WorldWideScience

Sample records for bay northeastern area

  1. Determination of the sedimentation rates in the Sepetiba bay northeastern area by using dating with the excesses 210 Pb radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, Cristiane Maria Sampaio

    1996-01-01

    210 Pb dating, using two modes of data analysis, CIC and CRS, was used to determine sedimentation in the North East part of Sepetiba Bay. 210 Pb was leached from samples using dilute HBr and subsequently separated onto anionic exchange columns, followed by re-extraction and precipitation as Pb CrO 4 . The original method was modified by the introduction of a pre-digestion step whose purpose was to liberate the lead bound as sulphide. The sedimentation rates found o.68 - 0.98 cm.y -1 were moderate, compared to other authors estimates. Dating using the CRS model showed a maximum rate of sedimentation in the period between 1954 and 1977, when the riverine input was probably at its greatest. The CRS model appears to be more applicable to the data, since it works over longer periods and allows for variations in sedimentation rate. (author)

  2. HEAVY METAL CONTENTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS AND SEAWATER AT TOTOK BAY AREA, NORTH SULAWESI

    OpenAIRE

    Delyuzar Ilahude

    2017-01-01

    The study area is located in north-eastern part of Tomini Bay, approximately 80 km south of Manado city, North Sulawesi. This area is closed to submarine tailing disposal system in Buyat Bay. Five marine sediment samples and four water samples from seawater and dig wells have been used for heavy metals (Hg, As, CN) analyses by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). This study is a part of research conducted by Marine Geological Institute of Indonesia on morphological changes of seabed in...

  3. San Francisco Bay Interferometric Bathymetry: Area B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High resolution sonar data were collected over ultra-shallow areas of the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  4. Sub-littoral meiobenthos of the northeastern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rodrigues, C.L.; Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    super(3)m/2 (median = 31.45 x 10 super(3)) Distribution was contagious with varied fauna in the nearshore region On the basis of metabolic index, the food requirement of the benthic community (macro+meio) in the Bay of Bengal was found to be lower than...

  5. Detection of Wellfleet Bay Virus Antibodies in Sea Birds of the Northeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Jennifer R; Mickley, Randall; Brown, Justin D; Hill, Nichola J; Runstadler, Jonathan A; Clark, Daniel E; Ellis, Julie C; Mead, Daniel G; Fischer, John R

    2017-10-01

    Wellfleet Bay virus (WFBV) is a recently described orthomyxovirus isolated from the tissues of Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima) collected during recurrent mortality events on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, US. Coastal Massachusetts is the only location where disease or mortality associated with this virus has been detected in wild birds, and a previous seroprevalence study found a significantly higher frequency of viral exposure in eiders from this location than from other areas sampled in North America. This suggests that coastal Massachusetts is an epicenter of WFBV exposure, but the reason for this is unknown. Opportunistic sampling of sympatric species and testing of banked serum was used to investigate potential host range and spatiotemporal patterns of WFBV exposure. Antibodies were detected in Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), Ring-billed Gulls (Larus delawarensis), a White-winged Scoter (Melanitta fusca), and a Black Scoter (Melanitta nigra). These findings demonstrate the likely occurrence of fall/winter transmission, expand our understanding of the host range of the virus, and provide further insight into the epidemiology of WFBV in the northeastern US.

  6. Analysis of Level of Technogenic Impact on Water Area of Uglovoy Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, V. I.; Petrova, E. A.; Losev, O. V.

    2017-11-01

    Industrial effluent discharge and man-induced soil fills play a decisive role in increased pollutant concentrations. Several areas which are unfavorable in terms of the heavy metal and oil product content have been identified by the environmental monitoring results in the Uglovoy Bay in February 2015. Maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) of heavy metals and oil products were exceeded in the northeastern part of the Uglovoy Bay in locations where the Peschanka River and the Aerodromnaya River drain into the sea. Integral heavy-metal index calculations showed that this area is the most polluted in the Uglovoy Bay. Other significantly polluted areas were identified off the Zima Yuzhnaya settlement in the mouth of the bay and in vicinity of the low-level bridge.

  7. Progress report on sediment analyses at selected faunal monitoring sites in north-central and northeastern Florida Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, T.M.; Means, G.H.; Brewster-Wingard, G. L.

    1997-01-01

    Florida Bay is a shallow, subtropical lagoon at the southern tip of the Florida peninsula. The 2200 square kilometer, triangular-shaped area is the site of modern carbonate sediment formation and deposition. The intricate ecosystem of the bay has undergone significant changes as the result of natural influences and human intervention. The purpose of this study is to investigate carbonate sediment characteristics and distribution in conjunction with faunal and floral to determine the substrate preferences of associated fauna and flora. The modern data provide the proxy data for down-core analyses of sediments, fauna and flora in order to document ecosystem changes in the bay. Selected sediment samples collected during 1996 from 18 sites in the northeastern and central bay were analyzed for insoluble residues, organic content, total carbonate, and percent of silt and clay sized particles. Insoluble residues range from 0.8% of the sediment in a shell lag to 11.5% with an average of 5.1%. Organic content ranged from a minimum of 1.43% of the sediment to 18.05% with an average of 7.6%. The total carbonate content ranged from 72.56% to 97.81%, averaging 87.98%. The percent silt and clay sized particles ranged from 13.75% to 63.62% for the samples analyzed. The insoluble residue content shows a general trend of decreasing insoluble residues from the northeastern bay toward the southwest. Organic content is variable throughout the bay and does not show a regional trend. Several sites show a trend of higher organic content in the samples collected in February as compared to those collected in July. Lithologic examination indicated that, in addition to the carbonate mud (less than 63mm), sample components included whole and fragmented mollusks, foraminifers, bryozoans, ostracods, and organic matter. The insoluble residues consisted of quartz sand and silt, clays and siliceous fossils. A component of the insoluble residues may be dust derived from Africa and transported to

  8. Comparison of forest area data in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonya W. Lister; Andrew J. Lister

    2012-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States, has been designated by executive order as a national treasure. There is much interest in monitoring the status and trends in forest area within the bay, especially since maintaining forest cover is key to bay restoration efforts. The Chesapeake Bay Land Cover Data Series (CBLCD), a Landsat-based, multi-...

  9. Northeastern Area Forest Legacy Program Yearbook 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Northeastern Area, State and Private Forestry

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the Forest Legacy Program (FLP) is to protect environmentally important forest areas that are threatened by conversion to nonforest uses. The Forest Legacy Program is a partnership between participating States and the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. These two entities work together to identify important forest lands and...

  10. Evaluating Bay Area Methane Emission Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Marc [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jeong, Seongeun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    As a regulatory agency, evaluating and improving estimates of methane (CH4) emissions from the San Francisco Bay Area is an area of interest to the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD). Currently, regional, state, and federal agencies generally estimate methane emissions using bottom-up inventory methods that rely on a combination of activity data, emission factors, biogeochemical models and other information. Recent atmospheric top-down measurement estimates of methane emissions for the US as a whole (e.g., Miller et al., 2013) and in California (e.g., Jeong et al., 2013; Peischl et al., 2013) have shown inventories underestimate total methane emissions by ~ 50% in many areas of California, including the SF Bay Area (Fairley and Fischer, 2015). The goal of this research is to provide information to help improve methane emission estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area. The research effort builds upon our previous work that produced methane emission maps for each of the major source sectors as part of the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project (http://calgem.lbl.gov/prior_emission.html; Jeong et al., 2012; Jeong et al., 2013; Jeong et al., 2014). Working with BAAQMD, we evaluate the existing inventory in light of recently published literature and revise the CALGEM CH4 emission maps to provide better specificity for BAAQMD. We also suggest further research that will improve emission estimates. To accomplish the goals, we reviewed the current BAAQMD inventory, and compared its method with those from the state inventory from the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the CALGEM inventory, and recent published literature. We also updated activity data (e.g., livestock statistics) to reflect recent changes and to better represent spatial information. Then, we produced spatially explicit CH4 emission estimates on the 1-km modeling grid used by BAAQMD. We present the detailed activity data, methods and derived emission maps by sector

  11. Lightning phenomenology in the Tampa Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, D. W.; Uman, M. A.; Wilcox, C. E., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A commercial lightning-locating system (LLS) was employed in the study of lightning phenomenology in the Tampa Bay area of Florida. The LLS output included the time, location, number of strokes per flash, and initial peak magnetic field value of first strokes for lightning ground flashes lowering negative charge. Attention is given to the design and the operation of the LLS, and the experimental results. Measured properties of each of 111 storms are given in a number of tables. It was observed that the apparent motion associated with the lightning activity in storm systems was not due to the motion of the individual single-peak and multiple-peak storms but rather to the successive growth of new storms near previously active storms.

  12. HEAVY METAL CONTENTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS AND SEAWATER AT TOTOK BAY AREA, NORTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delyuzar Ilahude

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located in north-eastern part of Tomini Bay, approximately 80 km south of Manado city, North Sulawesi. This area is closed to submarine tailing disposal system in Buyat Bay. Five marine sediment samples and four water samples from seawater and dig wells have been used for heavy metals (Hg, As, CN analyses by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. This study is a part of research conducted by Marine Geological Institute of Indonesia on morphological changes of seabed in the Totok Bay. The result shows that concentration of mercury (Hg in water samples taken from Ratatotok estuary is higher than standards stipulated Government Regulation (Peraturan Pemerintah/PP No. 82/2001. Meanwhile, concentration of arsenic (As is almost reaching its standard threshold, and conversely cyanide (CN concentration is low. This value of mercury (Hg concentration taken from Ratatotok estuary is much higher than water samples from of Buyat Bay estuary. Significant concentration of mercury (Hg analysed from those particular sampling sites indicated high mercury contamination. Therefore, further examination on ground water of dig wells is necessary, especially for mercury analysis (Hg. Furthermore, comparing the formerly obtained data of mercury concentration in the sediment, this particular study concludes that the sediments in the Totok Bay had contaminated by mercury from gold-processing of illegal mining.

  13. Feeding Relationships among Six Seagrass-associated Fishes in the Northeastern Gwangyang Bay, Southern Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo Myun; Kwak, Seok Nam; Han, In-Seong

    2018-03-01

    We conducted dietary analyses of six seagrass-associated fish species inhabiting northeastern Gwangyang Bay, Korea. These six species consumed a variety of benthic invertebrates and teleosts, but their preferences for different food resources varied. Although all species consumed crustaceans, the contributions of different crustacean taxa differed among the species' diets. Caridean shrimps and crabs were a significant part of the Hexagrammos agrammus and H. otakii diets, respectively, while amphipods were consumed mainly by Sebastes inermis. Caridean shrimps and prawns were abundant within the Lateolabrax japonicas diet, but were not common prey resources for Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae or S. schlegelii. Polychaetes and ophiurids were ingested by P. yokohamae, and the former prey taxon also made moderate contributions to the diets of H. agrammus and L. japonicus. With the exception of P. yokohamae, the diets of all species included teleosts. Teleosts contributed the largest proportion of the S. schlegelii diet, followed by the S. inermis and L. japonicas diets; however, H. agrammus and H. otakii rarely consumed teleosts. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) ordination plots and permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) revealed the variation in dietary composition among species and the contributions of each prey taxon. These interspecific differences in diet increase the range of food resources available to these fishes, thereby reducing competition for resources within the fish community in this region.

  14. Anophelism in a former malaria area of northeastern Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Bueno-Marí

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A field study on diversity and distribution of anophelines currently present in a past endemic malaria area of Spain was carried out in order to identify possible risk areas of local disease transmission.Multiple larval sites were sampled from June to October of 2011 in the Region of Somontano de Barbastro (Northeastern Spain. The sampling effort was fixed at 10 minutes which included the active search for larvae in each biotope visited.A total of 237 larval specimens belonging to four Anopheles species (Anopheles atroparvus, An. claviger, An. maculipennis and An. petragnani were collected and identified.Malaria receptivity in the study area is high, especially in the area of Cinca river valley, due to the abundance of breeding sites of An. atroparvus very close to human settlements. Although current socio-economic conditions in Spain reduce possibilities of re-emergence of malaria transmission, it is evident that certain entomological and epidemiological vigilance must be maintained and even increased in the context of current processes of climate change and globalization.

  15. San Francisco Bay Interferometric Side Scan Imagery: Area B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High resolution sonar data were collected over ultra-shallow areas of the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  16. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Critical Habitats, Wildlife Refuges, National Park lands, and other management areas in the Bristol Bay Subarea....

  17. San Francisco Bay Interferometric Side Scan Imagery: Area A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Backscatter imagery data were collected over shallow subtidal areas in the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  18. San Francisco Bay Multi-beam Backscatter Imagery: Area A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Backscatter imagery data were collected over shallow subtidal areas in the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  19. San Francisco Bay Area Baseline Trash Loading Summary Results, San Francisco Bay Area CA, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Area stormwater permit sets trash control guidelines for discharges through the storm drain system. The permit covers Alameda, Contra Costa,...

  20. Tectonic framework of the Hanoe Bay area, southern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wannaes, K.O.; Floden, T.

    1994-06-01

    The tectonic framework and the general geologic development of the Hanoe Bay, from the Scanian coast in the west to south of Oeland in the east, has been investigated by means of reflection seismic methods. The Hanoe Bay is in this paper subdivided into four areas of different geologic settings. These are: 1) The Hanoe Bay slope, which forms a southward dipping continuation of the rigid Blekinge coastal plain. 2) The eastward dipping Kalmarsund Slope, which southwards from Oeland forms the western part of the Paleozoic Baltic Syneclise. 3) The Mesozoic Hanoe Bay Halfgraben, which forms the central and southern parts of the Hanoe Bay. The ongoing subsidence of the Halfgraben is estimated to be in the order of 20-60 m during the Quaternary. 4) The Yoldia Structural Element, which forms a deformed, tilted and possibly rotated block of Paleozoic bedrock located east of the Hanoe Bay Halfgraben. Two tectonic phases dominate the post-Paleozoic development of the Hanoe Bay, these are: 1) The Early Kimmerian phase, which initiated subsidence and reactivated older faults. 2) The Late Cretaceous phase, which is the main subsidence phase of the Hanoe Bay Halfgraben. The tectonic fault pattern of the Hanoe Bay is dominated by three directions, i.e. NW-SE, NE-SW and WNW-ESE. The two main tectonic elements of the area are the Kullen-Christiansoe Ridge System (NW-SE) and the Bornholm Gat Tectonic Zone (NE-SW). Sinistral strike-slip movements in order of 2-3 km are interpreted to have occurred along the Bornholm Gat Tectonic Zone during the late Cretaceous. 20 refs, 19 figs

  1. Conservation of biodiversity in the Sango Bay area, southern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of biodiversity and socio-economic surveys carried out in the Sango Bay area of southern Uganda revealed high biodiversity values for some taxa in some sites. Use of this biodiversity and reliance on it by local communities was widespread. Biodiversity scores were given to all species and these were coupled with ...

  2. 33 CFR 334.320 - Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.320 Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning at a point on the south shore of Chesapeake Bay at...

  3. Pisces, Anegada Bay protected area, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llompart, F. M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide the first list of marine fish from Anegada Bay, a coastal protected area in Buenos AiresProvince. Fish records were obtained from gillnets and recreational fishery captures. Thirty seven speciesbelonging to 29 families and 18 orders were identified. The most numerous order was Perciformes witheight families and 10 species. Odontesthes argentinensis, Micropogonias furnieri, Cynoscion guatucupa andMustelus schmitti were verified in all sampling sites and the last two were the most represented either in theexperimental fishing and recreational captures. Presence of Lagocephalus laevigatus extended the so far knownrange distribution of this fish species, representing the southernmost records in Argentinean coastal waters.The fish fauna composition from Anegada Bay could be considered as from a transitional zone.

  4. Deformed glacial deposits of Passamaquoddy Bay area, New Brunswick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumarapeli, S.

    1990-03-01

    The New Brunswick-Maine border area, centred around Passamaquoddy Bay, is characterized by a distinctly higher level of seismic activity compared with the very low level background activity of the region. In this same general area, post-glacial deformation including faulting, has been observed in glaciofluvial and ice contact deposits and the possibility that these structures may in some way related to neotectonic movements in the area has been suggested. A study was undertaken to document these structures and to investigate their origin. The studies show that structures related to collapse of sediments due to melting of buried ice masses are the most prominent post-depositional structures in the glacial sediments. A second group of structures includes failure phenomena such as slumping. These require the action of a mechanism leading to reduction of sediment strength which could be achieved by seismic shaking. However, such failure phenomena could also be brought about by non-seismic processes, thus a unique interpretation of the origin of these structures is difficult, if not impossible. Since seismic shaking is the most effective, regionally extensive trigger of a broad group of failure phenomena in soft sediments, the related structures are usually spread over a large area, but are restricted to a very short time gap. Although the establishment of such space and time relationships may be feasible, for example in extensive lake deposits, it is difficult to do so in patchy laterally variable deposits such as the glacial deposits in Passamaquoddy Bay area

  5. Holocene tephrochronology of the Cold Bay area, southwest Alaska Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, E.C.; Fournelle, J.H.; Miller, T.P.; Mickelson, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    The major-element glass geochemistry of 92 tephra samples from the southwest Alaska Peninsula provides the basis for establishing a Holocene tephrochronology for the region. Electron microprobe analysis has been combined with field descriptions of samples, stratigraphic relationships between tephra samples and sample localities, and glass shard micro-morphology to correlate these sampled distal tephra units throughout the area of Cold Bay and adjacent Morzhovoi Bay. Radiocarbon dating provides age constraints on correlated horizons. Previous research had clearly delineated only one horizon in the region, the so-called 'Funk/Fisher' ash, dating to between 8425 ± 350 and 9130 ± 140 14C yr BP. In addition to constraining the bimodal andesitic and dacitic glass chemistry of that horizon, this study has recognized six additional tephra layers in the area. Two horizons pre-date the Funk/Fisher ash and four are younger than it. A tephra containing dacitic and andesitic components was identified in the vicinity of Morzhovoi Bay, with a minimum age of 9300 ± 80 14C yr BP and a maximum age of 10,200 ± 75 14C yr BP. A rhyolitic horizon composed of cm-sized, rounded pumice clasts was identified in the vicinity of Cold Bay; it has been correlated to the ca 9500 BP eruption of Roundtop volcano on Unimak Island. The four younger tephra beds date to between 6070 ± 340 and 3600 ± 140 14C yr BP. The oldest of the four is rhyodacitic, followed by a mixed rhyodacitic-andesitic horizon, another rhyodacitic horizon, and finally an andesitic layer. Comparison of all the correlated horizons to proximal samples collected on Unimak Island provides conclusive geochemical evidence that the ca 9100 BP Caldera-forming eruption of Fisher volcano is the source of the Funk/Fisher ash. Correlation between the rhyodacitic tephra horizons and proximal samples from Fisher volcano suggests that Fisher Caldera is the source of one of the rhyodacitic tephra horizons that post-dates the Funk

  6. Ospreys Use Bald Eagle Nests in Chesapeake Bay Area

    OpenAIRE

    Therres, Glenn D.; Chandler, Sheri K.

    1993-01-01

    Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) and Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) share similar breeding habitat in the Chesapeake Bay area and elsewhere. The nests of these species are similar in size and appearance. Ospreys typically build large stick nests in dead trees or on man-made structures (C.J. Henny et al. 1974, Chesapeake Sci. 15:125-133; A.F. Poole 1989, Ospreys: a natural and unnatural history, Cambridge Univ. Press, NY), while Bald Eagles usually build larger nests in live trees (P.B. Woo...

  7. Distribution of radionuclides in a marine sediment core off the waterspout of the nuclear power plants in Daya Bay, northeastern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Li, Dongmei; Li, Haitao; Fang, Hongda; Huang, Chuguang; Zhang, Yusheng; Zhang, Hongbiao; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Junjie; Wang, Hua; Yang, Jie

    2015-07-01

    A sediment core was collected and dated using (210)Pbex dating method off the waterspout of nuclear power base of Daya Bay, northeastern South China Sea. The γ-emitting radionuclides were analyzed using HPGe γ spectrometry, gross alpha and beta radioactivity as well as other geochemical indicators were deliberated to assess the impact of nuclear power plants (NPP) operation and to study the past environment changes. It suggested that NPP provided no new radioactivity source to sediment based on the low specific activity of (137)Cs. Two broad peaks of TOC, TC and LOI accorded well with the commercial operations of Daya Bay NPP (1994.2 and 1994.5) and LNPP Phase I (2002.5 and 2003.3), implying that the mass input of cooling water from NPP may result into a substantial change in the ecological environment and Daya Bay has been severely impacted by human activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an urban area of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agra, Maria Claudia Ribeiro; Costa, Pietra Lemos; Duque, Anderson Enio Silva; Soares, Efraim Naftali Lopes; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida de

    2016-01-01

    The sandfly fauna is well studied globally. In Brazil, sandfly fauna is very diverse in the Northeast region, especially in states such as Maranhão, Ceará, and Bahia. However, in the State of Pernambuco, the distribution of these insects is still not well known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the different species that constitute the sandfly fauna in an urban area in the Northeast region of Brazil, where an outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was recently reported. The sandflies were collected from an urban area endemic for VL, at five collection points. The collection of samples was carried out from November 2014 to December 2015, using CDC light traps installed in intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary fashion. The collected sandflies (n = 297) belonged to eight species: Lutzomyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia sallesi, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia walkeri, Lutzomyia capixaba, Lutzomyia carmelinoi, and Lutzomyia whitmani. Most of the specimens collected were peridomiciliary (247/297, 83%). L. lenti (154/297, 52%) was the most frequently sampled species, followed by L. longipalpis (88/297, 29.6%), and L. sallesi (42/297, 14.1%), which together accounted for over 90% of the collected sandfly specimens. The continued presence of L. longipalpis in urban areas, including that in intradomiciliary areas, with a predominance of females, is crucial because of the high possibility of them causing VL outbreaks, since this species is the main vector of Leishmania infantum in Brazil.

  9. 33 CFR 162.15 - Manhasset Bay, N.Y.; seaplane restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manhasset Bay, N.Y.; seaplane... Bay, N.Y.; seaplane restricted area. (a) The restricted area. An area in Manhasset Bay between the... line bearing 166°50′ true from latitude 40°50′17.337 N, longitude 73°43′03.877 W, which point is on the...

  10. Analysis of Marketing and Customer Satisfaction in Base Housing Communities of the Monterey Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    SUBTITLE Analysis of Marketing and Customer Satisfaction in Base Housing Communities of the Monterey Bay Area 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S...MARKETING AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN BASE HOUSING COMMUNITIES OF THE MONTEREY BAY AREA Andrea B. Hernandez, Civilian, United States Navy... CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN BASE HOUSING COMMUNITIES OF THE MONTEREY BAY AREA ABSTRACT An analysis of the base housing organization Clark/Pinnacle

  11. Status, trends, and changes in freshwater inflows to bay systems in the Corpus Christi Bay National Estuary Program study area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, W.H.; Mosier, J. G.; Bush, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to quantify current (1983–93) mean freshwater inflows to the six bay systems (open water and wetlands) in the Corpus Christi Bay National Estuary Program study area, to test for historical temporal trends in inflows, and to quantify historical and projected changes in inflows. The report also addresses the adequacy of existing data to estimate freshwater inflows.

  12. 33 CFR 334.310 - Chesapeake Bay, Lynnhaven Roads; navy amphibious training area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, Lynnhaven Roads; navy amphibious training area. 334.310 Section 334.310 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....310 Chesapeake Bay, Lynnhaven Roads; navy amphibious training area. (a) The restricted area. Beginning...

  13. Regional Air Toxics Modeling in California's San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martien, P. T.; Tanrikulu, S.; Tran, C.; Fairley, D.; Jia, Y.; Fanai, A.; Reid, S.; Yarwood, G.; Emery, C.

    2011-12-01

    Regional toxics modeling conducted for California's San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) estimated potential cancer risk from diesel particulate matter (DPM) and four key reactive toxic gaseous pollutants (1,3-butadiene, benzene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde). Concentrations of other non-cancerous gaseous toxic air contaminants, including acrolein, were also generated. In this study, meteorological fields generated from July and December periods in 2000 and emissions from 2005 provided inputs to a three-dimensional air quality model at high spatial resolution (1x1 km^2 grid), from which a baseline set of annual risk values was estimated. Simulated risk maps show highest annual average DPM concentrations and cancer risks were located near and downwind of major freeways and near the Port of Oakland, a major container port in the area. Population weighted risks, using 2000 census data, were found to be highest in highly urbanized areas adjacent to significant DPM sources. For summer, the ratio of mean measured elemental carbon to mean modeled DPM was 0.78, conforming roughly to expectations. But for winter the ratio is 1.13, suggesting other sources of elemental carbon, such as wood smoke, are important. Simulated annual estimates for benzene and 1-3, butadiene compared well to measured annual estimates. Simulated acrolein and formaldehyde significantly under-predicted observed values. Simulations repeated using projected 2015 toxic emissions predicted that potential cancer risk dropped significantly in all areas throughout the SFBA. Emissions estimates for 2015 included the State of California's recently adopted on-road truck rule. Emission estimates of DPM are projected to drop about 70% between 2005 and 2015 in the SFBA, with a commensurate reduction in potential cancer risks. However, due to projected shifts in population during this period, with urban densification close to DPM sources outpacing emission reductions, there are some areas where population-weighted risks

  14. Pesticide residues in muscles of some marine fish species and seaweeds of Iskenderun Bay (Northeastern Mediterranean), Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Abdurahman; Polat, Sevim; Simsek, Ayşe; Kurt, Tuba Terbiyik; Ozyurt, Gülsün

    2018-02-01

    Pesticide residues in muscles of nine marine fish and four seaweed species of Iskenderun Bay (Northeastern Mediterranean) have been investigated. In sampled fish species, two herbicides, three insecticides, two fungicides, and one synergist were identified and quantified. Metribuzin DADK, propamocarb HCl, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) were detected in all the muscles of sampled fish species. Metribuzin DADK was the most abundant pesticide residue in fish muscles and the highest metribuzin DADK concentration was found in sardine (311.20 μg/kg). Propamocarb HCl concentrations varied greatly among species; from 0.530 ± 0.020 μg/kg in striped sea bream to 34.170 μg/kg in sea bass. The level of PBO ranged from 0.001 μg/kg for fourlined terapon to 0.013 μg/kg for sardine. No measurable oxamyl residue was found in any of the muscles of sampled fish species (except sardine). In seaweeds, two herbicides and two insecticides were identified and quantified. Metribuzin DADK was the most abundant and found in Cystoseira corniculata (5.01 mg/kg), Corallina elongata (0.703 mg/kg), and Jania rubens (3.85 mg/kg). Molinate was a minor contaminant and only found in Corallina elongata (0.002 mg/kg). Pyrethrin I was determined only in Padina pavonia to be 0.567 mg/kg. Pyrethrine II was found in Padina pavonia and Corallina elongate to be 1.214 and 0.229 mg/kg, respectively. The most hazardous pesticide residues of organochlorines and organophosphorus were not detected in both sampled fish muscles and seaweeds. There are no clear maximum residue limits for the detected eight pesticide residues declared for fish muscle by European Union MRL (2017). In conclusion, it can be considered that observed concentrations of pesticides in sampled nine marine fish species do not have a potential health risk for consumers. Some of the detected pesticide residues can be toxic for algae and aquatic life and regular monitoring studies are therefore essential to control the pesticide

  15. Long-term monitoring of atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) at a remote site in Mt. Changbai area, northeastern China

    OpenAIRE

    X. W. Fu; X. Feng; L. H. Shang; S. F. Wang; H. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was continuously monitored at a remote site (CBS) in the Mt. Changbai area, northeastern China biennially from 24 October 2008 to 31 October 2010. The overall mean TGM concentration was 1.60 ± 0.51 ng m−3, which is lower than those reported from remote sites in eastern, southwestern and western China, indicating a relatively low regional anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emission intensity in northeastern China. Measurements at a site in ...

  16. Two years of measurements of atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) at a remote site in Mt. Changbai area, Northeastern China

    OpenAIRE

    X. W. Fu; X. Feng; L. H. Shang; S. F. Wang; H. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was continuously monitored at a remote site (CBS) in Mt. Changbai area, Northeastern China from 24 October 2008 to 31 October 2010. The overall mean TGM concentration was 1.60±0.51 ng m−3, which is lower than those reported from remote sites in Eastern, Southwestern, and Western China, indicating a relatively lower regional anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emission intensity in Northeastern China. Measurements at a site in the vicinity (...

  17. BATS IN SETTLEMENTS FROM AN ATLANTIC FOREST AREA IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAIO GRACO ZEPPELINI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bats are key components of ecological networks, and studies in degraded areas are especially important to understand the impact of the human settlements on bats communities. Here, we surveyed the bat fauna in Guaribas Biological Reserve, a protected area in the Atlantic Forest in Paraiba state, northeastern Brazil, and compared it with the bat fauna that occupies the nearby villages. In the villages, we recorded 650 individuals from 14 species, while 1,127 individuals from 20 species were recorded in the Reserve. Diversity estimation pointed out 19 species for the settlements, and 22 for the Reserve. A Bray-Curtis/Sorensen similarity cluster analysis informed that the Reserve areas and the villages form two distinct groups. Additionally, a Wilcox test pointed out that both areas have significantly distinct abundances and species richnesses. Only a subset of the assemblage, mainly formed by generalist or opportunist species, occupies the villages, exploring resources that are offered by human activities.

  18. Patterns of alien plant invasion across coastal bay areas in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Ren; Qinfeng Guo; Hong Liu; Jing Li; Qianmei Zhang; Hualin Xu; Fanghong Xu

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the ways in which levels of invasions by alien species are correlated with environmental factors is helpful to manage the negative impacts of these invasive species. Two tropical coastal areas in South China, Shenzhen Bay and Leizhou Bay, are national nature reserves, but they are threatened by invasive plants. Here, we investigated the level of...

  19. Determination of the sedimentation rates in the Sepetiba bay northeastern area by using dating with the excesses {sup 210} Pb radioisotope; Determinacao das taxas de sedimentacao na porcao nordeste da baia de Sepetiba utilizando datacao com o radioisotopo {sup 210} Pb em excesso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, Cristiane Maria Sampaio

    1996-07-01

    {sup 210} Pb dating, using two modes of data analysis, CIC and CRS, was used to determine sedimentation in the North East part of Sepetiba Bay. {sup 210} Pb was leached from samples using dilute HBr and subsequently separated onto anionic exchange columns, followed by re-extraction and precipitation as Pb CrO{sub 4}. The original method was modified by the introduction of a pre-digestion step whose purpose was to liberate the lead bound as sulphide. The sedimentation rates found o.68 - 0.98 cm.y{sup -1} were moderate, compared to other authors estimates. Dating using the CRS model showed a maximum rate of sedimentation in the period between 1954 and 1977, when the riverine input was probably at its greatest. The CRS model appears to be more applicable to the data, since it works over longer periods and allows for variations in sedimentation rate. (author)

  20. Anthropogenically induced environmental changes in the northeastern Adriatic Sea in the last 500 years (Panzano Bay, Gulf of Trieste)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Jelena; Nawrot, Rafał; Gallmetzer, Ivo; Haselmair, Alexandra; Tomašových, Adam; Stachowitsch, Michael; Ćosović, Vlasta; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Shallow and sheltered marine embayments in urbanized areas are prone to the accumulation of pollutants, but little is known about the historical baselines of such marine ecosystems. Here we study foraminiferal assemblages, geochemical proxies and sedimentological data from 1.6 m long sediment cores to uncover ˜ 500 years of anthropogenic pressure from mining, port and industrial activities in the Gulf of Trieste, Italy. From 1600 to 1900 AD, normalized element concentrations and foraminiferal assemblages point to negligible effects of agricultural activities. The only significant anthropogenic activity during this period was mercury mining in the hinterlands of the gulf, releasing high amounts of mercury into the bay and significantly exceeding the standards on the effects of trace elements on benthic organisms. Nonetheless, the fluctuations in the concentrations of mercury do not correlate with changes in the composition and diversity of foraminiferal assemblages due to its non-bioavailability. Intensified agricultural and maricultural activities in the first half of the 20th century caused slight nutrient enrichment and a minor increase in foraminiferal diversity. Intensified port and industrial activities in the second half of 20th century increased the normalized trace element concentrations and persistent organic pollutants (PAH, PCB) in the topmost part of the core. This increase caused only minor changes in the foraminiferal community because foraminifera in Panzano Bay have a long history of adaptation to elevated trace element concentrations. Our study underlines the importance of using an integrated, multidisciplinary approach in reconstructing the history of environmental and anthropogenic changes in marine systems. Given the prolonged human impacts in coastal areas like the Gulf of Trieste, such long-term baseline data are crucial for interpreting the present state of marine ecosystems.

  1. Gateway National Recreation Area, Jamaica Bay Unit : Jamaica Bay Greenway Missing Links Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    Based on both a field site reconnaissance and workshop, this study developed a conceptual plan for the location and design of bicyle facilites to complete a "missing link" of the Jamaica Bay through the Rockaway region of Brooklyn and Queens in New Y...

  2. Particulate air pollution and socioeconomic position in rural and urban areas of the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochu, Paul J; Yanosky, Jeff D; Paciorek, Christopher J; Schwartz, Joel; Chen, Jarvis T; Herrick, Robert F; Suh, Helen H

    2011-12-01

    Although differential exposure by socioeconomic position (SEP) to hazardous waste and lead is well demonstrated, there is less evidence for particulate air pollution (PM), which is associated with risk of death and illness. This study determined the relationship of ambient PM and SEP across several spatial scales. Geographic information system-based, spatio-temporal models were used to predict PM in the Northeastern United States. Predicted concentrations were related to census tract SEP and racial composition using generalized additive models. Lower SEP was associated with small, significant increases in PM. Annual PM(10) decreased between 0.09 and 0.93 micrograms per cubic meter and PM(2.5) between 0.02 and 0.94 micrograms per cubic meter for interquartile range increases in income. Decrements in PM with SEP increased with spatial scale, indicating that between-city spatial gradients were greater than within-city differences. The PM-SEP relation in urban tracts was not substantially modified by racial composition. Lower compared with higher SEP populations were exposed to higher ambient PM in the Northeastern United States. Given the small percentage change in annual PM(2.5) and PM(10), SEP was not likely a major source of confounding in epidemiological studies of PM, especially those conducted within a single urban/metropolitan area.

  3. Transcendence and Son Jarocho as Practiced in the San Francisco Bay Area

    OpenAIRE

    Sacolick, Robin

    2016-01-01

    AbstractTranscendence and Son Jarocho as Practiced in the San Francisco Bay AreaRobin SacolickPeople of emerging or non-dominant ethnicities in multicultural, diasporic societies need ways to establish identities, merge strengths, and transcend difficulties. This study explores one way: community practices, by Latina/os and others in the Bay Area, of son jarocho, a centuries-old genre of Mexican music, dance and poetry. While their project revives traditional folklore, it also offers experien...

  4. 33 CFR 334.340 - Chesapeake Bay off Plumtree Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay off Plumtree... REGULATIONS § 334.340 Chesapeake Bay off Plumtree Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area. (a) The danger zone. The waters of Chesapeake Bay and connecting waters within an area bounded as follows...

  5. Size distributions and health risks of particulate trace elements in rural areas in northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Chen, Xin; Wang, Lu; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-02-01

    To characterize the airborne trace elements (Be, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb, Th and U) in rural areas in northeastern China, size-resolved aerosols were collected bi-weekly from March 2013 to February 2014 at two farmland sites in Shenyang (SHY) and Hailun (HLZ), a grassland site in Tongyu (TYU) and a forest site in the Changbai Mountain (CBS). The results showed that most trace elements (TEs) exhibited significantly higher concentrations at SHY than those at HLZ, TYU and CBS. All of the sites exhibited higher values in spring/winter than those in summer/autumn. Industrial imprints on the concentrations and size distributions of Pb and Cd were found at SHY, as supported by an air-mass backward-trajectory analysis and the abundance of sulfate and heavy metals. Due to the frequent influence of sand dust, the size distributions of Ca and Ba at the grassland site near Inner Mongolia had dominant peaks at 5.8-9 μm, in contrast to the other agricultural and forest sites, which peaked at 4.7-5.8 μm. In addition, the concentrations and the enrichment factors (EFs) of the TEs in this study increased as the size range decreased from coarse to fine particles, resulting in the highest carcinogenic (e.g., Pb) and non-carcinogenic (e.g., Mn) risks at 1.1-2.1 μm. Overall, the results highlight the severe pollution of heavy metals in northeastern China, particularly in agricultural regions that are subject to anthropogenic influences. Mitigating atmospheric TEs in the studied region, an important commodity grain base in China, is urgently needed to protect the environment and human health from toxic metals.

  6. Commercial Shellfish Areas, Commercial Shellfishing Areas of Narragansett Bay; These areas are considered a general, non species specific, reference for commercial shellfishing areas in Narragansett Bay., Published in 2001, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Commercial Shellfish Areas dataset current as of 2001. Commercial Shellfishing Areas of Narragansett Bay; These areas are considered a general, non species specific,...

  7. Improved Storm Monitoring and Prediction for the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, R.; Chandrasekar, V.; Anderson, M.; Davis, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Advanced Quantitative Precipitation Information (AQPI) System is a multi-faceted project to improve precipitation and hydrologic monitoring, prediction, and decision support for the San Francisco Bay Area. The Bay Area faces a multitude of threats from extreme events, including disrupted transportation from flooded roads and railroad lines, water management challenges related to storm water, river and reservoir management and storm-related damage demanding emergency response. The threats occur on spatial scales ranging from local communities to the entire region and time scales ranging from hours to days. These challenges will be exacerbated by future sea level rise, more extreme weather events and increased vulnerabilities. AQPI is a collaboration of federal, state and local governments with assistance from the research community. Led by NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory, in partnership with the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, USGS, and Scripps, AQPI is a four-year effort funded in part by a grant from the California Department of Water Resource's Integrated Regional Water Management Program. The Sonoma County Water Agency is serving as the local sponsor of the project. Other local participants include the Santa Clara Valley Water District, San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, and the Bay Area Flood Protection Agencies Association. AQPI will provide both improved observing capabilities and a suite of numerical forecast models to produce accurate and timely information for benefit of flood management, emergency response, water quality, ecosystem services, water supply and transportation management for the Bay Area. The resulting information will support decision making to mitigate flood risks, secure water supplies, minimize water quality impacts to the Bay from combined sewer overflows, and have improved lead-time on coastal and Bay inundation from extreme storms like Atmospheric Rivers (ARs). The project is expected to

  8. Paleozoic strata of the Dyckman Mountain area, northeastern Medfra quadrangle, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Harris, Anita G.

    2000-01-01

    Paleozoic rocks in the Dyckman Mountain area (northeastern Medfra quadrangle; Farewell terrane) include both shallowand deep-water lithologies deposited on and adjacent to a carbonate platform. Shallow-water strata, which were recognized by earlier workers but not previously studied in detail, consist of algal-laminated micrite and skeletal-peloidal wackestone, packstone, and lesser grainstone. These rocks are, at least in part, of Early and (or) Middle Devonian age but locally could be as old as Silurian; they accumulated in shallow subtidal to intertidal settings with periodically restricted water circulation. Deepwater facies, reported here for the first time, are thin, locally graded beds of micrite and calcisiltite and subordinate thick to massive beds of lime grainstone and conglomerate. Conodonts indicate an age of Silurian to Middle Devonian; the most tightly dated intervals are early Late Silurian (early to middle Ludlow). These strata formed as hemipelagic deposits, turbidites, and debris flows derived from shallow-water lithologies of the Nixon Fork subterrane. Rocks in the Dyckman Mountain area are part of a broader facies belt that is transitional between the Nixon Fork carbonate platform to the west and deeper water, basinal lithologies (Minchumina “terrane”) to the east. Transitional facies patterns are complex because of Paleozoic shifts in the position of the platform margin, Mesozoic shortening, and Late Cretaceous-Tertiary disruption by strike-slip faulting.

  9. Diversity of myxomycetes in an environmentally protected area of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônia Aurelice Aurélio Costa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on three trails, each presenting a different degree of disturbance, within the Pau-Ferro Forest Environmentally Protected Area, a 600 ha area of highland forest located in the municipality of Areia (06°58'12"S; 35°42'15"W; elevation, 400-600 m, in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. In 2005, we analyzed the species richness, abundance, constancy and phenology of myxomycetes over seven consecutive months (rainy and dry seasons in five types of microhabitats: dead tree trunks, the bark of living trees, basidiomata, ground litter and aerial litter. A total of 753 specimens of 48 species were obtained from the trails known as Flores (4 km, Boa Vista (3 km and Cumbe (700 m. The Sørensen similarity coefficient revealed that the three trails are similar. The most constant and abundant species were Hemitrichia calyculata, H. serpula, Arcyria cinerea, A. denudata and Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa. Although myxomycetes sporulate throughout the year, some species have well-defined sporulation seasons. In terms of the constancy and abundance of species, Trichiaceae is the most important family in the rain forest studied, which is representative of the highland forests of northeastern Brazil.

  10. Assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution in Mersin Bay (Turkey, northeastern Mediterranean Sea) using Mullus barbatus and Liza ramada as target organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yılmaz, Doruk; Kalay, Mustafa; Dönmez, Erdem; Yılmaz, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    The increasing emphasis on the assessment and monitoring of marine ecosystems has revealed the need to use appropriate biological indicators for these areas. Enzyme activities and histopathology are increasingly being used as indicators of environmental stress since they provide a definite biological end-point of pollutant exposure. As part of an ecotoxicological assessment of Mersin Bay, EROD enzyme activity and histopathological response in selected organs and tissues of two species of fish, Mullus barbatus (red mullet) and Liza ramada (thinlip grey mullet), captured from area were examined. Pollutant (Organochlorines (OC), alkylphenols (APs) and BPA) levels and biomarker responses in tissue samples were evaluated together for their potential to alter the metabolism and cellular aspects in liver and gonad. Elevated induction of EROD activity and histopathological alterations in contaminated samples from Mersin Bay was observed compared to reference site indicating the exposure to potential pollutants. - Highlights: • PCBs, DDTs, APs and BPA were detected in liver tissues of red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada). • Highly induced EROD activity were measured in fish samples from Mersin Bay in comparison to reference fish. • Liver and gonad impairments were observed in samples from contaminated area of Mersin Bay. - Histopathological alterations and induced EROD activities were observed in parallel with elevated tissue concentrations of contaminants in red mullet and thinlip grey mullet.

  11. Tertiary stratigraphy and petroleum potential of cold bay-false pass area, Alaska Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, H.

    1979-09-01

    Recent mapping clarifies the age, distribution, and environments of deposition of Tertiary sedimentary rocks along the outer part of the Alaska Peninsula and on Unimak Island. Marine and leaf-fossil assemblages indicate that the Belkofski Formation is of Oligocene age, and comprises interfingering marine and nonmarine volcaniclastic rocks. The Bear Lake Formation of Miocene age is not present in the Cold Bay area as previously mapped; and in a previously unmapped area, the Tachilni Formation of late Miocene and early Pliocene age extends from Cold Bay to False Pass. Pre-Tetiary rocks do not crop out along the shoreline of Unimak Island. The petroleum potential of Tertiary and Mesozoic rocks in the Cold Bay area is minimized by sandstone with poor reservoir properties, absence of organic-rich source rocks, and weakly developed folds. 4 figures.

  12. 33 CFR 334.800 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi. 334.800 Section 334.800 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.800 Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval Air...

  13. Paleontology and stratigraphy of the Upper Triassic Kamishak Formation in the Puale Bay-Cape Kekurnoi-Alinchak Bay area, Karluk C-4 and C-5 quadrangle

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the paleontological character and stratigraphy of the Kamishak Formation in the Puale Bay–Cape Kekurnoi–Alinchak Bay area, Karluk C-4 and C-5...

  14. Pressure Indicators of Wood Resource Use in an Atlantic Forest Area, Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Patrícia Muniz; de Almeida, Alyson Luiz Santos; da Silva, Taline Cristina; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2011-03-01

    Wood resources are often used to support the needs of the local population. In order to protect biodiversity and resources, conservation strategies need to consider what types of wood use have the strongest impacts on forested areas. This study aimed to identify the use categories that put higher pressure on an Atlantic forest region located in the municipality of Igarassu in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. To conduct the study, we measured the volume of all wood products in 62 surveyed residences and registered the average replacement time for such products. The fuelwood category was most important locally and accounted for 92% of annual wood consumption. However, the construction category harvests more destructively and concentrates on the consumption of a few wood species. Therefore we recommend the fuelwood category to be the main focus of conservation effforts. In addition, the most important species for construction purposes (e.g., Eschweilera ovata (Cambess.) Miers, Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel) J.F. Macbr. and Pogonophora schomburgkiana Miers ex Benth) should also be considered as a priority for conservation.

  15. Hydrology of and Current Monitoring Issues for the Chicago Area Waterway System, Northeastern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, James J.; Johnson, Kevin K.

    2015-10-28

    The Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS) consists of a combination of natural and manmade channels that form an interconnected navigable waterway of approximately 90-plus miles in the metropolitan Chicago area of northeastern Illinois. The CAWS serves the area as the primary drainage feature, a waterway transportation corridor, and recreational waterbody. The CAWS was constructed by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC). Completion of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (initial portion of the CAWS) in 1900 breached a low drainage divide and resulted in a diversion of water from the Lake Michigan Basin. A U.S. Supreme Court decree (Consent Decree 388 U.S. 426 [1967] Modified 449 U.S. 48 [1980]) limits the annual diversion from Lake Michigan. While the State of Illinois is responsible for the diversion, the MWRDGC regulates and maintains water level and water quality within the CAWS by using several waterway control structures. The operation and control of water levels in the CAWS results in a very complex hydraulic setting characterized by highly unsteady flows. The complexity leads to unique gaging requirements and monitoring issues. This report provides a general discussion of the complex hydraulic setting within the CAWS and quantifies this information with examples of data collected at a range of flow conditions from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gaging stations and other locations within the CAWS. Monitoring to address longstanding issues of waterway operation, as well as current (2014) emerging issues such as wastewater disinfection and the threat from aquatic invasive species, is included in the discussion.

  16. Analysis of sediment, water, and biological samples from the Bay Farm Borrow Area, San Francisco Bay, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thom, R.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The Bay Farm Borrow Area (BFBA) of San Francisco Bay, California, is under consideration as a dredged-material disposal site by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). As part of the analysis of the site, information is required on the quality of benthic biota, sediment, and water in the BFBA. The objective of this report was to provide data on infauna communities, sediment, and water chemistry from samples collected from the BFBA. The samples were collected, and the data will be analyzed by Science Applications International (SAIC). A total of four samples for sediment chemistry, four samples for water chemistry, and 7 samples for infauna communities were analyzed by the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL). Water analyses included tests for dissolved organic carbon, total suspended solids, four metals, butyltins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four phenols, and total phenol. Sediment samples were analyzed for percent solids, total organic carbon, total oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, grain size, 10 metals, butyltins, PCBs, chlorinated pesticides, PAHs, four phenols, and total phenol. The data along with controls and spike recovery analyses, are presented in tables, and the results are discussed in the text. The quality assurance/quality control criteria were met for the analyses as were the detection limits specified by the sponsor.

  17. Breastfeeding Practices of Japanese Mothers in the South Bay Area of Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Hiroko

    A study investigated the attitudes of Japanese breastfeeding mothers in the South Bay area in Los Angeles. The sample consisted of 20 Japanese mothers over the age of 18 who were born in Japan, who recently came to the United States, and whose youngest child has been breastfed for at least 6 months. Subjects were interviewed in their native…

  18. Networked but No System: Educational Innovation among Bay Area Jewish Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin Ross, Renee

    2017-01-01

    A widely read article from this journal explores innovative Jewish educational programs, initiatives, and organizations, arguing that these share a comdmitment to being "learner-centered" and recommending that a system be created to foster collaboration among them (Woocher, 2012). Using five San Francisco Bay Area-based…

  19. Changes in area of grasslands on the dunes between Richards Bay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grasslands on the dunes between Richards Bay and the Mfolozi river have diminished rapidly during the last 34 years (1973: 2 829 ha, 32%; 1974: 399 ha, 4, 8% of study area). They have been replaced by Acacia karroo Woodland, Secondary Dune Scrub and plantations of Eucalyptus spp. and Pinus spp. The changes ...

  20. Assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution in Mersin Bay (Turkey, northeastern Mediterranean Sea) using Mullus barbatus and Liza ramada as target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Doruk; Kalay, Mustafa; Dönmez, Erdem; Yılmaz, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    The increasing emphasis on the assessment and monitoring of marine ecosystems has revealed the need to use appropriate biological indicators for these areas. Enzyme activities and histopathology are increasingly being used as indicators of environmental stress since they provide a definite biological end-point of pollutant exposure. As part of an ecotoxicological assessment of Mersin Bay, EROD enzyme activity and histopathological response in selected organs and tissues of two species of fish, Mullus barbatus (red mullet) and Liza ramada (thinlip grey mullet), captured from area were examined. Pollutant (Organochlorines (OC), alkylphenols (APs) and BPA) levels and biomarker responses in tissue samples were evaluated together for their potential to alter the metabolism and cellular aspects in liver and gonad. Elevated induction of EROD activity and histopathological alterations in contaminated samples from Mersin Bay was observed compared to reference site indicating the exposure to potential pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 33 CFR 162.20 - Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area. 162.20 Section 162.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.20 Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area. (a...

  2. 33 CFR 334.210 - Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area. 334.210 Section 334.210 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.210 Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles...

  3. 33 CFR 334.635 - Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hillsborough Bay and waters... Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.635 Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area...

  4. 33 CFR 334.300 - Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia. 334.300 Section 334.300 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.300 Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted...

  5. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.660 Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of...

  6. Mapping soil organic carbon stock in the area of Neamtu Catchment, Northeastern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaban, Ana-Ioana; Bobric, Elena-Diana; Breaban, Iuliana-Gabriela; Rusu, Eugen

    2017-04-01

    The quantification of soil organic carbon stocks and its spatial extent is directly influenced by the land cover. The aim of the study is to quantify both the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon and stocks under different soil types and land uses in an area of 41.808,04 ha in northeastern part of Romania. It has been studied the evolution of carbon stocks over time, taking into account the change of land use between 1990-2012 under 5 classes: forests, pastures, arable land, orchard and built spaces. Common soils are Cambisols, Fluvisols, Phaezems, and Luvisols, forest being the predominant land use. The most important loss of soil organic carbon occurs as a result of changes in the supply of biomass supplying litter and therefore the process of bioaccumulation. The samples were collected from 100 representative soil profiles and analyzed with Analytik Jena multi N/C 2100 with HT 1300 solid module. Based on the soil organic carbon, C/N ratio and texture the values of those parameters varied from high values in Ao and Bv horizons to lower values in C horizon. In order to model soil organic carbon concentration were used different interpolation techniques (regression and ordinary -kriging, IDW) at different sampling densities for each depth to 100 cm, using a Gaussian approach to estimate the uncertainty. It is noticeable that soil organic carbon had a positive correlation with different types of land uses and a negative correlation with the elevation, being a decreasing trend of the carbon stocks sequestered in biomass, litter and soil. In the upper part of the profiles, the soil organic carbon stock considerably varied for forest land between 6.5-7.23 kg C/sqm) and agricultural land (3.67-4.65 kg C/sqm). The kriging regression evidenced a good variability of the calculated root mean square errors of the predicted soil organic carbon stocks.

  7. Uranium occurrences of the Thunder Bay-Nipigon-Marathon area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    During the 1981, 1982 and 1983 field seasons an inventory of all known uranium occurrences in the North Central Region of Ontario was undertaken. Three major categories of uranium occurrences were identified: uranium associated with the rocks of the Quetico Subprovince; uranium associated with the Proterozoic/Archean unconformity; and uranium associated with alkalic and carbonatite rocks of Late Precambrian age. Occurrences associated with the Quetico Belt are in white, albite-quartz-muscovite pegmatites. Occurrences associated with the Proterozoic/Archean unconformity are usually of high gradee (up to 12% U 3 O 8 ), nearly always hematized and are related to fault or shear zones proximal to the unconformity. Although of high grade, many of the unconformity related occurrences are very narrow (<1 m). Alkalic and carbonatite rocks of Late Precambrian age are an important source of uranium but possible metallurgical problems might downgrade their potential. The Quetico Subprovince is anomalously high in background uranium, and therefore contains important source rocks for uranium. Areas that have the highest potential for uranium deposits in the North Central Region are the Nipigon Basin area, and the areas underlain by the Gunflint and Rove Formations. All the high grade vein-type uranium deposits related to the unconformity are found within the Nipigon Basin. 126 refs

  8. Impacts of the 2011 tsunami on the subtidal polychaete assemblage and the following recolonization in Onagawa Bay, northeastern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Genki; Sato-Okoshi, Waka

    2015-12-01

    The ecological impacts of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami and the following recolonization of the subtidal benthic polychaete community were examined by monthly pre- and post-quake field surveys that were conducted in Onagawa Bay from 2007 to 2013. Before the tsunami, the species composition in this benthic community was constant and was dominated by cirratulid and magelonid polychaetes. The density and biomass of benthic polychaetes drastically decreased after the tsunami, and the polychaete community fluctuated during the 2 years after the natural disaster. Spionid and capitellid polychaetes were dominant at this period. In June 2013, the community entered a new constant stage dominated by maldanids, which is different from the pre-quake community. Ecological impacts due to chemical pollution were suggested in addition to the tsunami disturbance. These overlapping effects and physical, chemical and biological factors affected the recovery and recolonization of the polychaete community after the natural disaster. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bayes-Based Fault Discrimination in Wide Area Backup Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG, Z.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistical analysis is an effective tool to finish the fault location for electric power system. In Bayesian discriminant analysis as a subbranch, by the research of several populations, one can calculate the conditional probability that some samples belong to these populations, and compare the corresponding probability. The sample will be classified as population with maximum probability. In this paper, based on Bayesian discriminant analysis principle, a great number of simulation examples have confirmed that the results of Bayesian fault discriminant in wide area backup protection are accurate and reliable.

  10. Residence times of groundwater and nitrate transport in coastal aquifer systems: Daweijia area, northeastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dongmei [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Cao, Guoliang [National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Center for Water Research, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); McCallum, James [National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); School of the Environment, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Song, Xianfang [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Groundwater within the coastal aquifer systems of the Daweijia area in northeastern China is characterized by a large of variations (33–521 mg/L) in NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations. Elevated nitrate concentrations, in addition to seawater intrusion in the Daweijia well field, both attributable to anthropogenic activities, may impact future water-management practices. Chemical and stable isotopic (δ{sup 18}O, δ{sup 2}H) analysis, {sup 3}H and CFCs methods were applied to provide a better understanding of the relationship between the distribution of groundwater mean residence time (MRT) and nitrate transport, and to identify sources of nitrate concentrations in the complex coastal aquifer systems. There is a relatively narrow range of isotopic composition (ranging from − 8.5 to − 7.0‰) in most groundwater. Generally higher tritium contents observed in the wet season relative to the dry season may result from rapid groundwater circulation in response to the rainfall through the preferential flow paths. In the well field, the relatively increased nitrate concentrations of groundwater, accompanied by the higher tritium contents in the wet season, indicate the nitrate pollution can be attributed to domestic wastes. The binary exponential and piston-flow mixing model (BEP) yielded feasible age distributions based on the conceptual model. The good inverse relationship between groundwater MRTs (92–467 years) and the NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations in the shallow Quaternary aquifers indicates that elevated nitrate concentrations are attributable to more recent recharge for shallow groundwater. However, there is no significant relationship between the MRTs (8–411 years) and the NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations existing in the carbonate aquifer system, due to the complex hydrogeological conditions, groundwater age distributions and the range of contaminant source areas. Nitrate in the groundwater system without denitrification effects could accumulate and be

  11. 33 CFR 334.778 - Pensacola Bay and waters contiguous to the Naval Air Station, Pensacola, FL; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pensacola Bay and waters... Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.778 Pensacola Bay and waters contiguous to the Naval Air Station, Pensacola...

  12. Catch and discardfish species of trawl fisheries in the Iskenderun Bay (Northeastern Mediterranean with emphasis on lessepsian and chondricthyan species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. YEMISKEN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish species in catch and discard of trawl fisheries in and around Iskenderun Bay were examined within the fishing closure period and fishingperiod.The sampling was performed from May 2010 to January 2011 by a commercial trawl vessel.Chondricthyan species composed 49 % of discard catch biomass whileGymnura altavela and Dasyatis pastinacawere dominant in hauls. 27 lessepsian fish species were captured during the study,nine of them beingtarget species for trawl fisheries. In total, 14 of the lessepsian fish species were determined as discard species.In both sampling periods, Equulites klunzingeriand Citharus linguatula contributed to discard fish catch dissimilarity among depth ranges (deeper and shallower than 60 m. E. klunzingerishowed high abundance in discard catch.There were no significant differences in the distribution of the discard fish biomass between the sampling periods (ANOVA test, p>0.05. However, depth range pointed out significantdifferences in discard fish catch composition (p<0.05.Among major commercial fish species of trawl fisheries, Mullus surmuletus and Sparus aurata were not separated as discard in anyhaul by fishermen. Any size of these two species  were included in commercial catch (Total length ranged from 61 to 721 mm.

  13. The Deep Biosphere in Terrestrial Sediments in the Chesapeake Bay Area, Virginia, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Breuker, Anja; Köweker, Gerrit; Blazejak, Anna; Schippers, Axel

    2011-01-01

    For the first time quantitative data on the abundance of Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya in deep terrestrial sediments are provided using multiple methods (total cell counting, quantitative real-time PCR, Q-PCR and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization, CARD-FISH). The oligotrophic (organic carbon content of ?0.2%) deep terrestrial sediments in the Chesapeake Bay area at Eyreville, Virginia, USA, were drilled and sampled up to a depth of 140 m in 2006. The possibilit...

  14. Observations of Fallout from the Fukushima Reactor Accident in San Francisco Bay Area Rainwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Eric B.; Angell, Christopher T.; Chodash, Perry A.

    2011-01-01

    We have observed fallout from the recent Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accident in samples of rainwater collected in the San Francisco Bay area. Gamma ray spectra measured from these samples show clear evidence of fission products – 131,132I, 132Te, and 134,137Cs. The activity levels we have measured for these isotopes are very low and pose no health risk to the public. PMID:21957447

  15. 33 CFR 334.1320 - Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska; naval restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1320 Kuluk Bay, Adak...: Beginning on shore at latitude 51°55′00″ N, longitude 176°33′09″ W; thence due east to latitude 51°55′00″ N, longitude 176°33′09″ W; thence due south to latitude 51°51′55″ N longitude 176°31′09″ W; thence due west to...

  16. Smart Parking Management Field Test: A Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District Parking Demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In almost every major city in the U.S. and internationally, parking problems are ubiquitous. It is well known that the limited availability of parking contributes to roadway congestion, air pollution, and driver frustration and that the cost of expanding traditional parking capacity is frequently prohibitive. However, less research has addressed the effect of insufficient parking at transit stations on transit use. In the San Francisco Bay Area, parking has recently been at or near capacity a...

  17. Seasonal changes of fatty acids in Nerita textilis on intertidal area of Chabahar Bay (Oman Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjadi, N.; Eghtesadi, P.; Darvish Bastami, K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify and isolate the fatty acids composition of Nerita textiles in intertidal area of Chabahar Bay, and also to explore the seasonal changes of fatty acid content in Nerita textiles. GC/MS resulted thirteen fatty acids, that saturated fatty acids (SFA) of palmitic acid (16:0) was the most abundant category of fatty acid obtained in total lipids. There were no significant differences in total saturated fatty acids between different seasons. No significant di...

  18. Application of isotopic and chemical methods to the study of hydrological problems in Brazilian northeastern areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponte, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrological studies are reported with samples of ground water from several region of northern - and northeastern Brazil: Marajo Island (State of Para), State of Piaui, Ceara and Rio Grande do Norte. A description is given of the utilization of chemical and isotopic methods, in particular measurements of tritium concentration and 14 C- counting techniques for the determination of the origin and residence time of water. (I.C.R.) [pt

  19. Earthquakes and faults in the San Francisco Bay area (1970-2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Calzia, James P.; Walter, Stephen R.; Wong, Florence L.; Saucedo, George J.

    2004-01-01

    The map depicts both active and inactive faults and earthquakes magnitude 1.5 to 7.0 in the greater San Francisco Bay area. Twenty-two earthquakes magnitude 5.0 and greater are indicated on the map and listed chronologically in an accompanying table. The data are compiled from records from 1970-2003. The bathymetry was generated from a digital version of NOAA maps and hydrogeographic data for San Francisco Bay. Elevation data are from the USGS National Elevation Database. Landsat satellite image is from seven Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus scenes. Fault data are reproduced with permission from the California Geological Survey. The earthquake data are from the Northern California Earthquake Catalog.

  20. Metropolitan Transportation Commission, San Francisco Bay area : developing regional objectives and performance measures to improve system operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) uses an objectives-driven, performance-based approach in its transportation planning for the San Francisco Bay Area. This approach focuses attention on transportation investments of highest priority. T...

  1. 2010 Northern San Francisco Bay Area Lidar: Portions of Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, Solano, and Sonoma Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of northern San Francisco Bay, California. The project area consists of approximately 437 square miles...

  2. Breeding status of Adelie and emperor penguins in the Mt. Riiser-Larsen area, Amundsen Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Kato,Akiko; Ichikawa,Hideo

    1999-01-01

    Adelie and emperor penguin colonies were surveyed in the south-western part of the Mt. Riiser-Larsen area, Amundsen Bay (66°47'S, 50°33'E) on 17 December 1996 by JARE-38. A total of 877 pairs of Adelie penguins were located nesting on a moraine field; most were incubating and some eggs had started hatching. The emperor penguin colony was on a frozen pond in ice-free area. There were 25 adults (including 3 molting birds), 2 immatures and 250 chicks in a creche.

  3. When it happens again: impact of future San Francisco Bay area earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, M.; Boatwright, J.; Kornfield, L.; Scawthorn, C.; Rojahn, C.

    2005-12-01

    San Francisco Bay area earthquakes, like major floods and hurricanes, have the potential for massive damage to dense urban population centers concentrated in vulnerable zones-along active faults, in coastal regions, and along major river arteries. The recent destruction of Hurricane Katrina does have precedent in the destruction following the 1906 "San Francisco" earthquake and fire in which more than 3000 people were killed and 225,000 were left homeless in San Francisco alone, a city of 400,000 at the time. Analysis of a comprehensive set of damage reports from the magnitude (M) 7.9 1906 earthquake indicates a region of ~ 18,000 km2 was subjected to shaking of Modified Mercalli Intensity of VIII or more - motions capable of damaging even modern, well-built structures; more than 60,000 km2 was subjected to shaking of Intensity VII or greater - the threshold for damage to masonry and poorly designed structures. By comparison, Katrina's hurricane force winds and intense rainfall impacted an area of ~100,000 km2 on the Gulf Coast. Thus, the anticipated effects of a future major Bay Area quake to lives, property, and infrastructure are comparable in scale to Katrina. Secondary hazards (levee failure and flooding in the case of Katrina and fire following the 1906 earthquake) greatly compounded the devastation in both disasters. A recent USGS-led study concluded there is a 62% chance of one or more damaging (M6.7 or greater) earthquakes striking the greater San Francisco Bay area over the next 30 years. The USGS prepared HAZUS loss estimates for the 10 most likely forecast earthquakes which range in size from a M6.7 event on a blind thrust to the largest anticipated event, a M7.9 repeat of the 1906 earthquake. The largest economic loss is expected for a repeat of the 1906 quake. Losses in the Bay region for this event are nearly double those predicted for a M6.9 rupture of the entire Hayward Fault in the East Bay. However, because of high density of population along the

  4. 33 CFR 334.200 - Chesapeake Bay, Point Lookout to Cedar Point; aerial and surface firing range and target area, U...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, Point Lookout to... Chesapeake Bay, Point Lookout to Cedar Point; aerial and surface firing range and target area, U.S. Naval Air... of Chesapeake Bay within an area described as follows: Beginning at the easternmost extremity of...

  5. Changes of paddy rice planting areas in Northeastern Asia from 1986 to 2014 based on Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J.; Xiao, X.; Kou, W.; Qin, Y.; Wang, J.; Zhang, G.; Jin, C.; Zhou, Y.; Menarguez, M. A.; Moore, B., III

    2014-12-01

    Paddy rice is an important cereal crop and main grain source for more than half of the global human population. However, knowledge about its area and spatial pattern is still limited due to large changes in agriculture in different regions; for example, higher latitude areas underwent increase (e.g., northeastern China) and decrease (e.g., South Korea) of paddy rice planting areas due to climatic warming, urbanization and other drivers. It is necessary to track paddy rice planting area changes in these regions in the past decades. We developed a pixel- and phenology-based image analysis system, Landsat-RICE, to map the paddy rice by using Landsat imagery. The algorithm was based on the unique physical and spectral characteristics of paddy rice fields during the flooding and transplanting phases. First, Landsat images are preprocessed and time series vegetation indices (NDVI, EVI, and LSWI) are generated. Second, MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data were used to define thermal plant growing season (0 oC, 5 oC and 10 oC), which provides a guide for selection of Landsat images within the period of flooding and transplanting. Third, several non-cropland land cover maps (e.g., permanent water bodies, built-up and barren lands, sparsely vegetated lands, and evergreen vegetation) are produced through analysis of Landsat-based vegetation indices within the plant growing season and combined as a mask. Fourthly, vegetation index data within the time window of flooded and rice transplanting were analyzed to identify flood/transplanting signals. Finally, the maps of paddy rice planting areas were generated through overlying the results from Step 3 and 4. Paddy rice planting area changes were investigated in some hotspots of Northeastern Asia from 1986 to 2014 at 30-m spatial resolution and 5-year interval. This study has demonstrated that our newly developed Landsat-Rice system is robust and effective for tracking paddy rice changes in cold temperate and temperate zones.

  6. Holocene tephrochronology of the Cold Bay area, southwest Alaska Peninsula*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Eric C.; Fournelle, John H.; Miller, Thomas P.; Mickelson, David M.

    2002-11-01

    The major-element glass geochemistry of 92 tephra samples from the southwest Alaska Peninsula provides the basis for establishing a Holocene tephrochronology for the region. Electron microprobe analysis has been combined with field descriptions of samples, stratigraphic relationships between tephra samples and sample localities, and glass shard micro-morphology to correlate these sampled distal tephra units throughout the area of Cold Bay and adjacent Morzhovoi Bay. Radiocarbon dating provides age constraints on correlated horizons. Previous research had clearly delineated only one horizon in the region, the so-called 'Funk/Fisher' ash, dating to between 8425±350 and 9130±140 14C yr BP. In addition to constraining the bimodal andesitic and dacitic glass chemistry of that horizon, this study has recognized six additional tephra layers in the area. Two horizons pre-date the Funk/Fisher ash and four are younger than it. A tephra containing dacitic and andesitic components was identified in the vicinity of Morzhovoi Bay, with a minimum age of 9300±80 14C yr BP and a maximum age of 10,200±75 14C yr BP. A rhyolitic horizon composed of cm-sized, rounded pumice clasts was identified in the vicinity of Cold Bay; it has been correlated to the ca 9500 BP eruption of Roundtop volcano on Unimak Island. The four younger tephra beds date to between 6070±340 and 3600±140 14C yr BP. The oldest of the four is rhyodacitic, followed by a mixed rhyodacitic-andesitic horizon, another rhyodacitic horizon, and finally an andesitic layer. Comparison of all the correlated horizons to proximal samples collected on Unimak Island provides conclusive geochemical evidence that the ca 9100 BP Caldera-forming eruption of Fisher volcano is the source of the Funk/Fisher ash. Correlation between the rhyodacitic tephra horizons and proximal samples from Fisher volcano suggests that Fisher Caldera is the source of one of the rhyodacitic tephra horizons that post-dates the Funk/Fisher ash

  7. Groundwater, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona—2013–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jamie P.; Mason, Jon P.

    2017-12-07

    The Navajo (N) aquifer is an extensive aquifer and the primary source of groundwater in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use by a growing population and because of low precipitation in the arid climate of the Black Mesa area. Precipitation in the area typically is between 6 and 16 inches per year.The U.S. Geological Survey water-monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and provides information about the long-term effects of groundwater withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected as part of the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2013 to December 2015. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) groundwater withdrawals (pumping), (2) groundwater levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) groundwater chemistry.In 2013, total groundwater withdrawals were 3,980 acre-feet (ft), in 2014 total withdrawals were 4,170 acre-ft, and in 2015 total withdrawals were 3,970 acre-ft. From 2013 to 2015 total withdrawals varied by less than 5 percent.From 2014 to 2015, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 9 of 15 wells that were available for comparison in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was -0.1 feet. Water levels declined in 3 of 16 wells measured in the confined area of the aquifer. The median change for the confined area of the aquifer was 0.6 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2015, the median water-level change for 34 wells in both the confined and unconfined areas was -13.2 feet; the median water-level changes were -1.7 feet for 16 wells measured in the unconfined areas and -42.3 feet for 18 wells measured in the confined area.Spring flow was measured at four springs in 2014. Flow fluctuated during the

  8. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results. Fourth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-02

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 12 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The FCEBs in service at AC Transit are 40-foot, low-floor buses built by Van Hool with a hybrid electric propulsion system that includes a US Hybrid fuel cell power system and EnerDel lithium-based energy storage system. The buses began revenue service in May 2010.

  9. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration: First Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the early implementation experience for the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, the largest fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States. The ZEBA Demonstration group includes five participating transit agencies: AC Transit (lead transit agency), Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA), Golden Gate Transit (GGT), San Mateo County Transit District (SamTrans), and San Francisco Municipal Railway (Muni). The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service.

  10. Improving Radar Quantitative Precipitation Estimation over Complex Terrain in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, R.; Chen, H.; Chandrasekar, V.

    2017-12-01

    A recent study by the State of California's Department of Water Resources has emphasized that the San Francisco Bay Area is at risk of catastrophic flooding. Therefore, accurate quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) and forecast (QPF) are critical for protecting life and property in this region. Compared to rain gauge and meteorological satellite, ground based radar has shown great advantages for high-resolution precipitation observations in both space and time domain. In addition, the polarization diversity shows great potential to characterize precipitation microphysics through identification of different hydrometeor types and their size and shape information. Currently, all the radars comprising the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) network are operating in dual-polarization mode. Enhancement of QPE is one of the main considerations of the dual-polarization upgrade. The San Francisco Bay Area is covered by two S-band WSR-88D radars, namely, KMUX and KDAX. However, in complex terrain like the Bay Area, it is still challenging to obtain an optimal rainfall algorithm for a given set of dual-polarization measurements. In addition, the accuracy of rain rate estimates is contingent on additional factors such as bright band contamination, vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) correction, and partial beam blockages. This presentation aims to improve radar QPE for the Bay area using advanced dual-polarization rainfall methodologies. The benefit brought by the dual-polarization upgrade of operational radar network is assessed. In addition, a pilot study of gap fill X-band radar performance is conducted in support of regional QPE system development. This paper also presents a detailed comparison between the dual-polarization radar-derived rainfall products with various operational products including the NSSL's Multi-Radar/Multi-Sensor (MRMS) system. Quantitative evaluation of various rainfall products is achieved

  11. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Fifth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published four previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2015 through December 2015.

  12. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Sixth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published five previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2016 through December 2016.

  13. Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis in an area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pietra Lemos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; da Silva, Fernando José; Guimarães, Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso; Gaudêncio, Kamila; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto

    2013-05-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a major public health issue in South America, where the disease is rapidly spreading. Changes in ecology and distribution of the principal vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis are among the factors accounting for the increasing incidence of the disease in this region. However, information about the ecology of L. longipalpis is still incipient, which may directly impair the implementation of effective control programs. Herein, the ecology of L. longipalpis was studied in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in north-eastern Brazil. From August 2009 to August 2010, phlebotomine sand flies were monthly collected in four localities using CDC light traps (~37 per month) and a lantern-baited Shannon trap with mouth aspirators. A total of 24,226 phlebotomine sand flies were collected with light traps and 375 with mouth aspirators. The most abundant species was L. longipalpis, representing 97.9% of the specimens collected with light traps and 91.5% with the mouth aspirator. Other species (Lutzomyia evandroi, Lutzomyia lenti and Lutzomyia sallesi) were found in low numbers. Most phlebotomine sand flies (94.6%) were collected at chicken coops and corrals. No significant correlation was found between the monthly abundance of phlebotomine sand flies and the monthly averages of temperature, relative humidity or rainfall. However, interestingly enough, 82.4% of L. longipalpis specimens were collected in months when relative humidity surpassed 75%. This study points out that this vector is well adapted to live in different habitats and to different climate conditions. It also suggests that some north-eastern populations of L. longipalpis may be more xerotolerant than southern populations. Further studies to assess the relationship between microclimate and L. longipalpis density in different Brazilian regions are advised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sub-tidal benthic habitats of central San Francisco Bay and offshore Golden Gate area: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, H. Gary; Endris, Charles; Vallier, Tracy; Golden, Nadine E.; Cross, Jeffery; Ryan, Holly F.; Dieter, Bryan; Niven, Eric; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Deep-water potential estuarine and marine benthic habitat types were defined from a variety of new and interpreted data sets in central San Francisco Bay and offshore Golden Gate area including multibeam echosounder (MBES), side-scan sonar and bottom grab samples. Potential estuarine benthic habitats identified for the first time range from hard bedrock outcrops on island and mainland flanks and some Bay floor

  15. Long-term monitoring of atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) at a remote site in Mt. Changbai area, northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X. W.; Feng, X.; Shang, L. H.; Wang, S. F.; Zhang, H.

    2012-02-01

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was continuously monitored at a remote site (CBS) in the Mt. Changbai area, northeastern China biennially from 24 October 2008 to 31 October 2010. The overall mean TGM concentration was 1.60 ± 0.51 ng m-3, which is lower than those reported from remote sites in eastern, southwestern and western China, indicating a relatively low regional anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emission intensity in northeastern China. Measurements at a site in the vicinity (~1.2 km) of the CBS station during August 2005 and July 2006 showed a significantly higher mean TGM concentration of 3.58 ± 1.78 ng m-3. The divergent result was partially attributed to fluctuations in the regional surface wind system and moreover an effect of local emission sources. The temporal variation of TGM at CBS was obviously influenced by regional sources as well as long-range transported Hg. Regional sources, frequently contributing to episodical high TGM concentrations, were pinpointed as a large iron mining district in northern North Korea and two large power plants and urban areas to the southwest of the sampling site. Source areas in Beijing, Tianjin, southern Liaoning, Hebei, northwestern Shanxi and northwestern Shandong were found to contribute to elevated TGM observations at CBS via long-range transport. The diurnal pattern of TGM at CBS was mainly regulated by regional sources, likely as well as intrusion of air masses from the free troposphere during summer season. There are no discernible seasonal pattern of TGM at CBS, which mainly showed links with the patterns of regional air movements and long-range transport.

  16. Two years of measurements of atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM at a remote site in Mt. Changbai area, Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. W. Fu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Total gaseous mercury (TGM was continuously monitored at a remote site (CBS in Mt. Changbai area, Northeastern China from 24 October 2008 to 31 October 2010. The overall mean TGM concentration was 1.60±0.51 ng m−3, which is lower than those reported from remote sites in Eastern, Southwestern, and Western China, indicating a relatively lower regional anthropogenic mercury (Hg emission intensity in Northeastern China. Measurements at a site in the vicinity (~1.2 km of CBS station from August 2005 to July 2006 showed a significantly higher mean TGM concentration of 3.58±1.78 ng m−3. The divergent result was partially attributed to fluctuations in the relatively frequencies of surface winds during the two study periods and moreover an effect of local emission sources. The temporal variation of TGM at CBS was influenced by regional sources as well as long-range transported Hg. Regional sources frequently contributing to episodical high TGM concentrations were pin-pointed as a large iron mining district in Northern North Korea and two large power plants and urban areas to the southwest of the sampling site. Source areas in Beijing, Tianjin, southern Liaoning, Hebei, northwestern Shanxi, and northwestern Shandong were found to contribute to elevated TGM observations at CBS via long-range transport. Diurnal pattern of TGM at CBS was mainly controlled by regional sources, likely as well as intrusion of air masses from the free troposphere during summer season. There are no consistent seasonal pattern of TGM at CBS, and the monthly TGM variations showed links with the patterns of regional air movements and long-range transport.

  17. Two years of measurements of atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) at a remote site in Mt. Changbai area, Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X. W.; Feng, X.; Shang, L. H.; Wang, S. F.; Zhang, H.

    2012-05-01

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was continuously monitored at a remote site (CBS) in Mt. Changbai area, Northeastern China from 24 October 2008 to 31 October 2010. The overall mean TGM concentration was 1.60±0.51 ng m-3, which is lower than those reported from remote sites in Eastern, Southwestern, and Western China, indicating a relatively lower regional anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emission intensity in Northeastern China. Measurements at a site in the vicinity (~1.2 km) of CBS station from August 2005 to July 2006 showed a significantly higher mean TGM concentration of 3.58±1.78 ng m-3. The divergent result was partially attributed to fluctuations in the relatively frequencies of surface winds during the two study periods and moreover an effect of local emission sources. The temporal variation of TGM at CBS was influenced by regional sources as well as long-range transported Hg. Regional sources frequently contributing to episodical high TGM concentrations were pin-pointed as a large iron mining district in Northern North Korea and two large power plants and urban areas to the southwest of the sampling site. Source areas in Beijing, Tianjin, southern Liaoning, Hebei, northwestern Shanxi, and northwestern Shandong were found to contribute to elevated TGM observations at CBS via long-range transport. Diurnal pattern of TGM at CBS was mainly controlled by regional sources, likely as well as intrusion of air masses from the free troposphere during summer season. There are no consistent seasonal pattern of TGM at CBS, and the monthly TGM variations showed links with the patterns of regional air movements and long-range transport.

  18. POLLUTION ASSESSMENT IN DREDGING SEDIMENT FROM HARBOR AREAS OF THE CIENFUEGOS BAY (CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabell Pulido Caraballé

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of the dredging sediments is essential for environmental license, control and planning in dredging harbors. Sediment pollution was study in two harbor areas of the Cienfuegos Bay. Dredging sediments from “Camilo Cienfuegos” Refinery port and from area IX of Cienfuegos harbor were characterized. In order to evaluate dredging sediment quality, an analysis of water content, grain size, organic matter and trace metals was done. The results show that the trace elements in the sediments are at natural levels. Due to the absent of Cuban rules for these topics, international criteria for sampling, analysis and sediment quality evaluation were used in the study. Results show that these levels can be considered as typical for harbor areas in which authorization for dredging activities in docks and navigation channel should be granted. The results and methodologies will be applied in others Cuban harbors and navigation channel during the environmental license of dredging sediments.

  19. Prevalence of Salmonella strains in wild animals from a highly populated area of north-eastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Silva; Ravaioli, Cinzia; Previato, Sara; D'Incau, Mario; Tassinari, Massimo; Guidi, Enrica; Lupi, Silvia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Bergamini, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella is a ubiquitous pathogen that can infect host species, like wild birds, rodents, and/or arthropods, which may transmit infection to domestic animals and human population. In order to assess the related risk, a cross-sectional study was performed on 1114 carcasses of wild animals from a north-eastern area of the Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy. During post mortem examination, intestine samples were cultured. A statistical analysis demonstrated that there is no correlation between the presence of sub-clinically infected animals and greater human population density. In contrast, a significant correlation between the number of carcasses positive for Salmonella spp. and greater spatial density of pig, poultry, and cattle farms was observed (p wild animals with omnivorous feeding habits are particularly exposed to Salmonella colonization and, consequently, to spreading the organism. Regarding drug resistance, this study confirms the resistance to antimicrobials is increasing in commensal and environmental isolates.

  20. Nematodes associated with Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata, Iguanidae) in Semi-arid areas of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, D A; Brito, S V; Teixeira, A A M; Ribeiro, S C; Araujo-Filho, J A; Lima, V F; Pereira, A M A; Almeida, W O

    2017-01-01

    Nematodes were analyzed in Iguana iguana, a large lizard Iguanidae that is widely distributed throughout the Americas. The aims of the study were investigate the helminths associated with the lizard, I. iguana in semi-arid areas of northeastern Brazil and analyze the parasitological indices (prevalence, and mean intensity of infection). A total of 18 specimens of I. iguana were examined (8 males and 10 females). The overall prevalence of infection was 66.6% (12/18), while in males, it was 75% (6/8) and in females, 60% (6/10). Iguana iguana was identified as a new host for Physaloptera sp., Atractis sp., Piratuba sp. and Subulura sp. This registered contributes to the knowledge of helminth diversity associated with this host.

  1. Nematodes associated with Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata, Iguanidae in Semi-arid areas of Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Teles

    Full Text Available Abstract Nematodes were analyzed in Iguana iguana, a large lizard Iguanidae that is widely distributed throughout the Americas. The aims of the study were investigate the helminths associated with the lizard, I. iguana in semi-arid areas of northeastern Brazil and analyze the parasitological indices (prevalence, and mean intensity of infection. A total of 18 specimens of I. iguana were examined (8 males and 10 females. The overall prevalence of infection was 66.6% (12/18, while in males, it was 75% (6/8 and in females, 60% (6/10. Iguana iguana was identified as a new host for Physaloptera sp., Atractis sp., Piratuba sp. and Subulura sp. This registered contributes to the knowledge of helminth diversity associated with this host.

  2. AMS-dated mollusks in beach ridges and berms document Holocene sea-level and coastal changes in northeastern Kuwait Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinink-Smith, Linda M.

    2015-09-01

    In northeastern Kuwait, ancient beach ridges and associated berms are separated from the present shoreline by a 4-6 km-wide sabkha. A diverse mollusk fauna in the beach ridges attests to a former open marine environment. A total of 21 AMS dates were obtained in this study. Thirteen mollusk samples from beach ridges yielded AMS dates ranging from ~ 6990 cal yr BP in the southeast to ~ 3370 cal yr BP in the northwest, suggesting a southeast to northwest age progression during the Holocene transgression. In contrast, four samples from berms throughout the study area yielded AMS dates of 5195-3350 cal yr BP showing no age progression; these berms consist largely of Conomurex persicus gastropods that aggregated by storms during a highstand at ~ 5000-3500 cal yr BP. The berms are presently at ~ + 6 m above sea level, 2-3 m above the beach ridges. Human settlements were common on the ridge crests before and after the highstand. Regression to present-day sea level commenced after the highstand, which is when the sabkha began forming. A landward, marine-built terrace, which yielded AMS dates > 43,500 14C yr BP, probably formed during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 5e and hence is not genetically related to the beach ridges.

  3. A self-modifying cellular automaton model of historical urbanization in the San Francisco Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, K.C.; Hoppen, S.; Gaydos, L.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe a cellular automaton (CA) simulation model developed to predict urban growth as part of a project for estimating the regional and broader impact of urbanization on the San Francisco Bay area's climate. The rules of the model are more complex than those of a typical CA and involve the use of multiple data sources, including topography, road networks, and existing settlement distributions, and their modification over time. In addition, the control parameters of the model are allowed to self-modify: that is, the CA adapts itself to the circumstances it generates, in particular, during periods of rapid growth or stagnation. In addition, the model was written to allow the accumulation of probabilistic estimates based on Monte Carlo methods. Calibration of the model has been accomplished by the use of historical maps to compare model predictions of urbanization, based solely upon the distribution in year 1900, with observed data for years 1940, 1954, 1962, 1974, and 1990. The complexity of this model has made calibration a particularly demanding step. Lessons learned about the methods, measures, and strategies developed to calibrate the model may be of use in other environmental modeling contexts. With the calibration complete, the model is being used to generate a set of future scenarios for the San Francisco Bay area along with their probabilities based on the Monte Carlo version of the model. Animated dynamic mapping of the simulations will be used to allow visualization of the impact of future urban growth.

  4. Distribution characteristics of radium isotopes and their influence factors in the water of Jiaozhou Bay area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Guo Zhanrong; Yuan Xiaojie; Zhang Bin; Ma Zhiyong; Liu Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background: The interaction between continental and oceanic process is much intense in coastal region. The terrestrial freshwater mixes with seawater here which leads to the chemical constituents in water undergo rapid change. Purpose: The aim is to analyze and study the distribution characteristics of 224 Ra and 226 Ra and their influence factors in the water of Jiaozhou Bay area. Methods: The water samples of 224 Ra and 226 Ra were collected from groundwater, river water and seawater around the Jiaozhou Bay from April to May, 2012. In the laboratory, the activities of 224 Ra absorbed on the Mn-fiber were measured through the continuous emanation method. Finally, the Mn-fiber was sealed for more than 7 days, and the activities of 226 Ra absorbed on the Mn-fiber were measured through the direct emanation method. Results: The results show that the activities of 224 Ra and 226 Ra in groundwater and river water are much higher in the granitic area which has higher concentration of 232 Th and 238 U. Because of mixing with seawater, the salinity of groundwater and river water in coastal region rises which leads to the increasing amounts of 224 Ra and 226 Ra desorbed from the particles, resulting in higher activities of 224 Ra and 226 Ra in coastal region. Affected by the input of river (dissolved and desorbed from suspended particles) and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), the activities of 224 Ra and 226 Ra are relatively higher in nearshore seawater, then with the decay of 224 Ra and mixing dilution effect of the offshore seawater, the activities of 224 Ra gradually decrease from nearshore region to the open ocean. The activities of 226 Ra in the seawater of Jiaozhou Bay remain high-level values, and there are only a few zones of low 226 Ra activities. The main reasons are that the activities of 226 Ra from terrestrial freshwater are close to those from offshore seawater and the half-life of 226 Ra is very long. Conclusion: The activities of 224 Ra and 226 Ra in

  5. High-resolution geochemical record of Petaluma Marsh from the San Francisco bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, E.; Brown, L. N.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    The San Francisco Bay has the largest concentration of salt marshes in the state of California, representing a diversity of marsh habitat. Protecting these environments is critical, as salt marshes provide refuge to endangered species, absorb carbon from the atmosphere, and preserve detailed evidence of past climatic, hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecologic conditions. However, much of the marshes have been impacted by pollutants, altered or lost entirely due to human activity over the past 150 years, making their prehistoric conditions, ecological trajectories and resilience to disturbance uncertain. In this study, we collected data from Petaluma Marsh, one of the oldest marshes in the Bay Area, to document the sedimentological and accretionary history, geochemical changes including heavy metal concentrations, and patterns and shifts in productivity and C sequestration as a response to climatic and anthropogenic changes since the mid-Holocene. Loss-on ignition, pXRF, and magnetic susceptibility data were collected at high resolution from a 12-meter, 6000 year old, sedimentary core recovered from this tidal marsh located along the Petaluma river in the northern Bay region. Average rate of sediment accretion was 3.6 ± 0.8 mm/yr. Preliminary results confirm dramatic anthropogenic impacts on the Petaluma watershed, particularly over the last 150-200 years. However, based on statistical time-series analysis of long-core elemental concentrations, results show that modern conditions are not so far removed compared to prehistoric conditions, as often suggested by century-scale analyses. Modern heavy metal concentrations (e.g., Cr, Fe, Sr, Ba, Zr, Rb and Ni) match concentration levels from 4000-5000 yr BP. However, Pb levels in the marsh post-European land use are higher now than ever before. Average carbon content, as determined from LOI (Craft, 1991), is 22.3 ± 7.5 % over the length of the core, but decreased with European land modification and increased in recent years

  6. Characterization of soil salinization in typical estuarine area of the Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qifei; Xi, Min; Wang, Qinggai; Kong, Fanlong; Li, Yue

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the characteristics of soil salinization and the effects of main land use/land cover and other factors in typical estuarine area of the Jiaozhou Bay are investigated. Soil samples were collected in the parallel coastal zone, vertical coastal zone and longitudinal profile depth in the area to determine the soil salt content. The correlation analysis and principal component analysis are used to address the general characteristics of soil salinization in the study area. In the horizontal direction, there are moderate salinization, severe salinization and saline soil state. The farther from the sea (within 1.1 km), the lower the soil salinization degree. In the direction of longitudinal profile depth, there are severe salinization and saline soil state, and the soil salt content is accumulated in the surface and bottom. The Na+ and Cl- are the dominant cation and anion, respectively, the distributions of which are consistent with that of salt content. All the salinization indexes, except for soil pH, are of moderate/strong variability. The invasion of Spartina alterniflora results in the increase of soil salt content and salinization degree, the effects of which are mainly determined by the physiological characteristics and the growth years. The degree of soil salinization increased significantly in the aquaculture ponds, which is mainly caused by the use of chemicals. The correlation between soil salt content and Na+, Cl- is particularly significant. From the results of principal component analysis, Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42- could be used as main diagnostic factors for salinization in typical estuarine area of the Jiaozhou Bay. The effects of NaCl and sulfate on salt content further affect the degree of salinization in the estuarine area.

  7. Spatial and temporal changes in Lutzomyia longipalpis abundance, a Leishmania infantum vector in an urban area in northeastern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María Soledad; Santini, María Soledad; Cavia, Regino; Sandoval, Adolfo Enrique; Pérez, Adriana Alicia; Acardi, Soraya; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse changes in the spatial distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Posadas, an urban area located in northeastern Argentina. Data were obtained during the summer of 2007 and 2009 through two entomological surveys of peridomiciles distributed around the city. The abundance distribution pattern for 2009 was computed and compared with the previous pattern obtained in 2007, when the first human visceral leishmaniasis cases were reported in the city. Vector abundance was also examined in relation to micro and macrohabitat characteristics. In 2007 and 2009, Lu. longipalpis was distributed among 41.5% and 31% of the households in the study area, respectively. In both years, the abundance rates at most of the trapping sites were below 30 Lu. longipalpis per trap per night; however, for areas exhibiting 30-60 Lu. longipalpis and more than 60 Lu. longipalpis, the areas increased in both size and number from 2007-2009. Lu. longipalpis was more abundant in areas with a higher tree and bush cover (a macrohabitat characteristic) and in peridomiciles with accumulated unused material (a microhabitat characteristic). These results will help to prioritise and focus control efforts by defining which peridomiciles display a potentially high abundance of Lu. longipalpis. PMID:24271040

  8. Spatial and temporal changes in Lutzomyia longipalpis abundance, a Leishmania infantum vector in an urban area in northeastern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María Soledad; Santini, María Soledad; Cavia, Regino; Sandoval, Adolfo Enrique; Pérez, Adriana Alicia; Acardi, Soraya; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to analyse changes in the spatial distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Posadas, an urban area located in northeastern Argentina. Data were obtained during the summer of 2007 and 2009 through two entomological surveys of peridomiciles distributed around the city. The abundance distribution pattern for 2009 was computed and compared with the previous pattern obtained in 2007, when the first human visceral leishmaniasis cases were reported in the city. Vector abundance was also examined in relation to micro and macrohabitat characteristics. In 2007 and 2009, Lu. longipalpis was distributed among 41.5% and 31% of the households in the study area, respectively. In both years, the abundance rates at most of the trapping sites were below 30 Lu. longipalpis per trap per night; however, for areas exhibiting 30-60 Lu. longipalpis and more than 60 Lu. longipalpis, the areas increased in both size and number from 2007-2009. Lu. longipalpis was more abundant in areas with a higher tree and bush cover (a macrohabitat characteristic) and in peridomiciles with accumulated unused material (a microhabitat characteristic). These results will help to prioritise and focus control efforts by defining which peridomiciles display a potentially high abundance of Lu. longipalpis.

  9. Spatial and temporal changes in Lutzomyia longipalpis abundance, a Leishmania infantum vector in an urban area in northeastern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Soledad Fernandez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse changes in the spatial distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Posadas, an urban area located in northeastern Argentina. Data were obtained during the summer of 2007 and 2009 through two entomological surveys of peridomiciles distributed around the city. The abundance distribution pattern for 2009 was computed and compared with the previous pattern obtained in 2007, when the first human visceral leishmaniasis cases were reported in the city. Vector abundance was also examined in relation to micro and macrohabitat characteristics. In 2007 and 2009, Lu. longipalpis was distributed among 41.5% and 31% of the households in the study area, respectively. In both years, the abundance rates at most of the trapping sites were below 30 Lu. longipalpis per trap per night; however, for areas exhibiting 30-60 Lu. longipalpis and more than 60 Lu. longipalpis, the areas increased in both size and number from 2007-2009. Lu. longipalpis was more abundant in areas with a higher tree and bush cover (a macrohabitat characteristic and in peridomiciles with accumulated unused material (a microhabitat characteristic. These results will help to prioritise and focus control efforts by defining which peridomiciles display a potentially high abundance of Lu. longipalpis.

  10. HISTOPLASMIN SURVEY IN HIV-POSITIVE PATIENTS: RESULTS FROM AN ENDEMIC AREA IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricia Salvador Bezerra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Background. Disseminated histoplasmosis is common in AIDS patients with advanced immunosuppression in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of Histoplasma infection in patients with HIV/AIDS living in Fortaleza, the capital of Ceará. Methods. Intradermal tests with histoplasmin (mycelial phase were performed in 161 HIV patients with CD4 ≥ 350 cells/mm 3 . Evidence of recent illness was evaluated with immunodiffusion (ID tests in 76 of these individuals. Results. A total of 11.8% of patients reacted to histoplasmin and 2.63% had ID test positive to Histoplasma. The presence of mango trees (Mangifera indica in the patient neighborhood (OR = 2.870; 95% CI = 1.081-7.617; p = 0.040 and past activity involving soil (OR = 2.834; 95% CI = 1.045-7.687; p = 0.045 or visits to a farm (OR = 3.869; 95% CI = 1.189-12.591; p = 0.033 were significantly associated with Histoplasma infection. Conclusions. Patients with HIV living in Fortaleza have an expressive prevalence of infection with Histoplasma.

  11. Landscape pattern evolution of the north of Hangzhou bay coastal area in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Shuai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s in Shanghai,fast economic development,rapid urbanization,population explosion,all of these phenomena are driving radical changes in landscape pattern of coastal area.The landscape pattern evolution at the coastal regions of the north of the Hangzhou bay is analysed based on the landscape ecology theory and method by using Fragstats 3.3 software.3S technology is utilized to interpretate the sensing images at three phase in 1994,2003,2007,and selected two landscape index of the landscape level to study six town from time and space on the contrast analysis.The results show that farmland landscape is the dominant landscape in research area,landscape diversity is high and shows ascendant trend;For 13 years,six towns’(street fragmentation degree increase,the Luchaogang town has the highest degree of fragmentation.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the exterior caulk of San Francisco Bay Area buildings, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterhaus, Susan; McKee, Lester J; Yee, Donald; Kass, Jamie M; Wong, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Extensive evidence of the adverse impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to wildlife, domestic animals, and humans has now been documented for over 40 years. Despite the ban on production and new use of PCBs in the United States in 1979, a number of fish consumption advisories remain in effect, and there remains considerable uncertainty regarding ongoing environmental sources and management alternatives. Using a blind sampling approach, 25 caulk samples were collected from the exterior of ten buildings in the San Francisco Bay Area and analyzed for PCBs using congener-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chlorine using portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). PCBs were detected in 88% of the caulk samples collected from the study area buildings, with 40% exceeding 50 ppm. Detectable PCB concentrations ranged from 1 to 220,000 ppm. These data are consistent with previous studies in other cities that have identified relatively high concentrations of PCBs in concrete and masonry buildings built between 1950 and 1980. Portable XRF was not a good predictor of the PCB content in caulk and the results indicate that portable XRF analysis may only be useful for identifying caulk that contains low concentrations of Cl (≤ 10,000 ppm) and by extension low or no PCBs. A geographic information system-based approach was used to estimate that 10,500 kg of PCBs remain in interior and exterior caulk in buildings located in the study area, which equates to an average of 4.7 kg PCBs per building. The presence of high concentrations in the exterior caulk of currently standing buildings suggests that building caulk may be an ongoing source of PCBs to the San Francisco Bay Area environment. Further studies to expand the currently small international dataset on PCBs in caulking materials in buildings of countries that produced or imported PCBs appear justified in the context of both human health and possible ongoing environmental release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  13. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.720 Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters Air Proving...

  14. Chagas disease: morbidity profile in an endemic area of Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléber de Mesquita Andrade

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION : This study evaluated the clinical forms and manifestation severities of Chagas disease among serologically reactive individuals from Western Rio Grande do Norte (Northeastern Brazil. METHODS : This cross-sectional study included 186 adults who were evaluated using electrocardiography, echocardiography, chest radiography, and contrast radiography of the esophagus and colon. A clinical-epidemiological questionnaire was also used. RESULTS : The indeterminate, cardiac, digestive, and cardiodigestive clinical forms of Chagas disease were diagnosed in 51.6% (96/186, 32.2% (60/186, 8.1% (15/186 and 8.1% (15/186 of the participants, respectively. Heart failure (functional classes I-IV was detected in 7.5% (14/186 of the participants, and 36.4% (24/66, 30.3% (20/66, 15.2% (10/66, 13.6% (9/66, and 4.5% (3/66 of the patients were at stage A, B1, B2, C, and D, respectively. Dilated cardiomyopathy and electrocardiographic changes were detected in 10.2% (19/186 and 48.1% (91/186 of the participants, respectively. Apical aneurysm was diagnosed in 10.8% (20/186 of the participants, and other changes in the segmental myocardial contractility of the left ventricle were diagnosed in 33.9% (63/186 of the participants. Megaesophagus (groups I-IV was observed in 7% (13/186 of the participants, megacolon (grades 1-3 was detected in12.9% (24/186 of the participants, and both organs were affected in 29.2% (7/24 of the megacolon cases. CONCLUSIONS : We detected various clinical forms of Chagas disease (including the digestive form. Our findings indicate that clinical symptoms alone may not be sufficient to exclude or confirm cardiac and/or digestive damage, and the number of patients with symptomatic clinical forms may be underestimated.

  15. Hydrogeological Study of Mangrove Areas Around Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Cardoso da Silva Júnior;

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study area covers part of the mangrove belt located around Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Representing a continental-marine transition, the mangrove ecosystem is very susceptible to environmental variations and impacts. The vegetation cover plays an important role in prevention of erosion and contamination processes in those areas. An ongoing extensive research effort in the Petrochemical Complex of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, focuses on the man-induced changes in the physical environment (soils, groundwater flow system, type and volumes of contaminants, geochemical aspects and the consequences on the neighboring mangrove ecosystem. This article describes the importance of hydrogeological studies in mangrove areas as part of an appropriate environmental assessment, taking as an example an industrial dumping area located in that Petrochemical Complex. Field work included extensive drilling and sampling to obtain basic geological and hydrogeological parameters and data in the pilot area, such as hydraulic conductivity and piezometric heads; emphasizing the tracking of possible contamination by industrial effluents and the marine influence; validation of the conceptual model with mathematical models (numerical and analytical models was carried out. Results show the great importance of well conducted and detailed hydrogeological studies to properly address environmental problems caused by industrial plants in mangrove areas.

  16. Tap water isotopes reveal the San Francisco Bay Area's plumbing and responses to a major drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, B. J.; Jameel, M. Y.; Chau, T. H.; Mancuso, C. J.; Bowen, G. J.; Dufour, A.; Chesson, L. A.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Water availability and sustainability in the Western United States is a major flashpoint among expanding communities, growing industries, and productive agricultural lands. This issue came to a head in 2015 in the State of California, when the State mandated a 25% reduction in urban water use following a multi-year drought that significantly depleted water resources. The demands for and challenges in supplying water are only expected to intensify as climate perturbations, such as the 2012-2015 California Drought, become more common. As a consequence, there is an increased need to understand linkages between population centers, water transport and usage, and the impacts of climate change on water resources and infrastructure. To better understand these relationships within a megalopolis in the Western United States, we collected and analyzed 723 tap waters from the San Francisco Bay Area during seven collection campaigns across 21 months during 2013-2015. San Francisco Bay Area was selected as it has well-known water management strategies and its water resources were dramatically affected by the 2012-2105 drought. Consistent with known water management strategies and previous reports of tap water isotope values, we found large spatiotemporal variations in the δ2H and δ18O values of tap waters, indicative of complex water transport systems and municipality-scale management decisions. We observed δ2H and δ18O values of tap water consistent with waters originating from snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada Mountains, local precipitation, ground water, and partially evaporated reservoir sources. A cluster analysis of measured tap water data grouped waters from 43 static sampling sites that were associated with specific water utility providers within the San Francisco Bay Area and known management practices. Water management responses to the drought, such as source switching, bringing in new sources, and conservation, could be observed within the isotope data from each of

  17. Economic feasibility of utilizing urban wood: case study of the San Francisco Bay area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, M.; Wagar, J.A.; Dost, W.A.

    1982-09-01

    Rising costs of wood, energy and solid waste disposal have created growing interest in utilizing urban wood. As a model for wider application, we estimated the economic feasibility of a facility located in Oakland, California which would integrate the utilization and disposal of urban wood. A related study used questionnaires and interviews with producers of wood-waste as well as field visits, published information, and contacts with professional and trade organizations to estimate the supply of woodwaste in the San Francisco Bay area. The supply available to an Oakland utilization facility was estimated by multiplying the total Bay area supply by the percentage of the area's population projected to be closer to the facility than to a sanitary landfill by 1982. Potential users of hogged chips and hardwood blocks and slabs were contacted to determine how much material they would be willing to buy, at what prices, and under what conditions. Fees that produce would be willing to pay to dispose of wastewood were also estimated, as were costs of producing hogged chips for fuel or composting and high-quality hardwood material for crafts use. Potential revenues were estimated by subtracting processing and transportation costs from sales prices and dump fees. An Oakland hogging facility producing chips for fuel or sewage composting was judged as likely to be profitable with the chance of profit increased by adding a chainsaw mill to convert quality hardwoods into material for use by woodworkers. The procedures used for Oakland should be applicable to other communities and regions.

  18. Epidemiological aspects and spatial distribution of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Roseane; Santos, Márcio; Tunon, Gabriel; Cunha, Luana; Magalhães, Lucas; Moraes, Juliana; Ramalho, Danielle; Lima, Sanmy; Pacheco, José Antônio; Lipscomb, Michael; Ribeiro de Jesus, Amélia; Pacheco de Almeida, Roque

    2017-05-11

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic disease endemic in tropical countries and transmitted through sand flies. In particular, Canis familiaris (or domesticated dogs) are believed to be a major urban reservoir for the parasite causing the disease Leishmania. The average number of human VL cases was 58 per year in the state of Sergipe. The city of Aracaju, capital of Sergipe in Northeastern Brazil, had 159 cases of VL in humans. Correlatively, the percentage of serologically positive dogs for leishmaniasis increased from 4.73% in 2008 to 12.69% in 2014. Thus, these studies aimed to delineate the spatial distribution and epidemiological aspects of human and canine VL as mutually supportive for increased incidence. The number of human cases of VL and the frequency of canine positive serology for VL both increased between 2008 and 2014. Spatial distribution analyses mapped areas of the city with the highest concentration of human and canine VL cases. The neighbourhoods that showed the highest disease frequency were located on the outskirts of the city and in urbanised areas or subjected to development. Exponential increase in VL-positive dogs further suggests that the disease is expanding in urban areas, where it can serve as a reservoir for transmission of dogs to humans via the sand fly vector.

  19. Diet of dingoes and other wild dogs in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin L.; Carmelito, Erin; Amos, Matt; Goullet, Mark S.; Allen, Lee R.; Speed, James; Gentle, Matt; Leung, Luke K.-P.

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of the resource requirements of urban predators can improve our understanding of their ecology and assist town planners and wildlife management agencies in developing management approaches that alleviate human-wildlife conflicts. Here we examine food and dietary items identified in scats of dingoes in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia to better understand their resource requirements and the potential for dingoes to threaten locally fragmented populations of native fauna. Our primary aim was to determine what peri-urban dingoes eat, and whether or not this differs between regions. We identified over 40 different food items in dingo scats, almost all of which were mammals. Individual species commonly observed in dingo scats included agile wallabies, northern brown bandicoots and swamp wallabies. Birds were relatively common in some areas but not others, as were invertebrates. Dingoes were identified as a significant potential threat to fragmented populations of koalas. Dietary overlap was typically very high or near-identical between regions, indicating that peri-urban dingoes ate the same types or sizes of prey in different areas. Future studies should seek to quantify actual and perceived impacts of, and human attitudes towards, peri-urban dingoes, and to develop management strategies with a greater chance of reducing human-wildlife conflicts.

  20. Epidemiological aspects and spatial distribution of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Campos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a systemic disease endemic in tropical countries and transmitted through sand flies. In particular, Canis familiaris (or domesticated dogs are believed to be a major urban reservoir for the parasite causing the disease Leishmania. The average number of human VL cases was 58 per year in the state of Sergipe. The city of Aracaju, capital of Sergipe in Northeastern Brazil, had 159 cases of VL in humans. Correlatively, the percentage of serologically positive dogs for leishmaniasis increased from 4.73% in 2008 to 12.69% in 2014. Thus, these studies aimed to delineate the spatial distribution and epidemiological aspects of human and canine VL as mutually supportive for increased incidence. The number of human cases of VL and the frequency of canine positive serology for VL both increased between 2008 and 2014. Spatial distribution analyses mapped areas of the city with the highest concentration of human and canine VL cases. The neighbourhoods that showed the highest disease frequency were located on the outskirts of the city and in urbanised areas or subjected to development. Exponential increase in VL-positive dogs further suggests that the disease is expanding in urban areas, where it can serve as a reservoir for transmission of dogs to humans via the sand fly vector.

  1. Grass assemblages and diversity of conservation areas on the coastal plain south of Maputo Bay, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Siebert

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A floristic analysis of the grass species assemblages of the Licuati Forest and Maputo Elephant Reserves south of Maputo Bay, Mozambique, is presented. Sampling of grass data was undertaken in six previously described, major vegetation types. TWINSPAN divisions distinguished grass assemblages that are characteristic for these major vegetation types of the study area. The results were supported by an Indirect Gradient Analysis. Further TWINSPAN divisions of a larger Maputaland data set indicated a floristic relationship between grass assemblages of similar major vegetation types in the study area and South Africa. This relationship was supported by high similarity values (> 65%, obtained with Sorenson's Coefficient. The coefficient also indicated varying degrees of similarity between grass assemblages of different major vegetation types within the study area. A rich diversity of 115 grass species and infraspecific taxa was recorded for the study area. The Chloridoideae and Panicoideae dominate the grass diversity and the genera with the most species include Eragrostis, Panicum and Digitaria. Most grass species in the study area are perennials and have a tufted growth form, but this varies considerably between vegetation types.

  2. 33 CFR 334.360 - Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Virginia; restricted area, U.S. Naval Base and Naval Surface...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Virginia; restricted area, U.S. Naval Base and Naval Surface Weapon Center. 334.360 Section 334.360... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.360 Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Virginia; restricted area, U...

  3. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Third Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-05-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of 12 fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. The 12 FCEBs operate as a part of the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, which also includes two new hydrogen fueling stations. This effort is the largest FCEB demonstration in the United States and involves five participating transit agencies. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published two previous reports, in August 2011 and July 2012, describing operation of these buses. New results in this report provide an update covering eight months through October 2013.

  4. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration: Second Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-07-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of 12 new fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. The 12 FCEBs operate as a part of the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, which also includes two new hydrogen fueling stations. This effort is the largest FCEB demonstration in the United States and involves five participating transit agencies. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. The first results report was published in August 2011, describing operation of these new FCEBs from September 2010 through May 2011. New results in this report provide an update through April 2012.

  5. Factors that influence the hydrologic recovery of wetlands in the Northern Tampa Bay area, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Reductions in groundwater withdrawals from Northern Tampa Bay well fields were initiated in mid-2002 to improve the hydrologic condition of wetlands in these areas by allowing surface and groundwater levels to recover to previously higher levels. Following these reductions, water levels at some long-term wetland monitoring sites have recovered, while others have not recovered as expected. To understand why water levels for some wetlands have not increased, nine wetlands with varying impacts from well field pumping were examined based on four factors known to influence the hydrologic condition of wetlands in west-central Florida. These factors are the level of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer underlying the wetland, recent karst activity near and beneath the wetland, permeability of the underlying sediments, and the topographic position of the wetland in the landscape.

  6. User's guide to the LIRAQ model: an air pollution model for the San Francisco Bay Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    The Livermore Regional Air Quality (LIRAQ) model comprises a set of computer programs that have been integrated into an easily used tool for the air quality planner. To assemble and modify the necessary data files and to direct model execution, a problem formulation program has been developed that makes possible the setup of a wide variety of studies involving perturbation of the emission inventory, changes to the initial and boundary conditions, and different choices of grid size and problem domain. In addition to describing the types of air quality problems for which the LIRAQ model may be used, this User's Guide provides detailed information on how to set up and conduct model simulations. Also included are descriptions of the formats of input data files so that the LIRAQ model may be applied to regions other than the San Francisco Bay Area

  7. Global climate change and local land subsidence exacerbate inundation risk to the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzaei, Manoochehr; Bürgmann, Roland

    2018-03-01

    The current global projections of future sea level rise are the basis for developing inundation hazard maps. However, contributions from spatially variable coastal subsidence have generally not been considered in these projections. We use synthetic aperture radar interferometric measurements and global navigation satellite system data to show subsidence rates of less than 2 mm/year along most of the coastal areas along San Francisco Bay. However, rates exceed 10 mm/year in some areas underlain by compacting artificial landfill and Holocene mud deposits. The maps estimating 100-year inundation hazards solely based on the projection of sea level rise from various emission scenarios underestimate the area at risk of flooding by 3.7 to 90.9%, compared with revised maps that account for the contribution of local land subsidence. Given ongoing land subsidence, we project that an area of 125 to 429 km 2 will be vulnerable to inundation, as opposed to 51 to 413 km 2 considering sea level rise alone.

  8. Grass seeding and soil erosion in a steep, logged area in northeastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Helvey; W.B. Fowler

    1979-01-01

    This case study tested the common belief that grass seeding is needed to prevent erosion after areas are clearcut in the Blue Mountains. Changes in the soil surface height at about 500 points each in a seedbed and an unseeded area were measured on four dates covering a 20-month period. Average vertical displacement was not consistently related to seeding nor to degree...

  9. Dingoes at the Doorstep: Home Range Sizes and Activity Patterns of Dingoes and Other Wild Dogs around Urban Areas of North-Eastern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    McNeill, Alice T.; Leung, Luke K. -P.; Goullet, Mark S.; Gentle, Matthew N.; Allen, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    Simple summary Conflicts with dingoes and other wild dogs are becoming increasingly common in and around urban areas of Australia. A lack of basic information about wild dog movement ecology hampers efficient planning and allocation of resources to mitigate human?wild dog conflicts. We captured, collared and released 37 wild dogs in urban areas of north-eastern Australia to investigate their movement ecology. In general, wild dogs occupied small fragments of bushland within an urban matrix, w...

  10. Understanding Urban Watersheds through Digital Interactive Maps, San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, J. M.; Ticci, M. G.; Mulvey, P.

    2014-12-01

    Dense urbanization has resulted in the "disappearance" of many local creeks in urbanized areas surrounding the San Francisco Bay. Long reaches of creeks now flow in underground pipes. Municipalities and water agencies trying to reduce non-point-source pollution are faced with a public that cannot see and therefore does not understand the interconnected nature of the drainage system or its ultimate discharge to the bay. Since 1993, we have collaborated with the Oakland Museum, the San Francisco Estuary Institute, public agencies, and municipalities to create creek and watershed maps to address the need for public understanding of watershed concepts. Fifteen paper maps are now published (www.museumca.org/creeks), which have become a standard reference for educators and anyone working on local creek-related issues. We now present digital interactive creek and watershed maps in Google Earth. Four maps are completed covering urbanized areas of Santa Clara and Alameda Counties. The maps provide a 3D visualization of the watersheds, with cartography draped over the landscape in transparent colors. Each mapped area includes both Present and Past (circa 1800s) layers which can be clicked on or off by the user. The Present layers include the modern drainage network, watershed boundaries, and reservoirs. The Past layers include the 1800s-era creek systems, tidal marshes, lagoons, and other habitats. All data are developed in ArcGIS software and converted to Google Earth format. To ensure the maps are interesting and engaging, clickable icons pop-up provide information on places to visit, restoration projects, history, plants, and animals. Maps of Santa Clara Valley are available at http://www.valleywater.org/WOW.aspx. Maps of western Alameda County will soon be available at http://acfloodcontrol.org/. Digital interactive maps provide several advantages over paper maps. They are seamless within each map area, and the user can zoom in or out, and tilt, and fly over to explore

  11. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of Lannon-Sussex area, Northeastern Waukesha County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Silurian dolomite aquifer in the Lannon-Sussex area of southeastern Wisconsin is overlain by glacial deposits, but is within 8 ft of the land surface over 15% of the study area. The proximity of the dolomite aquifer to the land surface makes it susceptible to contamination from man 's activities. Water from the aquifer was analyzed and several characteristics were monitored in a 30-sq-mi area of Waukesha County, including: water temperature, calcium, magnesium, potassium, strontium, alkalinity, chlorides, fluorides, sulfates, nitrites, nitrates, nitrogen, iron, manganese, hardness, and pH.

  12. Water use and availability in the West Narragansett Bay area, coastal Rhode Island, 1995-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimiroski, Mark T.; Wild, Emily C.

    2006-01-01

    During the 1999 drought in Rhode Island, belowaverage precipitation caused a drop in ground-water levels and streamflow was below long-term averages. The low water levels prompted the U. S. Geological Survey and the Rhode Island Water Resources Board to conduct a series of cooperative water-use studies. The purpose of these studies is to collect and analyze water-use and water-availability data in each drainage area in the State of Rhode Island. The West Narragansett Bay study area, which covers 118 square miles in part or all of 14 towns in coastal Rhode Island, is one of nine areas investigated as part of this effort. The study area includes the western part of Narragansett Bay and Conanicut Island, which is the town of Jamestown. The area was divided into six subbasins for the assessment of water-use data. In the calculation of hydrologic budget and water availability, the Hunt, Annaquatucket, and Pettaquamscutt River Basins were combined into one subbasin because they are hydraulically connected. Eleven major water suppliers served customers in the study area, and they supplied an average of 19.301 million gallons per day during 1995–99. The withdrawals from the only minor supplier, which was in the town of East Greenwich in the Hunt River Basin, averaged 0.002 million gallons per day. The remaining withdrawals were estimated as 1.186 million gallons per day from self-supplied domestic, commercial, industrial, and agricultural users. Return flows from self-disposed water (individual sewage-disposal systems) and permitted discharges accounted for 5.623 million gallons per day. Most publicly disposed water (13.711 million gallons per day) was collected by the Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation, and by the East Greenwich, Fields Point, Jamestown, Narragansett, and Scarborough wastewater-treatment facilities. This wastewater was disposed in Narragansett Bay outside of the study area. The PART program, a computerized hydrograph-separation application

  13. Hierarchical Bayes Small Area Estimation under a Unit Level Model with Applications in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageena Nazir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To studied Bayesian aspect of small area estimation using Unit level model. In this paper we proposed and evaluated new prior distribution for the ratio of variance components in unit level model rather than uniform prior. To approximate the posterior moments of small area means, Laplace approximation method is applied. This choice of prior avoids the extreme skewness, usually present in the posterior distribution of variance components. This property leads to more accurate Laplace approximation. We apply the proposed model to the analysis of horticultural data and results from the model are compared with frequestist approach and with Bayesian model of uniform prior in terms of average relative bias, average squared relative bias and average absolute bias. The numerical results obtained highlighted the superiority of using the proposed prior over the uniform prior. Thus Bayes estimators (with new prior of small area means have good frequentist properties such as MSE and ARB as compared to other traditional methods viz., Direct, Synthetic and Composite estimators.

  14. Airport and airline choice in a multiple airport system: an empirical analysis for the San Fransisco Bay area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pels, E.; Nijkamp, P.; Rietveld, P.

    2001-01-01

    Pels E. Nijkamp P. and Rietveld P. (2001) Airport and airline choice in a multiple airport region: an empirical analysis for the San Francisco Bay area, Reg. Studies 35, 1-9. In this paper a nested logit model is used to describe passenger preferences concerning airports and airlines. A statistical

  15. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Red HookIBay Ridge project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from these two areas to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas. Tests and analyses were conducted. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests. Twenty-four individual sediment core samples were collected from these two areas and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Three composite sediment samples, representing Red Hook Channel and the two Bay Ridge Reaches to be dredged, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the three Red Hook Bay Ridge sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

  16. Hydrogeochemical and spectroscopic studies of radioactive materials in Ayrakan and Cheshmeh Shotori areas, northeastern Isfahan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Esmaeili Vardanjani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Groundwaters hydrochemistry of Ayrakan and Cheshmeh Shotori areas and geochemistry of rare earth elements, indicate Ayrakan alkali granite as the origin of uranium and other dissolved elements in groundwaters of these areas. Geochemical and hydrogeochemical studies as well as the trend of uranium and thorium transition and mobility in aqueous environments of these areas indicate uranium adsorption by iron hydroxide (goethite as the deterrent agent against uranium transition and mobility from depth to surface. Gamma-ray spectroscopic study of sediments from Cheshmeh Shotori area by HPGe detector indicates the presence of 226Ra in high contents and as the radioactive nuclide that is the reason for high activity of these sediments. Production of 226Ra from 238U decay, shorter half-life of 226Ra compared to 238U, radium transition by groundwaters from depth to surface as well as hydrogeochemical evidences, all suggest the possibility of existence of hidden uranium deposit and uranium mineralization in depth and the distance between Ayrakan and Cheshmeh Shotori areas.

  17. The conservation of native priority medicinal plants in a Caatinga area in Ceará, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria O; Almeida, Bianca V DE; Ribeiro, Daiany A; Macêdo, Delmacia G DE; Macêdo, Márcia J F; Macedo, Julimery G F; Sousa, Francisca F S DE; Oliveira, Liana G S DE; Saraiva, Manuele E; Araújo, Thatiane M S; Souza, Marta M A

    2017-01-01

    Much of the Brazilian semiarid region faces a considerable process of degradation of natural resources, and ethnobotanical studies have collaborated with important information about the use and traditional knowledge, serving as a tool to design conservation strategies of native plant species. Thus, this study aimed to determine medicinal species meriting conservation priorities in a "Caatinga" area in the northeastern of Brazilian territory. The ethnobotanical data were collected through semi-structured interviews with key subjects selected through the "snowball" technique. The availability and species conservation priority was verified by relative density, risk of collection, local use and use of diversity in the forest fragment sampled. It was recorded 42 native medicinal plants and conservation priority score was calculated for seven species, including Mimosa tenuiflora, Hymenaea courbaril, Ximenia americana and Amburana cearensis need immediate conservation and attention, since their collection does not occur in a sustainable way. In order to ensure the perpetuation of the species and the sustainability of traditional therapeutic practice there needs to be a development of conservation practices of caatinga remaining to better conserve the species of the biome.

  18. Biogeography of freshwater fishes from the Northeastern Mata Atlântica freshwater ecoregion: distribution, endemism, and area relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Camelier

    Full Text Available The Northeastern Mata Atlântica freshwater ecoregion (NMAF includes part of the eastern Brazilian coastal drainages, has high level of fish endemism and great biogeographic significance. A taxonomic inventory of freshwater fishes from 25 drainages of the NMAF ecoregion and a biogeographic analysis using the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE method were carried out. A total of 192 native species was listed. The PAE method was applied to 24 basins and 37 species, resulting in five equally parsimonious area diagrams. The strict consensus diagram indicates the existence of two main groups of basins throughout the NMAF ecoregion. These groups were denominated: North Group and Central-South Group. The Central-South Group shows a basal polytomy composed by two Groups (Central Group and South Group plus the rio Itapemirim basin. The North Group is composed by eight drainages from the rio Sergipe to the rio Paraguaçu, the Central Group by five drainages from the rio Cachoeira to the rio Jequitinhonha, and the South Group by nine drainages from the rio Buranhém to the rio Doce. Comments about the species distribution and the fish fauna shared with adjacent ecoregions are provided. We also present a comparison of the hypothesis of river relationships proposed herein with published phylogenetic hypotheses that include taxa relevant to this study.

  19. Dynamics and structure of natural regeneration in three high elevation LTER area in the Dolomites (North-Eastern Alps, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraruf L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration structures and spatial patterns of European larch (Larix decidua Miller, Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L. and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst., were analyzed in three high elevation LTER area in the Dolomites (North-Eastern Alps. Larch and spruce regeneration is mainly affected by dense forest cover and grasses competition whereas stone pine is mostly sensitive to late snow melting, fungal diseases and wild ungulate damages. The current stand and regeneration structure suggests that larch has been highly fostered in the past due to silvo-pastoral management practices. All species show a clear tendency to spatial intraspecific aggregation especially at short-distances. The spatial patterns of larch regeneration are more complex than the other two species, more heavily affected by a main factor such as the nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes L. seed dispersal for stone pine or presence of canopy gaps for spruce. However, spatial patterns of all species depend on the number of the available microsites, that often match at small distance driving the formation of small mixed and unevenaged patches. Combining the age structure and spatial pattern information we were able to better understand the small-scale patterns and processes and the role of the past disturbances on the regeneration dynamics in space and time.

  20. The conservation of native priority medicinal plants in a Caatinga area in Ceará, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA O. SANTOS

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Much of the Brazilian semiarid region faces a considerable process of degradation of natural resources, and ethnobotanical studies have collaborated with important information about the use and traditional knowledge, serving as a tool to design conservation strategies of native plant species. Thus, this study aimed to determine medicinal species meriting conservation priorities in a “Caatinga” area in the northeastern of Brazilian territory. The ethnobotanical data were collected through semi-structured interviews with key subjects selected through the “snowball” technique. The availability and species conservation priority was verified by relative density, risk of collection, local use and use of diversity in the forest fragment sampled. It was recorded 42 native medicinal plants and conservation priority score was calculated for seven species, including Mimosa tenuiflora, Hymenaea courbaril, Ximenia americana and Amburana cearensis need immediate conservation and attention, since their collection does not occur in a sustainable way. In order to ensure the perpetuation of the species and the sustainability of traditional therapeutic practice there needs to be a development of conservation practices of caatinga remaining to better conserve the species of the biome.

  1. Evaluation of uranium anomalies in the Goodman-Dunbar area, northeastern Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, G.W.; Blackburn, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    Based on this investigation, the Goodman-Dunbar area is considered not to be favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits of economic potential. Whether one adopts an anatectic or igneous intrusive model for the pegmatites, the area does not meet NURE favorability criteria guidelines because: (1) The apparent average grade of the alaskites will not meet or exceed the 100-ppM minimum cutoff grade; (2) Even if the grade requirements were met, the alaskite is not extensive enough to provide a sufficient volume of endowed rock. It is reasonable to assume that similar alaskites may exist west of this study area, beneath the glacial drift. If the uranium is located in interstitial sites and (or) along fractures, as postulated in this investigation, then it would be readily available for leaching into local surface- and ground-water regimes. This alaskite and other possible alaskites are probably the cause of local stream-water anomalies. The contrasting uranium contents of the alaskites and Dunbar Gneiss also are probable causes for anomalous airborne measurements. The area near Dunbar, Wisconsin, warrents no further study in terms of uranium potential. 4 figures, 2 tables

  2. Urban Forest Health: Identifying Issues and Needs within the Northeastern Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    1998-01-01

    Street trees and forested areas in cities, towns and communities are more than amenities. Besides beauty, trees provide many practical benefits such as shade from summer sun, protection from winter wind, habitat for wildlife, reduced water, air and noise pollution, increased property values, and revitalized tourism and local business trade. But perhaps the greatest...

  3. Best management practices for reducing nutrient loads in a sub-watershed of Chesapeake Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality improvement in the Chesapeake Bay is a grave concern. An initiative to reduce the nutrient loads to stream has been undertaken to attain a target total maximum daily load (TMDL) at Chesapeake Bay. A general guideline with a set of best management practices (BMPs) has been in place for ...

  4. Ductile Precambrian fabric control of seismic anisotropy in the Açu dam area, northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Nascimento, Aderson F.; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Takeya, Mario K.

    2004-10-01

    In the João Câmara area, NE Brazil, seismic anisotropy has been interpreted as the result of either Precambrian ductile fabric or stress-aligned, fluid-filled grain boundary caused by high pore fluid pressures. The first interpretation is based on the fact that the direction of the fastest S wave splitting agrees with the north-south trending Precambrian fabric. The second interpretation, related to the extensive dilatancy anisotropy (EDA), is based on the stress field orientation and on the assumption that the pore fluid pressure in the region is high enough to modify microcrack distribution and cause S wave polarization to become parallel to the north-south oriented minimum horizontal stress SHmin. Here we address this question by investigating this ambiguity. We have analyzed the seismicity in the Açu dam area, ˜150 km west of João Câmara, over a 3-year period. In the Açu area, the northeast-southwest trending ductile Precambrian fabric is not parallel or orthogonal to the east-west trending, maximum horizontal stress SHmax. We combined the interpretation of fastest S wave polarizations, their time delays, and fabric orientation measured in the field with side-looking airborne radar imagery taken before the lake impoundment. Thus we discriminate between (1) stress-aligned fluid-filled cracks, (2) high pore pressure fluids modifying the microcrack distribution and therefore causing 90° flips, and (3) fabric or "paleostrain" as causes for the observed S wave anisotropy. Our main result indicates that the direction of the fastest S wave polarization in the Açu dam area agrees with the northeast-southwest trending fabric (˜N40°E). EDA or 90°Flips control of seismic anisotropy, if occurring in Açu, have minor effects.

  5. Calculation of shielding factor of building to radiation for Daya Bay area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Erbang; Gao Zhanrong

    1999-12-01

    A point-kernel integrated technique is adopted to calculate the shielding afforded by building against a surface deposited radioactivity and a moving radioactive plume for the Daya Bay Area. In calculations the contribution from radioactivity deposited on the ground, outer wall and roof to the dose received by a reference point indoors is considered. Three sets of photon with energy 0.5 MeV, 0.75 MeV and 1.25 MeV are selected as representative of photons with low, medium and high energy. Calculation result shows that a set of shielding factors 0.22, 0.15, 0.10 and 0.03 are suitable for surface deposited radioactive sources for the houses with one-storey, two-storey, three-storey and tower respectively and another set of shielding factors 0.16, 0.10, 0.08 and 0.03 for moving radioactive plume for buildings mentioned above respectively. A comparison of results given by point-kernel integrated technique and Monte Carlo technique is done. The effect to shielding factor is discussed from the following three parameters: thickness of wall, area of windows and photon energy

  6. Composition and diversity of larval fish in the mangrove estuarine area of Marudu Bay, Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezagholinejad, Sadaf; Arshad, Aziz; Amin, S M Nurul; Ara, Roushon

    2016-07-01

    The composition of fish larvae and their diversity in different habitats are very important for fisheries management. Larval fishes were investigated in a mangrove estuary of Marudu Bay, Sabah, Malaysia from October 2012 to September 2013 at five different sites. Monthly samples of fish larvae were collected at five sampling sites by a plankton net with a mouth opening of 40.5 cm in diameter. In total, 3879 larval fish were caught in the investigated area. The mean density of ichthyoplankton at this area was 118 larvae/100 m(3). The fish larval assemblage comprised of 20 families whereas 13 families occurred at St1, 16 at St2, 16 at St3, 12 at St4 and 16 at St5. The top major families were Sillaginidae, Engraulidae, Mugilidae and Sparidae with Sillaginidae consisted 44% of total larval composition. St3 with 143 larvae/100 m(3) had the highest density amongst the stations which was due to higher abundance of Sillaginidae. Shannon-Wiener diversity index represented significant variation during monsoon and inter-monsoon seasons, peaking in the months December-January and May-June. However, Shannon-Wiener index, evenness and family richness showed significant differences among stations and months (p < 0.05).

  7. Environmental contamination of mercury from Hg-mining areas in Wuchuan, northeastern Guizhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Guangle; Feng Xinbin; Wang Shaofeng; Shang Lihai

    2006-01-01

    Total Hg and methyl-Hg were evaluated in mine wastes, soils, water, and vegetations from the Wuchuan Hg-mining areas, Guizhou, China. Mine wastes contain high total Hg concentrations, ranging from 79 to 710 μg g -1 , and methyl-Hg from 0.32 to 3.9 ng g -1 . Total Hg in soil samples range from 0.33 to 320 μg g -1 and methyl-Hg from 0.69 to 20 ng g -1 . Vegetations present a high average total Hg concentration of 260 ng g -1 , which greatly exceeds the maximum Hg concentration of 20 ng g -1 recommended by the Chinese National Standard Agency for food sources. The rice samples contain elevated methyl-Hg concentrations, ranging from 4.2 to 18 ng g -1 . Stream water collected from Hg-mining areas is also contaminated, containing Hg as high as 360 ng l -1 , and methyl-Hg reaches up to 5.7 ng l -1 . Data indicate heavy Hg-contaminations and significant conversion of methyl-Hg in the study areas. - Mercury mining activities in Wuchun, Guizhou, China have resulted in seriously mercury contamination to the local environment

  8. Preliminary Results from Real-Time GPS Monitoring in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, J. O.; Guillemot, C.

    2013-12-01

    A web-based monitoring system has been implemented to display displacement estimates in real-time for various combinations of USGS, Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network stations in the San Francisco Bay area. Tools and utilities developed in-house are used to visually analyze the quality of estimated positions and gain a better understanding of the challenges involved in integrating displacement data into earthquake early warning (EEW) algorithms. Comparisons of results between differential and precise position estimates obtained from a variety of software packages have led to a closer examination of the epoch-per-epoch latencies, or delays with which those estimates are generated. For example, although position estimates from precise point positioning, with ambiguity resolution, (PPP-AR) computed in real-time are reasonably stable over short-time scales, latencies of 50 seconds or more currently preclude their useful incorporation into EEW algorithms. On the other hand, the latencies for differential position range between less than a second to 10 seconds. The large latencies for PPP-AR are partly due to the fact that displacement estimates obtained from GPS cannot yet be generated at the source but must rely on centralized processing that incorporates instantaneous clock corrections which, in turn must be obtained from external agencies. The latencies, however, are not as critical for the study of post-seismic deformation that occurs minutes to hours following an earthquake. Computation of the power spectra of time series provides a quantitative means to compare the precision of estimated positions that are obtained from various software that process the data in real-time. To first order, the current set of processing algorithms, including those using differential position and PPP-AR, provides nearly equal performance in terms of temporal correlations which is represented by their power spectra. At the shortest periods

  9. Airborne Quantification of Methane Emissions in the San Francisco Bay Area of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, A.; Newman, S.; Martien, P. T.; Young, A.; Hilken, H.; Faloona, I. C.; Conley, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the San Francisco Bay Area's air quality regulatory agency, has set a goal to reduce the region's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions 80% below 1990 levels by 2050, consistent with the State of California's climate protection goal. The Air District maintains a regional GHG emissions inventory that includes emissions estimates and projections which influence the agency's programs and regulatory activities. The Air District is currently working to better characterize methane emissions in the GHG inventory through source-specific measurements, to resolve differences between top-down regional estimates (Fairley and Fischer, 2015; Jeong et al., 2016) and the bottom-up inventory. The Air District funded and participated in a study in Fall 2016 to quantify methane emissions from a variety of sources from an instrumented Mooney aircraft. This study included 40 hours of cylindrical vertical profile flights that combined methane and wind measurements to derive mass emission rates. Simultaneous measurements of ethane provided source-apportionment between fossil-based and biological methane sources. The facilities sampled included all five refineries in the region, five landfills, two dairy farms and three wastewater treatment plants. The calculated mass emission rates were compared to bottom-up rates generated by the Air District and to those from facility reports to the US EPA as part of the mandatory GHG reporting program. Carbon dioxide emission rates from refineries are found to be similar to bottom-up estimates for all sources, supporting the efficacy of the airborne measurement methodology. However, methane emission estimates from the airborne method showed significant differences for some source categories. For example, methane emission estimates based on airborne measurements were up to an order of magnitude higher for refineries, and up to five times higher for landfills compared to bottom-up methods, suggesting significant

  10. A Serological Survey About Zoonoses in the Verkhoyansk Area, Northeastern Siberia (Sakha Republic, Russian Federation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnaval, Jean-François; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Gibert, Morgane; Gurieva, Alla; Outreville, Jonathan; Dyachkovskaya, Praskovia; Fabre, Richard; Fedorova, Sardana; Nikolaeva, Dariya; Dubois, Damien; Melnitchuk, Olga; Daviaud-Fabre, Pascale; Marty, Marie; Alekseev, Anatoly; Crubezy, Eric

    2016-02-01

    In 2012, a seroprevalence survey concerning 10 zoonoses, which were bacterial (Lyme borreliosis and Q fever), parasitic (alveolar echinococcosis [AE] and cystic echinococcosis [CE], cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, toxocariasis, and trichinellosis), or arboviral (tick-borne encephalitis and West Nile virus infection), was conducted among 77 adult volunteers inhabiting Suordakh and Tomtor Arctic villages in the Verkhoyansk area (Yakutia). Following serological testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or western blot, no positive result was found for cysticercosis, CE, toxocariasis, trichinellosis, and both arboviral zoonoses. Four subjects (5.2%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgG, without the presence of specific IgM. More importantly, eight subjects (10.4%) tested positive for Lyme borreliosis, two (2.6%) for recently acquired Q fever, and one (1.3%) for AE. Lyme infection and Q fever, whose presence had not been reported so far in Arctic Yakutia, appeared therefore to be a major health threat for people dwelling, sporting, or working in the Arctic area of the Sakha Republic.

  11. Ecological status of soils in petroleum mining regions of North-Eastern area of Caspian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenzhegaliev, A.K.; Asanbaev, I.K.; Auehzova, O.N.; Akasova, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Comprehensive monitoring of environment (air, water, soil) in populated area adjoining to the Kulsaryneft' deposit is carried out. Purposes of observations are warning and liquidation of petroleum leakages and emission of polluted substances in the case of maximum permissible concentration exceeding. Effectiveness of microbiological methods for liquidation of soils petroleum pollution is emphasized. Active carbon-hydrogen-oxidizing microorganisms for 14 deposits are separated, petroleum in these deposits has distinguished by its content. Researched cultures have tendency to gradual growth of petroleum utilization rate during from 1 up to 7 days. Qualitative changes of petroleum under action of these micro-organisms are determined by method of infrared spectroscopy. There are most typically figures: increase of oxygen containing structures of both the acid and the ether types, and sharp decrease of long-chain paraffins

  12. [Epidemiological and clinical study of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis in the northeastern area of Madrid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Pascual, M C; Bischofberger, C; Pérez de Oteyza, C

    2003-01-01

    Estimate the incidence and the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis in a county hospital located in the north western area of the Autonomous Region of Madrid, to determine if there has been an increase due to immigration. Tuberculosis cases from January, 1996 to June, 2001 were analysed, researched through the Microbiology and Pathologic Anatomy Laboratory, fetching information such as demographics, clinical studies and disease diagnostics from the different medical histories. A total of 66 tuberculosis cases were registered, ten of them among immigrants, with an incidence of 13/100,000 inhabitants in 1996, decreasing to a 7/100,000 incidence in 2000. The age average is 34 with double the incidence in males (31/100,000) than females (17/100,000). The main risk factor is alcoholism with 11 cases (16.7%). The most commonly used diagnostic tests were the thorax radiography (61/66, 92%) with 57 (93.4%) positive identifications, culture of esputo (47/66, 71%) with 32 (68%) positive ids, and the Mantoux test (28, 42%) with 20 (71.4%) positive ids. The location of the illness is mainly pleuro-pulmonar in 50 cases (75%). There were almost no atypical mycobacterium found (5 cases). Overall, response to treatment with 3 drugs (isoniacide, rifampicine, piracinamide) was good in 88% of patients, with the average treatment lasting 6.8 months (ED: 2.8). The incidence of tuberculosis in the north western area of Autonomous Community of Madrid is below that of the rest of our Community. It dipped in 1997 and has been stable around 9/100,000 inhabitants until 2000, even with the effect of immigration.

  13. Consequences of secondary succession on water availability in Mediterranean areas: a study case in northeastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Jeroen; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Karssenberg, Derek

    2013-04-01

    Water availability during summer periods in Mediterranean regions is low and depends on reservoirs that have stored the runoff from upstream catchments. River discharges in these regions have decreased during the last century, leading to less inflow into reservoirs. One of the main factors explaining the decrease in river discharge is land use change. Mountainous areas in Europe, especially in Southern regions such as the Spanish Pyrenees, have undergone major depopulation during the past century, which has lead to the abandonment of agricultural fields. These abandoned fields have been colonized by natural species which has changed the hydrological characteristics of the area. Studying the hydrological effect of secondary succession in abandoned fields on water yield can be helpful to determine future reservoir management strategies. This work uses a modelling approach to investigate the effects of secondary succession on monthly inflow into the Yesa reservoir (central Spanish Pyrenees). The study focuses on two major elements. First the change in hydrological relevant parameters of the vegetation and soil due to secondary succession is simulated from 1950 until 2050. This is done by simulating the change in aboveground carbon density and organic matter fraction with a logistic Markov-chain model. This Markov-chain model has spatially distributed transition probabilities that depend on terrain characteristics in order to simulate different transition rates depending on the suitability of the terrain. Vegetation and soil parameters are related to carbon and organic matter with equations from literature. Secondly, a hydrological model is used to calculate the discharge flowing into the Yesa reservoir during different stages of the succession. These modeled discharges will be compared with present monthly reservoir inflow measurements to search for trends in water yield on both monthly and decadal scale. Finally, the calculated future reservoir inflow will be

  14. Evidence for perennial malaria in rural and urban areas under the Sudanian climate of Kandi, Northeastern Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoetchan, Renaud; Gnanguenon, Virgile; Azondékon, Roseric; Agossa, Rodrigue Fiacre; Sovi, Arthur; Oké-Agbo, Frédéric; Ossè, Razaki; Akogbéto, Martin

    2014-02-24

    In arid settings, droughts usually lead to periods of very low or no malaria transmission. However, in rural Kandi (Sonsoro) in northeastern Benin, several malaria cases are often diagnosed during dry seasons. The underlying factors accounting for this phenomenon remain unknown. The entomological profile of Sonsoro has been studied compared to a location in urban Kandi (Gansosso) for a period of one year. During this period, Anopheles larval habitats were investigated and populations of Anopheles gambiae s.l. were sampled by human landing catches in both areas. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) were conducted on vector specimens and the entomological inoculation rates (EIR) were determined per season (wet versus dry) in each area. In addition, during the severe drought period, Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) were conducted on school children under the age 10 years in these areas to provide a global view of drought-malaria prevalence and to perform a crossing with entomological data in Kandi. Overall, An. gambiae s.l. was particularly abundant in rural Kandi compared to the urban area with a significant decrease of vector density in both sites during the dry season. In this period, larval sampling data identified household water sources as potential breeding sites in urban and rural Kandi. We also observed a significant seasonal variation of the infectivity rate in both areas but for each period (season), the EIR was higher in the rural site than in the urban. Data of P. falciparum detection was the reflection of entomological findings. The drought-malaria prevalence was 5.5 times higher in rural Kandi as compared to urban Kandi. The presence of a permanent water site and the low level of urbanization in rural Kandi were identified as a risk factor. Our data showed a high level of malaria transmission in the municipality of Kandi. Household water source plays an important role in maintaining the

  15. Mapping paddy rice planting area in northeastern Asia with Landsat 8 images, phenology-based algorithm and Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jinwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Menarguez, Michael A.; Zhang, Geli; Qin, Yuanwei; Thau, David; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Moore, Berrien

    2016-01-01

    Area and spatial distribution information of paddy rice are important for understanding of food security, water use, greenhouse gas emission, and disease transmission. Due to climatic warming and increasing food demand, paddy rice has been expanding rapidly in high latitude areas in the last decade, particularly in northeastern (NE) Asia. Current knowledge about paddy rice fields in these cold regions is limited. The phenology- and pixel-based paddy rice mapping (PPPM) algorithm, which identifies the flooding signals in the rice transplanting phase, has been effectively applied in tropical areas, but has not been tested at large scale of cold regions yet. Despite the effects from more snow/ice, paddy rice mapping in high latitude areas is assumed to be more encouraging due to less clouds, lower cropping intensity, and more observations from Landsat sidelaps. Moreover, the enhanced temporal and geographic coverage from Landsat 8 provides an opportunity to acquire phenology information and map paddy rice. This study evaluated the potential of Landsat 8 images on annual paddy rice mapping in NE Asia which was dominated by single cropping system, including Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and NE China. The cloud computing approach was used to process all the available Landsat 8 imagery in 2014 (143 path/rows, ~3290 scenes) with the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform. The results indicated that the Landsat 8, GEE, and improved PPPM algorithm can effectively support the yearly mapping of paddy rice in NE Asia. The resultant paddy rice map has a high accuracy with the producer (user) accuracy of 73% (92%), based on the validation using very high resolution images and intensive field photos. Geographic characteristics of paddy rice distribution were analyzed from aspects of country, elevation, latitude, and climate. The resultant 30-m paddy rice map is expected to provide unprecedented details about the area, spatial distribution, and landscape pattern of paddy rice fields

  16. Human-Forest interfaces in Hugumburda-Gratkhassu National Forest Priority Area, North-eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidane, Leul; Nemomissa, Sileshi; Bekele, Tamrat

    2018-02-23

    Traditional management regimes and knowledge systems of forest resources have shaped forests throughout the world where materials from individual species are harvested in a sustainable manner. To comprehend this, the vegetation of Hugumburda-Gratkhassu Forest was described and related to anthropogenic factors. Three ethnobotanical research methods were used to collect indigenous knowledge of the local inhabitants related to conservation and utilization of forest resources. Direct matrix ranking was conducted to discover local attitudes on species preference for multiple use. During this work, the 46 most important tree and shrub species were selected based on recommendations of local guides and key informants to determine the range of uses obtained from each species. Through paired comparison, activities supposed to be the major cause of degradation of the forest were adopted. Pairs of activities were then established from the relation n (n-1)/2. Each respondent was then asked to select an activity that he considered being a major problem to management of the forest. Semi-structured interviews were used to obtain information from sixty local informants to address community attitudes towards forest management and utilization. The result obtained from direct matrix ranking showed; that 20 out of 46 plant species compared had the highest scores and rank, indicating that these species are the most important and are exploited by the local communities for multiple purposes. The paired comparison exercise revealed logging for construction materials to be the major threat to the forest due to cutting of large volume of wood for construction of churches, health centers, schools and new houses. Juniperus procera, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata, Rhus glutinosa, Ficus sur, Hagenia abyssinica, Cassipourea malosana and Acacia etbaica were the most selected and exploited plant species for these purposes. Survival of protected areas depends on the support of local communities

  17. A Survey of Macro-invertebrate Gleaning in the Banate Bay Intertidal Area, Eastern Panay Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle del Norte-Campos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The gleaning fishery on the intertidal areas of Banate Bay, eastern Panay was surveyed monthly fromFebruary 2002 to January 2003, to derive information on species composition, catch, catch rates, andannual value. Total biomass, gleaning and turnover rates were determined from a fishery-independentsurvey conducted in June 2005. Catches of the fishery consisted of a total of 17 species, comprised ofmollusks, crustaceans and a brachiopod. The bivalves Katelysia hiantina, Scapharca inaequivalvis, andGafrarium tumidum were the top three species, together comprising 88.79 % of the total catch. The totalmean daily catch per gleaner for all species was equivalent to 73.75 g/m-2/gleaner-1. Catch rate and catchvolume for the mollusks were highest between May-July and November-December, coinciding with thesouthwest and northeast monsoons, respectively. The large riverine inputs to the area, together with themangrove-derived organic matter, periodically resuspended by the tidal fluctuations, are seen asresponsible for increasing organic matter content of the substrates and abundance of the species. Totalannual catch of the fishery is estimated to range from 20,988.7 to 43, 527.62 kg, with a median value of31,205.6 kg. This latter value divided by the estimated total biomass in the area of 2,441. 03 kg gives aturnover rate of 12.8. The total annual catch for the entire fishery is equivalent to a total value of PhP421T to 897T/yr-1. The latter correspond to an annual income of PhP 14,043.90 to 29,904.67/gleaner-1/yr-1, small amounts which may be sustainable due to the high turnover rate of the system.

  18. Relationships of Leaf Area Index and NDVI for 12 Brassica Cultivars in Northeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabro, Jay; Allen, Brett; Long, Dan; Isbell, Terry; Gesch, Russ; Brown, Jack; Hatfield, Jerry; Archer, David; Oblath, Emily; Vigil, Merle; Kiniry, Jim; Hunter, Kimberly; Shonnard, David

    2017-04-01

    To our knowledge, there is limited information on the relationship of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and leaf area index (LAI) in spring Brassica oilseed crops. The 2014 results of NDVI and LAI of 12 spring varieties of oilseed crops were measured in a field study conducted in Sidney, Montana, USA under dryland conditions. These 12 varieties were grouped under six species (B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, B. carinata, Sinapis alba, and Camelina sativa). The NDVI and LAI were measured weekly throughout the growing season. The NDVI was continually measured at one sample per second across the whole plot using a Crop Circle ACS-470 active crop canopy sensor. The LAI was measured at two locations at 12 samples per plot using an AccuPar model LP-80 Ceptometer. Treatments were replicated four times in a randomized complete block design in plots of 3 m×9 m. Temporal dynamics of NDVI and LAI in various growth stages of 12 varieties were evaluated throughout the growing season. Significant relationships and models between NDVI and LAI were obtained when 12 varieties were grouped under six species.

  19. Promising medicinal plants for bioprospection in a Cerrado area of Chapada do Araripe, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Daiany Alves; Oliveira, Liana Geraldo Souza de; Macêdo, Delmacia Gonçalves de; Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar de; Costa, José Galberto Martins da; Silva, Maria Arlene Pessoa da; Lacerda, Sírleis Rodrigues; Souza, Marta Maria de Almeida

    2014-09-29

    Traditional medical systems represent an important source of knowledge about the use of biodiversity. Ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies can encourage bioprospecting in the pursuit and selection of promising medicinal plants. This study investigated the diversity of medicinal plants in a disjunct area of cerrado in Chapada do Araripe, Ceará, Brazil, and assessed the species of interest for bioprospecting. Structured and semi-structured interviews were conducted through free listing, and the informants were recruited using the "snowball" technique. The relative importance and informant consensus factor were analyzed for the selection of plant species with therapeutic potential. A total of 68 species were recorded and cited for 91 therapeutic purposes. Of these, 10 species showed great versatility of use, including Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Caryocar coriaceum Wittn., Himatanthus drasticus (Mart.) Plumel, Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Mart., and Dimorphandra garderiana Tull. The therapeutic citations were grouped into 16 categories of body systems, of which Injuries, Poisonings and Other Consequences of External Causes, and Neoplasias showed the highest agreement of use. Regarding the diversity of the species, some including Tocoyena Formosa (Cham. & Schlecht.) Schum., Himatanthus drasticus, Caryocar coriaceum, Roupala montana Aubl. and Stryphnodendron rotundifolium showed both high relative importance and strong consensus among informants, and although many have already been investigated scientifically, others are almost unknown with respect to their medicinal properties and can be targets for bioprospecting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cavalcanti De Queiroz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L. Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity.

  1. Relationships between NDVI and Leaf Area Index for spring and winter camelina in Northeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabro, Jay; Allen, Brett; long, Dan; Isbell, Terry; Gesch, Russ; Brown, Jack; Hatfield, Jerry; Archer, David; Oblath, Emily; Vigil, Merle; Kiniry, Jim

    2016-04-01

    To our knowledge no research has been reported on the relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and leaf area index (LAI) in spring and winter camelina. Relationships between NDVI and LAI for winter camelina (Camelina sativa) "Joelle" and spring camelina "CO46" were determined and evaluated in a 3-yr field study conducted in Sidney Montana under dryland conditions. The NDVI and LAI were measured weekly throughout the growing season. The NDVI was continually measured at one sample per second across the whole plot using a Crop Circle ACS-470 active crop canopy sensor. The LAI was measured at two locations at 12 samples per plot using an AccuPar model LP-80 Ceptometer. Treatments were replicated four times in a randomized complete block design in plots of 3 m×9 m. Temporal dynamics of NDVI and LAI in various growth stages of both spring and winter camelina were evaluated throughout 2013, 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. Significant linear relationships between NDVI and LAI were obtained for both spring and winter camelina when all the measurements were pooled across three growing seasons. Coefficients of determination (R2) of linearity were 0.77 and 0.79 for spring and winter camelina, respectively.

  2. Climate Change Vulnerability of Freshwater Fishes of the San Francisco Bay Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Quiñones

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE Rebecca M. Quiñones and Peter B. Moyledoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2014v12iss3art3Climate change is expected to progressively shift the freshwater environments of the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA to states that favor alien fishes over native species. Native species likely will have more limited distributions and some may be extirpated. Stream-dependent species may decline as portions of streams dry or become warmer due to lower flows and increased air temperatures. However, factors other than climate change may pose a more immediate threat to native fishes. Comparison of regional vs. statewide vulnerability (baseline and climate change scores suggests that a higher proportion (56% vs. 50% of SFBA native species, as compared to the state’s entire fish fauna, are vulnerable to existing anthropogenic threats that result in habitat degradation. In comparison, a smaller proportion of SFBA native species are vulnerable to predicted climate change effects (67% vs. 82%. In the SFBA, adverse effects from climate change likely come second to estuarine alteration, agriculture, and dams. However, the relative effect of climate change on species likely will grow in an increasingly warmer and drier California. Maintaining representative assemblages of native fishes may require providing flow regimes downstream from dams that reflect more natural hydrographs, extensive riparian, stream, and estuarine habitat restoration, and other management actions, such as modification of hatchery operations.

  3. Breast cancer among American Japanese in the San Francisco Bay area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, J E

    1977-12-01

    The Japanese-American population was particularly well suited for the study of cancer occurrence because: 1) An American-born population as well as the immigrant Japanese-American population could be studied; 2) good cancer incidence and mortality data from Japan could be compared with data from the United States; and 3) some differences in the rate of occurrence of several specific cancer sites in Japan as compared with the United States were striking. The most significant of these involved the gastrointestinal tract and sex organs. Data were presented concerning cancer incidence rates for the Japanese-American population of the San Francisco Bay area. The high gastric rates for the Japanese in Japan were reduced in a stepwise fashion in the immigrant Japanese-American population to the American-born Japanese who were approaching the low rate of the United States. Colon cancer rates, which were low in Japan, approached the rates in the United States in both the immigrants from Japan and in Japanese Americans. The low rates of cancers of the breast, uterine corpus, and ovary of Japanese women in Japan and for prostate cancer among men rapidly approached the higher rates for these cancer sites that existed in the United States. A study of nutritional factors related to the increase of cancer of the breast in Japanese Americans is being conducted.

  4. Ecosystem development of Haizhou Bay Ecological Restoration Area from 2003 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teng; Li, Yunkai; Xie, Bin; Zhang, Hu; Zhang, Shuo

    2017-12-01

    Two Ecopath mass-balance models were implemented for evaluating the structure and function of Haizhou Bay Ecological Restoration Area ecosystem using 14 ecological indicators in two distinctive years (2003 and 2013). The results showed that the size of HZERA ecosystem became larger as total biomass was increased in last decade, especially in primary producer and zooplankton groups. Total system throughput increased from 7496.00 t km-2 yr-1 to 9547.54 t km-2 yr-1. The P/R (production/respiration) ratio decreased over the decade. Finn's cycling index and Finn's mean path length increased over the decade. No keystone species (KS) occurred during ten years; however, evidences of top-down control in 2003 and 2013 models were demonstrated by high KS value belonging to Lophius litulon group in food web. Drawing upon Odum's theory of ecosystem maturity, the structured, web-like ecosystem of 2013 model had developed into a highly mature system compared with that of 2003 model.

  5. A Pilot Study of Retail ‘Vape Shops’ in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Andrea D; Thrul, Johannes; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The use of electronic cigarettes or vape devices is increasing, and products are evolving rapidly. This study assessed retail vape shops in the San Francisco Bay Area to describe store characteristics, products offered, advertisements and health claims, as well as employees’ perceptions of their customers’ demographics, and practices to support smoking cessation. METHODS We conducted store audits of shops that exclusively sell vape devices with physical addresses in San Francisco and Alameda counties (n=23, response rate 72%) and interviewed vape shop owners/employees. RESULTS While all stores carried second and third generation vape devices, 83% of stores did not carry first generation devices. Employees estimated the majority of their customers bought devices for smoking cessation or to replace tobacco, and a small minority purchased for first-time recreational use. Employees most frequently recommended dosing nicotine based on usual cigarette consumption, adjusting doses based on “throat hit” or cravings, use of a second or third generation e-cigarette, and encouraged customers to experiment and customize to “whatever works for you” as smoking cessation advice. CONCLUSIONS Vape shops report a significant number of their customers are interested in smoking cessation, and employees are giving smoking cessation advice. A subpopulation of customers includes some nicotine novices. Studies of vape shops should include both observations and interviews with employees in order to detect important informal practices that may differ from posted signs or printed advertising. These practices include cessation counseling, product claims, and custom discount prices or bargaining. PMID:28393129

  6. A Pilot Study of Retail 'Vape Shops' in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Andrea D; Thrul, Johannes; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-01-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes or vape devices is increasing, and products are evolving rapidly. This study assessed retail vape shops in the San Francisco Bay Area to describe store characteristics, products offered, advertisements and health claims, as well as employees' perceptions of their customers' demographics, and practices to support smoking cessation. We conducted store audits of shops that exclusively sell vape devices with physical addresses in San Francisco and Alameda counties (n=23, response rate 72%) and interviewed vape shop owners/employees. While all stores carried second and third generation vape devices, 83% of stores did not carry first generation devices. Employees estimated the majority of their customers bought devices for smoking cessation or to replace tobacco, and a small minority purchased for first-time recreational use. Employees most frequently recommended dosing nicotine based on usual cigarette consumption, adjusting doses based on "throat hit" or cravings, use of a second or third generation e-cigarette, and encouraged customers to experiment and customize to "whatever works for you" as smoking cessation advice. Vape shops report a significant number of their customers are interested in smoking cessation, and employees are giving smoking cessation advice. A subpopulation of customers includes some nicotine novices. Studies of vape shops should include both observations and interviews with employees in order to detect important informal practices that may differ from posted signs or printed advertising. These practices include cessation counseling, product claims, and custom discount prices or bargaining.

  7. Confirmatory Survey of the Fuel Oil Tank Area - Humboldt Bay Power Plant, Eureka, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, WADE C

    2012-04-09

    During the period of February 14 to 15, 2012, ORISE performed radiological confirmatory survey activities for the former Fuel Oil Tank Area (FOTA) and additional radiological surveys of portions of the Humboldt Bay Power Plant site in Eureka, California. The radiological survey results demonstrate that residual surface soil contamination was not present significantly above background levels within the FOTA. Therefore, it is ORISE’s opinion that the radiological conditions for the FOTA surveyed by ORISE are commensurate with the site release criteria for final status surveys as specified in PG&E’s Characterization Survey Planning Worksheet. In addition, the confirmatory results indicated that the ORISE FOTA survey unit Cs-137 mean concentrations results compared favorably with the PG&E FOTA Cs-137 mean concentration results, as determined by ORISE from the PG&E characterization data. The interlaboratory comparison analyses of the three soil samples analyzed by PG&E’s onsite laboratory and the ORISE laboratory indicated good agreement for the sample results and provided confidence in the PG&E analytical procedures and final status survey soil sample data reporting.

  8. Prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae in northern goshawks from the Berlin area of northeastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krone, Oliver; Altenkamp, Rainer; Kenntner, Norbert

    2005-04-01

    In recent years, the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) has colonized suburban and urban areas in Berlin, Germany, and elsewhere in Europe. Because of the high proportion of feral pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) in their diet, urban goshawks are suspected to have a high infection rate with Trichomonas gallinae. Therefore, from 1998 to 2001, we examined 269 nestlings from 90 nests for infection with T. gallinae by culture of swabs taken from the oropharynx and checked their oropharynx for the presence of caseous lesions indicative of trichomonosis. In 80% of the nest sites (n=90), at least one nestling was infected. The nestling infection rate with T. gallinae was 69.7% (n=33) in 1998, 73.0% (n=89) in 1999, 55.8% (n=77) in 2000, and 62.9% (n=70) in 2001. In total, 65.1% of the northern goshawk nestlings were culture positive for T. gallinae. Prevalence increased with the age of nestlings (chi2=12.4, n=269, df=5, P=0.03) and tended to increase with brood size (chi2=9.345, n=269, df=4, P=0.053). Caseous lesions were present in 12 nestlings (4.5%), but only 10 of these were culture positive for T. gallinae. Two nestlings (0.7%) had large caseous lesions (diameter>1 cm) characteristic of late-stage trichomonosis and died shortly after examination. It is suggested that the combination of a high prevalence of T. gallinae with a low rate of pathologicic changes is the result of an evolutionary-adapted parasite-host relationship.

  9. Iron, Oil, and Emeryville: Resource Industrialization and Metropolitan Expansion in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1850-1900

    OpenAIRE

    Lunine, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have largely overlooked the formative role of industry in both California's economic development and the San Francisco Bay Area's metropolitan expansion during the late nineteenth century. Beginning in the early 1880s, leading firms in San Francisco's specialized industries, such as the iron and chemicals sectors, dispersed to the metropolitan periphery. This process of industrial suburbanization created an integrative metropolitan economy, as well as individual suburbs. In this di...

  10. The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Loebmann

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat. Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native

  11. The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebmann, Daniel; Mai, Ana Cecília G; Lee, James T

    2010-09-01

    Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species) were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus) and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii) in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat). Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native redlip blenny

  12. Acquired Color Vision Defects and Hexane Exposure: A Study of San Francisco Bay Area Automotive Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Stella; Eisen, Ellen A; Bates, Michael N; Liu, Sa; Haegerstrom-Portnoy, Gunilla; Hammond, S Katharine

    2016-06-01

    Occupational exposure to solvents, including n-hexane, has been associated with acquired color vision defects. Blue-yellow defects are most common and may be due to neurotoxicity or retinal damage. Acetone may potentiate the neurotoxicity of n-hexane. We present results on nonhexane solvent and hexane exposure and color vision from a cross-sectional study of 835 automotive repair workers in the San Francisco Bay Area, California (2007-2013). Cumulative exposure was estimated from self-reported work history, and color vision was assessed using the Lanthony desaturated D-15 panel test. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios for color vision defects. Acquired color vision defects were present in 29% of participants, of which 70% were blue-yellow. Elevated prevalence ratios were found for nonhexane solvent exposure, with a maximum of 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 2.00) for blue-yellow. Among participants aged ≤50 years, the prevalence ratio for blue-yellow defects was 2.17 (95% CI: 1.03, 4.56) in the highest quartile of nonhexane solvent exposure and 1.62 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.72) in the highest category of exposure to hexane with acetone coexposure. Cumulative exposures to hexane and nonhexane solvents in the highest exposure categories were associated with elevated prevalence ratios for color vision defects in younger participants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Socioeconomic status, immigration/acculturation, and ethnic variations in breast conserving surgery, San Francisco Bay area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Scarlett L; France, Anne-Marie; Lee, Marion M

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated substantial variations in breast conserving surgery (BCS) across sociodemographic groups. This study explored the joint influences of socioeconomic, immigration/acculturation, and clinical factors on ethnic differences in breast cancer surgery for early-stage disease. The study used interview data for 297 women, under the age of 70, who resided in the San Francisco Bay area, and had been diagnosed with primary early-stage breast cancer (carcinoma in-situ or invasive) between January 1990 and December 1992. The proportion of patients who either had undergone BCS or had no surgery was 45%, 20%, 45%, and 34%, among Whites, Chinese, Blacks, and Hispanics, respectively. The proportion of patients diagnosed at in-situ or localized stages, with tumors of less than 4 centimeters, was higher among those who received BCS or no surgery, compared to those who had undergone a mastectomy. White women who received BCS/no surgery tended to be younger than their counterparts who underwent mastectomies, but Chinese and Black women who received BCS/no surgery were older. The proportion of women diagnosed in smaller, private hospitals was higher among those receiving BCS/no surgery, although these associations varied by ethnicity. Women who had undergone BCS/no surgery were characterized as being of higher socioeconomic status, more acculturated, and less likely to be recent immigrants. In a multivariate regression model adjusting for clinical, socioeconomic, and immigration/acculturation factors, Chinese women were more likely than Whites to have a mastectomy, rather than BCS/no surgery (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-7.8). Use of BCS or no surgery was associated with various clinical, socioeconomic, and immigration/acculturation characteristics, although some of the associations varied by ethnicity. However, these factors did not account for the reduced presence of BCS, or no surgery, among Chinese women.

  14. State of transition: Marijuana use among young adults in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Louisa M; Popova, Lucy; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-09-01

    California may vote on marijuana legalization in 2016. Young adults have the highest rates of marijuana use, but little is known about the correlates of use in this age group, including factors that may be affected by policy change. We investigated whether there are differences in marijuana use by sociodemographic characteristics, psychological distress, loneliness and social support, controlling for risk factors such as alcohol and cigarette use as well as perceived harm of marijuana. Bivariate and multivariable analysis of past 30day marijuana use using the 2014 San Francisco Bay Area Young Adult Health Survey, a probabilistic multi-mode survey of (N=1324) young adults (aged 18-26years) residing in Alameda and San Francisco Counties, stratified by race/ethnicity. 291 (27%) sample participants reported current marijuana use. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites (referent) Asian/Pacific Islander respondents were less likely to use marijuana (AOR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.22-0.80) while multiracial participants were twice as likely (AOR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.06-4.85). Psychological distress was not related to marijuana use, but social support (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.08-1.88) and loneliness (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.09-1.86) were. Perceived harm of marijuana was inversely related to marijuana use (AOR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.51-0.70), while smoking cigarettes (AOR, 3.95; 95% CI, 2.28-6.84) and binge drinking (AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.24) were positively related. Legalization policies should include public education campaigns addressing potential harms of marijuana use particularly targeting multiracial young adults who also engage in other risk behaviors, such as cigarette smoking and binge drinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Phytoestrogens and thyroid cancer risk: the San Francisco Bay Area thyroid cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Hoggatt, K J; Lee, Marion M

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological and pathological data suggest that thyroid cancer may well be an estrogen-dependent disease. The relationship between thyroid cancer risk and dietary phytoestrogens, which can have both estrogenic and antiestrogenic properties, has not been previously studied. We present data from a multiethnic population-based case-control study of thyroid cancer conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area. Of 817 cases diagnosed between 1995 and 1998 (1992 and 1998 for Asian women), 608 (74%) were interviewed. Of 793 controls identified through random-digit dialing, 558 (70%) were interviewed. Phytoestrogen consumption was assessed via a food-frequency questionnaire and a newly developed nutrient database. The consumption of traditional and nontraditional soy-based foods and alfalfa sprouts were associated with reduced risk of thyroid cancer. Consumption of "western" foods with added soy flour or soy protein did not affect risk. Of the seven specific phytoestrogenic compounds examined, the isoflavones, daidzein and genistein [odds ratio (OR), 0.70; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.44-1.1; and OR, 0.65, 95% CI, 0.41-1.0, for the highest versus lowest quintile of daidzein and genistein, respectively] and the lignan, secoisolariciresinol (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35-0.89, for the highest versus lowest quintile) were most strongly associated with risk reduction. Findings were similar for white and Asian women and for pre- and postmenopausal women. Our findings suggest that thyroid cancer prevention via dietary modification of soy and/or phytoestrogen intake in other forms may be possible but warrants further research at this time.

  16. Correlation of chlorophyll, suspended matter, and related parameters of waters in the lower Chesapeake Bay area to LANDSAT-1 imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, P. (Principal Investigator); Bowker, D. E.; Witte, W. G.; Gosink, T. A.; Hanna, W. J.; Ludwick, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An effort to relate water parameters of the lower Chesapeake Bay area to multispectral scanner images of LANDSAT 1 has shown that some spectral bands can be correlated to water parameters, and has demonstrated the feasibility of synoptic mapping of estuaries by satellite. Bands 5 and 6 were shown to be useful for monitoring total particles. Band 5 showed high correlation with suspended sediment concentration. Attenuation coefficients monitored continuously by ship along three baselines were cross correlated with radiance values on three days. Improved correlations resulted when tidal conditions were taken into consideration. A contouring program was developed to display sediment variation in the lower Chesapeake Bay from the MSS bands.

  17. Diurnal and Intra-Annual Variations in Greenhouse Gases at Fixed Sites in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S.; Guha, A.; Martien, P. T.; Bower, J.; Perkins, I.; Randall, S.; Young, A.; Stevenson, E.; Hilken, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the San Francisco Bay Area's air quality regulatory agency, has set a goal to reduce the region's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050, consistent with the State of California's climate goals. Recently, the Air District's governing board adopted a 2017 Clean Air Plan which lays out the agency's vision and includes actions to put the region on a path towards achieving the 2050 goal while also reducing air pollution and related health impacts. The Plan includes GHG rule-making efforts, policy initiatives, local government partnerships, outreach, grants, and incentives, encompassing over 250 specific implementation actions across all economic sectors to effect ambitious emission reductions in the region. To track trends in atmospheric observations of GHGs and associated species and monitor changes in regional emission patterns, the Air District has established a fixed site network (CO2, CH4, CO) of one generally upwind site (Bodega Bay - on the coast north of Marin County) and three receptor sites (Bethel Island - east of the major refineries, in the Sacramento River Delta; Livermore - east of the bulk of the East Bay cities; and San Martin - south of the major city of San Jose). Having collected over a year of data for each of the fixed sites, the Air District is now investigating spatial and temporal variations in GHG emissions. Concentrating on variations in diurnal cycles, we see the commonly observed pattern of seasonal changes in diurnal amplitude at all sites, with larger variations during the winter than the summer, consistent with seasonally varying daily changes in planetary boundary layer heights. Investigations explore the weekday/weekend effect on the diurnal patterns and the effect of seasonal wind direction changes on the intra-annual variations of the local enhancements. The Air District is beginning to investigate the ways in which the fixed site network reflects the dominant

  18. Postwildfire debris flows hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Track Fire, northeastern New Mexico and southeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    In June 2011, the Track Fire burned 113 square kilometers in Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico, and Las Animas County, southeastern Colorado, including the upper watersheds of Chicorica and Raton Creeks. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from basins burned by the Track Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of post-fire debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 38 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence-interval), the probability of debris flow estimated for basins burned by the Track fire ranged between 2 and 97 percent, with probabilities greater than 80 percent identified for the majority of the tributary basins to Raton Creek in Railroad Canyon; six basins that flow into Lake Maloya, including the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins; two tributary basins to Sugarite Canyon, and an unnamed basin on the eastern flank of the burned area. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 30 cubic meters to greater than 100,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 100,000 cubic meters) were estimated for Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins, which drain into Lake Maloya. The Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Ranking identifies the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins as having the highest probability of producing the largest debris flows. This finding indicates the greatest post-fire debris-flow impacts may be expected to Lake Maloya

  19. The deep biosphere in terrestrial sediments in the Chesapeake Bay area, Virginia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eBreuker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For the first time quantitative data on the abundance of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya in deep terrestrial sediments are provided using multiple methods (total cell counting, quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR and catalyzed reporter deposition – fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH. The oligotrophic (organic carbon content of ~ 0.2 % deep terrestrial sediments in the Chesapeake Bay area at Eyreville, Virginia, USA, were drilled and sampled up to a depth of 140 m in 2006. The possibility of contamination during drilling was checked using fluorescent microspheres. Total cell counts decreased from 109 to 106 cells per g dry weight (dw within the uppermost 20 m depth, and did not further decrease with depth below. A significant proportion of the total cell counts could be detected with CARD-FISH within the uppermost 7 m depth. The CARD-FISH numbers for Bacteria were about an order of magnitude higher than those for Archaea. The dominance of Bacteria over Archaea was confirmed by Q-PCR. The down core quantitative distribution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic small subunit ribosomal RNA genes as well as functional genes involved in different biogeochemical processes was revealed by Q-PCR for the uppermost 10 m and for 80-140 m depth. Eukarya and the Fe(III- and Mn(IV-reducing bacterial group Geobacteriaceae were almost only found in the uppermost meter (arable soil, where reactive iron was detected in higher amounts. The bacterial candidate division JS-1 and the classes Anaerolineae and Caldilineae of the phylum Chloroflexi, highly abundant in marine sediments, were found up to the maximum sampling depth in high copy numbers at this terrestrial site as well. A similar high abundance of the functional gene cbbL encoding for the large subunit of RubisCO suggests that autotrophic microorganisms could be relevant in addition to heterotrophs. The functional gene aprA of sulfate reducing bacteria was found within distinct layers up to ca. 100 m depth

  20. Mesozoic anomalies in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Nair, R.R.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramprasad, T.; Krishna, K.S.; Subrahmanyam, V.; D'Cruz, M.; Subrahmanyam, C.; Paul, J.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Sekhar, D.V.C.

    The analysis of 8200 line km of total magnetic intensity data in the Bay of Bengal, northeastern Indian Ocean, revealed the presence of approximately N30~'E-trending seafloor spreading type magnetic anomalies. These anomalies resemble the Mesozoic...

  1. The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Loebmann

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat. Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native

  2. Results of a modeling workshop concerning economic and environmental trends and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, David B.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Johnson, Richard A.; Roelle, James E.; Staley, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade, the southern regions of the U.S. have experienced rapid change which is expected to continue into the foreseeable future. Growth in population, industry, and resource development has been attributed to a variety of advantages such as an abundant and inexpensive labor force, a mild climate, and the availability of energy, water, land, and other natural resources. While this growth has many benefits for the region, it also creates the potential for increased air, water, and solid waste pollution, and modification of natural habitats. A workshop was convened to consider the Mobile Bay area as a site-specific case of growth and its environmental consequences in the southern region. The objectives of the modeling workshop were to: (1) identify major factors of economic development as they relate to growth in the area over the immediate and longer term; (2) identify major environmental and resource management issues associated with this expected growth; and (3) identify and characterize the complex interrelationships among economic and environmental factors. This report summarizes the activities and results of a modeling workshop concerning economic growth and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area. The workshop was organized around construction of a simulation model representing the relationships between a series of actions and indicators identified by participants. The workshop model had five major components. An Industry Submodel generated scenarios of growth in several industrial and transportation sectors. A Human Population/Economy Submodel calculated human population and economic variables in response to employment opportunities. A Land Use/Air Quality Submodel tabulated changes in land use, shoreline use, and air quality. A Water Submodel calculated indicators of water quality and quantity for fresh surface water, ground water, and Mobile Bay based on discharge information provided by the Industry and Human

  3. Analysis of the varved clay accumulation in the Pärnu Bay area, Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvans, Andis; Hang, Tiit

    2015-04-01

    Varved clays are commonly found glaciolacustrine sediments representing high-resolution environmental archives of the deglaciation events. We examine varve formation in the Baltic Ice Lake at the Pärnu Bay area, Estonia, during the deglaciation of the last Scandinavian glaciation from the region. The data set of Hang and Kohv (2013) spanning 584 years is used. Analysis of the spatial variation of the seasonal layer thickness distribution based on 26 sediment cores and sub-varve resolution grain size analysis from a single section was performed. The Baltic Ice Lake water level reconstruction indicates that the water depth at the study region was up to 80 m (Rosentau et al., 2009). It is found that during the first ~130 years after the ice retreat the summer sedimentation was dominated by sediment loaded underflows emanating form the ice margin: summer layer thickness is strongly positively correlated with water depth. The winter layer thickness during this period does not demonstrate significant correlation with water depth suggesting that the simple raining-out of the suspended material from a water column was complicated by water circulation. Ice retreat from the Pandivere-Neva line of the marginal formations just north from study area took place during the interval from 96 to 130 local varve years. During the transition marked shift from proglacial to distal sedimentary environment is observed: the summer layer thickens decreased dramatically and it's thickens is markedly higher in the area close to the ice margin. The winter layer thickens becomes strongly correlated to the water depth, suggesting that the simple sedimentation model with no water circulation and addition of no new sediments is valid. The grain size data is used to estimate the "terminal grain size" - the size of the larges particles sedimented at the top of the winter layer. Provided that no significant water circulation took place during the winter, the terminal grain size will be controlled

  4. Report on Saginaw Bay Area Environmental Policy, Planning and Management survey. Final report, April 1991-March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, C.; Zhao, W.; Edens, T.C.

    1992-04-01

    An environmental policy, planning, and management survey was conducted in the Saginaw Bay area in the Fall of 1991. The survey identified unemployment, factory closure and environmental quality degradation as the major economic and environmental problems in the area. Surface water contamination, excessive nutrients and zebra mussel infestation were the most serious problems affecting water quality. Soil erosion, excessive fertilization and pesticide applications were the most important non-point sources of water pollution. Toxic chemicals, phosphorus, suspended solids, heavy metals were the major water pollutants in the area. Pollution cleanup, land use planning, and control of zebra mussels were identified as the top implementation priorities for the area. Recommendations made by the respondents for improving environmental quality are summarized in the report.

  5. Seroepidemiological survey on Leptospira spp. infection in wild and domestic mammals in two distinct areas of the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Laís Ferrari; Guimarães, Maíra Freitas; de Souza, Gisele Oliveira; da Silva, Ivo Wesley Gomes; Santos, Josenilton Rodrigues; Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Horta, Mauricio Claudio

    2017-12-01

    Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease that causes severe reproductive problems in livestock and generates economic losses for farmers. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira antibodies in small mammals, both wild and domestic, in two distinct areas of the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil: the National Park of Serra das Confusões (NPSC), state of Piauí, a preserved area; and rural areas in the municipalities of Petrolina and Lagoa Grande, state of Pernambuco, non-preserved areas. Serum samples were evaluated using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Approximately 4% (6/152) of the wild animals were positive, all of them in the non-preserved area. Overall, the seroprevalence rates among goats and sheep were 13.4 (77/576) and 4.6% (24/518), respectively, confirmed in both areas. The seroprevalence rates in dogs and cats were 5.6 (10/180) and 4.7% (2/43) and were determined only in the non-preserved area. The risk factors associated with Leptospira spp. infection were as follows: ages of 1-3 and > 3 years for goats and sheep, region (preserved area) for goats, intensive management system for sheep, and region (non-preserved area) for dogs and wildlife. The present study confirmed the presence of circulation of Leptospira spp. in both of these areas of the Caatinga biome, as well as a variety of serotypes in these areas.

  6. Summer moisture changes in the Lake Qinghai area on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau recorded from a meadow section over the past 8400 yrs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangzhong; Liu, Xiangjun; He, Yuxin; Liu, Weiguo; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Holocene climatic and environmental changes on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) have been widely discussed based on the climatic records from sedimentary cores. However, differences in the reconstructed climatic history from various studies in this region still exist, probably due to influence of climatic proxies from multiple factors and the chronological uncertainties in lacustrine sediments. Here we present records of terrestrial plant δ13C, soil color and total organic carbon content over the past 8400 years from a well-dated meadow section on the northeastern TP. The terrestrial plant δ13C value serves as a good summer precipitation/moisture indicator in the studied region. Soil color property and TOC content are also able to disentangle the moisture evolution history. All the data show much wet climates at 8400-7400 cal yr BP, dry climates at 7400-6000 cal yr BP and then wet conditions with fluctuation at 6000-3200 cal yr BP. Late Holocene moisture appears to be comparable with moist conditions from 6000 to 3200 cal yr BP. By further comparing the climatic variations in the Lake Qinghai area with records of the reconstructed summer temperature and the Asian Monsoon precipitation, we believe that the pattern of moisture/precipitation evolution in the Lake Qinghai area was not completely consistent with regions around Lake Qinghai, probably due to complicated interaction between the East Asian Summer Monsoon and the Indian Summer Monsoon.

  7. Assessment of Land Use-Cover Changes and Successional Stages of Vegetation in the Natural Protected Area Altas Cumbres, Northeastern Mexico, Using Landsat Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriel Jeshua Sánchez-Reyes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Loss of vegetation cover is a major factor that endangers biodiversity. Therefore, the use of geographic information systems and the analysis of satellite images are important for monitoring these changes in Natural Protected Areas (NPAs. In northeastern Mexico, the Natural Protected Area Altas Cumbres (NPAAC represents a relevant floristic and faunistic patch on which the impact of loss of vegetation cover has not been assessed. This work aimed to analyze changes of land use and coverage (LULCC over the last 42 years on the interior and around the exterior of the area, and also to propose the time of succession for the most important types of vegetation. For the analysis, LANDSAT satellite images from 1973, 1986, 2000, 2005 and 2015 were used, they were classified in seven categories through a segmentation and maximum likelihood analysis. A cross-tabulation analysis was performed to determine the succession gradient. Towards the interior of the area, a significant reduction of tropical vegetation and, to a lesser extent, temperate forests was found, as well as an increase in scrub cover from 1973 to 2015. In addition, urban and vegetation-free areas, as well as modified vegetation, increased to the exterior. Towards the interior of the NPA, the processes of perturbation and recovery were mostly not linear, while in the exterior adjacent area, the presence of secondary vegetation with distinct definite time of succession was evident. The analysis carried out is the first contribution that evaluates LULCC in this important NPA of northeastern Mexico. Results suggest the need to evaluate the effects of these modifications on species.

  8. Interactions between Cool Roofs and Urban Irrigation: Do Cooling Strategies Reduce Water Consumption in the San Francisco Bay Area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahmani, P.; Jones, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    California has experienced progressive drought since 2012, with 2012-2014 constituting a nearly 10,000-year drought event, resulting in a suite of policies with the goal of reducing water consumption. At the same time, climate warming effects of accelerated urbanization along with projected global climate change raise an urgent need for sustainable mitigation and adaptation strategies to cool urban climates. In this study, for the first time, we assess the overarching benefits of cooling strategies on urban water consumption. We employ a satellite-supported regional climate-modeling framework over the San Francisco Bay Area to assess the effects of cool roofs on urban irrigation, a topic of increasing importance as it accounts for a significant fraction of urban water use particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. We use a suit of climatological simulations at high (1.5 km) spatial resolution, based on a Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Urban Canopy Model (UCM) modeling framework, reinforced with remotely sensed observations of Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF), leaf area index (LAI), and albedo. Our analysis shows that widespread incorporation of cool roofs would result in a mean daytime cooling of about 0.7° C, which in turn results in roughly 4% reduction in irrigation water, largely due to decreases in surface evapotranspiration rates. We further investigate the critical interactions between cool roofs, wind, and sea-breeze patterns as well as fog formation, a dominant weather pattern in San Francisco Bay area.

  9. MOLECULAR DETECTION OF Leishmania IN PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES IN A CUTANEOUS AND VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS ENDEMIC AREA IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso Guimarães

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several phlebotomine sand fly species have been regarded as putative or proven vectors of parasites of the genus Leishmania in Brazil, but data for the northeastern region remains incipient. In this study, a total of 600 phlebotomine sand flies were grouped in pools of 10 specimens each and tested by a Leishmania genus-specific PCR and by a PCR targeting Leishmania (Leishmania infantum. Fourteen out of 60 pools were positive by the genus-specific PCR, being five pools of L. migonei, seven of L. complexa, one of L. sordellii and one of L. naftalekatzi, which correspond to a minimal infection rate of 2.3% (14/600. Our results, associated with their known anthropophily and their abundance, suggest the participation of L. migonei and L. complexa as vectors of Leishmania in northeastern Brazil. Remarkably, this is the first time in this country that the detection of Leishmania DNA in L. sordellii and L. naftalekatzi has been reported, but future studies are necessary to better understand the significance of these findings.

  10. The Inner Area Change Detection in Pak Panang Bay Before and After the Operation of the Uthokawiphatprasit Watergate using Aerial Photographs and Geographic Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Pipop PRABNARONG; Suthira THONGKAO

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates coastal changes in Pak Panang Bay, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province before and after the operation of the Uthokawiphatprasit Watergate over the Pak Panang River by using aerial photographs and geographic information system techniques. The aerial map on 1:15,000 scale produced by The Royal Thai Survey Department in 1974 was compared to the aerial photographs acquired in 1995, 1999 and 2003. The results revealed that from 1974 to 2003, the inner area of Pak Panang Bay increa...

  11. Ambient Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Observations in the San Francisco Bay Area of California Using a Fixed-site Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martien, P. T.; Guha, A.; Bower, J.; Perkins, I.; Randall, S.; Young, A.; Hilken, H.; Stevenson, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District is the greater San Francisco Bay metropolitan area's chief air quality regulatory agency. Aligning itself with the Governor's Executive Order S-3-05, the Air District has set a goal to reduce the region's GHG emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by the year 2050. The Air District's 2016 Clean Air Plan will lay out the agency's vision and actions to put the region on a path forward towards achieving the 2050 goal while also reducing air pollution and related health impacts. The 2016 Plan has three overarching objectives: 1) develop a multi-pollutant emissions control strategy, (2) reduce population exposure to harmful air pollutants, especially in vulnerable communities, and (3) protect climate through a comprehensive Regional Climate Protection Strategy. To accomplish one of 2016 Plan's control measures (SL3 - Greenhouse Gas Monitoring and Measurement Network), the Air District has set up a long-term, ambient GHG monitoring network at four sites. The first site is located north and upwind of the urban core at Bodega Bay by the Pacific Coast. It mostly receives clean marine inflow and serves as the regional background site. The other three sites are strategically located at regional exit points for Bay Area plumes that presumably contain well-mixed GHG enhancements from local sources. CO2 and CH4are being measured continuously at the fixed-sites, along with combustion tracer CO and other air pollutants. In the longer term, the network will allow the Air District to monitor ambient concentrations of GHGs and thus evaluate the effectiveness of its policy, regulation and enforcement efforts. We present data trends from the first year of operation of the fixed-site monitoring network including monthly and seasonal patterns, diurnal variations and regional enhancements at individual sites above background concentrations. We also locate an isotopic methane instrument (Picarro, G132-i) for a short duration (a week) at each of the

  12. Valuation of environmental improvements in a specially protected marine area: a choice experiment approach in Göcek Bay, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Özge; Alp, Emre

    2012-11-15

    Although the Göcek Bay area was declared as a specially protected area by General Directorate of Natural Assets Protection, the region is threatened because of pollution resulting from increased boat tourism and lack of efficient policies. Extensive measures are being planned in order to protect the region. Coastal management requires the use of technical, social political and economic tools to create a comprehensive management strategy. For environmental investments, it is necessary that benefits and the costs of environmental improvements should be identified in monetary terms in order to determine the feasibility of the investments. The aim of this study is to determine the benefits of the management alternatives to improve environmental quality in Göcek Bay to aid decision makers. In this study, the environmental benefits that can be obtained with improved water quality and restored marine ecosystem were calculated using the Choice Experiment Method, a non-market valuation technique. Data were analyzed using Multinomial Logit Model and the results showed that, local residents and tourists are willing to pay 18TL/month and 16.6TL/tour, respectively for improvements in water quality. For improvements in marine life, local residents are willing to pay 14.8TL/month and tourists are willing to pay 11.2TL/tour. With this study, it has been seen that the results obtained will pave the way for new policies and measures against the deterioration of the marine environment of Göcek Bay. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An aerial radiological survey of the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station and surrounding area, Bay City, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.M.

    1988-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS) near Bay City, Texas, during the period 25 March to 4 April 1988. The purpose of the 259-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the plant and surrounding area. An exposure rate contour map at 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Exposure rates were observed up to 10μR/h over land. No areas of enhanced exposure rates were observed. Ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. Oblique aerial photographs of the plant were also acquired during the survey. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Executive summary: Benefit-cost evaluation of an intra-regional air service in the Bay Area and a technology assessment of transportation system investments. [regional planning for the San Francisco Bay area of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    The benefits and costs that would result from an intra-regional air service operation in the San Francisco Bay area were determined by utilizing an iterative statistical decision model to evaluate combinations of commuter airport sites and surface transportation facilities in conjunction with service by a given commuter aircraft type in light of area regional growth alternatives and peak and off-peak regional travel patterns. The model evaluates such transportation option with respect to criteria of airline profitability, public acceptance, and public and private non-user costs. In so doing, it incorporates information on modal split, peak and off-peak use of the air commuter fleet, terminal and airport costs, development costs and uses of land in proximity to the airport sites, regional population shifts, and induced zonal shifts in travel demand. The model is multimodal in its analytic capability, and performs exhaustive sensitivity analysis.

  15. Construction-employment opportunities of four oil-replacing space-heating alternatives for core areas of thirteen major northeastern and midwestern cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Wernette, D.R.

    1980-07-01

    Construction employment opportunities are compared for four oil-replacing technologies providing equivalent space-heating services to the core areas of 13 major northeastern and midwestern cities. The four technologies are: cogeneration district heating, coal gasification, coal liquefaction and electrification (coal-fired power plant). It is observed that the district-heating option places a higher percentage of its capital stock within the center city. It also requires lower occupational skills for its construction than the other three alternatives. In view of the lower average educational level of minorities and their concentration in urban areas, substantially more minority employment should occur if district heating is implemented. This alternative also will provide employment opportunities for unemployed nonminority construction laborers and contribute indirectly to the improvement of inner-city neighborhoods where many unemployed construction laborers live.

  16. Application of graphite as a geothermometer in hydrothermally altered metamorphic rocks of the Merelani-Lelatema area, Mozambique Belt, northeastern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisa, Elias Pausen

    1998-02-01

    Upper Precambrian pelitic and psammitic gneisses in the Mozambique Belt are usually graphite rich. The determination of crystallisation temperatures around and in the hydrothermally altered rocks of the Merelani-Lelatema mining areas, northeastern Tanzania, were made by studying the lattice parameter C of graphite. In this way, the migration of the chromophore elements giving colour to the gemstones, e.g. tanzanite, green garnet and green tourmaline in the area, can be studied. Within the hydrothermally altered zone graphite gives temperatures that range from 523°C to 880°C. These temperatures are much higher than the 390-440°C obtained through fluid inclusion studies of tanzanite, which indicates that the graphite was not hydrothermally introduced. Furthermore the hydrothermal solutions are post-metamorphic.

  17. Study on the 90Sr absorption by agricultural plants grown in soil from Daya Bay and Qinshan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenhu; Hou Lanxin; Xu Shiming

    1991-03-01

    The soil around the Qinshan and Daya Bay nuclear power plants were used in this study. The 90 Sr was spread into the soil by irrigation. The amount of 90 Sr spread were 0.037, 0.37, 3.7 and 370 Bq per gram soil respectively. After being treated, the soil were employed to grow rice, wheat, rape, bean, asparagus lettuce, tomato and peas. The harvested plants were divided into seeds, stems and leaves, husks and roots to measure their radioactivity separately. The results showed that the amount of 90 Sr absorbed by the plants was directly proportional to the 90 Sr content in the soil. The absorbed 90 Sr was mainly distributed in the stems and leaves. The seeds absorbed the least amount of 90 Sr compared with the other portions. The old leaves absorbed greater 90 Sr than the buds. The accumulated 90 Sr per unit dry weight of all plants grown in the soil from Daya Bay area was greater than in the soil from Qinshan area. More than 80% of total 90 Sr was distributed in the top layer from 0 to 4 cm. The concentration factors of various plants were also given

  18. Designing at Scale: Lessons in Relevance, Quality, and Equity from ChangeScale, a Bay Area environmental education collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, E.

    2015-12-01

    The best environmental education equips people with the know-how and drive to create healthy communities and a healthy planet. While there are many wonderful organizations providing environmental learning, ensuring quality, cultural relevance and equity of access remains an elusive goal--especially if environmental education organizations work in isolation. Organizations across 12 counties in the Bay Area have come together to create a different model. They have founded ChangeScale, a regional collaborative dedicated to providing high quality environmental education to hundreds of thousands of youth---by working together. ChangeScale's work involves setting up school district-level partnerships, providing technical assistance to local environmental education networks, and training environmental educators across the region. In this talk, the presenter, who is a founding member and steering committee chair for ChangeScale, will outline the challenges of working at a regional scale with dozens of organizations. She will share the processes ChangeScale has used to develop a business plan and build membership. She will conclude by sharing the short term and long term potential impacts of working collectively for environmental literacy in the Bay Area.

  19. Seismic site response of unstable steep slope using noise measurements: the case study of Xemxija Bay area, Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Panzera

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Landslide phenomena involve the northern coast of Malta, affecting in particular the urban area of Xemxija. Limestones overlying a clayey formation represent the shallower lithotypes that characterize the surficial geology of this area, where lateral spreading phenomena and rockfalls take place.

    Ambient noise records, processed through spectral ratio techniques, were analysed in order to characterize the dynamic behavior of the rock masses affected by the presence of fractures linked to the landslide body existing in the area. Experimental spectral ratios were also calculated after rotating the horizontal components of the seismic signal, and a direct estimate of the polarization angle was also performed in order to investigate the existence of directional effects in the ground motion.

    The results of the morphologic survey confirmed the existence of large cliff-parallel fractures that cause cliff-edge and unstable boulder collapses. Such phenomena appear connected to the presence, inside the clay formation, of a sliding surface that was identified through the interpretation of the noise measurement data. The boundaries of the landslide area appear quite well defined by the pronounced polarization effects, trending in the northeastern direction, observed in the fractured zone and in the landslide body in particular.

  20. Fescues of the Intravaginal group of Festuca L. section Festuca in the lowland and montane areas of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyke, S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fescues of the Intravaginal group of Festuca L. section Festuca in the lowland and montane areas of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula.— Morphologically similar fescues occur across the study area (Mediterranean area of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula at low and middle elevations. With the exception of the high mountain or alpine species, these populations are reviewed here, with particular attention being paid to the Festuca inops (F. gracilior group, as well as to some other species, in particular F. lemanii, which are not easily understood and can complicate identification, especially where the taxa occur sympatrically. The application of the binomen F. inops De Not. to some of the Iberian populations constituting the F. inops group is discussed. New records for F. tarraconensis, F. occitanica, F. michaelis and F. heteroidea amplify the distribution range of these little-known taxa within the Iberian Peninsula.Diferentes especies de Festuca morfológicamente afines crecen en gran parte del territorio objeto de esta reseña (tierras mediterráneas del nordeste de la Península Ibérica, a baja y mediana altitud. Excluyendo las especies de alta montaña, estas poblaciones se han estudiado aquí haciendo hincapié en Festuca grupo inops (F. gracilior, y se han tratado otras especies (F. lemanii en especial que a veces complican la identificación de los miembros de dicho grupo, sobre todo cuando solapan sus distribuciones. Se comenta la aplicación del binomen F. inops De Not. a algunas poblaciones ibéricas del grupo F. inops. Nuevas citas de F. tarraconensis, F. occitanica, F. michaelis y F. heteroidea amplían la distribución de estos taxones dentro de la Península Ibérica.

  1. Studies on the Feeding Habits of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) Populations from Endemic Areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Margarete Martins dos Santos; Duarte, Rosemere; Miranda, José Carlos; Caranha, Lindenbergh; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify potential blood feeding sources of L. (L.) longipalpis specimens from populations in Northeastern Brazil, endemic areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) and its correlation with the transmission of L. (L.) i. chagasi. The ELISA technique was applied using bird, dog, goat, opossum, equine, feline, human, sheep, and rodent antisera to analyze 609 females, resulting in an overall positivity of 60%. In all municipalities, females showed higher positivity for bird followed by dog antiserum and sand fly specimens were also positive for equine, feline, human, sheep, goat, opossum, and rodent antisera. The finding for 17 combinations of two or three types of blood in some females corroborates the opportunistic habit of this sand fly species. The results demonstrating the association between L. (L.) longipalpis and opossum suggest the need for further evaluation of the real role of this synanthropic mammal in the eco-epidemiology of AVL. PMID:22315621

  2. Ground-water/surface-water interaction in nearshore areas of Three Lakes on the Grand Portage Reservation, northeastern Minnesota, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Grand Portage Band of Chippewa Indians, applied three techniques to assess ground-water/surface-water interaction in nearshore areas of three lakes (North, Teal, and Taylor) on the Grand Portage Reservation in northeastern Minnesota. At each lake, analyses of existing aerial photographs, in-situ temperature measurements of shoreline lake sediment, and chemical analyses of surface water and pore water were conducted. Surface-water and pore-water samples were analyzed for major constituents, nutrients, and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen. Bulk precipitation samples were collected and analyzed (1) for nutrient concentrations to determine nutrient input to the lakes through atmospheric deposition and (2) for stable isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen to determine a meteoric waterline that was needed for the stable isotope analyses of surface-water and pore-water samples.

  3. Studies on the Feeding Habits of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae Populations from Endemic Areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Martins dos Santos Afonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify potential blood feeding sources of L. (L. longipalpis specimens from populations in Northeastern Brazil, endemic areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL and its correlation with the transmission of L. (L. i. chagasi. The ELISA technique was applied using bird, dog, goat, opossum, equine, feline, human, sheep, and rodent antisera to analyze 609 females, resulting in an overall positivity of 60%. In all municipalities, females showed higher positivity for bird followed by dog antiserum and sand fly specimens were also positive for equine, feline, human, sheep, goat, opossum, and rodent antisera. The finding for 17 combinations of two or three types of blood in some females corroborates the opportunistic habit of this sand fly species. The results demonstrating the association between L. (L. longipalpis and opossum suggest the need for further evaluation of the real role of this synanthropic mammal in the eco-epidemiology of AVL.

  4. Distribution of phytoplankton community in relation to environmental parameters in cage culture area of Sepanggar Bay, Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Madihah Jaffar; Rashed-Un-Nabi, Md.; Azharul Hoque, Md.

    2008-11-01

    This paper covers spatial and temporal variation in phytoplankton communities and physico-chemical water properties in the cage culture area of Sepanggar Bay, Sabah, Malaysia based on field measurement conducted during July 2005 to January 2006 to study the spatial and temporal variation in phytoplankton communities and physico-chemical water properties of the bay. Phytoplankton samples and water parameters data were collected from five different stations located inside the bay during Southwest, Interseasonal and Northeast monsoons. Forty phytoplankton genera, representatives of 23 families, were found in the study area with a mean abundance of 1.55 ± 1.19 × 10 6 cells L -1. Most of these genera belong to diatoms (82.17%), Dinoflagellates (17.55%) and cyanobacteria (0.29%). Three genera were found to be dominant (>10%) in phytoplankton abundance and these were Coscinodiscus spp. (36.38%), Chaetoceros spp (17.65%) and Bacteriastrum spp. (10.98%). The most dominant genus was Coscinodiscus spp. which showed high abundance during all monsoons and stations (except Station 3). Among the seven environmental parameters tested in this study, water temperature, pH and suspended sediment concentration were found to be significantly different between monsoons. On the other hand, no significant differences were found between stations for the studied physico-chemical parameters. A clear differences in phytoplankton densities were observed between monsoons and stations with higher mean abundances during interseasonal monsoon (2.40 ± 1.37 × 10 6 cells L -1) and at station five (2.05 ± 0.74 × 10 6 cells L -1), respectively. Conversely, the diversity indices, both Shannon-Wiener (H) and Pielou (J), showed no significant difference throughout stations and monsoons (except (H) for monsoons). Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) results demonstrated temporal differences in phytoplankton community structure with highly diverse phytoplankton assemblage. Through cluster analysis five

  5. Biomonitoring of trace metals using transplanted mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, in coastal areas around Ulsan and Onsan Bays, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan-Kook; Choi, Man Sik

    2017-03-01

    Mediterranean (blue) mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected from a reference site were transplanted to 15 stations in coastal areas around Ulsan and Onsan Bays, an extensively metal polluted area in Korean coastal waters, to assess metal contamination in the coastal oceans of Korea. During the biomonitoring periods (June 30 to July 20, 2003; 21 days), transplanted mussels, seawater, and particulate materials were collected for analysis of 15 metals (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, and Zn). Transplanted mussels showed metal enrichment compared to initial concentrations and spatial gradients consistent with dissolved and/or particulate metal concentrations in seawaters. Based on Q mode factor analysis, stations were clustered into three groups. The first group, located on Onsan Bay, showed high Ag, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb and Zn enrichment, presumably arising from non-ferrous metal refineries and chemical industries in this area. The second group was located near the mouth of the Oehwang River and was enriched in Co from petrochemical industries. The third group comprised a site intermediate between Group 1 and Group 2, an isolated station with independent metal sources located in Jangsaengpo harbor, where a number of ship repairing and building companies operate, and a less contaminated station near a small fishing village. Metal accumulation rates (%·day-1) in mussels were estimated to be between 8% (Cr) and 281% (Pb), based on accumulated metal concentrations over 21 days. The active biomonitoring technique using M. galloprovincialis demonstrated here is a useful monitoring method because it reflects the present status of seawaters; furthermore, physiological factors can be standardized, and bioavailable and time-integrated metal concentrations can be obtained. Furthermore, this method can be applied even in coastal seawaters so heavily contaminated that living organisms would not normally survive.

  6. Assessing vulnerable and expanding vegetation stands and species in the San Francisco Bay Area for conservation management under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morueta-Holme, N.; Heller, N. E.; McLaughlin, B.; Weiss, S. B.; Ackerly, D.

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of suitable climatic areas for species and vegetation types is expected to shift due to ongoing climate change. While the pace at which current distributions will shift is hard to quantify, predictions of where climatically suitable areas will be in the future can allow us to map 1) areas currently occupied by a species or vegetation type unlikely to persist through the end of this century (vulnerable stands), 2) areas likely to do better in the future and serve as nuclei for population expansion (expanding stands), and 3) areas likely to act as climate refugia (persisting stands). We quantified the vulnerability of 27 individual plant species and 27 vegetation types in the San Francisco Bay Area as well as the conservation importance, vulnerability, and resilience of selected management sites for climate change resilient conservation. To this end, we developed California-wide models of species and vegetation distributions using climate data from the 2014 California Basin Characterization Model at a 270 m resolution, projected to 18 different end-of century climate change scenarios. Combining these distribution models with high resolution maps of current vegetation, we were able to map projected vulnerable, expanding, and persisting stands within the Bay Area. We show that vegetation and species are expected to shift considerably within the study region over the next decades; although we also identify refugia potentially able to offset some of the negative impacts of climate change. We discuss the implications for managers that wish to incorporate climate change in conservation decisions, in particular related to choosing species for restoration, identifying areas to collect seeds for restoration, and preparing for expected major vegetation changes. Our evaluation of individual management sites highlights the need for stronger coordination of efforts across sites to prioritize monitoring and protection of species whose ranges are contracting

  7. Flooded area and plant zonation in isolated wetlands in well fields in the Northern Tampa Bay Region, Florida, following reductions in groundwater-withdrawal rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Kim H.; Pfeiffer, William R.

    2012-01-01

    The extent and duration of the flooded area were compared in two reference wetlands and nine wetlands in well fields in the northern Tampa Bay region, Florida, to determine whether reductions in well-field groundwater-withdrawal rates resulted in increases in wetland flooded area. Flooded area, expressed as a percentage of the total wetland area, was used to provide a quantitative and comparable line of evidence for describing the hydrologic conditions in isolated wetlands of different sizes and locations.

  8. Effectiveness of marine protected areas in managing the drivers of ecosystem change: a case of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machumu, Milali Ernest; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne

    2013-04-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are being promoted in Tanzania to mitigate the drivers of ecosystem change such as overfishing and other anthropogenic impacts on marine resources. The effectiveness of MPAs in managing those drivers was assessed in three ecological zones, seafront, mangrove, and riverine of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, using Participatory Community Analysis techniques, questionnaire survey, checklist and fishery resource assessment methods. Eleven major drivers of ecosystem change were identified. Resource dependence had a major effect in all ecological zones of the park. The results indicated that the park's legislations/regulations, management procedures, and conservation efforts are reasonably effective in managing its resources. The positive signs accrued from conservation efforts have been realized by the communities in terms of increased catch/income, awareness and compliance. However, some natural and anthropogenic drivers continued to threaten the park's sustainability. Furthermore, implementation of resource use and benefit sharing mechanisms still remained a considerable challenge to be addressed.

  9. N2O Emissions from an Apple Orchard in the Coastal Area of Bohai Bay, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohua Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using static chambers and gas chromatography, nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes from an apple orchard soil in the Bohai Bay region of China were measured from February 2010 to February 2011. In this study, two nitrogen (N fertilizer treatments were designed—without (CK or with (SN synthetic N fertilizers (800 kg N ha−1. The annual cumulative N2O emissions from CK and SN were 34.6 ± 3.0 (mean ± standard error and 44.3 ± 6.0 kg N2O–N ha−1, respectively. Such high emissions resulted from the intensive N fertilization in the experimental and previous years. The direct emission factor (EFd of N2O induced by the applied synthetic N fertilizers was 1.2%. The EFd is within the range of previous studies carried out in other croplands, which suggests that it is reasonable to estimate regional N2O emissions from apple orchards using the EFd obtained in other croplands. In addition, significant positive correlations existed between N2O fluxes and soil temperatures or soil dissolved organic carbon contents.

  10. N2O emissions from an apple orchard in the coastal area of Bohai Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Baohua; Yu, Junbao; Zheng, Xunhua; Qu, Fanzhu; Xu, Yu; Lin, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    Using static chambers and gas chromatography, nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from an apple orchard soil in the Bohai Bay region of China were measured from February 2010 to February 2011. In this study, two nitrogen (N) fertilizer treatments were designed--without (CK) or with (SN) synthetic N fertilizers (800 kg N ha(-1)). The annual cumulative N2O emissions from CK and SN were 34.6 ± 3.0 (mean ± standard error) and 44.3 ± 6.0 kg N2O-N ha(-1), respectively. Such high emissions resulted from the intensive N fertilization in the experimental and previous years. The direct emission factor (EFd) of N2O induced by the applied synthetic N fertilizers was 1.2%. The EFd is within the range of previous studies carried out in other croplands, which suggests that it is reasonable to estimate regional N2O emissions from apple orchards using the EFd obtained in other croplands. In addition, significant positive correlations existed between N2O fluxes and soil temperatures or soil dissolved organic carbon contents.

  11. Gateway National Recreation Area, Jamaica Bay Unit alternative transportation feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    The National Park Service Gateway National Recreation Area (GATE) was created to provide convenient access to outdoor recreation in the National Park System for residents and visitors to the New York City (NYC) area. The Volpe Center completed a numb...

  12. 33 CFR 165.811 - Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eighth Coast Guard District... self-propelled vessel may tow one other vessel without barges upbound; (2) A towing vessel and barges..., will be given by: (1) Marine information broadcasts; (2) Notices to mariners; (3) Vessel Traffic Center...

  13. Comparing sediment quality in Spanish littoral areas affected by acute (Prestige, 2002) and chronic (Bay of Algeciras) oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Caselles, C.; Kalman, J.; Riba, I.; DelValls, T.A.

    2007-01-01

    The quality of sediments collected from two areas of the Spanish coast affected by different sources of contaminants has been compared in this study. The areas studied are the coast of Galicia affected by the oil spill from the tanker Prestige (November 2002) and the Gulf of Cadiz which suffers continuous inputs of contaminants from industries located in the area and from oil spills. Contamination by several chemicals (metals, PCBs and PAHs) that bind to sediments was analyzed, and two toxicity tests (Microtox[reg]) and amphipod 10-day bioassay) were conducted. PAHs were identified as the compounds responsible for the toxic effects. Results show differences between an acute impact related to the sinking of the tanker Prestige and the chronic impact associated with continuous oil spills associated with the maritime and industrial activities in the Bay of Algeciras, this being the most polluted part of the two coastal areas studied in this work. - Littoral sediments affected by low or moderated but continuous oil spills are more polluted than those affected by accidental oil spills such as the Prestige

  14. An empirical test of the 'shark nursery area concept' in Texas bays using a long-term fisheries-independent data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froeschke, John T.; Stunz, Gregory W.; Sterba-Boatwright, Blair; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Using a long-term fisheries-independent data set, we tested the 'shark nursery area concept' proposed by Heupel et al. (2007) with the suggested working assumptions that a shark nursery habitat would: (1) have an abundance of immature sharks greater than the mean abundance across all habitats where they occur; (2) be used by sharks repeatedly through time (years); and (3) see immature sharks remaining within the habitat for extended periods of time. We tested this concept using young-of-the-year (age 0) and juvenile (age 1+ yr) bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas from gill-net surveys conducted in Texas bays from 1976 to 2006 to estimate the potential nursery function of 9 coastal bays. Of the 9 bay systems considered as potential nursery habitat, only Matagorda Bay satisfied all 3 criteria for young-of-the-year bull sharks. Both Matagorda and San Antonio Bays met the criteria for juvenile bull sharks. Through these analyses we examined the utility of this approach for characterizing nursery areas and we also describe some practical considerations, such as the influence of the temporal or spatial scales considered when applying the nursery role concept to shark populations.

  15. Accumulation conditions and exploration potential of Wufeng-Longmaxi Formations shale gas in Wuxi area, Northeastern Sichuan Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wu; Xuewen Shi; Jia Liu; Du Li; Jun Xie; Shengxian Zhao; Chunhai Ji; Ying Hu; Yanbo Guo

    2017-01-01

    Wufeng-Longmaxi Formations shale gas is a new exploration field in Wuxi area, Sichuan Basin, China. Some geological parameters related to shale gas evaluation of the new exploration wells in Wuxi area have been studied, including shale reservoir, gas-bearing, geochemical and paleontological characteristics. The study suggests that the original shale gas generation conditions of the area were good, but later this area went through serious and multi-phase tectonic damage. The major evidences in...

  16. Distribution and sources of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments, fish and bivalves of Abu Qir Bay (Egyptian Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Deeb, Kamal Z; Said, Tarek O; El Naggar, Mohamed H; Shreadah, Mohamed A

    2007-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected and quantified in recent marine sediments and selected species from fishes, bivalves and crustaceans of Abu Qir Bay during the period January-October 2004. Nineteen sampling stations were chosen to collect sediment samples covering almost the Bay area. Total PAHs found in the surficial bottom sediments of the Bay were identified in moderate values ranging between 69 and 1,464 ng/g dry weights. The distribution pattern of these compounds showed the availability of most di, tri- and tetra aromatics in the Bay area in addition to their alkyl derivatives. High molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons of five or more ring were detected everywhere in the Bay sediments. Certain number of pairs of isomer PAH concentrations are used for five origin molecular indices to identify the PAH concentration sources in the sediments of the Bay: Fluo/Py, Fluo/[Fluo + Py], LMW/HMW, BbF/BaP and BkF/BaP. Abu Qir Bay sediment samples were contaminated mainly by pyrolytic and petrogenic contaminations with strong pyrolytic inputs in the southwestern basin, while the northeastern area of the Bay is contaminated mainly by petrogenic PAHs. The studied biota samples of the Bay revealed levels of moderately contaminated specimens with total PAHs, while the carcinogenic PAH, benzo(a)pyrene were detected in most biological samples in levels ranged between 30.3 and 358 ng/g with an average of 152.4 ng/g should be taken into consideration.

  17. Remarkable diversity of tick or mammalian-associated Borreliae in the metropolitan San Francisco Bay Area, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, Natalia; Kleinjan, Joyce E; James, David; Hui, Lucia T; Peeters, Hans; Lane, Robert S

    2014-10-01

    The diversity of Lyme disease (LD) and relapsing fever (RF)-group spirochetes in the metropolitan San Francisco Bay area in northern California is poorly understood. We tested Ixodes pacificus, I. spinipalpis, and small mammals for presence of borreliae in Alameda County in the eastern portion of San Francisco Bay between 2009 and 2012. Analyses of 218 Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bb sl) culture or DNA isolates recovered from host-seeking I. pacificus ticks revealed that the human pathogen Bb sensu stricto (hereinafter, B. burgdorferi) had the broadest habitat distribution followed by B. bissettii. Three other North American Bb sl spirochetes, B. americana, B. californiensis and B. genomospecies 2, also were detected at lower prevalence. OspC genotyping of the resultant 167 B. burgdorferi isolates revealed six ospC alleles (A, D, E3, F, H and K) in I. pacificus. A novel spirochete belonging to the Eurasian Bb sl complex, designated CA690, was found in a questing I. spinipalpis nymph. Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing-fever (RF) group spirochete recently implicated as a human pathogen, was detected in 24 I. pacificus. Three rodent species were infected with Bb sl: the fox squirrel (Sciurus niger) with B. burgdorferi, and the dusky-footed wood rat (Neotoma fuscipes) and roof rat (Rattus rattus) with B. bissettii. Another spirochete that clustered phylogenetically with the Spanish R57 Borrelia sp. in a clade distinct from both the LD and RF groups infected some of the roof rats. Together, eight borrelial genospecies were detected in ticks or small mammals from a single Californian county, two of which were related phylogenetically to European spirochetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. 77 FR 65521 - Determination of Attainment for the San Francisco Bay Area Nonattainment Area for the 2006 Fine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... available only at the hard copy location (e.g., copyrighted material), and some may not be publicly available at either location (e.g., CBI). To inspect the hard copy materials, please schedule an appointment... Monitoring Stations (SLAMS) in a nonattainment area and entered into the AQS database. Data from air monitors...

  19. Nitrogen deposition and sensitive ecosystems: a case study from the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S. B.

    2001-12-01

    Nitrogen deposition from urban smog can greatly affect local ecosystems. This paper examines a complex situation in the Santa Clara Valley, CA where N-deposition from existing, new, and proposed developments threatens an ecosystem supporting numerous rare, threatened, and endangered species. Grasslands on nutrient-poor serpentinitic soils are being invaded by nutrient-demanding introduced annual grasses, driven by dry N-deposition of about 10 kg ha-1 yr-1. These grass invasions threaten the native biodiversity of the serpentinitic grasslands, including the federally-protected Bay checkerspot butterfly. Additional NOx and NH3 sources planned for the region include a 600 MW natural gas fired power plant, industrial parks that may eventually draw 20,000 to 50,000 additional cars per day, 25,000 housing units, and associated highway improvements. Ongoing mitigation proposals include purchase and long-term management of hundreds of hectares of habitat. The situation is a model for understanding N-deposition from a scientific and policy viewpoint. Fundamental biogeochemical questions include: 1) What are the relative contributions of NOx and NH3 to increased N-deposition? NH3 slip from power plant NOx scrubbers can release more reactive nitrogen than is removed as NOx, and modern automobiles release NH3 in addition to NOx. 2) How are N-emissions transported, chemically modified, and deposited on the local ecosystems, and are these processes adequately captured in regulatory models? How do point sources differ from line sources such as a heavily traveled freeway? 3) What are the effects of chronic N-deposition on the ecosystem, and is there a critical load or a steady cumulative effect? 4) What are the effects of management such as fire, grazing, mowing on N-cycling and plant composition? Policy issues include: 1) What are the incremental impacts of individual projects relative to high background deposition, 2) What margin of safety should be built into modeling and

  20. 76 FR 31895 - Regulated Navigation Area; Magothy River, Sillery Bay, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... submit comments by mail and would like to know that they reached the Facility, please enclose a stamped... within this regulated navigation area shall: (i) Travel at no-wake speed, (ii) Stop the vessel...

  1. 33 CFR 162.195 - Santa Monica Bay, Calif.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., dragging, seining, or other fishing operations which might foul underwater installations within the area... unrestricted to small recreational craft for recreational activities at all times. (4) The placing of bouys...

  2. Trace/heavy metal pollution monitoring in estuary and coastal area of Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh and implicated impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Golam; Hossain, Md Maruf; Mallick, Debbrota; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf

    2016-04-15

    Using artificial mussels (AMs), this study reports and compares time-integrated level of eleven trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, Zn) in Karnafuli River estuary and coastal area of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Through this study, "hot spots" of metal pollution were identified. The results may demonstrate that the Karnafuli Estuary, and adjacent coastal area of Chittagong, Bangladesh are highly polluted by high risk metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, uranium). Agricultural, domestic and industrial wastes directly discharged into the waterways have been identified as the main causes of metal pollution in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The high level of metal pollution identified may impact on local water quality, and seafood catch, livelihoods of people and public health resulting from seafood consumption. There is a need for regular monitoring to ascertain that local water quality with respect to metal levels are within acceptable levels to safeguards both environmental health and public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Malignant melanoma slide review project: Patients from non-Kaiser hospitals in the San Francisco Bay Area. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, P. [California Dept. of Health Services, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-01-05

    This project was initiated, in response to concerns that the observed excess of malignant melanoma among employees of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) might reflect the incidence of disease diagnostically different than that observed in the general population. LLNL sponsored a slide review project, inviting leading dermatopathology experts to independently evaluate pathology slides from LLNL employees diagnosed with melanoma and those from a matched sample of Bay Area melanoma patients who did not work at the LLNL. The study objectives were to: Identify all 1969--1984 newly diagnosed cases of malignant melanoma among LLNL employees resident in the San Francisco-Oakland Metropolitan Statistical Area, and diagnosed at facilities other than Kaiser Permanente; identify a comparison series of melanoma cases also diagnosed between 1969--1984 in non-Kaiser facilities, and matched as closely as possible to the LLNL case series by gender, race, age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, and hospital of diagnosis; obtain pathology slides for the identified (LLNL) case and (non-LLNL) comparison patients for review by the LLNL-invited panel of dermatopathology experts; and to compare the pathologic characteristics of the case and comparison melanoma patients, as recorded by the dermatopathology panel.

  4. Accumulation conditions and exploration potential of Wufeng-Longmaxi Formations shale gas in Wuxi area, Northeastern Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wufeng-Longmaxi Formations shale gas is a new exploration field in Wuxi area, Sichuan Basin, China. Some geological parameters related to shale gas evaluation of the new exploration wells in Wuxi area have been studied, including shale reservoir, gas-bearing, geochemical and paleontological characteristics. The study suggests that the original shale gas generation conditions of the area were good, but later this area went through serious and multi-phase tectonic damage. The major evidences include that: the δ13C2 value of shale gas is obviously higher than that in areas with the same maturity, indicating the shale gas is mainly late kerogen cracking gas and high hydrocarbon expulsion efficiency; the porosity of shale in Wuxi area is very low because of strong tectonic movements and lack of retained oil in the shale; some shale cores near faults even show very weak metamorphic characteristics with intense cleavage, and the epidermis of graptolite fossils was pyrolyzed. The comprehensive study shows shale gas in Wuxi area has prospective resources, but the possibility to get scale commercial production in recent time is very low.

  5. California; Bay Area Air Quality Management District; Proposed Approval of Stationary Sources New Source Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a proposed determination that CARB submitted rules on behalf of BAAQMD that satisfy part D of the Clean Air Act for areas under the jurisdiction of the BAAQMD.

  6. Between Greenland and America : cross-cultural contacts and the environment in the Baffin Bay area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacquebord, Louwrens; Vaughan, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Contents: Preface Robert Petersen Continuity and discontinuity in the Political Development of Modern Greenland Jørgen Meldgaard The Prehistoric Cultures in Greenland: Discontinuities in a Marginal Area A.G.F. van Holk Continuity and Discontinuity in Lingulstic Change: A semiotic approach to the

  7. Greenhouse Gas Source Detection and Attribution in the San Francisco Bay Area of California Using a Mobile Measurement Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martien, P. T.; Guha, A.; Newman, S.; Young, A.; Bower, J.; Perkins, I.; Randall, S.; Stevenson, E.; Hilken, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the San Francisco Bay Area's air quality regulatory agency, has set a goal to reduce the region's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions 80% below 1990 levels by 2050, consistent with the State of California's climate goals. Recently, the Air District's governing board adopted a 2017 Clean Air Plan advancing the agency's vision and including actions to put the region on a path to achieving the 2050 goal while also reducing air pollution and related health impacts. The Plan includes GHG rule-making efforts, policy initiatives, local government partnerships, outreach, grants and incentives, encompassing over 250 specific implementation actions across all economic sectors to effect ambitious emission reductions in the region. To support the 2017 Plan, the Air District has built a mobile measurement platform (GHG research van) to perform targeted CH4 emissions hotspot detection and source attribution. Instruments in the van measure CH4, CO2 and N2O in ambient plumes. Coincident measurements of source tracers like isotopic methane (13C - CH4), CO and ethane (C2H6) provide the capability to distinguish between biogenic, combustion-based and fossil-based fugitive methane sources. We report observations of CH4 plumes from source-specific measurements in and around facilities including a wastewater treatment plant, a composting operation, a waste-to-energy anaerobic digestion plant and a few refineries. We performed leak surveys inside several electric utility-operated facilities including a power plant and an underground natural gas storage facility. We sampled exhaust from a roadway tunnel and computed fleet-averaged automobile-related CH4 and N2O emission factors. We used tracer-to-tracer emission ratios to create chemical signatures of emissions from each sampled source category. We compare measurement-based ratios with those used to derive the regional GHG inventory. Data from these and other sources will lead to an improved

  8. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraphs (d)(1) through (d)(3) of this section apply to power driven vessels of 1600 or more gross tons, a... Middle Breakwater as defined by an area enclosed by the line beginning at Los Angeles Main Channel Entrance Light 2 (33°42.70′ N, 118°14.70′ W), thence east along the Middle Breakwater to Long Beach Light...

  9. Exposure and inequality for select urban air pollutants in the Tampa Bay area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haofei; Stuart, Amy L

    2016-05-01

    Air pollution exposure has been linked to numerous adverse health effects, with some disadvantaged subgroups disproportionately burdened. The objective of this work was to characterize distributions of emissions and concentrations of a few important urban air toxics at high spatiotemporal resolution in order to assess exposure and inequality. Benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde were the focus pollutants, with oxides of nitrogen (NOx) estimated for comparisons. Primary pollutant emissions were estimated for the full spectrum of source types in the Tampa area using a hybrid approach that is most detailed for major roadways and includes hourly variations in vehicle speed. Resultant pollutant concentrations were calculated using the CALPUFF dispersion model, and combined with CMAQ model output to account for secondary formation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Census demographic data were applied to estimate residential pollution exposures and inequality among population subgroups. Estimated concentrations of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and NOx were generally higher in urban areas and lower in rural areas. Exposures to these pollutants were disproportionately high for subgroups characterized as black, Hispanic and low income (annual household income less than $20,000). For formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, the patterns of concentration and exposure were largely reversed. Results suggest that disparities in exposure depend on pollutant type. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The description and prediction of benthic biodiversity in high Arctic and freshwater-dominated marine areas: the southern Onega Bay (the White Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisenko, Nina V

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the macrozoobenthic community in 2003-2004 in the southern part of the Onega Bay along a salinity gradient showed the poorest fauna (one species) was found in the estuarine area. In the open part of the bay the species richness up to 64 species. In the study area, as a whole, the zoobenthos abundance varied from 51 to 4590 ind. m(-2), biomass--from 0.51 to 651.4 g m(-2) and lower values occurred in the estuarine part of the Onega Bay. The Shannon diversity index [log2 basis] varied considerably--from 0.69 bits in the mouth of the Onega River up to 4.56 bits at the marine stations. Liner multiple regression analysis showed that species richness is related primarily to depth, distance, temperature and the amount of C(org.) in sediments; Shannon diversity is connected with salinity, temperature, depth, amount of C(org.) in sediments and chlorophyll concentration in the water. For abundance and biomass the main determining factors were distance and concentration of C(org.) in sediments. Fresh water input from the Onega River caused variations in the salinity regime in the top of the Bay which indirectly influenced zoobenthic populations via other parameters which changed as a result of river discharge. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Occurrence of intracellular and extracellular antibiotic resistance genes in coastal areas of Bohai Bay (China) and the factors affecting them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongpeng; Niu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Kai

    2018-01-29

    Coastal areas are the transition zones between ocean and land where intracellular antibiotic resistance genes (iARGs) and extracellular antibiotic resistance genes (eARGs) could spread among marine organisms, and between humans and marine organisms. However, little attention has been paid to the combined research on iARGs and eARGs in marine environment. In this context, we collected water and sediment samples from the coastal areas of the Bohai Bay in China and performed molecular and chemical analyses. The results of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) showed that the relative abundance of eARGs was up to 4.3 ± 1.3 × 10 -1 gene copies/16S rRNA copies in the water samples and 2.6 ± 0.3 × 10 -3 gene copies/16S rRNA copies in the sediment samples. Also, the abundance of eARGs was significantly higher than that of iARGs. Furthermore, the average abundances of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs, include iARGs and eARGs) were the highest in both the water and sediment samples from the estuaries. The results of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that the concentrations of antibiotics in estuaries and areas near the mariculture site were higher than that in the other sites. The class 1 integron gene (int1) and sul1 in the intracellular DNA were significantly correlated in the water samples. Moreover, significant correlation between int1 and sul2 in the extracellular DNA was also found in the sediment samples. The combination of sulfamerazine and tetracycline as well as the combination of sulfamethazine and dissolved oxygen can both explain the abundance of ARGs, implying the combined effects of multiple stresses on ARGs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Solid precipitation estimation during summer snowfall events at a coastal site of the Terra Nova bay area, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarchilli, Claudio; Grigioni, Paolo; Maahn, Maximilian; Negusini, Monia; Argentini, Stefania; Pace, Giandomenico; Frezzotti, Massimo; De Silvestri, Lorenzo; Ciardini, Virginia; Galeandro, Angelo; Iaccarino, Antonio; Dolci, Stefano; Proposito, Marco; Camporeale, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of the spatial and temporal variability of snowfall in Antarctica and its impact on the Antarctic Ice sheet mass balance is essential to define the impact of the ice sheet on sea level rise. State of the art model projections assess an increase in snowfalls in the next century, but large uncertainties in current estimates prevent a reliable long term forecasts. Moreover, in situ continuous observations of precipitation are rare and sparse over Antarctica due to experimental difficulties and harsh climatic conditions. In order to increase the understandings of snowfall on surface mass balance, a project using a multidisciplinary methodology has been carried out over the Antarctic coastal area of Terra Nova Bay (TNB) the Italian summer Antarctic campaigns of 2015-2016 and 2016-2017. Several summer snowfall events were observed at the Mario Zucchelli station (MZS, 74°41'42″ S, 164°07'23″ E) using a comprehensive set of instruments including: meteorological observations from preexisting automatic weather station (AWS), a celiometer, a laser pluviometer, daily radiosonde profiles (provided by Meteo-Climatological Observatory), a GPS system for columnar water vapor measurements (provided by Geodetic Observatory), two small radar sensors, an infrared pyrometer, a net radiometer. Other instrumentations (AWSs and stake farms), spread over the area, provide observations of snow accumulation and meteorological conditions over the region. During the 2015-2016 summer the precipitation events were concentrated between the end of December and first days of January, while during 2016-2017 snowfalls arise also during November and December. Each event lasted on average from about 12 to 48 hours and was related mainly to large low pressure systems off shore Ross Sea, which established a local instability and/or cyclonic circulation over TNB area. First estimations of total precipitation for the period range between 40 and 60 mm water equivalent depending on

  13. Risk factors for dementia in a rural area of Northeastern Brazil Fatores de risco para demência em uma área rural do nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Oliveira de Cerqueira Magalhães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for dementia among the elderly in a rural area of Northeastern Brazil. METHOD: The subjects assessed were all 60 years old or older, and lived in a rural region of Bahia, a Northeastern State of Brazil. CAMDEX, a structured clinical evaluation protocol, was used for diagnosis, and applied at the home of the subjects. RESULTS: The risk factors identified were divided in accordance with socio-demographic characteristics, the presence of co-morbid conditions, and the use of medications. The variables with strong association with dementia were age, history of stroke, arterial hypertension, and sight impairment. CONCLUSION: Advanced age, arterial hypertension, and vascular brain injury were the main risk factors associated with dementia, which suggests that public health measures adopted to prevent and control modifiable risk factors can mitigate the prevalence of high rates of dementia.OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores de risco para demência entre idosos de uma área rural do nordeste do Brasil. MÉTODO: Os indivíduos avaliados tinham 60 anos ou mais e viviam numa região rural na Bahia, Estado do nordeste brasileiro. Um protocolo de avaliação clínica estruturada - CAMDEX - foi utilizado para diagnóstico e aplicado no domicílio dos indivíduos participantes. RESULTADOS: Os fatores de risco identificados foram divididos de acordo com características sócio-demográficas, a presença de comorbidades e o uso de medicações. As variáveis com forte associação para demência foram idade, história de acidente vascular encefálico, hipertensão arterial e comprometimento visual. CONCLUSÃO: Idade avançada, hipertensão arterial e lesão vascular cerebral foram os principais fatores de risco associados com demência, o que sugere que medidas de saúde pública adotadas para prevenir e controlar fatores de risco modificáveis podem diminuir a prevalência de altas taxas de demência.

  14. Monitoring air quality in class I wilderness areas of the northeastern United States using lichens and bryophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison C. Dibble; James W. Hinds; Ralph Perron; Natalie Cleavitt; Richard L. Poirot; Linda H. Pardo

    2016-01-01

    To address a need for air quality and lichen monitoring information for the Northeast, we compared bulk chemistry data from 2011-2013 to baseline surveys from 1988 and 1993 in three Class I Wilderness areas of New Hampshire and Vermont. Plots were within the White Mountain National Forest (Presidential Range—Dry River Wilderness and Great Gulf Wilderness, New Hampshire...

  15. Composition and structure of riparian areas along a land-use gradient in an agricultural watershed of northeastern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Charles Goebel; David M. Hix; Heather L. Whitman

    2011-01-01

    The restoration of riparian areas along many streams often proceeds with little existing information on the composition and structure of woody riparian vegetation. We examined the woody riparian vegetation in three subwatersheds of the Sugar Creek watershed in Ohio, each with different environmental characteristics (e.g., glacial history, physiography, soils, stream...

  16. Effects of Acknowledging Uncertainty about Earthquake Risk Estimates on San Francisco Bay Area Residents' Beliefs, Attitudes, and Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayachi, Kazuya; B Johnson, Branden; Koketsu, Kazuki

    2017-08-29

    We test here the risk communication proposition that explicit expert acknowledgment of uncertainty in risk estimates can enhance trust and other reactions. We manipulated such a scientific uncertainty message, accompanied by probabilities (20%, 70%, implicit ["will occur"] 100%) and time periods (10 or 30 years) in major (≥magnitude 8) earthquake risk estimates to test potential effects on residents potentially affected by seismic activity on the San Andreas fault in the San Francisco Bay Area (n = 750). The uncertainty acknowledgment increased belief that these specific experts were more honest and open, and led to statistically (but not substantively) significant increases in trust in seismic experts generally only for the 20% probability (vs. certainty) and shorter versus longer time period. The acknowledgment did not change judged risk, preparedness intentions, or mitigation policy support. Probability effects independent of the explicit admission of expert uncertainty were also insignificant except for judged risk, which rose or fell slightly depending upon the measure of judged risk used. Overall, both qualitative expressions of uncertainty and quantitative probabilities had limited effects on public reaction. These results imply that both theoretical arguments for positive effects, and practitioners' potential concerns for negative effects, of uncertainty expression may have been overblown. There may be good reasons to still acknowledge experts' uncertainties, but those merit separate justification and their own empirical tests. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Isolation and characterization of benzo[a]pyrene-degrading bacteria from the Tokyo Bay area and Tama River in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okai, Masahiko; Kihara, Ikumi; Yokoyama, Yuto; Ishida, Masami; Urano, Naoto

    2015-09-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is one of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and has serious detrimental effects on human health and aquatic environments. In this study, we isolated nine bacterial strains capable of degrading BaP from the Tokyo Bay area and Tama River in Japan. The isolated bacteria belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, indicating that the BaP-degrading bacteria were widely present in the hydrosphere. ITB11, which shared 100% 16S rRNA identity with Mesoflavibacter zeaxanthinifaciens in the phylum Bacteroidetes, showed the highest degradation of BaP (approximately 86%) among the nine isolated strains after 42 days. Moreover, it was found that three of the nine isolated strains collectively removed 50-55% of BaP during the first 7 days. Growth measurement of M. zeaxanthinifaciens revealed that the strain utilized BaP as a sole carbon and energy source and salicylate acted only as an inducer of BaP degradation. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Sociodemographic Factors Associated With Trans*female Youth's Access to Health Care in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Elizabeth A; Jin, Harry; Auerswald, Colette L; Wilson, Erin C

    2017-08-01

    Trans*female youth (TFY) are an underserved population at risk for a variety of poor health outcomes, in part related to barriers to accessing health and mental health care. We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected with 250 TFY aged 16-24 years in the San Francisco Bay Area from 2012 to 2014. Logistic regression was used to test associations between sociodemographic variables and barriers to gender identity-based medical and mental health care. Having a history of unstable housing was associated with significantly higher odds of problems accessing both medical care (odds ratio: 2.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-4.13) and mental health care due to gender identity (odds ratio 2.65, 95% confidence interval: 1.08-6.45). Conversely, identifying as genderqueer/genderfluid, Latina, or living in dependent housing was associated with access to either medical or mental health care. Interventions are needed to address housing and discrimination barring access to health care among TFY. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Geology, geochronology, and paleogeography of the southern Sonoma volcanic field and adjacent areas, northern San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, David L.; Saucedo, George J.; Clahan, Kevin B.; Fleck, Robert J.; Langenheim, Victoria E.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Allen, James R.; Deino, Alan L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping in the northern San Francisco Bay region (California, USA) supported by radiometric dating and tephrochronologic correlations, provides insights into the framework geology, stratigraphy, tectonic evolution, and geologic history of this part of the San Andreas transform plate boundary. There are 25 new and existing radiometric dates that define three temporally distinct volcanic packages along the north margin of San Pablo Bay, i.e., the Burdell Mountain Volcanics (11.1 Ma), the Tolay Volcanics (ca. 10–8 Ma), and the Sonoma Volcanics (ca. 8–2.5 Ma). The Burdell Mountain and the Tolay Volcanics are allochthonous, having been displaced from the Quien Sabe Volcanics and the Berkeley Hills Volcanics, respectively. Two samples from a core of the Tolay Volcanics taken from the Murphy #1 well in the Petaluma oilfield yielded ages of 8.99 ± 0.06 and 9.13 ± 0.06 Ma, demonstrating that volcanic rocks exposed along Tolay Creek near Sears Point previously thought to be a separate unit, the Donnell Ranch volcanics, are part of the Tolay Volcanics. Other new dates reported herein show that volcanic rocks in the Meacham Hill area and extending southwest to the Burdell Mountain fault are also part of the Tolay Volcanics. In the Sonoma volcanic field, strongly bimodal volcanic sequences are intercalated with sediments. In the Mayacmas Mountains a belt of eruptive centers youngs to the north. The youngest of these volcanic centers at Sugarloaf Ridge, which lithologically, chemically, and temporally matches the Napa Valley eruptive center, was apparently displaced 30 km to the northwest by movement along the Carneros and West Napa faults. The older parts of the Sonoma Volcanics have been displaced at least 28 km along the Rodgers Creek fault since ca. 7 Ma. The Petaluma Formation also youngs to the north along the Rodgers Creek–Hayward fault and the Bennett Valley fault. The Petaluma basin formed as part of the Contra Costa basin in the Late Miocene and

  20. Understanding Hydrological Processes in Variable Source Areas in the Glaciated Northeastern US Watersheds under Variable Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, T. S.; Azzaino, Z.; Hoang, L.; Pacenka, S.; Worqlul, A. W.; Mukundan, R.; Stoof, C.; Owens, E. M.; Richards, B. K.

    2017-12-01

    The New York City source watersheds in the Catskill Mountains' humid, temperate climate has long-term hydrological and water quality monitoring data It is one of the few catchments where implementation of source and landscape management practices has led to decreased phosphorus concentration in the receiving surface waters. One of the reasons is that landscape measures correctly targeted the saturated variable source runoff areas (VSA) in the valley bottoms as the location where most of the runoff and other nonpoint pollutants originated. Measures targeting these areas were instrumental in lowering phosphorus concentration. Further improvements in water quality can be made based on a better understanding of the flow processes and water table fluctuations in the VSA. For that reason, we instrumented a self-contained upland variable source watershed with a landscape characteristic of a soil underlain by glacial till at shallow depth similar to the Catskill watersheds. In this presentation, we will discuss our experimental findings and present a mathematical model. Variable source areas have a small slope making gravity the driving force for the flow, greatly simplifying the simulation of the flow processes. The experimental data and the model simulations agreed for both outflow and water table fluctuations. We found that while the flows to the outlet were similar throughout the year, the discharge of the VSA varies greatly. This was due to transpiration by the plants which became active when soil temperatures were above 10oC. We found that shortly after the temperature increased above 10oC the baseflow stopped and only surface runoff occurred when rainstorms exceeded the storage capacity of the soil in at least a portion of the variable source area. Since plant growth in the variable source area was a major variable determining the base flow behavior, changes in temperature in the future - affecting the duration of the growing season - will affect baseflow and

  1. Spatial distribution of disseminated histoplasmosis and AIDS co-infection in an endemic area of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Francisco Gustavo Silveira; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Damasceno, Lisandra Serra; Ramos, Isadora Cavalcanti; Pontes, Lícia Borges; Leitão, Terezinha do Menino Jesus Silva

    2016-04-01

    The spatial distribution of disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) co-infection in adult residents of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil was evaluated. Socio-demographic data for the DH/AIDS cases were obtained from a reference hospital, and socio-environmental indicators were obtained from an official Brazilian institute. Kernel analysis and local indicators of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) cluster maps were used to estimate the case density within the city. DH/AIDS cases were concentrated in the Northwestern and Southwestern peripheral areas of the city, related with low human development indices, but different from AIDS cases distribution. Risk factors other than AIDS infection must affect histoplasmosis development in this area.

  2. Glacial Area Changes in the Ili River Catchment (Northeastern Tian Shan in Xinjiang, China, from the 1960s to 2009

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    Junli Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ili River originates in the Tian Shan Mountains of Northwest China before flowing into Kazakhstan and Lake Balkash. Melting snow and ice are its major contributors. We analyzed glacial changes in the upper Ili River basin between the 1960s and 2007/2009 using topographic maps and satellite imagery from a Landsat TM. The relationships between glacial changes and glacial size, topographic factors, and debris cover were examined. Our results found that total glacial area decreased by 485 ± 177.3 km2 (24.2% ± 8.8% during the study period, and there were no advancing glaciers. Additionally, 331 glaciers disappeared and 18 disintegrated into two or three smaller glaciers. This study demonstrated a linear relationship between glacial area change and elevation. Changes in glaciers smaller than 1 km2 were affected by both glacial size and topographic factors, while larger ones were affected by size only. Area losses in debris-covered glaciers were smaller by 2.5% to 7.5% compared to clean ice of the same size in this basin. As in other glaciated regions, glacial retreat in the Ili River basin is attributed to global warming. The slightly increasing precipitation over the study period could not offset the ice melting.

  3. An analysis of human-induced land transformations in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtland, David A.; Gaydos, L.J.; Clarke, Keith; DeCola, Lee; Acevedo, William; Bell, Cindy

    1994-01-01

    Part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Global Change Research Program involvesstudying the area from the Pacific Ocean to the Sierra foothills to enhance understanding ofthe role that human activities play in global change. The study investigates the ways thathumans transform the land and the effects that changing the landscape may have on regionaland global systems. To accomplish this research, scientists are compiling records ofhistorical transformations in the region's land cover over the last 140 years, developing asimulation model to predict land cover change, and assembling a digital data set to analyzeand describe land transformations. The historical data regarding urban growth focusattention on the significant change the region underwent from 1850 to 1990. Animation isused to visualize a time series of the change in land cover. The historical change is beingused to calibrate a prototype cellular automata model, developed to predict changes in urbanland cover 100 years into the future. Future urban growth scenarios will be developed foranalyzing possible human-induced impacts on land cover at a regional scale. These data aidin documenting and understanding human-induced land transformations from both historical andpredictive perspectives. A descriptive analysis of the region is used to investigate therelationships among data characteristic of the region. These data consist of multilayertopography, climate, vegetation, and population data for a 256-km2 region of centralCalifornia. A variety of multivariate analysis tools are used to integrate the data inraster format from map contours, interpolated climate observations, satellite observations,and population estimates.

  4. An evaluation of the bedrock aquifer system in northeastern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Ground water is a major source of water in northeastern Wisconsin. The lower Fox River valley, located between Lake Winnebago and Green Bay in northeastern Wisconsin, is the second largest population center in Wisconsin. By 1957, ground-water withdrawals had lowered the potentiometric surface of the aquifer system as much as 440 feet below prepumping levels. With the exception of the city of Green Bay, which converted from ground water to surface water (Lake Michigan) for their municipal water supply in 1957, ground-water withdrawals have continually increased.

  5. Distribution of frogs in rice bays within an irrigated agricultural area: links to pesticide usage and farm practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyne, Ross V; Spolyarich, Nick; Wilson, Scott P; Patra, Ronald W; Byrne, Maria; Gordon, Geoff; Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco; Palmer, Carolyn G

    2009-06-01

    In the Coleambally irrigation area (NSW, Australia), the occurrence of four tadpole and frog species in rice bays on farms growing either rice only or both rice and corn was studied over two seasons. In addition to analysis of species occurrence, both gonadal histology and assessment of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection rates were performed. The rice acreage available as potential tadpole habitat was extensively distributed throughout the irrigation area, but more corn was grown in the northern region compared with the southern region. The mean abundance of Litoria raniformis tadpoles was significantly lower in the northern sites compared with the southern sites. In contrast, tadpoles of Limnodynastes fletcheri, Limnodynastes tasmaniensis, and Crinia parinsignifera had a uniform distribution across all study sites. A principal components analysis showed a relationship between farm type and the rice herbicide applied when the crops were initially sown, with sites occupied by Litoria raniformis in the beginning being predominantly rice-only farms. A discriminant analysis showed that low concentrations of the corn herbicide metolachlor and increased pH were the main variables studied that determined site occupation by L. raniformis. This suggested that farms growing only rice (and not corn) with high algal production were the preferred sites. The rates of chytrid infection and gonadal malformations were low across both regions. Histology of the gonads of metamorphs showed that L. raniformis gonadal differentiation is slow compared to that of the two Limnodynastes species. We concluded that farm practices associated with increased corn cropping in the northern region, rather than any direct effect of corn herbicides, determine the reduced presence of Litoria raniformis in the northern region.

  6. Influence of oil and gas emissions on ambient atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons in residential areas of Northeastern Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea R. Thompson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Northern Front Range (NFR region of Colorado has experienced rapid expansion of oil and gas extraction from shale and tight sands reservoirs in recent years due to advances in hydraulic fracturing technology, with over 25,000 wells currently in operation. This region has also been designated as a federal ozone non-attainment area by the U.S. EPA. High ozone levels are a significant health concern, as are potential health impacts from chronic exposure to primary emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC for residents living near wells. From measurements of ambient atmospheric NMHC present in residential areas located in close proximity to wells in Erie, Colorado, we find that mean mole fractions of the C2–C5 alkanes are enhanced by a factor of 18–77 relative to the regional background, and present at higher levels than typically found in large urban centers. When combined with NMHC observations from downtown Denver and Platteville, it is apparent that these compounds are elevated across the NFR, with highest levels within the Greater Wattenberg Gas Field. This represents a large area source for ozone precursors in the NFR. The BTEX aromatic compounds in Erie were comparable to (e.g., benzene or lower than (e.g., toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene in large urban centers, however, benzene was significantly higher in Platteville, and within the range of chronic health-based exposure levels. An initial look at comparisons with data sets from previous years reveal that ambient levels for oil and gas-related NMHC in Erie, as well as further downwind in Boulder, have not decreased, but appear to have been increasing, despite tightening of emissions standards for the oil and gas industries in 2008.

  7. An Integrated Model of Surface Water and Groundwater Interactions at Yi-lan Area in Northeastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Y.; Yeh, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    Interaction between surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) plays an important role in local society and ecosystem, especially in areas with limited water resources. Historically, hydrologic simulations have not accounted for feedback looks between the GW system and other hydrologic processes. Integrated SW-GW modelling can provide a comprehensive and coherent understanding on basin-scale water cycle and better manage the water resources for sustainable usage. At Yi-lan area, hydrological modelling has been performed for both the entire SW and GW systems along, but fully integrated SW-GW modeling has not been attempted for this area. In order to enhance the efficiency of water useage, a coupled GW and SW flow model (GSFLOW), developed by U.S. Geological Survey, is selected as the numerical model to simulate the major processes of the hydrologic cycle. GSFLOW integrated PRMS with MODFLOW-2005 which perform surface hydrology simulation and 3-D groundwater simulation, respectively. The data of solar radiation, land use, precipitation, temperature, river stage, stream flow rate, groundwater level, and digital elevation model were collected from 2004-2012 to develop the simulation model. The coupled GSFLOW model is calibrated by automatic parameter estimation approach of using streamflows and groundwater levels. The singular value decomposition (SVD) method is performed to avoid the instability of solution during the model calibration. The calibrated results show that the state variables and fluxes in basin-scale water cycle can be simulated with high spatial and temporal resolutions, and all the important hydrologic processes can be characterized simultaneously in an integrated framework. The scenarios with different precipitation distributions and temperature patterns are conducted on the calibrated model to forecast the dynamic variations of hydrologic processes in the entire water basin. This study clearly demonstrated the benefits of using a physically based

  8. An Integrated Hydrogeologic and Geophysical Investigation to Characterize the Hydrostratigraphy of the Edwards Aquifer in an Area of Northeastern Bexar County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachin D.; Smith, Bruce D.; Clark, Allan K.; Payne, Jason

    2008-01-01

    In August 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, did a hydrogeologic and geophysical investigation to characterize the hydrostratigraphy (hydrostratigraphic zones) and also the hydrogeologic features (karst features such as sinkholes and caves) of the Edwards aquifer in a 16-square-kilometer area of northeastern Bexar County, Texas, undergoing urban development. Existing hydrostratigraphic information, enhanced by local-scale geologic mapping in the area, and surface geophysics were used to associate ranges of electrical resistivities obtained from capacitively coupled (CC) resistivity surveys, frequency-domain electromagnetic (FDEM) surveys, time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) soundings, and two-dimensional direct-current (2D-DC) resistivity surveys with each of seven hydrostratigraphic zones (equivalent to members of the Kainer and Person Formations) of the Edwards aquifer. The principal finding of this investigation is the relation between electrical resistivity and the contacts between the hydrostratigraphic zones of the Edwards aquifer and the underlying Trinity aquifer in the area. In general, the TDEM data indicate a two-layer model in which an electrical conductor underlies an electrical resistor, which is consistent with the Trinity aquifer (conductor) underlying the Edwards aquifer (resistor). TDEM data also show the plane of Bat Cave fault, a well-known fault in the area, to be associated with a local, nearly vertical zone of low resistivity that provides evidence, although not definitive, for Bat Cave fault functioning as a flow barrier, at least locally. In general, the CC resistivity, FDEM survey, and 2D-DC resistivity survey data show a sharp electrical contrast from north to south, changing from high resistivity to low resistivity across Bat Cave fault as well as possible karst features in the study area. Interpreted karst features that show relatively low resistivity within a relatively high

  9. Ichthyofauna in an estuary of the Mataripe area, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil

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    June Ferraz Dias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The community structure and dynamics as well as some biological parameters of selected species of the ichthyofauna of the Mataripe estuarine region affected by the Landulfo Alves Oil Refinery (RLAM were analyzed. Twenty stations were sampled with a gillnet in five different periods: August and December 2003, March and July/August 2004 and January 2005. Thirty-five actinopterygian species and one elasmobranch species were recorded, Oligoplites saurus, Diapterus rhombeus, Lutjanus synagris and Scomberomorus brasiliensis among them, on all the campaigns. A total of 1368 specimens, weighing 36.10 kg, were caught. The ichthyofauna total biomass was greater, in weight, on the eastern side of the study region, especially at the stations close to the shoals/reefs and the rocky bottom. A similar pattern was also observed for the diversity values. In general, low evenness and diversity were observed in the area studied, possibly as a result of the fishing gear used. D. rhombeus juveniles dominated in all but one of the samplings (July 2004, in which latter Cyclichthys spinosus was dominant. Carangids and species associated with consolidated bottoms were observed, although in small numbers, throughout the study period. In spite of the limitations imposed by the gear used for sampling, the estuarine area influenced by the RLAM was seen to play a role as a growth area for the great majority of species, especially the mojarra (D. rhombeus, but it offers no fishing potential due to the prevalence of young and small individuals. Evidence of imminent spawning was recorded for Pomadasys corvinaeformis in August 2003, and recent spawning in March 2004 for Oligoplites saurus. Further, mature individuals occurred in insufficient numbers to permit population level evaluation.A estrutura e dinâmica da ictiofauna amostrada na região estuarina de Mataripe sob a influência da Refinaria Landulpho Alves-Mataripe (RLAM foi analisada. Vinte estações foram amostradas com

  10. Extraction procedure compared to attenuation model to assess heavy metals mobility in sediments from Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Andreza Portella

    2006-01-01

    Sepetiba bay, located about 60 km west of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro city, has undergone notable development in the last decades, with the establishment of about 400 industrial plants in its basin, basically metallurgical, which release its industrial waste either straight into the bay or through local rivers. The Sepetiba harbor also brought up a lot of industrial investment in that area. This urban and industrial expansion caused several environmental impacts, mainly due to the presence of heavy metals and other potentially toxic substances present in the effluents discharged into the bay. This work aimed to assess heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb e Zn) contamination and mobility in sediments from Sepetiba bay. The acid-volatile sulfides (AVS) and the concentration of simultaneously extracted metals (SIGMA[SEM) were determined in 65 sediment samples from Sepetiba bay, representing the whole area. The results obtained showed that Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn presented higher concentrations in the northeastern area (mainly in the mouth of Guandu and Canal de Sao Francisco rivers), while the highest concentration of Ni were observed in the western region of the bay. The comparison between SEM concentrations with the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines (TEL and PEL) indicated that Cd and Zn presented values which may hazard to aquatic organisms (concentration levels above PEL); the elements Cu, Pb and Ni presented concentration levels below PEL, suggesting low probability of toxicological effects to the aquatic organisms. On the other hand, the ratio Σ[SEM]/[AVS] was below 1 in the northeastern region, indicating that, in spite of the high concentration of the analyzed metals in this area, they are trapped in the sediment, as sulfides. The total metal concentrations in the sediments were also determined and the same distribution pattern obtained for the SEM were observed, with high concentrations in the northeastern region of the bay, classifying the area as level 2

  11. Ecology of sand flies in a low-density residential rural area, with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation, in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida

    2015-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis is endemic in Brazil, where Lutzomyia whitmani is the most important vector involved in the transmission to humans, particularly in the peridomestic environment. Herein, we assessed the ecology of sand flies, including Lu. whitmani, in a low-density residential rural area with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation in north-eastern Brazil, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. Particularly, we hypothesized that sand fly abundance was correlated with climatic variables. Sand fly collections were carried out monthly from August 2013 to August 2014, using seven CDC light traps, for three consecutive nights, in three kinds of environments: indoor, peridomicile and forest. Collected sand flies were identified based on morphology and females of Lu. whitmani (n=169), Lu. amazonensis (n=134) and Lu. complexa (n=21) were selected and tested by PCR for Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In total, 5167 sand flies belonging to 19 species were identified, being that Lu. choti (43.2%) was the most frequent species, followed by Lu. amazonensis (16.6%), Lu. whitmani (15.8%), Lu. sordellii (10.7%) and Lu. quinquefer (5.8%), which together represented over 90% of the collected sand flies. All females tested by PCR were negative. The number of sand flies collected daily was positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between daily number of sand flies and daily average saturation deficit. This study points out that the number of sand flies captured daily is correlated to climatic variables, including saturation deficit, which may represent a useful parameter for monitoring sand fly populations in leishmaniasis-endemic areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Awareness of visceral leishmaniasis and its relationship to canine infection in riverside endemic areas in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalidia Felipe de Lima Costa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction An awareness of visceral leishmaniasis (VL is necessary to encourage the population to participate in prevention and control in collaboration with more efficient, centrally organized health programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness of the riverside population regarding VL and the association between awareness and the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL. Methods In total, 71 people living in riverside areas in the City of Mossoró in State of Rio Grande do Norte participated of the study, and 71 dogs were tested for CVL by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Association analysis of several variables related to knowledge of the riverside population regarding CVL positivity was performed, yielding odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, and significance was determined using chi-square (χ2 and Fisher's exact tests. Results Among individuals whose dogs tested positive for CVL, 60% did not know the cure for CVL, and these subjects were three times more likely to have a dog test positive for CVL than those who were aware the cure for CVL. Knowledge of CVL cure was the only variable that remained in the logistic model after the successive removal of variables, with an adjusted OR of 3.11 (95%CI: 1.1-8,799; p=0.032. Conclusions Insufficient awareness regarding VL in riverside areas with CVL-positive dogs was associated with increased rates of canine infection, which suggests that changes in habits and the adoption of attitudes and preventive practices may contribute to the control and prevention of this disease. This study reinforces the need to invest in better health education programs regarding VL.

  13. Memory and Nostalgia in Youth Music Cultures: Finding the Vibe in the San Francisco Bay Area Rave Scene, 2002-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen M Wu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the major commercial success of rave scenes in the San Francisco Bay Area, accompanied by an increasing crackdown on venues and promoters in the electronic dance music scene, this article follows the “death” of a rave scene and looks at some of the ways young people imagined and engaged with rave culture during that time. Looking specifically at how young people utilized remembrances and nostalgia to imbue their experiences with social meaning, the author provides a tentative case study on youth cultural formation in the late modern era. The article draws upon fieldwork and interviews conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area between 2002-2004.

  14. Estimation of Freshwater Flow to Joe Bay, South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, M. A.; Hittle, C. D.

    2002-05-01

    During the last century, drainage canals were constructed as part of the Central and Southern Flood Control (C&SF) project. Flood control was achieved but degradation to the Everglades ecosystem was evident. Problems related to Florida Bay include sea grass die off, algae blooms, and extreme salinity conditions. Modifications to the C&SF project are proposed as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). One objective of CERP is to improve the timing and distribution of freshwater flow within the Everglades ecosystem and to Florida Bay. Several CERP projects propose changes to the existing canal network that borders Everglades National Park (ENP) in southern Miami-Dade County. An examination of flows to Joe Bay, a small embayment on the northeastern shores of Florida Bay, has provided baseline information on current spatial and temporal water deliveries prior to CERP modifications. Understanding the existing complex water delivery system and the effects the system has on Everglades hydrology will provide a necessary benchmark against which to measure restoration success. The study was initiated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in May 1999 to estimate creek flows to Joe Bay and determine the relative amounts derived from Taylor Slough and overflow from the C-111 Canal. It is important to understand the source of freshwater to Joe Bay before it enters Florida Bay. Taylor Slough transports freshwater to northeastern Florida Bay from the northwest while overflow from the C-111 Canal provides freshwater to northeastern Florida Bay from the northeast. Joe Bay, receives part of the freshwater from each of these sources via sheet flow and small estuarine creeks, and subsequently discharges southward to northeastern Florida Bay via Trout Creek. Trout Creek contributes approximately 50 percent of the total freshwater flow to northeastern Florida Bay (Hittle 2001). Eight non-gaged creeks entering Joe Bay were selected for acoustic Doppler current

  15. A potential archive of Pleistocene uplift and erosion in the eastern Nete basin, Campine area, north-eastern Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerten, Koen; Leterme, Bertrand

    2013-04-01

    From a geodynamic point of view, the Campine area is situated on the crossroads between distinctive tectonic settings: the subsiding North Sea basin and Roer Valley Graben in the north, and the uplifting Brabant Massif and Ardennes in the south. In general, this has led to overall Cenozoic subsidence of the area and sedimentation of unconsolidated marine sands. However, the morphology of the present-day Nete basin, which is situated in the central and eastern part of the Campine area, is a clear example of an erosional feature and shows evidence of up to 30 m of Quaternary erosion. However, the drivers, timing and rate of landscape development in the Nete basin are poorly constrained. Here, we present and describe geological and geomorphological remnants testifying to past landscape development in the Nete basin, that will help understanding the Quaternary geodynamic evolution (uplift) of the Campine area. The Nete basin is located in northern Belgium and is drained by two small rivers, the Kleine Nete and Grote Nete, that merge into the larger Nete river several km before entering the Lower Scheldt basin. The Nete basin can clearly be identified on topographical maps as a depression, ca. 40 km x 40 km, with valley floors ranging between 10-20 m above sea level (a.s.l.). It is bounded in the north, east and south by erosion resistant geological formations at altitudes between 30 m (north) and 60 m (south). The major direction of drainage is from ENE to WSW and the basin thus opens towards the west. The start of basin development is situated after deposition of Rhine sediments (~ 1 Ma) which form the erosion resistant eastern watershed with the Meuse basin at an altitude of ~ 50 m a.s.l. on top of the Campine Plateau. GIS-based landscape analysis of the topography and the contour map of the Quaternary base confirm the observation that the lowering of the relief from the Campine Plateau down to the floodplain of the Kleine Nete and Grote Nete shows a stepwise

  16. Tectonic structure of Dokdo and adjacent area in the northeastern part of the Ulleung Basin of the East Sea using geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.; Jeong, E.; Park, C.; Kwon, B.; Park, G.; Park, J.

    2008-12-01

    The northeastern part of the Ulleung Basin in the East Sea is composed of volcanic islands (Ulleungdo and Dokdo), seamounts (the Anyongbok Seamount, the Simheungtaek and the Isabu Tablemounts), and a deep pathway (Korea Gap). To understand tectonic structure and geophysical characteristics of Dokdo and adjacent area, We analysed geophysical potential data of KORDI(Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute), KIGAM(Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources), and NORI(National Oceanographic Research Institute of Korea) around the Dokdo volcanic body except Ulleung Do because of empty data of its large island. Also, we eliminate the effect of water and sediments from the free-air gravity data to process 3D Moho depth inversion. 3D tectonic structure modelling of the study area was developed using Moho depth inversion result and sediment thickness data of NGDC(National Geophysical Data Center). The free-air gravity anomalies of the study area generally reflect bathymetric effects. Although the Dokdo seamounts have a similar topographic size, the decrease of free-air anomaly toward Isabu suggest that Isabu is oldest among the seaounts and have high degree of isostatic compensation. High Bouguer anomalies in the central part of the Ulleung Basin gradually decreases toward the Oki Bank. This feature suggests that the crust/mantle boundary is shallow in the central part of the Ulleung Basin. The complex magnetic pattern of Dokdo suggests that it might have erupted several times during its formation. The magnetic anomaly amplitude of Isabu is much smaller than that of Dokdo. Such low magnetic anomalies are attributed to a secondary change caused by the metamorphism or weathering of ferromagnetic minerals of the seamount during a long period of time after its formation. Analytic signals show high anomalous zones over volcanoes. Also, there are high analytic signal values in Korea Gap indicating magmatic intrusion in thick sediments. The power spectrum analysis

  17. Radiocarbon Analysis to Calculate New End-Member Values for Biomass Burning Source Samples Specific to the Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S.; Kirchstetter, T.; Fairley, D.; Sheesley, R. J.; Tang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Elemental carbon (EC), also known as black carbon or soot, is an important particulate air pollutant that contributes to climate forcing through absorption of solar radiation and to adverse human health impacts through inhalation. Both fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, via residential firewood burning, agricultural burning, wild fires, and controlled burns, are significant sources of EC. Our ability to successfully control ambient EC concentrations requires understanding the contribution of these different emission sources. Radiocarbon (14C) analysis has been increasingly used as an apportionment tool to distinguish between EC from fossil fuel and biomass combustion sources. However, there are uncertainties associated with this method including: 1) uncertainty associated with the isolation of EC to be used for radiocarbon analysis (e.g., inclusion of organic carbon, blank contamination, recovery of EC, etc.) 2) uncertainty associated with the radiocarbon signature of the end member. The objective of this research project is to utilize laboratory experiments to evaluate some of these uncertainties, particularly for EC sources that significantly impact the San Francisco Bay Area. Source samples of EC only and a mix of EC and organic carbon (OC) were produced for this study to represent known emission sources and to approximate the mixing of EC and OC that would be present in the atmosphere. These samples include a combination of methane flame soot, various wood smoke samples (i.e. cedar, oak, sugar pine, pine at various ages, etc.), meat cooking, and smoldering cellulose smoke. EC fractions were isolated using a Sunset Laboratory's thermal optical transmittance carbon analyzer. For 14C analysis, samples were sent to Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for isotope analysis using an accelerated mass spectrometry. End member values and uncertainties for the EC isolation utilizing this method will be reported.

  18. Comparison Of Downscaled CMIP5 Precipitation Datasets For Projecting Changes In Extreme Precipitation In The San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milesi, Cristina; Costa-Cabral, Mariza; Rath, John; Mills, William; Roy, Sujoy; Thrasher, Bridget; Wang, Weile; Chiang, Felicia; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, James

    2014-01-01

    Water resource managers planning for the adaptation to future events of extreme precipitation now have access to high resolution downscaled daily projections derived from statistical bias correction and constructed analogs. We also show that along the Pacific Coast the Northern Oscillation Index (NOI) is a reliable predictor of storm likelihood, and therefore a predictor of seasonal precipitation totals and likelihood of extremely intense precipitation. Such time series can be used to project intensity duration curves into the future or input into stormwater models. However, few climate projection studies have explored the impact of the type of downscaling method used on the range and uncertainty of predictions for local flood protection studies. Here we present a study of the future climate flood risk at NASA Ames Research Center, located in South Bay Area, by comparing the range of predictions in extreme precipitation events calculated from three sets of time series downscaled from CMIP5 data: 1) the Bias Correction Constructed Analogs method dataset downscaled to a 1/8 degree grid (12km); 2) the Bias Correction Spatial Disaggregation method downscaled to a 1km grid; 3) a statistical model of extreme daily precipitation events and projected NOI from CMIP5 models. In addition, predicted years of extreme precipitation are used to estimate the risk of overtopping of the retention pond located on the site through simulations of the EPA SWMM hydrologic model. Preliminary results indicate that the intensity of extreme precipitation events is expected to increase and flood the NASA Ames retention pond. The results from these estimations will assist flood protection managers in planning for infrastructure adaptations.

  19. How food insecurity contributes to poor HIV health outcomes: Qualitative evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Henry J; Palar, Kartika; Seligman, Hilary K; Napoles, Tessa; Frongillo, Edward A; Weiser, Sheri D

    2016-12-01

    Food-insecure people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) consistently exhibit worse clinical outcomes than their food-secure counterparts. This relationship is mediated in part through non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), sub-optimal engagement in HIV care, and poor mental health. An in-depth understanding of how these pathways operate in resource-rich settings, however, remains elusive. We aimed to understand the relationship between food insecurity and HIV health among low-income individuals in the San Francisco Bay Area using qualitative methods. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 low-income PLHIV receiving food assistance from a non-profit organization. Interviews explored experiences with food insecurity and its perceived effects on HIV-related health, mental health, and health behaviors including taking ART and attending clinics. Thematic content analysis of transcripts followed an integrative inductive-deductive approach. Food insecurity was reported to contribute to poor ART adherence and missing scheduled clinic visits through various mechanisms, including exacerbated ART side effects in the absence of food, physical feelings of hunger and fatigue, and HIV stigma at public free-meal sites. Food insecurity led to depressive symptoms among participants by producing physical feelings of hunger, aggravating pre-existing struggles with depression, and nurturing a chronic self-perception of social failure. Participants further explained how food insecurity, depression, and ART non-adherence could reinforce each other in complex interactions. Our study demonstrates how food insecurity detrimentally shapes HIV health behavior and outcomes through complex and interacting mechanisms, acting via multiple socio-ecological levels of influence in this setting. The findings emphasize the need for broad, multisectoral approaches to tackling food insecurity among urban poor PLHIV in the United States. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. Seasonal and spatial variability of appendicularian density and taxonomic composition in the Caravelas Estuary (Northeastern Brazil and adjacent coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Freitas de Carvalho

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify and assess the seasonal and spatial variations of the appendicularians in the Caravelas River estuary and the adjacent coastal area. Samples were taken during 12 campaigns over five years (2001 and 2003-2006. Ten species were identified; the most abundant were Oikopleura dioica, Oikopleura rufescens, and Oikopleura longicauda. These species represented more than 95% of the total numbers of appendicularians. The remaining species were less frequent and occurred in low densities. The mean density of appendicularians found at the coastal stations (804 ind.m-3. was higher than in the estuary (66 ind.m-3. However, the differences observed between the estuary and coastal stations were not significant (p=0.54. The samples taken during the dry season showed a higher mean density (587 ind.m-3 than in the rainy season (376 ind.m-3, and the differences between the seasons were statistically significant (p=0.004.Esse trabalho teve como objetivo identificar e avaliar as variações espaciais e sazonais das apendiculárias no estuário do rio Caravelas e área costeira adjacente (17º35' - 18º22' S e 39º8' - 39º55'W. As coletas foram realizadas em 12 campanhas durante cinco anos (2001 e 2003 - 2006. Foram identificadas dez espécies, sendo que Oikopleura dioica, O. rufescens e O. longicauda foram as mais abundantes. Estas três espécies representaram mais de 95% do total de apendiculárias coletadas. As outras espécies foram menos freqüentes e ocorreram em baixas densidades. A densidade média de apendiculárias encontrada nas estações e costeiras (804 ind.m-3 foi maior que na de estuário (158 ind.m-3. As diferenças encontradas entre as estações de estuário e costeiras não foram significativas (p=0,73. As campanhas realizadas durante o período seco apresentaram densidade média (587 ind.m-3 maior que do período chuvoso (376 ind.m-3. As diferenças entre os períodos chuvoso e seco foram estatisticamente

  1. The functional gene diversity in natural populations over postglacial areas: the shaping mechanisms behind genetic composition of longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) in northeastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Philippe; Angers, Bernard

    2011-08-01

    The diversity of functional genes and the related processes are important issues for conservation biology. This is especially relevant for populations that have suffered from demographic reduction as a consequence of the processes of postglacial colonization. In this perspective, the aims of the present study are (1) to quantify the genetic diversity of functional genes and (2) to disentangle the long- and short-term effects of natural selection that shapes genetic diversity from those of drift, mutation, and allopatric fragmentation. This research was conducted using an extensive genetic polymorphism analysis of populations of longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) living over an area once covered by Pleistocene glaciations. The sequence and diversity of one exon of three genes (MHC IIβ, growth hormone, and trypsin) were jointly analyzed with non-coding nuclear loci from 27 populations; these populations were sampled over four major basins of northeastern North America. The survey revealed a surprisingly low allelic richness, especially for the MHC gene, considering the number of individuals and populations sampled. The results suggest that there is a complex mixture of different evolutionary processes shaping the level of polymorphism among longnose dace. While our study underlines the importance of the short-term effects of neutral processes and the major impact of post-glacial colonization on gene diversity, locally dependent balancing selection was detected on MHC. From this perspective, our results support an understanding of the importance of drift on functional gene diversity but also highlight the transient effects of natural selection on allelic composition, even in populations that show drastic reduction of genetic diversity. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus recovered from recreational and commercial areas of Chesapeake Bay and Maryland Coastal Bays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi S Shaw

    susceptibility data of V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus recovered from the Chesapeake Bay. These data can serve as a baseline against which future studies can be compared to evaluate whether susceptibilities change over time.

  3. Detection of erosion events using 10Be profiles: example of the impact of agriculture on soil erosion in the Chesapeake Bay area (U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valette-Silver, J. N.; Brown, L.; Pavich, M.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    1986-01-01

    10Be concentration, total carbon and grain-size were measured in cores collected in undisturbed estuarine sediments of three tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay. These cores were previously studied by Davis [1] and Brush [2,3] for pollen content, age and sedimentation rate. In this work, we compare the results obtained for these various analyses. In the cores, we observed two increases in 10Be concentration concomitant with two major changes in the pollen composition of the sediments. These two pollen changes each correspond to well-dated agricultural horizons reflecting different stages in the introduction of European farming techniques [2]. In the Chesapeake Bay area, the agricultural development, associated with forest clearing, appears to have triggered the erosion, transport, and sedimentation into the river mouths of large quantities of 10Be-rich soils. This phenomenon explains the observed rise in the sedimentation rate associated with increases in agricultural land-use. ?? 1986.

  4. Simulation of ridesourcing using agent-based demand and supply regional models : potential market demand for first-mile transit travel and reduction in vehicle miles traveled in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we use existing modeling tools and data from the San Francisco Bay Area : (California) to understand the potential market demand for a first mile transit access service : and possible reductions in vehicle miles traveled (VMT) (a...

  5. Using twelve years of USGS refraction lines to calibrate the Brocher and others (1997) 3D velocity model of the Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatwright, John; Blair, Luke; Catchings, Rufus; Goldman, Mark; Perosi, Fabio; Steedman, Clare

    2004-01-01

    Campbell (1983) demonstrated that site amplification correlates with depths to the 1.0, 1.5, and 2.5 km/s S-wave velocity horizons. To estimate these depths for the Bay Area stations in the PEER/NGA database, we compare the depths to the 3.2 and 4.4 km/s P-wave velocities in the Brocher and others (1997) 3D velocity model with the depths to these horizons determined from 6 refraction lines shot in the Bay Area from 1991 to 2003. These refraction lines range from two recent 20 km lines that extend from Los Gatos to downtown San Jose, and from downtown San Jose into Alum Rock Park, to two older 200 km lines than run axially from Hollister up the San Francisco Peninsula to Inverness and from Hollister up the East Bay across San Pablo Bay to Santa Rosa. Comparison of these cross-sections with the Brocher and others (1997) model indicates that the 1.5 km/s S-wave horizon, which we correlate with the 3.2 km/s P-wave horizon, is the most reliable horizon that can be extracted from the Brocher and others (1997) velocity model. We determine simple adjustments to bring the Brocher and others (1997) 3.2 and 4.4 km/s P-wave horizons into an average agreement with the refraction results. Then we apply these adjustments to estimate depths to the 1.5 and 2.5 km/s S-wave horizons beneath the strong motion stations in the PEER/NGA database.

  6. Spatial characteristics of sediment trace metals in an eastern boundary upwelling retention area (St. Helena Bay, South Africa): A hydrodynamic-biological pump hypothesis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Monteiro, PMS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available (O15 mg Chl mC2553) and peaks at 68e139 mg Chl mC2553 (Bailey, 1987; Pitcher et al., 1989, 1992). This contributes to the high sediment flux (31.5 g mC2552 dC2551) observed in the bay area (Bailey, 1987). Sediment sulfide fluxes are coupled... / Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 65 (2005) 123e134 modeled using the DELFT3D-FLOW model designed to simulate tide and wind-driven flows in shallow seas and coastal areas. A 10-layer sigma coordinate grid was used and layers were concentrated around...

  7. Humboldt Bay Orthoimages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-meter pixel resolution, four band orthoimages covering the Humboldt Bay area. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  8. Seasonal changes in the communities of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes in Ofunato Bay as revealed by shotgun metagenomic sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Jonaira

    2018-04-30

    Small photosynthetic eukaryotes play important roles in oceanic food webs in coastal regions. We investigated seasonal changes in the communities of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs) of the class Mamiellophyceae, including the genera Bathycoccus, Micromonas and Ostreococcus, in Ofunato Bay, which is located in northeastern Japan and faces the Pacific Ocean. The abundances of PPEs were assessed over a period of one year in 2015 at three sampling stations, KSt. 1 (innermost bay area), KSt. 2 (middle bay area) and KSt. 3 (bay entrance area) at depths of 1 m (KSt. 1, KSt. 2 and KSt. 3), 8 m (KSt. 1) or 10 m (KSt. 2 and KSt. 3) by employing MiSeq shotgun metagenomic sequencing. The total abundances of Bathycoccus, Ostreococcus and Micromonas were in the ranges of 42–49%, 35–49% and 13–17%, respectively. Considering all assayed sampling stations and depths, seasonal changes revealed high abundances of PPEs during the winter and summer and low abundances during late winter to early spring and late summer to early autumn. Bathycoccus was most abundant in the winter, and Ostreococcus showed a high abundance during the summer. Another genus, Micromonas, was relatively low in abundance throughout the study period. Taken together with previously suggested blooming periods of phytoplankton, as revealed by chlorophyll a concentrations in Ofunato Bay during spring and late autumn, these results for PPEs suggest that greater phytoplankton blooming has a negative influence on the seasonal occurrences of PPEs in the bay.

  9. 77 FR 67568 - Regulated Navigation Area; East River, Flushing and Gowanus Bays, and Red Hook and Buttermilk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Delegation No. 0170.1. The offloading and transit of gantry cranes involves large machinery and construction... transit of these gantry cranes involves large machinery and construction vessel operations above and upon... Bay. Heavy-lift operations are sensitive to water movement, and wake from passing vessels could pose...

  10. Red Knots (Calidris canutus piersmai and C. c. rogersi) depend on a small threatened staging area in Bohai Bay, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, Danny I.; Yang, Hong-Yan; Hassell, Chris J.; Boyle, Adrian N.; Rogers, Ken G.; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Zheng-Wang; Piersma, Theunis

    2010-01-01

    We monitored numbers of Red Knots (Calidris canutus) staging in Bohai Bay, China (39 degrees 02'N, 118 degrees 15'E) on northward migration. Knots were identified to subspecies, and we systematically searched for colour-banded birds from the non-breeding grounds. We modelled migratory turnover, and

  11. Changes in occurrence and abundance of northern / southern flatfishes over a 20-year period in a coastal nursery area (Bay of Vilaine and on the eastern continental shelf of the Bay of Biscay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Désaunay

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Several works have demonstrated trends in the distribution of fish species relative to global warming. This study investigated whether similar trends have occurred for selected flatfish species on the continental shelf of the Bay of Biscay. These species were used as indicators and changes in their populations were studied in a coastal nursery ground where flatfish juveniles are concentrated as well as on the entire shelf. Previous studies analysing changes in sea surface temperature for the continental shelf indicate that winter warming occurred in the 1980s and 1990s. Sixteen autumn cruises conducted since 1981 in the Bay of Vilaine nursery area and 11 autumn cruises since 1987 over the entire shelf provided data on a nearly annual basis for the abundance of benthic fish. The four most common flatfish species were selected and their occurrence and yearly abundance were analysed with regard to specific biogeographic ranges and climate change. Similar results were obtained for juveniles on a nursery scale and for all age groups on the entire shelf. Although sole (Solea solea showed irregular yearly variations, northern winter spawners such as plaice (Pleuronectes platessa and dab (Limanda limanda exhibited significantly high abundance during the 1980s, followed by a continuing low level and ultimately zero catches. On the other hand, the wedge sole (Dicologoglossa cuneata, a southern summer spawner, showed an increasing trend in the late 1990s.

  12. Distributive features of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Source Area of the Yellow River on northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.

    2016-12-01

    The Source Area of the Yellow River (SAYR) in discontinuous permafrost zones on northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in Southwest China is characterized by high organic carbon content in flow and soil systems. Under a rapid and persistent warming climate, large amount of carbon will be released to atmosphere and hydrosphere in a form of available organic carbon, such as the DOC. Whether large amount of permafrost carbon will be delivered to the flow system and what is the destination of the DOC in the flow system in the SAYR remain unknown. Thus, the distributive features of DOC in the SAYR can serve as a baseline study on both the release from the organic carbon pool trapped in permafrost to the flow system and the DOC dynamics in a flow system. The objective of this study is to examine the distributive features of DOC in different water bodies and its potential transfer processes. Through sampling and analyzing in laboratory, it is found that: (1) The average concentration of DOC in the SAYR generally declines downstreams, ranging from 0.9 to 9.9 ppmw. (2) The DOC concentration in lakes is prevalently high. Lakes in the upper SAYR in discontinuous permafrost zone have a DOC concentration as high as 88.6 ppmw and reaching more than 200 ppmw in one small lake. They are much higher than the DOC concentration of lakes on the Zoîgé Peatlands in the middle SAYR. The DOC concentration in thermokast lakes ranges from 24.1 to 47.5 ppmw. (3) Ground ice and its melt water generally have low DOC levels at about 1.2-2.6 ppmw. Groundwater and snow-melt water samples have DOC levels from 1.5 to 3.7 ppmw and from 0.8 to 4.3 ppmw, respectively. Water bodies underlain by permafrost generally have higher DOC levels. This demonstrates that organic-rich soil, such as permafrost soils, may release substantial amount of organic carbon not only to the atmosphere, but also to the flow system. The DOC level generally decreasing downstreams illustrates that the DOC will decompose in

  13. Application of aerosol optical properties to estimate aerosol type from ground-based remote sensing observation at urban area of northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Huizheng; Zhao, Hujia; Wu, Yunfei; Xia, Xiangao; Zhu, Jun; Dubovik, Oleg; Estelles, Victor; Ma, Yanjun; Wang, Yangfeng; Wang, Hong; Wang, Yaqiang; Zhang, Xiaoye; Shi, Guangyu

    2015-09-01

    Aerosol optical properties were derived from ground-based sunphotometer observations between 2009-2013 at three urban sites of Shenyang, Anshan, Fushun in northeastern China. The annual means for extinction aerosol optical depths (EAOD) at 500 nm were 0.57±0.38, 0.52±0.35, and 0.41±0.31 at Shenyang, Anshan, Fushun, respectively. The corresponding annual means for the extinction Angstrom exponents (EAE) computed for the wavelengths of 440 and 870 nm were 0.86±0.32, 0.86±0.34 and 0.91±0.35, respectively, indicating that urban area of Northeast China were affected by both coarse and fine particles. Hygroscopic growth in summer and incursions of dust aerosols in spring were evidently revealed from the analysis of the relationship between EAE and δEAE (the EAE difference, δEAE=EAE(440,670)-EAE(670,870)). The annual mean absorption aerosol optical depths (AAOD440 nm) values at Shenyang, Anshan, Fushun were 0.15±0.11, 0.10±0.07, 0.08±0.04, respectively. The annual mean absorption Angstrom exponents (AAE440-870 nm) values were 0.86±0.24, 1.19±0.39, 1.33±0.36 at Shenyang, Anshan, Fushun, respectively. When the AAEs were close to unity at Anshan, the absorption aerosol particles evidently consisted of black carbon from coal combustion and motor vehicles. Larger AAEs at Fushun were indicative of absorbing aerosols mainly from biomass burning and mineral dust. The AAE at Shenyang was<1 which may be consistent with black carbon particles with absorbing or non-absorbing coatings. Analysis of the relationship between the AAEs and extinction Angstrom exponents showed that the aerosol populations at these three sites could be classified as "mixed-small particles" including anthropogenic particles and secondary organic aerosol with highly variable sphericity fractions.

  14. Intra-Species Genetic Diversity and Clonal Structure of Cryptosporidium parvum in Sheep Farms in a Confined Geographical Area in Northeastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Ana; Monteagudo, Luis V.; Del Cacho, Emilio; Sánchez-Acedo, Caridad

    2016-01-01

    A multilocus fragment typing approach including eleven variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci and the GP60 gene was used to investigate the intra-farm and intra-host genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium parvum in sheep farms in a confined area in northeastern Spain. Genomic DNA samples of 113 C. parvum isolates from diarrheic pre-weaned lambs collected in 49 meat-type sheep farms were analyzed. Loci exhibited various degrees of polymorphism, the finding of 7–9 alleles in the four most variable and discriminatory markers (ML2, Cgd6_5400, Cgd6_3940, and GP60) being remarkable. The combination of alleles at the twelve loci identified a total of 74 multilocus subtypes (MLTs) and provided a Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index of 0.988 (95% CI, 0.979−0.996). The finding that most MLTs (n = 64) were unique to individual farms evidenced that cryptosporidial infection is mainly transmitted within sheep flocks, with herd-to-herd transmission playing a secondary role. Limited intra- host variability was found, since only five isolates were genotypically mixed. In contrast, a significant intra-farm genetic diversity was seen, with the presence of multiple MLTs on more than a half of the farms (28/46), suggesting frequent mutations or genetic exchange through recombination. Comparison with a previous study in calves in northern Spain using the same 12-loci typing approach showed differences in the identity of major alleles at most loci, with a single MLT being shared between lambs and calves. Analysis of evolutionary descent by the algorithm eBURST indicated a high degree of genetic divergence, with over 41% MLTs appearing as singletons along with a high number of clonal complexes, most of them linking only two MLTs. Bayesian Structure analysis and F statistics also revealed the genetic remoteness of most C. parvum isolates and no ancestral population size was chosen. Linkage analysis evidenced a prevalent pattern of clonality within the parasite population. PMID:27176718

  15. Intra-Species Genetic Diversity and Clonal Structure of Cryptosporidium parvum in Sheep Farms in a Confined Geographical Area in Northeastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Ana; Monteagudo, Luis V; Del Cacho, Emilio; Sánchez-Acedo, Caridad; Quílez, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    A multilocus fragment typing approach including eleven variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci and the GP60 gene was used to investigate the intra-farm and intra-host genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium parvum in sheep farms in a confined area in northeastern Spain. Genomic DNA samples of 113 C. parvum isolates from diarrheic pre-weaned lambs collected in 49 meat-type sheep farms were analyzed. Loci exhibited various degrees of polymorphism, the finding of 7-9 alleles in the four most variable and discriminatory markers (ML2, Cgd6_5400, Cgd6_3940, and GP60) being remarkable. The combination of alleles at the twelve loci identified a total of 74 multilocus subtypes (MLTs) and provided a Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index of 0.988 (95% CI, 0.979-0.996). The finding that most MLTs (n = 64) were unique to individual farms evidenced that cryptosporidial infection is mainly transmitted within sheep flocks, with herd-to-herd transmission playing a secondary role. Limited intra- host variability was found, since only five isolates were genotypically mixed. In contrast, a significant intra-farm genetic diversity was seen, with the presence of multiple MLTs on more than a half of the farms (28/46), suggesting frequent mutations or genetic exchange through recombination. Comparison with a previous study in calves in northern Spain using the same 12-loci typing approach showed differences in the identity of major alleles at most loci, with a single MLT being shared between lambs and calves. Analysis of evolutionary descent by the algorithm eBURST indicated a high degree of genetic divergence, with over 41% MLTs appearing as singletons along with a high number of clonal complexes, most of them linking only two MLTs. Bayesian Structure analysis and F statistics also revealed the genetic remoteness of most C. parvum isolates and no ancestral population size was chosen. Linkage analysis evidenced a prevalent pattern of clonality within the parasite population.

  16. Early Holocene estuary development of the Hesselø Bay area, southern Kattegat, Denmark and its implication for Ancylus Lake drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen, Carina; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Bennike, Ole; Hübscher, Christian; Clausen, Ole Rønø

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution shallow seismic data, sediment core information, radiocarbon dating and sequence stratigraphy have been used to interpret the late glacial to early Holocene geological evolution of Hesselø Bay in the southern Kattegat, Denmark. A reconstruction of the early Holocene coastal environment and a description of coastal processes associated with a river outlet into the bay are presented. Weichselian glacial deposits form the lowermost interpreted unit, covered by late glacial (LG) and postglacial (PG, Holocene) sediments. A funnel-shaped estuary existed at the mouth of channels in the period 10.3-9.2 cal. ka BP; the channels drained water from south to north. The early PG is characterised by estuarine and coastal deposits. The early Holocene bars that developed in the estuary are preserved as morphological features on the present-day seabed, possibly as a result of rapid relative sea-level rise. The estuary existed simultaneously with the occurrence and drainage of the Ancylus Lake. The drainage of this lake occurred through the Dana River (palaeo-Great Belt channel) into the southern Kattegat and then into the study area. The level of the Ancylus Lake in the Baltic Sea region dropped significantly at about 10.2 cal. ka BP at the same time as the estuary developed in the Kattegat region. One outcome of the present study is an enhanced understanding of the Ancylus Lake drainage path. No evidence of major erosion is seen, which indicates non-catastrophic continuous water flow from the south without major drainage events of the Ancylus Lake to the southern Kattegat. During the Littorina transgression, coastal estuarine conditions characterized the Hesselø Bay area where elongated ridges formed a bar system. As the Littorina transgression continued, back-stepping of the bar system and coastline occurred. When the transgression breached the Great Belt threshold, flooding caused major erosion throughout the study area.

  17. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve's (NERR) Estuarine Water Quality Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1993-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The North Inlet Estuary and the adjacent lower northeastern section of the Winyah Bay Estuary were designated as part of the National Estuarine Research Reserve...

  18. Monitoring and evaluation of foods and waters in the planed emergency area of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant by γ spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Qiong; Guo Jianying; Shao Xianzhang; Zhao Qiufen

    1999-07-01

    The detection results of foods and waters that are adopted in the planed emergency area of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in 1996 and measured by γ spectrometry are reported and compared with the level of background radioactivity before the operation of the NPP. With national standards concerned, the detection results have been reviewed. And it is shown that there has been negligible radioactive environmental pollution found around NPP in the passed several years. Possible sources of slight level pollution of 110m Ag that is almost only detected are discussed. Some suggestions on detection programme and studies of methodology henceforth are put forward

  19. Plastic litter in sediments from the Croatian marine protected area of the natural park of Telaščica bay (Adriatic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blašković, Andrea; Fastelli, Paolo; Čižmek, Hrvoje; Guerranti, Cristiana; Renzi, Monia

    2017-01-15

    This paper reports baseline levels of litter (macro, meso and microplastics) in sediments collected from different areas of the Croatian MPA of the Natural Park of Telaščica bay (Adriatic Sea, GSA n. 17). The distribution of total abundance according to size, for all analysed locations evidences that microplastics are the dominant fraction concerning item's numbers. In all analysed samples no macroplastics were found, while microplastics are 88.71% and mesoplastics are 11.29% of the total. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of tap water reveal structure of the San Francisco Bay Area's water system and adjustments during a major drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Brett J; Jameel, Yusuf; Chau, Thuan H; Mancuso, Christy J; Bowen, Gabriel J; Dufour, Alexis; Chesson, Lesley A; Ehleringer, James R

    2017-08-01

    Water availability and sustainability in the Western United States is a major flashpoint among expanding communities, growing industries, and productive agricultural lands. This issue came to a head in 2015 in the State of California, when the State mandated a 25% reduction in urban water use following a multi-year drought that significantly depleted water resources. Water demands and challenges in supplying water are only expected to intensify as climate perturbations, such as the 2012-2015 California Drought, become more common. As a consequence, there is an increased need to understand linkages between urban centers, water transport and usage, and the impacts of climate change on water resources. To assess if stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios could increase the understanding of these relationships within a megalopolis in the Western United States, we collected and analyzed 723 tap waters across the San Francisco Bay Area during seven collection campaigns spanning 21 months during 2013-2015. The San Francisco Bay Area was selected as it has well-characterized water management strategies and the 2012-2105 California Drought dramatically affected its water resources. Consistent with known water management strategies and previously collected isotope data, we found large spatiotemporal variations in the δ 2 H and δ 18 O values of tap waters within the Bay Area. This is indicative of complex water transport systems and varying municipality-scale management decisions. We observed δ 2 H and δ 18 O values of tap water consistent with waters originating from snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada Mountains, local precipitation, ground water, and partially evaporated reservoir sources. A cluster analysis of the isotope data collected in this study grouped waters from 43 static sampling sites that were associated with specific water utility providers within the San Francisco Bay Area and known management practices. Various management responses to the drought, such as

  1. Ecology of phlebotomine sandflies and putative reservoir hosts of leishmaniasis in a border area in Northeastern Mexico: implications for the risk of transmission of Leishmania mexicana in Mexico and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rojas, Jorge J; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; Becker, Ingeborg; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; Stephens, Christopher R; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniases are a group of important diseases transmitted to humans through the bite of sandfly vectors. Several forms of leishmaniases are endemic in Mexico and especially in the Southeast region. In the Northeastern region, however, there have only been isolated reports of cases and scanty records of sandfly vectors. The main objective of this study was to analyze the diversity of sandflies and potential reservoir hosts of Leishmania spp. in the states of Nuevo León and Tamaulipas. Species richness and abundances of sandflies and rodents were recorded. A fraction of the caught sandflies was analyzed by PCR to detect Leishmania spp. Tissues from captured rodents were also screened for infection. Ecological Niche Models (ENMs) were computed for species of rodent and their association with crop-growing areas. We found 13 species of sandflies, several of which are first records for this region. Medically important species such as Lutzomyia anthophora, Lutzomyia diabolica, Lutzomyia cruciata, and Lutzomyia shannoni were documented. Leishmania spp. infection was not detected in sandflies. Nine species of rodents were recorded, and Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana infection was found in four species of Peromyscus and Sigmodon. ENMs showed that potential distribution of rodent pest species overlaps with allocated crop areas. This shows that Leishmania (L.) mexicana infection is present in the Northeastern region of Mexico, and that previously unrecorded sandfly species occur in the same areas. These findings suggest a potential risk of transmission of Leishmania (L.) mexicana. © J. Rodríguez-Rojas et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  2. Ecology of phlebotomine sandflies and putative reservoir hosts of leishmaniasis in a border area in Northeastern Mexico: implications for the risk of transmission of Leishmania mexicana in Mexico and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rojas, Jorge J.; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; Becker, Ingeborg; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; Stephens, Christopher R.; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniases are a group of important diseases transmitted to humans through the bite of sandfly vectors. Several forms of leishmaniases are endemic in Mexico and especially in the Southeast region. In the Northeastern region, however, there have only been isolated reports of cases and scanty records of sandfly vectors. The main objective of this study was to analyze the diversity of sandflies and potential reservoir hosts of Leishmania spp. in the states of Nuevo León and Tamaulipas. Species richness and abundances of sandflies and rodents were recorded. A fraction of the caught sandflies was analyzed by PCR to detect Leishmania spp. Tissues from captured rodents were also screened for infection. Ecological Niche Models (ENMs) were computed for species of rodent and their association with crop-growing areas. We found 13 species of sandflies, several of which are first records for this region. Medically important species such as Lutzomyia anthophora, Lutzomyia diabolica, Lutzomyia cruciata, and Lutzomyia shannoni were documented. Leishmania spp. infection was not detected in sandflies. Nine species of rodents were recorded, and Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana infection was found in four species of Peromyscus and Sigmodon. ENMs showed that potential distribution of rodent pest species overlaps with allocated crop areas. This shows that Leishmania (L.) mexicana infection is present in the Northeastern region of Mexico, and that previously unrecorded sandfly species occur in the same areas. These findings suggest a potential risk of transmission of Leishmania (L.) mexicana. PMID:28825400

  3. Evaluating Ambient Concentrations and Local Emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the San Francisco Bay Area of California Using a Comprehensive Fixed-site and Mobile Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, A.; Bower, J. P.; Martien, P. T.; Randall, S.; Young, A.; Hilken, H.; Stevenson, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District (hence the Air District) is the greater San Francisco Bay metropolitan region's chief air quality regulatory agency. Aligning itself with Executive Order S-3-05, the Air District has set a goal to reduce the region's GHG emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by the year 2050. The Air District's 10-point Climate Action Work Program lays out the agency's priorities, actions and coordination with regional stakeholders. The Program has three core objectives: (1) to develop a technical and monitoring program to document the region's GHG sources and related emissions, (2) to implement a policy and rule-based approach to control and regulate GHG emissions, and finally, (3) to utilize local governance, incentives and partnerships to encourage GHG emissions reductions.As part of the technical program, the Air District has set up a long term, ambient GHG monitoring network at four sites. The first site is located north and upwind of the urban core at Bodega Bay by the Pacific Coast. It mostly receives clean marine inflow and serves as the regional background site. The other three sites are strategically located at regional exit points for Bay Area plumes that presumably contain GHG enhancements from local sources. These stations are at San Martin, located south of the San Jose metropolitan area; at Patterson Pass at the cross section with California's Central Valley; and at Bethel Island at the mouth of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. At all sites, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are being measured continuously, along with combustion tracer CO and other air pollutants. The GHG measurements are performed with high precision and fast laser instruments (Picarro Inc). In the longer term, the network will allow the Air District to monitor ambient concentrations of GHGs and thus evaluate the effectiveness of its policy, regulation and enforcement efforts. We present data from the sites in their first few months of operation and

  4. Risk assessment of butyltins based on a fugacity-based food web bioaccumulation model in the Jincheng Bay mariculture area: II. Risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanbing; Song, Xiukai; Gong, Xianghong; Xu, Yingjiang; Liu, Huihui; Deng, Xuxiu; Ru, Shaoguo

    2014-08-01

    A fugacity-based food web bioaccumulation model was constructed, and the biotic concentrations of butyltins in the food web of the Jincheng Bay mariculture area were estimated accordingly, using the water and sediment concentrations described in the accompanying paper (Part I). This paper presents an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA) of the butyltins, based on the estimated tissue residues in the marine life in this area. The results showed that the ecological risk probability was greater than 0.05. At this level, management control is critical since sensitive marine species would be profoundly endangered by butyltin contamination. Few if any detrimental effects, however, would be generated for humans from exposure to butyltins through seafood consumption. The fugacity-based model can refine the ERA and HHRA of pollutants in marine areas, provide a basis for protecting marine ecology and the security of fishery products, and thus help determine the feasibility of a proposed aquaculture project.

  5. Element-specific behaviour and sediment properties modulate transfer and bioaccumulation of trace elements in a highly-contaminated area (Augusta Bay, Central Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signa, Geraldina; Mazzola, Antonio; Di Leonardo, Rossella; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2017-11-01

    High sediment contamination in the coastal area of Priolo Bay, adjacent to the highly-polluted Augusta Harbour, poses serious risks for the benthic communities inhabiting the area. Nevertheless, the transfer of trace elements and consequent bioaccumulation in the biota is an overlooked issue. This study aimed to assess the transfer and bioaccumulation patterns of As, Cd, Ni and Hg to the dominant macroalgae and benthic invertebrates of Priolo Bay. Results revealed different patterns among trace elements (TEs), not driven by sediment contamination but rather by element-specific behaviour coupled with sediment physicochemical properties. Specifically, As accumulated in macroalgae but not in invertebrates, indicating bioavailability of dissolved As only, and a lack of effective trophic transfer. Ni was confined to surface sediment and transfer to biota was not highlighted. Cd and Hg showed the highest concentrations in invertebrates and bioaccumulated especially in filter feeders and carnivores, revealing the importance of suspended particulate and diet as transfer pathways. Total organic carbon (TOC), fine-grained sediments and redox potential were the most important sediment features in shaping the sediment contamination spatial patterns as well as those of TE transfer and bioaccumulation. In particular, As and Cd transfer to macroalgae, and especially Hg bioaccumulation in benthic invertebrates was controlled by sediment properties, resulting in limited transfer and accumulation in the most contaminated stations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diffusion of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Across the Sediment-Water Interface and In Seawater at Aquaculture Areas of Daya Bay, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangju Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the yearly increasing marine culture activities in floating cages in Daya Bay, China, the effects of pollution may overlap and lead to more severe water environmental problems. In order to track the impacts of the marine culture in floating cages on water environment, sediments and overlying water were sampled by cylindrical samplers at three representative aquaculture areas of Daya Bay. The water content, porosity, density of sediments as well as the vertical distributions of ammonia nitrogen and active phosphate in pore water along sediments depth were measured. The release rate and annual released quantity of the nutrients across sediment-water interface were calculated using Fick’s Law. A horizontal two-dimensional mathematical model was developed to compute the spatial and temporal distributions of the nutrients in seawater after being released across the sediment-water interface. The results showed that the sediments, with a high content and a large annual released quantity of nitrogen and phosphorus, constitute a potential inner source of seawater pollution. Influenced by tide and water depth, the scope of diffusion and migration of the nutrients appears as a long belt which is about 1 km long and 50 m wide. Seawater in this area is vulnerable to eutrophication.

  7. Acoustic Imaging of Selected Areas of Gdansk Bay with the Aid of Parametric Echosounder and Side-Scan Sonar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grelowska Grażyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents and analyses the data recorded during sounding of the Gdansk Bay seabed with the aid of a parametric echosounder and a side-scan sonar. The accuracy of seabed structure examination, as a condition for obtaining valuable results, requires correct configuration of echolocation devices and proper calibration of peripheral devices, such as the survey unit geographical position sensor - GPS, the navigation unit, the MRU-Z sensor of pitch, roll and heave, and the sound velocity meter, which deliver the data to the bathymetric measurement system. Parametric seabed profilers deliver two types of data: the envelope, and the detailed echo signal without processing. The envelope is used for data visualisation in the form of online echograms, while the echo signal is stored for further analyses, to be performed using dedicated software or, after relevant conversion, in arbitrary programming environment1. The presented data analysis is illustrated by selected sample images recorded by the parametric echosounder and the side-scan sonar during Gdansk Bay sounding.

  8. A high-resolution geophysical investigation of sediment distribution controlled by catchment size and tides in a multi-basin turbid outwash fjord: Simpson Bay, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Christian J.; Dellapenna, Timothy M.; Gilkinson, Andrea; Davis, Randall W.

    2009-02-01

    Surficial sediment distribution within Simpson Bay is a function of antecedent bedrock and recently deposited glacial geology, as well as active physical processes both within Simpson Bay and Prince William Sound (PWS). Simpson Bay is a turbid, outwash fjord located in northeastern PWS, Alaska. Freshwater from heavy precipitation, and the melting of high alpine glaciers enter the bay through bay head rivers and small shoreline creeks. The catchment has a high watershed/basin surface area ratio (˜8:1), and easily erodible bedrock that contribute to high sediment loads. The system can be divided into three discrete basins, each with specific morphologic and circulatory characters. Side scan sonar, swath bathymetry, and seismic profiles reveal that bathymetric highs are areas of outcropping glacial surfaces. High backscatter coupled with surface grab samples reveal these surfaces to be composed of coarse sediment and bedrock outcrops. Bathymetric lows are areas of low backscatter, and grab samples reveal these areas to be ponded deposits of organic-rich estuarine muds. The data provide evidence of terminal morainal bank systems, and glacial grounding line deposits at the mouth of the bay and rocky outcrops were identified as subsurface extensions of aerial rocky promontories. Radioisotope analyses of short cores reveal that the bay has an average accumulation rate of approx. 0.5 cm year-1, but that this varies in function of the watershed/basin surface area ratios of the different basins. The interaction of tidal currents and sediment source drives sediment distribution in Simpson Bay. Hydrographic data reveal high spatial variability in surface and bottom currents throughout the bay. Subsurface currents are tide dominated, but generally weak (5-20 cm s-1), while faster currents are found along shorelines, outcrops, and bathymetric highs. Bathymetric data reveal steep slopes with little to no modern sediment throughout the bay, suggesting lack of deposition due to

  9. Long-term ambient air pollution and lung function impairment in Chinese children from a high air pollution range area: The Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Vivian, Elaina; Mohammed, Kahee A.; Jakhar, Shailja; Vaughn, Michael; Huang, Jin; Zelicoff, Alan; Xaverius, Pamela; Bai, Zhipeng; Lin, Shao; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Paul, Gunther; Morawska, Lidia; Wang, Si-Quan; Qian, Zhengmin; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent and inconclusive associations between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung function in children from Europe and America, where air pollution levels were typically low. The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between air pollutants and lung function in children selected from heavily industrialized and polluted cities in northeastern China. During 2012, 6740 boys and girls aged 7-14 years were recruited in 24 districts of seven northeastern cities. Portable electronic spirometers were used to measure lung function. Four-year average concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were measured at monitoring stations in the 24 districts. Two-staged regression models were used in the data analysis, controlling for covariates. Overall, for all subjects, the increased odds of lung function impairment associated with exposure to air pollutants, ranged from 5% (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 1.10) for FVC gender differences for lung function impairment and pulmonary function from exposure to some pollutants (P < 0.10). In conclusion, long term exposure to high concentrations of ambient air pollution is associated with decreased pulmonary function and lung function impairment, and females appear to be more susceptible than males.

  10. Enrichment of hexabromocyclododecanes in coastal sediments near aquaculture areas and a wastewater treatment plant in a semi-enclosed bay in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Odaini, Najat Ahmed; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Jang, Mi; Hong, Sang Hee

    2015-02-01

    The contamination status and potential sources of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in the coastal environment were investigated using sediment samples from a semi-enclosed bay in South Korea. HBCDs displayed a very different distribution profile compared to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and nonylphenol, indicating different emission sources inside the bay. A strong enrichment of HBCDs was found near aquaculture areas that used expanded polystyrene (EPS) buoys, which were confirmed to be the main source of HBCDs following an analysis of buoys collected from a market and the coast. EPS buoys contained large amounts of HBCDs, with lower levels in the outside layer than inside, implying the leaching of HBCDs from the surface throughout their lifetime. This was reflected in the high levels of HBCDs measured in coastal sediments near aquaculture farms. A wastewater treatment plant was found to be an additional source of HBCDs. A dated core sample revealed an increase in HBCD concentrations over time. The isomeric profiles for most of the surface and core sediment samples were dominated by the γ-diastereoisomer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF THE TOKYO BAY AREA DURING THE 2011 OFF THE PACIFIC COAST OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE USING DOWNHOLE ARRAY RECORDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takaaki; Konagai, Kazuo; Katagiri, Toshihiko

    Underground motions within a hard diluvial stratum were obtained in the March 11th 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake at a downhole in the Tokyo Bay area, which has suffered serious sand-liquefaction over its long 42km2 stretch. The motions in the diluvial sand deposit are characterized by their (1) long dura-tion times with 6 to 8s components surpassing others, (2) moderate amplitude of 51.1 cm/s2 in PGA, which is estimated to have resulted in moderate average strains of 8 to 9 × 10-4 and 5 to 7 × 10-4 over shal-low -2 to -30m and deep -30 to -77m soil deposits, respectively. The peak strain reached in the interior of soil was estimated to be about 1.3 × 10-3.

  12. Unevenness in Health at the Intersection of Gender and Sexuality: Sexual Minority Disparities in Alcohol and Drug Use Among Transwomen in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arayasirikul, Sean; Pomart, W Andres; Raymond, H Fisher; Wilson, Erin C

    2018-01-01

    Research on the health of transwomen is largely focused on heterosexual HIV risk. Little is known about the health of sexual minority transwomen. We conducted a secondary cross-sectional analysis of data from a HIV risk and resilience study of transwomen aged 16 to 24 years in the San Francisco Bay Area (N = 259). Prevalence and demographic characteristics of sexual minority transwomen was assessed and logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between sexual minority status and alcohol and drug use. In logistic regression models, sexual minority transwomen had greater fold odds of heavy episodic drinking and illicit prescription drug use compared to their heterosexual counterparts, controlling for race/ethnicity, age, income, nativity, hormone status, and history of feminization procedures. These results suggest that sexual minority status may be an important social determinant of health among gender minorities. Populations of transwomen are heterogeneous; effective interventions must consider sexual minority status.

  13. Source-oriented variation in trace metal distribution and fractionation in sediments from developing aquaculture area-A case study in south Hangzhou bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lingchen; Ye, Hua; Li, Feipeng; Tao, Hong; Shi, Liu; Chen, Ling; Shi, Weiling; Yan, Geng; Chen, Hao

    2017-12-15

    Elevation in toxic trace metal concentration found in coastal sediments in recent years (2013-2016) increased the risk to the aquaculture industry in south Hangzhou bay. This study assessed the main factors controlling the metal distribution and mobility in sediments by sampling from 20 sites along the bank. Spatial distribution and cluster analysis indicated that Cd, As, Hg and Sb attributed to anthropogenic terrestrial sources; while Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb, carried by fine-grained sediments and accumulated on tidal flat, were inputted from marine sources. High mobility of Cd was expected because of its considerable proportion (~50%) associated with the acid extractable fraction. Pb, Cu and Co in redox sensitive fraction should also be taken into concern in management of reclaimed area affected by tide. Risk assessments by potential ecological risk index (PERI) emphasised the importance of further monitor and proper treatment of 4 terrestrial generated metals in sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cigarette, cigar and pipe smoking, passive smoke exposure, and risk of pancreatic cancer: a population-based study in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Furong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the influence of cigarette, cigar and pipe smoking, cessation of cigarette smoking and passive smoke exposure on the risk of pancreatic cancer. Methods Exposure data were collected during in-person interviews in a population-based case-control study of pancreatic cancer (N = 532 cases, N = 1701 controls in the San Francisco Bay Area. Odds ratios (ORs were adjusted for potential confounders. Results The adjusted odds ratio (OR of pancreatic cancer among current smokers was 1.9 (95% confidence interval (CI, 1.4-2.7. A significant, positive trend in risk with increasing pack-years of smoking was observed (P-trend Conclusions Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Smokers who had quit for ≥10 years no longer experienced an increased risk. Future work will help to determine the effect of declining smoking rates on pancreatic cancer incidence.

  15. Pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis due to Paragonimus heterotremus: molecular diagnosis, prevalence of infection and clinicoradiological features in an endemic area of northeastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, K Rekha; Narain, Kanwar; Bhattacharya, S; Negmu, K; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Blair, David; Wickramashinghe, S; Mahanta, J

    2007-08-01

    In the northeastern region of India, paragonimiasis is emerging as an important public health problem. However, until now the identity of the species causing human infection has been uncertain and there has been little information on the prevalence and clinicoradiological features of infection in the community. Parasitological and immunological surveys revealed that paragonimiasis was hyperendemic in parts of Arunachal Pradesh. Egg positivity in the sputum was 20.9% and 4.1% in children (age 15 years), respectively. Antibody positivity against excretory-secretory antigen of the adult worm in children and adults was 51.7% and 18.7%, respectively. Chronic cough (97.2%) and haemoptysis (83.3%) were common respiratory symptoms among egg-positive cases. Chest radiography (n=68) images from egg-positive cases showed that air space consolidation (75%), cavitary lesions (14.7%) and mediastinal adenopathy (11.8%) were very frequent. Less frequent findings were nodular lesions, bronchiectasis, mediastinal adenopathy, pleural thickening and pleural effusion. DNA extracted from eggs from the sputum of patients from Arunachal Pradesh was sequenced. Analyses of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of nuclear rDNA revealed that the species responsible is Paragonimus heterotremus.

  16. THE SOURCES OF NUTRIENTS IN WATERS OF RIVERS IN THE WETLAND AREAS OF NAREW NATIONAL PARK IN NORTH-EASTERN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Skorbiłowicz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at the attempt to identify and to evaluate the interaction intensity, and to classify the sources of river waters nutrients in the catchment of upper river Narew within Narew National Park (north-eastern Poland. The studies were carried out on Narew river within borders of Narew National Park, where 5 measurement-control points were localized as well as one near estuaries of its 5 tributaries (Awissa, Czaplinianka, Horodnianka, Turośnianka and Supraśl. Factor analysis (FA from multi-dimensional group was applied for statistical processing of study results, because it is commonly used to describe and explore a large number of data. concentrations of analyzed chemicals depended on a water sampling point that was under anthropopression and geogenic conditions. Studies and results from analyses (FA and CA allowed for identifying the main sources of river Narew nutrients within Narew National Park. These are: tributaries of river Narew, point and distributed runoffs, as well as shallow ground waters that transport components having anthropogenic and partially geogenic-lithologic origin. River Turośnianka supplies the largest loads of studied parameters to river Narew within Narew National Park boundaries. River Supraśl is the most contaminated tributary of river Narew.

  17. Active detection of tuberculosis and paragonimiasis in the remote areas in North-Eastern India using cough as a simple indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekha Devi, Kangjam; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Deori, Rumi; Lego, Kabang; Goswami, Dibyajyoti; Kumar Rajguru, Sanjib; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2013-04-01

    One of the essential steps in targeting tuberculosis (TB) intervention is early diagnosis and treatment of patients by reducing the reservoir of infection in the community. In the North-Eastern (NE) region of India pulmonary TB and paragonimiasis are overlapping public health issues. We performed a cross-sectional study in 63 remote villages from the two states Arunachal Pradesh (AP) and Assam to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed TB and paragonimiasis cases using cough as a simple indicator. In AP, 2961 individuals aged five years and above were examined and 1108 (37·4%) were found to have cough for one week or more. Of the 417 individuals who provided sputum, 11 (2·64%) were smear positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). All these cases were yet undiagnosed, thus the prevalence of new smear positive TB in AP was 0·37%. In Assam on the other hand 331 (23·5%) subjects out of 1410 individuals who were examined had a cough for one week or more and of the 112 individuals who provided sputum, 13 (11·6%) were smear positive for AFB. The prevalence of new smear positive TB cases was 0·78% in Assam. Sero-positivity of paragonimiasis in coughers of AP was 7·6% (n = 1091), which was significantly higher (p NE region of India especially in the remote places and there is need to strengthen early case detection of TB.

  18. MISR Images Northeastern Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of the Ntwetwe and Sua Pans in northeastern Botswana, acquired on August 18, 2000 (Terra orbit 3553). The left image is a color view from the vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. On the right is a composite of red band imagery in which the 45-degree aft camera data are displayed in blue, 45-degree forward as green, and vertical as red. This combination causes wet areas to appear blue because of the glint-like reflection from water and damp surfaces. Clouds are visible in the upper left corner and right center of each image. The clouds look peculiar in the multi-angle view because geometric parallax resulting from their elevation above the surface causes a misregistration of the individual images making up the composite. This stereoscopic effect provides a way of distinguishing clouds from bright surfaces.The images are approximately 250 kilometers across. Ntwetwe and Sua pans are closed interior basins that catch rainwater and surface runoff during the wet season. Seasonal lakes form that may reach several meters in depth. During the dry season the collected waters rapidly evaporate leaving behind dissolved salts that coat the surface and turn it bright ('sua' means salt). The mining town of Sowa is located where the Sua Spit (a finger of grassland extending into the pan) attaches to the shore. Sowa represents headquarters for a JPL contingent carrying out MISR field experiments using the evaporite surface and the grasslands as targets and for Botswana scientists studying migration of groundwaters beneath the pans and surrounding areas. These efforts support the Southern Africa Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI-2000), which is now underway.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.For more information: http://www-misr.jpl.nasa.gov

  19. Stone Age settlement and Holocene water level changes of the Baltic Sea in the Torvajoe Basin area, Narva-Luga Klint Bay, NE Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raig, Hanna; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Risberg, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The Tõrvajõe basin is located in NE Estonia in the southern part of the Narva-Luga Klint Bay, that is characterized by slow post-glacial isostatic uplift (about 0-1mm/yr) and slowly undulating low topography. Post-glacial changes of the water-level of the Baltic Sea have at times flooded the area, and at times, it has emerged as terrestrial land. In addition to a complex geological development, the surroundings of the Tõrvajõe basin are interesting from the archaeological point of view because of abundant archaeological findings in the area, of which the oldest (c 8.1 cal ka BP) from the Mesolithic period and the majority, indicating very intense habitation (c 7.1-5.5 cal ka BP), from the Neolithic period. Development of the Tőrvajőe basin area during the period of Stone Age settlement (c 8.1-5.5 cal. ka BP) is studied with multiple geological and archaeological proxies. Sediments are described by lithostratigraphical methods, loss-on-ignition. AMS radiocarbon dates are used to date events and create an age-depth model. Environment is described by pollen analyses and water environment by siliceous microfossil analyses. Palaeogeographical reconstructions for time slices of interest are created to illustrate Stone Age settlement pattern and changes of the coastline and landscape over time. The aim of this interdisciplinary study is to investigate and associate palaeoenvironmental conditions and water-level changes with Stone Age settlement pattern in the Tőrvajőe area. Results show four developmental stages in the post-glacial history of the basin: Ancylus Lake lagoon, mire, lagoon during the Litorina Sea and mire. During the Ancylus Lake transgression at about 10.8-10.2 cal. ka BP a spit started to form north of the basin and a lagoon evolved behind it. Following the Ancylus Lake regression river activity and formation of palaeosoil and fen peat took place. Due to the Litorina Sea transgression, that was initially slower but accelerated around 7.8-7.6 cal ka

  20. New field and geophysical data about transpressional deformation: An improved model for the structural style of Sha Gou fault area in southern Ningxia, northeastern edge of Tibetan Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lu; Liu, Zhen; Zhao, Haihua; Wang, Jun; Xiang, Peng; Liu, Jingjing; Cui, Hongzhuang; Ji, Jianqing

    2015-11-01

    Situated near the northeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, the Sha Gou fault area (SGFA) represents an important area to understand Cenozoic regional interactions between northeastern (NE) Tibetan Plateau and southwestern (SW) Liupan Shan Basin. Within this region, several km-scale arcuate fault systems such as the Lijun fault and the Madong Shan piedmont fault accommodate the transpressive deformation, but their structural style is still controversial. Predecessors regarded these bow-like faults as southwest-dipping thrust systems with large-scale nappes, however, this opinion is not compatible with the new field and geophysical data. In this study, we aim to ascertain the structural pattern of this area based on the analyses of field observation data, interpretation of seismic reflection profiles and two-dimensional gravity forward modeling. According to the present fieldwork, the structural cleavages, low-angle slickenlines, sub-vertical fault surfaces, "ribbon effect" as well as the linear geomorphic features in plane view indicate that these faults belong to a strike-slip system. Newly acquired seismic profiles, characterized by distinct positive flower structures, strongly suggest that this area is again a strike-slip fault system rather than a thrusting system. Furthermore, gravity forward modeling results show that the reverse strike-slip model without large-scale thrust nappes is closer to the present structural style of this area. The gravity forward modeling is an effective method to identify km-scale thrust nappes, which could be used for reference by the structural style analysis in other similar regions. Based on these evidences, a new transpressional shear model for the structural pattern is proposed. The overall structural style of the SGFA is not characterized by large-scale thrust nappes, but is dominated by a transpressional shear system with significant strike-slip faulting. Such a new model can be an additional evidence for the tectonic escape

  1. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available ..................................... 26 BACKGROUND Historical The town of Richards Bay is situated on the east coast of South Africa, approximately 160 km north-east of Durban, and was named after Sir Frederick William Richards. Although the area was already known...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1190 - Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... craft shall not work their screws or otherwise generate other than incidental noise in the area during periods of actual testing, which will be indicated by flashing red beacons at strategic locations, and all...

  3. The importance of mangroves, mud and sand flats, and seagrass beds as feeding areas for juvenile fishes in Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar : gut content and stable isotope analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugendo, B.; Nagelkerken, I.; Velde, G. van der; Mgaya, Y.D.

    2006-01-01

    The relative importance of bay habitats, consisting of mangrove creeks and channel, seagrass beds, and mud and sand flats, as feeding grounds for a number of fish species was studied in Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar, Tanzania, using gut content analysis and stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen. Gut

  4. Chesapeake Bay under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to extensive data obtained over its 13,000 km of shoreline, the Chesapeake Bay has been suffering a major, indeed unprecedented, reduction in submerged vegetation. Chesapeake Bay is alone in experiencing decline in submerged vegetation. Other estuary systems on the east coast of the United States are not so affected. These alarming results were obtained by the synthesis of the findings of numerous individual groups in addition to large consortium projects on the Chesapeake done over the past decade. R. J. Orth and R. A. Moore of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science pointed to the problem of the severe decline of submerged grasses on the Bay and along its tributaries. In a recent report, Orth and Moore note: “The decline, which began in the 1960's and accelerated in the 1970's, has affected all species in all areas. Many major river systems are now totally devoid of any rooted vegetation” (Science, 222, 51-53, 1983).

  5. Caryocar coriaceum (Caryocaraceae) diaspore removal and dispersal distance on the margin and in the interior of a Cerrado area in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Gilney Charll; Schiel, Nicola; Araújo, Elcida de Lima; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2016-09-01

    The seed dispersal process is a crucial stage in plant regeneration and maintenance of forest biological diversity. While the number of removed seeds is quantitative, the distance to which a seed is removed from its origin is qualitative, because it affects the probability that a seed will germinate and recruit to the next life stage. However, the creation of forest margins can negatively affect the seed dispersal process, especially for large-diaspore plant species. In this study, the diaspore removal and dispersal distance of Caryocar coriaceum, a tree with large diaspores that is in danger of extinction, were analyzed. The study was conducted for two consecutive years in a protected forest in Northeastern Brazil. Each year, 1 200 diaspores with a nylon wire and a satin tape yellow were used and equally distributed in 120 experimental stations established on the forest margin and in the interior. During the first year of the study, no differences in diaspore removal and dispersal distance were found among the investigated environments. However, for the second year of the study, the number of removed diaspores differed significantly; nevertheless, the dispersal distance was not different between the forest margin and the interior. The low diaspore removal percentages suggest that species recruitment may be compromised because the diaspore accumulation close to the relatives enables higher fungi and insect attack. In addition, most of the few removed diaspores were found at short distances from their sources (up to 5 m), which can lead to low genetic variability. Virtually no diaspore was found buried by hoarding rodents, and no diaspore was found preyed upon by these animals. Evidence found in this study suggests the local loss of species dispersers, which can compromise the maintenance of forest biological diversity.

  6. Down-core changes in molluscan death assemblages at Panzano Bay, an impacted area in the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselmair, Alexandra; Gallmetzer, Ivo; Stachowitsch, Michael; Tomasovych, Adam; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    We use a historical ecology approach to shed light on the environmental history of the northern Adriatic Sea over the last hundreds to thousands of years. We focus on down-core changes in molluscan death assemblages, which serve as proxies for ecological shifts over time. The northern Adriatic Sea is particularly suited to study ecosystem modification under human pressure because it is among the most degraded marine ecosystems worldwide. We chose a sampling station in Panzano Bay, close the Isonzo River mouth and not far from the major industrial harbours of Trieste (Italy) and Koper (Slovenia), and traced down-core changes in molluscan community structure in correlation to major anthropogenic impacts that occurred here during the last centuries. Five sediment cores (1.5 m in length and diameters of 90 and 160 mm) were taken at a water depth of 12 m. We analysed grain size composition, the concentration of heavy metals and organic pollutants, and radiometrically dated the sediment using 210Pb. Furthermore, we dated shells of the abundant bivalve species Corbula gibba using 14C calibrated amino acid-racemisation (AAR). The whole molluscan community in the cores was analysed for species composition, abundance, taxonomic similarity, evidence for ecological interactions (i.e., frequencies of drilling predation) and taphonomic conditions of shells. The granulometric analysis shows that silt and clay dominate equally throughout the cores. Radiometric sediment dating revealed an average sedimentation rate of 2.5 mm/yr during the last 120 years. Shell dating points to a comparable overall core age, with only a few shell specimens being older than 500 years in the deepest core layer. In total, 10,452 mollusc individuals were analysed and 104 species identified. The most abundant bivalve species are Kurtiella bidentata, Corbula gibba and Abra nitida. Turritella communis and Nassarius pygmaeus are the most frequent gastropod species. Down-core changes in species composition

  7. Risk assessment of butyltins based on a fugacity-based food web bioaccumulation model in the Jincheng Bay mariculture area: I. Model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanbing; Gong, Xianghong; Xu, Yingjiang; Song, Xiukai; Liu, Huihui; Deng, Xuxiu; Ru, Shaoguo

    2014-08-01

    A fugacity-based model was developed to simulate the bioaccumulation of butyltins in the food web of the Jincheng Bay mariculture area. The predicted biological tissue residues of tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and monobutyltin (MBT) were 0.04-17.09, 0.14-53.54, and 0.27-108.77 ng-Sn g(-1), respectively, and the predicted values in six mollusca agreed well with the measured ones. The lipid-normalized concentrations did not significantly increase across trophic levels, indicating no biomagnification across aquatic food webs. These results were highly consistent with those observed both in the laboratory and field, which had been reported in numerous references. The explanation, from calculating their flux equilibrium in the food web, was that butyltins were primarily taken in via respiration from the water column by marine organisms. The sensitivities of the model parameters were analyzed, revealing that the hydrophobicity of butyltins played the dominant role in their bioaccumulation phenomena. The verified model predictions of the biotic tissue concentrations of the butyltins could be readily applied to perform internal ecological risk and human health risk assessments in this area.

  8. Comparison between lead levels in dandelions grown in an ultra-clean lab environment (baseline) and those collected from the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojero, J.; Odigie, K. O.; Hibdon, S.; Flegal, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    This study is aimed at establishing the baseline (natural) levels of lead in dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) grown in an ultra-clean environment. Dandelions have been used extensively as biomonitors of environmental lead levels since their distribution is global and they can be easily collected. However, industrial lead contamination is so pervasive that even dandelions from the most remote areas in the world may be contaminated with industrial lead. Therefore, this work will test the hypothesis that "natural" lead levels in dandelions are lower than any previously published values - by growing them in a HEPA filtered air (Class 100) trace metal clean room with high purity (18 MΩ cm) water. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of lead in the clean-room grown dandelions will be compared to values in literature and to those of lead in dandelions collected from San Francisco Bay Area. Lead is a dense, ductile, and highly malleable metal that is found naturally in our environment. Due to its properties it is currently highly used in building construction, in ceramic glazes, lead chromate and in PVC plastic used to coat electrical cords. The uses of lead have included paint, leather tanning, and being used as an additive to gasoline prior to the mid 1970's, as well as others. Due to its many uses, humans are susceptible to lead regularly through various means of exposure from air, water and soil, often leading to lead toxicity.

  9. 75 FR 53266 - United States Army Restricted Area, Designated Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... noise during certain training exercises; Army control of this area is also necessary to prevent... Eagle River in order to enhance safety and security. This portion of Eagle River runs through an active... Web site is an anonymous access system, which means we will not know your identity or contact...

  10. Fission-track ages of the Tokai Group and associate formations in the east coast areas of Ise Bay and their significance in geohistory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makinouchi, Takeshi; Danhara, Toru; Isoda, Kunitoshi.

    1983-01-01

    Fission-track ages of volcanic ash layers within the Tokai Group and associate formations in the east coast areas of Ise Bay are obtained by grain-by-grain method with which individual ages for the respective zircon grains are measured. They are as follows; 1) a volcanic ash layer in the Karayama Formation (tentative age: 1.9 +- 0.4 Ma). Among the zircon grains in this layer, essential ones occupy only 1 per cent, and the others are accidental. 2) Ohtani volcanic ash layer (4.3 +- 0.6 Ma). 3) Kosugaya volcanic ash layer (4.0 +- 0.5 Ma). 4) Kaminoma volcanic ash layer (5.3 +- 0.4 Ma). 5) A volcanic ash layer in the Toyoura Formation seems to be older than 10 Ma. 6) Zircon grains in the Kofu volcanic ash layer (Tokai Group) include two types of spontaneous namely track, clear and vague ones. The latter vague tracks are shorter and thiner, and seem to suffer thermal annealing. The ages obtained have clarified the following Points; a) The tentative age, 1.9 Ma, of the ''Karayama'' volcanic ash layer suggests the existence of unknown Plio-Pleistocene sediment in the Nagoya area. b) The sedimentary basin of Lake Tokai was formed in the latest Miocene, about 6.5 Ma. Generation of the basin coincides approximately with the stage of synchronous and abrupt change in sedimentation rate in sedimentary basins on the Pacific side of central and southern Japan. c) The Tokai Group in Chita (Tokoname Group) intercalates the Gilbert/Epoch 5 boundary in the paleomagnetic chronology in the middle horizon of the group. d) Average rate of sedimentation is about 1 m/10 4 yrs in the marginal areas of the basin, and 3-5 m/10 4 yrs in the central areas. (author)

  11. San Francisco Bay Area CHARG: Coastal Hazards Adaptation Resiliency Group, a Multi-Jurisdictional Collaboration to Develop Innovative Regional Solutions to Address Sea Level Rise and Improve Shoreline Resiliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, R.

    2017-12-01

    For a challenge as complex and far-reaching as sea level rise and improving shoreline resiliency, strong partnerships between scientists, elected officials, decision-makers, and the general public are the only way that effective solutions can be developed. The San Francisco Bay, like many similar sheltered water coastal environments (for example, Galveston Bay, Tampa Bay, or Venetian Lagoon) offers a unique opportunity for multiple jurisdictions to collaborate to address sea level rise on a regional basis. For the San Francisco Bay, significant scientific progress has been made in building a real-time simulation model for riverine and Bay hydrodynamics. Other major scientific initiatives, such as morphology mapping, shoreline mapping, and a sediment budget are also underway. In 2014, leaders from the Bay Area science, engineering, planning, policy, elected, and regulatory communities representing jurisdictions around the Bay joined together to address sea level rise. The group includes people from local, regional, state, and federal agencies and organizations. Together, CHARG (Coastal Hazards Adaptation Resiliency Group) established a collective vision and approach to implementing regional solutions. Decision-makers within many Bay Area jurisdictions are motivated to show demonstrable progress toward addressing sea level rise. However, the cost to implement shoreline resiliency solutions will be very large, and must be founded on strong science.CHARG is now tackling several key technical challenges. One is to develop science-based guidelines for local jurisdictions to determine when a project is local, sub-regional, or regional. Concurrently, several organizations are planning or implementing pilot shoreline resiliency projects and other programs. Many creative regional solutions are possible in a sheltered water environment that simply would not be feasible along the open coast. By definition, these solutions cannot be undertaken by one entity alone. Large

  12. Pattern of all-causes and cause-specific mortality in an area with progressively declining malaria burden in Korogwe district, north-eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challe, Daniel P; Kamugisha, Mathias L; Mmbando, Bruno P; Francis, Filbert; Chiduo, Mercy G; Mandara, Celine I; Gesase, Samuel; Abdul, Omari; Lemnge, Martha M; Ishengoma, Deus S

    2018-02-27

    Although death records are useful for planning and monitoring health interventions, such information is limited in most developing countries. Verbal autopsy (VA) interviews are alternatively used to determine causes of death in places without or with incomplete hospital records. This study was conducted to determine all causes and cause-specific mortality in Korogwe health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) undertaken in Korogwe district, northeastern Tanzania. The study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2012 in 14 villages under Korogwe HDSS. Vital events such as births, deaths and migrations were routinely updated quarterly. A standard VA questionnaire was administered to parents/close relatives of the deceased to determine cause of death. Overall, 1325 deaths of individuals with median age of 46 years were recorded in a population with 170,471.4 person years observed (PY). Crude mortality rate was 7.8 per 1000 PY (95% CI 7.2-8.4) and the highest rate was observed in infants (77.9 per 1000 PY; 95% CI 67.4-90.0). The overall mortality increased between 2006 and 2007, followed by a slight decline up to 2011, with the highest decrease observed in 2012. Causes of deaths were established in 942 (71.1%) deaths and malaria (198 deaths, 21.0%) was the leading cause of death in all age groups except adults (15-59 years). HIV/AIDS (17.6%, n = 365) was the leading cause of death in individuals aged 15-59 years followed by malaria (13.9%) and tuberculosis. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) including stroke, hypertension, cancer, and cardiac failure caused majority of deaths in elderly (60 years and above) accounting for 37.1% (n = 348) of all deaths, although malaria was the single leading cause of death in this group (16.6%). The study showed a significant decline of deaths in the Korogwe HDSS site and malaria was the main cause of death in all age groups (except adults, aged 15-59 years) while HIV/AIDS and NCDs were the main causes in adults and

  13. Socio-Ecological System within Governance of Marine Protected Area: Case from Cenderawasih Bay National Park, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Bawole

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming the problem of resource management which relies only on social dimension without understanding the ecosystem dynamics will not be sufficient to create sustainable management. Therefore, socio-ecological system (SES is needed to respond changes so that robust management could be created. Research on SES was focused more on capacity of governance in creating management of conservation area, particularly in the period where there were occurrence of resistance between social problem and ecosystem. Principal component analysis explained 76% of the total variability. Very high variable respond category occurred on first principal component (PC with positive effect which was related directly to ecological condition, and negative effect toward catch yield and utilization of traditional zone. Condition of economy and fish resources contributed positively toward second PC, and can be expressed as factor which affected economic condition of fishermen household. Condition of fishermen, related with catching activity and income of fishermen household gave positive effect toward the third PC, and can be expressed as component which affected catching effort and explained exploitation level by fishermen toward resources. Interaction between factors which formed SES occurred due to economic activity of fishermen household, catching efforts, and ecological capacity. Design of governance could be conducted on increase of fishermen household economy through control of catching efforts and considering the carrying capacity and ecological capacity. Keyword: governance, socio-ecological system, marine protected areas, sustainable management

  14. Report on earth science studies at the Mt. Riiser-Larsen area, Amundsen Bay, Enderby Land, 2000-2001 (JARE-42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Funaki

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Five members of the summer party of the 42nd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-42 stayed in the Mt. Riiser-Larsen area, Amundsen Bay, Enderby Land, Antarctica, from December 18, 2000 to February 18, 2001 for paleomagnetism, geochronology, electromagnetic and magnetic surveys. A resident hut was built beside the generator hut constructed by JARE-38 in the camp. For the paleomagnetic study, 741 samples from 86 sites were collected in addition to the data of susceptibility and distribution of magnetite-quartz gneiss. 187 samples of felsic gneisses and basic dike rocks were collected for the geochronology. The high conductivity layer between 8 and 28 km was elucidated by the magnetotelluric method applied to samples obtained from 5 sites on the moraine field and 1 site on Richardson Lake. Strong magnetic anomalies up to 7000 nT were observed along gneissosity and dike intrusions by the magnetic survey. The weather was relatively mild during 63 days, although the maximum wind speed reached 50.7m/s. The camp was maintained without major accidents or trouble. After the work was completed, the camp facilities at Mt. Riiser-Larsen and Tonagh Island were completely withdrawn for environmental protection.

  15. Study on Commercialization of Biogasification Systems in Ishikari Bay New Port Area - Proposal of Estimation Method of Collectable Amount of Food Waste by using Binary Logit Model -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Sho; Furuichi, Toru; Ishii, Kazuei

    This study proposed an estimation method for collectable amount of food waste considering the food waste generator's cooperation ratio ant the amount of food waste generation, and clarified the factors influencing the collectable amount of food waste. In our method, the cooperation ratio was calculated by using the binary logit model which is often used for the traffic multiple choice question. In order to develop a more precise binary logit model, the factors influencing on the cooperation ratio were extracted by a questionnaire survey asking food waste generator's intention, and the preference investigation was then conducted at the second step. As a result, the collectable amount of food waste was estimated to be 72 [t/day] in the Ishikari bay new port area under a condition of current collection system by using our method. In addition, the most critical factor influencing on the collectable amount of food waste was the treatment fee for households, and was the permitted mixture degree of improper materials for retail trade and restaurant businesses

  16. The application of stereo-video technology for the assessment on population change of black rockfish Sebastes schlegeli in a vessel reef area in Haizhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Xu, Qinzeng; Zhang, Yingqiu; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of population structure and abundance of fish assemblages associated with artificial reefs (ARs) is an important aspect of AR management. In the present study, we used a Dive-Operated Stereo Video (stereo-DOV) technique to assess the population structure and abundance of Sebastes schlegeli associated with two metallic, and three wooden, vessel reefs in Haizhou Bay during 2012 and 2013. The study used video systems to obtain length measurements and estimates of abundance. The size composition of S. schlegeli differed among reefs and individuals around vessel reefs were all adults, with total lengths (TL) of >20 cm. Juvenile fish were encountered by divers in a rocky area near the island away from the vessel reefs. The largest individual S. schlegeli (with the highest TL) among five reefs were found around a metallic vessel reef in both 2012 and 2013. TL of S. s chlegeli from all reefs increased by an average of 3.2 cm ( P<0.05) from 2012 to 2013, with an estimated mean weight increase of 250.4 g ( P<0.05). The video survey also indicated a decrease in the biomass of schools near two metallic vessels between the years. Stereo-video technology was found to be suitable for rockfish surveys around the reefs.

  17. One-Dimensional Convolutional Neural Network Land-Cover Classification of Multi-Seasonal Hyperspectral Imagery in the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Guidici

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a 1-D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN architecture was developed, trained and utilized to classify single (summer and three seasons (spring, summer, fall of hyperspectral imagery over the San Francisco Bay Area, California for the year 2015. For comparison, the Random Forests (RF and Support Vector Machine (SVM classifiers were trained and tested with the same data. In order to support space-based hyperspectral applications, all analyses were performed with simulated Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI imagery. Three-season data improved classifier overall accuracy by 2.0% (SVM, 1.9% (CNN to 3.5% (RF over single-season data. The three-season CNN provided an overall classification accuracy of 89.9%, which was comparable to overall accuracy of 89.5% for SVM. Both three-season CNN and SVM outperformed RF by over 7% overall accuracy. Analysis and visualization of the inner products for the CNN provided insight to distinctive features within the spectral-temporal domain. A method for CNN kernel tuning was presented to assess the importance of learned features. We concluded that CNN is a promising candidate for hyperspectral remote sensing applications because of the high classification accuracy and interpretability of its inner products.

  18. Extraction procedure compared to attenuation model to assess heavy metals mobility in sediments from Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro; Procedimento de fracionamento comparado a modelo de atenuacao para a avaliacao de mobilidade de metais pesados em sedimentos da Baia de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Andreza Portella

    2006-07-01

    Sepetiba bay, located about 60 km west of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro city, has undergone notable development in the last decades, with the establishment of about 400 industrial plants in its basin, basically metallurgical, which release its industrial waste either straight into the bay or through local rivers. The Sepetiba harbor also brought up a lot of industrial investment in that area. This urban and industrial expansion caused several environmental impacts, mainly due to the presence of heavy metals and other potentially toxic substances present in the effluents discharged into the bay. This work aimed to assess heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb e Zn) contamination and mobility in sediments from Sepetiba bay. The acid-volatile sulfides (AVS) and the concentration of simultaneously extracted metals (SIGMA[SEM) were determined in 65 sediment samples from Sepetiba bay, representing the whole area. The results obtained showed that Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn presented higher concentrations in the northeastern area (mainly in the mouth of Guandu and Canal de Sao Francisco rivers), while the highest concentration of Ni were observed in the western region of the bay. The comparison between SEM concentrations with the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines (TEL and PEL) indicated that Cd and Zn presented values which may hazard to aquatic organisms (concentration levels above PEL); the elements Cu, Pb and Ni presented concentration levels below PEL, suggesting low probability of toxicological effects to the aquatic organisms. On the other hand, the ratio {sigma}[SEM]/[AVS] was below 1 in the northeastern region, indicating that, in spite of the high concentration of the analyzed metals in this area, they are trapped in the sediment, as sulfides. The total metal concentrations in the sediments were also determined and the same distribution pattern obtained for the SEM were observed, with high concentrations in the northeastern region of the bay, classifying the area as

  19. Automation in tube finishing bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Prateek; Satyadev, B.; Raghuraman, S.; Syama Sundara Rao, B.

    1997-01-01

    Automation concept in tube finishing bay, introduced after the final pass annealing of PHWR tubes resulted in integration of number of sub-systems in synchronisation with each other to produce final cut fuel tubes of specified length, tube finish etc. The tube finishing bay which was physically segregated into four distinct areas: 1. tube spreader and stacking area, 2. I.D. sand blasting area, 3. end conditioning, wad blowing, end capping and O.D. wet grinding area, 4. tube inspection, tube cutting and stacking area has been studied

  20. Geologic map and map database of northeastern San Francisco Bay region, California, [including] most of Solano County and parts of Napa, Marin, Contra Costa, San Joaquin, Sacramento, Yolo, and Sonoma Counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graymer, Russell Walter; Jones, David Lawrence; Brabb, Earl E.

    2002-01-01

    This digital map database, compiled from previously published and unpublished data, and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying text file (nesfmf.ps, nesfmf.pdf, nesfmf.txt), it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:62,500 or smaller.

  1. Observations on the geology and petroleum potential of the Cold Bay-False Pass area, Alaska Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Hugh James

    1979-01-01

    Upper Jurassic strata in the Black Hills area consist mainly of fossiliferous, tightly cemented, gently folded sandstone deposited in a shallow marine environment. Upper Cretaceous strata on Sanak Island are strongly deformed and show structural features of broken formations similar to those observed in the Franciscan assemblage of California. Rocks exposed on Sanak Island do not crop out on the peninsular mainland or on Unimak Island, and probably make up the acoustic and economic basement of nearby Sanak basin. Tertiary sedimentary rocks on the outermost part of the Alaska Peninsula consist of Oligocene, Miocene, and lower Pliocene volcaniclastic sandstone, siltstone, and conglomerate deposited in nonmarine and very shallow marine environments. Interbedded airfall and ash-flow tuff deposits indicate active volcanism during Oligocene time. Locally, Oligocene strata are intruded by quartz diorite plutons of probable Miocene age. Reservoir properties of Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks are generally poor due to alteration of chemically unstable volcanic rock fragments. Igneous intrusions have further reduced porosity and permeability by silicification of sandstone. Organic-rich source rocks for petroleum generation are not abundant in Neogene strata. Upper Jurassic rocks in the Black Hills area have total organic carbon contents of less than 0.5 percent. Deep sediment-filled basins on the Shumagin Shelf probably contain more source rocks than onshore correlatives, but reservoir quality is not likely to be better than in onshore outcrops. The absence of well-developed folds in most Tertiary rocks, both onshore and in nearby offshore basins, reduces the possibility of hydrocarbon entrapment in anticlines.

  2. Mex Bay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-02-23

    Feb 23, 2015 ... surveys to assess the vulnerability of the most important physical and eutrophication parameters along. El- Mex Bay coast. As a result of increasing population and industrial development, poorly untreated industrial waste, domestic sewage, shipping industry and agricultural runoff are being released to the.

  3. Null-space Monte Carlo particle tracking to assess groundwater PCE (Tetrachloroethene) diffuse pollution in north-eastern Milan functional urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Luca; Colombo, Loris; Formentin, Giovanni

    2018-04-15

    The Lombardy Region in Italy is one of the most urbanized and industrialized areas in Europe. The presence of countless sources of groundwater pollution is therefore a matter of environmental concern. The sources of groundwater contamination can be classified into two different categories: 1) Point Sources (PS), which correspond to areas releasing plumes of high concentrations (i.e. hot-spots) and 2) Multiple-Point Sources (MPS) consisting in a series of unidentifiable small sources clustered within large areas, generating an anthropogenic diffuse contamination. The latter category frequently predominates in European Functional Urban Areas (FUA) and cannot be managed through standard remediation techniques, mainly because detecting the many different source areas releasing small contaminant mass in groundwater is unfeasible. A specific legislative action has been recently enacted at Regional level (DGR IX/3510-2012), in order to identify areas prone to anthropogenic diffuse pollution and their level of contamination. With a view to defining a management plan, it is necessary to find where MPS are most likely positioned. This paper describes a methodology devised to identify the areas with the highest likelihood to host potential MPS. A groundwater flow model was implemented for a pilot area located in the Milan FUA and through the PEST code, a Null-Space Monte Carlo method was applied in order to generate a suite of several hundred hydraulic conductivity field realizations, each maintaining the model in a calibrated state and each consistent with the modelers' expert-knowledge. Thereafter, the MODPATH code was applied to generate back-traced advective flowpaths for each of the models built using the conductivity field realizations. Maps were then created displaying the number of backtracked particles that crossed each model cell in each stochastic calibrated model. The result is considered to be representative of the FUAs areas with the highest likelihood to host

  4. Evaluation of mangrove ecosystem service functions of Ximen Island Marine Specially Protected Areas in Yueqing Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D. G.; Sun, L.; Tan, Y. H.; Shi, A. Q.; Cheng, J.

    2017-08-01

    Taking the mangrove ecosystem of Ximen Island National Marine Specially Protected Areas as the research object, the ecological service value of the mangrove forest was evaluated and analyzed using a market value method, an ecological value method and a carbon tax method. The results showed that the ecosystem service value of the mangrove forest on Ximen Island is worth a total of 16,104,000 CNY/a. Among the value of individual ecosystem services, the direct value of material production function and leisure function reached 1,385,000 CNY/a, with a ratio of 8.6%. The indirect value of disturbance regulation, gas regulation, water purification, habitat function and culture research reached 14,719,000 CNY/a, with a ratio of 91.4%. Among the above sub-items, the proportion of disturbance regulation value, habitat function value and cultural research function value reached 78.8%, which reflects the important scientific value and ecological value of the Ximen Island mangrove ecosystem, especially its vital importance in providing a habitat for birds and playing a role in disaster prevention and mitigation.

  5. Spatial distribution and exposure risks of ambient chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Tokyo Bay area and network approach to source impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohura, Takeshi; Horii, Yuichi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2018-01-01

    Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) receive increasing attention as hazardous pollutants in terms of the high environmental persistence and toxicities. Ambient concentrations of 24 ClPAHs and 24 PAHs were investigated at 14 sites in the Tokyo Bay area of Japan. Twelve of 18 ClPAH species were detected in air samples, in spite of small sampling volumes. Mean concentrations of total PAHs in gas and particle phases were 5400 and 1400 pg/m 3 , and mean concentrations of total ClPAHs in gas and particle phases were 40 and 14 pg/m 3 , respectively. The spatial distributions of both total ClPAH and PAH concentrations indicated heavy pollution at sites in industrial activity areas. Principal component analysis suggested that the dominant sources of gaseous and particulate ClPAHs differed substantially from each other. In particular, gaseous ClPAHs could be produced by specific sources different from those of particulate ClPAHs. However, the dominant sources of particulate ClPAHs could be the same as those of particulate PAHs, including industrial activities such as steel and gas-production plants and natural gas-fired power plants. The influences of spatial relationships among sampling sites were represented using a network analysis. The constructed network showed that ambient ClPAHs and PAHs were dominated by local rather than regional pollution, because there were weaker relationships among nearby sites. Finally, exposure risks for ClPAHs were dominated by 7-chlorobenz[a]anthracene, followed by 9-chlorophenanthrene and 6-chlorobenzo[a]pyrene, and total risk was ∼1/200 that of PAHs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Geohydrology and potential effects of coal mining in 12 coal-lease areas, Powder River structural basin, northeastern Wyoming. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogg, J.L.; Martin, M.W.; Daddow, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the report is to describe the geohydrology of 12 coal-lease areas in the Powder River structural basin in relation to the mining proposed for each area. The description of the geohydrology of each of the lease areas focuses on the shallow ground-water system and includes identification of recharge and discharge areas, directions of ground-water movement, and potential effects of mining. The shallow ground-water system in the Powder River structural basin is not well defined because of the discontinuous nature of the aquifers in the basin. Understanding the ground-water hydrology of these 12 coal-lease areas will improve understanding of the shallow ground-water system in the basin. The first part of the report is a description of the general geohydrology of the Wyoming part of the Powder River structural basin. The second part of the report is a general discussion of the effects of coal mining on ground-water hydrology. The third part of the report contains site-specific discussions of the ground-water hydrology and potential effects of mining for each of the 12 coal-lease areas

  7. 75 FR 78667 - Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative-Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Corporation Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative--Chesapeake Bay Watershed AGENCY: Commodity Credit... Chesapeake Bay Watershed priority areas (see attached map). DATES: Effective Date: The notice of request is... Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative--Chesapeake Bay Watershed Overview of the Cooperative...

  8. Lake surface area variations in the North-Eastern sector of Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal at the end of the 20th Century by comparison of historical maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele BRUCCOLERI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to investigate variations in the surface areas of lakes in the north-east sector of Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal at the end of the 20th century, through comparison of the Mount Everest maps based on a survey done in the early 1980s, and the official Map of Nepal based on a survey done at the beginning of the 1990s. The analysis of the changes occurring between the 1980s and the 1990s in the surface areas and distribution of lakes in the north-east sector of SNP reveals that lake areas substantially increased, by 15.4 (-5.5; +5.7% (median 12.5%, within hydrographic basins that included a certain amount of glacial cover. In fact, 96% of the lakes whose surface area increased are located in glacial basins. Conversely, the majority of the lakes without glacial cover in their catchment showed a reduction in surface area, and in many cases disappeared (83% of the lakes that disappeared were situated in basins without glaciers. This different behaviour of these two types of lakes, though observed over a short time span, would appear to be consistent with the consequences of temperature increases recorded from the beginning of 1980s on a global and local scale. The digital tool produced (Limnological Information System, LIS as part of this work is intended to provide a useful platform for extending the analysis to entire area of SNP, as well as for subsequent comparisons based on earlier maps or more recent satellite images.

  9. The psycho-sociological impact of a large technological development on a rural area with specific reference to the Mossel Bay area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waal, H.S. de.

    1989-05-01

    The public acceptability of large technological developments was studied. A socio-economic baseline profile of the community was compiled in an attempt to measure the inherent ability of a community to adjust to changes brought about by large developments. The framework within which the study was conducted included the demographic composition, the economic activity, the infrastructure of the private and public sectors, the organisational composition of the community, the expectations members of the community had in respect of the possible developments, the attitudes of the community towards itself, as well as towards outsiders and finally, the degree of solidarity that exists amongst them in respect of these attitudes. With information regarding the intended developments, certain extrapolations were made in respect of possible tendencies and changes that may come about in the demographic composition of the community. In the light of these predictions certain potential future problems were identified and pre-emptive recommendations were made accordingly. Of the most important observations that can be made is the fact that the methods used were adequate to achieve a detailed baseline profile of the community, its qualities, attitudes and expectations. The detail was sufficient to enable the researcher to compare the communities living in the different residential areas. Information gathered from interviews with leading figures turned out to be a useful tool in the verification of data gathered by way of questionnaires. 71 figs., 110 tabs., 176 refs

  10. Establishment of a lithostratigraphic column in the Béli area (Northeastern Burkina Faso, West Africa) based on the occurrence of a glacial triad and a molassic sequences in Neoproterozoic sedimentary formations. Implications for the Pan-African orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miningou, Mariette Y. W.; Affaton, Pascal; Meunier, Jean-Dominique; Blot, Alain; Nebie, Alain Georges

    2017-07-01

    Studies conducted since the 1960s on the sedimentary formations of the Béli region have not permitted the establishment of a lithostratigraphic log for the area. Based on fieldwork involving drafting of cross-sections and lithologic, petrographic and structural studies, a triad and a molasse formation have been described for the first time in this portion of the basin. Therefore, as in the sedimentary formations of the Taoudeni and Volta Basins, the formations in the Béli area, located on the southern edge of the Gourma Basin (northeastern Burkina Faso), include an association of ;Tillite-limestone-chert; that is correlated with the ;triad; of the Taoudeni Basin. The lithostratigraphic section of the Béli area comprises eight formations. The triad overlays quartzitic sandstones and is covered by shales and dolomite. Above the triad is the metamorphic allochthonous unit composed of phyllites, which are covered by the molassic formation. As in the carbonate formations, some rocks of the cherty complex contain stromatolites as well as micro-organisms. The Pan-African deformation is characterized by folding, schistosity and a fault network. Compressive phases D1, D3 and D4 of the Pan-African orogeny are identified, and we suspect a reactivation of Pan-African fractures during the Cenozoic. The characteristics of the tectonic episodes are utilized to distinguish two structural units: the allochthonous unit of North Béli, characterized by a ductile deformation and an anchi-metamorphism thrust on the para-autochthonous unit of South Béli. The latter is marked by a dominant brittle deformation; it underwent non-metamorphism and is thrust on the Eburnean basement. The cherty formation of the triad contains a polymetalliferous mineralization that was probably enriched during the different tectonic events.

  11. The Bay Area Verbal Learning Test (BAVLT): Normative Data and the Effects of Repeated Testing, Simulated Malingering, and Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Herron, Timothy J.; Yund, E. William

    2017-01-01

    Verbal learning tests (VLTs) are widely used to evaluate memory deficits in neuropsychiatric and developmental disorders. However, their validity has been called into question by studies showing significant differences in VLT scores obtained by different examiners. Here we describe the computerized Bay Area Verbal Learning Test (BAVLT), which minimizes inter-examiner differences by incorporating digital list presentation and automated scoring. In the 10-min BAVLT, a 12-word list is presented on three acquisition trials, followed by a distractor list, immediate recall of the first list, and, after a 30-min delay, delayed recall and recognition. In Experiment 1, we analyzed the performance of 195 participants ranging in age from 18 to 82 years. Acquisition trials showed strong primacy and recency effects, with scores improving over repetitions, particularly for mid-list words. Inter-word intervals (IWIs) increased with successive words recalled. Omnibus scores (summed over all trials except recognition) were influenced by age, education, and sex (women outperformed men). In Experiment 2, we examined BAVLT test-retest reliability in 29 participants tested with different word lists at weekly intervals. High intraclass correlation coefficients were seen for omnibus and acquisition scores, IWIs, and a categorization index reflecting semantic reorganization. Experiment 3 examined the performance of Experiment 2 participants when feigning symptoms of traumatic brain injury. Although 37% of simulated malingerers showed abnormal (p primacy/recency effects, learning rate across acquisition trials, and IWIs) discriminated the two groups with 80% sensitivity and 80% specificity. Experiment 4 examined the performance of a small group of patients with mild or severe TBI. Overall, both patient groups performed within the normal range, although significant performance deficits were seen in some patients. The BAVLT improves the speed and replicability of verbal learning assessments

  12. RESOURCE CHARACTERIZATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF NATURAL GAS-HYDRATE AND ASSOCIATED FREE-GAS ACCUMULATIONS IN THE PRUDHOE BAY - KUPARUK RIVER AREA ON THE NORTH SLOPE OF ALASKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hunter; Shirish Patil; Robert Casavant; Tim Collett

    2003-06-02

    Interim results are presented from the project designed to characterize, quantify, and determine the commercial feasibility of Alaska North Slope (ANS) gas-hydrate and associated free-gas resources in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU), Kuparuk River Unit (KRU), and Milne Point Unit (MPU) areas. This collaborative research will provide practical input to reservoir and economic models, determine the technical feasibility of gas hydrate production, and influence future exploration and field extension of this potential ANS resource. The large magnitude of unconventional in-place gas (40-100 TCF) and conventional ANS gas commercialization evaluation creates industry-DOE alignment to assess this potential resource. This region uniquely combines known gas hydrate presence and existing production infrastructure. Many technical, economical, environmental, and safety issues require resolution before enabling gas hydrate commercial production. Gas hydrate energy resource potential has been studied for nearly three decades. However, this knowledge has not been applied to practical ANS gas hydrate resource development. ANS gas hydrate and associated free gas reservoirs are being studied to determine reservoir extent, stratigraphy, structure, continuity, quality, variability, and geophysical and petrophysical property distribution. Phase 1 will characterize reservoirs, lead to recoverable reserve and commercial potential estimates, and define procedures for gas hydrate drilling, data acquisition, completion, and production. Phases 2 and 3 will integrate well, core, log, and long-term production test data from additional wells, if justified by results from prior phases. The project could lead to future ANS gas hydrate pilot development. This project will help solve technical and economic issues to enable government and industry to make informed decisions regarding future commercialization of unconventional gas-hydrate resources.

  13. Metal concentrations in selected tissues and main prey species of the annulated sea snake (Hydrophis cyanocinctus) in the Hara Protected Area, northeastern coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaie-Atagholipour, Mohsen; Riyahi-Bakhtiari, Alireza; Sajjadi, Mirmasoud; Yap, Chee Kong; Ghaffari, Sanaz; Ebrahimi-Sirizi, Zohreh; Ghezellou, Parviz

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first detailed ecotoxicological study of the annulated sea snake, Hydrophis cyanocinctus. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, nickel and vanadium were evaluated in muscle, liver, kidney, skin and blood of the annulated sea snake (H. cyanocinctus) and in the whole bodies of its main prey species (Periophthalmus waltoni and Boleophthalmus dussumieri) in the Hara Protected Area, the Persian Gulf. The mean concentrations of lead and vanadium were highest in the kidney, which identified the kidney as a target organ for metals in sea snakes as it is in other reptilian groups. Mean concentrations of cadmium and nickel were highest in the liver and skin, respectively. Mean cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in the liver compared to prey species, which indicated that prey items may be a source of cadmium for the annulated sea snake in the study area. Data presented here may be considered as a baseline for further ecotoxicological studies in sea snakes.

  14. Changes in conifer and deciduous forest foliar and forest floor chemistry and basal area tree growth across a nitrogen (N) deposition gradient in the northeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnny L. Boggs; Steven G. McNulty; Linda H. Pardo

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated foliar and forest floor chemistry across a gradient of N deposition in the Northeast at 11 red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) sites in 1987/1988 and foliar and forest floor chemistry and basal area growth at six paired spruce and deciduous sites in 1999. The six red spruce plots were a subset of the original 1987/1988 spruce sites. In 1999...

  15. North Inlet • Winyah Bay (NIW) National Estuarine Research Reserve Meteorological Data, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1997 • 1999.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The North Inlet Estuary and the adjacent lower northeastern section of Winyah Bay Estuary were designated as part of the National Estuarine Research Reserve System...

  16. Organochlorines and mercury in livers of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) wintering in northeastern Mediterranean wetlands in relation to area, bird age, and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutner, V.; Becker, P.H.; Liordos, V.

    2011-01-01

    Wild birds are exposed to pollutants in their habitats. Top consumers of aquatic environments such as the fish-eating great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) are especially affected due to the bioaccumulation of toxic substances in their tissues. This study analysed the livers of 80 great cormorants from Greece to estimate the concentration of organochlorines and mercury and to examine their possible toxic effects and origin. The results showed that mercury (geometric mean 8089 ng g -1 dw), p,p'-DDE (2628 ng g -1 dw), Σ HCHs (47 ng g -1 dw) and HCB (116 ng g -1 dw) concentrations can be considered high compared with those found in great cormorant livers elsewhere except in highly polluted areas, whereas Σ PCBs occurred in relatively low concentrations (1091 ng g -1 dw). β-HCH was the dominant HCH isomer. Pollutant levels were generally unrelated to area, age and gender. However, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD showed intersite differences, whilst the proportion of PCBs with 8 chlorine atoms were significantly higher in adult than 1st year great cormorants. Pollution did not reflect local patterns but rather these along the Baltic and Black Seas, whilst differences in p,p'-DDE concentration and Σ DDTs/ΣPCBs ratios between Evros, Axios or Amvrakikos, found on common migration route, suggested different bird origins. Most birds had toxic mercury concentrations; 83.7% above 4000 ng g -1 dw and 16% above 17,000 ng g -1 dw. Other pollutant levels were too low to have adverse effects. - Research Highlights: → Mercury, p,p'-DDE, β-HCH and HCB occurred in highest concentrations. → More than 80% of Greek great cormorants might have suffered from mercurial intoxication. → Pollutant levels were generally unrelated to gender, age and area (except DDTs). → Baltic and Black Seas are possible regions of origin and accumulation of Hg and DDTs.

  17. The method for consecutive subtraction of selected anomalies: the estimated crustal velocity structure in the 1996 Onikobe (M= 5.9) earthquake area, northeastern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaglichenko, T. A.; Nikolaev, A. V.; Horiuchi, S.; Hasegawa, A.

    2003-06-01

    The consecutive subtraction of selected anomalies (CSSA) method has been presented to provide a new opportunity to improve the quality of inversion results in seismic tomography. The basic idea of the iterative method is to determine in each step a parameter that subtracts the total largest square residuals. The criteria proposed control the selection of the best solution from all candidates by inspecting their convergence to the accurate solution in the lsq sense. Resolution measures were defined by estimating the convergence degree. The matching of the Lanczos (LSQR) and CSSA methods has been demonstrated from the perspective of the projection technique. The storage and work requirements for both algorithms were compared, revealing that CSSA is also efficient for large and sparse systems. Synthetic models were reconstructed comparing CSSA and LSQR and indicating that CSSA gives us more reliable results, when large-sized structures are considered. At the same time, the simultaneous subtraction of the selected anomalies algorithm was examined. Numeral tests revealed that this algorithm is able to produce results that are similar to those obtained by LSQR. Complicated velocity structure can lead to ambiguous results, a problem that can be solved by setting the appropriate starting vector for the CSSA inversion. The difference between the starting vector and the starting (or reference) model is discussed. The CSSA method was applied to P-wave arrival times from shallow earthquakes to determine deep structure in the focal area of the Onikobe M= 5.9 earthquake (1996) in the northern part of Honshu (Japan). A specific feature of the traveltime residuals is a set of positive values corresponding to late P-wave arrivals. Tomography revealed a low-velocity body in the focal area from the surface down to the hypocentres. Local anomalies with the lowest perturbations were found in the surface layer of 0-2 km around the Onikobe epicentre, to the north of the focal area and to

  18. Genotoxic and hematological parameters in Colossoma macropomum (Pisces, Serrasalmidae) as biomarkers for environmental impact assessment in a protected area in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes Carvalho Neta, Raimunda Nonata; Pinheiro Sousa, Débora Batista; de Macêdo Sobrinho, Inaldo Carvalho; Yarbrough Horton, Emily; da Silva de Almeida, Zafira; Tchaicka, Lígia; de Sousa, Alana Lislea

    2015-10-01

    Genotoxic and hematological parameters in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), a native freshwater fish, were used as biomarkers to assess exposure to environmental stressors within the Maracanã Protected Area of Maranhão State, Brazil. Fish were sampled at two sites-Serena Lagoon (control) and Ambude River-on four occasions (dry and rainy season), and biometric data (length and weight) recorded and blood collected from all fish for analysis. Erythrocyte indices-mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration-were calculated. Blood samples were stained with Giemsa and acridine orange, and microscopically examined for micronuclei and morphological nuclear abnormalities. Micronuclei were observed in fish from both sites, although the frequency was significantly higher in fish from the Ambude River and morphological nuclear abnormalities were only observed in fish from the Ambude River. More morphological nuclear abnormalities and a larger number of micronuclei were observed in erythrocytes stained with acridine orange compared with those stained with Giemsa. On average, erythrocyte indices were lower in fish from the Ambude River than from the Serena Lagoon. The results confirm that genotoxic and hematological parameters in C. macropomum can be used as indicators of environmental health and could be valuable tools for monitoring environmental conditions within protected areas.

  19. Epidemiology of Meningococcal Disease in Northeastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    major public health problem in the Nile Valley from Alexandria, Egypt to the southern regions of the Sudan. Like the disease in the sub-Saharan region...and the Sudan is unique in that it occurs in the large urban areas of Cairo and Khartoum with relatively minor variations in disease incidence...r LIE) DTIC , . [iE LE CTE ili D PUBLICATION REPORT 1514 33/88 EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MENINGOCOCCAL DISEASE IN NORTHEASTERN AFRICA BY John E. Sippel, and

  20. Computational Approach for Improving Three-Dimensional Sub-Surface Earth Structure for Regional Earthquake Hazard Simulations in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-25

    In our Exascale Computing Project (ECP) we seek to simulate earthquake ground motions at much higher frequency than is currently possible. Previous simulations in the SFBA were limited to 0.5-1 Hz or lower (Aagaard et al. 2008, 2010), while we have recently simulated the response to 5 Hz. In order to improve confidence in simulated ground motions, we must accurately represent the three-dimensional (3D) sub-surface material properties that govern seismic wave propagation over a broad region. We are currently focusing on the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) with a Cartesian domain of size 120 x 80 x 35 km, but this area will be expanded to cover a larger domain. Currently, the United States Geologic Survey (USGS) has a 3D model of the SFBA for seismic simulations. However, this model suffers from two serious shortcomings relative to our application: 1) it does not fit most of the available low frequency (< 1 Hz) seismic waveforms from moderate (magnitude M 3.5-5.0) earthquakes; and 2) it is represented with much lower resolution than necessary for the high frequency simulations (> 5 Hz) we seek to perform. The current model will serve as a starting model for full waveform tomography based on 3D sensitivity kernels. This report serves as the deliverable for our ECP FY2017 Quarter 4 milestone to FY 2018 “Computational approach to developing model updates”. We summarize the current state of 3D seismic simulations in the SFBA and demonstrate the performance of the USGS 3D model for a few selected paths. We show the available open-source waveform data sets for model updates, based on moderate earthquakes recorded in the region. We present a plan for improving the 3D model utilizing the available data and further development of our SW4 application. We project how the model could be improved and present options for further improvements focused on the shallow geotechnical layers using dense passive recordings of ambient and human-induced noise.

  1. Estimation and Simulation of Inter-station Green's Functions in the Beppu-Bay Area, Oita Prefecture, Southwest Japan: the Effect of Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, T.; Yoshimi, M.; Komatsu, M.; Takenaka, H.

    2017-12-01

    Continuous long-term observations of ambient noise (microseisms) were performed from August 2014 to February 2017 in the Beppu-Bay area, Oita prefecture, to investigate S-wave velocity structure of deep sedimentary basin (Hayashida et al., 2015SSJ; Yoshimi and Hayashida, 2017WCEE). The observation array consists of 12 broadband stations with an average spacing of 12 km. We applied the seismic interferometry technique to the ambient noise data and derived nine-component ambient noise cross-correlation functions (Z-R, Z-T, Z-Z, R-R, R-T, R-Z, T-R, T-T, and T-Z components) between 66 pairs of stations (distance of 6.4 km to 65.2 km). We assumed the stacked cross-correlation functions as "observed Green's functions" between two stations and estimated group velocities of Rayleigh and Love waves in the frequency between 0.2 and 0.5 Hz (Hayashida et al., 2017AGU-JpGU). Theoretical Green's functions for all stations pairs were also calculated using the finite difference method (HOT-FDM, Nakamura et al., 2012BSSA), with an existing three-dimensional basin structure model (J-SHIS V2) with land and seafloor topography and a seawater layer (Okunaka et al., 2016JpGU) and a newly constructed basin structure model of the target area (Yoshimi et al., 2017AGU). The comparisons between observed and simulated Green's functions generally show good agreements in the frequency range between 0.2 and 0.5 Hz. On the other hand, both observed and simulated Green's functions for some station pairs whose traverse lines run across the deeper part of the sedimentary basin (> 2000 m) show prominent later phases that might be generated and propagated inside the basin. This indicates that the understanding of the phase generation and propagation processes can be a key factor to validate the basin structure model and we investigated the characteristics of the later phases, such as its particle motions and arrival times, using observed and simulated Green's functions in detail. Acknowledgements

  2. Organochlorines and mercury in livers of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) wintering in northeastern Mediterranean wetlands in relation to area, bird age, and gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutner, V., E-mail: vgoutner@bio.auth.gr [Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Becker, P.H., E-mail: peter.becker@ifv-vogelwarte.de [Institute of Avian Research ' Vogelwarte Helgoland' , An der Vogelwarte 21, D-26386 Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Liordos, V., E-mail: liordos@yahoo.com [Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-01-15

    Wild birds are exposed to pollutants in their habitats. Top consumers of aquatic environments such as the fish-eating great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) are especially affected due to the bioaccumulation of toxic substances in their tissues. This study analysed the livers of 80 great cormorants from Greece to estimate the concentration of organochlorines and mercury and to examine their possible toxic effects and origin. The results showed that mercury (geometric mean 8089 ng g{sup -1} dw), p,p'-DDE (2628 ng g{sup -1} dw), {Sigma} HCHs (47 ng g{sup -1} dw) and HCB (116 ng g{sup -1} dw) concentrations can be considered high compared with those found in great cormorant livers elsewhere except in highly polluted areas, whereas {Sigma} PCBs occurred in relatively low concentrations (1091 ng g{sup -1} dw). {beta}-HCH was the dominant HCH isomer. Pollutant levels were generally unrelated to area, age and gender. However, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD showed intersite differences, whilst the proportion of PCBs with 8 chlorine atoms were significantly higher in adult than 1st year great cormorants. Pollution did not reflect local patterns but rather these along the Baltic and Black Seas, whilst differences in p,p'-DDE concentration and {Sigma} DDTs/{Sigma}PCBs ratios between Evros, Axios or Amvrakikos, found on common migration route, suggested different bird origins. Most birds had toxic mercury concentrations; 83.7% above 4000 ng g{sup -1} dw and 16% above 17,000 ng g{sup -1} dw. Other pollutant levels were too low to have adverse effects. - Research Highlights: {yields} Mercury, p,p'-DDE, {beta}-HCH and HCB occurred in highest concentrations. {yields} More than 80% of Greek great cormorants might have suffered from mercurial intoxication. {yields} Pollutant levels were generally unrelated to gender, age and area (except DDTs). {yields} Baltic and Black Seas are possible regions of origin and accumulation of Hg and DDTs.

  3. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and haemoglobin S in high and moderate malaria transmission areas of Muheza, north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Segeja, M D; Mmbando, Bruno Paul; Kamugisha, M L

    2008-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and haemoglobin S (HbS) are very common genetic disorders in sub Saharan Africa, where malaria is endemic. These genetic disorders have been associated with protection against malaria and are therefore under strong selection pressure...... by the disease. In November-December 2003, we conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and HbS in the population and relate these to malaria infection and haemoglobin levels in lowland and highland areas of differing malaria transmission patterns of Muheza, Tanzania....... Blood samples from 1959 individuals aged 6 months to 45 years were collected. A total of 415 (21%) and 1181 (60%) samples were analysed for G6PD deficiency and HbS, respectively. Malarial parasite prevalence was 17.2% (114/1959) in the highlands and 39.6% (49/1959) in the lowlands. Lowlands had higher...

  4. [Intestinal parasites in white-faced capuchin monkeys Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae) inhabiting a protected area in the Limón province of Northeastern Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla, Misael; Urbani, Bernardo; Valerio, Idalia; Vanegas, Juan Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Deforestation of tropical forests is threatening monkey biodiversity and their health status, dependent of an ecologically undisturbed area. To asses this relationship, we analyzed parasite occurrence in their intestines. The study was conducted at the Estación Biológica La Suerte (EBLS), Limón, Costa Rica. The group of white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) was observed between March and December of 2006. A total of 75 feces samples were obtained. Once a sample was collected, the eaten plant type was identified to family and species level, and feces were processed in the laboratory to determine parasite incidence. Results showed that Moraceae was the most represented family in the samples. Among parasites, Strongyloides spp. and Acanthocephala were the most common. Positive prevalence of parasites was found similar and independent of sex and age of capuchin individuals. Microsporids were mainly reported in feces associated with Piperaceae. A low presence of these parasites was found in samples associated with Myrtaceae, with possible anti-parasite active components. The occurrence of parasites was relatively high in EBLS, when compared to other regions in Costa Rica. The higher occurrence of parasites observed in capuchins at EBLS may be due to the fact that this rain forest is surrounded by areas affected by human activities. We suggest the promotion of research in neotropical primates parasitology, for a better comprehension of the parasite-host relationship, and in a long term, being able to understand the ecosystems where they coexist, and consequently, preserve the biodiversity of the whole region.

  5. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the nation's estuaries have been environmentally stressed since the turn of the 20th century and will continue to be impacted in the future. Tampa Bay, one the Gulf of Mexico's largest estuaries, exemplifies the threats that our estuaries face (EPA Report 2001, Tampa Bay Estuary Program-Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (TBEP-CCMP)). More than 2 million people live in the Tampa Bay watershed, and the population constitutes to grow. Demand for freshwater resources, conversion of undeveloped areas to resident and industrial uses, increases in storm-water runoff, and increased air pollution from urban and industrial sources are some of the known human activities that impact Tampa Bay. Beginning on 2001, additional anthropogenic modifications began in Tampa Bat including construction of an underwater gas pipeline and a desalinization plant, expansion of existing ports, and increased freshwater withdrawal from three major tributaries to the bay. In January of 2001, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) and its partners identifies a critical need for participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in providing multidisciplinary expertise and a regional-scale, integrated science approach to address complex scientific research issue and critical scientific information gaps that are necessary for continued restoration and preservation of Tampa Bay. Tampa Bay stakeholders identified several critical science gaps for which USGS expertise was needed (Yates et al. 2001). These critical science gaps fall under four topical categories (or system components): 1) water and sediment quality, 2) hydrodynamics, 3) geology and geomorphology, and 4) ecosystem structure and function. Scientists and resource managers participating in Tampa Bay studies recognize that it is no longer sufficient to simply examine each of these estuarine system components individually, Rather, the interrelation among system components must be understood to develop conceptual and

  6. Commercial Shellfish Areas, RIDEM Shellfish Surveys; Surveys of shellfish in Narragansett Bay have been conducted by the RIDEM Division of Fish and Wildlife, under the direction of Dennis Erkan., Published in 2002, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Commercial Shellfish Areas dataset current as of 2002. RIDEM Shellfish Surveys; Surveys of shellfish in Narragansett Bay have been conducted by the RIDEM Division of...

  7. Early Holocene estuary development of the Hesselø Bay area, southern Kattegat, Denmark and its implication for Ancylus Lake drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carina; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Jensen, Jørn Bo

    2017-01-01

    environment and a description of coastal processes associated with a river outlet into the bay are presented. Weichselian glacial deposits form the lowermost interpreted unit, covered by late glacial (LG) and postglacial (PG, Holocene) sediments. A funnel-shaped estuary existed at the mouth of channels...

  8. Application of year-round atmospheric transmission data, collected with the MSRT multiband transmissometer during the FATMOSE trial in the False Bay area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.N. de; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Cohen, L.H.; Fritz, P.J.; Gunter, W.H.; Vrahimisb, G.; Faith, J.

    2011-01-01

    The FATMOSE trial (False Bay Atmospheric Experiment) is a continuation of the cooperative work between TNO and IMT on atmospheric propagation and point target detection and identification in a maritime environment (South Africa). The atmospheric transmission, being of major importance for target

  9. High-latitude-area composition of humpback whale competitive groups in Samana Bay : Further evidence for panmixis in the North Atlantic population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clapham, PJ; Mattila, DK; Palsboll, PJ

    Competitive groups of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, were observed in Samana Bay, Dominican Republic, West Indies. Photographs of ventral fluke patterns were used to identify individuals, and skin biopsies were taken for molecular determination of sex. Nine groups contained two or more

  10. Spatiotemporal distribution and fluctuation of radiocesium in Tokyo Bay in the five years following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hideo; Ishida, Masanobu; Hinokio, Ryoichi; Yamashiki, Yosuke Alexandre; Azuma, Ryokei

    2018-01-01

    A monitoring survey was conducted from August 2011 to July 2016 of the spatiotemporal distribution in the 400 km2 area of the northern part of Tokyo Bay and in rivers flowing into it of radiocesium released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. The average inventory in the river mouth (10 km2) was 131 kBq⋅m-2 and 0.73 kBq⋅m-2 in the central bay (330 km2) as the decay corrected value on March 16, 2011. Most of the radiocesium that flowed into Tokyo Bay originated in the northeastern section of the Tokyo metropolitan area, where the highest precipitation zone of 137Cs in soil was almost the same level as that in Fukushima City, then flowed into and was deposited in the Old-Edogawa River estuary, deep in Tokyo Bay. The highest precipitation of radiocesium measured in the high contaminated zone was 460 kBq⋅m-2. The inventory in sediment off the estuary of Old-Edogawa was 20.1 kBq⋅m-2 in August 2011 immediately after the accident, but it increased to 104 kBq⋅m-2 in July 2016. However, the radiocesium diffused minimally in sediments in the central area of Tokyo Bay in the five years following the FDNPP accident. The flux of radiocesium off the estuary decreased slightly immediately after the accident and conformed almost exactly to the values predicted based on its radioactive decay. Contrarily, the inventory of radiocesium in the sediment has increased. It was estimated that of the 8.33 TBq precipitated from the atmosphere in the catchment regions of the rivers Edogawa and Old-Edogawa, 1.31 TBq migrated through rivers and was deposited in the sediments of the Old-Edogawa estuary by July 2016. Currently, 0.25 TBq⋅yr-1 of radiocesium continues to flow into the deep parts of Tokyo Bay.

  11. Spatiotemporal distribution and fluctuation of radiocesium in Tokyo Bay in the five years following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hideo; Hinokio, Ryoichi; Yamashiki, Yosuke Alexandre; Azuma, Ryokei

    2018-01-01

    A monitoring survey was conducted from August 2011 to July 2016 of the spatiotemporal distribution in the 400 km2 area of the northern part of Tokyo Bay and in rivers flowing into it of radiocesium released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. The average inventory in the river mouth (10 km2) was 131 kBq⋅m-2 and 0.73 kBq⋅m-2 in the central bay (330 km2) as the decay corrected value on March 16, 2011. Most of the radiocesium that flowed into Tokyo Bay originated in the northeastern section of the Tokyo metropolitan area, where the highest precipitation zone of 137Cs in soil was almost the same level as that in Fukushima City, then flowed into and was deposited in the Old-Edogawa River estuary, deep in Tokyo Bay. The highest precipitation of radiocesium measured in the high contaminated zone was 460 kBq⋅m-2. The inventory in sediment off the estuary of Old-Edogawa was 20.1 kBq⋅m-2 in August 2011 immediately after the accident, but it increased to 104 kBq⋅m-2 in July 2016. However, the radiocesium diffused minimally in sediments in the central area of Tokyo Bay in the five years following the FDNPP accident. The flux of radiocesium off the estuary decreased slightly immediately after the accident and conformed almost exactly to the values predicted based on its radioactive decay. Contrarily, the inventory of radiocesium in the sediment has increased. It was estimated that of the 8.33 TBq precipitated from the atmosphere in the catchment regions of the rivers Edogawa and Old-Edogawa, 1.31 TBq migrated through rivers and was deposited in the sediments of the Old-Edogawa estuary by July 2016. Currently, 0.25 TBq⋅yr-1 of radiocesium continues to flow into the deep parts of Tokyo Bay. PMID:29494667

  12. Food insecurity, chronic illness, and gentrification in the San Francisco Bay Area: An example of structural violence in United States public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Henry J; Palar, Kartika; Hufstedler, Lee Lemus; Seligman, Hilary K; Frongillo, Edward A; Weiser, Sheri D

    2015-10-01

    Food insecurity continues to be a major challenge in the United States, affecting 49 million individuals. Quantitative studies show that food insecurity has serious negative health impacts among individuals suffering from chronic illnesses, including people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Formulating effective interventions and policies to combat these health effects requires an in-depth understanding of the lived experience and structural drivers of food insecurity. Few studies, however, have elucidated these phenomena among people living with chronic illnesses in resource-rich settings, including in the United States. Here we sought to explore the experiences and structural determinants of food insecurity among a group of low-income PLHIV in the San Francisco Bay Area. Thirty-four semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with low-income PLHIV receiving food assistance from a local non-profit in San Francisco and Alameda County, California, between April and June 2014. Interview transcripts were coded and analysed according to content analysis methods following an inductive-deductive approach. The lived experience of food insecurity among participants included periods of insufficient quantity of food and resultant hunger, as well as long-term struggles with quality of food that led to concerns about the poor health effects of a cheap diet. Participants also reported procuring food using personally and socially unacceptable strategies, including long-term dependence on friends, family, and charity; stealing food; exchanging sex for food; and selling controlled substances. Food insecurity often arose from the need to pay high rents exacerbated by gentrification while receiving limited disability income--​a situation resulting in large part from the convergence of long-standing urban policies amenable to gentrification and an outdated disability policy that constrains financial viability. The experiences of food insecurity described by participants in this

  13. Oxygen isotopic composition of bulk carbonates in recent sediments from Lake Kuhai (NW China) and implications for hydroclimatic changes in headwater areas of the Yellow River on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangzhong; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Weiguo; Fan, Guoqing; Cheng, Peng; Xu, Liming

    2017-02-01

    The water resource issue is one of the most significant problems in the Yellow River basin, and has received much attention from the public and government because of the dramatically decreased Yellow River streamflow in the last several years. In this study, oxygen isotopic compositions of bulk carbonates from Lake Kuhai in the headwaters of the Yellow River were evaluated as an indirect proxy of past Yellow River streamflow in order to place the recent flow reduction in a long-term context. The results indicated that δ18O values of bulk carbonates from core KHC14-1 generally vary with changes in the Yellow River streamflows related to the precipitation/evaporation (temperature) ratio above the Tangnaihai hydrological station over the past 50 years. In general, the Yellow River streamflow in the headwaters area continued to decrease from the early 1980s to the late 1990s because of decreased precipitation and increased temperature. Then, the streamflow increased with enhancing precipitation over the last two decades. In addition, δ18O values of bulk carbonates in the Lake Kuhai core roughly correlate with the streamflows of the upper reaches of the Yellow River recorded by tree ring width over the past 800 years. The enriched δ18OBC values showed that the precipitation/evaporation (P/E) ratio or streamflow was very low and the climate might be very dry in the middle of the 1400s CE in the headwaters of the Yellow River over the past 800 years. Our results suggested that changes in the P/E ratio or streamflow of the upper reaches of the Yellow River were dominated by variations in Indian Summer Monsoon precipitation over a long time scale, consistent with other records from the northeastern Tibetan Plateau.

  14. Simulation and Validation of a Storm Surge in Bays and Estuaries With Complex Coastline Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhovskoy, D. S.; Morey, S. L.

    2008-12-01

    Simulation of nearshore ocean dynamics in a region with a complex coastline, commonly found along bays and estuaries, has been a challenging task for modelers. Over the last decade, unstructured grid models based on finite-element and finite-volume methods have been gaining popularity within the ocean modeling community. Application of this type of model facilitates accurate representation of the nearshore processes in model domains with bays, estuaries, and river channels. This study demonstrates the utility of applying an unstructured grid model for simulation and analysis of a storm surge in such a region. A high-resolution storm surge model of Apalachee Bay in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico is developed using an unstructured grid Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) with wetting and drying capabilities. The model is applied to the case of Hurricane Dennis (July 2005). This storm caused underpredicted severe flooding of the Apalachee Bay coastal area and communities located inland up rivers that has yet to be adequately explained. Accurate resolution of the complicated geometry of the coastal region and waterways in the model reveals substantial spatial variability in the amplitude and timing of the maximum water level and processes responsible for the unanticipated high storm tide in the area. In this study, a methodology of validating a storm surge simulations using high-water marks is illustrated. Model experiments suggest that excessive flooding in the coastal zone during Dennis was caused by additive effects of coincident high tides, wave setup, and a propagating shelf wave that added to the locally wind generated surge.

  15. The Late Glacial and Holocene development of vegetation in the area of a fossil lake in the Skaliska Basin (north-eastern Poland inferred from pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołaczek Piotr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of vegetation in the Skaliska Basin has been reconstructed on the basis of palynological analysis and radiocarbon dating (AMS technique of 6 sites from the late phase of the Bolling- Allerod interstadial complex to modern times. Although the area covers 90 km2, the mosaic character of habitats led to the development of different patterns of vegetation changes during the Late Glacial and Holocene. Only one site located in the eastern part of the Skaliska Basin reflected the ‘pine phase’ of Allerod, and this is the oldest data on vegetation in the Skaliska Basin. Interesting discrepancies were recorded during the Younger Dryas when patches of shrublands with Juniperus were distinct around some of the sites, while steppe with Artemisia was common in others. The beginning of the Holocene brought an expansion of birch-pine forest, but around 9600 cal. BC a cold oscillation took place which was reflected in an increase in birch in the woodlands in the western and eastern part of the Skaliska Basin. In the Preboreal chronozone elm (Ulmus also expanded in the area but its appearance was non-synchronous. The vegetation of the Boreal chronozone was similar in the whole area and the most characteristic feature was the rapid expansion of hazel (Corylus avellana which displaced Betula from the most of its sites. At that time a distinct redeposition of pollen material in the Parchatka river valley was detected which was probably the effect of an increase in fluvial activity of the river (humid oscillation. The following stage of vegetation development was climax woodlands with Tilia cordata, Ulmus, Quercus, Corylus avellana, and Alnus in damp places. At the beginning of the Subboreal chronozone the expansion of Quercus took place, which was subsequently replaced by Picea abies and partly Carpinus betulus. The pattern of Picea abies expansion distinctly presents two maxima which is characteristic of many sites in the north-eastern Poland

  16. Effects of November 8, 1980 earthquake on Humboldt Bay Power Plant and Eureka, California area. Reconnaissance report 13 Nov-14 Nov 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herring, K.S.; Rooney, V.; Chokshi, N.C.

    1981-06-01

    On November 8, 1980, an earthquake of a reported surface wave magnitude of 7.0 occurred off the coast of California, west of Eureka and the Humboldt Bay Power Plant. Three NRC staff members visited the site the following week to survey any damage associated with the earthquake, with the objective of using collected data to assist the NRR staff in ongoing seismic evaluations of older operating nuclear power plant facilities. This report contains their observations. They concluded that the effects of the earthquake on Humboldt Bay Power Plant Unit 3 were minimal and did not endanger the health and safety of the public. They recommended that improvements be made to seismic recording equipment and that generic preparation for future post-earthquake reconnaissance trips be made before the actual occurrence of earthquakes

  17. First record of Desmodus rotundus in urban area from the city of Olinda, Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil: a case report Primeiro registro de Desmodus rotundus na área urbana da cidade de Olinda, Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Dantas Torres

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this report is to describe the first record of Desmodus rotundus in urban area from the city of Olinda, Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil, and to draw attention to the possible risk of rabies transmission in this place. After the complaint of a dog owner who observed three bats attacking his dog, images registering attacks of D. rotundus were captured with a video camera. From 09:00 p.m. on 13 February 2004 to 04:00 a.m. of the next day, a high frequency of haematophagic activity and the presence of several bites on the dog's body were observed. This finding represents a serious risk to public health. Thus, it is necessary to further study the bat fauna, with special attention to their feeding behaviour in this place, in order to better know their biology and to adopt pertinent control measures. This is, to our knowledge, the first record of D. rotundus in urban area of Olinda.O objetivo deste relato é descrever o primeiro registro de Desmodus rotundus na área urbana da cidade de Olinda, estado de Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil, e chamar atenção para o possível risco de transmissão da raiva nesta localidade. Após a queixa de um proprietário que observou três morcegos atacando um de seus cães, foram capturadas imagens com auxílio de uma câmara de vídeo que registram ataques de D. rotundus ao referido cão. No período das 21:00h do dia 13 de fevereiro de 2004 às 4:00h da manhã do dia seguinte, foram observados nove ataques de D. rotundus e também a presença de mordidas em várias partes do corpo do cão. Esse achado representa um sério risco para saúde pública. Conseqüentemente, faz-se necessária a realização de novos estudos a fim de conhecer melhor a biologia desta população de morcegos, com atenção especial para o comportamento alimentar, e adotar as medidas de controle pertinentes. Este é, para o nosso conhecimento, o primeiro relato da presença de D. rotundus em área urbana de Olinda.

  18. Lodgepole pine in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Trappe; Robert W. Harris

    1958-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) is a major species in northeastern Oregon. The lodgepole type covers nearly 400,000 acres in the Blue and Wallowa Mountains, and individual trees are scattered over many of the remaining six million forested acres in this area (2). The type blankets large areas in watersheds in a region where spring floods and summer...

  19. A checklist of Pteridophyta of the north-eastern Orange Free State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Roux

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of Pteridophyta recorded within a defined area of the north-eastern Orange Free State is presented. The geology, climate and vegetation of this area are discussed in brief.

  20. Hydrography of Onslow Bay, North Carolina: September 1975 (OBIS II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, L.P.; Singer, J.J.; Dunstan, W.M.; Pietrafesa, L.J.

    1975-09-01

    Data collected during studies of Onslow Bay, off the North Carolina coast during cruises during September, 1975, are reported. Current meters and thermography were placed at depths of 10 and 22 m along the 28 m isobath in the northeastern and southwestern sectors of the Bay. Data are included on wind turbulence and velocity; seawater salinity and temperature at various depths; the content of nitrates, phosphates, silicate, oxygen, chlorophyll, and phytoplankton biomass at various depths. Hydrographic and meteorologic conditions during the cruises are included. (CH)

  1. Elemental analysis of Uranouchi bay seabed sludge using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, M. Hasnat; Narusawa, Tadashi; Nishiyama, Fumitaka; Sumi, Katsuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Elemental analyses were carried out for the seabed sludge collected from Uranouchi bay (Kochi, Japan) using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Seabed-sludge contamination with heavy metals as well as toxic elements becomes one of the most serious environmental problems. The aim of the present study is to investigate the polluted areas in the bay by heavy and toxic elements. As a results of analyses of samples collected from eleven different places in the bay, seventeen elements including toxic ones were detected. The results suggest that the center region of the bay is seriously contaminated by heavy and toxic elements in comparison with the other areas in the bay. (author)

  2. Assessing the impacts of climate change on discharge and nutrient losses from a karstic agricultural sub-basin in the Upper Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The health of the Chesapeake Bay Basin ecosystem, which lies within the heavily populated Northeastern United States, relies on reducing nutrient loading to the Chesapeake Bay by the 2025 TMDL deadline and on into the future. Doing so requires evaluating the impact of current agricultural management...

  3. Basin-scale seasonal changes in marine free-living bacterioplankton community in the Ofunato Bay

    KAUST Repository

    Reza, Md. Shaheed

    2018-04-26

    The Ofunato Bay in the northeastern Pacific Ocean area of Japan possesses the highest biodiversity of marine organisms in the world and has attracted much attention due to its economic and environmental importance. We report here a shotgun metagenomic analysis of the year-round variation in free-living bacterioplankton collected across the entire length of the bay. Phylogenetic differences among spring, summer, autumn and winter bacterioplankton suggested that members of Proteobacteria tended to decrease at high water temperatures and increase at low temperatures. It was revealed that Candidatus Pelagibacter varied seasonally, reaching as much as 60% of all sequences at the genus level in the surface waters during winter. This increase was more evident in the deeper waters, where they reached up to 75%. The relative abundance of Planktomarina also rose during winter and fell during summer. A significant component of the winter bacterioplankton community was Archaea (mainly represented by Nitrosopumilus), as their relative abundance was very low during spring and summer but high during winter. In contrast, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria appeared to be higher in abundance during high-temperature periods. It was also revealed that Bacteroidetes constituted a significant component of the summer bacterioplankton community, being the second largest bacterial phylum detected in the Ofunato Bay. Its members, notably Polaribacter and Flavobacterium, were found to be high in abundance during spring and summer, particularly in the surface waters. Principal component analysis and hierarchal clustering analyses showed that the bacterial communities in the Ofunato Bay changed seasonally, likely caused by the levels of organic matter, which would be deeply mixed with surface runoff in the winter.

  4. Analysis of Phytoplankton Nutrient Limitation in Farmington Bay and the Great Salt Lake

    OpenAIRE

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.; Marcarelli, Amy

    2004-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake is bordered to the south and east by a growing metropolitan area that contributes high nutrients to Farmington Bay. This large bay is eutrophic, and there is concern that continued increases in effluents from the Salt Lake City area could extend to impact the much larger, and currently less productive, Gilbert Bay. This study focused on determining how nutrient supplies might limit, and therefore control, algal populations in Farmington Bay and Gilbert Bay at different sal...

  5. Deployment and use of mobile phone technology for real-time reporting of fever cases and malaria treatment failure in areas of declining malaria transmission in Muheza district north-eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Filbert; Ishengoma, Deus S; Mmbando, Bruno P; Rutta, Acleus S M; Malecela, Mwelecele N; Mayala, Benjamin; Lemnge, Martha M; Michael, Edwin

    2017-08-01

    Early detection of febrile illnesses at community level is essential for improved malaria case management and control. Currently, mobile phone-based technology has been commonly used to collect and transfer health information and services in different settings. This study assessed the applicability of mobile phone-based technology in real-time reporting of fever cases and management of malaria by village health workers (VHWs) in north-eastern Tanzania. The community mobile phone-based disease surveillance and treatment for malaria (ComDSTM) platform, combined with mobile phones and web applications, was developed and implemented in three villages and one dispensary in Muheza district from November 2013 to October 2014. A baseline census was conducted in May 2013. The data were uploaded on a web-based database and updated during follow-up home visits by VHWs. Active and passive case detection (ACD, PCD) of febrile cases were done by VHWs and cases found positive by malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) were given the first dose of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) at the dispensary. Each patient was visited at home by VHWs daily for the first 3 days to supervise intake of anti-malarial and on day 7 to monitor the recovery process. The data were captured and transmitted to the database using mobile phones. The baseline population in the three villages was 2934 in 678 households. A total of 1907 febrile cases were recorded by VHWs and 1828 (95.9%) were captured using mobile phones. At the dispensary, 1778 (93.2%) febrile cases were registered and of these, 84.2% were captured through PCD. Positivity rates were 48.2 and 45.8% by RDT and microscopy, respectively. Nine cases had treatment failure reported on day 7 post-treatment and adherence to treatment was 98%. One patient with severe febrile illness was referred to Muheza district hospital. The study showed that mobile phone-based technology can be successfully used by VHWs in surveillance and timely reporting of fever

  6. Paleoenvironment interpretation of a 1760 years B.P. old sediment in a mangrove area of the Bay of Guanabara, using pollen analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Ortrud M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A sediment sample was obtained at 122 cm from the top of a drilling core in the Guapimirim mangrove, Bay of Guanabara, and analyzed using pollen analysis. This muddy core reached a sandy ground at 133 cm. 14C datation got the age of 1760 ? 50 years B.P. The most frequent pollen grains were mangrove species of Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia schaueriana. "Restinga" and tropical rain forest vegetation was recognized behind the mangrove. After the last sea transgression at 2500 years B.P., the water level lowered to its actual size, allowing the installation of this mangrove.

  7. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  8. Corpus ChristiEast Matagorda Bay 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Patterns of habitat utilization were compared among transplanted and natural Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Halls Lake area of Chocolate Bay in the Galveston...

  9. Contaminant transport in Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford

    Construction of a new treatment plant and outfall to clean up Boston Harbor is currently one of the world's largest public works projects, costing about $4 billion. There is concern about the long-term impact of contaminants on Massachusetts Bay and adjacent Gulf of Maine because these areas are used extensively for transportation, recreation, fishing, and tourism, as well as waste disposal. Public concern also focuses on Stellwagen Bank, located on the eastern side of Massachusetts Bay, which is an important habitat for endangered whales. Contaminants reach Massachusetts Bay not only from Boston Harbor, but from other coastal communities on the Gulf of Maine, as well as from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the pathways, mechanisms, and rates at which pollutants are transported throughout these coastal environments is needed to address a wide range of management questions.

  10. A reevaluation of the late quaternary sedimentation in todos os Santos Bay (BA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILHERME C. LESSA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Todos os Santos Bay is a large ( 1000 km², structurally controlled tidal bay in northeast Brazil. Three main drainage basins debouch into the bay, providing a mean freshwater discharge of 200 m³/s (prior to 1985, or less than 1% of the spring tidal discharge through the bay mouth. Based on the result of several sedimentological studies performed in the 1970's, five surface sedimentary facies were identified inside the bay, namely i transgressive siliciclastic marine sand facies; ii transgressive bay sand-mud facies; iii a transgressive carbonate marine sand facies; iv regressive bay-mud facies, and v regressive fluvial sand facies. The spatial distribution of these facies would follow, somewhat closely, the hydrodynamic-energy distribution inside the bay. Seismic profiles along the bay bottom indicate the existence of several paleochannels, 5-10 m deep, blanketed at least by three different sedimentary units. The topmost sedimentary unit, 5-20 m thick, appears to be associated with the regressive bay-mud facies, and assuming that it was laid down within the last 5000 years, sedimentation rates for the central and northeastern part of the bay would average at 2,4 mm/y.

  11. 76 FR 28309 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... vehicular traffic congestion would not develop on downtown Sturgeon Bay streets due to unscheduled bridge... schedules during the peak tourist and navigation seasons to provide for the efficient movement of vehicular... between Lake Michigan and Green Bay. The area experiences a significant increase in vehicular and vessel...

  12. Chesapeake Bay TMDL Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) report for the Chesapeake Bay. It includes the executive summary, main report, and appendices. The Chesapeake Bay TMDL was established by U.S. EPA Region 3 on December 29, 2010

  13. Chesapeake Bay TMDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010 EPA established the Chesapeake Bay TMDL, a comprehensive pollution diet with accountability measures to restore clean water in the bay and local waters. It set limits for nutrients and sediment to meet water quality standards across the watershed

  14. Geomorphological map of a coastal stretch of north-eastern Gozo (Maltese archipelago, Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, Mauro; Micallef, Anton; Biolchi, Sara; Chelli, Alessandro; Cuoghi, Alessandro; Devoto, Stefano; Gauci, Christopher; Graff, Kevin; Lolli, Federico; Mantovani, Matteo; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Pisani, Luca; Prampolini, Mariacristina; Restall, Brian; Roulland, Thomas; Saliba, Michael; Selmi, Lidia; Vandelli, Vittoria

    2017-04-01

    Geomorphological investigations carried out along the north-eastern coast of the Island of Gozo (Malta) have led to the production of a detailed geomorphological map. Field surveys, accompanied by aerial photo-interpretation, were carried out within the framework of the EUR-OPA Major Hazards Agreement Project ``Developing Geomorphological mapping skills and datasets in anticipation of subsequent Susceptibility, Vulnerability, Hazard and Risk Mapping'' (Council of Europe). In particular, this geomorphological map is the main output of a `Training Course on Geomorphological Mapping in Coastal Areas' held within the Project in November 2016. The study area selected was between Ramla Bay and Dacrhlet Qorrot Bay on the Island of Gozo (67 km2), part of the Maltese archipelago in the central Mediterranean Sea. From a geological viewpoint, the stratigraphic sequence includes Late Oligocene (Chattian) to Late Miocene (Messinian) sedimentary rocks. The hard limestones of the Upper Coralline Limestone Formation, the youngest lithostratigraphic unit, dominate the study area. Underlying this formation, marls and clays belonging to the Blue Clay Formation extensively outcrop. The oldest lithostratigraphic unit observed in the study area is the Globigerina Limestone Formation, a fine-grained limestone. The lithostructural features of the outcropping units clearly condition the morphography of the landscape. The coast is characterised by the alternation of inlets and promontories. Worthy of notice is the large sandy beach of Ramla Bay partly backed by dunes. From a geomorphological perspective, the investigated coastal stretch is characterised by limestone plateaus bounded by steep structural scarps which are reshaped by gravitational and/or degradation processes, and milder slopes in Blue Clays at their foot comprising of numerous rock block deposits (rdum in Maltese) and active or abandoned terraced fields used for agricultural purposes. Landforms and processes related to

  15. Sandflies (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae survey in an urban transmission area of visceral leishmaniasis, Northeastern Brazil Pesquisa de flebotomíneos (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae em área urbana de transmissão de leishmaniose visceral no Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthenia Santos Albano Amóra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a major public health challenge in Brazil, especially in states where it is endemic. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of sand fly population density with environmental variables (temperature, rainfall and relative humidity in urban areas of the city of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil. Sand flies were captured with Center Disease Control (CDC traps installed monthly in the intra and peridomicile of three houses. Data analysis was based on the chi-square test and linear regression. A total of 7,347 sand flies were captured, being 93.85% Lutzomyia longipalpis and 6.15% Lutzomyia evandroi. Sand flies were more commonly found in the peridomicile and there was no difference between the number of males and females. The variables rainy season as well as relative humidity and rainfall, alone or together, did not have an effect on sand fly population density. However, high temperatures had a negative effect. The study of the behavior of sand flies in specific units of endemic areas can provide input to public health authorities for planning appropriate VL vector control measures.A leishmaniose visceral (LV é um grande desafio para a saúde pública no Brasil, particularmente nos estados onde é endêmica. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a relação da densidade populacional de flebotomíneos com as variáveis ambientais (temperatura, precipitação de chuva e umidade relativa do ar em bairros urbanos de Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte. Os flebotomíneos foram capturados com armadilhas CDC instaladas mensalmente no intra e peridomicílio de três casas. A análise dos dados foi baseada no teste Qui-quadrado e na regressão linear. Foram capturados 7.347 flebotomíneos, sendo 93,85% Lutzomyia longipalpis e 6,15% Lutzomyia evandroi. Os flebotomíneos foram encontrados mais comumente no peridomicílio e nenhuma diferença significativa entre o número de machos e fêmeas foi

  16. Persistent organic pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in penguins of the genus Pygoscelis in Admiralty Bay - An Antarctic specially managed area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montone, Rosalinda C; Taniguchi, Satie; Colabuono, Fernanda I; Martins, César C; Cipro, Caio Vinícius Z; Barroso, Hileia S; da Silva, Josilene; Bícego, Márcia C; Weber, Rolf R

    2016-05-15

    Persistent organic pollutants were assessed in fat samples of the Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua), Chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarcticus) and Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae) penguins collected during the austral summers of 2005/06 and 2006/07 in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. The predominant organic pollutants were PCB (114 to 1115), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (60.1 to 238.7), HCB (penguins. Chicks of all three species showed similar profiles of PCB congeners, with predominance of lower chlorinated compounds. The distribution of PAHs was similar in all birds, with a predominance of naphthalene and alkyl-naphthalene, which are the main constituents of arctic diesel fuel. These data contribute to the monitoring of the continued exposure to organic pollutants in the Antarctic biota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Northeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final Northeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RECR presents available regional environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the environmental disqualifying factors and the environmental regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  18. Northeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report: executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final Northeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RGCR presents available regional geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. 5 refs., 3 figs

  19. Proceedings of the 1997 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans G. Vogelsong; [Editor

    1998-01-01

    Contains articles presented at the 1997 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Contents cover recreation; protected areas and social science; water based recreation management studies; forest recreation management studies; outdoor recreation management studies; estimation of economic impact of recreation and tourism; place meaning and attachment; tourism studies;...

  20. Conservation Priorities for Terrestrial Birds in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth V. Rosenberg; Jeffrey V. Wells

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Partners in Flight (PIF) bird-conservation planning process, we assessed breeding land bird species according to seven categories of population vulnerability to derive a priority species pool in each of 12 physiographic areas that overlap the northeastern U.S. We then grouped species into the following habitat-species suites: (1) boreal-mountaintop...

  1. Submarine glacial landforms on the Bay of Fundy–northern Gulf of Maine continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, B.J.; Shaw, J.; Valentine, Page C.

    2016-01-01

    The Bay of Fundy–northern Gulf of Maine region surrounds the southern part of Nova Scotia, encompassing, from west to east, the Bay of Fundy, Grand Manan Basin, German Bank, Browns Bank, Northeast Channel and northeastern Georges Bank (Fig. 1a, b). During the last glacial maximum (c. 24–20 14C ka BP), the SE margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) occupied the study area, the rest of the Gulf of Maine and the continental Scotian Shelf off Atlantic Canada (see Dyke et al. 2002, fig. 1; Shaw et al. 2006, fig. 8; Hundert & Piper 2008, fig. 16). Early mapping of the glaciated region on the Scotian Shelf using side-scan sonar imagery and seismic-reflection profiles revealed topographic features interpreted to be recessional moraines indicative of retreat of the LIS (King et al. 1972; King 1996). Subsequently, multibeam sonar seafloor mapping of local-scale glacial landforms on the inner Scotian Shelf off Halifax, Nova Scotia (Fig. 1b) provided further information on the dynamics of the advance and retreat of the ice sheet (Loncarevic et al.1994). Interpretation of seismic-reflection profiles across Georges Bank revealed that the surficial sediment is a veneer of glacial debris transported to Georges Bank by the LIS during the late Pleistocene from continental areas to the north (Shepard et al. 1934; Knott & Hoskins 1968; Schlee 1973; Twichell et al. 1987; Fader et al. 1988). Recent high-resolution multibeam sonar surveys of German Bank and the Bay of Fundy mapped a complex of ice-advance and ice-retreat features attributed to the activity of the LIS (Todd et al. 2007; Todd & Shaw 2012).

  2. A pollution history of Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, E.D.; Hodge, V.; Koide, M.; Griffin, J.; Gamble, E.; Bricker, O.P.; Matisoff, G.; Holdren, G.R.; Braun, R.

    1978-01-01

    Present day anthropogenic fluxes of some heavy metals to central Chesapeake Bay appear to be intermediate to those of the southern California coastal region and those of Narragansett Bay. The natural fluxes, however, are in general higher. On the bases of Pb-210 and Pu-239 + 240 geochronologies and of the time changes in interstitial water compositions, there is a mixing of the upper 30 or so centimeters of the sediments in the mid-Chesapeake Bay area through bioturbation by burrowing mollusks and polychaetes. Coal, coke and charcoal levels reach one percent or more by dry weight in the deposits, primarily as a consequence of coal mining operations. ?? 1978.

  3. 33 CFR 110.75 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. 110.75... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.75 Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. (a) South area. Southward of... said breakwater; and eastward of the Corpus Christi sea wall. ...

  4. Boninites: Characteristics and tectonic constraints, northeastern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Jacobi, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    Boninites are high Mg andesites that are thought to form in suprasubduction zone tectonic environments as primary melts from refractory mantle. Boninites provide a potential constraint on tectonic models for ancient terranes that contain boninites because the only unequivocal tectonic setting in which "modern" boninites have been recognized is a fore-arc setting. Tectonic models for "modern" boninite genesis include subduction initiation ("infant arc"), fore-arc spreading, and the forearc side of intra-arc rifting (spreading). These models can be differentiated by the relative age of the boninites and to a lesser degree, geochemistry. The distinctive geochemistry of boninites promotes their recognition in ancient terranes. As detailed in this report, several mafic terranes in the northeastern Appalachians contain boninites; these terranes were situated on both sides of Iapetus. The characteristics of these boninites can be used to constrain tectonic models of the evolution of the northeastern Appalachians. On the Laurentian side of Iapetus, "infant arc" boninites were not produced ubiquitously during the Cambrian subduction initiation, unless sampling problems or minimum age dates obscure a more widespread boninite "infant arc". The Cambrian subduction initiation on the Laurentian side was probably characterized by both "infant arc" boninitic arc construction (perhaps the >496 Ma Hawley Formation and the >488 Ma Betts Cove Ophiolite) and "normal" arc construction (Mt. Orford). This duality is consistent with the suggestion that the pre-collisional geometry of the Laurentian margin was complex. The Bay of Islands Complex and Thetford Mines ophiolite boninites are likely associated with forearc/intra-arc spreading during the protracted evolution of the Cambrian arc system. The relatively young boninites in the Bronson Hill Arc suggest that the Taconic continuous eastward subduction tectonic model is less tenable than other models. On the Gondwana side of Iapetus, the

  5. Picophytoplankton and carbon cycle on the northeastern shelf of the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ribas-Ribas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four surveys (Jun’06 and Nov’06; Feb’07 and May’07 were carried out on the northeastern shelf of the Gulf of Cádiz (southwest Iberian Peninsula to relate the spatio-temporal distribution of the carbon cycle parameters (dissolved inorganic carbon and dissolved organic carbon to picophytoplankton biomass and community composition. In addition, the net ecosystem production and the picophytoplankton contribution to the air-sea CO2 exchange process were investigated. The results showed that chlorophyll-a, carbon cycle parameters and picophytoplankton composition showed large seasonality, and the Guadalquivir Estuary plays an important role in the contribution of nutrient and suspended particular material over the year. Regarding picophytoplankton composition, the flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus were the main populations in the studied area and their temporal and spatial distributions were complementary: the Prochlorococcus population showed its maximum concentration in May’07 and Jun’06 and in the surface oceanic water, whereas the Synechococcus population was at its maximum during Feb’07 and Nov’06, and off the Guadalquivir Estuary and Bay of Cádiz. In addition, a relationship between the studied parameters and the fugacity of CO2 was also observed, suggesting that primary production is an important factor in the regulation of this parameter in the studied area. The calculated carbon budget showed that the area acts as a carbon sink on an annual basis.

  6. CPUE DAN TINGKAT PEMANFAATAN PERIKANAN CAKALANG (Katsuwonus pelamis DI SEKITAR TELUK PALABUHANRATU, KABUPATEN SUKABUMI, JAWA BARAT (CPUE AND UTILIZATION RATE OF SKIPJACK (KATSUWONUS PELAMIS AT SURROUNDED PALABUHANRATU BAY AREA, SUKABUMI REGENCY, WEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Budiasih

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKIkan Cakalang (Katsuwonus pelamis merupakan salah satu hasil tangkapan yang banyak menyumbang produksi perikanan laut di Kabupaten Sukabumi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menghitung  nilai CPUE (Catch per Unit Effort ikan cakalang di Perairan Palabuhanratu Kabupaten Sukabumi dan menganalisis tingkat pemanfaatan ikan cakalang di sekitar Perairan Teluk Palabuhanratu Kabupaten Sukabumi. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Januari-Februari 2014 di Pelabuhan Perikanan Nusantara Palabuhanratu, Jawa Barat. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif. Metode analisis data yang digunakan adalah standarisasi alat tangkap, analisis hasil tangkapan per upaya penangkapan (CPUE dan analisis Tingkat Pemanfaatan ikan cakalang. Alat tangkap yang digunakan untuk menangkap ikan cakalang adalah payang, pancing tonda dan longline. Alat tangkap yang dijadikan standar adalah pancing tonda. Hasil analisis CPUE diperoleh nilai CPUEstd rata-rata tahun 2008-2013 sebesar 247,226 kg/trip. Nilai CPUE Ikan Cakalang yang didaratkan di Palabuhanratu cenderung menurun, yang artinya mengindikasikan terjadinya fully exploited pada perairan tersebut.  Rata-rata tingkat pemanfaatan sumberdaya ikan cakalang (Katsuwonus pelamis di perairan Palabuhanratu sebesar 105,82%. ABSTRACTSkipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis is one of leading commodity that contributed to the production of marine fisheries in Sukabumi.  The purposes of this research were to calculate CPUE (catch per unit effort of skipjack at surrounded area of Palabuhanratu bay Sukabumi and analyze skipjack utilization rate in Palabuhanratu bay of Sukabumi. This research conducted in January-February 2014 at Palabuhanratu fishing port, West Java. Methods used in this research were descriptive. Method of analysis of data used standardization of fishing gears, calculated catch per efforts (CPUE and utilization rate of skipjack. The fishing gear that used to capture skipjack were payang

  7. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for brown bears in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and coastal areas of Bristol Bay...

  8. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Green Bay, WI Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) dataset comprises 936 km2 around the city of Green Bay, surrounding towns, tribal lands and rural areas in...

  9. Map showing thickness of young bay mud, southern San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sandra D.; Nichols, Donald R.; Wright, Nancy A.; Atwater, Brian

    1978-01-01

    Soft water-saturated estuarine deposits less than 10,000 years old underlie the southern part of San Francisco bay and the present and former marshlands that border the bay. Known locally as bay mud or as young bay mud, these deposits, and the estuarine environment that produces them, are of major importance in making decision on land use and development in the San Francisco Bay area. Knowledge of the distribution, thickness, and physical properties of young bay mud is critical to the feasibility, design, and maintenance of structures built on it. Fore this reason, numerous attempts have been made in the past to map or describe these characteristics (Mitchell, 1963; Goldman, 1969; McDonald and Nichols, 1974). The accompanying map of bay-mud thickness significantly revises part of an earlier compilation by Kahle and Goldman (1969) and includes new data from approximately 2400 boreholes, most of which have been drilled during the past 15 years. It also incorporates information on historic margins of San Francisco Bay and its tidal marshes (Nichols and Wright, 1971). Although this map was compelled mostly from data gathered during foundation investigations and construction projects, it is mostly from data gathered during foundation investigations and construction projects, it is not a substitute for such studies. Rather, the map provides regional information for land-use planning, seismic zonation, and design of foundation investigations.

  10. 33 CFR 165.1182 - Safety/Security Zone: San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Suisun Bay, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety/Security Zone: San... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY... Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1182 Safety/Security Zone: San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay...

  11. Wakasa Bay Weather Forecast Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E Wakasa Bay Field Campaign was conducted over Wakasa Bay, Japan, in January and February, 2003. The Wakasa Bay Field Campaign includes joint research...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1050 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1050 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to... at 50 FR 42696, Oct. 22, 1985; 51 FR 25198, July 11, 1986, as amended at 62 FR 17557, Apr. 10, 1997] ...

  13. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage effluent, continental and coastal waters from the Northwestern Mediterrean Sea: Comparison between two contrasted catchment areas (Marseilles Bay and Vermeille coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigue, Catherine; Ferretto, Nicolas; Méjanelle, Laurence; Tedetti, Marc; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Goutx, Madeleine

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed from sewage treatment plant waters and surface waters collected in continental (rivers), harbour and off-shore marine sites from Marseilles Bay and Vermeille coastal areas between 2009 and 2013 (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, France). After collection, water samples were first filtered on glass fiber filters, then PAHs from the dissolved phase were extracted using liquid-liquid or solid phase extraction (SPE) methods, while those from particles were treated according to Bligh and Dyer method. After a possible purification step, extracts were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Regardless of the study area, dissolved and particulate PAH (18 parents + alkylated homologues) concentration averages were 150.2 ± 140.5 ng l-1and 39.4 ± 71.2 ng l-1, respectively. Interestingly, the concentration in dissolved PAHs was on average 3.8 higher than the concentration in particulate PAHs. In addition, a gradient of PAH concentrations was observed from coastal waters with the highest values in harbours and outlet sewage effluents and the lowest values in off-shore marine waters. Intermediate concentrations were recorded in continental waters. In the Marseilles Bay, dissolved PAH concentrations were significantly higher and associated to increased signatures of unburned and combusted fossil fuels, mainly from heating, during the cold period (November-April). In contrast, unburned petroleum signature dominated in the warm period (May-October), emphasizing the intense shipping traffic and urban/industrial activities occurring in one of the largest Mediterranean harbour and city. Conversely, in the Vermeille coastal waters, dissolved PAH concentrations were higher during the warm period when particulate PAHs displayed the lowest concentrations, suggesting a seasonal related partition between dissolved and particulate PAHs. In addition, in the Vermeille coastal waters, PAHs were dominated by

  14. Breeding avifauna of the south San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Robert E.

    1977-01-01

    San Francisco Bay represents one of the largest estuarine areas on the Pacific Coast of North America. Its open waters, tidal flats, tidal marshes and solar evaporation ponds provide critical foraging, resting and breeding habitat for migratory and resident birds. The avifauna of San Francisco Bay has received considerable attention; however, little of it has been directed toward assessing the overall importance of the Bay as a nesting area. Works by Grinnell and Wythe (1927), Grinnell and Miller (1944) and Sibley (1952) are the only comprehensive studies of San Francisco Bay avifauna. These studies, while major contributions, are broad in scope as they relate to the breeding avifauna of the Bay's estuarine areas. Several studies by Johnston (1955, 1956a, b), Marshall (1948a, b), DeGroot (1927, 1931) and Zucca (1954) have concentrated on the breeding biology of individual species; however, much of the marsh reclamation and Bay fill has occurred since. The present breeding status of many resident and migratory birds is poorly known for San Francisco Bay. Included among these are three rare or endangered forms: California Black Rail, California Clapper Rail and California Least Tern. In addition, some species now found in the area represent recent breeding range extensions. This study, undertaken from March to September 1971 and including a few more recent data, presents a quantitative assessment of the present breeding bird populations in the South San Francisco Bay area.

  15. Potential geologic hazards of North Aleutian shelf, Bristol Bay, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnia, B.F.; Schwab, W.C.

    1985-02-01

    Federal OSC lease sale 92, North Aleutian shelf, Alaska, is scheduled for April 1985. The area, located in the southeastern Bering Sea, has 3 basins with sedimentary thicknesses in excess of 4 km. Six geologic conditions that could cause problems during petroleum development are: (1) seismicity, (2) recent faulting, (3) gas-charged sediment, (4) bed forms and active sediment transport, (5) scours, and (6) volcanism. Since 1953, the region has a history of at least 10 shallow earthquakes, including a 1971 back-arc event with a Richter magnitude of 5.2. The largest event impacting the entire region, a Richter magnitude 8.7 earthquake, occurred in 1938. Normal faults are located along the southern edge of the St. George basin, and on the northeastern edge of the Amak basin. Many exhibit increased offset with depth, surficial sags, and small surficial cracks. Surprising was the absence of any evidence of sea-floor sediment instability. Sonar bright spots, and possible, near-surface gas-charged sediment occur west of Amak Island and north of Unimak Island. An area of megaripples and dunes covers more than 1500 km/sup 2/. Bed forms have spacings of 20-50 m and heights of 1-3 m. Observations suggest that coarse sand may be actively transported. Thousands of scours, many linear and parallel, some greater than 800 m long, 250 m wide, and incised up to 5 m, were identified. Pavlof, an Alaskan Peninsula active volcano, located 45 km northeast of Cold Bay, has a continuous history of steam release and occasional eruption. Lahars, nuee ardentes are unknown. None of the geologic conditions identified precludes petroleum development or production. The potential impact of these factors must, however, be included in planning for future petroleum activities.

  16. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company...

  17. Seismic Event Relocation in Northeastern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Yeske, M. D.; Steck, L.; Begnaud, M. L.; Mackey, K. G.; Fujita, K.; Stead, R.

    2009-12-01

    Northeastern Russia covers an area roughly equivalent to the United States, with seven seismic networks operating independently. Together, Michigan State University and Los Alamos National Laboratory researchers have merged catalogs from the Yakutsk, Magadan, Sakhalin, Kamchatka, and Irkutsk networks along with global bulletins and special studies to produce a unified research database for the region. We have developed regional phase travel time correction surfaces for P, Pn, Pg, S, and Sg/Lg using GT25 or better events, and are beginning to test relocation capabilities of less-well-constrained events with these kriged correction surfaces. Improvements in location will be judged on the basis of increased linearity and clustering of events across the study region, spanning a box from 40-75 degrees latitude and 80-190 degrees longitude. Relocation results for different combinations of phases will be presented.

  18. Foreign Language Folio. A Guide to Cultural Resources and Field Trip Opportunities in the San Francisco Bay Area for Teachers and Students of Foreign Languages, 1983-85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Tony, Ed.; O'Connor, Roger, Ed.

    A listing of San Francisco area cultural resources and opportunities of use to foreign language teachers is presented. Included are the following: museums and galleries, schools, art sources, churches, clubs, cultural centers and organizations, publications and publishing companies, restaurants, food stores and markets, travel and tourism,…

  19. Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments in southern Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Nardi, Matthew J.; Andring, Matthew A.

    2015-09-09

    Multibeam echosounder data collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration along with sediment samples and still and video photography of the sea floor collected by the U.S. Geological Survey were used to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments in southern Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, as part of a long-term effort to map the sea floor along the northeastern coast of the United States. Sea-floor features include rocky areas and scour depressions in high-energy environments characterized by erosion or nondeposition, and sand waves and megaripples in environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Two shipwrecks are also located in the study area. Much of the sea floor is relatively featureless within the resolution of the multibeam data; sedimentary environments in these areas are characterized by processes associated with sorting and reworking. This report releases bathymetric data from the multibeam echosounder, grain-size analyses of sediment samples, and photographs of the sea floor and interpretations of the sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. It provides base maps that can be used for resource management and studies of topics such as benthic ecology, contaminant inventories, and sediment transport.

  20. Modelling of hydrodynamic circulation in Benoa Bay, Bali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ningsih, Nining Sari; Muchamad, Al Azhar

    2013-01-01

    A simulation of water level, velocity, salinity, and temperature in the Bay of Benoa has been carried out using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic Estuarine and Coastal Ocean Model incorporating a main characteristic of southward transport of the Indonesian throughflow at the offshore area of the bay...

  1. Structure of the Kasbah fold zone (Agadir bay, Morocco. Implications on the chronology of the recent tectonics of the western High Atlas and on the seismic hazard of the Agadir area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaka, F.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Detailed re-interpretation of the north-eastern segment of a profile realized across the Agadir bay along a NE-SW trend and crosscutting the main structures, together with analysis of available isochron maps, allowed us to retrace the geological history of the offshore western High Atlas. Two tectonostratigraphic sequences were distinguished: Unit II, which displays a simple structure, laying unconformably on Unit I, with a more complex structure dominated by a reverse fault (F1 striking E-W with a dip to the north. Correlation to boreholes Souss-1 and AGM-1 allowed us to assign Unit I to the Triassic – Palaeogene and Unit II to the Miocene – Present. The NE fault block shows a ramp-flat fault plane (F2 with an overlying SW-vergent fold that can be interpreted as a fault-bend fold. Three main stages were distinguished: (1 during the Cretaceous, F1 could have been a syndepositional normal fault with the NE block moving downwards; (2 towards the beginning of the Tertiary, the displacement of plane F2 induced the development of a fault-bend fold and erosion of the forelimb and hinge of the fold; displacement along F2 was transferred to fault F1; (3 afterwards, during the Miocene, reverse motion of F1 deformed and tilted the plane F2 and accentuated the folded structure. This evolution is typical for a frontal basin above a fault-related fold. Evaluation of the thickness and bed depth differences shows that the largest growth rate was recorded in Late Miocene times. Seismic activity recorded in the Agadir bay appears to be clearly related to this fault zone, as inferred from focal mechanisms. Seismic moment evaluation suggests that earthquakes of magnitude Mw≥6 are likely to occur, but could not be much larger because of the fault segmentation geometry of the High Atlas Front.

    A partir de una detallada reinterpretación del segmento nororiental de un perfil que corta las principales estructuras de la bahía de Agadir a lo largo de una

  2. Mycosporine-like amino acids and xanthophyll-cycle pigments favour a massive spring bloom development of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum in Grande Bay (Argentina), an ozone hole affected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreto, José I.; Carignan, Mario O.; Montoya, Nora G.; Cozzolino, Ezequiel; Akselman, Rut

    2018-02-01

    In Grande Bay (Southern Patagonian Shelf) in a eutrophic and recirculating area slightly stratified during spring, we observed an intense (up to 1 × 107 cells L- 1) and shallow, quasi mono-specific bloom of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum. Peridinin was the most abundant carotenoid, but the relative amounts of the xanthophyll cycle carotenoids (diadinoxanthin + diatoxanthin = DT) to light-harvesting pigments were high (DT/Chl a ratio = 0.32 and DT/peridinin ratio = 0.40). Shinorine, usujirene, palythene, mycosporine-serine-glycine methyl ester and palythenic acid were the primary mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), followed by mycosporine-glycine, palythine, and porphyra-334. The ΣMAAs/Chl a ratios (up to 27.9 nmol/nmol) were in the upper range reported either in nutrient-replete dinoflagellate cultures or natural populations. We monitored, from space (using satellite ocean colour data), the spatial and temporal bloom variability (from September 22 to October 31, 2005) using an approach to discriminate dinoflagellate from diatom blooms. The results indicated that an intense diatom bloom started in early spring but was rapidly replaced by an intense bloom of the dinoflagellate P. minimum, although the nutrient concentrations were apparently not limiting. The most notorious change in this period was a sharp increase in the levels of solar UVB radiation (UVB index 9.0) as a consequence of the overpass of the polar vortex over this area. We postulated that the synthesis and accumulation of MAAs and xanthophyll pigments, were competitive advantages for the opportunistic red tide dinoflagellate P. minimum over the sensitive diatoms, favouring the development of their surface blooms in this seasonally solar UVB radiation (UVBR) affected area.

  3. 33 CFR 334.140 - Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving Ground Reservation, Aberdeen, Md.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving....140 Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving Ground Reservation, Aberdeen, Md. (a) Restricted area defined..., Maryland. (1) Beginning at a point on the westerly side of Chesapeake Bay, at the south side of the mouth...

  4. Northeastern states sharpen biomass focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Wood energy use in the northeastern region of the USA currently replaces an estimated annual equivalent of 45--50 million barrels of oil. Including municipal wastes and recovered methane emissions for regional landfills, total biomass contribution to the energy economy is over 70 million barrels of oil equivalent annually. A reasonable consensus suggests wood alone could replace the equivalent of over 300 million barrels of oil each year on a sustainable basis over the next two decades. Beyond energy security, over 60,000 total jobs are now provided in the region by the wood energy industry. Over 375,000 total jobs could be generated by the wood energy industry, about 65,000 in the harvesting, transportation, and end-use operations of the wood energy industry. Biomass producers must be committed to sustainable development by necessity. Sound forest management practices that keep residual stand damage from wood harvesting to a minimum can create positive impacts on the region's forest. When combined with a balanced energy policy, the conditional use of wood energy can play a modest, but significant, role in reducing air emissions. Depletion of traditional energy resources creates open-quotes bubbleclose quotes benefits which will be exhausted after a generation. Sustainable development of biomass can create inexhaustible wealth for generations, and does not pose the risk of sudden ecological disruption. While the choice between policy options is not mutually exclusive, the interrelationship between energy security, economic growth and environmental quality clearly favors biomass. The environmental benefits and the economic growth impacts of biobased products produced by the northeastern states are considerable. The 11 states located in the northeastern USA should intensify their efforts to work with industry and investors to expand markets for industrial biobased products, either produced from local feedstocks or manufactured by companies operating in the region

  5. History of the Virginia Oyster Fishery, Chesapeake Bay, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Schulte

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oyster populations in Virginia's waters of Chesapeake Bay were lightly exploited until the early 1800s, when industrial fishery vessels first arrived, driven south from New England due to the collapse of northeastern oyster fisheries. Early signs of overexploitation and habitat degradation were evident by the 1850s. The public fishery, where oyster fishers harvest on state-owned bottom, rapidly developed after the Civil War and peaked in the early 1880s. Declines were noted by the late 1880s and eventually prompted the creation of Virginia's shell-planting and oyster-seed (young-of-the-year, YOY moving repletion program in the 1920s. Despite management and increasing repletion efforts, the public fishery collapsed (annual landings <10% of peak historical landings by the early 1960s. The private leasehold fishery, in which individuals rent areas outside the public grounds to plant shells and oysters for their own private use, surpassed the public fishery by the late 1920s, which partly masked this decline due to overfishing, habitat degradation, and diseases until both public and private fisheries completely collapsed in the mid-1980s after a third disease outbreak. This disease outbreak was likely related to warming waters. Overfishing and concomitant habitat loss followed a pattern of sequential population collapses observed in wild oyster fisheries along the Coastlines of the United States and worldwide. In recent years, expanding hatchery-produced seed oysters and aquaculture significantly increased leasehold landings. The wild fishery has also increased as disease resistance is developing naturally in the wild stocks, but remains ~5% of peak landings. Improved management has assisted in this recent limited recovery, improving these efforts further by enhancing stock recovery via large no-take sanctuaries, among other actions, could assist in stock recovery.

  6. Chesapeake Bay Tributary Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesapeake Bay Tributary Strategies were developed by the seven watershed jurisdictions and outlined the river basin-specific implementation activities to reduce nutrient and sediment pollutant loads from point and nonpoint sources.

  7. Bathymetry in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 4x4 meter resolution bathymetric surface for Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The depth values are in meters referenced to the...

  8. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started in...

  9. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  10. Numerical modeling of the effects of Hurricane Sandy and potential future hurricanes on spatial patterns of salt marsh morphology in Jamaica Bay, New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongqing; Chen, Qin; Hu, Kelin; Snedden, Gregg A.; Hartig, Ellen K.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Johnson, Cody L.; Orton, Philip M.

    2017-03-29

    The salt marshes of Jamaica Bay, managed by the New York City Department of Parks & Recreation and the Gateway National Recreation Area of the National Park Service, serve as a recreational outlet for New York City residents, mitigate flooding, and provide habitat for critical wildlife species. Hurricanes and extra-tropical storms have been recognized as one of the critical drivers of coastal wetland morphology due to their effects on hydrodynamics and sediment transport, deposition, and erosion processes. However, the magnitude and mechanisms of hurricane effects on sediment dynamics and associated coastal wetland morphology in the northeastern United States are poorly understood. In this study, the depth-averaged version of the Delft3D modeling suite, integrated with field measurements, was utilized to examine the effects of Hurricane Sandy and future potential hurricanes on salt marsh morphology in Jamaica Bay, New York City. Hurricane Sandy-induced wind, waves, storm surge, water circulation, sediment transport, deposition, and erosion were simulated by using the modeling system in which vegetation effects on flow resistance, surge reduction, wave attenuation, and sedimentation were also incorporated. Observed marsh elevation change and accretion from a rod surface elevation table and feldspar marker horizons and cesium-137- and lead-210-derived long-term accretion rates were used to calibrate and validate the wind-waves-surge-sediment transport-morphology coupled model.The model results (storm surge, waves, and marsh deposition and erosion) agreed well with field measurements. The validated modeling system was then used to detect salt marsh morphological change due to Hurricane Sandy across the entire Jamaica Bay over the short-term (for example, 4 days and 1 year) and long-term (for example, 5 and 10 years). Because Hurricanes Sandy (2012) and Irene (2011) were two large and destructive tropical cyclones which hit the northeast coast, the validated coupled

  11. Control of hardwood regeneration in restored carolina bay depression wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Lee, J.; Barton, Christopher, D.; Blake, John, I.

    2012-06-01

    Carolina bays are depression wetlands located in the coastal plain region of the eastern United States. Disturbance of this wetland type has been widespread, and many sites contain one or more drainage ditches. Restoration of bays is of interest because they are important habitats for rare flora and fauna. Previous bay restoration projects have identified flood-tolerant woody competitors in the seedbank and re-sprouting as impediments to the establishment of desired herbaceous wetland vegetation communities. We restored 3 bays on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, by plugging drainage ditches, harvesting residual pine/hardwood stands within the bays, and monitoring the vegetative response of the seedbank to the hydrologic change. We applied a foliar herbicide on one-half of each bay to control red maple (Acerrubrum), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and water oak (Quercus nigra) sprouting, and we tested its effectiveness across a hydrologic gradient in each bay. Hardwood regeneration was partially controlled by flooding in bays that exhibited long growing season hydroperiods. The findings also indicated that herbicide application was an effective means for managing hardwood regeneration and re-sprouting in areas where hydrologic control was ineffective. Herbicide use had no effect on species richness in the emerging vegetation community. In late-season drawdown periods, or in bays where hydroperiods are short, more than one herbicide application may be necessary.

  12. Characterization of bacterium isolated from the sediment at coastal area of Omura Bay in Japan and several biological activities of pigment produced by this isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Takuji; Kurachi, Maki; Kato, Yoko; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2005-01-01

    Recently we discovered a bacterial strain (MS-02-063) that produces large amounts of red pigment from coastal area of Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Comparative 16S rDNA gene sequencing analysis revealed that strain MS-02-063 was phylogenetically closely related to gamma-proteobacterium Hahella sp. MBIC 3957 that produces prodigiosin. However, some physiological and biochemical differences between strain MS-02-063 and Hahella sp. MBIC 3957 were observed. The red pigment (RP-063) produced by this isolate was highly purified from the culture supernatant. It was speculated that RP-063 might be prodigiosin-like pigment in physical properties and biological activities such as antibacterial and cytotoxic activity. Antibacterial activity of RP-063 was examined by an agar dilution method. The results indicated that RP-063 showed antibacterial activity for specific for pathogenic gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. The potency of antibacterial activity against S. aureus was nearly equal to those of tetracycline. Moreover, RP-063 showed inhibition of the superoxide generation by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line. Prodigiosin members have a wide variety of biological properties, including anticancer and antimalarial, etc. Especially, potent immunosuppressive properties have been reported for prodigiosin members with the mechanism of action different from that of the other well known immunosuppressors in atopic dermatitis therapy such as cyclosporin A, FK506 and rapamycin. It is suggested that RP-063 may be able to arrest the inflammation caused by superantigens secreted from S. aureus, which colonized skin on atopic dermatitis as well as suppression of activated lymphocyte proliferation and superoxide generation from leucocytes.

  13. Status and management of moose in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattles, David W.; DeStefano, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Moose (Alces alces) populations have recolonized much of their historic range in the northeastern United States in the past 30 years, with their southern range edge extending to southern New England and northern New York. This southerly expansion occurred when certain other populations in the United States were in decline along the southern range edge, with climate change often cited as a probable cause. The areas that moose have recently occupied in the northeastern United States are some of the most densely human populated in moose range, which has raised concern about human safety and moose-vehicle collisions (MVC). We conducted a literature search about moose in the northeastern United States, and distributed a questionnaire and conducted phone interviews with regional biologists responsible for moose management to determine the status of moose, management activity, and research deficiencies and needs. Moose numbers appear stable throughout much of the region, with slow population growth in northern New York. Management activity ranges from regulated harvest of moose in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, to no active management in southern New England and New York. The combined annual harvest in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont is >3,000. MVCs are a widespread regional concern with >1,000 occurring annually involving several human fatalities. Research should address impacts of parasitism by winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus) and brain-worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) on productivity and mortality of moose, influence of climate change on population dynamics and range, and conflicts in areas with high human population density.

  14. Resistance to permethrin in Culex tarsalis in northeastern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Adam C; Kondratieff, Boris C; Doyle, Michael S; Black, William C

    2008-06-01

    Resistance to permethrin and the activity of metabolic enzymes were monitored in field-collected Culex tarsalis from northeastern Colorado during 2005 and 2006 and compared with a lab strain from Bakersfield, CA. Collections were made from 13 different sites within and outside of the mosquito abatement area. Resistance levels by year and early vs. late season were examined and median lethal time values and 95% confidence intervals were compared with the lab strain. Mosquitoes collected in 2005 were more resistant to permethrin than either the lab strain or mosquitoes collected in 2006. Glutathione S-transferase levels recorded in 2005 were 9-12x higher than either the lab strain or 2006 mosquitoes; activity of mixed-function oxidases was also greater. Both mechanisms may play a role in permethrin resistance or reflect nontarget exposure to other pesticides in Cx. tarsalis in northeastern Colorado.

  15. Concentrations and trends of halogenated flame retardants in the pooled serum of residents of Laizhou Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Songjie; Li, Mingyuan; Jin, Jun; Wang, Ying; Bu, Yunjie; Xu, Meng; Yang, Xianfeng; Liu, Anming

    2013-06-01

    The south coast of Laizhou Bay, in northeastern China, is a production area for halogenated flame retardants (HFR). In 2007, the authors measured serum concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Laizhou Bay residents. To assess the PBDE concentration trend, and determine the concentrations of the emerging flame retardants Dechlorane Plus (DP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromophthalate (TBPH), the authors measured the concentrations of 8 PBDE congeners, 2 DP isomers, and TBPH in 10 composite samples, which were pooled from the serum collected from 305 Laizhou Bay residents in October 2011. The average concentration of the total PBDE (∑8 PBDE) concentration in all serum pools was 240 ng/g lipid weight, and the highest serum pool concentration (in the 30- to 39-yr-old male group) was 780 ng/g lipid weight. Brominated diphenyl ether-209 was the dominant congener, accounting for 87% of ∑8 PBDE. Compared with a previous study, ∑8 PBDE serum concentrations in the present study showed no change in order of magnitude, but the relative contribution of BDE-209 to ∑8 PBDE was higher. The average concentration of ∑DP in all serum pools was 3.6 ng/g lipid weight, ranging from 1.4 ng/g lipid weight (in the 50- to 59-yr-old male group) to 11 ng/g lipid weight (in the 20- to 29-yr-old male group). The concentration of DP was lower than in other reported studies. The study also detected TBPH in the 30- to 39-yr-old female group, suggesting that TBPH, as an emerging HFR, requires further monitoring. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  16. Roebuck Bay Invertebrate and bird Mapping 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Pearson, Grant B.; Hickey, Robert; Dittmann, Sabine; Rogers, Danny I.; Folmer, Eelke; Honkoop, Pieter; Drent, Jan; Goeij, Petra de; Marsh, Loisette

    2006-01-01

    1. This is a report on a survey of the benthic ecology of the intertidal flats along the northern shores of Roebuck Bay in June 2006. In the period 11-20 June we mapped both the invertebrate macrobenthic animals (those retained by a 1 mm sieve) over the whole of the northern intertidal area of

  17. 33 CFR 334.190 - Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Bloodsworth Island, MD, U.S. Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of... Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Bloodsworth Island, MD, U.S. Navy. (a) The areas—(1) Prohibited area. All... Chesapeake Bay and Tangier Sound within an area bounded as follows: Beginning at latitude 38°08′15...

  18. 33 CFR 334.170 - Chesapeake Bay, in the vicinity of Chesapeake Beach, Md.; firing range, Naval Research Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, in the vicinity... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.170 Chesapeake Bay, in the vicinity of Chesapeake Beach, Md.; firing range... on the west by the shore of Chesapeake Bay. (2) Area B. The sector of a circle bounded by radii of 9...

  19. Kau Bay, Halmahera: Regional setting, physiography and shallow structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, W. J. M.; Hartosukohardjo, Suharno; Sukardjono, H.

    Kau Bay is a small pear-shaped marine basin, perched in between the northern and northeastern arms of the Island of Halmahera. Halmahera is part of a late Cretaceous-early Tertiary volcanic arc of which the forearc (Northeast Halmahera) was uplifted and emplaced in late Eocene time. In the Pliocene, after a long period of quiescence, while Halmahera and the Molucca Sea region were firmly incorporated within the Philippine Sea Plate, volcanic activity resumed in West Halmahera, this time the result of east-directed subduction of the Molucca Sea Plate, and thus East Halmahera converted to a backarc position. Kau Bay is separated from the Pacific Ocean by a shallow sill, which hampers ventilation of the waters of the bay. A gently sloping, tide-influenced 'coastal plain' separates volcanic and ultramafic high terrain from the basin slope and consists of sandy beaches, mud flats and mangrove swamps that are interspersed with rocky headlands and promontories. Sediment passes to the 470-m-deep, flat-floored basin through numerous canyons that cut the slope. The bay is underlain by flat-lying sediments over an irregular block-faulted subsurface, similar to the structure of what constitutes the uplifted basement complex of Northeast Halmahera.

  20. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and coastal areas of...

  1. Delaware Bay, Delaware Sediment Distribution 2003 to 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 38 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2003 to 2004 along the middle to lower Delaware Bay Coast. The bottom sediment map...

  2. 2004 Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan Coastline LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata document describes the collection and processing of Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data over an area along the coast of Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron,...

  3. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Proposed Receiver Site 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Given the location of the critical areas of erosion and the need to avoid adverse impacts to local sensitive habitat, the Southern Monterey Bay Coastal RSM Plan...

  4. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Proposed Receiver Site 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Given the location of the critical areas of erosion and the need to avoid adverse impacts to local sensitive habitat, the Southern Monterey Bay Coastal RSM Plan...

  5. Changing Salinity Patterns in Biscayne Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2004-01-01

    Biscayne Bay, Fla., is a 428-square-mile (1,109-square-kilometer) subtropical estuarine ecosystem that includes Biscayne National Park, the largest marine park in the U.S. national park system (fig. 1). The bay began forming between 5,000 and 3,000 years ago as sea level rose and southern Florida was flooded. Throughout most of its history, the pristine waters of the bay supported abundant and diverse fauna and flora, and the bay was a nursery for the adjacent coral-reef and marine ecosystems. In the 20th century, urbanization of the Miami-Dade County area profoundly affected the environment of the bay. Construction of powerplants, water-treatment plants, and solid-waste sites and large-scale development along the shoreline stressed the ecosystem. Biscayne National Monument was established in 1968 to ?preserve and protect for the education, inspiration, recreation and enjoyment of present and future generations a rare combination of terrestrial, marine, and amphibious life in a tropical setting of great natural beauty? (Public Law 90?606). The monument was enlarged in 1980 and designated a national park.

  6. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative AGENCY...: Notice of availability of program funds for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative. SUMMARY: The... through the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative for agricultural producers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  7. Simultaneous Sea-Level Oscillations in Japanese Bays Induced by the Tsunami of Nankai-Trough Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Y.; Furumura, T.; Imamura, F.; Yamashita, K.; Sugawara, D.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the response of bays to the tsunami of Nankai-trough earthquake based on tsunami simulations and demonstrate the possibility that sea-level oscillation of each bay, which is induced by an incident tsunami, interacts with those of other bays. Several major cities in Japan, including the capital, are located in the bays near the Nankai trough and it is assumed that these cities will be largely affected by the tsunamis caused by recurring large earthquakes at the trough. Therefore, it is very important for these populated cities to understand the mechanism and properties of the tsunami-induced oscillations that continue for a long time in bays to draw up evacuation plans. To investigate the response of bays for various tsunamis that may occur in the Nankai trough area, we distributed the tsunami sources that have the form of a 2-D Gaussian function around the Nankai trough. From simulations with these sources, it was found that strong oscillations of bay water occur when the source is located in the bay itself or when strong oscillations occur in other bays. For example, when the Tosa bay oscillates, the Tokyo bay that is 600 km away from the Tosa bay also oscillates. Among the bays around the Nankai trough, the Suruga bay, the deepest bay in Japan with a 2500-km depth, oscillates more strongly than other bays for most cases. To check the influence of the strong oscillations in the Suruga bay on other bays, we conducted tsunami simulations using a modified topography model in which the Suruga bay is artificially landfilled. As a consequence, the strength of oscillations in the adjacent bays are reduced by 20-30%, suggesting the large influence of the distinguished oscillation of the Suruga bay on these bays. We finally conducted tsunami simulations using the eleven Nankai-trough earthquake scenarios of the Central Disaster Prevention Council (CDPC) of Japan as tsunami sources, and the mutual relation regarding the strengths of

  8. Isotope hydrological evidence of geomorphological changes in northeastern Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertelendi, E.; Marton, L.; Miko, L.

    1992-01-01

    An isotope hydrological survey of groundwaters in the northeastern part of Hungary has shown a distribution of stable isotopic composition that cannot be explained by climatic changes alone. Detailed geomorphological studies have pointed out that during the Upper Pleniglacial and Late Glacial, the morphology of the territory, and consequently its catchment area, underwent considerable changes. Data gathered by the authors are consistent with the geomorphological results. The distribution of the isotopic composition data of groundwater provides evidence of both climatic changes and tectonic movements in the area. (author). 8 refs, 7 figs

  9. Applications of radon and radium isotopes to determine submarine groundwater discharge and flushing times in Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatje, Vanessa; Attisano, Karina Kammer; de Souza, Marcelo Friederichs Landim; Mazzilli, Barbara; de Oliveira, Joselene; de Araújo Mora, Tamires; Burnett, William C

    2017-11-01

    Todos os Santos Bay (BTS) is the 2nd largest bay in Brazil and an important resource for the people of the State of Bahia. We made measurements of radon and radium in selected areas of the bay to evaluate if these tracers could provide estimates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and flushing times of the Paraguaçu Estuary and BTS. We found that there were a few areas along the eastern and northeastern shorelines that displayed relatively high radon and low salinities, indicating possible sites of enhanced SGD. A time-series mooring over a tidal cycle at Marina do Bonfim showed a systematic enrichment of the short-lived radium isotopes 223 Ra and 224 Ra during the falling tide. Assuming that the elevated radium isotopes were related to SGD and using measured radium activities from a shallow well at the site, we estimated groundwater seepage at about 70 m 3 /day per unit width of shoreline. Extrapolating to an estimated total shoreline length provided a first approximation of total (fresh + saline) SGD into BTS of 300 m 3 /s, about 3 times the average river discharge into the bay. Just applying the shoreline lengths from areas identified with high radon and reduced salinity results in a lower SGD estimate of 20 m 3 /s. Flushing times of the Paraguaçu Estuary were estimated at about 3-4 days based on changing radium isotope ratios from low to high salinities. The flushing time for the entire BTS was also attempted using the same approach and resulted in a surprisingly low value of only 6-8 days. Although physical oceanographic models have proposed flushing times on the order of months, a simple tidal prism calculation provided results in the range of 4-7 days, consistent with the radium approach. Based on these initial results, we recommend a strategy for refining both SGD and flushing time estimates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Uranium concentrations in groundwater, northeastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Sue C.; Welch, Wendy B.; Tecca, Alison E.; Eliason, Devin M.

    2018-04-18

    A study of uranium in groundwater in northeastern Washington was conducted to make a preliminary assessment of naturally occurring uranium in groundwater relying on existing information and limited reconnaissance sampling. Naturally occurring uranium is associated with granitic and metasedimentary rocks, as well as younger sedimentary deposits, that occur in this region. The occurrence and distribution of uranium in groundwater is poorly understood. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates uranium in Group A community water systems at a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 30 μg/L in order to reduce uranium exposure, protect from toxic kidney effects of uranium, and reduce the risk of cancer. However, most existing private wells in the study area, generally for single family use, have not been sampled for uranium. This document presents available uranium concentration data from throughout a multi-county region, identifies data gaps, and suggests further study aimed at understanding the occurrence of uranium in groundwater.The study encompasses about 13,000 square miles (mi2) in the northeastern part of Washington with a 2010 population of about 563,000. Other than the City of Spokane, most of the study area is rural with small towns interspersed throughout the region. The study area also includes three Indian Reservations with small towns and scattered population. The area has a history of uranium exploration and mining, with two inactive uranium mines on the Spokane Indian Reservation and one smaller inactive mine on the outskirts of Spokane. Historical (1977–2016) uranium in groundwater concentration data were used to describe and illustrate the general occurrence and distribution of uranium in groundwater, as well as to identify data deficiencies. Uranium concentrations were detected at greater than 1 microgram per liter (μg/L) in 60 percent of the 2,382 historical samples (from wells and springs). Uranium concentrations ranged from less than 1 to

  11. Chesapeake Bay Program Grant Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant Guidance and appendices for the Chesapeake Bay Program that describes how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Region 3’s Chesapeake Bay Program Office (CBPO) administers grant and cooperative agreement funds.

  12. Identification and Spatial Pattern of Kao Bay Bathymetry Based on UNCLOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulius Yulius

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kao Bay is located in the province of North Maluku between Regency of North Halmahera and West Halmahera. The study aims are to identify bay criteria according to UNCLOS and bathymetry based on Nautical Chart. The methods used in this study are the identification of the bay area under UNCLOS and spatial analysis using GIS software. The result shows that Kao Bay has a coast line length of 127.7 km, a mouth bay cover line of 11.1 km, total surface area of  964.38  km2, and total surface semi-circular bay cover area of 48.4 km2. The total surface area larger than the area of the semicircle bay cover area. It has been full compliance with the criteria required by UNCLOS. Spatial analysis, found that for the depth of water in Kao Bay can be divided into six classes, these are: (1 0 – 100 meter with area of 964,38 km2, (2 100 - 200 meter with area of 667.25 km2, (3 200 - 300 meter with area of 556.95 km2, (4 300 - 400 meter with area of 376.89 km2, (5 400 - 500 meter with area of 202.44 km2, (6 500 - 600 meter with area of 2.22 km2.

  13. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistarol, Giovana O; Coutinho, Felipe H; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E M; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A B; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Amado Filho, Gilberto M; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E; Thompson, Cristiane C; Salomon, Paulo S; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km(2). In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay's degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay's water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.

  14. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares como indicadores da recuperação de áreas degradadas no nordeste do Brasil Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as indicators of the recovery of degraded areas in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Francisco Vieira Carneiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se atributos dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs na região sob desertificação de Gilbués, PI, Brasil, objetivando monitorar áreas sob diferentes níveis de degradação e recuperação do solo. Amostras de solo foram coletadas na camada de 0-0,2 m, durante o período seco de 2009 em quatro áreas pertencentes a um Argissolo, visualmente definidas como: REC - área em recuperação por contenção da erosão e plantio de gramíneas e leguminosas exóticas; DEG- área altamente degradada; IDEG - área moderadamente degradada; MN - área de vegetação nativa. Foram analisados a colonização radicular, o número mais provável de propágulos infectivos (NMP, índices de diversidade (Shannon-Wiener, diversidade e dominância de Simpson, equitabilidade de Pielou e Margalef e os atributos químicos do solo pH, H+Al, fósforo e matéria orgânica, usados como variáveis explicativas da variabilidade de atributos dos FMAs por meio de análises multivariadas. A colonização radicular e o NMP de propágulos foram superiores em REC. Os índices de Shannon-Wiener, dominância de Simpson e Margalef foram menores na área DEG, demonstrando serem bons indicadores de alterações na comunidade de FMAs em áreas degradadas. Pela análise de agrupamento hierárquico, a área DEG teve maior dissimilaridade em relação às demais. Pela análise por componentes principais, os índices de Shannon-Wiener, Margalef, de Simpson, a dominância de Simpson e os teores de fósforo foram os parâmetros que mais explicaram a variância total.Attributes of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF were evaluated in a region in the process of desertification at Gilbués, Piauí, Brazil, with the objective of monitoring areas with different levels of soil degradation and recovery. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0 to 0.2 m during the dry season of 2009 in four areas of ultisol, which were visually defined as: REC - an area under recovery by erosion

  15. Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysaccis B., Raul

    1998-12-01

    On the northeastern offshore Venezuela, the pre-Tertiary basement consists of a deeply subducted accretionary complex of a Cretaceous island arc system that formed far to the west of its present location. The internal structure of this basement consists of metamorphic nappes that involve passive margin sequences, as well as oceanic (ophiolitic) elements. The Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore is dominated by Paleogene (Middle Eocene-Oligocene) extension and Neogene transtension, interrupted by Oligocene to Middle Miocene inversions. The Paleogene extension is mainly an arc-normal extension associated with a retreating subduction boundary. It is limited to the La Tortuga and the La Blanquilla Basins and the southeastern Margarita and Caracolito subbasins. All of these basins are farther north of and not directly tied to the El Pilar fault system. On a reconstruction, these Paleogene extensional systems were located to the north of the present day Maracaibo Basin. By early Miocene the leading edge of the now overall transpressional system had migrated to a position to the north of the Ensenada de Barcelona. This relative to South America eastward migration is responsible for the Margarita strike-slip fault and the major inversions that began during the Oligocene and lasted into the Middle Miocene. The Bocono-El Pilar-Casanay-Warm Springs and the La Tortuga-Coche-North Coast fault systems are exclusively Neogene with major transtension occurring during the Late Miocene to Recent and act independently from the earlier Paleogene extensional system. They are responsible for the large Neogene transtensional basins of the area: the Cariaco trough, the Northern Tuy-Cariaco and the Paria sub-basins, and the Gulf of Paria Basin. This latest phase is characterized by strain-partitioning into strike slip faults, a transtensional northern domain and a transpressional southern domain that is responsible for the decollement tectonics and/or inversions of the

  16. Urban Noise Modelling in Boka Kotorska Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Nikolić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traffic is the most significant noise source in urban areas. The village of Kamenari in Boka Kotorska Bay is a site where, in a relatively small area, road traffic and sea (ferry traffic take place at the same time. Due to the specificity of the location, i.e. very rare synergy of sound effects of road and sea traffic in the urban area, as well as the expressed need for assessment of noise level in a simple and quick way, a research was conducted, using empirical methods and statistical analysis methods, which led to the creation of acoustic model for the assessment of equivalent noise level (Leq. The developed model for noise assessment in the Village of Kamenari in Boka Kotorska Bay quite realistically provides data on possible noise levels at the observed site, with very little deviations in relation to empirically obtained values.

  17. Seasonal changes in the abundance of bacterial genes related to dimethylsulfoniopropionate catabolism in seawater from Ofunato Bay revealed by metagenomic analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Kudo, Toshiaki

    2018-04-26

    Ofunato Bay is located in the northeastern Pacific Ocean area of Japan, and it has the highest biodiversity of marine organisms in the world, primarily due to tidal influences from the cold Oyashio and warm Kuroshio currents. Our previous results from performing shotgun metagenomics indicated that Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique and Planktomarina temperata were the dominant bacteria (Reza et al., 2018a, 2018b). These bacteria are reportedly able to catabolize dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) produced from phytoplankton into dimethyl sulfide (DMS) or methanethiol (MeSH). This study was focused on seasonal changes in the abundances of bacterial genes (dddP, dmdA) related to DMSP catabolism in the seawater of Ofunato Bay by BLAST+ analysis using shotgun metagenomic datasets. We found seasonal changes among the Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique strains, including those of the HTCC1062 type and the Red Sea type. A good correlation was observed between the chlorophyll a concentrations and the abundances of the catabolic genes, suggesting that the bacteria directly interact with phytoplankton in the marine material cycle system and play important roles in producing DMS and MeSH from DMSP as signaling molecules for the possible formation of the scent of the tidewater or as fish attractants.

  18. Northeastern Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, northeastern and southeastern New York, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, northern New Jersey, and eastern Pennsylvania. For each of the States within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed Federal-protected lands, components of National Forest Lands, proximity to Federal-protected lands, existing State-protected lands, proximity to State-protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, or to 1-mile-square areas with 1000 or more persons, National and State forest lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that will be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  19. Haemodialysis services in the northeastern region of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Kiani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease is growing and the current estimated global prevalence exceeds 13%. As the use of haemodialysis machines for patients with end stage renal disease increases survival considerably, it is critical to plan correctly for the allocation of these machines. This study aimed to develop a geographical information systems (GIS-based approach to predict the need for this service in the northeastern region of Iran taking into account where patients live and where haemodialysis is the most needed and identifying areas with poor access to haemodialysis centres. Patients were interviewed to obtain self-reported actual travel time and the inverse distance-weighting algorithm was used to determine access in each area. The prediction is based on the domestic growth rate for haemodialysis services and the estimated active hours of machine use for the next five years. We estimate that six new haemodialysis machines are required in northeastern Iran at the present time with 50 machines required over the next five years. Ashkhane City was identified to have the least access to haemodialysis centres in the study area. Our GIS-based model can be used to investigate not only the need for new haemodialysis machines but also to examine geographic disparities in the allocation of haemodialysis centres and to identify areas most in need of this service. It is important that policymakers consider both spatial and non-spatial dimensions of access to enable better allocation of haemodialysis services ensuring they are targeted to reach those in need.

  20. 75 FR 54771 - Safety Zone; Thunder on the Bay, Chesapeake Bay, Buckroe Beach Park, Hampton, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... navigable waters of the Chesapeake Bay within the area bounded by a 210-foot radius circle centered on... are technical standards (e.g., specifications of materials, performance, design, or operation; test... cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment. This rule is categorically excluded, under...

  1. Sustainable development in the Hudson Bay/James Bay bioregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of projects planned for the James Bay/Hudson Bay region, and the expected environmental impacts of these projects. The watershed of James Bay and Hudson Bay covers well over one third of Canada, from southern Alberta to central Ontario to Baffin Island, as well as parts of north Dakota and Minnesota in the U.S.A. Hydroelectric power developments that change the timing and rate of flow of fresh water may cause changes in the nature and duration of ice cover, habitats of marine mammals, fish and migratory birds, currents into and out of Hudson Bay/James Bay, seasonal and annual loads of sediments and nutrients to marine ecosystems, and anadromous fish populations. Hydroelectric projects are proposed for the region by Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba. In January 1992, the Canadian Arctic Resources Committee (CARC), the Environmental Committee of Sanikuluaq, and the Rawson Academy of Arctic Science will launch the Hudson Bay/James Bay Bioregion Program, an independent initiative to apply an ecosystem approach to the region. Two main objectives are to provide a comprehensive assessment of the cumulative impacts of human activities on the marine and freshwater ecosystems of the Hudson Bay/James Bay bioregion, and to foster sustainable development by examining and proposing cooperative processes for decision making among governments, developers, aboriginal peoples and other stakeholders. 1 fig

  2. NUMERICAL MODELS AS TOOLS TO UNDERSTAND THE DYNAMICS IN BAYS: CASE OF STUDY CHETUMAL BAY, QUINTANA ROO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Avalos-Cueva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study performed the simulation of currents generated by the wind on the Bay of Chetumal, Quintana Roo through the use of a stationary shallow-water model. A homogeneous climatic wind was used for the entire Bay, with a velocity of 3m·s-1 , and directions North, South, Northeast, Northwest, East, Southeast, Southwest and West. The results showed a rather complex dynamics in Chetumal Bay, in which important turns were observed in deep areas, with speeds reaching up to 13 cm·s-1 .

  3. Utilization Probability Map for Migrating Bald Eagles in Northeastern North America: A Tool for Siting Wind Energy Facilities and Other Flight Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Elizabeth K; Watts, Bryan D; Turrin, Courtney L

    2016-01-01

    Collisions with anthropogenic structures are a significant and well documented source of mortality for avian species worldwide. The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is known to be vulnerable to collision with wind turbines and federal wind energy guidelines include an eagle risk assessment for new projects. To address the need for risk assessment, in this study, we 1) identified areas of northeastern North America utilized by migrating bald eagles, and 2) compared these with high wind-potential areas to identify potential risk of bald eagle collision with wind turbines. We captured and marked 17 resident and migrant bald eagles in the northern Chesapeake Bay between August 2007 and May 2009. We produced utilization distribution (UD) surfaces for 132 individual migration tracks using a dynamic Brownian bridge movement model and combined these to create a population wide UD surface with a 1 km cell size. We found eagle migration movements were concentrated within two main corridors along the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Coast. Of the 3,123 wind turbines ≥100 m in height in the study area, 38% were located in UD 20, and 31% in UD 40. In the United States portion of the study area, commercially viable wind power classes overlapped with only 2% of the UD category 20 (i.e., the areas of highest use by migrating eagles) and 4% of UD category 40. This is encouraging because it suggests that wind energy development can still occur in the study area at sites that are most viable from a wind power perspective and are unlikely to cause significant mortality of migrating eagles. In siting new turbines, wind energy developers should avoid the high-use migration corridors (UD categories 20 & 40) and focus new wind energy projects on lower-risk areas (UD categories 60-100).

  4. Utilization Probability Map for Migrating Bald Eagles in Northeastern North America: A Tool for Siting Wind Energy Facilities and Other Flight Hazards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K Mojica

    Full Text Available Collisions with anthropogenic structures are a significant and well documented source of mortality for avian species worldwide. The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus is known to be vulnerable to collision with wind turbines and federal wind energy guidelines include an eagle risk assessment for new projects. To address the need for risk assessment, in this study, we 1 identified areas of northeastern North America utilized by migrating bald eagles, and 2 compared these with high wind-potential areas to identify potential risk of bald eagle collision with wind turbines. We captured and marked 17 resident and migrant bald eagles in the northern Chesapeake Bay between August 2007 and May 2009. We produced utilization distribution (UD surfaces for 132 individual migration tracks using a dynamic Brownian bridge movement model and combined these to create a population wide UD surface with a 1 km cell size. We found eagle migration movements were concentrated within two main corridors along the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Coast. Of the 3,123 wind turbines ≥100 m in height in the study area, 38% were located in UD 20, and 31% in UD 40. In the United States portion of the study area, commercially viable wind power classes overlapped with only 2% of the UD category 20 (i.e., the areas of highest use by migrating eagles and 4% of UD category 40. This is encouraging because it suggests that wind energy development can still occur in the study area at sites that are most viable from a wind power perspective and are unlikely to cause significant mortality of migrating eagles. In siting new turbines, wind energy developers should avoid the high-use migration corridors (UD categories 20 & 40 and focus new wind energy projects on lower-risk areas (UD categories 60-100.

  5. Seafloor geomorphology of western Antarctic Peninsula bays: a signature of ice flow behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Yuribia P.; Wellner, Julia S.

    2018-01-01

    Glacial geomorphology is used in Antarctica to reconstruct ice advance during the Last Glacial Maximum and subsequent retreat across the continental shelf. Analogous geomorphic assemblages are found in glaciated fjords and are used to interpret the glacial history and glacial dynamics in those areas. In addition, understanding the distribution of submarine landforms in bays and the local controls exerted on ice flow can help improve numerical models by providing constraints through these drainage areas. We present multibeam swath bathymetry from several bays in the South Shetland Islands and the western Antarctic Peninsula. The submarine landforms are described and interpreted in detail. A schematic model was developed showing the features found in the bays: from glacial lineations and moraines in the inner bay to grounding zone wedges and drumlinoid features in the middle bay and streamlined features and meltwater channels in the outer bay areas. In addition, we analysed local variables in the bays and observed the following: (1) the number of landforms found in the bays scales to the size of the bay, but the geometry of the bays dictates the types of features that form; specifically, we observe a correlation between the bay width and the number of transverse features present in the bays. (2) The smaller seafloor features are present only in the smaller glacial systems, indicating that short-lived atmospheric and oceanographic fluctuations, responsible for the formation of these landforms, are only recorded in these smaller systems. (3) Meltwater channels are abundant on the seafloor, but some are subglacial, carved in bedrock, and some are modern erosional features, carved on soft sediment. Lastly, based on geomorphological evidence, we propose the features found in some of the proximal bay areas were formed during a recent glacial advance, likely the Little Ice Age.

  6. Sediment Characterization in St. Alban's Bay, VT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethercutt, S.; Manley, T.; Manley, P.

    2017-12-01

    St. Alban's Bay within Lake Champlain is plagued with harmful algal blooms. With future intensification due to climate change, a multidisciplinary program (BREE-Basin Resilience to Extreme Events) was initiated in 2016. In order to assess the mobilization of harmful nutrients from sediment resuspension events and riverine input, 74 sediment samples were collected in a grid fashion throughout St. Alban's Bay. Sediments were deflocculated and analyzed using a LA920 Horiba laser scattering particle size distribution analyzer to define the frequency of sediment sizes from clay to sand. Gridded surfaces of mean sortable silt percentage, silt percentage, sand percentage, and clay percentage were used to represent the sediment distribution of the region. A plot of diameter versus frequency showed the bimodal nature of some of the sediments, with one peak at about 10 microns diameter (silt) and the second at about 525 microns diameter (sand). The data showed an extremely low percentage of clay relative to that of sand and silt. The highest frequencies of sortable silt, which represents the most easily mobilized particle size, are found in the deepest areas of the bay, suggesting that these regions are where dominant bottom flow occurs. The high occurrence of sortable silt in the St. Alban's Bay does suggest that sediment mobilization, and therefore nutrient mobilization has the potential to occur. These data combined with high-resolution multibeam and hydrodynamic data will allow for future models of water flow and remobilization studies in the future.

  7. Revised draft: Northeastern Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, northeastern and southeastern New York, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, northern New Jersey, and eastern Pennsylvania. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed federal protected lands, proximity to federal protected lands, existing state protected lands, proximity to state protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, national and state forest lands, state wildlife lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that may be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Siting Guidelines and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  8. Eutrophication influence on phytoplankton community composition in three bays on the eastern Adriatic coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Bužančić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the influence of eutrophication pressure on the phytoplankton community structure, abundance and biodiversity in the investigated bays with different hydromorphological features. Šibenik Bay is a highly stratified estuary of the karstic river Krka; Kaštela Bay is a semi-enclosed coastal bay, which is influenced by the relatively small river Jadro; and Mali Ston Bay is located at the Neretva River estuary, the largest river on the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea. All of the areas are affected by urban pressure, which is reflected in the trophic status of the waters. The greatest anthropogenic influence was found in Kaštela Bay while the lowest influence was found in Mali Ston Bay. In this study, the highest biomass concentration and maximum abundance of phytoplankton were recorded at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence. Those stations show a dominance of abundance compared to the biomass and a dominance of opportunistic species, which is reflected in the lower biodiversity of phytoplankton community. Diatoms were the most represented group of the phytoplankton community in all three bays, followed by the dinoflagellates. Diatoms that were highlighted as significant for the difference between the bays were Skeletonema marinoi in Šibenik Bay, Leptocylindrus minimus in Kaštela Bay and the genus Chaetoceros spp. in Mali Ston Bay. Dinoflagellates were more abundant at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence, and most significant were Prorocentrum triestinum in Kaštela Bay and Gymnodinium spp. in Šibenik Bay and Mali Ston Bay.

  9. Short-term precipitation and temperature trends along an elevation gradient in northeastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley Van Beusekom; Grizelle Gonzalez; Maria Rivera

    2015-01-01

    Corrigendum published on April 20, 2016 https://doi.org/10.1175/EI-D-15-0044.1. Incorporated to the original PDF. As is true of many tropical regions, northeastern Puerto Rico is an ecologically sensitive area with biological life that is highly...

  10. Hydrogen ion speciation in the acid precipitation of the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    James N. Galloway; Gene E. Likens; Eric S. Edgerton

    1976-01-01

    The acidity of precipitation in rural, forested areas of the northeastern United States is dominated by the strong mineral acids, sulfuric and nitric. Weak acids have a negligible effect on the measured acidity (pH) of precipitation. These conclusions are based on total acidity titrations and detailed analysis of organic and inorganic components in precipitation.

  11. Test of four stand growth simulators for the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Schuler; David A. Marquis; Richard L. Ernst; Brian T. Simpson; Brian T. Simpson

    1993-01-01

    Evaluates SILVAH, FIBER, NE-TWIGS, and OAKSIM, simulators commonly used in the northeastern United States, by comparing predicted stand development with actual stand development records for periods ranging from 15 to 50 years. Results varied with stand parameter, forest type, projection length, and geographic area. Except in the spruce-fir forest type where FIBER...

  12. Assessment of Mercury in Fish Tissue from Select Lakes of Northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fish tissue study was conducted in five northeastern Oregon reservoirs to evaluate mercury concentrations in an area where elevated atmospheric mercury deposition had been predicted by a national EPA model, but where tissue data were sparse. The study targeted resident predator...

  13. Studies of movement of sediments in Santos bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandeira, J.V.; Aun, P.E.; Bomtempo, V.L.; Salim, L.H.; Minardi, P.S.P.; Santos, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    In the years of 1973, 74, 80, 81 and 85 several studies were performed at Santos bay, using radioactive tracers, with the following main objectives: to evaluate the behaviour (on the bottom and in suspension) of the mixture of silt and clay which is dredged from the estuary and from its access channel and dumped at pre-determined sites, in the bay and surrounding regions, with the objective of optimizing dredging disposal operations; to quantify the movement of sandy sediments on the bottom, in 3 areas of the bay, in summer and winter conditions, to obtain pertinent information related to the siltation of the access channel. As results of these studies, it was found that: the ancient dumping site, near Itaipu Point, in the western limit of the bay, was inadequate, since the material could return to the bay and to the estuary. The dumping site was moved to a region at the south of Moela Island, located eastwards relative to the bay, which brought substantial economies in dredging works; the bottom sediment transport was quantified, following clouds of tagged materials for about 8 months, thus obtaining important conclusions about transport rates in different regions of the bay. An analysis of the intervening hydrodynamic agents is also presented. (author) (L.J.C.)

  14. First serologic evidence of human hantavirus infection in Alagoas State in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo dos Santos-Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS is rare in Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Prospective surveillance was conducted over a two-year period in Alagoas State, Northeastern Brazil. The prevalence of anti-hantavirus N-antigen IgM and IgG in human serum samples was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing. RESULTS: High avidity IgG was found in nine of 476 serum samples tested (from 102 patients with clinical manifestations compatible with HCPS, 124 patients with leptospirosis, and 250 healthy rural workers. CONCLUSIONS: Serologic evidence of past hantavirus infection in residents of Alagoas State indicates that hantaviruses are present in northeastern Brazil, even in areas silent for HCPS.

  15. Bechevin Bay, Alaska, Inlet Stability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    Krenitzin. Bechevin Inlet, Bechevin Bay, and Isanotski Strait form an inlet system which * separates Unimak Island from the Alaska Peninsula. This...from the North Pacific must travel around Unimak Island through Unimak Pass. This route is 100-150 miles longer than the route through the Bechevin...period was semidiurnal, while the tidal flow at Unimak Pass (not too far southwest from the study area) was, interestingly, diurnal. Second, the phase

  16. Hydrocarbon pollution and monitorin in Augusta Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisafi, E.; De Domenico, L.; Puglisi, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Messina (Italy). Thallasographic Inst.; Magazzu`, G. [Lecce, Univ. (Italy). Biology Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Surveys in the coastal waters of Sicily (Augusta Bay) were carried out between 1900 and 1991 in order to assess the level of the hydrocarbon - pollution. Results show that helicopter tele-survey is an optimal technique for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). High PAH concentrations, due to the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents, as well as shipping activity, were found in the area.

  17. 137Cs and 210Pb distribution in Manila Bay sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sta. Maria, Efren J.; Madrid, Jordan F.; Olivares, Ryan U.; Bulos, Adelina DM; Dayaon, Jennyvi P.; Asa, Anie Day DC; Sombrito, Elvira Z.

    2011-01-01

    Two radionuclides were measured in surface sediment samples taken from geographically distributed sections of Manila Bay, namely cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and lead-210 ( 210 Pb). Results indicated a noticeable change in the radioactivity concentration levels in sediments collected in 2005 and 2010, with a median concentration of 1.0 and 2.64 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Higher levels of 137 Cs radioactivity were measured in the northern and inner portion of the bay adjacent to major river systems, agricultural and highly industrialized urban areas. 137 Cs isotope increased in activity in most of the samples especially in the northwestern areas of Bataan and Pampanga with five times more than the activity from the first sampling measurements. Nevertheless, radioactivity concentrations observed in surface sediments along the bay are within the range of radioactivity in several areas monitored in the Northern Hemisphere. The country has been frequented by tropical cyclones and storms that have caused erosion, which may have introduced elevated material input in the bay. In addition, wind-driven circulation especially in the shallower areas of the bay is a possibility for the substantial sediment movement and accumulation along this coast. Conversely, areas with higher 137 Cs have lower values of 210 Pb. In an undisturbed environment, 210 Pb deposition values are assumed nearly constant. Hence, changes in the radioactivity concentration levels of these radionuclides can be an indicator of pollution input from land-based sources, sediment movement and reworking in the coastal areas. At present, there is very limited information on the radioactivity level of various radioisotopes in Manila Bay.The data obtained are benchmark values against which changes that will be occurring in the bay can be assessed. (author)

  18. Perfil de utilização de medicamentos por idosos em área urbana do Nordeste do Brasil Medication use patterns among elderly people in urban area in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Macêdo Coelho Filho

    2004-08-01

    medicamentos entre idosos no Brasil.OBJECTIVE: To identify medication use patterns among elderly people residing in areas with different socioeconomic status in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil. METHODS: A total of 668 elderly (aged 60 years or older residing in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, selected from a multistage random sampling stratified by socioeconomic status (higher, intermediate, and lower areas, were interviewed in a household survey. Descriptive statistics for dichotomous variables were presented as percent of the respective totals, and those for continuous variables as mean ± SD. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the use of prescription, non-prescription and inappropriate drugs. RESULTS: Most (80.3% in the hgiher area were on at least one non- prescription drug. More than one third (37.4% were on at least one non- prescription drug and nearly 20% used at least one inappropriate in the lower area. PD use was associated with advanced age (OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1-2.8; male sex (OR=0.5, 95% CI=0.3-0.7; health service visits (OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.9-3.1; chronic diseases (OR=4.0, 95% CI=2.5-6.2; and higher socioeconomic status (OR=2.0, 95% CI=1.5-2.6.Non- prescription drug use was associated with disability (OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.1-2.2, and higher socioeconomic status (OR=0.6; 95% CI=0.5-0.8. Inappropriate drugs use was mainly associated with male sex (OR=0.4, 95% CI=0.2-0.8; chronic diseases (OR=2.0, 95% CI=1.2-3.3; and higher socioeconomic status (OR=0.7, 95% CI=0.5-0.9. CONCLUSIONS: The proportions of elderly using prescription, non- prescription and inappropriate drugs were remarkable and inequalities were seen particularly among those from different socioeconomic status. These results emphasize the need for strategies to optimize the access and rationalize the use of drugs for elderly people in Brazil.

  19. Assessment of cowpea rhizobium diversity in Cerrado areas of northeastern Brazil Avaliação da diversidade de rizóbios nodulantes de caupi em áreas de Cerrado do nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerri Édson Zilli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to contribute for the optimization of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF associated with cowpea in Cerrado areas in the Northeast region of Brazil, this work aimed to analyze the diversity of rhizobial populations in eight areas of Cerrado, during a soybean and rice-cowpea rotation. Morphological traits (mucous production and colony morphology, genotypic analyzes (ARDRA 16S and intrinsic resistance to antibiotics were determined for a collection of isolates captured using cowpea as a host-plant. The morphological data showed a inverse correlation (p Com o objetivo de contribuir com a otimização do processo de fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN na cultura do caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp no Cerrado do nordeste brasileiro, a diversidade de isolados de rizóbio obtidos em oito áreas de Cerrado com rotação de cultura bianual com soja, arroz e caupi. Foram realizadas caracterizações morfológicas (produção de muco e morfologia das colônias, genotípicas baseadas em ARDRA do 16S rDNA e resistência a antibióticos. Os resultados da caracterização morfológica mostraram uma correlação inversamente proporcional (p < 0,05 do índice de diversidade de Shannon-Waver com o número de cultivos de leguminosas (caupi e soja. Os dados de ARDRA mostraram que no Cerrado nativo somente foram observados isolados de Bradyrhizobium elkanii, corroborando com dados da literatura. Nas áreas onde haviam sido cultivadas leguminosas ocorreram dois fatos distintos; onde somente cultivou-se soja houve maior proporção de B. japonicum e onde cultivou-se soja e caupi, ocorreu maior proporção de B. elkanii. A análise de resistência a antibióticos mostrou cinco diferentes perfis de resistência. Maior resistência de Bradyrhizobium spp. foi encontrada em áreas cultivadas há mais tempo, e menor na área nativa e/ou áreas com poucos cultivos. De forma geral, pode-se observar uma relação inversa entre a diversidade de rizóbios e a resist

  20. Tidal pumping - missing factor in glacial bays evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczucinski, Witold; Moskalik, Mateusz; Dominiczak, Aleksander

    2017-04-01

    Most of the glaciers worldwide are subjected to rapid retreat. It is particularly well visible in Svalbard, where tidewater glaciers after the termination of the Little Ice Age often resulted in formation of new glacial bays. These bays are specific environments, characterised by high sediment accumulation rates, seasonal formation of sea-ice cover and common presence of icebergs. They are usually separated from the rest of the fjord by shallow (e.g. submerged moraine) or narrow passages. Although hostile, these bays also host unique ecosystems, with particular importance as feeding grounds for seals and sea birds. Among factors considered in development of such environments the role of tides is usually neglected or assumed as constant. Here we would like to stress the increasing role of tides in development of glacial bays ecosystems, as well as for import and burial of organic carbon in the bays. We present a model of tide development and results on present day conditions from Brepolen bay in Hornsund (southern Spitsbergen). On the basis of ADCP and CTD surveys we present the modern conditions and water exchange rates between the glacial bay and the fjord. Analysis of archival satellite images, aerial photographs and historical maps was used to map the change in glacial bay area. Finally simple modeling allow to identify a linear increase in tidal pumping magnitude (water exchange due to tides) with increasing glacial bay area due to glaciers retreat. We discuss it in context of potential consequences for bay oceanography, ecology and sedimentation. With fast glacier retreat and rapid grow of glacial bays one may expect the following effects of increasing tidal pumping: enhanced water exchange with the central part of the fjord, increasing salinity, facilitating colonisation by new species (e.g. import of juvenile forms of benthic species), increased input of marine organic carbon into setting suitable for its burial (high sediment accumulation rate in glacial

  1. Holocene evolution of Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, L.E.; Twichell, D.C.; Poore, R.Z.

    2009-01-01

    A program of geophysical mapping and vibracoring was conducted to better understand the geologic evolution of Apalachicola Bay. Analyses of the geophysical data and sediment cores along with age control provided by 34 AMS 14C dates on marine shells and wood reveal the following history. As sea level rose in the early Holocene, fluvial deposits filled the Apalachicola River paleochannel, which extended southward under the central part of the bay and seaward across the continental shelf. Sediments to either side of the paleochannel contain abundant wood fragments, with dates documenting that those areas were forested at 8,000 14C years b.p. As sea level continued to rise, spits formed of headland prodelta deposits. Between ???6,400 and ???2,500 14C years b.p., an Apalachicola prodelta prograded and receded several times across the inner shelf that underlies the western part of the bay. An eastern deltaic lobe was active for a shorter time, between ???5,800 and 5,100 14C years b.p. Estuarine benthic foraminiferal assemblages occurred in the western bay as early as 6,400 14C years b.p., and indicate that there was some physical barrier to open-ocean circulation and shelf species established by that time. It is considered that shoals formed in the region of the present barrier islands as the rising sea flooded an interstream divide. Estuarine conditions were established very early in the post-glacial flooding of the bay. ?? 2009 US Government.

  2. Social and environmental impacts of the James Bay hydroelectric project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornig, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    The book, which is an analysis and not an advocacy, examines the anatomy of the controversy that has swirled around the James Bay project - the La Grande and Great Whale projects combined - from the 1970s to the 1990s, and seeks, in the process, to determine whether there are lessons that can be learned from such an analysis that are applicable to other cases as well as to James Bay itself. The contributors are interested, at one and the same time, in finding ways to integrate the knowledge of natural scientists and social scientists to deepen the understanding of human/environment relations and to link science and policy to encourage a productive dialogue between practitioners and scholars in this increasingly important area of inquiry. The contributor's papers include the following: introduction to the issues; hydroelectric power development at James Bay: establishing a frame of reference; James Bay: environmental considerations for building large hydroelectric dams and reservoirs in Quebec; elevated mercury in fish as a result of the James Bay hydroelectric power development: perception and reality; the Cree people of James Bay: assessing the social impacts of hydroelectric dams and reservoirs; culture, social change, and Cree opposition to the James Bay hydroelectric development; and the impact of James Bay hydroelectric development on the art and craft of the James Bay Cree. The authors of the volume have attempted to stand back and examine just a few of these issues from the perspective of a variety of disciplines, and their purpose is to inform and stimulate thoughtful consideration by providing an overall perspective that might might serve to broaden the context in which specific issues can be debated. refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  3. Epibenthic community variability in the northeastern Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo, Alexandra M.; Konar, Brenda; Trefry, John H.; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.

    2014-04-01

    Epibenthic organisms can occur in large numbers and high biomass on the continental shelf of the northeastern Chukchi Sea. From an ecosystem perspective, epibenthic organisms are important in recycling and redistributing organic matter deposited from the pelagic zone, and they also are key members of the local food web. Data for biological (epibenthic species composition, abundance, and biomass) and environmental (bottom water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH, sediment grain size, sediment organic matter and sediment chlorophyll content, latitude, longitude, and water depth) variables were collected at 53 stations in the northeastern Chukchi Sea during the summers of 2009-2010 to characterize the epibenthos and provide a benchmark for potential future changes due to possible anthropogenic disturbances. Community biomass, abundance, species composition and taxa richness varied in patches throughout the study area, but were generally dominated by crustaceans and echinoderms. These two groups had an inverse relationship in the distribution of their dominance. Communities dominated by crustaceans had significantly higher Simpson's dominance and Pielou's evenness values compared to echinoderm-dominated communities. Correlation coefficients for six environmental variables (longitude, bottom water temperature, water depth, bottom water dissolved oxygen, sediment grain size 2 phi and total organic carbon) with epifaunal abundance and biomass were moderate (0.42 for abundance and 0.51 for biomass at a significance level of 0.1%). However, assemblages within the study area followed a distinct spatial distribution pattern that matched the path of important water masses in the region.

  4. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  5. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  6. Wakasa Bay Weather Forecast Maps, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E Wakasa Bay Field Campaign was conducted over Wakasa Bay, Japan. The Wakasa Bay Field Campaign includes joint research observations, such as precipitation...

  7. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  8. Defining a data management strategy for USGS Chesapeake Bay studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladino, Cassandra

    2013-01-01

    The mission of U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Chesapeake Bay studies is to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Collective USGS efforts in the Chesapeake Bay watershed began in the 1980s, and by the mid-1990s the USGS adopted the watershed as one of its national place-based study areas. Great focus and effort by the USGS have been directed toward Chesapeake Bay studies for almost three decades. The USGS plays a key role in using “ecosystem-based adaptive management, which will provide science to improve the efficiency and accountability of Chesapeake Bay Program activities” (Phillips, 2011). Each year USGS Chesapeake Bay studies produce published research, monitoring data, and models addressing aspects of bay restoration such as, but not limited to, fish health, water quality, land-cover change, and habitat loss. The USGS is responsible for collaborating and sharing this information with other Federal agencies and partners as described under the President’s Executive Order 13508—Strategy for Protecting and Restoring the Chesapeake Bay Watershed signed by President Obama in 2009. Historically, the USGS Chesapeake Bay studies have relied on national USGS databases to store only major nationally available sources of data such as streamflow and water-quality data collected through local monitoring programs and projects, leaving a multitude of other important project data out of the data management process. This practice has led to inefficient methods of finding Chesapeake Bay studies data and underutilization of data resources. Data management by definition is “the business functions that develop and execute plans, policies, practices and projects that acquire, control, protect, deliver and enhance the value of data and information.” (Mosley, 2008a). In other words, data management is a way to preserve, integrate, and share data to address the needs of the Chesapeake Bay studies to better

  9. Hydrogeologic characteristics and water levels of Wilcox aquifer in southwestern and northeastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Aaron L.; Schrader, Tony P.

    2009-01-01

    The Wilcox Group of Eocene and Paleocene age is located throughout most of southern and eastern Arkansas. The Wilcox Group in southern Arkansas is undifferentiated, while in northeastern Arkansas, the Wilcox Group is subdivided into three units: Flour Island, Fort Pillow Sand, and Old Breastworks Formation. The Wilcox Group crops out in southwestern Arkansas in discontinuous, 1 to 3 mi wide bands. In northeastern Arkansas, the Wilcox Group crops out along a narrow, discontinuous, band along the western edge of Crowleys Ridge. The Wilcox aquifer provides sources of groundwater in southwestern and northeastern Arkansas. In 2005, reported withdrawals from the Wilcox aquifer in Arkansas totaled 27.0 million gallons per day, most of which came from the northeastern area. Major withdrawals from the aquifer were for public supplies with lesser but locally important withdrawals for commercial, domestic, and industrial uses. A study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission and the Arkansas Geological Survey to determine the water levels associated with the Wilcox aquifer in southwestern and northeastern Arkansas. During February 2009, 58 water-level measurements were made in wells completed in the Wilcox aquifer. The results from this study and previous studies are presented as potentiometric-surface maps, water-level difference maps, and long-term hydrographs. The direction of groundwater flow in the southwestern area is affected by two potentiometric-surface mounds, one in the north and the other in the southwest, and a cone of depression in the center. The direction of water flowing off of the northern mound of water is generally to the south and east with some to the north. The direction of water flowing off of the southwestern mound is generally to the south and east. The direction of water flowing into the cone of depression is generally from the north, west, and south. The direction of groundwater flow

  10. Mangrove transformation in the Incomati Estuary, Maputo Bay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peri-urban mangroves in Maputo Bay were studied to assess changes on forest area cover and the effect of cut pressure on the forest structure and condition, based on GIS techniques and measurement of forest trees' structural parameters. The results show a 5% increase in forest area in 2003, with 64% of total forest being ...

  11. Dengue Virus Serotype 4, Northeastern Peru, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshey, Brett M.; Morrison, Amy C.; Cruz, Cristhopher; Rocha, Claudio; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Guevara, Carolina; Camacho, Daria E.; Alava, Araceli; Madrid, César; Beingolea, Luis; Suarez, Víctor; Comach, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) emerged in northeastern Peru, causing a large outbreak and displacing DENV-3, which had predominated for the previous 6 years. Phylogenetic analysis of 2008 and 2009 isolates support their inclusion into DENV-4 genotype II, forming a lineage distinct from strains that had previously circulated in the region. PMID:19891873

  12. CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smokeABSTRACTBrazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

  13. Climatic change in northeastern Brazil: paleoparasitological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Araujo

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichuris eggs were observed in Kerodon rupestris coprolites dated 9,000 years before present, collected in archeological sites of São Raimundo Nonato, northeastern Brazil. However, present day local rodents seem not to be infected by the parasite, suggesting its disappearence due to climatic changes.

  14. Measuring Macrobenthos Biodiversity at Oyster Aquaculture Sites in the Delaware Inland Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, M. J.; Ozbay, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Delaware Inland Bays consists of three shallow coastal bays located in the southern portion of Delaware. Anthropogenic activities have led to the degradation of water quality, because the bays are surrounded by highly developed areas and have low flushing rates. This results in loss of biodiversity and abundance of organisms. Ongoing degradation of the bays has led to a dramatic decline in local oyster populations since the late 1800s. Oysters are keystone species, which provide habitats for organisms and help to improve water quality. This study aims to find if the introduction of oyster aquaculture improves local biodiversity and abundance of macrobenthos. The study was conducted in Rehoboth Bay, Indian River Bay and Little Assawoman Bay. Aquaculture gear was placed at one location in each of the bays and 24 sediment core samples were taken once a month. From these core samples all worms were fixed and stained in a 10% Formalin Rose Bengal solution and preserved in 70% Ethanol for later identification. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of oyster tissue will also be performed to assess the health of the bay. The goals of this research are to better understand the role of oyster aquaculture in restoring the viability and health of the Delaware Inland Bays.

  15. Variation of phytoplankton biomass and primary production in Daya Bay during spring and summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xingyu; Huang Liangmin; Zhang Jianlin; Huang, Xiaoping; Zhang Junbin; Yin Jianqiang; Tan Yehui; Liu Sheng

    2004-01-01

    Environmental factors, phytoplankton biomass (Chl a) and primary production of two water areas in Daya Bay (Dapeng'ao Bay and Aotou Bay) were investigated during the transition period from spring to summer. Chl a ranged from 3.20 to 13.62 and 13.43 to 26.49 mg m -3 in Dapeng'ao Bay and Aotou Bay respectively, if data obtained during red tides are excluded. Primary production varied between 239.7 and 1001.4 mgC m -2 d -1 in Dapeng'ao Bay. The regional distribution of Chl a and primary production were mostly consistent from spring to summer in both bays. Seasonal transition characters have been found in Daya Bay from spring to summer, including high values of DO, nitrate and silicate. Size structures of phytoplankton and its primary production do not change very much from spring to summer, with micro-phytoplankton dominating and contributing about 50% of the whole. In Daya Bay, phytoplankton is limited by nitrogen in spring, and by phosphate in summer. Artificial impacts are evident from high temperature effluent from nuclear power stations, aquaculture and sewage. During the investigation, a red tide occurred in Aotou Bay, with a maximum Chl a of 103.23 mg m -3 at surface and primary production of 2721.9 mgC m -2 d -1 in the red tide center. Raised water temperature and nutrient supply from land-sources help to stimulate annual red tides

  16. Structure and Velocities of the Northeastern Santa Cruz Mountains and the Western Santa Clara Valley, California, from the SCSI-LR Seismic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchings, R.D.; Goldman, M.R.; Gandhok, G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The Santa Clara Valley is located in the southern San Francisco Bay area of California and generally includes the area south of the San Francisco Bay between the Santa Cruz Mountains on the southwest and the Diablo Ranges on the northeast. The area has a population of approximately 1.7 million including the city of San Jose, numerous smaller cities, and much of the high-technology manufacturing and research area commonly referred to as the Silicon Valley. Major active strands of the San Andreas Fault system bound the Santa Clara Valley, including the San Andreas fault to the southwest and the Hayward and Calaveras faults to the northeast; related faults likely underlie the alluvium of the valley. This report focuses on subsurface structures of the western Santa Clara Valley and the northeastern Santa Cruz Mountains and their potential effects on earthquake hazards and ground-water resource management in the area. Earthquake hazards and ground-water resources in the Santa Clara Valley are important considerations to California and the Nation because of the valley's preeminence as a major technical and industrial center, proximity to major earthquakes faults, and large population. To assess the earthquake hazards of the Santa Clara Valley better, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has undertaken a program to evaluate potential earthquake sources and potential effects of strong ground shaking within the valley. As part of that program, and to better assess water resources of the valley, the USGS and the Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD) began conducting collaborative studies to characterize the faults, stratigraphy, and structures beneath the alluvial cover of the Santa Clara Valley in the year 2000. Such geologic features are important to both agencies because they directly influence the availability and management of groundwater resources in the valley, and they affect the severity and distribution of strong shaking from local or regional

  17. 78 FR 27126 - East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... your comment. Electronic comments should avoid the use of any special characters, any form of... use of the area, the Corps expects that this regulation, if adopted, will not have a significant... and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla...

  18. Conservação dos recursos hídricos em brejos de altitude: o caso de Brejo dos Cavalos, Caruaru, PE Conservation of water resources in humid areas in Northeastern Brazil: a case study of "Brejo dos Cavalos", Caruaru, PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. P. Braga

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Brejos de altitude são formações vegetais disjuntas da Mata Atlântica, que ocorrem no Agreste de Pernambuco e Paraíba, como ilhas de umidade no ambiente semi-árido da Caatinga. O Parque Vasconcelos Sobrinho, situado na Serra dos Cavalos, em Caruaru, PE, é um exemplo do pouco que resta desses brejos na região. Com 359 ha, abriga uma floresta exuberante e diversos corpos d'água, porém vem sofrendo intenso processo de degradação, em decorrência da agricultura irrigada em seu interior e da exploração de argila no entorno. Para uma caracterização dos recursos hídricos foram obtidos, no período de 1998 a 2000, dados de chuva, de vazão nos riachos do Chuchu e Capoeirão, e de qualidade da água, nos dois cursos d'água e nos três maiores reservatórios existentes no Parque. No estudo de demandas pelo uso da água, ênfase maior foi dada aos conflitos da atividade de irrigação em relação ao uso da água para abastecimento público e à preservação dos ecossistemas locais. Neste trabalho, conclui-se que em Brejo dos Cavalos a precipitação pluviométrica é superior a do seu entorno, devido a razões orográficas e à própria existência da floresta remanescente, mas o desmatamento progressivo tende a alterar as condições microclimáticas locais. Neste contexto, o cultivo do chuchu é o principal consumidor de água no Parque, gerando perda de vazão dos cursos d'água e menor aporte para os reservatórios, os quais já começaram a sofrer assoreamento, devido a processos erosivos gerados sobretudo pelos desmontes na exploração da argila. Tais constatações exigem ação imediata do poder público, principalmente a implantação de um Plano de Manejo para o Parque.Humid areas at high altitude are found in semi-arid region of Pernambuco and Paraíba in Northeastern Brazil. Although the vegetation in the surrounding area is the semi-arid 'caatinga', in these high altitude areas, natural vegetation is similar to that of the

  19. India Annual Winter Cropped Area, 2001-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — India Annual Winter Cropped Area, 2001 - 2016 consists of annual winter cropped areas for most of India (except the Northeastern states) from 2000-2001 to 2015-2016....

  20. Topobathymetric model of Mobile Bay, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Brock, John C.; Howard, Daniel M.; Gesch, Dean B.; Bonisteel-Cormier, Jamie M.; Travers, Laurinda J.

    2013-01-01

    Topobathymetric Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are a merged rendering of both topography (land elevation) and bathymetry (water depth) that provides a seamless elevation product useful for inundation mapping, as well as for other earth science applications, such as the development of sediment-transport, sea-level rise, and storm-surge models. This 1/9-arc-second (approximately 3 meters) resolution model of Mobile Bay, Alabama was developed using multiple topographic and bathymetric datasets, collected on different dates. The topographic data were obtained primarily from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (NED) (http://ned.usgs.gov/) at 1/9-arc-second resolution; USGS Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data (2 meters) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/400/); and topographic lidar data (2 meters) and Compact Hydrographic Airborne Rapid Total Survey (CHARTS) lidar data (2 meters) from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) (http://www.csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/data/coastallidar/). Bathymetry was derived from digital soundings obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/geodas/geodas.html) and from water-penetrating lidar sources, such as EAARL and CHARTS. Mobile Bay is ecologically important as it is the fourth largest estuary in the United States. The Mobile and Tensaw Rivers drain into the bay at the northern end with the bay emptying into the Gulf of Mexico at the southern end. Dauphin Island (a barrier island) and the Fort Morgan Peninsula form the mouth of Mobile Bay. Mobile Bay is 31 miles (50 kilometers) long by a maximum width of 24 miles (39 kilometers) with a total area of 413 square miles (1,070 square kilometers). The vertical datum of the Mobile Bay topobathymetric model is the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). All the topographic datasets were originally referenced to NAVD 88 and no transformations

  1. 33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. (a) The restricted area. The water of Anaheim Bay Harbor between the east and west jetties at the United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach...

  2. The Lower Chesapeake Bay LTAR: A coastal urban-agricultural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chesapeake Bay, located in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S., is the largest estuary in North America. The watershed area includes six states from New York to Virginia and is nearly 167,000 km2 in size with more than 150 rivers and streams entering the 300-km Bay main stem. Forested and agricu...

  3. 33 CFR 110.82a - Little Traverse Bay, Lake Michigan, Harbor Springs, Mich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little Traverse Bay, Lake Michigan, Harbor Springs, Mich. 110.82a Section 110.82a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Traverse Bay, Lake Michigan, Harbor Springs, Mich. (a) Area 1. Beginning at latitude 45°25′42.2″ N...

  4. 77 FR 60302 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag Miami, Biscayne Bay; Miami, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... received without jeopardizing the safety or security of people, places or vessels. 7. Unfunded Mandates... waters of Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL between Bayfront Park and the Intercontinental-Miami Hotel encompassed... Area. All waters of Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL between Bayfront Park and the Intercontinental-Miami Hotel...

  5. Thatcher Bay, Washington, Nearshore Restoration Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breems, Joel; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Grossman, Eric E.; Elliott, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The San Juan Archipelago, located at the confluence of the Puget Sound, the Straits of Juan de Fuca in Washington State, and the Straits of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada, provides essential nearshore habitat for diverse salmonid, forage fish, and bird populations. With 408 miles of coastline, the San Juan Islands provide a significant portion of the available nearshore habitat for the greater Puget Sound and are an essential part of the regional efforts to restore Puget Sound (Puget Sound Shared Strategy 2005). The nearshore areas of the San Juan Islands provide a critical link between the terrestrial and marine environments. For this reason the focus on restoration and conservation of nearshore habitat in the San Juan Islands is of paramount importance. Wood-waste was a common by-product of historical lumber-milling operations. To date, relatively little attention has been given to the impact of historical lumber-milling operations in the San Juan Archipelago. Thatcher Bay, on Blakely Island, located near the east edge of the archipelago, is presented here as a case study on the restoration potential for a wood-waste contaminated nearshore area. Case study components include (1) a brief discussion of the history of milling operations. (2) an estimate of the location and amount of the current distribution of wood-waste at the site, (3) a preliminary examination of the impacts of wood-waste on benthic flora and fauna at the site, and (4) the presentation of several restoration alternatives for the site. The history of milling activity in Thatcher Bay began in 1879 with the construction of a mill in the southeastern part of the bay. Milling activity continued for more than 60 years, until the mill closed in 1942. Currently, the primary evidence of the historical milling operations is the presence of approximately 5,000 yd3 of wood-waste contaminated sediments. The distribution and thickness of residual wood-waste at the site was determined by using sediment

  6. Evaluating spatial-temporal dynamics of net primary productivity of different forest types in northeastern China based on improved FORCCHN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Zhao

    Full Text Available An improved individual-based forest ecosystem carbon budget model for China (FORCCHN was applied to investigate the spatial-temporal dynamics of net primary productivity of different forest types in northeastern China. In this study, the forests of northeastern China were categorized into four ecological types according to their habitats and generic characteristics (evergreen broadleaf forest, deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen needleleaf forest and deciduous needleleaf forest. The results showed that distribution and change of forest NPP in northeastern China were related to the different forest types. From 1981 to 2002, among the forest types in northeastern China, per unit area NPP and total NPP of deciduous broadleaf forest were the highest, with the values of 729.4 gC/(m(2•yr and 106.0 TgC/yr, respectively, followed by mixed broadleaf- needleleaf forest, deciduous needleleaf forest and evergreen needleleaf forest. From 1981 to 2002, per unit area NPP and total NPP of different forest types in northeastern China exhibited significant trends of interannual increase, and rapid increase was found between the 1980s and 1990s. The contribution of the different forest type's NPP to total NPP in northeastern China was clearly different. The greatest was deciduous broadleaf forest, followed by mixed broadleaf- needleleaf forest and deciduous needleleaf forest. The smallest was evergreen needleleaf forest. Spatial difference in NPP between different forest types was remarkable. High NPP values of deciduous needleleaf forest, mixed broadleaf- needleleaf forest and deciduous broadleaf forest were found in the Daxing'anling region, the southeastern of Xiaoxing'anling and Jilin province, and the Changbai Mountain, respectively. However, no regional differences were found for evergreen needleleaf NPP. This study provided not only an estimation NPP of different forest types in northeastern China but also a useful methodology for estimating forest

  7. AHP 27: A Northeastern Tibetan Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsering Bum ཚེ་རིང་འབུམ།

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tsering Bum (b. 1985 describes his early life in Amdo in terms of dreams, herding, punishment from a lama, schooling experiences, attending a Kalachakra teaching, a lhatzi gathering, irrigation, his grandfather, archery, and other important moments and influences. Another incredible production from Kevin Stuart's Tibetan English students! Tsering Bum gives us a series of intricately woven vignettes of his childhood and adolescence in a small Tibetan village in Qinghai Province. A Northeastern Tibetan Childhood takes readers into the social and material culture of Tsering's family and fellow villagers. We begin with a home scene on the heated brick hyitsi 'bed', where the family sleeps, meals are taken, and guests are entertained. Through Tsering's writing we taste the noodles his mother makes by hand, know the life of the herders, meet ritualists who communicate with the mountain deity, visit a Kalachakra for blessings, experience an archery contest that ends in singing and drink, swim naked in cold mountain rivers, celebrate Losar, or Tibetan new year festival, visit a nomad festival, enter the transformative world of a county primary school, and hear the accounts of three deaths. The stories take us through a landscape of mountains, rivers, and grasslands to new worlds that for the narrator end with a kindled sense of global vision and self-worth. Mark Bender, Ohio State University I highly recommend this exciting new work. Tsering Bum's account of his life is a quick and pleasant read, full of insights into many aspects of contemporary Tibetan culture. From village rituals associated with death and archery contests to the challenges of modern schooling in rural areas, Tsering Bum leads us quickly through a narrative that links past and present to hopes for the future. Tibetan Buddhism and mountain pilgrimage play a limited but significant role in the story. As a historian, I was most interested in the chapter 'Grandpa' that recounts the

  8. 77 FR 35860 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... Island Bay, Erie, PA. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Presque... rulemaking entitled Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA in the Federal Register (77 FR 18739...

  9. Contents of some heavy metals in plants from Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) and some small lakes in wilderness areas of Michigan's Upper Peninsula as analyzed by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.R.; Kaufman, P.B.; Jones, J.D.; Estabrook, G.F.; Ghosheh, N.S.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor; Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti

    1982-01-01

    The highest concentrations of heavy metals occured in plants collected near the mouth of the Saginaw River. The alga, Cladophora sp., and the flowering plant, Typha augustifolia (cat-tail), are notable for the high concentration of heavy metals. In addition, several other species that were sampled from small lakes in Michigan's Upper Peninsula contained higher concentrations of certain metals (Ba, Cr, Rb) than from any samples obtained from Saginaw Bay. Different organs of the same species, or of the same plant, such as cut-tail, vary widely in concentrations of the same element. A computer-derived analysis of our data is presented, and the implications of our results as they relate to pollution by heavy metals in fresh-water lakes is discussed. (author)

  10. Chesapeake Bay: Introduction to an Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the contiguous United States. The Bay and its tidal tributaries make up the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. This document, which focuses of various aspects of this ecosystem, is divided into four major parts. The first part traces the geologic history of the Bay, describes the overall physical structure of…

  11. Integrated geophysical study of the northeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L.; Meng, X.; Guo, L.

    2011-12-01

    Tibetan Plateau, the so-called "Roof of the World", is a direct consequence of collision of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate starting in the early Cenozoic time. The continent-continent collision is still going on. The northeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau is the front part of the Tibetan Plateau extends to mainland and favorable area for studying uplift and deformation of the Tibetan Plateau. In the past decades, a variety of geophysical methods were conducted to study geodynamics and geological tectonics of this region. We assembled satellite-derived free-air gravity anomalies with a resolution of one arc-minute from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and reduced them to obtain Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies. Then we gridded Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies on a regular grid, and subsequently processed them with the preferential continuation method to attenuate high-frequency noise and analyzed regional and residual anomalies. We also calculated tilt-angle derivative of Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies to derive clearer geological structures with more details. Then we calculated the depth distribution of the Moho discontinuity surface in this area by 3D density interface inversion. From the results of preliminary processing, we analyzed the main deep faults and geological tectonics in this region. We extracted seven important profiles' data of Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies in this area, and then did forward modeling and inversion on each profile with constraints of geological information and other geophysical data. In the future, we will perform 3D constrained inversion of Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies in this region for better understanding deep structure and tectonics of the northeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of the SinoProbe project (201011039), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2010ZY26 2011PY0184), and the National Natural Science Foundation

  12. Soundscape Ecology of Hawaiian Spinner Dolphin Resting Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenehan, Heather Leigh

    Sound is a key sensory modality for Hawaiian spinner dolphins. Like many other marine animals, these dolphins rely on sound and their acoustic environment for many aspects of their daily lives, making it is essential to understand soundscape in areas that are critical to their survival. Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest during the day in shallow coastal areas and forage offshore at night. In my dissertation I focus on the soundscape of the bays where Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest taking a soundscape ecology approach. I primarily relied on passive acoustic monitoring using four DSG-Ocean acoustic loggers in four Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting bays on the Kona Coast of Hawai'i Island. 30-second recordings were made every four minutes in each of the bays for 20 to 27 months between January 8, 2011 and March 30, 2013. I also utilized concomitant vessel-based visual surveys in the four bays to provide context for these recordings. In my first chapter I used the contributions of the dolphins to the soundscape to monitor presence in the bays and found the degree of presence varied greatly from less than 40% to nearly 90% of days monitored with dolphins present. Having established these bays as important to the animals, in my second chapter I explored the many components of their resting bay soundscape and evaluated the influence of natural and human events on the soundscape. I characterized the overall soundscape in each of the four bays, used the tsunami event of March 2011 to approximate a natural soundscape and identified all loud daytime outliers. Overall, sound levels were consistently louder at night and quieter during the daytime due to the sounds from snapping shrimp. In fact, peak Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting time co-occurs with the quietest part of the day. However, I also found that humans drastically alter this daytime soundscape with sound from offshore aquaculture, vessel sound and military mid-frequency active sonar. During one recorded mid

  13. Surficial sediment distribution and net sediment transport pattern in İzmir Bay, western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Muhammet; Avcı, Mert; Duman, Şükriye; Demirkurt, Erkan; Düzbastılar, Musa Kazım

    2004-06-01

    İzmir Bay, a microtidal bay in the eastern Aegean Sea, is an area of fine-grained sediment. The surficial sediments may be subdivided into seven zones based on their grain size. The western part of the outer bay is covered by silty and muddy sand, whilst the eastern part of the outer bay is covered with silt and mud. Most of the central bay is covered with sandy silt containing up to 50% carbonate and the area between the central and inner bay is floored by silt. Total organic carbon concentrations of the surface sediments vary between 0.40% and 3.12%, and increase in proportion to silt content. Accumulation of organic matter in the inner bay is probably produced by the inflow from raw sewage outfalls. The grain size trends are analyzed in conjunction with information on hydrodynamics, mineralogy and geochemistry, to derive sediment movement patterns. The pattern gives a preliminary idea of sediment transport directions together with the main areas of deposition and the possible dispersal patterns of contaminants in the İzmir Bay environment.

  14. Periodontal conditions of elders in Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Vieira de Lima Saintrain; Maria Daucirlene Costa Aquino

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the periodontal conditions of elderly patients assisted in a Specialized Dentistry Center in Northeastern of Brazil. Methods: Quantitative and cross-sectional study conducted with 152 elders. It was used a questionnaire to get information about socio-demographic aspects (age, sex, gender, income, and education), general healthand periodontal clinical examination based on the Communitarian Periodontal Index (CPI), an indicator recommended by the World Health Organization...

  15. A Radiocarbon Chronology of Hunter-Gatherer Occupation from Bodega Bay, California, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, M A; Russell, A D; Guilderson, T P

    2005-04-27

    The evolution of hunter-gatherer maritime adaptations in western North America has been a prominent topic of discussion among archaeologists in recent years (e.g. Arnold 1992; Erlandson and Colten 1991; Erlandson and Glassow 1997; Lightfoot 1993). Although vast coastal regions of the northeastern Pacific (for example, southern California) have been investigated in detail, our understanding of hunter-gatherer developments along the coast of northern California is limited. Previous research indicates that humans have exploited marine mammals, fish and shellfish along the northern California shoreline since the early Holocene (Schwaderer 1992). By the end of the late Holocene, some groups remained year-round on the coast subsisting primarily on marine resources (e.g. Gould 1975; Hildebrandt and Levulett 2002). However, a paucity of well-dated cultural deposits has hindered our understanding of these developments, particularly during the early and middle Holocene. The lack of a long and reliable chronological sequence has restricted our interpretations of behavioral change, including the adaptive strategies (such as foraging, mobility and settlement) used by human foragers to colonize and inhabit the coastal areas of this region. These shortcomings have also hindered comparative interpretations with other coastal and inland regions in western North America. Here we present a Holocene radiocarbon chronology of hunter-gatherer occupation based on contemporaneous samples of charcoal and Mytilus californianus (California sea mussel) shell recovered from seven archaeological sites near Bodega Bay, California. A series of 127 {sup 14}C ages reveal a chronological sequence that spans from ca. 8940-110 cal BP (1{sigma}) (7890-160 {sup 14}C yr BP = charcoal; 8934-101 {sup 14}C yr BP = shell). As part of this sequence, we report new {sup 14}C dates from the stratified cave and open-air midden deposits at Duncan's Landing (CA-SON-348/H). In addition, we present {sup 14}C

  16. Northeastern regional geologic characterization report. Volume 3: Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hamsphire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Volume 7(3) contains the following maps: index map; faults, ground acceleration, and in situ stress; rock and mineral resources; drainage basins and ground water discharge zones; ground water resources; and crystalline rock bodies.

  17. Quaternary geophysical framework of the northeastern North Carolina coastal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E.R.; Foster, D.S.; Mallinson, D.M.; Himmelstoss, E.A.; McNinch, J.E.; List, J.H.; Hammar-Klose, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that mapped the Quaternary geologic framework of the estuaries, barrier islands, and inner continental shelf. This information provides a basis to understand the linkage between geologic framework, physical processes, and coastal evolution at time scales from storm events to millennia. The study area attracts significant tourism to its parks and beaches, contains a number of coastal communities, and supports a local fishing industry, all of which are impacted by coastal change. Knowledge derived from this research program can be used to mitigate hazards and facilitate effective management of this dynamic coastal system.

  18. Evaluation of Methane Sources in Groundwater in Northeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molofsky, Lisa J; Connor, John A; Wylie, Albert S; Wagner, Tom; Farhat, Shahla K

    2013-01-01

    Testing of 1701 water wells in northeastern Pennsylvania shows that methane is ubiquitous in groundwater, with higher concentrations observed in valleys vs. upland areas and in association with calcium-sodium-bicarbonate, sodium-bicarbonate, and sodium-chloride rich waters—indicating that, on a regional scale, methane concentrations are best correlated to topographic and hydrogeologic features, rather than shale-gas extraction. In addition, our assessment of isotopic and molecular analyses of hydrocarbon gases in the Dimock Township suggest that gases present in local water wells are most consistent with Middle and Upper Devonian gases sampled in the annular spaces of local gas wells, as opposed to Marcellus Production gas. Combined, these findings suggest that the methane concentrations in Susquehanna County water wells can be explained without the migration of Marcellus shale gas through fractures, an observation that has important implications for understanding the nature of risks associated with shale-gas extraction. PMID:23560830

  19. FL BAY SPECTROUT-DIET

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  20. Missisquoi Bay Phosphorus Model Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical memorandum provides results of an extended load reduction simulation. The memorandum serves as an addendum to the main Missisquoi Bay Phosphorus Mass Balance Model report prepared for the Lake Champlain Basin Program by LimnoTech in 2012