Kaoru; Kakinuma, Akihiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Kamijo, Naohiro; Ogawa, Keiko; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2017-02-01

    Volume measurement of the leg is important in the evaluation of leg edema. Recently, method for measurement by using a depth camera is proposed. However, many depth cameras are expensive. Therefore, we propose a method using Microsoft Kinect. We obtain a point cloud of the leg by Kinect Fusion technique and calculate the volume. We measured the volume of leg for three healthy students during three days. In each measurement, the increase of volume was confirmed from morning to evening. It is known that the volume of leg is increased in doing office work. Our experimental results meet this expectation.

  13. Duplex sonography of the near-surface leg veins; Duplexsonographie der oberflaechlichen Beinvenen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, E.

    2007-07-01

    The book contains the following contributions: The ultrasonograph, selection of the ultrasonic transducer, anatomy of the near-surface vein system, physiology of the near-surface vein system, varicose status classification, systematics of the duplex sonography of near-surface leg veins, provocational maneuver for the duplex sonographic varicose diagnostics, exploration of vena saphena parva, perforans veins, side branches, phlebitis, sonography for varicose therapy, postsurgical sonography, deep leg veins, examination of near-surface leg veins for the pathology of the deep vein system, differential diagnostic clarification of leg oedema from the phlebologic-lymphological view, diagnostic side features along the near-surface leg veins.

  14. Holy grail at Baglan Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Jim

    1999-01-01

    The UK government's consent for the construction of a gas-fired power plant at Baglan Bay in South Wales is reported, and the growing popularity of economic combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plants and the resulting environmental improvements are noted . The combining of gas and steam turbines, design developments, and the UK moratorium on planning consents for gas fired power plants are discussed. General Electric's H System technology which will lower the amount of energy lost in the conversion of natural gas to electricity is described, and details of the ten most problematic CCGTs in the UK are given. The domination of the CCGT global market by four manufacturers, and the pressure on manufacturers to develop their designs are considered. (UK)

  15. 78 FR 62293 - Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    ... Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast... zone on the navigable waters of Oyster Bay near Oyster Bay, NY for the Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary... Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display is scheduled for October 19, 2013 and is one of...

  16. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  17. 78 FR 27126 - East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted Areas AGENCY: U.S. Army... read as follows: Sec. 334.665 East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, Restricted Areas...

  18. 75 FR 15343 - Regulated Navigation Area: Narragansett Bay, RI and Mount Hope Bay, RI and MA, Including the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ...: Narragansett Bay, RI and Mount Hope Bay, RI and MA, Including the Providence River and Taunton River AGENCY... River and Mount Hope Bay in the vicinity of the two Brightman Street bridges have not been adopted and... Island and Mt. Hope Bay, MA.'' The notice was prompted primarily by two events: (1) The U.S. Army Corps...

  19. Comparison between Unilateral and Bilateral Plyometric Training on Single and Double Leg Jumping Performance and Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanis, Gregory C; Tsoukos, Athanasios; Kaloheri, Olga; Terzis, Gerasimos; Veligekas, Panagiotis; Brown, Lee E

    2017-04-18

    This study compared the effects of unilateral and bilateral plyometric training on single and double-leg jumping performance, maximal strength and rate of force development (RFD). Fifteen moderately trained subjects were randomly assigned to either a unilateral (U, n=7) or bilateral group (B, n=8). Both groups performed maximal effort plyometric leg exercises two times per week for 6 weeks. The B group performed all exercises with both legs, while the U group performed half the repetitions with each leg, so that total exercise volume was the same. Jumping performance was assessed by countermovement jumps (CMJ) and drop jumps (DJ), while maximal isometric leg press strength and RFD were measured before and after training for each leg separately and both legs together. CMJ improvement with both legs was not significantly different between U (12.1±7.2%) and B (11.0±5.5%) groups. However, the sum of right and left leg CMJ only improved in the U group (19.0±7.1%, pplyometric training was more effective at increasing both single and double-leg jumping performance, isometric leg press maximal force and RFD when compared to bilateral training.

  20. Cold leg condensation tests. Task C. Steam--water interaction tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, J.R.; Loiselle, V.

    1974-03-01

    A report is presented of tests to determine the condensation efficiency of ECC water injected into a quality fluid mixture flowing through the cold leg. In particular, a specific objective was to determine if the mixture of ECC water and quality fluid reached thermodynamic equilibrium before exiting the cold leg. Further, the stability of the ECC water/quality fluid interaction would be assessed by interpretation of thermocouple records and utilization of a section of cold leg piping with view ports to film the interaction whenever possible. The cold leg condensation tests showed complete condensation of the 5 lbm/sec steam quality mixtures in the cold leg by the ECC water flows of the test matrix. The cold leg exit fluid temperature remained below the saturation temperature and had good agreement with the predicted cold leg outlet temperature, calculated assuming total condensation. (U.S.)

  1. Operation analysis of a Chebyshev-Pantograph leg mechanism for a single DOF biped robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Conghui; Ceccarelli, Marco; Takeda, Yukio

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, operation analysis of a Chebyshev-Pantograph leg mechanism is presented for a single degree of freedom (DOF) biped robot. The proposed leg mechanism is composed of a Chebyshev four-bar linkage and a pantograph mechanism. In contrast to general fully actuated anthropomorphic leg mechanisms, the proposed leg mechanism has peculiar features like compactness, low-cost, and easy-operation. Kinematic equations of the proposed leg mechanism are formulated for a computer oriented simulation. Simulation results show the operation performance of the proposed leg mechanism with suitable characteristics. A parametric study has been carried out to evaluate the operation performance as function of design parameters. A prototype of a single DOF biped robot equipped with two proposed leg mechanisms has been built at LARM (Laboratory of Robotics and Mechatronics). Experimental test shows practical feasible walking ability of the prototype, as well as drawbacks are discussed for the mechanical design.

  2. Exocrine glands in the legs of the social wasp Vespula vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Catherine; Billen, Johan

    2015-09-01

    This study brings a survey of the exocrine glands in the legs of Vespula vulgaris wasps. We studied workers, males, virgin queens as well as mated queens. A variety of 17 glands is found in the different leg segments. Among these, five glands are novel exocrine structures for social insects (trochanter-femur gland, ventrodistal tibial gland, distal tibial sac gland, ventral tibial gland, and ventral tarsomere gland). Most leg glands are present in the three leg pairs of all castes. This may indicate a mechanical function. This is likely for the numerous glands that occur near the articulation between the various leg segments, where lubricant production may be expected. Other possible functions include antenna cleaning, acting as a hydraulic system, or pheromonal. Further research including leg-related behavioural observations and chemical analyses may help to clarify the functions of these glandular structures in the legs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Restless Legs Symptoms and Pregnancy and Neonatal Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyieng'o, D Onentia; Kirwa, Kipruto; Tong, Iris; Martin, Susan; Antonio Rojas-Suarez, José; Bourjeily, Ghada

    2016-02-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a commonly occurring neurologic disorder that affects up to one third of women during pregnancy. RLS has been associated with increased sympathetic tone in the nonpregnant population. We examined whether a RLS surrogate is associated with a higher prevalence of pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional survey of 1000 women interviewed soon after delivery by using an RLS surrogate question. Women were asked how frequently (0 = none, 1 = rarely [pregnancy. Clinical charts were reviewed to obtain relevant demographic and clinical data, including the presence of gestational hypertensive disorders and neonatal outcomes at birth. Subjects who "always" experienced RLS were compared with subjects experiencing symptoms less frequently or not at all with respect to prevalence of gestational hypertensive disorder. The mean ([SD]) age, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), and BMI at delivery were 29.0 (6.1) years, 26.1 (6.2) kg/m(2), and 32.0 (6.3) kg/m(2), respectively. The overall prevalence of the RLS surrogate (jumpy or jerky leg movements) was 35.5% with the following distribution on a Likert scale: score 1 = 6.4%; score 2 = 10.2%; score 3 = 8.1%; and score 4 = 10.8%. Chronic hypertension was present in 2.1%, pregnancy-induced hypertension in 9.5%, and preeclampsia in 4.5% of respondents. Subjects who reported "always" having sensations of jumpy or jerky legs were more likely to have gestational hypertensive disorders compared with those who reported less frequent occurrence of the symptoms. Adjusted odds ratios were 3.74 (95% CI, 1.31-10.72; P = 0.014) for chronic hypertension; 1.26 (95% CI, 0.65-2.46; P = 0.487) for pregnancy-induced hypertension; and 2.15 (95% CI, 0.97-4.75; P = 0.060) for preeclampsia. There was a significant association between leg movement score and neonatal birth weight (coefficient, -149.5 g [95% CI, -276.9 to -22.5]; P = 0.005) and gestational age at birth (-0.7 week [95% CI, -1.1 to

  4. Mechatronics by Analogy and Application to Legged Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusila, Victor

    A new design methodology for mechatronic systems, dubbed as Mechatronics by Analogy (MbA), is introduced and applied to designing a leg mechanism. The new methodology argues that by establishing a similarity relation between a complex system and a number of simpler models it is possible to design the former using the analysis and synthesis means developed for the latter. The methodology provides a framework for concurrent engineering of complex systems while maintaining the transparency of the system behaviour through making formal analogies between the system and those with more tractable dynamics. The application of the MbA methodology to the design of a monopod robot leg, called the Linkage Leg, is also studied. A series of simulations show that the dynamic behaviour of the Linkage Leg is similar to that of a combination of a double pendulum and a spring-loaded inverted pendulum, based on which the system kinematic, dynamic, and control parameters can be designed concurrently. The first stage of Mechatronics by Analogy is a method of extracting significant features of system dynamics through simpler models. The goal is to determine a set of simpler mechanisms with similar dynamic behaviour to that of the original system in various phases of its motion. A modular bond-graph representation of the system is determined, and subsequently simplified using two simplification algorithms. The first algorithm determines the relevant dynamic elements of the system for each phase of motion, and the second algorithm finds the simple mechanism described by the remaining dynamic elements. In addition to greatly simplifying the controller for the system, using simpler mechanisms with similar behaviour provides a greater insight into the dynamics of the system. This is seen in the second stage of the new methodology, which concurrently optimizes the simpler mechanisms together with a control system based on their dynamics. Once the optimal configuration of the simpler system is

  5. Postural control of typical developing boys during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Kevin; Staes, Filip; Peerlinck, Kathelijne; Van Geet, Kristel; Hermans, Cedric; Lobet, Sebastien

    2017-02-01

    Literature is lacking information about postural control performance of typically developing children during a transition task from double-leg stance to single-leg stance. The purpose of the present study was therefore to evaluate the clinical feasibility of a transition task in typical developing age groups as well as to study the correlation between associated balance measures and age.Thirty-three typically developing boys aged 6-20 years performed a standard transition task from DLS to SLS with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC). Balance features derived from the center of pressure displacement captured by a single force platform were correlated with age on the one hand and considered for differences in the perspective of limb dominance on the other hand.All TDB (typically developing boys) were able to perform the transition task with EO. With respect to EC condition, all TDB from the age group 6-7 years and the youngest of the age group 8-12 years (N = 4) were unable to perform the task. No significant differences were observed between the balance measures of the dominant and non-dominant limbs.With respect to EO condition, correlation analyses indicated that time to new stability point (TNSP) as well as the sway measure after this TNSP were correlated with age (p postural balance of typically developing children during walking, running, sit-to-stand, and bipodal and unipodal stance has been well documented in the literature. • These reference data provided not only insight into the maturation process of the postural control system, but also served in diagnosing and managing functional repercussions of neurological and orthopedic pathologies. What is New: • Objective data regarding postural balance of typical developing children during a transition task from double-leg stance to single-leg stance. • Insight into the role of maturation on the postural control system.

  6. Description of gravity cores from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Donald L.; John L. Chin,; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa A.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-06-27

    Seventy-two gravity cores were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1990, 1991, and 2000 from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, California. The gravity cores collected within San Pablo Bay contain bioturbated laminated silts and sandy clays, whole and broken bivalve shells (mostly mussels), fossil tube structures, and fine-grained plant or wood fragments. Gravity cores from the channel wall of Carquinez Strait east of San Pablo Bay consist of sand and clay layers, whole and broken bivalve shells (less than in San Pablo Bay), trace fossil tubes, and minute fragments of plant material.

  7. Supporting adherence and healthy lifestyles in leg ulcer patients: systematic development of the Lively Legs program for dermatology outpatient clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Maud M; Bartholomew, L Kay; Wensing, Michel; van de Kerkhof, Peter; van Achterberg, Theo

    2006-05-01

    The objective of our project was to develop a lifestyle program for leg ulcer patients at outpatient clinics for dermatology. We used the intervention-mapping (IM) framework for systematically developing theory and evidence based health promotion programs. We started with a needs-assessment. A multidisciplinary project group of health care workers and patients was involved in all five IM steps; formulating proximal program objectives, selecting methods and strategies, producing program components, planning for adoption and implementation and planning for evaluation. Several systematic literature reviews and original studies were performed to support this process. Social Cognitive Theory was selected as the main theory behind the program 'Lively Legs' and was combined with elements of Goal-Setting Theory, the precaution adoption model and motivational interviewing. The program is conducted through health counseling by dermatology nurses and was successfully pre-tested. Also, an implementation and evaluation plan were made. Intervention mapping helped us to succeed in developing a lifestyle program with clear goals and methods, operational strategies and materials and clear procedures. Coaching leg ulcer patients towards adherence with compression therapy and healthy lifestyles should be taken on without delay. Systematic development of lifestyle programs for other patient groups should be encouraged.

  8. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  9. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  10. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  11. San Antonio Bay 1986-1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The effect of salinity on utilization of shallow-water nursery habitats by aquatic fauna was assessed in San Antonio Bay, Texas. Overall, 272 samples were collected...

  12. Corpus ChristiEast Matagorda Bay 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Patterns of habitat utilization were compared among transplanted and natural Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Halls Lake area of Chocolate Bay in the Galveston...

  13. San Francisco Bay Interferometric Bathymetry: Area B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High resolution sonar data were collected over ultra-shallow areas of the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  14. BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL ALIENS IN WILLAPA BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected at random stations in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Z...

  15. FL BAY SPECTROUT-POPULATION STATUS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  16. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  17. Benthic harpacticoid copepods of Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Li, Xinzheng

    2017-09-01

    The species richness of benthic harpacticoid copepod fauna in Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, on the southern coast of Shandong Peninsula, has not been comprehensively studied. We present a preliminary inventory of species for this region based on material found in nine sediment samples collected from 2011 to 2012. Our list includes 15 species belonging to 15 genera in 9 families, the most speciose family was the Miraciidae Dana, 1846 (seven species); all other families were represented by single species only. Sediment characteristics and depth are determined to be important environmental determinants of harpacticoid distribution in this region. We briefly detail the known distributions of species and provide a key to facilitate their identification. Both harpacticoid species richness and the species/genus ratio in Jiaozhou Bay are lower than in Bohai Gulf and Gwangyang Bay. The poor knowledge of the distribution of benthic harpacticoids, in addition to low sampling effort in Jiaozhou Bay, likely contribute to low species richness.

  18. Biscayne Bay Florida Bottlenose Dolphin Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of small vessel based studies of bottlenose dolphins that reside within Biscayne Bay, Florida, adjacent estuaries and nearshore...

  19. A Glance at Bohai Bay Oil Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shoubai

    1995-01-01

    @@ Chinese oil industry keeps on developing in 1994. The oil production of Bohai Bay Oil Province located in East China also keeps on growing. Geologically,the total area of Bohai Bay Basin is about 200 000 km2 and the main structural units are: Liaohe Depression, Huanghua Depression,Jizhong Depression, Linqing Depression, Jiyang Depression, Changwei Depression, Bozhong Depression,Chengning Uplift and Cangjing Uplift (see figure 1). Area of the main structural units is listed in following:

  20. Assessment of nutritional status in adult patients with cystic fibrosis: whole-body bioimpedance vs body mass index, skinfolds, and leg-to-leg bioimpedance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, F.M.; Roos, de N.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Berkhout, van F.T.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether body mass index (BMI) or body fat percentage estimated from BMI, skinfolds, or leg-to-leg bioimpedance are good indicators of nutritional status in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. Body fat percentage measured by whole-body bioimpedance was used as the reference

  1. Sensitivity of sensor-based sit-to-stand peak power to the effects of training leg strength, leg power and balance in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Folkersma, Marjanne; Zhang, Wei; Baldus, Heribert; Stevens, Martin; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    Increasing leg strength, leg power and overall balance can improve mobility and reduce fall risk. Sensor-based assessment of peak power during the sit-to-stand (STS) transfer may be useful for detecting changes in mobility and fall risk. Therefore, this study investigated whether sensor-based STS

  2. Toxic phytoplankton in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kristine M.; Garrison, David L.; Cloern, James E.

    1996-01-01

    The Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) was conceived and designed to document the changing distribution and effects of trace substances in San Francisco Bay, with focus on toxic contaminants that have become enriched by human inputs. However, coastal ecosystems like San Francisco Bay also have potential sources of naturally-produced toxic substances that can disrupt food webs and, under extreme circumstances, become threats to public health. The most prevalent source of natural toxins is from blooms of algal species that can synthesize metabolites that are toxic to invertebrates or vertebrates. Although San Francisco Bay is nutrient-rich, it has so far apparently been immune from the epidemic of harmful algal blooms in the world’s nutrient-enriched coastal waters. This absence of acute harmful blooms does not imply that San Francisco Bay has unique features that preclude toxic blooms. No sampling program has been implemented to document the occurrence of toxin-producing algae in San Francisco Bay, so it is difficult to judge the likelihood of such events in the future. This issue is directly relevant to the goals of RMP because harmful species of phytoplankton have the potential to disrupt ecosystem processes that support animal populations, cause severe illness or death in humans, and confound the outcomes of toxicity bioassays such as those included in the RMP. Our purpose here is to utilize existing data on the phytoplankton community of San Francisco Bay to provide a provisional statement about the occurrence, distribution, and potential threats of harmful algae in this Estuary.

  3. Gradient Analysis and Classification of Carolina Bay Vegetation: A Framework for Bay Wetlands Conservation and Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diane De Steven,Ph.D.; Maureen Tone,PhD.

    1997-10-01

    This report address four project objectives: (1) Gradient model of Carolina bay vegetation on the SRS--The authors use ordination analyses to identify environmental and landscape factors that are correlated with vegetation composition. Significant factors can provide a framework for site-based conservation of existing diversity, and they may also be useful site predictors for potential vegetation in bay restorations. (2) Regional analysis of Carolina bay vegetation diversity--They expand the ordination analyses to assess the degree to which SRS bays encompass the range of vegetation diversity found in the regional landscape of South Carolina's western Upper Coastal Plain. Such comparisons can indicate floristic status relative to regional potentials and identify missing species or community elements that might be re-introduced or restored. (3) Classification of vegetation communities in Upper Coastal Plain bays--They use cluster analysis to identify plant community-types at the regional scale, and explore how this classification may be functional with respect to significant environmental and landscape factors. An environmentally-based classification at the whole-bay level can provide a system of templates for managing bays as individual units and for restoring bays to desired plant communities. (4) Qualitative model for bay vegetation dynamics--They analyze present-day vegetation in relation to historic land uses and disturbances. The distinctive history of SRS bays provides the possibility of assessing pathways of post-disturbance succession. They attempt to develop a coarse-scale model of vegetation shifts in response to changing site factors; such qualitative models can provide a basis for suggesting management interventions that may be needed to maintain desired vegetation in protected or restored bays.

  4. Sensitivity of sensor-based sit-to-stand peak power to the effects of training leg strength, leg power and balance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Folkersma, Marjanne; Zhang, Wei; Baldus, Heribert; Stevens, Martin; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2014-01-01

    Increasing leg strength, leg power and overall balance can improve mobility and reduce fall risk. Sensor-based assessment of peak power during the sit-to-stand (STS) transfer may be useful for detecting changes in mobility and fall risk. Therefore, this study investigated whether sensor-based STS peak power and related measures are sensitive to the effects of increasing leg strength, leg power and overall balance in older adults. A further aim was to compare sensitivity between sensor-based STS measures and standard clinical measures of leg strength, leg power, balance, mobility and fall risk, following an exercise-based intervention. To achieve these aims, 26 older adults (age: 70-84 years) participated in an eight-week exercise program aimed at improving leg strength, leg power and balance. Before and after the intervention, performance on normal and fast STS transfers was evaluated with a hybrid motion sensor worn on the hip. In addition, standard clinical tests (isometric quadriceps strength, Timed Up and Go test, Berg Balance Scale) were performed. Standard clinical tests as well as sensor-based measures of peak power, maximal velocity and duration of normal and fast STS showed significant improvements. Sensor-based measurement of peak power, maximal velocity and duration of normal STS demonstrated a higher sensitivity (absolute standardized response mean (SRM): ≥ 0.69) to the effects of training leg strength, leg power and balance than standard clinical measures (absolute SRM: ≤ 0.61). Therefore, the presented sensor-based method appears to be useful for detecting changes in mobility and fall risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of immobility on sensory and motor symptoms of restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Martin; Lavigne, Gilles; Desautels, Alex; Poirier, Gaétan; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is defined by an irresistible need to move associated with leg paresthesia. Two additional features are essential for diagnosis: (1) worsening of symptoms at rest with temporary relief by activity, and (2) worsening of symptoms during the evening and/or during the night. The suggested immobilization test (SIT) has been developed to evaluate the presence of these criteria. This test quantifies leg movements and leg discomfort during a 1-hour period of immobility prior to bedtime. We used the SIT to evaluate the effects of immobility on leg discomfort and leg movements experienced by 19 patients with RLS and 19 control subjects. Results show that immobility significantly worsens both leg discomfort and periodic leg movements (PLM) in patients with RLS but not in controls. Patients with RLS showed a higher leg discomfort score (32.6 +/- 15.1 mm vs. 5.7 +/- 7.9 mm; P < 0.00001), a greater maximum leg discomfort value (63.4 +/- 27.4 mm vs. 13.7 +/- 23.0 mm; P < 0.00001) and a greater PLM index (88.4 +/- 62.6 vs. 10.4 +/- 20.6; P < 0.00004) than control subjects. These results further validate the use of the SIT as a diagnostic and research tool for RLS and confirm the contention of the International RLS study group that RLS symptoms worsen at rest. Copyright 2001 Movement Disorder Society.

  6. Effects of leg dominance on performance of ballet turns (pirouettes) by experienced and novice dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Su, Fong-Chin; Wu, Hong-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Turns (pirouettes) are an important movement in ballet and may be affected by "lateral bias". This study investigated physiological differences exhibited by experienced and novice dancers, respectively, when performing pirouette with dominant and non-dominant leg supports, respectively. Thirteen novice and 13 experienced dancers performed turns on dominant or non-dominant legs. The maximum ankle plantarflexion, knee extension and hip extension were measured during the single-leg support phase. The inclination angle of rotation axis is the angle between instantaneous rotation axis and global vertical axis in the early single-leg support phase. Both groups exhibited a greater hip extension, knee extension, and ankle plantarflexion when performing a turn on the non-dominant leg. For experienced dancers, the inclination angle of rotation axis during the pre-swing phase was generally smaller for dominant leg support than non-dominant leg. However, no significant difference was found in inclination angle of rotation axis of novice dancers. For experienced dancers, an improved performance is obtained when using the dominant leg for support. By contrast, for novice dancers, the performance is independent of choice of support leg. The significant lateral bias in experienced dancers indicates the possible influence of training. That is, repetitive rehearsal on the preferred leg strengthens the impact of side dominance in experienced dancers.

  7. Increase in Leg Stiffness Reduces Joint Work During Backpack Carriage Running at Slow Velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Bernard; Netto, Kevin; Morris, Susan

    2017-10-01

    Optimal tuning of leg stiffness has been associated with better running economy. Running with a load is energetically expensive, which could have a significant impact on athletic performance where backpack carriage is involved. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of load magnitude and velocity on leg stiffness. We also explored the relationship between leg stiffness and running joint work. Thirty-one healthy participants ran overground at 3 velocities (3.0, 4.0, 5.0 m·s -1 ), whilst carrying 3 load magnitudes (0%, 10%, 20% weight). Leg stiffness was derived using the direct kinetic-kinematic method. Joint work data was previously reported in a separate study. Linear models were used to establish relationships between leg stiffness and load magnitude, velocity, and joint work. Our results found that leg stiffness did not increase with load magnitude. Increased leg stiffness was associated with reduced total joint work at 3.0 m·s -1 , but not at faster velocities. The association between leg stiffness and joint work at slower velocities could be due to an optimal covariation between skeletal and muscular components of leg stiffness, and limb attack angle. When running at a relatively comfortable velocity, greater leg stiffness may reflect a more energy efficient running pattern.

  8. Muscle response to leg lengthening during distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorey, Fritz; Bruenger, Jens; Windhagen, Henning; Witte, Frank

    2009-04-01

    Continuous lengthening of intact muscles during distraction osteogenesis leads to an increase of sarcomeres and enhances the regeneration of tendons and blood vessels. A high distraction rate leads to an excessive leg and muscle lengthening and might cause damages of muscle fibers with fibrosis, necrosis, and muscle weakness. Complications like muscle contractures or atrophy after postoperative immobilization emphazize the importance of muscles and their function in the clinical outcome. In an animal model of distraction osteogenesis, 18 sheep were operated with an external fixator followed by 4 days latency, 21 days distraction (1.25 mm per day) and 51 days consolidation. The anatomical location (gastrocnemius, peroneus tertius, and first flexor digitorum longus muscle), dimension and occurrence of muscular defects were characterized histologically. The callus formation and leg axis was monitored by weekly X-rays. Additionally, serum creatine kinase was analyzed during a distraction and consolidation period. Significant signs of muscle lesions in all three observed muscles can be found postoperatively, whereas normal callus formation and regular leg axis was observed radiologically. The peroneus tertius and first flexor digitorum longus muscles were found to have significantly more signs of fibrosis, inflammatory, and necrosis. Creatine kinase showed two peaks: 4 and 39 days postoperative as an indication of muscle damage and regeneration. The study implicates that muscle damages should be considered when a long-distance distraction osteogenesis is planned. The surgeon should consider these muscle responses and individually discuss a two-stage treatment or additional muscle tendon releases to minimize the risk of muscle damages.

  9. MAAP4 hot leg and lower head failure benchmarking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.J.; Henry, R.E.; Paik, C.Y.; Conzen, J.; Luangdilok, W.

    2009-01-01

    The MAAP4 material creep calculation was compared with the experiments reported by Maile, et al., for a 0.7 m diameter hot leg, with a thickness of 47 mm, which is pressurized to 16.3 MPa and heated to temperatures in excess of 700degC. These experiments showed that the carbon steel hot leg would undergo material creep to a failure state in approximately 1,100 seconds. In addition, the MAAP4 creep calculation was compared with the lower head failure tests performed at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). These experiments were performed using scaled models of a typical Reactor Pressure Vessel lower head. The test vessel was fabricated from SA533B1 steel with an inner diameter of 0.91 m and a nominal thickness of 30 mm. The experiments were performed at around 10 MPa internal pressure with various imposed heat flux distributions. The onset of creep was observed to occur between 660degC and 705degC. The MAAP4 model provides a good characterization of the material creep behavior. For the hot leg test benchmark, the key is determining the correct equivalent stress when the stress is multi-axial. A good agreement was obtained when a multiplier of 1.09 to the hoop stress was used. For the lower head failure benchmark, using correct creep properties is important. The SNL test vessel material was fabricated as SA533B1 steel. However, when the experimental vessel material was tested for creep properties it turned out to be significantly weaker than the reactor vessel steel which has the same identification. Also, the material undergoing phase transition and becoming stronger at high temperatures has to be considered for accurate prediction of the failure time. A good agreement was obtained when the creep data of Jeong, et al., was used. (author)

  10. BOOK REVIEW OF "CHESAPEAKE BAY BLUES: SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND THE STRUGGLE TO SAVE THE BAY"

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a book review of "Chesapeake Bay Blues: Science, Politics, and the Struggle to Save the Bay". This book is very well written and provides an easily understandable description of the political challenges faced by those proposing new or more stringent environmental regulat...

  11. 77 FR 21890 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Street and Maple-Oregon Bridges so vehicular traffic congestion would not develop on downtown Sturgeon... the efficient movement of vehicular traffic in Sturgeon Bay. The Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal is... experiences a significant increase in vehicular and vessel traffic during the peak tourist and navigation...

  12. 76 FR 28309 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... vehicular traffic congestion would not develop on downtown Sturgeon Bay streets due to unscheduled bridge... schedules during the peak tourist and navigation seasons to provide for the efficient movement of vehicular... between Lake Michigan and Green Bay. The area experiences a significant increase in vehicular and vessel...

  13. Isokinetic Leg Strength and Power in Elite Handball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ravé, José M.; Juárez, Daniel; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A.; Clemente-Suarez, Vicente J; Martinez-Valencia, María A; Abian-Vicen, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Isokinetic strength evaluation of the knee flexion and extension in concentric mode of contraction is an important part of the comprehensive evaluation of athletes. The aims of this study were to evaluate the isokinetic knee peak torque in both the extension and flexion movement in the dominant and non-dominant leg, and the relationship with jumping performance. Twelve elite male handball players from the top Spanish handball division voluntary participated in the study (age 27.68 ± 4.12 years; body mass 92.89 ± 12.34 kg; body height 1.90 ± 0.05 m). The knee extensor and flexor muscle peak torque of each leg were concentrically measured at 60º/s and 180º/s with an isokinetic dynamometer. The Squat Jump and Countermovement Jump were performed on a force platform to determine power and vertical jump height. Non-significant differences were observed between legs in the isokinetic knee extension (dominant= 2.91 ± 0.53 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 2.70 ± 0.47 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.90 ± 0.31 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.83 ± 0.29 Nm/kg at 180º/s) and flexion peak torques (dominant = 1.76 ± 0.29 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.72 ± 0.39 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.30 ± 0.23 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.27 ± 0.35 Nm/kg at 180º/s). Low and non-significant correlation coefficients were found between the isokinetic peak torques and vertical jumping performance (SJ = 31.21 ± 4.32 cm; CMJ = 35.89 ± 4.20 cm). Similar isokinetic strength was observed between the legs; therefore, no relationship was found between the isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torques as well as vertical jumping performance in elite handball players. PMID:25114749

  14. Locomotion training of legged robots using hybrid machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, William E.; Doerschuk, Peggy I.; Zhang, Wen-Ran; Li, Andrew L.

    1995-01-01

    In this study artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic are used to control the jumping behavior of a three-link uniped robot. The biped locomotion control problem is an increment of the uniped locomotion control. Study of legged locomotion dynamics indicates that a hierarchical controller is required to control the behavior of a legged robot. A structured control strategy is suggested which includes navigator, motion planner, biped coordinator and uniped controllers. A three-link uniped robot simulation is developed to be used as the plant. Neurocontrollers were trained both online and offline. In the case of on-line training, a reinforcement learning technique was used to train the neurocontroller to make the robot jump to a specified height. After several hundred iterations of training, the plant output achieved an accuracy of 7.4%. However, when jump distance and body angular momentum were also included in the control objectives, training time became impractically long. In the case of off-line training, a three-layered backpropagation (BP) network was first used with three inputs, three outputs and 15 to 40 hidden nodes. Pre-generated data were presented to the network with a learning rate as low as 0.003 in order to reach convergence. The low learning rate required for convergence resulted in a very slow training process which took weeks to learn 460 examples. After training, performance of the neurocontroller was rather poor. Consequently, the BP network was replaced by a Cerebeller Model Articulation Controller (CMAC) network. Subsequent experiments described in this document show that the CMAC network is more suitable to the solution of uniped locomotion control problems in terms of both learning efficiency and performance. A new approach is introduced in this report, viz., a self-organizing multiagent cerebeller model for fuzzy-neural control of uniped locomotion is suggested to improve training efficiency. This is currently being evaluated for a possible

  15. Isokinetic leg strength and power in elite handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ravé, José M; Juárez, Daniel; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A; Clemente-Suarez, Vicente J; Martinez-Valencia, María A; Abian-Vicen, Javier

    2014-06-28

    Isokinetic strength evaluation of the knee flexion and extension in concentric mode of contraction is an important part of the comprehensive evaluation of athletes. The aims of this study were to evaluate the isokinetic knee peak torque in both the extension and flexion movement in the dominant and non-dominant leg, and the relationship with jumping performance. Twelve elite male handball players from the top Spanish handball division voluntary participated in the study (age 27.68 ± 4.12 years; body mass 92.89 ± 12.34 kg; body height 1.90 ± 0.05 m). The knee extensor and flexor muscle peak torque of each leg were concentrically measured at 60º/s and 180º/s with an isokinetic dynamometer. The Squat Jump and Countermovement Jump were performed on a force platform to determine power and vertical jump height. Non-significant differences were observed between legs in the isokinetic knee extension (dominant= 2.91 ± 0.53 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 2.70 ± 0.47 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.90 ± 0.31 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.83 ± 0.29 Nm/kg at 180º/s) and flexion peak torques (dominant = 1.76 ± 0.29 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.72 ± 0.39 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.30 ± 0.23 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.27 ± 0.35 Nm/kg at 180º/s). Low and non-significant correlation coefficients were found between the isokinetic peak torques and vertical jumping performance (SJ = 31.21 ± 4.32 cm; CMJ = 35.89 ± 4.20 cm). Similar isokinetic strength was observed between the legs; therefore, no relationship was found between the isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torques as well as vertical jumping performance in elite handball players.

  16. Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with lower leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domínguez, H.; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Gram, Lone

    1996-01-01

    of infection. Both patients survived; however, one of them had extensive myonecrosis, while the other patient had an uncomplicated course. The strains were initially believed to be Shewanella putrefaciens on the basis of key characteristics and results of the API 20NE identification system (bioMerieux, Marcy l......The first Danish cases of Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with chronic lower leg ulcers are reported. Both patients were admitted to the hospital during the same month of a very warm summer and had been exposed to the same marine environment, thereby suggesting the same source...

  17. Walk-Startup of a Two-Legged Walking Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babković, Kalman; Nagy, László; Krklješ, Damir; Borovac, Branislav

    There is a growing interest towards humanoid robots. One of their most important characteristic is the two-legged motion - walk. Starting and stopping of humanoid robots introduce substantial delays. In this paper, the goal is to explore the possibility of using a short unbalanced state of the biped robot to quickly gain speed and achieve the steady state velocity during a period shorter than half of the single support phase. The proposed method is verified by simulation. Maintainig a steady state, balanced gait is not considered in this paper.

  18. Actometry in measuring the symptom severity of restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuisku, K; Holi, M M; Wahlbeck, K; Ahlgren, A J; Lauerma, H

    2005-05-01

    In a previous, controlled study we demonstrated that the general lower limb activity measured by three-channel actometry is a promising objective measure of restless legs syndrome (RLS) severity. In the present study we have further evaluated the method in measuring RLS symptom severity in an open, single-day pramipexole intervention with 15 RLS patients. Both our standardized actometric parameters (nocturnal lower limb activity and controlled rest activity) decreased significantly during the intervention in parallel with the subjectively reported relief of RLS symptoms.

  19. Note on glands present in meliponinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae bees legs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carminda da Cruz-Landim

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the presence of glandular structures in legs of some stingless bee species. The glands appear as: the epidermis transformation in a glandular epithelium as in basitarsus, an epithelial sac inside the segment as in the femur of queens or in the last tarsomere, as round glandular cells, scattered or forming groupments. The saculiform gland of femur is present only in queens, the other glands are present in males, queens and workers of the studied species, apparently without any type of polymorphism. This occurrence seems indicate that the function of these glands have not to do with the sociality or specific behavior of castes.

  20. Delivery of compression therapy for venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarchi, Kian; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2014-07-01

    Despite the documented effect of compression therapy in clinical studies and its widespread prescription, treatment of venous leg ulcers is often prolonged and recurrence rates high. Data on provided compression therapy are limited. To assess whether home care nurses achieve adequate subbandage pressure when treating patients with venous leg ulcers and the factors that predict the ability to achieve optimal pressure. We performed a cross-sectional study from March 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012, in home care centers in 2 Danish municipalities. Sixty-eight home care nurses who managed wounds in their everyday practice were included. Participant-masked measurements of subbandage pressure achieved with an elastic, long-stretch, single-component bandage; an inelastic, short-stretch, single-component bandage; and a multilayer, 2-component bandage, as well as, association between achievement of optimal pressure and years in the profession, attendance at wound care educational programs, previous work experience, and confidence in bandaging ability. A substantial variation in the exerted pressure was found: subbandage pressures ranged from 11 mm Hg exerted by an inelastic bandage to 80 mm Hg exerted by a 2-component bandage. The optimal subbandage pressure range, defined as 30 to 50 mm Hg, was achieved by 39 of 62 nurses (63%) applying the 2-component bandage, 28 of 68 nurses (41%) applying the elastic bandage, and 27 of 68 nurses (40%) applying the inelastic bandage. More than half the nurses applying the inelastic (38 [56%]) and elastic (36 [53%]) bandages obtained pressures less than 30 mm Hg. At best, only 17 of 62 nurses (27%) using the 2-component bandage achieved subbandage pressure within the range they aimed for. In this study, none of the investigated factors was associated with the ability to apply a bandage with optimal pressure. This study demonstrates the difficulty of achieving the desired subbandage pressure and indicates that a substantial proportion of

  1. Engineering Design of an Adaptive Leg Prosthesis Using Biological Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Dentel, Andy; Invarsdottir, Thorunn

    2010-01-01

    The biomimetic design process is explored through a design case: An adaptive leg prosthesis. The aim is to investigate if the biomimetic design process can be carried out with a minimum of biological knowledge and without using advanced design methods. In the design case biomimetic design was suc...... was successfully carried out using library search resulting in 14 biological analogies for the design problem 'shape adaption'. It is proposed that search results are handled using special cards describing the biological phenomena and the functional principles....

  2. Cambridge Bay: Six years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edworthy, J.

    1992-01-01

    The story of a wind energy project in Cambridge Bay, Northwest Territories, is presented from the perspective of the company that supplied the equipment and supported the project through its life. The project was intended to demonstrate the technical, economic, institutional, and operational issues and barriers to the use of wind power in remote communities. The system, involving four Carter Model 25 units each rated at 25 kW, was installed in 1987 and commissioned in January 1988. Shortly thereafter, the Northern Canada Power Commission (which requested the project in the first place) was taken over by the territorial administration, and employee continuity was disrupted. At about the same time, Federal support for the project decreased. Technical problems included a transformer failure, a generator failure, and a failed yaw tube which turned out to be lightly designed and poorly made. The Carter turbine company also went out of business, making spare parts difficult to obtain. The utility organization changed abruptly in summer 1991 with the arrival of a new area superintendent who did not support the project. The wind farm was shut down in 1992. The project generated a total of 160,982 kWh with over 71% availability. The positive and negative results from the project are summarized and recommendations are made for future Arctic wind power projects. 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Physical processes in a coupled bay-estuary coastal system: Whitsand Bay and Plymouth Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncles, R. J.; Stephens, J. A.; Harris, C.

    2015-09-01

    Whitsand Bay and Plymouth Sound are located in the southwest of England. The Bay and Sound are separated by the ∼2-3 km-wide Rame Peninsula and connected by ∼10-20 m-deep English Channel waters. Results are presented from measurements of waves and currents, drogue tracking, surveys of salinity, temperature and turbidity during stratified and unstratified conditions, and bed sediment surveys. 2D and 3D hydrodynamic models are used to explore the generation of tidally- and wind-driven residual currents, flow separation and the formation of the Rame eddy, and the coupling between the Bay and the Sound. Tidal currents flow around the Rame Peninsula from the Sound to the Bay between approximately 3 h before to 2 h after low water and form a transport path between them that conveys lower salinity, higher turbidity waters from the Sound to the Bay. These waters are then transported into the Bay as part of the Bay-mouth limb of the Rame eddy and subsequently conveyed to the near-shore, east-going limb and re-circulated back towards Rame Head. The Simpson-Hunter stratification parameter indicates that much of the Sound and Bay are likely to stratify thermally during summer months. Temperature stratification in both is pronounced during summer and is largely determined by coastal, deeper-water stratification offshore. Small tidal stresses in the Bay are unable to move bed sediment of the observed sizes. However, the Bay and Sound are subjected to large waves that are capable of driving a substantial bed-load sediment transport. Measurements show relatively low levels of turbidity, but these respond rapidly to, and have a strong correlation with, wave height.

  4. Dynamic stability of running: The effects of speed and leg amputations on the maximal Lyapunov exponent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Look, Nicole; Arellano, Christopher J.; Grabowski, Alena M.; Kram, Rodger; McDermott, William J.; Bradley, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study dynamic stability during running, focusing on the effects of speed, and the use of a leg prosthesis. We compute and compare the maximal Lyapunov exponents of kinematic time-series data from subjects with and without unilateral transtibial amputations running at a wide range of speeds. We find that the dynamics of the affected leg with the running-specific prosthesis are less stable than the dynamics of the unaffected leg and also less stable than the biological legs of the non-amputee runners. Surprisingly, we find that the center-of-mass dynamics of runners with two intact biological legs are slightly less stable than those of runners with amputations. Our results suggest that while leg asymmetries may be associated with instability, runners may compensate for this effect by increased control of their center-of-mass dynamics

  5. Angiographic imaging of the branching of the popliteal artery into the arteries of the lower leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, L.; Karnel, F.; Schurawitzki, H.

    1990-01-01

    For the anatomic analysis of the branching of the popliteal artery into the lower leg arteries, 414 intra-arterial DSA images of the lower extremity (obtained in 223 patients) were available. In 90.1% of the material examined, a 'normal' branching was found. If one leg of a patient showed 'normal' branching, there was a probability of 6.9% to find a different branching of the artery in the other leg. In 9.9% of the examined legs deviations from standard branching were observed. If there was a deviation from standard observed in one leg, the probability of finding a variant of branching in the other leg as well was 4.4%. (orig./MG) [de

  6. A review of the relationship between leg power and selected chronic disease in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strollo, S. E.; Caserotti, Paolo; Ward, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    characterized. Importantly, individuals with these conditions have shown improved leg power with training. METHODS: A search was performed using PubMed to identify original studies published in English from January 1998 to August 2013. Leg power studies, among older adults ≥ 50 years of age, which assessed......OBJECTIVE: This review investigates the relationship between leg muscle power and the chronic conditions of osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease among older adults. Current literature assessing the impact of chronic disease on leg power has not yet been comprehensively......), diabetes mellitus (n=5), and cardiovascular disease (n=6). Studies generally supported associations of lower leg power among older adults with chronic disease, although small sample sizes, cross-sectional data, homogenous populations, varied disease definitions, and inconsistent leg power methods limited...

  7. [Necrotic leg ulcer revealing vasculitis induced by vitamin K antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabli, H; Hocar, O; Akhdari, N; Amal, S; Hakkou, M; Hamdaoui, A

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin K antagonists are widely used in thromboembolic diseases. Hemorrhagic complications related to drug overdose represent their main side effect. We report a rare side effect, a severe and unexpected type of skin vasculitis - necrotic leg ulcer - induced by vitamin K antagonist. A 63-year-old female with a history of diabetes developed hyperalgesic necrotic ulcerations on the lower limbs one month after starting an acenocoumarol-based treatment for ischemic heart disease. Histological examination revealed lymphocytic vasculitis with fibrinoid necrosis. Etiological explorations searching for vasculitis were negative. In the absence of a precise etiology, drug-induced ulcer was suspected. Low molecular weight heparin was prescribed to replace acenocoumarol. The lesions slowly resolved with topical treatment. The chronological criteria and the negativity of etiological explorations allowed the diagnosis of vitamin K antagonist-induced necrotic skin ulcer. Clinicians should be aware of this rare complication induced by oral anticoagulants because of its practical therapeutic implications. This is the first case of necrotic leg ulcer induced by acenocoumarol corresponding histologically to necrotising lymphocytic vasculitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Impaired Interlimb Coordination of Voluntary Leg Movements in Poststroke Hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shih-Chiao

    2010-01-01

    Appropriate interlimb coordination of the lower extremities is particularly important for a variety of functional human motor behaviors such as jumping, kicking a ball, or simply walking. Specific interlimb coordination patterns may be especially impaired after a lesion to the motor system such as stroke, yet this has not been thoroughly examined to date. The purpose of this study was to investigate the motor deficits in individuals with chronic stroke and hemiparesis when performing unilateral versus bilateral inphase versus bilateral antiphase voluntary cyclic ankle movements. We recorded ankle angular trajectories and muscle activity from the dorsiflexors and plantarflexors and compared these between subjects with stroke and a group of healthy age-matched control subjects. Results showed clear abnormalities in both the kinematics and EMG of the stroke subjects, with significant movement degradation during the antiphase task compared with either the unilateral or the inphase task. The abnormalities included prolonged cycle durations, reduced ankle excursions, decreased agonist EMG bursts, and reduced EMG modulation across movement phases. By comparison, the control group showed nearly identical performance across all task conditions. These findings suggest that stroke involving the corticospinal system projection to the leg specifically impairs one or more components of the neural circuitry involved in lower extremity interlimb coordination. The express susceptibility of the antiphase pattern to exaggerated motor deficits could contribute to functional deficits in a number of antiphase leg movement tasks, including walking. PMID:20463199

  9. A bipedal DNA Brownian motor with coordinated legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omabegho, Tosan; Sha, Ruojie; Seeman, Nadrian C

    2009-04-03

    A substantial challenge in engineering molecular motors is designing mechanisms to coordinate the motion between multiple domains of the motor so as to bias random thermal motion. For bipedal motors, this challenge takes the form of coordinating the movement of the biped's legs so that they can move in a synchronized fashion. To address this problem, we have constructed an autonomous DNA bipedal walker that coordinates the action of its two legs by cyclically catalyzing the hybridization of metastable DNA fuel strands. This process leads to a chemically ratcheted walk along a directionally polar DNA track. By covalently cross-linking aliquots of the walker to its track in successive walking states, we demonstrate that this Brownian motor can complete a full walking cycle on a track whose length could be extended for longer walks. We believe that this study helps to uncover principles behind the design of unidirectional devices that can function without intervention. This device should be able to fulfill roles that entail the performance of useful mechanical work on the nanometer scale.

  10. Modelling and Control of Robotic Leg as Assistive Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingye, Yee; Zain, Badrul Aisham bin Md

    2017-10-01

    The ageing population (people older than 60 years old) is expected to constitute 21.8% of global population by year 2050. When human ages, bodily function including locomotors will deteriorate. Besides, there are hundreds of thousands of victims who suffer from multiple health conditions worldwide that leads to gait impairment. A promising solution will be the lower limb powered-exoskeleton. This study is to be a start-up platform to design a lower limb powered-exoskeleton for a normal Malaysian male, by designing and simulating the dynamic model of a 2-link robotic leg to observe its behaviour under different input conditions with and without a PID controller. Simulink in MATLAB software is used as the dynamic modelling and simulation software for this study. It is observed that the 2-links robotic leg behaved differently under different input conditions, and perform the best when it is constrained and controlled by PID controller. Simulink model is formed as a foundation for the upcoming researches and can be modified and utilised by the future researchers.

  11. Mesenchymal stem cell in venous leg ulcer: An intoxicating therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanerey, Anjali; Patra, Pradeep Kumar; Kumar, Awanish

    2017-08-01

    Venous leg ulcers (VLU) are a prevalent and reoccurring type of complicated wound, turning as a considerable public healthcare issue, with critical social and economic concern. There are both medical and surgical therapies to treat venous leg ulcers; however, a cure does not yet exist. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are capable and proved of accelerating wound healing in vivo and their study with human chronic wounds is currently awaited. MSCs are a promising source of adult progenitor cells for cellular therapy and have been demonstrated to differentiate into various mesenchymal cell lineages. They have a crucial and integral role in native wound healing by regulating immune response and inflammation. Improved understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms at work in delayed wound healing compels to the development of cellular therapy in VLU. This review focuses on the current treatment option of VLU and further emphasizing the role of MSCs in accelerating the healing process. With further understanding of the mechanism of action of these cells in wound improvement and, the involvement of cytokines can also be revealed that could be used for the therapeutic purpose for VLU healing. Clinical uses of MSCs have been started already, and induced MSCs are surely a promising tool or compelling therapy for VLU. Copyright © 2017 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Passive Control of Attachment in Legged Space Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Gasparetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the space environment the absence of gravity calls for constant safe attachment of any loose object, but the low-pressure conditions prohibit the use of glue-type adhesives. The attachment system of freely hunting spiders, e.g. Evarcha arcuata, employs van der Waals forces and mechanical interlocking. Furthermore, detachment is achieved passively and requires little force. Hence, the spider serves as a model for a versatile legged robot for space applications, e.g. on the outer surface of a space station. In this paper, we analyse the dry attachment systems of E. arcuata and geckos as well as the kinematics of freely hunting spiders. We generalise the results of biological studies on spider locomotion and mobility, including the major movement and the position constraints set by the dry adhesion system. From these results, we define a simplified spider model and study the overall kinematics of the legs both in flight and in contact with the surface. The kinematic model, the data on spider gait characteristics and the adhesion constraints are implemented in a kinematic simulator. The simulator results confirm the principal functionality of our concept.

  13. Two pedigrees with restless legs syndrome in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Esteves

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have suggested a substantial genetic contribution in the etiology of the primary form of restless legs syndrome (RLS and periodic leg movements (PLM. We describe the symptoms, the sleep profiles and physiological parameters of two families in which several members present RLS/PLM. The proband of family 1 is a 70-year-old woman and the proband of family 2 is a 57-year-old woman; both have exhibited the symptoms since the age of 20 years. All patients in both families were diagnosed with RLS according to the criteria of the International RLS Study Group. Polysomnographic recordings were performed to quantify and to describe PLM during sleep. Sleep parameters showed decreased sleep efficiency, increased sleep latency in the arousal index and the presence of PLM in all subjects. One of the families showed an exact profile of dominant inheritance with anticipation of age at onset. In the other family, the founders were blood relatives and there was no affected member in the third generation suggesting a recessive mode of inheritance. RLS/PLM is a prevalent sleep disorder affecting about 5 to 15% of the population and one that substantially impairs healthy sleep patterns. Efforts to understand the underlying pathophysiology will contribute to improve the sleep and life quality of these patients.

  14. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patient, a 54-year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months. The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. rubrum. The patient was cured with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketaconazole cream following 2% ketaconazole shampoo wash for 3 weeks. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T. rubrum infection of the stump could be considered as the precipitating factors.

  15. Surface Projection of Interosseous Foramen of the Leg: Cadaver Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Arguello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study was conducted to identify the surface projection of the interosseous foramen and associated structures of the proximal leg using the average clinician’s thumb width as a quick measurement to assist in differential diagnosis and treatment. Methods. Twelve cadavers (5 males and 7 females, age range = 51–91 years, and mean age = 76.9 were dissected for analysis. Location and size of interosseous foramen, location of anterior tibial artery, location of deep fibular nerve, and corresponding arterial branches were measured and converted into thumb widths. Results. Mean thumb width measured among the cadavers was 17.94±3.9 mm. The interosseous foramen measured was approximately 1 thumb width vertically (18.47±3.0 mm and 1/2 thumb width horizontally (7.32±2.1 mm and was located approximately 1 thumb width distally to the tibial tuberosity (20.81±6.8 mm and 2 thumb widths (37.47±4.7 mm lateral to the tibial ridge. The anterior tibial artery and deep fibular nerve converged approximately 4 thumb widths (74.31±14.8 mm inferior to the tibial tuberosity and 2 thumb widths (33.46±4.9 mm lateral to the tibial ridge. Conclusion. Clinicians may identify anatomical structures of the proximal leg with palpation using the thumb width for measurement.

  16. Compromised Agency: The Case of BabyLegs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Liboiron

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of agency is ubiquitous in STS, particularly regarding cases of alternative ways of knowing and doing science such as civic, citizen, and feminist sciences, among others. Yet the focus on agency often glosses over the constraints placed on agents, particularly within asymmetrical power relations. This article follows the case of BabyLegs, a do-it-yourself monitoring tool for marine microplastic pollution, and the attempt to keep the technology open source within an intellectual property (IP system set up to privatize it. The tactics used to design BabyLegs as a feminine, silly, doll-tool to discredit the device in the eyes of an IP system that valued traditional gender roles lead to the eventual success of keeping the device open source. Yet, those same tactics also reinforced and reproduced the structures of power and essentialism they were designed to resist. I characterize this technological ambivalence as compromise, and argue that all agency exercised within asymmetrical power relations is compromised. This is not to say resistance is futile, but that agency is never pure, and this recognition lets us be more intentional in how we might compromise as practitioners of diverse scientific knowledges.

  17. Prosthetic Leg Control in the Nullspace of Human Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Robert D; Martin, Anne E

    2016-07-01

    Recent work has extended the control method of virtual constraints, originally developed for autonomous walking robots, to powered prosthetic legs for lower-limb amputees. Virtual constraints define desired joint patterns as functions of a mechanical phasing variable, which are typically enforced by torque control laws that linearize the output dynamics associated with the virtual constraints. However, the output dynamics of a powered prosthetic leg generally depend on the human interaction forces, which must be measured and canceled by the feedback linearizing control law. This feedback requires expensive multi-axis load cells, and actively canceling the interaction forces may minimize the human's influence over the prosthesis. To address these limitations, this paper proposes a method for projecting virtual constraints into the nullspace of the human interaction terms in the output dynamics. The projected virtual constraints naturally render the output dynamics invariant with respect to the human interaction forces, which instead enter into the internal dynamics of the partially linearized prosthetic system. This method is illustrated with simulations of a transfemoral amputee model walking with a powered knee-ankle prosthesis that is controlled via virtual constraints with and without the proposed projection.

  18. The single-leg-stance test in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomiak, Taylor; Pereira, Fernando Vieira; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    Timed single-leg-stance test (SLST) is widely used to assess postural control in the elderly. In Parkinson's disease (PD), it has been shown that an SLST around 10 seconds or below may be a sensitive indicator of future falls. However, despite its role in fall risk, whether SLST times around 10 seconds marks a clinically important stage of disease progression has largely remained unexplored. A cross-sectional study where 27 people with PD were recruited and instructed to undertake timed SLST for both legs was conducted. Disease motor impairment was assessed with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part 3 (UPDRS-III). This study found that: 1) the SLST in people with PD shows good test-retest reliability; 2) SLST values can be attributed to two non-overlapping clusters: a low (10.4 ± 6.3 seconds) and a high (47.6 ± 11.7 seconds) value SLST group; 3) only the low value SLST group can be considered abnormal when age-matched normative SLST data are taken into account for comparison; and 4) lower UPDRS-III motor performance, and the bradykinesia sub-score in particular, are only associated with the low SLST group. These results lend further support that a low SLST time around 10 seconds marks a clinically important stage of disease progression with significant worsening of postural stability in PD.

  19. Orthostatic leg blood volume changes assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truijen, J; Kim, Y S; Krediet, C T P

    2012-01-01

    posture, volume accumulation in small blood vessels contributes significantly to the total fluid volume accumulated in the legs. Considering that near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) tracks postural blood volume changes within the small blood vessels of the lower leg, we evaluated the NIRS-determined changes......-linear accumulation of blood volume in the small vessels of the leg, with an initial fast phase followed by a more gradual increase at least partly contributing to the relocation of fluid during orthostatic stress....

  20. Concentration of PSP (Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning) Toxin On Shellfish From Inner Ambon Bay and Kao Bay North Halmahera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pello, F. S.; Haumahu, S.; Huliselan, N. V.; Tuapattinaja, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    The Inner Ambon Bay and Kao Bay have potential on fisheries resources which one of them is molluscs. Molluscs especially for class bivalve have economical values and are consumed by coastal community. The research had been done to analyze saxitoxin (STX) concentration on bivalves from Kao Bay and Inner Ambon Bay. The Saxitoxin Elisa Test Kit Protocol was used to determine saxitoxin concentration. The measurement showed that the highest concentration of saxitoxin (392.42 µg STXeq/100g shellfish meat) was Gafrarium tumidum from Ambon Bay, whereas concentration of saxitoxin (321.83 µg STXeq/100g shellfish meat) was Mactra mera from Kao Bay

  1. PELATIHAN PLIOMETRIK ALTERNATE LEG BOUND DAN DOUBLE LEG BOUND MENINGKATKAN DAYA LEDAK OTOT TUNGKAI PADA SISWA PUTRA KELAS VII SMP NEGERI 3 SUKAWATI TAHUN PELAJARAN 2012/2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Ayu Tri Widhiyanti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to know the improvement the explosive power of leg muscle. It was done through 5 set 12 repetitions during 6 weeks in the field of SMP Negeri 3 Sukawati started from 4 p.m. until 6 p.m. There were 3 groups applied in this study such as group 1 (control group that was instructed to kick a ball, group 2 (plyometric training of alternate leg bound, and group 3 (plyometric training of double leg bound. The sample was 14 male students who were in the seventh grade class of SMP Negeri 3 Sukawati in the academic year 2012/2013. The data was gained by doing the movement of alternate leg bound and double leg bound that each movement was done three times before and after the training. The hypothesis was examined by using independent t-test with the result 0.05 (p<0.05. Based on the different result of analysis test in each group, the gain score of the group 2 with the group 1 about 0,51 that shows the significant differences p = 0,00, the gain score of the group 2 with the group 3 about 0,31 that shows the significant differences p = 0,00, the gain score of the group 3 with the group 1 about 0,20 that shows the significant differences p = 0,00. Thus, alternate leg bound plyometric training is more effective than double leg bound. It is expected that the coach and the gym teacher to apply alternate leg bound plyometric training as an alternative to improve the explosive power of leg muscle.

  2. PEMANFATAN TEOREMA BAYES DALAM PENENTUAN PENYAKIT THT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Winiarti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Dalam konsep pelacakan dalam mencari solusi dengan pendekatan artificial inteligent, ada berbagai metode yang dapat diterapkan untuk mengatasi masalah ketidakpastian saat proses pelacakan terjadi. Salah satunya adalah teorema bayes. Adanya ketidakpastian pada proses pelacakan dapat terjadi karena adanya perubahan pengetahuan yang ada di dalam sistem. Untuk itu diperlukan adanya suatu metode untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut. Dalam penelitian ini telah diterapkan suatu metode untuk mengatasi ketidakpastian dengan teorema Bayes pada kasus pelacakan untuk mendiagnosa penyakit pada THT (Telinga,Hidung dan Tenggorokan. Subjek pada penelitian ini adalah proses pelacakan untuk menentukan penyakit THT dengan model penalaran forward chaining dan metode kepastiannya menggunakan teorema bayes dengan cara menghitung nilai probabilitas suatu penyakit dan membandingkan probabilitas setiap gejalanya. Model pengembangan perangkat lunak yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Waterfall. Metode Waterfall diawali dengan analisis data, perancangan sistem, pengkodean menggunakan Visual Basic 6.0, pengujian sistem dengan black box test dan alfa test. Dari penelitian yang dilakukan menghasilkan sebuah perangkat lunak yaitu yang mampu menentukan penyakit pada THT dengan menerapkan metode bayes untuk mengatasi ketidakpastian. Hasil uji coba sistem menujukkan bahwa aplikasi ini layak dan dapat digunakan. Kata kunci : Penyakit, THT, Teorema Bayes.

  3. Changing Salinity Patterns in Biscayne Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2004-01-01

    Biscayne Bay, Fla., is a 428-square-mile (1,109-square-kilometer) subtropical estuarine ecosystem that includes Biscayne National Park, the largest marine park in the U.S. national park system (fig. 1). The bay began forming between 5,000 and 3,000 years ago as sea level rose and southern Florida was flooded. Throughout most of its history, the pristine waters of the bay supported abundant and diverse fauna and flora, and the bay was a nursery for the adjacent coral-reef and marine ecosystems. In the 20th century, urbanization of the Miami-Dade County area profoundly affected the environment of the bay. Construction of powerplants, water-treatment plants, and solid-waste sites and large-scale development along the shoreline stressed the ecosystem. Biscayne National Monument was established in 1968 to ?preserve and protect for the education, inspiration, recreation and enjoyment of present and future generations a rare combination of terrestrial, marine, and amphibious life in a tropical setting of great natural beauty? (Public Law 90?606). The monument was enlarged in 1980 and designated a national park.

  4. Running over unknown rough terrain with a one-legged planar robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, Ben; Miller, Bruce; Clark, Jonathan E; Schmitt, John

    2011-01-01

    The ability to traverse unknown, rough terrain is an advantage that legged locomoters have over their wheeled counterparts. However, due to the complexity of multi-legged systems, research in legged robotics has not yet been able to reproduce the agility found in the animal kingdom. In an effort to reduce the complexity of the problem, researchers have developed single-legged models to gain insight into the fundamental dynamics of legged running. Inspired by studies of animal locomotion, researchers have proposed numerous control strategies to achieve stable, one-legged running over unknown, rough terrain. One such control strategy incorporates energy variations into the system during the stance phase by changing the force-free leg length as a sinusoidal function of time. In this research, a one-legged planar robot capable of implementing this and other state-of-the-art control strategies was designed and built. Both simulated and experimental results were used to determine and compare the stability of the proposed controllers as the robot was subjected to unknown drop and raised step perturbations equal to 25% of the nominal leg length. This study illustrates the relative advantages of utilizing a minimal-sensing, active energy removal control scheme to stabilize running over rough terrain.

  5. Near infrared spectroscopy for controlling the quality of distal leg perfusion in remote access cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Thomas; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Bonatti, Johannes; Kolbitsch, Christian

    2008-12-01

    The prevention of leg ischemia is necessary in all patients undergoing femoral artery cannulation for extracorporeal circulation. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an established non-invasive method for measuring tissue oxygen saturation. Ten patients underwent robotically assisted endoscopic coronary surgery or ASD repair on the arrested heart using aortic endo-occlusion catheters. They were monitored by transcutaneous NIRS (placed on both lower legs) for quality control of distal leg perfusion during femoral access cardiopulmonary bypass. The baseline NIRS values were 61 (52-80) on the cannulated side versus 70 (53-80) on the contralateral leg (p=n.s.). During clamping of the femoral artery for installation of the remote access perfusion system the tissue oxygen saturation dropped to 38 (18-58) (p=0.001 vs baseline) while it remained stable on the contralateral leg. After successful implantation of the distal leg perfusion the NIRS values normalized to similar amounts on both legs. We conclude that transcutaneous NIRS of the lower legs might be a useful non-invasive tool for monitoring leg perfusion in patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation via the femoral vessels.

  6. Study on improvement of energy efficiency of walking robots by spring -installed leg design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eung Soo; Song, Heuy Gap

    1993-01-01

    Although a walking robot is potentially useful in nuclear industry, its application has not been successful so far due to poor energy efficiency. In this paper, dynamic spring balancing of a swinging leg is proposed for improving energy efficiency. Since the fluctuation of internal energy is unavoidable due to leg oscillation, springs can be used for storing energy that is otherwise dissipated at the end of the return phase of the leg. Based of approximation to harmonic oscillation, an optimum trajectory and spring parameters are simultaneously synthesized for the leg in the return phase. (Author)

  7. H:q ratios and bilateral leg strength in college field and court sports players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Roy T H; Smith, Andrew W; Wong, Del P

    2012-06-01

    One of the key components in sports injury prevention is the identification of imbalances in leg muscle strength. However, different leg muscle characteristics may occur in large playing area (field) sports and small playing area (court) sports, which should be considered in regular injury prevention assessment. This study examined the isokinetic hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio and bilateral leg strength balance in 40 male college (age: 23.4 ± 2.5 yrs) team sport players (field sport = 23, soccer players; court sport = 17, volleyball and basketball players). Five repetitions of maximal knee concentric flexion and concentric extension were performed on an isokinetic dynamometer at two speeds (slow: 60°·s(-1) and fast: 300°·s(-1)) with 3 minutes rest between tests. Both legs were measured in counterbalanced order with the dominant leg being determined as the leg used to kick a ball. The highest concentric peak torque values (Nm) of the hamstrings and quadriceps of each leg were analyzed after body mass normalization (Nm·kg(-1)). Court sport players showed significantly weaker dominant leg hamstrings muscles at both contraction speeds (P Sport-specific leg muscle strength was evident in college players from field and court sports. These results suggest the need for different muscle strength training and rehabilitation protocols for college players according to the musculature requirements in their respective sports.

  8. Two Pilot Studies of the Effect of Bicycling on Balance and Leg Strength among Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rissel, Chris; Passmore, Erin; Mason, Chloe; Merom, Dafna

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Study 1 examines whether age-related declines in balance are moderated by bicycling. Study 2 tests whether regular cycling can increase leg strength and improve balance. Methods. Study 1: a cross-sectional survey of 43 adults aged 44–79 was conducted. Leg strength was measured, and Balance was measured using the choice stepping reaction time (CSRT) test (decision time and response time), leg strength and timed single leg standing. Study 2: 18 older adults aged 49–72 were recruited...

  9. A Dung Beetle-like Leg and its Adaptive Neural Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Canio, Giuliano; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Larsen, Jørgen Christian

    2016-01-01

    Dung beetles show fascinating locomotion abilities. They can use their legs to not only walk but also manipulate objects. Furthermore, they can perform their leg movements at a proper frequency with respect to their biomechanical properties and quickly adapt the movements to deal with external pe...... also apply adaptive neural control, based on a central pattern generator (CPG) circuit with synaptic plasticity, to autonomously generate a proper stepping frequency of the leg. The controller can also adapt the leg movement to deal with external perturbations within a few steps....

  10. Effects of combined high intensity arm and leg training on performance and cardio-respiratory measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Christoph; Sperlich, Billy; Born, Dennis-Peter; Michels, Guido

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of combined arm and leg high-intensity low-volume interval training (HIITarm+leg) on maximal oxygen uptake, myocardial measures (i.e. stroke volume, cardiac output, ejection fraction), Tissue Oxygenation Index (TOI) of the vastus lateralis and triceps brachii, as well as power output in comparison to leg HIIT (HIITleg) only. The 20 healthy, male and female volunteers completed six sessions of either HIITleg on a cycle ergometer or HIITarm+leg on an arm and leg cycle ergometer. During pre- and post-testing, the volunteers completed a submaximal and incremental test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. Magnitude based interference revealed likely to very likely beneficial effects for HIITarm+leg compared to HIITleg in maximal oxygen uptake, cardiac measures as well peak power output. The TOI following HIITarm+leg demonstrated likely to very likely increased oxygenation in the triceps brachii or the vastus lateralis when compared to HIITleg. The results suggest that six sessions of HIITarm+leg may likely to very likely improve maximal oxygen uptake, some inotropy-related cardiac measures with improved tissue oxygenation of the triceps brachii and vastus lateralis muscles resulting in greater leg peak power output.

  11. Extension and customization of self-stability control in compliant legged systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, M; Blickhan, R; Geyer, H

    2012-01-01

    Several recent studies on the control of legged locomotion in animal and robot running focus on the influence of different leg parameters on gait stability. In a preceding investigation self-stability controls showing deadbeat behavior could be obtained by studying the dynamics of the system in dependence of the leg orientation carefully adjusted during the flight phase. Such controls allow to accommodate disturbances of the ground level without having to detect them. Here we further this method in two ways. Besides the leg orientation, we allow changes in leg stiffness during flight and show that this extension substantially improves the rejection of ground disturbances. In a human like example the tolerance of random variation in ground level over many steps increased from 3.5% to 35% of leg length. In single steps changes of about 70% leg length (either up or down) could be negotiated. The variable leg stiffness not only allows to start with flat leg orientations maximizing step tolerances but also increase the control subspace. This allows to customize self-stability controls and to consider physical and technical limitations found in animals and robots. (paper)

  12. Mechanical evidence that flamingos can support their body on one leg with little active muscular force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Young-Hui; Ting, Lena H

    2017-05-01

    Flamingos (Phoenicopteridae) often stand and sleep on one leg for long periods, but it is unknown how much active muscle contractile force they use for the mechanical demands of standing on one leg: body weight support and maintaining balance. First, we demonstrated that flamingo cadavers could passively support body weight on one leg without any muscle activity while adopting a stable, unchanging, joint posture resembling that seen in live flamingos. By contrast, the cadaveric flamingo could not be stably held in a two-legged pose, suggesting a greater necessity for active muscle force to stabilize two-legged versus one-legged postures. Our results suggest that flamingos engage a passively engaged gravitational stay apparatus (proximally located) for weight support during one-legged standing. Second, we discovered that live flamingos standing on one leg have markedly reduced body sway during quiescent versus alert behaviours, with the point of force application directly under the distal joint, reducing the need for muscular joint torque. Taken together, our results highlight the possibility that flamingos stand for long durations on one leg without exacting high muscular forces and, thus, with little energetic expenditure. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Reddy, G.V.; Araligidad, N.; Shenoy, Shrikant

    Surface layer temperature inversion occurring in the Bay of Bengal has been addressed. Hydrographic data archived in the Indian Oceanographic Data Center are used to understand various aspects of the temperature inversion of surface layer in the Bay...

  14. Parameter Identification by Bayes Decision and Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulczycki, P.; Schiøler, Henrik

    1994-01-01

    The problem of parameter identification by Bayes point estimation using neural networks is investigated.......The problem of parameter identification by Bayes point estimation using neural networks is investigated....

  15. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund: Projects and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) projects listed here are part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  16. South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic re

  17. South Bay Salt Pond Restoration, Phase II at Ravenswood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Phase II Construction at Ravenswood, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  18. Sediment grab data from October 1999 in Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve and the NOAA Office for Coastal Management worked together to map benthic habitats within Apalachicola Bay,...

  19. 1999 RoxAnn Data Points from Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve and the NOAA Office for Coastal Management worked together to map benthic habitats within Apalachicola Bay,...

  20. Tectonics and geology of spreading ridge subduction at the Chile Triple Junction: a synthesis of results from Leg 141 of the Ocean Drilling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, J.H.; Lewis, S.D.; Cande, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    An active oceanic spreading ridge is being subducted beneath the South American continent at the Chile Triple Junction. This process has played a major part in the evolution of most of the continental margins that border the Pacific Ocean basin. A combination of high resolution swath bathymetric maps, seismic reflection profiles and drillhole and core data from five sites drilled during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 141 provide important data that define the tectonic, structural and stratigraphic effects of this modern example of spreading ridge subduction. A change from subduction accretion to subduction erosion occurs along-strike of the South American forearc. This change is prominently expressed by normal faulting, forearc subsidence, oversteepening of topographic slopes and intensive sedimentary mass wasting, overprinted on older signatures of sediment accretion, overthrusting and uplift processes in the forearc. Data from drill sites north of the triple junction (Sites 859-861) show that after an important phase of forearc building in the early to late Pliocene, subduction accretion had ceased in the late Pliocene. Since that time sediment on the downgoing oceanic Nazca plate has been subducted. Site 863 was drilled into the forearc in the immediate vicinity of the triple junction above the subducted spreading ridge axis. Here, thick and intensely folded and faulted trench slope sediments of Pleistocene age are currently involved in the frontal deformation of the forearc. Early faults with thrust and reverse kinematics are overprinted by later normal faults. The Chile Triple Junction is also the site of apparent ophiolite emplacement into the South American forearc. Drilling at Site 862 on the Taitao Ridge revealed an offshore volcanic sequence of Plio-Pleistocene age associated with the Taitao Fracture Zone, adjacent to exposures of the Pliocene-aged Taitao ophiolite onshore. Despite the large-scale loss of material from the forearc at the triple junction

  1. Meteorological research studies at Jervis Bay, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.H.; Bendun, E.O.K.

    1974-07-01

    A climatological study of the winds and temperature from the Jervis Bay region which commenced in October 1970 has shown the presence of a coastal sea breeze and secondary bay breeze circulation system. In an attempt to define the influence of the Murray's Beach site on the local atmospheric dispersion, special smoke plume photography studies were conducted in the lower atmosphere. In June 1972 a meteorological acoustic sounding research programme was initiated at the Jervis Bay settlement. The aims of the research are to calibrate the sounder in terms of surface wind, turbulence and temperature measurements pertinent to a description of the lower atmospheric dispersion potential. Preliminary results on six months' data have shown encouraging correlations between the acoustic sounder patterns and particularly the wind direction turbulence traces. (author)

  2. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  3. Paleoclimate of Quaternary Costa Rica: Analysis of Sediment from ODP Site 1242 in the Eastern Tropical Pacific to Explore the Behavior of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and Oceanic Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczek, C. R.; Joseph, L. H.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of grain size, magnetic fabric, and terrigenous mass accumulation rates (MAR) on oceanic sediment can provide insights into climatic conditions present at or near the time of deposition by helping to delineate changes in rainfall and oceanic circulation intensities. The fairly homogenous hemipelagic nannofossil clays and clayey nannofossil oozes collected in the upper portion of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1242 provide a 1.4 million year sediment record from the Cocos Ridge, in relatively shallow waters of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, off the coast of present day Central and South America. Information about shifts in rainfall and oceanic circulation provided by this study may be helpful in understanding changes in the location and behavior of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and/or other climatic factors, in this area during the Pleistocene and Holocene Epochs. Approximately 130 paired side-by-side samples were selected at approximately evenly spaced intervals throughout the uppermost 190 mcd of the core. To obtain terrigenous grain size and MARs, one set of sediment samples was subject to a five-step chemical extraction process to dissolve any oxy-hydroxy coatings, remove the biogenic carbonate and silicate components, and sieve out grains larger than 63 µm. The pre- and post-extraction weights were compared to calculate a terrigenous weight percent (%) from which the terrigenous MAR values were then calculated, with the use of linear sediment rates and dry bulk density measurements determined from shipboard ODP 1242 analyses. Magnetic fabric, or anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), was analyzed on a KLY4S-Kappabridge using the second set of samples taken in pmag cubes. Terrigenous MAR values range between 3.1 and 10.9 g/cm2/kyr, while P' (AMS) values range between 1.004 and 1.04 SI. A distinctive trend is noted in both factors, with both exhibiting relatively high initial values that then decrease from the beginning of the

  4. Development of PIMAL: Mathematical Phantom with Moving Arms and Legs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkurt, Hatice [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eckerman, Keith F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The computational model of the human anatomy (phantom) has gone through many revisions since its initial development in the 1970s. The computational phantom model currently used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is based on a model published in 1974. Hence, the phantom model used by the NRC staff was missing some organs (e.g., neck, esophagus) and tissues. Further, locations of some organs were inappropriate (e.g., thyroid).Moreover, all the computational phantoms were assumed to be in the vertical-upright position. However, many occupational radiation exposures occur with the worker in other positions. In the first phase of this work, updates on the computational phantom models were reviewed and a revised phantom model, which includes the updates for the relevant organs and compositions, was identified. This revised model was adopted as the starting point for this development work, and hence a series of radiation transport computations, using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5, was performed. The computational results were compared against values reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) in Publication 74. For some of the organs (e.g., thyroid), there were discrepancies between the computed values and the results reported in ICRP-74. The reasons behind these discrepancies have been investigated and are discussed in this report.Additionally, sensitivity computations were performed to determine the sensitivity of the organ doses for certain parameters, including composition and cross sections used in the simulations. To assess the dose for more realistic exposure configurations, the phantom model was revised to enable flexible positioning of the arms and legs. Furthermore, to reduce the user time for analyses, a graphical user interface (GUI) was developed. The GUI can be used to visualize the positioning of the arms and legs as desired posture is achieved to generate the input file, invoke the computations, and extract the organ dose

  5. Mapping Oyster Reef Habitats in Mobile Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Oyster reefs around the world are declining rapidly, and although they haven t received as much attention as coral reefs, they are just as important to their local ecosystems and economies. Oyster reefs provide habitats for many species of fish, invertebrates, and crustaceans, as well as the next generations of oysters. Oysters are also harvested from many of these reefs and are an important segment of many local economies, including that of Mobile Bay, where oysters rank in the top five commercial marine species both by landed weight and by dollar value. Although the remaining Mobile Bay oyster reefs are some of the least degraded in the world, projected climate change could have dramatic effects on the health of these important ecosystems. The viability of oyster reefs depends on water depth and temperature, appropriate pH and salinity levels, and the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water. Projected increases in sea level, changes in precipitation and runoff patterns, and changes in pH resulting from increases in the amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in the oceans could all affect the viability of oyster reefs in the future. Human activities such as dredging and unsustainable harvesting practices are also adversely impacting the oyster reefs. Fortunately, several projects are already under way to help rebuild or support existing or previously existing oyster reefs. The success of these projects will depend on the local effects of climate change on the current and potential habitats and man s ability to recognize and halt unsustainable harvesting practices. As the extent and health of the reefs changes, it will have impacts on the Mobile Bay ecosystem and economy, changing the resources available to the people who live there and to the rest of the country, since Mobile Bay is an important national source of seafood. This project identified potential climate change impacts on the oyster reefs of Mobile Bay, including the possible addition of newly viable

  6. Lost lake - restoration of a Carolina bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlin, H.G.; McLendon, J.P. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology; Wike, L.D. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Dietsch, B.M. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Carolina bays are shallow wetland depressions found only on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Although these isolated interstream wetlands support many types of communities, they share the common features of having a sandy margin, a fluctuating water level, an elliptical shape, and a northwest to southeast orientation. Lost Lake, an 11.3 hectare Carolina bay, was ditched and drained for agricultural production before establishment of the Savannah River Site in 1950. Later it received overflow from a seepage basin containing a variety of chemicals, primarily solvents and some heavy metals. In 1990 a plan was developed for the restoration of Lost Lake, and restoration activities were complete by mid-1991. Lost Lake is the first known project designed for the restoration and recovery of a Carolina bay. The bay was divided into eight soil treatment zones, allowing four treatments in duplicate. Each of the eight zones was planted with eight species of native wetland plants. Recolonization of the bay by amphibians and reptiles is being evaluated by using drift fences with pitfall traps and coverboard arrays in each of the treatment zones. Additional drift fences in five upland habitats were also established. Hoop turtle traps, funnel minnow traps, and dip nets were utilized for aquatic sampling. The presence of 43 species common to the region has been documented at Lost Lake. More than one-third of these species show evidence of breeding populations being established. Three species found prior to the restoration activity and a number of species common to undisturbed Carolina bays were not encountered. Colonization by additional species is anticipated as the wetland undergoes further succession.

  7. STS-98 Destiny in Atlantis's payload bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- The U.S. Laboratory Destiny rests once again in Atlantis'''s payload bay, at Launch Pad 39A. Closing of the payload bay doors is imminent. Destiny, a key element in the construction of the International Space Station, is 28 feet long and weighs 16 tons. This research and command-and-control center is the most sophisticated and versatile space laboratory ever built. It will ultimately house a total of 23 experiment racks for crew support and scientific research. Destiny will be launched Feb. 7 on STS-98, the seventh construction flight to the ISS.

  8. Management case study: Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, G.; Greening, H.S.; Yates, K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Tampa Bay, Florida,USA, is a shallow,subtropical estuary that experienced severe cultural eutrophication between the 1940s and 1980s, a period when the human population of its watershed quadrupled. In response, citizen action led to the formation of a public- and private-sector partnership (the Tampa Bay Estuary Program), which adopted a number of management objectives to support the restoration and protection of the bay’s living resources. These included numeric chlorophyll a and water-clarity targets, as well as long-term goals addressing the spatial extent of sea grasses and other selected habitat types, to support estuarine-dependent faunal guilds.

  9. GABAergic inhibition of leg motoneurons is required for normal walking behavior in freely moving Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Swetha B M; Paranjpe, Pushkar D; Reddy, O Venkateswara; Thiagarajan, Devasena; Palliyil, Sudhir; Reichert, Heinrich; VijayRaghavan, K

    2018-02-27

    Walking is a complex rhythmic locomotor behavior generated by sequential and periodical contraction of muscles essential for coordinated control of movements of legs and leg joints. Studies of walking in vertebrates and invertebrates have revealed that premotor neural circuitry generates a basic rhythmic pattern that is sculpted by sensory feedback and ultimately controls the amplitude and phase of the motor output to leg muscles. However, the identity and functional roles of the premotor interneurons that directly control leg motoneuron activity are poorly understood. Here we take advantage of the powerful genetic methodology available in Drosophila to investigate the role of premotor inhibition in walking by genetically suppressing inhibitory input to leg motoneurons. For this, we have developed an algorithm for automated analysis of leg motion to characterize the walking parameters of wild-type flies from high-speed video recordings. Further, we use genetic reagents for targeted RNAi knockdown of inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in leg motoneurons together with quantitative analysis of resulting changes in leg movement parameters in freely walking Drosophila Our findings indicate that targeted down-regulation of the GABA A receptor Rdl (Resistance to Dieldrin) in leg motoneurons results in a dramatic reduction of walking speed and step length without the loss of general leg coordination during locomotion. Genetically restricting the knockdown to the adult stage and subsets of motoneurons yields qualitatively identical results. Taken together, these findings identify GABAergic premotor inhibition of motoneurons as an important determinant of correctly coordinated leg movements and speed of walking in freely behaving Drosophila . Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  10. The Interday Measurement Consistency of and Relationships Between Hamstring and Leg Musculo-articular Stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Justin P; Schmitz, Randy J; Shultz, Sandra J

    2015-10-01

    Hamstring stiffness (K(HAM)) and leg stiffness (K(LEG)) are commonly examined relative to athletic performance and injury risk. Given these may be modifiable, it is important to understand day-to-day variations inherent in these measures before use in training studies. In addition, the extent to which K(HAM) and K(LEG) measure similar active stiffness characteristics has not been established. We investigated the interday measurement consistency of K(HAM) and K(LEG), and examined the extent to which K(LEG) predicted K(HAM) in 6 males and 9 females. K(HAM) was moderately consistent day-to-day (ICC(2,5) = .71; SEM = 76.3 N·m(-1)), and 95% limits of agreement (95% LOA) revealed a systematic bias with considerable absolute measurement error (95% LOA = 89.6 ± 224.8 N·m(-1)). Day-to-day differences in procedural factors explained 59.4% of the variance in day-to-day differences in K(HAM). Bilateral and unilateral K(LEG) was more consistent (ICC(2,3) range = .87-.94; SEM range = 1.0-2.91 kN·m(-1)) with lower absolute error (95% LOA bilateral= -2.0 ± 10.3; left leg = -0.36 ± 3.82; right leg = -1.05 ± 3.61 kN·m(-1)). K(LEG) explained 44% of the variance in K(HAM) (P consistent and precise K(HAM) measures. The ease and consistency of K(LEG), and moderate correlation with K(HAM), may steer clinicians toward K(LEG) when measuring lower-extremity stiffness for screening studies and monitoring the effectiveness of training interventions over time.

  11. Chondrichthyan occurrence and abundance trends in False Bay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercial fishing in False Bay, South Africa, began in the 1600s. Today chondrichthyans are regularly taken in fisheries throughout the bay. Using a combination of catch, survey and life history data, the occurrence and long-term changes in populations of chondrichthyans in False Bay are described. Analyses of time ...

  12. Differences in kinematics of single leg squatting between anterior cruciate ligament-injured patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, J; Muneta, T; Ju, Y J; Sekiya, I

    2010-01-01

    Seventy to eighty percent of all anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are due to non-contact injury mechanisms. It has been reported that the majority of injuries due to single leg landing come from valgus positioning of the lower leg. Preventing valgus positioning during single leg landing is expected to help reduce the number of ACL injuries. We found that many ACL-deficient patients cannot perform stable single leg squatting. Therefore, we performed 3D motion analysis of the single-legged half squat for ACL-injured patients to evaluate its significance as a risk factor for ACL injuries. We evaluated the relative angles between the body, thigh, and lower leg using an electromagnetic device during single leg half squatting performed by 63 ACL-injured patients (32 males, 31 females) the day before ACL reconstruction and by 26 healthy control subjects with no knee problems. The uninjured leg of ACL-injured male subjects demonstrated significantly less external knee rotation than that of the dominant leg of the male control. The uninjured leg of ACL-injured female subjects demonstrated significantly more external hip rotation and knee flexion and less hip flexion than that of the dominant leg of the female control. Comparing injured and uninjured legs, the injured leg of male subjects demonstrated significantly less external knee and hip rotation, less knee flexion, and more knee varus than that of the uninjured leg of male subjects. The injured leg of female subjects demonstrated more knee varus than that of the uninjured leg of female subjects. Regarding gender differences, female subjects demonstrated significantly more external hip rotation and knee valgus than male subjects did in both the injured and uninjured legs (P < 0.05). The current kinematic study exhibited biomechanical characteristics of female ACL-injured subjects compared with that of control groups. Kinematic correction during single leg half squat would reduce ACL reinjury in female ACL

  13. EX1304: Northeast U.S. Canyons Exploration on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer between 20130708 and 20130725 (Leg I) and 20130731 and 20130817 (Leg II)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ROV exploration of the Northeast U.S. Deepwater Canyons complementing and continuing the work of the 2012 ACUMEN expedition. The two legs of EX1304 will perform...

  14. MR angiography of the pelvic and lower leg arteries: starting with time-resolved imaging of the lower leg is recommended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Christopoulos, G.; Brunner, S.; Froehner, S.; Dobritz, M.; Fellner, F.

    2001-01-01

    58 patients suffering from peripheral arterial vascular disease were examined using contrast-enhanced MR angiography with the intention of optimizing the visualization of lower leg arteries. Different from the customary acquisition order, were first the arteries of the lower legs depicted with three time-resolved phases. Afterwards, the iliacal and femoral vessels were imaged by applying the floating-table technique in two steps. In all cases, the lower leg arteries were depicted without overlying veins. By injecting the contrast agent in two phases, imaging quality of the iliofemoral arteries was not significantly reduced. - In conclusion, we would recommend the hybrid technique of peripheral contrast-enhanced MRA with primarily starting the acquisition of the lower legs in cases of foot infections or ulcerations where the transit time is reduced bi- or unilaterally. (orig.) [de

  15. Cardiovascular comorbidity in patients with restless legs syndrome: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas-Pérez NJ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Noel J Vargas-Pérez, Kanika Bagai, Arthur S Walters Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA Introduction: Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a sensorimotor neurological disorder associated with poor quality of life. Growing evidence links RLS and periodic limb movement in sleep (PLMS with increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. This article reviews the association of RLS and PLMS with cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods: PubMed and Medline database (1990 to July 2016 were searched for the terms “restless legs,” “restless legs syndrome,” “periodic limb movements,” “periodic limb movements in sleep” cross-referenced with “cardiovascular disease,” “heart disease,” “coronary artery disease,” “coronary heart disease,” “heart arrhythmia,” “heart failure,” “congestive heart failure,” “echocardiogram,” “echocardiographic,” “hypertension,” “high blood pressure,” “cerebrovascular disease,” “stroke,” “autonomic nervous system,” “heart rate,” “heart rate variability,” “hypoxia,” “microcirculation,” “oxidative stress,” “inflammation,” “chronic kidney disease,” “end-stage renal disease,” “renal disease,” “hemodialysis,” “multiple sclerosis,” “Parkinson,” “Parkinson’s,” “iron deficiency anemia,” and “mortality.” Other relevant articles from the reference list of the above-matched manuscripts were also reviewed. Studies that did not specify the diagnostic criteria for RLS or manuscripts in languages other than English were excluded. Articles with emphasis in RLS secondary to pregnancy were not included in this manuscript.Results: Eighty-six original articles were included in this review. Although mixed results were found regarding the association of RLS and PLMS with CVD, hypertension, stroke and mortality, an informal review of the literature does suggest that the

  16. Analysis of ATLAS Cold Leg SBLOCA Using SPACE Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Doo Hyuk; Suh, Jae Seung; Kim, Se Yun

    2012-01-01

    SPACE Code has been developed to predict the thermal-hydraulic responses of nuclear steam supply system to the anticipated transients and postulated accidents and adopted advanced physical modeling of two-phase flows, mainly two-fluid, three-field models that comprise gas, continuous liquid, and droplet fields and has the capability to simulate 3D effects by the use of structured and/or non-structured meshes. In this paper, a cold-leg SBLOCA which is the experiment, SB-CL-09, of the ATLAS integral effect test facility during the second domestic stand problem (DSP-02) was analyzed. The results were compared with those of MARS-KS code simulations. The SPACE code with a 1.0 version was released by KHNP in 2012. The analysis has been performed in a desktop PC with Windows 7 environment

  17. OSTEOPATHIC APPROACH: LEG LENGTH DISCREPANCY AND LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner AYDIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leg length discrepancy (LLD is a biomechanical impediment, which is a potential factor in affecting musculoskeletal disorders in the rest of life, such as scoliosis, osteoarthritis and muscle tightness, or even tenderness in lumbar and pelvic area. Athletes who have developed LLD have symptoms in gait, running, standing posture. Skeletal regions related to the disorder are the lumbar spine, ilium, hip joint, greater trochanter and knee, or even ankle and plantar region. Muscles involved in these areas are numeous. In osteopathic management, the manual practitioner can use a lot of basic techniques to handle these dysfunctions. To cope with musculoskeletal problems, osteopathic manipulation techniques would be an ideal modality to alleviate the LLD syndrome. An overview of the mentioned topics of concern will be discussed in the review.

  18. Long-distance singularities in multi-leg scattering amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Gardi, Einan; Duhr, Claude

    2016-01-01

    We report on the recent completion of the three-loop calculation of the soft anomalous dimension in massless gauge-theory scattering amplitudes. This brings the state-of-the-art knowledge of long-distance singularities in multi-leg QCD amplitudes with any number of massless particles to three loops. The result displays some novel features: this is the first time non-dipole corrections appear, which directly correlate the colour and kinematic degrees of freedom of four coloured partons. We find that non-dipole corrections appear at three loops also for three coloured partons, but these are independent of the kinematics. The final result is remarkably simple when expressed in terms of single-valued harmonic polylogarithms, and it satisfies several non-trivial constraints. In particular, it is consistent with the high-energy limit behaviour and it satisfies the expected factorization properties in two-particle collinear limits.

  19. Leg and arm lactate and substrate kinetics during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Jensen-Urstad, M; Rosdahl, H

    2003-01-01

    To study the role of muscle mass and muscle activity on lactate and energy kinetics during exercise, whole body and limb lactate, glucose, and fatty acid fluxes were determined in six elite cross-country skiers during roller-skiing for 40 min with the diagonal stride (Continuous Arm + Leg) followed...... kinetics changed multiple times when exercise mode was changed. Whole body glucose and glycerol turnover was unchanged during the different skiing modes; however, limb net glucose uptake changed severalfold. In conclusion, the arterial lactate concentration can be maintained at a relatively low level...... despite high lactate R(a) during exercise with a large muscle mass because of the large capacity of active skeletal muscle to take up lactate, which is tightly correlated with lactate delivery. The limb lactate uptake during exercise is oxidized at rates far above resting oxygen consumption, implying...

  20. Force Control Strategies in Hydraulically Actuated Legged Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Montes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, several strategies of force control have been proposed to be implemented and evaluated in ROBOCLIMBER, a quadruped robot of large dimensions. A first group of strategies proposed in this paper is based on impedance control, which is intended to adapt the foot-ground contact forces according to the experimentally specified damping ratio and the undamped natural frequency. A second control strategy of interest for many practical cases is called the parallel force/position control, which has one inner loop position control and two external control loops, one of force and another of position. A third group of control strategies is the posture stabilization for ROBOCLIMBER using the feedback of the ZMP calculation and the position of its legs. Finally, a control strategy for the control of a quasi-static gait using ZMP feedback is proposed and tested by simulation.

  1. PWR cold-leg small break loca with faulty HPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumamaru, H.; Kukita, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The ROSA-IV Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) is a 1/48 volumetrically-scaled model of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). At the LSTF are performed cold-leg small-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests with faulty high pressure injection (HPI) system for break areas from 0.5% to 10% and an intentional primary system depressurization test following a small-break LOCA test. A simple prediction model is proposed for prediction of times of major events. Test data and calculations show that intentional primary system depressurization with use of the pressurizer power-operated relief valves (PORVs) is effective for break areas of approximately 0.5% or less, is unnecessary for breaks of 5% or more, and is insufficient for intermediate break areas to maintain adequate core cooling. (author)

  2. Test of Gravel to South Leg - Siri Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    A grout connection between one of the legs of the offshore platform, Siri, and a water caisson at the seabed is failed. The failure leaves a gap in the grout connection meaning that the stiffness of the connection is disappeared resulting in movements of the platform. These movements cause cracks...... in the caisson, hence, the stiffness of the connection must be re-established. In this report the effect of filling a sand material into the gap in the grout connection is investigated. Four types of sand materials is tested; Sand 0-8 mm, Norit 0-2 mm, Norit 0-5 mm, and Sand 0.4-5.6 mm. The comparison...

  3. [Personalized holistic approach to a patient with mixed leg ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacević, Jadranka; Sinozić, Tamara

    2014-10-01

    Holistic approach as the philosophical orientation to care underpins the fundamental wholeness of human being and emphasizes the importance of balance within the person and between the person and his/her environment. It includes elements of the physiological, sociological, economic, psychological and spiritual dimensions, and thus providesan opportunity to assess the patient as a whole and in relation to his/ her living context. Such an integrated approach is part of the basic knowledge and skills of general practitioners/family doctors and makes them equal members of a multidisciplinary team in chronic wound patient care. In this case report on a patient with mixed leg ulcer, we will try to bring closer holistic approach in care for this kind of patients in daily practice of general practitioners/family doctors.

  4. Insulin action in human thighs after one-legged immobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Kiens, Bente; Mizuno, M.

    1989-01-01

    Insulin action was assessed in thighs of five healthy young males who had one knee immobilized for 7 days by a splint. The splint was not worn in bed. Subjects also used crutches to prevent weight bearing of the immobilized leg. Immobilization decreased the activity of citrate synthase and 3-OH......-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase in the vastus lateralis muscle by 9 and 14%, respectively, and thigh volume by 5%. After 7 days of immobilization, a two-step euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp procedure combined with arterial and bilateral femoral venous catheterization was performed. Insulin action on glucose uptake and tyrosine release...... of the thighs at mean plasma insulin concentrations of 67 (clamp step I) and 447 microU/ml (clamp step II) was decreased by immobilization, whereas immobilization did not affect insulin action on thigh exchange of free fatty acids, glycerol, O2, or potassium. Before and during the clamp step I, lactate release...

  5. Lower Limb Symmetry: Comparison of Muscular Power Between Dominant and Nondominant Legs in Healthy Young Adults Associated With Single-Leg-Dominant Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisman, Alex; Guiloff, Rodrigo; Rojas, Juan; Delgado, Iris; Figueroa, David; Calvo, Rafael

    2017-12-01

    Achieving a symmetrical power performance (difference power between the dominant and nondominant legs in healthy young adults, (2) evaluate the effect of a single-leg-dominant sport activity performed at the professional level, and (3) propose a parameter of normality for maximal power difference in the lower limbs of this young adult population. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 78 healthy, male, young adults were divided into 2 groups according to sport activity level. Group 1 consisted of 51 nonathletes (mean ± SD age, 20.8 ± 1.5 years; weight, 71.9 ± 10.5 kg) who participated in less than 8 hours a week of recreational physical activity with nonspecific training; group 2 consisted of 27 single-leg-dominant professional soccer players (age, 18.4 ± 0.6 years; weight, 70.1 ± 7.5 kg) who specifically trained and competed at their particular activity 8 hours or more a week. For assessment of maximal leg power, both groups completed the single-leg squat jump test. Dominance was determined when participants completed 2 of 3 specific tests with the same extremity. Statistical analysis included the Student t test. No statistical difference was found for maximal power between dominant and nondominant legs for nonathletes ( t = -1.01, P = .316) or single-leg-dominant professional soccer players ( t = -1.10, P = .281). A majority (95%) of participants studied showed a power difference of less than 15% between their lower extremities. Among young healthy adults, symmetrical power performance is expected between lower extremities independent of the existence of dominance and difference in sport activity level. A less than 15% difference in power seems to be a proper parameter to define symmetrical power performance assessed by vertical single-leg jump tests.

  6. Leg disorders in broiler chickens: prevalence, risk factors and prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby G Knowles

    Full Text Available Broiler (meat chickens have been subjected to intense genetic selection. In the past 50 years, broiler growth rates have increased by over 300% (from 25 g per day to 100 g per day. There is growing societal concern that many broiler chickens have impaired locomotion or are even unable to walk. Here we present the results of a comprehensive survey of commercial flocks which quantifies the risk factors for poor locomotion in broiler chickens. We assessed the walking ability of 51,000 birds, representing 4.8 million birds within 176 flocks. We also obtained information on approximately 150 different management factors associated with each flock. At a mean age of 40 days, over 27.6% of birds in our study showed poor locomotion and 3.3% were almost unable to walk. The high prevalence of poor locomotion occurred despite culling policies designed to remove severely lame birds from flocks. We show that the primary risk factors associated with impaired locomotion and poor leg health are those specifically associated with rate of growth. Factors significantly associated with high gait score included the age of the bird (older birds, visit (second visit to same flock, bird genotype, not feeding whole wheat, a shorter dark period during the day, higher stocking density at the time of assessment, no use of antibiotic, and the use of intact feed pellets. The welfare implications are profound. Worldwide approximately 2 x 10(10 broilers are reared within similar husbandry systems. We identify a range of management factors that could be altered to reduce leg health problems, but implementation of these changes would be likely to reduce growth rate and production. A debate on the sustainability of current practice in the production of this important food source is required.

  7. [Nocardia brasiliensis leg ulcer and nodular lymphangitis in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, M; Friedel, J; Siré, C; Semon, J

    2005-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a very rarely reported cause of chronic phagedenic ulcerations. We report the case of an elderly woman who developed such an infection after falling on her right leg on the road in the Bresse country (an essentially agricultural and bovine-cattle breading region) and developed a chronic phagedenic ulcer secondarily complicated by nodular lymphangitis of the thigh. A 75 year-old woman fell on her right leg on the side of the main road outside her hamlet in the Bresse country and secondarily developed a chronique phagedenic ulceration. We first considered her as suffering from pyoderma gangrenosum. A complete scanning only revealed an autoimmune thyroiditis and a rapidly healing gastric ulceration, and none of the treatments, either local or systemic, helped the skin condition to heal. After 3 weeks of application of a local corticoid ointment, the patient developed fever, general malaise, an exacerbation of her wound and an infiltration of the skin round her knee, together with nodular lymphangitic dissemination. A supplementary bacterial swab disclosed massive proliferation of a slow-growing Gram-positive bacillus, which proved to be Nocardia brasiliensis, together with a methicillino-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. The treatment with sulfamethoxazole-trimetoprim gave a rash after 12 hours and was changed to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, which rapidly proved to be permanently effective. The revelation of this particular slow-growing bacteria is difficult and requires bacterial swabs. Nocardia brasiliensis is relatively rare in primary skin ulcerations and we discuss the reasons why an elderly women should find this bacteria on the road outside her hamlet in the French countryside. This particular infectious condition requires general scanning, to make sure that the primary skin condition does not extend to other organs. We review the therapeutical options for patients who exhibit allergic reactions to the classically effective

  8. Wound care matrices for chronic leg ulcers: role in therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sano H

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hitomi Sano,1 Sachio Kouraba,2 Rei Ogawa11Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan; 2Sapporo Wound Care and Anti-Aging Laboratory, Sapporo, JapanAbstract: Chronic leg ulcers are a significant health care concern. Although deep wounds are usually treated by flap transfers, the operation is invasive and associates with serious complications. Skin grafts may be a less invasive means of covering wounds. However, skin grafts cannot survive on deep defects unless high-quality granulation tissue can first be generated in the defects. Technologies that generate high-quality granulation tissue are needed. One possibility is to use wound care matrices, which are bioengineered skin and soft tissue substitutes. Because they all support the healing process by providing a premade extracellular matrix material, these matrices can be termed “extracellular matrix replacement therapies”. The matrix promotes wound healing by acting as a scaffold for regeneration, attracting host cytokines to the wound, stimulating wound epithelialization and angiogenesis, and providing the wound bed with bioactive components. This therapy has lasting benefits as it not only helps large skin defects to be closed with thin skin grafts or patch grafts but also restores cosmetic appearance and proper function. In particular, since it acts as a layer that slides over the subcutaneous fascia, it provides skin elasticity, tear resistance, and texture. Several therapies and products employing wound care matrices for wound management have been developed recently. Some of these can be applied in combination with negative pressure wound therapy or beneficial materials that promote wound healing and can be incorporated into the matrix. To date, the clinical studies on these approaches suggest that wound care matrices promote spontaneous wound healing or can be used to facilitate skin grafting, thereby avoiding the need to use

  9. Not letting the left leg know what the right leg is doing: limb-specific locomotor adaptation to sensory-cue conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgin, Frank H; Fox, Laura F; Hoon Kim, Dong

    2003-11-01

    We investigated the phenomenon of limb-specific locomotor adaptation in order to adjudicate between sensory-cue-conflict theory and motor-adaptation theory. The results were consistent with cue-conflict theory in demonstrating that two different leg-specific hopping aftereffects are modulated by the presence of conflicting estimates of self-motion from visual and nonvisual sources. Experiment 1 shows that leg-specific increases in forward drift during attempts to hop in place on one leg while blindfolded vary according to the relationship between visual information and motor activity during an adaptation to outdoor forward hopping. Experiment 2 shows that leg-specific changes in performance on a blindfolded hopping-to-target task are similarly modulated by the presence of cue conflict during adaptation to hopping on a treadmill. Experiment 3 shows that leg-specific aftereffects from hopping additionally produce inadvertent turning during running in place while blindfolded. The results of these experiments suggest that these leg-specific locomotor aftereffects are produced by sensory-cue conflict rather than simple motor adaptation.

  10. 76 FR 22809 - Safety Zone; Bay Ferry II Maritime Security Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2011-0196] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Ferry II Maritime Security Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA AGENCY... Security Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA. (a) Location. The limits of this safety zone...

  11. Marine littoral diatoms from the Gordon’s bay region of False Bay, Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available and Comic/i for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (Received: 5.2. 1970) The Gordon?s Bay region occupies the north western corner of False Bay, a large rectangular bay, bounded on the west by the Cape Peninsula ending at Cape Point...

  12. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund Points, SF Bay CA, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund is a competitive grant program that is helping implement TMDLs to improve water quality, protect wetlands, and...

  13. 77 FR 57107 - Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos, Tillamook, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... environmental, recreational, and socio-economic benefits and impacts of our LPP alternatives, and respond to... eco-tourism or natural resource-based visitor centers. Nestucca Bay NWR Alternative A: No Action Under...

  14. 75 FR 73121 - Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos, Tillamook, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... County, Oregon. The refuge was established in 1991 with the acquisition of a 384-acre dairy farm, and has... pastures at Nestucca Bay NWR to tidal marsh, and what effect would this have on the refuge's ability to...

  15. Pärnu Bay Golf Club = Pärnu Bay Golf Club / Arhitekt11

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    Pärnu Bay Golf Club, arhitektid Jürgen Lepper, Anto Savi, Margus Soonets, Janar Toomesso (Arhitekt11), sisearhitektid Liina Vaino, Kaari Metslang, Hannelore Kääramees (Arhitekt11). Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali aastapreemia nominent 2016

  16. Lower-leg symptoms in peripheral arterial disease are associated with anxiety, depression, and anhedonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolderen, Kim G; Hoeks, Sanne E; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) report diverse clinical manifestations that are not always consistent with classic intermittent claudication. We examined the degree to which atypical exertional leg symptoms, intermittent claudication, and exertional leg symptoms that begin at rest...... 2.5 and 4.0, p...

  17. The Narrow Ridge Balance Test : A measure for one-leg lateral balance control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtze, Carolin; Postema, Klaas; Akkermans, Hilda W.; Otten, Bert; Hof, At L.

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of balance capacity for people with widely different balance abilities is an important issue in clinical practice We propose the narrow ridge balance test as a sensitive tool to assess one-leg balance capacity In this test participants are asked to perform single-leg stance on ridges

  18. Leg coordination during turning on an extremely narrow substrate in a bug, Mesocerus marginatus (Heteroptera, Coreidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantsevich, Leonid I; Cruse, Holk

    2005-10-01

    The turning movement of a bug, Mesocerus marginatus, is observed when it walks upside-down below a horizontal beam and, at the end of the beam, performs a sharp turn by 180 degrees . The turn at the end of the beam is accomplished in three to five steps, without strong temporal coordination among legs. During the stance, leg endpoints (tarsi) run through rounded trajectories, rotating to the same side in all legs. During certain phases of the turn, a leg is strongly depressed and the tarsus crosses the midline. Swing movements rotate to the same side as do leg endpoints in stance, in strong contrast to the typical swing movements found in turns or straight walk on a flat surface. Terminal location is found after the search through a trajectory that first moves away from the body and then loops back to find substrate. When a leg during stance has crossed the midline, in the following swing movement the leg may move even stronger on the contralateral side, i.e. is stronger depressed, in contrast to swing movements in normal walking, where the leg is elevated. These results suggest that the animals apply a different control strategy compared to walking and turning on a flat surface.

  19. 78 FR 38098 - Proposed Information Collection (Knee and Lower Leg Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Control Number: 2900-NEW (Knee and Lower Leg Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire). Type of Review... and Lower Leg Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... solicits comments on information needed to adjudicate the claim for VA disability benefits related to a...

  20. Balanced gait generations of a two-legged robot on sloping surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    legged robot moving up and down through the sloping surface is presented. The gait of the lower links during locomotion is obtained after assuming suitable trajectories for the swing leg and hip joint. The trunk motion is initially generated based on ...

  1. Leg Preference and Interlateral Asymmetry of Balance Stability in Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luis Augusto; de Oliveira, Dalton Lustosa; Romano, Rosangela Guimaraes; Correa, Sonia Cavalcanti

    2011-01-01

    To examine the effect of long lasting practice on pedal behavior in sport, we compared experienced adult soccer players and nonsoccer players on leg preference in motor tasks requiring general mobilization, soccer related mobilization, and body balance stabilization. We also evaluated performance asymmetry between the right and left legs in static…

  2. The bacteriology of chronic venous leg ulcer examined by culture-independent molecular methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Trine R; Aasholm, Martin S; Rudkjøbing, Vibeke B

    2010-01-01

    The bacterial microbiota plays an important role in the prolonged healing of chronic venous leg ulcers. The present study compared the bacterial diversity within ulcer material from 14 skin graft operations of chronic venous leg ulcers using culture-based methods and molecular biological methods...

  3. Analysis of the Relationship between Elite Wrestlers’ Leg Strength and Balance Performance, and Injury History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Çimen Polat

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between leg power and balance performance in elite wrestlers and injury history. In the research group, there are 18 elite freestyle male wrestlers at the ages of 24.27 ± 3.18 years, with a height of 171.86 ± 5.44 cm and a body weight of 79.27 ± 11.16 kg. Information on the injury history of the athletes’ upper legs for the past year was collected via interviews with the club’s physiotherapist. Laboratory tests to measure performance assessed height, body weight, Y balance and isokinetic leg strength. Data obtained from the study are presented as mean and standard deviation. The test of normality was carried out by the Shapiro-Wilk test. The Pearson Correlation Test was performed for all parameters with normal distribution, and significance level was accepted as p < 0.05. It was found that there is a relationship between the wrestlers’ right leg ratio and hamstring strength and injury history. However, there is no statistically significant relationship between left leg hamstring, quadriceps, ratio, right leg quadriceps, or right and left leg balance performance, and injury history. The resulting data shows that the proportioning between hamstring and quadriceps muscles in freestyle wrestlers’ upper leg strength values is not ideal. This finding provides evidence that injury risk increases with the additional impact of loss of strength.

  4. Gait Planning Research for an Electrically Driven Large-Load-Ratio Six-Legged Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chao Zhuang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gait planning is an important basis for the walking of a legged robot. To improve the walking stability of multi-legged robots and to reduce the impact force between the foot and the ground, gait planning strategies are presented for an electrically driven large-load-ratio six-legged robot. First, the configuration and walking gait of the electrically driven large-load-ratio six-legged robot are designed. The higher-stable swing sequences of legs and typical walking modes are respectively obtained. Based on the Denavit–Hartenberg (D–H method, the analyses of the forward and inverse kinematics are implemented. The mathematical models of the articulated rotation angles are respectively established. In view of the buffer device installed at the end of shin to decrease the impact force between the foot and the ground, an initial lift height of the leg is brought into gait planning when the support phase changes into the transfer phase. The mathematical models of foot trajectories are established. Finally, a prototype of the electrically driven large-load-ratio six-legged robot is developed. The experiments of the prototype are carried out regarding the aspects of the walking speed and surmounting obstacle. Then, the reasonableness of gait planning is verified based on the experimental results. The proposed strategies of gait planning lay the foundation for effectively reducing the foot–ground impact force and can provide a reference for other large-load-ratio multi-legged robots.

  5. Neuro fuzzy control of the FES assisted freely swinging leg of paraplegic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, J.H.; Velthuis, W.J.R.; Veltink, Petrus H.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The authors designed a neuro fuzzy control strategy for control of cyclical leg movements of paraplegic subjects. The cyclical leg movements were specified by three `swing phase objectives', characteristic of natural human gait. The neuro fuzzy controller is a combination of a fuzzy logic controller

  6. Spring-like leg behaviour, musculoskeletal mechanics and control in maximum and submaximum height human hopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how humans regulate their 'leg stiffness' in hopping, and to determine whether this regulation is intended to minimize energy expenditure. 'Leg stiffness' is the slope of the relationship between ground reaction force and displacement of the centre of mass

  7. Discharge between San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay, southern Gulf Coast, Texas, May-September 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Jeffery W.

    2001-01-01

    Along the Gulf Coast of Texas, many estuaries and bays are important habitat and nurseries for aquatic life. San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay, located about 50 and 30 miles northeast, respectively, of Corpus Christi, are two important estuarine nurseries on the southern Gulf Coast of Texas (fig. 1). According to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, “Almost 80 percent of the seagrasses [along the Texas Gulf Coast] are located in the Laguna Madre, an estuary that begins just south of Corpus Christi Bay and runs southward 140 miles to South Padre Island. Most of the remaining seagrasses, about 45,000 acres, are located in the heavily traveled San Antonio, Aransas and Corpus Christi Bay areas” (Shook, 2000).Population growth has led to greater demands on water supplies in Texas. The Texas Water Development Board, the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission have the cooperative task of determining inflows required to maintain the ecological health of the State’s streams, rivers, bays, and estuaries. To determine these inflow requirements, the three agencies collect data and conduct studies on the need for instream flows and freshwater/ saline water inflows to Texas estuaries.To assist in the determination of freshwater inflow requirements, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, conducted a hydrographic survey of discharge (flow) between San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay during the period May–September 1999. Automated instrumentation and acoustic technology were used to maximize the amount and quality of data that were collected, while minimizing personnel requirements. This report documents the discharge measured at two sites between the bays during May–September 1999 and describes the influences of meteorologic (wind and tidal) and hydrologic (freshwater inflow) conditions on discharge between the two bays. The movement of water between the bays is

  8. 77 FR 30443 - Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ...The Coast Guard proposes to establish a temporary safety zone on the St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY. This proposed rule is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the St. Lawrence River during the Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce fireworks display. The safety zone established by this proposed rule is necessary to protect spectators and vessels from the hazards associated with a fireworks display.

  9. Chesapeake Bay baseline data acquisition, toxics in the Chesapeake Bay. Final preliminary report, 1946-78

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This report identifies researchers, research activities, and data files applicable to the Chesapeake Bay estuarine system. The identified data were generated after 1973 on the following: submerged aquatic vegetation, shellfish bed closures, eutrophication, toxics accumulation in the food chain, dredging and spoil disposal, hydrologic modifications, modification of fisheries, shoreline erosion, wetlands alterations, and the effects of boating and shipping on water quality. Major past and current program monitoring in the Bay and its tributaries are summarized according to frequency

  10. Elemental analysis of Uranouchi bay seabed sludge using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, M. Hasnat; Narusawa, Tadashi; Nishiyama, Fumitaka; Sumi, Katsuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Elemental analyses were carried out for the seabed sludge collected from Uranouchi bay (Kochi, Japan) using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Seabed-sludge contamination with heavy metals as well as toxic elements becomes one of the most serious environmental problems. The aim of the present study is to investigate the polluted areas in the bay by heavy and toxic elements. As a results of analyses of samples collected from eleven different places in the bay, seventeen elements including toxic ones were detected. The results suggest that the center region of the bay is seriously contaminated by heavy and toxic elements in comparison with the other areas in the bay. (author)

  11. PEMANFATAN TEOREMA BAYES DALAM PENENTUAN PENYAKIT THT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Winiarti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dalam konsep pelacakan dalam mencari solusi dengan pendekatan artificial inteligent, ada berbagai metode  yang dapat diterapkan untuk mengatasi masalah ketidakpastian saat proses pelacakan terjadi. Salah satunya adalah teorema bayes. Adanya ketidakpastian pada proses pelacakan dapat terjadi karena adanya perubahan pengetahuan yang ada di dalam sistem. Untuk itu diperlukan adanya suatu metode untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut. Dalam penelitian ini telah diterapkan suatu metode untuk mengatasi ketidakpastian dengan teorema Bayes pada kasus pelacakan untuk mendiagnosa penyakit pada THT (Telinga,Hidung dan Tenggorokan.  Subjek pada penelitian ini adalah proses pelacakan untuk menentukan penyakit THT dengan model penalaran forward chaining dan metode kepastiannya menggunakan teorema bayes dengan cara menghitung nilai probabilitas suatu penyakit dan membandingkan probabilitas setiap gejalanya. Model pengembangan perangkat lunak yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Waterfall. Metode Waterfall diawali dengan analisis data, perancangan sistem, pengkodean menggunakan Visual Basic 6.0, pengujian sistem dengan black box test dan alfa test. Dari penelitian yang dilakukan menghasilkan sebuah perangkat lunak yaitu  yang mampu menentukan penyakit pada THT dengan menerapkan metode bayes untuk mengatasi ketidakpastian. Hasil uji coba sistem menujukkan bahwa aplikasi ini layak dan dapat digunakan.

  12. Radioactive source management in Daya Bay NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Chun Yang

    2000-01-01

    'Small sources causes big accidents' had occurred worldwide many times. Radioactive source management in Nuclear Power Plant in very important for its safety record. This paper introduces the way and experience of radioactive source management in Daya Bay NPP from aspects of clarifying the responsibilities, centralizing the management of high radioactivity sources, work process management and experience feedback etc. (author)

  13. Bathymetry (2011) for Fish Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution depth surface for Fish Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). The...

  14. Sediment Characterization in St. Alban's Bay, VT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethercutt, S.; Manley, T.; Manley, P.

    2017-12-01

    St. Alban's Bay within Lake Champlain is plagued with harmful algal blooms. With future intensification due to climate change, a multidisciplinary program (BREE-Basin Resilience to Extreme Events) was initiated in 2016. In order to assess the mobilization of harmful nutrients from sediment resuspension events and riverine input, 74 sediment samples were collected in a grid fashion throughout St. Alban's Bay. Sediments were deflocculated and analyzed using a LA920 Horiba laser scattering particle size distribution analyzer to define the frequency of sediment sizes from clay to sand. Gridded surfaces of mean sortable silt percentage, silt percentage, sand percentage, and clay percentage were used to represent the sediment distribution of the region. A plot of diameter versus frequency showed the bimodal nature of some of the sediments, with one peak at about 10 microns diameter (silt) and the second at about 525 microns diameter (sand). The data showed an extremely low percentage of clay relative to that of sand and silt. The highest frequencies of sortable silt, which represents the most easily mobilized particle size, are found in the deepest areas of the bay, suggesting that these regions are where dominant bottom flow occurs. The high occurrence of sortable silt in the St. Alban's Bay does suggest that sediment mobilization, and therefore nutrient mobilization has the potential to occur. These data combined with high-resolution multibeam and hydrodynamic data will allow for future models of water flow and remobilization studies in the future.

  15. Underwater Gravity Survey of Northern Monterey Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    stations were occupied just above the swash zone. A complete Bouguer anomaly map was drawn and tied in with the previous land surveys and with one...covering the southern half of the bay. The isolines of the complete Bouguer anomaly indicate the relative vertical position of the basement complex Santa

  16. Padilla Bay: The Estuary Guide. Level 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesem, Judy; Lynn, Valerie, Ed.

    Estuaries are marine systems that serve as nurseries for animals, links in the migratory pathways, and habitat for a complex community of organisms. This curriculum guide intended for use at the middle school level is designed for use with the on-site program developed by the Padilla Bay National Esturine Research Reserve (Washington). The guide…

  17. Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalles, J.F. (Creighton Univ., Omaha, NE (USA)); Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.; Leversee, G.J.; Knox, J.N. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Much of the research to date on the Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant and elsewhere has focused on certain species or on environmental features. Different levels of detail exist for different groups of organisms and reflect the diverse interests of previous investigators. This report summarizes aspects of research to date and presents data from numerous studies. 70 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Fecal indicator bacteria at Havana Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, Lisse; Gomez D'Angelo, Yamiris; Beltran Gonzalez, Jesus; Alvarez Valiente, Reinaldo

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations were evaluated in Havana Bay. Methods: Concentrations of traditional fecal indicator bacteria were calculated between April 2010 and February 2011, by MPN methods. Concentrations of thermo tolerant coliform (CTT), Escherichia coli, fecal streptococci (EF), intestinal enterococci (ENT) in seawater, and Clostridium perfringens in sediment surface, were determined. Results: CTT and E. coli levels were far above Cuban water quality standard for indirect contact with water, showing the negative influence of sewage and rivers on the bay. The EF and ENT were measured during sewage spills at the discharge site and they were suitable indicators of fecal contamination, but these indicators didn't show the same behavior in other selected sites. This result comes from its well-known inactivation by solar light in tropical zones and the presumable presence of humid acids in the waters of the bay. Conclusion: Fecal indicator bacteria and its statistical relationships reflect recent and chronic fecal contamination at the bay and near shores.

  19. Tortuguero Bay [Puerto Rico] environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.D.; Youngbluth, M.J.; Nutt, M.E.; Yoshioka, P.; Canoy, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    Site selection surveys and environmental research studies of seven coastal sites in Puerto Rico for construction of power generating facilities were carried out. Data are presented on the physical, chemical, and geological parameters of the Tortuguero Bay site, and the ecological parameters of zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, plant and fish communities. (U.S.)

  20. Roebuck Bay Invertebrate and bird Mapping 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Pearson, Grant B.; Hickey, Robert; Dittmann, Sabine; Rogers, Danny I.; Folmer, Eelke; Honkoop, Pieter; Drent, Jan; Goeij, Petra de; Marsh, Loisette

    2006-01-01

    1. This is a report on a survey of the benthic ecology of the intertidal flats along the northern shores of Roebuck Bay in June 2006. In the period 11-20 June we mapped both the invertebrate macrobenthic animals (those retained by a 1 mm sieve) over the whole of the northern intertidal area of