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Sample records for bawong perak west

  1. Design of Control and Monitoring System to Avoid Inter-Ship Collisions in West Shipping Lane Tanjung Perak Surabaya

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    Devina P. Sari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of several ship accidents in narrow waters of Madura strait which is the west shipping lane of Tanjung Perak Surabaya has inspired the research on the design of a control system on the ship to avoid any collision between ships. The existence of automatic control with the autopilot is required to minimize the occurrence of collisions between ships In this final study investigated the application of fuzzy logic to control the yaw angle on the vessel MV Karana Sembilan. Fuzzy logic used is Sugeno Takagi type with the input of the error yaw, yaw rate and distance of the ship with a disturbance. Tests conducted with a control system without disturbance, with disturbance, and the presence of obstacles in front of the ship. Performance of control system is obtained by using the disturbance, the fuzzy appearance is 2:41 hm distance position, the speed of 7.5 knots and 0.5 error, then the resulting yaw angle is 6580. Results control with fuzzy syncronized with monitoring at M&C system in visual basic. The view of the monitoring, 3 types of scenarios obtained. For the first scenario, which is created with the control on it, produces the best results of the avoidance, if compared to the second scenario, with trajectory and control anti-collision cross, and if compared with the third scenario that has no built control system with decision-making on it.

  2. Evaluasi Lokasi Pengembangan Pelabuhan Tanjung Perak

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    Tettuko Wiwengku Adhiyakso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pelabuhan baru akan direncanakan oleh pemerintah kota sebagai  antisipasi melonjaknya tingkat kedatangan kapal yang diterima Pelabuhan Tanjung Perak di tahun mendatang. Terdapat 6 lokasi yang salah satunya akan dikembangkan oleh pemerintah sebagai pelabuhan diantaranya adalah di Teluk Lamong, Socah Madura, Tanjung Bumi Madura, Tanjung Bulupandan Madura, Gresik Selatan, dan Gresik Utara. Tugas Akhir ini bertujuan untuk membuktikan indikasi adanya stagnasi di Pelabuhan Tanjung Perak dengan cara melakukan peramalan (forecasting kemudian mengevaluasi manakah dari keenam lokasi tersebut yang sangat tepat dan cocok untuk menampung limpahan kapal dari Pelabuhan Tanjung Perak dengan cara menganalisa satu persatu lokasi tersebut dari sudut pandang pemilik barang, dengan menghitung transport cost dari beberapa pelabuhan kandidat tersebut. Sehingga diperoleh suatu lokasi alternatif pengembangan pelabuhan dengan pertimbangan transport cost yang paling minimum menuju lokasi-lokasi industri. Evaluasi ini diharapkan dapat membantu pemerintah untuk menetapkan lokasi pelabuhan yang tepat dari sisi kacamata ekonomi.

  3. Computer simulation study International Container Terminal "Tanjung Perak", Surabaya, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, R.; Wanders, S.

    1998-01-01

    The Tanjung Perak harbour of the city of Surabaya on the island Java, Indonesia has experienced a considerable growth of container traffic. In order to adequately deal with the expected continuing increase of container traffic in the future, the International container terminal is presently being ex

  4. Fuzzy Control for Optimizing Ship Tracking in Karang Jamuang – Tanjung Perak

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    Aulia S. Aisjah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Karang Jamuang West Track - Tanjung Perak is one of the busiest routes for sea transportation in Indonesia. This paper proposes an attempt to optimize the ship’s trajectory by designing a track keeping control along that track line. Control system is designed based on fuzzy logic (FLC. FLC design intended to control the speed and the bow of the ship in order to keep the track. FLC 1 control the speed of the input changing by the distance, while the FLC 2 control the prow with yaw angle and yawrate error input. As an object for autopilot is Brotojoyo MT tanker. The research was done by simulation, and generate the ability of FLC which able to keep the track with small error.

  5. Economic literacy amongst the secondary school teachers in Perak Malaysia

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    Nek Kamal Yeop Yunus, Norasibah Abdul Jalil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the relationship between economics education exposure, saving, expenditure, investment and economics literacy amongst teachers in secondary schools in Perak. The theoretical framework was designed based on the literature and hence five hypotheses for the study were formulated. The samples were selected by quota sampling methods. The data were collected by distributing structured 35 items questionnaires to 100 teachers in secondary schools in eight districts in Perak. The instrument was adapted form Leader Behaviour Description Questionnaires which were used to measure economic literacy. Only 60 questionnaires were returned and analysed which gave 60% respond rate. Data collected were sorted out and keyed in into SPSS version 17. The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics to answer the research questions. The result of the analyses showed that there was significant relationship between economics education and its predictors. Together the independent variables explained 81.7% of the variance in the dependent variables. The remaining 18.3% was due to unidentified variables. In relation to that, the study had contributed some knowledge about the understanding of economic of literacy. For future research, it is recommended that other than the above variables might influence economic literacy perhaps with a bigger samples and wider scope.

  6. Hulu Sungai Perak Bed Sediment Mapping Using Underwater Acoustic Sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriafdi, N.; Zainon, O.; Din, U.; Rasid, A. W.; Mat Amin, Z.; Othman, R.; Mardi, A. S.; Mahmud, R.; Sulaiman, N.

    2016-09-01

    Development in acoustic survey techniques in particular side scan sonar have revolutionized the way we are able to image, map and understand the riverbed environment. It is now cost effective to image large areas of the riverbed using these techniques and the backscatter image created from surveys provides base line data from which thematic maps of the riverbed environment including maps of morphological geology, can be derived when interpreted in conjunction with in situ sampling data. This article focuses on investigation characteristics of sediments and correlation of side scan backscatter image with signal strength. The interpretation of acoustic backscatter rely on experienced interpretation by eye of grey scale images produced from the data. A 990F Starfish Side Scan Sonar was used to collect and develop a series of sonar images along 6 km of Hulu Sungai Perak. Background sediments could be delineated accurately and the image textures could be linked to the actual river floor appearance through grab sampling. A major difference was found in the acoustic returns from the two research area studies: the upstream area shows much rougher textures. This is due to an actual differences in riverbed roughness, caused by a difference in bottom currents and sediment dynamics in the two areas. The highest backscatter correlates with coarsest and roughness sediment. Result suggest that image based backscatter classification shows considerable promise for interpretation of side scan sonar data for the production of geological maps.

  7. HULU SUNGAI PERAK BED SEDIMENT MAPPING USING UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC SONAR

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    N. Arriafdi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Development in acoustic survey techniques in particular side scan sonar have revolutionized the way we are able to image, map and understand the riverbed environment. It is now cost effective to image large areas of the riverbed using these techniques and the backscatter image created from surveys provides base line data from which thematic maps of the riverbed environment including maps of morphological geology, can be derived when interpreted in conjunction with in situ sampling data. This article focuses on investigation characteristics of sediments and correlation of side scan backscatter image with signal strength. The interpretation of acoustic backscatter rely on experienced interpretation by eye of grey scale images produced from the data. A 990F Starfish Side Scan Sonar was used to collect and develop a series of sonar images along 6 km of Hulu Sungai Perak. Background sediments could be delineated accurately and the image textures could be linked to the actual river floor appearance through grab sampling. A major difference was found in the acoustic returns from the two research area studies: the upstream area shows much rougher textures. This is due to an actual differences in riverbed roughness, caused by a difference in bottom currents and sediment dynamics in the two areas. The highest backscatter correlates with coarsest and roughness sediment. Result suggest that image based backscatter classification shows considerable promise for interpretation of side scan sonar data for the production of geological maps.

  8. SINTESIS NANOPARTIKEL PERAK MENGGUNAKAN METODE POLIOL DENGAN AGEN STABILISATOR POLIVINILALKOHOL (PVA

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    DOB Apriandanu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak __________________________________________________________________________________________ Nanopartikel perak merupakan produk berbasis nanoteknologi yang sedang berkembang saat ini dan dapat diaplikasikan sebagai katalis dan detektor sensor optik. Faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi ukuran nanopartikel adalah konsentrasi garam dan agen pereduksi. Nanopartikel perak bersifat tidak stabil. Oleh karena itu, perlu adanya penambahan polivinil alkohol sebagai agen stabilisator dalam sintesis nanopartikel perak. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh rasio mol reduktor EG/Ag+ dan % PVA (b/v dalam sintesis nanopartikel perak terhadap karakteristik produk yang dihasilkan. Nanopartikel perak disintesis dengan metode poliol yaitu melarutkan AgNO3 ke dalam etilen glikol sebagai reduktor dan polivinilalkohol (PVA sebagai stabilisator. Karakterisasi dilakukan menggunakan Spek-trofotometer UV-Vis dan TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope. Analisis terhadap spektra UV-Vis menunjukkan bahwa nanopartikel yang relatif stabil pada pengukuran panjang gelombang maksimum 417 hingga 418 nm adalah nanopartikel yang disintesis menggunakan PVA 3%. Karakterisasi dengan TEM menunjukkan nanopartikel perak yang disintesis berdasarkan rasio mol etilen glikol terhadap Ag+ 50:1 memiliki ukuran terkecil dengan kisaran 10,15–27,56 nm dengan struktur kristal face centered cubic (FCC. Semakin tinggi rasio mol EG /Ag+ dalam sintesis nanopartikel perak, semakin tinggi pula peningkatan absorbansinya.   Abstract __________________________________________________________________________________________ Silver nanoparticles are nanotechnology based product which can be applied as a catalyst and optic sensor detector. The factors that can effect on nanoparticle size are salt concentration and reductor agent. Silver nanoparticles are unstable material, so polyvinylalcohol needs to be added  as a stabilizer agent in their synthesis. The aims of this research are to

  9. PENINGKATAN KUALITAS LAYANAN KEPADA PELANGGAN DI TERMINAL PENUMPANG PELABUHAN TANJUNG PERAK SURABAYA

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    Ni Luh Putu Hariastuti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To be able to retain its customer, PT Pelindo III Tanjung Perak Surabaya must serve and fulfill what is desired by prospective passengers so that they can maintain the loyalty of passengers who use the services. In this observation, there are 6 criterias that have servqual value below the average values (-0.03746. The first criteria is, the capacity of the waiting room (seats is adequate (-0.16206, comfortable waiting room (-0.1500, security of luggage passengers (-0.08232, hygiene at Tanjung Perak harbor (-0.06160, giving attention to the grievances of passengers (-0.05896, and management responsiveness to complaints of passengers (-0.05040. This indicates that the port services are still not able to fulfill customer expectations. Method to solve this problem is using the TRIZ method. Results obtained from the analysis using TRIZ,that acquired  4 solutions given to the manager. The 4 solutions are division of task should be differentiated according to the places that exist in the passenger terminal, the process of measuring the quality of services they provide in a regularly and periodically, changes in physical conditions, especially the addition of a seat and air conditioning (central or fan.

  10. PENINGKATAN KUALITAS LAYANAN KEPADA PELANGGAN DI TERMINAL PENUMPANG PELABUHAN TANJUNG PERAK SURABAYA

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    Ni Luh Putu Hariastuti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To be able to retain its customer, PT Pelindo III Tanjung Perak Surabaya must serve and fulfill what is desired by prospective passengers so that they can maintain the loyalty of passengers who use the services. In this observation, there are 6 criterias that have servqual value below the average values (-0.03746. The first criteria is, the capacity of the waiting room (seats is adequate (-0.16206, comfortable waiting room (-0.1500, security of luggage passengers (-0.08232, hygiene at Tanjung Perak harbor (-0.06160, giving attention to the grievances of passengers (-0.05896, and management responsiveness to complaints of passengers (-0.05040. This indicates that the port services are still not able to fulfill customer expectations. Method to solve this problem is using the TRIZ method. Results obtained from the analysis using TRIZ,that acquired 4 solutions given to the manager. The 4 solutions are division of task should be differentiated according to the places that exist in the passenger terminal, the process of measuring the quality of services they provide in a regularly and periodically, changes in physical conditions, especially the addition of a s eat and air conditioning (central or fan.

  11. Analysis of Physiochemical Parameters to Evaluate the Drinking Water Quality in the State of Perak, Malaysia

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    N. Rahmanian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The drinking water quality was investigated in suspected parts of Perak state, Malaysia, to ensure the continuous supply of clean and safe drinking water for the public health protection. In this regard, a detailed physical and chemical analysis of drinking water samples was carried out in different residential and commercial areas of the state. A number of parameters such as pH, turbidity, conductivity, total suspended solids (TSS, total dissolved solids (TDS, and heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Mg, Fe, Cd, Pb, Cr, As, Hg, and Sn were analysed for each water sample collected during winter and summer periods. The obtained values of each parameter were compared with the standard values set by the World Health Organization (WHO and local standards such as National Drinking Water Quality Standard (NDWQS. The values of each parameter were found to be within the safe limits set by the WHO and NDWQS. Overall, the water from all the locations was found to be safe as drinking water. However, it is also important to investigate other potential water contaminations such as chemicals and microbial and radiological materials for a longer period of time, including human body fluids, in order to assess the overall water quality of Perak state.

  12. Prevalence of Muscular Sarcosporidiosis in Slaughtered Domestic Pigs in Perak, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainalabidin, Fazly Ann; Noorazmi, Muhamad Syamsul Naim; Bakri, Wan Normaziah Wan Omar; Sathaya, Geethamalar; Ismail, Mohd Iswadi

    2017-01-01

    Sarcosporidiosis is a disease caused by intracellular protozoan parasites, namely, Sarcocystis spp. In pigs, three species of Sarcocystis spp. have been recognised, including Sarcocystis meischeriana, Sarcocystis porcifelis and Sarcocystis suihominis. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of muscular sarcosporidiosis in pigs using the pepsin digestion technique. A total of 150 fresh heart, oesophagus and thigh muscle samples from 50 Yorkshire and Landrace pigs were collected from two local abattoirs in Perak from May to August 2014. All the fresh muscle samples were thoroughly examined for macrocyst-forming Sarcocystis spp. and processed using the peptic digestion technique to detect bradyzoites. The results from the muscle samples showed that 58% (29 out of 50) of the pigs were positive for Sarcocystis spp. These findings highlight the importance of implementing stringent measures for screening pigs in abattoirs for Sarcocystis spp. infection because this infection in pigs is a public health concern. PMID:28228924

  13. TNB Experience in Developing Solar Hybrid Station at RPS Kemar, Gerik, Perak Darul Ridzuan

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    Aziz, K. A.; Shamsudin, K. N.

    2013-06-01

    This paper will discuss on TNB experience in developing Solar Hybrid Station at RPS Kemar, Gerik, Perak. TNB has been approached by KKLW to submit proposal to provide electricity in the rural area namely RPS Kemar. Looking at area and source available, Solar Hybrid System was the best method in order to provide electricity at this area. This area is far from national grid sources. Solar Hybrid System is the best method to produce electrical power using the renewable energy from Solar PV, Battery and Diesel Generator Set. Nowadays, price of petroleum is slightly high due to higher demand from industry. Solar energy is good alternative in this country to practice in order to reduce cost for produce of electrical energy. Generally, Solar will produce energy during daytime and when become cloudy and dark, automatically battery and diesel generator set will recover the system through the hybrid controller system.

  14. The prevalence of domestic violence against pregnant women in Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanfar, Shayesteh; Kamarudin, Ellizza Bt; Sarpin, Mohammad Alavi B; Zakaria, Nordin B; Abdul Rahman, Raihan Bt; Samsuddin, Rinni Damayanti Bt

    2007-07-01

    Domestic violence during pregnancy is a key issue in maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. This cross-sectional study aimed at obtaining the prevalence of domestic violence amongst pregnant women who attended Ipoh General Hospital in Perak, Malaysia and to determine the risk factors associated with domestic violence during pregnancy. The prevalence of domestic violence was low (4.5%). Comparison between the two groups of subjects with or without domestic violence did not show any significant difference in terms of risk factors. The effect of domestic violence on pregnancy should be investigated comprehensively in a multicentral or community-based study using a culturally sensitive questionnaire. With the estimated low prevalence of domestic violence in this study, the need for screening it in health-care services in Malaysia is yet to be determined.

  15. Gambaran Pola Makan Suku Melayu Dan Suku Jawa Di Desa Selemak Kecamatan Hamparan Perak Kabupaten Deli Serdang Tahun 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Handayani, Irma

    2012-01-01

    Indonesia consists of the various of ethnic. Each ethnic has different culture each other. The culture is one of the factors which can affect the food pattern. Each food pattern can affect the health of human being. The objective of this study to determine a traditional food pattern on Malay and Java ethnic groups in Selemak Village, Hamparan Perak Sub district, Deli Serdang Regency for 2012. This study adopted descriptive survey, which is done on 80 families which consists of 41 Malay eth...

  16. Lecturers' perceptions on the use of graphic calculators for teaching and learning at Kolej Matrikulasi Perak

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    Mokhtar, Khairul Anuar; Sulaiman, Hajar

    2013-04-01

    Many studies have been conducted on the use of graphic calculator technology in teaching and learning (T&L) of mathematics. However, most of the previous studies focused on methods of improving students' achievements and their perceptions about the use of this tool in learning. It is rare to find studies involving workshops with lectures in order to familiarize them with the graphic calculator and their views on the integration of this technology in teaching. For this study, Kolej Matrikulasi Perak was chosen as the location of the study and the samples consisted of the college's lecturers. A total of 30 lecturers had been selected who possess different backgrounds in terms of their skills in using calculator technology either scientific or graphic calculator. Two topics were chosen to be explored in a hands-on workshop which were Graph of Functions and Limits. Each lecturer was given one unit of Voyage 200 graphic calculator to explore individually. At the end of the workshop session, lecturers were given a questionnaire to determine their perceptions on the use of graphic calculators in T&L. The SPSS analysis of the data from the questionnaires showed a positive response. From these findings, it can be concluded that the lecturer in this college are ready to use graphics calculators in teaching because it can increase students' understanding, especially on the topic of Graph of Functions and Limits.

  17. Spatial variability of soil nutrient in paddy plantation: Sites FELCRA Seberang Perak

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    Kamarudin, H.; Adnan, N. A.; Mispan, M. R.; Athirah. A, A.

    2016-06-01

    The conventional methods currently used for rice cultivation in Malaysia are unable to give maximum yield although the yield production of paddy is increasing. This is due to the conversional method being unable to include soil properties as one of their parameters in agriculture management. Soil properties vary spatially in farm scale due to differences in topography, parent material, vegetation or land management and soil characteristics; also plantation productivity varies significantly over small spatial scales. Knowledge of spatial variability in soil fertility is important for site specific nutrient management. Analysis of spatial variability of soil nutrient of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) were conducted in this study with the aid of GIS (i.e ArcGIS) and statistical softwares. In this study different temporal and depths of soil nutrient were extracted on the field and further analysis of N,P,K content were analysed in the chemical laboratory and using spatially technique in GIS sofware. The result indicated that for the Seberang Perak site of 58 hactares area, N and K are met minimum requirements nutrient content as outlines by the MARDI for paddy cultivation. However, P indicated poor condition in the study area; therefore the soil needs further attention and treatment.

  18. Exploring the use of tablet technology as a teaching tool at Kolej Matrikulasi Perak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Amirnudin, Mohamad Tahar; Sulaiman, Hajar

    2013-04-01

    The use of technology in teaching and learning (T&L) of mathematics is gaining popularity these days. There are various technologies that are designed to facilitate the process of learning, such as graphic calculators, three-dimensional projectors and multimedia softwares. Tablet is a portable technology used as a tool for communication and information search. In addition, it can also be used as a teaching aid. Galaxy Tab (tab) is a tablet produced by the giant company SAMSUNG which uses Android operating system. For this study, the researcher had to download and install the two softwares, SynSpace and Google + into the tab. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of tabs in the T&L of mathematics and get the students' perceptions. This study is divided into five phases. In Phase One, the researcher prepared the lesson plan. In the Second Phase, a workshop was conducted to introduce the students to the basic use of tab which contained two modules: Module 1 was on Syncspace Applications and Module 2 was on Google+. Third phase involves teaching and learning mathematics using tab. In Phase Four, questionnaires were distributed and then collected to obtain the data for analysis. In Phase Five, the collected data was analyzed using simple statistics involving frequency tables and bar charts. The findings showed that the use of tab in teaching and learning mathematics was accepted very by the students at Kolej Matrikulasi Perak.

  19. DIVERSITY OF EPHEMEROPTERA, PLECOPTERA AND TRICHOPTERA IN VARIOUS TRIBUTARIES OF TEMENGGOR CATCHMENT, PERAK, MALAYSIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Che Salmah M R; Abu Hassan A; Jongkar G

    2007-01-01

    A rich fauna of Ephemeroptera (mayfly), Plecoptera (stonefly) and Trichoptera (caddisfly) (EPT) were collected from 14 highland streams discharging into the Temenggor Reservoir in Perak in the northern peninsular Malaysia. Out of the 3 orders, Ephemeroptera was the most diverse but Trichoptera was the most abundant. 45 genera that belonged to 25 families of EPT were recorded. Distribution of EPT varied significantly between orders and types of streams they inhabited. Their diversity and abundance were higher in the second and third order streams. There was no significant relationship between environmental parameters and diversity as well as abundance of EPT in these streams. Their diversity indices together with EPT taxa richness scores referred to clean water environment, hence very suitable for these insects. The EPT taxa richness calculated for the 14 streams reflected that 13 out of 14 streams were undisturbed having good water quality (value of EPT taxa richness > 10). Previous logging and mining activities were suspected to be the main cause for tremendous disappearance of EPT genera in the Kelian stream. Since no previous human activities were recorded around the Telang stream, natural phenomena possibly contributed to low abundance of these insects in the Telang stream.

  20. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar, E-mail: m-azfar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Kamaruddin, Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che [Blok 18, Makmal Analisis Kimia (Aca/Bas), Agensi Nuklear Malaysia, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents’ material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60°C and passed through 2 µm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Disabled Accessibility Needs of Heritage Building in Perak

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    Zahari Nurul Fadzila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism sector was the sixth highest national income provider to the Malaysian economy in 2014. In order to replenish Malaysian economy through tourism, the Malaysian government has to diversify the present tourism products and offers a wide variety of tourism packages. This has mentioned in the National Key Results Area (NKRA development platform highlighted in the 10th Malaysian Plan. Therefore, the tourism sector needs to continuously re-engineer and adapt its business model to suit every customer’s needs and demands, including disabled people. At the moment, one of the highest tourist attraction contributors in Malaysia is the heritage building sector. The heritage building sector in Malaysia becomes popular due to its diverse historical background and culture. It attracts local and international tourists to visit. However, the lack of facilities provided especially for the disable people has hindered its future prospects to become globally popular. The national heritage should be viewed, explored and enjoyed by everybody without discriminating anyone. Insufficient of provision for disable facilities in heritage act has caused barrier to the disable people to enjoy and visit the heritage sites. The objective of this research is to analyze the comparative data that been retrieved in the field of selected case study. It will be carried out by visiting the selected case study, observation and documentary analysis. This research aims to do a comparative analysis of Disabled Accessibility needs of Heritage Building in Perak. The findings of this research will alert the needs of disabled in visiting the heritage building and documented for future research.

  2. Determining the prevalence of intestinal parasites in three Orang Asli (Aborigines) communities in Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniah, B; Sabaridah, I; Soe, M M; Sabitha, P; Awang, I P R; Ong, G P; Hassan, A K R

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among children and adult Orang Aslis (Aborigines) from different locations in Perak. Faecal samples were collected and analyzed using the direct smear and formal ether sedimentation technique. Some of the faecal samples were stained using the Modified Acid fast stain for Cryptosporidium. Nail clippings of the respondents and the soil around their habitat were also analyzed. Of the 77 stool samples examined, 39 (50.6%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The most common parasite detected was Trichuris trichiura (39.0%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (26.9%), Entamoeba coli (5.2%), Giardia lamblia (5.2%), Blastocystis hominis (3.9%), hookworm (3.9%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.3%), Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.3%) respectively. Some respondents had single parasites (24.7%), some with two parasites (18.2%). Some with three parasites (6.5%) and one had four parasites species (1.3%). The parasites were slightly more common in females (54.7%) than males ((41.7%). The parasites were more common in the 13-20 year age group (90.9%) followed by 1-12 years (69.6%), 21-40 year age group (34.8%) and least in the 41-60 year age group (27.8%). Nail examinations of the respondents did not show any evidence of parasites. One had a mite, three had pollen grains and one had yeast cells isolated from the finger nails. Soil samples taken around their houses showed only one sample with a nematode ova and one with oocyst which was of a non human origin.

  3. A survey of gross alpha and gross beta activity in soil samples in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siak Kuan; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations from the different soil types found in the Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. A total of 128 soil samples were collected and their dose rates were measured 1 m above the ground. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Tennelec Series 5 LB5500 Automatic Low Background Counting System. The alpha activity concentration ranged from 15 to 9634 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1558±121 Bq kg(-1). The beta activity concentration ranged from 142 to 6173 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1112±32 Bq kg(-1). High alpha and beta activity concentrations are from the same soil type. The results of the analysis show a strong correlation between the gross alpha activity concentration and dose rate (R = 0.92). The data obtained can be used as a database for each soil type.

  4. Evaluasi Pilot Project Electronic Data Interchange (EDI di Bidang Kepabeanan (Studi Kasus pada Kantor Pelayanan Bea dan Cukai (KPBC Tanjung Perak Surabaya

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    Pwee Leng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to maintenance the flow of goods%2C intervension by customs was minimized as possible on goods checking. Thus%2C to secure the country’s right and still be carefull from the possibility of the violation action of Regulation%2C custom’s administration need a facility that suitable to simplification the services process and the integrated documents service system application. That system is Electronic Data Interchange (EDI. This study was held to evaluate EDI system application as a pilot project at Custom Office Tanjung Perak%2C Surabaya Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Dalam rangka memperlancar arus barang%2C intervensi pabean dalam melakukan pemeriksaan barang diharapkan seminimal mungkin. Oleh karena itu tanpa mengurangi kewaspadaan dalam mengamankan hak negara dari kemungkinan tindakan pelanggaran terhadap undang-undang%2C administrasi pabean memerlukan suatu sarana yang dapat memenuhi kebutuhan untuk penyederhanaan proses pelayanan dan pemberian fasilitas serta penerapan sistem pelayanan dokumen yang terintegrasi dan cepat. Sistem tersebut adalah Electronic Data Interchange (EDI. Studi yang dilakukan dalam penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pelaksanaan system EDI sebagai pilot project pada Kantor Pelayanan Bea dan Cukai Tanjung Perak%2C Surabaya. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI%2C Custom%2C Import%2C Export%2C Notice of Import

  5. A study on the soil characteristic and properties of riverbank soil samples from Sungai Perak, Kota Lama Kiri, Kuala Kangsar, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlan, M. N.; Z, Mohd Remy Rozainy M. A.; Ghazali, M. F.; Selamat, M. R.; Othman, S. Z.

    2016-06-01

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) technology is new in Malaysia and only a few efforts have been made to understand the RBF mechanisms and processes. Soil characteristics and properties play important roles in determining the suitability of the site for the RBF application. A research has been carried out in Kota Lama Kiri, Kuala Kangsar, Perak, Malaysia to identify the characteristics of the riverbank soil for different layers of the pumping well (PW) and three adjacent monitoring wells namely MW2, MW3, and MW5. Particle size distributions and hydraulic conductivities of the soils were obtained from sieve analyses and constant head permeability tests. The subsurface soils of the study site consisted of medium sand, fine sand, coarse sand and gravel but them medium sand was highest in percentage over the other types of soil. The aquifer extended down to 8 m. The highest hydraulic conductivity value for the PW was 0.91 cm/s and obtained for sample taken from 6 m deep. The highest hydraulic conductivity value for the monitoring wells was 5.03 cm/s and obtained for sample taken from 2.20 to 3.20 m of MW5. The overall well production capacity determined from the pumping test was 112.10 m3/hr.

  6. Land use change and soil loss risk assessment by using geographical information system (GIS): A case study of lower part of Perak River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Yusof, Fasihah; Rohaizah Jamil, Nor; Inthano a/p Cha Laew, Nyvee; Aini, Norfadilah; Abd Manaf, Latifah

    2016-06-01

    The developing mode of the nation enhance more land area being exploited to generate economy income. Objectives of this study were to analyse the land use changes from year 2010 to 2013 and soil erosion potential rate for year 2013 of lower part of Perak river basin. All of the spatial analysis work were carried out in the GIS environment using the ArcGIS version 9.3 software. Land use maps were obtained from Department of Agriculture and been digitized accordingly. The total area was 2914.91 km2 and land use categories were clustered into various classes. Based on land use change analysis, oil palm plantation recorded some increment from year 2010 to 2013. While, area of forest depleting from 95.54km2 to 86.01 km2 indicating that the forest area were being exploited and shifted to other land use type. In the other hand, the rubber plantation decrease due to land conversion into palm oil plantation. Urban area showed some increment in coverage proving the current blooming number of population occurs rapidly. In context of cleared land, 2013 recorded higher coverage of cleared land compared to the year 2010 which recorded a shifting from 8.89km2 in 2010 to 21.24 km2 in 2013. By adopting the RUSLE model, in 2013, the soil erosion potential was categorised as very low (0-1 tons/ha/year) with some soil erosion hotspot spotted within the study area. The soil erosion range from very low to extreme class. A very low soil erosion potential class (0-1 ton/ha/yr) recorded the majority of 61% (1765.60 km2) of total area. The extreme classes (>100 ton/ha/yr) recorded about 18% (536.19km2) of the total area. According to the result, it can be concluded that the middle part of study area experience low to severe classes of potential soil erosion.

  7. Determination of heavy metals concentrations in airborne particulates matter (APM) from Manjung district, Perak using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Nursyairah; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Airborne particulates trace metals are considered as public health concern as it can enter human lungs through respiratory system. Generally, any substance that has been introduced to the atmosphere that can cause severe effects to living things and the environment is considered air pollution. Manjung, Perak is one of the development districts that is active with industrial activities. There are many industrial activities surrounding Manjung District area such as coal fired power plant, quarries and iron smelting which may contribute to the air pollution into the environment. This study was done to measure the concentrations of Hg, U, Th, K, Cu, Fe, Cr, Zn, As, Se, Pb and Cd in the Airborne Particulate Matter (APM) collected at nine locations in Manjung District area within 15 km radius towards three directions (North, North-East and South-East) in 5 km intervals. The samples were collected using mini volume air sampler with cellulose filter through total suspended particulate (TSP). The sampler was set up for eight hours with the flow rate of 5 L/min. The filter was weighed before and after sample collection using microbalance, to get the amount of APM and kept in desiccator before analyzing. The measurement was done using calibrated Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer. The air particulate concentrations were found below the Malaysia Air Quality Guidelines for TSP (260 µg/m3). All of the metals concentrations were also lower than the guidelines set by World Health Organization (WHO), Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Argonne National Laboratory, USA NCRP (1975). From the concentrations, the enrichment factor were calculated.

  8. Impact of long-term forest enrichment planting on the biological status of soil in a deforested dipterocarp forest in Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, D S; Arifin, A; Radziah, O; Shamshuddin, J; Majid, N M; Hazandy, A H; Zahari, I; Nor Halizah, A H; Rui, T X

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation leads to the deterioration of soil fertility which occurs rapidly under tropical climates. Forest rehabilitation is one of the approaches to restore soil fertility and increase the productivity of degraded areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare soil biological properties under enrichment planting and secondary forests at Tapah Hill Forest Reserve, Perak after 42 years of planting. Both areas were excessively logged in the 1950s and left idle without any appropriate forest management until 1968 when rehabilitation program was initiated. Six subplots (20 m × 20 m) were established within each enrichment planting (F1) and secondary forest (F2) plots, after which soil was sampled at depths of 0-15 cm (topsoil) and 15-30 cm (subsoil). Results showed that total mean microbial enzymatic activity, as well as biomass C and N content, was significantly higher in F1 compared to F2. The results, despite sample variability, suggest that the rehabilitation program improves the soil biological activities where high rate of soil organic matter, organic C, N, suitable soil acidity range, and abundance of forest litter is believed to be the predisposing factor promoting higher population of microbial in F1 as compared to F2. In conclusion total microbial enzymatic activity, biomass C and biomass N evaluation were higher in enrichment planting plot compared to secondary forest. After 42 years of planting, rehabilitation or enrichment planting helps to restore the productivity of planted forest in terms of biological parameters.

  9. Impact of Long-Term Forest Enrichment Planting on the Biological Status of Soil in a Deforested Dipterocarp Forest in Perak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Karam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation leads to the deterioration of soil fertility which occurs rapidly under tropical climates. Forest rehabilitation is one of the approaches to restore soil fertility and increase the productivity of degraded areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare soil biological properties under enrichment planting and secondary forests at Tapah Hill Forest Reserve, Perak after 42 years of planting. Both areas were excessively logged in the 1950s and left idle without any appropriate forest management until 1968 when rehabilitation program was initiated. Six subplots (20 m × 20 m were established within each enrichment planting (F1 and secondary forest (F2 plots, after which soil was sampled at depths of 0–15 cm (topsoil and 15–30 cm (subsoil. Results showed that total mean microbial enzymatic activity, as well as biomass C and N content, was significantly higher in F1 compared to F2. The results, despite sample variability, suggest that the rehabilitation program improves the soil biological activities where high rate of soil organic matter, organic C, N, suitable soil acidity range, and abundance of forest litter is believed to be the predisposing factor promoting higher population of microbial in F1 as compared to F2. In conclusion total microbial enzymatic activity, biomass C and biomass N evaluation were higher in enrichment planting plot compared to secondary forest. After 42 years of planting, rehabilitation or enrichment planting helps to restore the productivity of planted forest in terms of biological parameters.

  10. West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  11. Cognizance and utilization about breast cancer screening among the health professional female students and staffs of University Kuala Lumpur, Royal College of Medicine Perak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATM Emdadul Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer (BC is a major life-threatening problem and a global concern including Malaysia. BC is an equal threat for both developing and developed countries. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between sociodemographic factors with knowledge, attitude, and perception on BC screening among the females of University Kuala Lumpur, Royal College of Medicine Perak (UniKL RCMP. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2015 to 2016. The populations included were the students and staff of UniKL RCMP. The simple sampling method was used and a set of questionnaire was prepared and distributed to the participants who were willing to participate. The data were analyzed by using the SPSS version 17. Results: Of the 220 only 203 questionnaires were returned. Nearly 87.7% of participants indicated genetic factors as the cause of BC, followed by exposure to carcinogenic and X-ray. Excessive smoking (54.2% and sedentary lifestyle (52.2% were the risk factors of the BC. 100% of participants thought that breast self-examination (BSE is important to detect a breast lump and most of them (76.8% knew what a mammogram is but only 2.0% went for a mammogram. Chemotherapy (71.9% and surgery (71.9% were treatments options according to study participants. Nearly 91.1% agreed that regular mammogram could help to detect BC at an early stage. Nearly 88.2% thought BC is not easily curable. Finally, for the attitude on BC screening, most of them knew how to perform BSE (69.0% with the frequency of 36.0% doing it once a year. Conclusions: The majority of the participants found the good knowledge on BC and on how to perform BSE. Although most of them knew what a mammogram is, only a few have gone for it since perhaps it is recommended for those who are above 50-year-old. Therefore, researchers believe and trust that there is an urgent need of state-funded multicenter study to prevent and early diagnosis of BC in

  12. West Nile virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... West Nile encephalitis or meningitis may lead to brain damage and death. 1 in 10 people with brain inflammation do ... Complications from severe West Nile virus infection include: Brain damage Permanent muscle weakness (sometimes similar to polio ) Death

  13. Call From China West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Guo Jin

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 12th East-West China Cooperation and Investment and Trade Fair was held from April 5 to 8 at the International Conference and Exhibition Center in Qu-jiang,Xi'an.Shaanxi province,in the west of China.

  14. POLA PEMBERIAN ASI, MP-ASI DAN STATUS GIZI ANAK USIA 1-2 TAHUN PADA KELUARGA ETNIS MADURA DAN ETNIS ARAB (Studi di Puskesmas Pegirian dan Puskesmas Perak Timur Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A'yun Eridha Firdhani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was an observational and conducted by cross-sectional design. The samples were 60 respondents, 30 samples taken from Arabic families in Puskesmas (the primary health centre/PHC of Perak Timur and 30 samples taken from Maduranese families in Pegirian PHC, Surabaya municipality. The variables in this research were mothers' age, mothers' education, family earnings, family size, number of children, mothers' nutritional knowledge,  the practice of breast feeding pattern (colostrum, pre-lacteal, exclusive breast-feeding, the substitution of breast-feeding and weaning food variety, prohibition and taboo for mothers and babies and children nutritional status. The data were analyzed descriptively. The results of this research were the characteristics of mothers, mostly education of the Maduranese mothers was primary school (76.7%, family earnings were less than UMR (56.7% and low in nutritional knowledge (93.3%. Meanwhile mostly education of the Arabics was senior high school (76.7%, family earnings were greater than UMR (80% and avarage in nutritional knowledge (43.3%. The giving pattern of colostrum did by respondents of Arabic (100%, and the giving pattern of pre-lacteal did by respondents of Maduranese (53.3%. The respondents of Maduranese (73.3% and Arabics (60% did not give exclusive breast-feeding and respondents of Maduranese (53.3% and Arabic (53.3% gave substitution of breast-feeding. Both ethnics of respondents didn't have differences for weaning food variety. Mostly the respondents had taboo for mothers but didn't have taboo for babies, furthermore the respondents had prohibition for babies. The respondents of Arabics (90% had more prohibition for mothers. Under-nourished children in respondents of Maduranese (23.3% was higher than Arabics (6.7%.   Key words: breast-feeding, weaning  food, nutritional status, maduranese  and arabics

  15. Purge at West Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Warren

    1977-01-01

    Tells how the adviser of the student newspaper at West Valley College (Saratoga, California) was dismissed after the newspaper published stories based on investigations into alleged wrongdoings by administration members. (GW)

  16. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  17. Dracaena in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    This taxonomic revision of the genus Dracaena L. (Liliaceae) in West Africa is another contribution towards a monograph on this group.Short general chapters contain historical, phytogeographical, morphological and phylogenetic observations. The taxonomic treatment contains a revised genus descriptio

  18. West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Respond to Pre-Award Requests Manage Your Award Negotiation & Initial Award After Award ... New Trial Launched in West Africa to Evaluate Three Vaccination Strategies , April 6, 2017 Monoclonal Antibody Cures Marburg Infection ...

  19. Eastern Culture Gone West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHONG

    2005-01-01

    THE implication of one of British 19th century writer Rudyard Kipling's most famous quotations: “East is East,West is West and never the twain shall meet” is endorsed by contemporary scholar Dr Samuel Huntington in his work The Clash of Civilizations, in which he asserts that future wars will not be between individual states and political unions but between differing civilizations.

  20. Islam and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological developments during the 18th and' the 19th centuries ensured material progress of the West, as well as emergence of the West as the dominating power which colonized the rest of the world. During the post-colonial phase, Islam emerged as a revitalized sociopolitical force. This has been mistaken as a threat by the West, and Islam has been portrayed as the "new enemy after the demise of communism. This is partly an effort to establish a Western identity, which is disintegrating due to lack of a challenge; and partly a reflection of the failure of Muslims to realize the social and ethical ideals of Islam.

  1. West Virginia Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eldon L.; Dziagwa, Constance E.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses efforts over the past 25 years to formalize the role of West Virginia's community colleges in the context of the state's rural character and low college graduation rates. Describes a reorganization following a 1987 study by the Carnegie Foundation and state legislation designed to fine tune the colleges' mission. (10 citations) (AJL)

  2. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    the principal economic activity. Research projects and language initiatives currently in progress within Greenland will be touched upon, as will the possibilities of communication with North American Inuit. West Greenlandic is unique among the native languages of the North American Arctic and Sub...

  3. The great West Road

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).

  4. Invigorating West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The once-poor west China is growing at a faster rate than the east. The trend is set to continue over the next few years. This is good news for China as the country gears up to shrink the economic divide between eastern and western regions.

  5. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Service Videos General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

  6. West Candor Chasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    During its examination of Mars, the Viking 1 spacecraft returned images of Valles Marineris, a huge canyon system 5,000 km long, up to 240 km wide, and 6.5 km deep, whose connected chasma or valleys may have formed from a combination of erosional collapse and structural activity. The view shows west Candor Chasma, one of the connected valleys of Valles Marineris; north toward top of frame. The image is a composite of Viking high-resolution (about 80 m/pixel or picture element) images in black and white and low resolution (about 250 m/pixel) images in color. The Viking 1 craft landed on Mars in July of 1976. West Candor Chasma occupies the westernmost part of the large west-northwest-trending trough of Candor Chasma. This section is about 150 km wide. West Candor Chasma is bordered on the north and south by straight-walled cliffs, most likely faults, and on its west by two segments of north-northeast-trending cliffs. The north wall is dissected by landslide scars forming reentrants filled with landslide debris. The south wall shows spur-and-gully morphology and smooth sections. The high-standing central mesa, informally dubbed Red Mesa has several curvilinear reentrants carved into the caprock, whose anomalously colored layers were interpreted to be caused by young hydrothermal alteration products (Geissler et al., 1993, Icarus, v. 106, p. 380-391). Light-colored lobes flow away from the top of the interior stack and then flow around and embay the same layered stack from which they originated. One of these apparent flow features is composed of at least two or perhaps even three huge, superposed, vaguely layered, very rugged, light-colored lobes as much as 100 km long, 20 km wide, and over 2 km thick. The layered deposits below the caprock also merge with a chaotic material that has local lobate fronts and overlaps landslide deposits. Hummocky material, similar in hue to wall rock, fills the southwestern-most region of west Candor Chasma and is perhaps as much as 3

  7. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    was no tabula rasa politically. He had worked with EEC Commissioners Sicco Mansholt and Henri Simonet, had represented the Young Socialists in the...OF GERMANY Civil-Military Facilitator Role Proposed for Territorial Army (Hans-Lothar Stegmann; TRUPPENPRAXIS, Mar 87) 80 FRANCE GIAT Problems...supportable. The attitude that Mikhail Gorbachev represents the same type of evil helps them to formulate a specific West German role in the Western world

  8. West Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-26

    WEST EUROPE REPORT CONTENTS POLITICAL EUROPEAN AFFAIRS Tindemans on Problems of Belgian EC Presidency ( Leo Tindemans Interview; LA LIBRE BELGIQUE...Interview with Minister of Foreign Relations Leo Tindemans; date and place not given] [Text] [Question] The implementation of the "Single Act," reform of...Izeboud was reelected in the party executive of 55 members, as were former members of the chamber Ina Brouwer , Marius Ernsting and Evelien Eshuis

  9. Drought in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  10. West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  11. JPRS Report, West Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    in French 24 Jun 87 p 2 [Article by Ch. B.] [Text] A crisis? In the PSC? You’re dreaming . Or else you are seeking to destroy stability in the...partners. The ups and downs of recent weeks have done him harm, and it said that he dreams of distancing himself somewhat. If only Willy De Clercq were...a lucid and objective account of his subject matter. It is still quite common for more or less well-informed West Europeans to use the term

  12. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  13. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  14. [West Nile virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Ruiz, Mercedes; Gámez, Sara Sanbonmatsu; Clavero, Miguel Angel Jiménez

    2011-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus usually transmitted by mosquitoes. The main reservoirs are birds, although the virus may infect several vertebrate species, such as horses and humans. Up to 80% of human infections are asymptomatic. The most frequent clinical presentation is febrile illness, and neuroinvasive disease can occur in less than 1% of cases. Spain is considered a high-risk area for the emergence of WNV due to its climate and the passage of migratory birds from Africa (where the virus is endemic). These birds nest surrounding wetlands where populations of possible vectors for the virus are abundant. Diagnosis of human neurological infections can be made by detection of IgM in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid samples, demonstration of a four-fold increase in IgG antibodies between acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples, or by detection of viral genome by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (especially useful in transplant recipients). Since WNV is a biosafety level 3 agent, techniques that involve cell culture are restricted to laboratories with this level of biosafety, such as reference laboratories. The National Program for the Surveillance of WNV Encephalitis allows the detection of virus circulation among birds and vectors in areas especially favorable for the virus, such as wetlands, and provides information for evaluation of the risk of disease in horses and humans.

  15. Discourse Between East and West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The first Chinese-hosted cultural dialogue between the East and the West was held in Nishan, Shandong Province The first Nishan Forum on World Civilizations kicked off on September 26 at Nishan Mountain, 25 km southeast

  16. Why the West?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ferguson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La cuestión de cómo "Occidente" llegó a dominar el mundo durante la era moderna se ha debatido recientemente entre los historiadores. El debate se ha polarizado entre quienes ven en la "modernidad" como resultado de un 'milagro', el proceso cultural único generado en el seno del mismo Occidente, y aquellos que cuestionan este "milagro" como paradigma eurocéntrico, y buscan otros factores para entender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. La literatura tradicional, representada por David Landes en su reciente “La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones”, atribuye el éxito europeo a sus valores culturales únicos, a sus instituciones sociales y sus prácticas políticas. Este éxito fue completamente "impulsado desde dentro” por estas características. Recientemente, varios historiadores han cuestionado este "paradigma del milagro" como eurocéntrica, y miran a otros factores para comprender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. Después de examinar los recientes trabajos de los historiadores frente a este problema, este artículo trata de colocar la expansión europea en un contexto global, y la comprensión de la Revolución Industrial como una transformación global. Esta perspectiva nos permite entender los cambios tecnológicos y económicos Europeos en el contexto más amplio de patrones de interacción económica y cultural de todo el mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The question of how 'the West' came to dominate the globe during the modern era has been debated recently among historians. The debate has been polarized between those who view 'modernity' as the result of a 'European miracle', the culturally unique and internally generated project of the West, and those who question this 'European miracle' paradigm as Eurocentric, and look to other factors to understand and explain Western economic and political world dominance. The traditional narrative, represented by David

  17. Landscape evolution of West Kunlun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Chang, Hong

    2010-05-01

    Constituting the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, the present-day Western Kunlun is a spectacular mountain range, extending from the Pamir Plateau in the west to the Altyn Tagh fault and the Eastern Kunlun Range in the east. Dramatic climate variations have a significant control on the fluvial dissection, glacial erosion and wind transport. The West Kunlun Mountains is one of the key regions for understanding the uplift history of the Plateau and the climate change of Central Asia. The activities of tectonic and erosion make the topography of West Kunlun Mountains complex and varied. However, due to its remote location, there is still limited knowledge about the geomorphologic and geological features in West Kunlun Mountains .This paper tries to figure out the geomorphologic and geological features of this region qualitatively through studying the data of Shuttle Reader Topography Mission (SRTM) and topographic maps by digital elevation models (DEMs) and constructing profiles, aiming to make clear what functions the tectonics and climate exert on the topography of the West Kunlun Mountains. The West Kunlun Mountains, the northwestern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, have strong tectonic activities. From south to north,West Kunlun Mountains developed three major faults: Kangxiwar fracture, North West Kunlun fault and Iron Creek fault. At about 25 Ma B.P., the West Kunlun began to uplift, and from about 5 Ma B.P., the West Kunlun began to grow rapidly. By using topographic analyzing software to make more than 10 vertical profiles across the main faults from south to north, it is obvious that there is a height difference between the upper and lower plate fracture, and the elevation of terrain profiles generally decreases from south to north. There is ~4,500m elevation difference between the main ridge of the West Kunlun Mountains out of Kangxiwar (5500-6000m) and the northern foot of the Tarim Basin (1200-1300m). The same progressively decreasing

  18. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  19. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  20. The West in Early Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, Nanna

    2006-01-01

    Verhoeff investigates the emergence of the western genre, made in the first two decades of cinema (1895-1915). By analyzing many unknown and forgotten films from international archives she traces the relationships between films about the American West, their surrounding films, and other popular medi

  1. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  2. Suggested revision for west mexican archeological sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S V; Taylor, R E

    1966-12-16

    A review of the radiocarbon dates and published and unpublished archeological data from the West Mexican states of Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, and Colima has resulted in a revised tentative chronology for West Mexico.

  3. West Indian Prose Fiction in the Sixties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Edward

    1971-01-01

    A Review and critical discussion of the West Indian prose fiction in the sixties by one of the best-known poets of the Carribean and a member of the faculty of the University of West Indies, Jamaica. (JM)

  4. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Key West, Florida during the Key West World Championship, a series of high-speed boat races. The...

  5. 75 FR 17463 - Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice... sole Receiver for Key West Bank, Key West, Florida, (OTS No. 14929) on March 26, 2010. Dated: March...

  6. Population Structure of West Greenland Narwhals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Dietz, R.; Møller, P.;

    The hypothesis that different populations of narwhals in the West Greenland area exist has been tested by different biomarkers (metal and organochlorine concentrations, stable isotopes and DNA). Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, blubber and skin tissues of narwhals from West Greenland have been...... isotopes could not support the population structure with two West Greenland populations suggested by the genetic study....

  7. 33 CFR 117.622 - West Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Bay 117.622 Section 117.622 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.622 West Bay The draw of the West Bay Bridge, mile...

  8. West Nile virus and "poliomyelitis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejvar, James J

    2004-07-27

    West Nile virus (WNV) has recently been associated with a syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis. Most cases of WNV-associated weakness have clinical, histopathologic, and electrophysiologic characteristics indistinguishable from those of poliomyelitis caused by infection with poliovirus. There is debate about the nomenclature of this manifestation of WNV infection. An historical perspective of the term "poliomyelitis" suggests that the term "WNV poliomyelitis" seems appropriate, but members of the neurologic and infectious disease communities should engage in discussion regarding the terminology of this syndrome.

  9. Surface winds over West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromwich, David

    1993-01-01

    Five winter months (April-August 1988) of thermal infrared satellite images were examined to investigate the occurrence of dark (warm) signatures across the Ross Ice Shelf in the Antarctic continent. These features are inferred to be generated by katabatic winds that descend from southern Marie Byrd Land and then blow horizontally across the ice shelf. Significant mass is added to this airstream by katabatic winds blowing from the major glaciers that flow through the Transantarctic Mountains from East Antarctica. These negatively buoyant katabatic winds can reach the northwestern edge of the shelf - a horizontal propagation distance of up to 1,000 km - 14 percent of the time. Where the airstream crosses from the ice shelf to the ice-covered Ross Sea, a prominent coastal polynya is formed. Because the downslope buoyancy force is near zero over the Ross Ice Shelf, the northwestward propagation of the katabatic air mass requires pressure gradient support. The study shows that the extended horizontal propagation of this atmospheric density current occurred in conjunction with the passage of synoptic cyclones over the southern Amundsen Sea. These cyclones can strengthen the pressure gradient in the interior of West Antarctica and make the pressure field favorable for northwestward movement of the katabatic winds from West Antarctica across the ice shelf in a geostrophic direction. The glacier winds from East Antarctica are further accelerated by the synoptic pressure gradient, usually undergo abrupt adjustment beyond the exit to the glacier valley, and merge into the mountain-parallel katabatic air mass.

  10. West Nile Virus and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, P.P.; Griffing, S.; Caffrey, C.; Kilpatrick, A.M.; McLean, R.; Brand, C.; Saito, E.; Dupuis, A.P.; Kramer, Laura; Novak, R.

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines, few regionwide declines can be attributed to WNV. Predicting future impacts of WNV on wildlife, and pinpointing what drives epidemics, will require substantial additional research into host susceptibility, reservoir competency, and linkages between climate, mosquitoes, and disease. Such work will entail a collaborative effort between scientists in governmental research groups, in surveillance and control programs, and in nongovernmental organizations. West Nile virus was not the first, and it will not be the last, exotic disease to be introduced to the New World. Its spread in North America highlights the need to strengthen animal monitoring programs and to integrate them with research on disease ecology.

  11. 78 FR 79061 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Key West International Airport, Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Key West International Airport, Key West, FL... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted by Monroe County for the Key West International Airport under the provisions of the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act...

  12. 78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon... Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1, 2013. Approximately 1,500 participants are anticipated to participate in the...

  13. Environmental History in the American West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Hal K.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that environmental history is an important component of the history of the American west. Discusses the historiography of the American west in relationship to environmental issues. Concludes that environmental history opened the door for scholars to study the way human beings interact with the physical world around them. (CFR)

  14. PETROCHINA WEST EAST GAS PIPELINE & SALES COMPANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West East Gas Pipeline & Sales Company, a regional company directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), is responsible for the construction and operation of the West-East Gas Pipeline Project, and the gas marketing and sales of the natural gas market in China.

  15. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic......, Kangerlussuaq, Sisimiut and Nuuk. They are situated in continuous, discontinuous and sporadic permafrost zones. We will show examples of detoriation of permafrost related to present local scale climate observations and large scale climate and permafrost simulations modeled numerically with the GIPL model driven...... by HIRHAM climate projections for Greenland up to 2075. The engineering modelling is based on a risk assessment methodology based on a flow diagram which classify the risk of permafrost degradation causing settlement and stability problems for buildings and infrastructures based on relatively simple...

  16. West Nile virus and the climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, P R

    2001-06-01

    West Nile virus is transmitted by urban-dwelling mosquitoes to birds and other animals, with occasional "spillover" to humans. While the means by which West Nile virus was introduced into the Americas in 1999 remain unknown, the climatic conditions that amplify diseases that cycle among urban mosquitoes, birds, and humans are warm winters and spring droughts. This information can be useful in generating early warning systems and mobilizing timely and the most environmentally friendly public health interventions. The extreme weather conditions accompanying long-term climate change may also be contributing to the spread of West Nile virus in the United States and Europe.

  17. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  18. DOLLY SODS WILDERNESS, WEST VIRGINIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Kenneth J.; Hill, James J.

    1984-01-01

    Coal, the principal mineral resource of the Dolly Sods Wilderness, West Virginia is in at least seven beds of low- to medium-volatile bituminous rank. Of these beds, four are of sufficient thickness, quality, and extent to contain demonstrated coal resources which are estimated to total about 15. 5 million short tons in areas of substantiated coal resource potential. A Small-scale development of the coal resources of the Dolly Sods Wilderness has been by several shallow adits which provided fuel for locomotives during early logging operations and by a one truck mine. All mine entries are now abandoned. Peat, shale, clay, and sandstone, occur in the area but because of remoteness of markets and inaccessability they are not classified as resources in this report. Natural gas may occur in rocks underlying the area, but because of a lack of subsurface information an estimate of resource potential has not been made. No evidence of metallic-mineral resources was found during this investigation.

  19. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Pheng Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development.

  20. Drought May Beckon Bigger West Nile Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163495.html Drought May Beckon Bigger West Nile Outbreaks Dry environment ... found that epidemics were larger during years of drought. There were also bigger outbreaks in areas that ...

  1. Libraries in West Virginia: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/westvirginia.html Libraries in West Virginia To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. Bridgeport United Hospital Center Health Sciences Library 327 Medical Park Dr Bridgeport, WV 26330 681- ...

  2. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, de la M.; Mateo, M.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity withi

  3. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  4. West Bank Gaza Geo-MIS System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Geo-MIS System is USAID/West Bank and Gaza's primary system for capturing and managing projectrelated information. Its purpose is to assist USAID and its...

  5. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  6. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  7. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) Temperature Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  8. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  9. West Nile virus and the climate

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Paul R.

    2001-01-01

    West Nile virus is transmitted by urban-dwelling mosquitoes to birds and other animals, with occasional “spillover” to humans. While the means by which West Nile virus was introduced into the Americas in 1999 remain unknown, the climatic conditions that amplify diseases that cycle among urban mosquitoes, birds, and humans are warm winters and spring droughts. This information can be useful in generating early warning systems and mobilizing timely and the most environmentally friendly public h...

  10. Potential seaways across West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, David G.; Barnes, David K. A.; Fretwell, Peter T.; Bingham, Robert G.

    2011-10-01

    The West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) has long been considered vulnerable to rapid retreat and today parts are rapidly losing ice. Projection of future change in WAIS is, however, hampered by our poor understanding of past changes, especially during interglacial periods that could be analogs for the future, but which undoubtedly provide an opportunity for testing predictive models. We consider how ice-loss would open seaways across WAIS; these would likely alter Southern Ocean circulation and climate, and would broadly define the de-glacial state, but they may also have left evidence of their existence in the coastal seas they once connected. We show the most likely routes for such seaways, and that a direct seaway between Weddell and Ross seas, which did not pass through the Amundsen Sea sector, is unlikely. Continued ice-loss at present rates would open seaways between Amundsen and Weddell seas (A-W), and Amundsen and Bellingshausen seas (A-B), in around one thousand years. This timescale indicates potential future vulnerability, but also suggests seaways may have opened in recent interglacial periods. We attempt to test this hypothesis using contemporary bryozoan species assemblages around Antarctica, concluding that anomalously high similarity in assemblages in the Weddell and Amundsen seas supports recent migration through A-W. Other authors have suggested opening of seaways last occurred during Marine Isotope Stage 7a (209 ka BP), but we conclude that opening could have occurred in MIS 5e (100 ka BP) when Antarctica was warmer than present and likely contributed to global sea levels higher than today.

  11. On Universal Telecommunication Service and West China Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims at studying the relationship between universal telecommunication service and West China development. It, firstly, introduces our country's demands for universal telecommunication service; secondly, analyses the demand of West China development for the universal telecommunication service; thirdly, depicts the development status of telecommunication industry of the west region; fourthly, points out the significance of universal telecommunication service to the west area; and lastly, brings forward the connotation of universal telecommunication service of west area.

  12. Evolution of the West Siberian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyssotski, A.V. [Chevron, 1500 Louisiana Street, Houston (United States); Vyssotski, V.N. [TNK-BP, 1 Arbat St, Moscow 119019 (Russian Federation); Nezhdanov, A.A. [OOO TyumenNIIgiprogas, 2 Vorovskogo Str., Tyumen 625019 (Russian Federation)

    2006-01-01

    The West Siberian Basin is one of the largest intra-cratonic basins of the world and an important hydrocarbon province of Russia. Perhaps the most important geologic event in Siberia was the emplacement of basalts around {approx} 250Ma (i.e. Permo-Triassic boundary) covering an area of about 5x10{sup 6} km{sup 2}. This volcanism may be responsible for a mass extinction that occurred around Permian-Triassic time. The pre-basaltic rifting event was limited to the north-northeastern sector of the basin. Initial basin wide subsidence took place in the Jurassic as a result of which the western part of Siberia became the West Siberian Basin bounded by uplifts to the east and to the west. One of the surprising aspects of the West Siberian Basin is the abundance of sub-vertical faults believed to be result of strike-slip movement. While intra-plate inversions and fault reactivation structures have been observed in many cratons, sub-vertical faults observed in the West Siberian Basin are unique because of their geometries and abundance. The differentiation between the effects of tectonics and eustasy in cratonic basins is simple-the global eustatic signal is basin-wide with regional and local tectonics playing an overprinting role. Thus, the Middle Jurassic-Turonian 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order cycles in the West Siberian Basin were primarily driven by eustasy. The Middle Jurassic-Turonian series can be subdivided into two second-order and 16 third-order transgressive-regressive cycles (within dataset extent). Fourth-order cycles appear to be controlled by delta shifting. Although extensively studied, a number of fundamental questions regarding the origin and evolution of the West Siberian Basin remain unresolved or poorly documented in the literature. [Author].

  13. Marine corrosion of mild steel at Lumut, Perak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Ong Shiou; Potty, Narayanan Sambu; Liew, Mohd. Shahir

    2012-09-01

    The corrosion rate of structural steels in the adverse marine and offshore environments affects the economic interest of offshore structures since the loss of steel may have significant impact on structural safety and performance. With more emphasis to maintain existing structures in service for longer time and hence to defer replacement costs, there is increasing interest in predicting corrosion rate at a given location for a given period of exposure once the protection coating or cathodic protection is lost. The immersion depth, salinity, steel composition and water pollution will be taken into account. Various corrosion allowances are prescribed for structural members by different standards. There are no studies to determine the appropriate corrosion allowance for steel structures in marine environment in Malaysia. The objectives of the research are to determine the nature and rate of corrosion in mm/year for steel structures in marine environment. It also tries to identify whether the corrosion rate is affected by differences in the chemical composition of the steels, and microalgae. Two sets of corrosion coupons of Type 3 Steel consisting of mild steel were fabricated and immersed in seawater using steel frames. The corrosion rate of the coupon in mm/ per year is estimated based on the material weight loss with time in service. The results are compared with recommendations of the code.

  14. Grizzly West: A Failed Attempt to Reintroduce Grizzly Bears in the Mountain West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Richardson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Grizzly West: A Failed Attempt to Reintroduce Grizzly Bears in the Mountain West. By Michael M. Dax. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2015. x + 289 pp. US$ 37.50. ISBN 978-0-8032-6673-5.

  15. 77 FR 56125 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ..., EPA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) for West Virginia. 77 FR 10423. The ] NPR proposed... adopted a PSD program under 45 CSR 14, and the program became part of the West Virginia SIP. See 51 FR... review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4,...

  16. 78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon... Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1, 2013. Approximately 1,500 participants are anticipated to participate in the triathlon. The special local...

  17. Blooming Seas West of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    For several weeks in May and early June, daily satellite images of the North Atlantic Ocean west of Ireland have captured partial glimpses of luxuriant blooms of microscopic marine plants between patches of clouds. On June 4, 2007, the skies over the ocean cleared, displaying the sea's spring bloom in brilliant color. A bright blue bloom stretches north from the Mouth of the River Shannon and tapers off like a plume of blue smoke north of Clare Island. (In the large image, a second bloom is visible to the north, wrapping around County Donegal, on the island's northwestern tip.) The image was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite. Cold, nutrient-stocked water often wells up to the surface from the deeper ocean along coastal shelves and at the edges of ocean currents. When it does, it delivers a boost of nutrients that fuel large blooms of single-celled plants collectively known as phytoplankton. The plants are the foundation of the marine food web, and their proliferation in this area of the North Atlantic explains why the waters of western Ireland support myriad fisheries and populations of large mammals like seals, whales, and dolphins. Like plants on land, phytoplankton make their food through photosynthesis, harnessing sunlight for energy using chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments. The pigments change the way light reflects off the surface water, appearing as colorful swirls of turquoise and green against the darker blue of the ocean. Though individually tiny, collectively these plants play a big role in Earth's carbon and climate cycles; worldwide, they remove about as much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis as land plants do. Satellites are the only way to map the occurrence of phytoplankton blooms across the global oceans on a regular basis. That kind of information is important not only to scientists who model carbon and climate, but also to biologists and fisheries

  18. Political struggle and West Indies cricket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Mandle

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] An Area of Conquest: Popular Democracy and West Indies Cricket Supremacy. HILARY McD BECKLES (ed.. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1995. xviii + 154 pp. (Paper n.p. Liberation Cricket: West Indies Cricket Culture. HILARY McD BECKLES & BRIAN STODDART (eds.. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1995. xii + 403 pp. (Paper n.p. We discovered cricket's importance in the English-speaking Caribbean nearly thirty years ago when we took up our first post in the West Indies. Exploring the Mona campus of the University of the West Indies, we were alarmed to observe so many people who appeared to be hearing-disabled. Wherever we went we found people with ear-pieces who were slightly distracted and at the same time prone to violent mood swings, ranging from the depths of despair to enormous elation. Uncertain about the meaning of what we observed, but reluctant, as newcomers, to reveal our ignorance of public health problems in the region, we delayed inquiring about hearing disabilities until we could confide our concerns to a trusted friend. At first convulsed with laughter, she finally recovered sufficiently to assure us that the people of the West Indies did not suffer disproportionately from hearing loss. Rather, the large numbers of people with ear-pieces were listening to a cricket test match!

  19. Future markers of the West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract West Greenlandic, a polysynthetic language, belongs to Inuit languages. In Inuktitut (Canada) and West Greenlandic (Inuit languages) tense is marked by optional tense suffixes and in both languages the temporal systems are based on a future/ non-future opposition. In Inuktitut the tense......, and it is used when none of the others can be used. It seems that some of the tense suffixes i.e. past (-sima, perfective, perfect, preterite) and future (-ler, begin, be about to, near future) originally had a more or less concrete aspectual meanings and have developed into more abstract tense meanings...... suffixes have developed a complicated remoteness system. In West Greenlandic the future tense suffixes have a distinction between vague and inevitable future, and the past time suffixes have developed different perfect meanings. In Iñupiaq (Alaska), the temporal system is based on an opposition between...

  20. American Indian Studies in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, H. Guillermo

    1986-01-01

    Interest in the American Indian in West Germany is high. Romantic notions, derived from the novels of 19th century German writer Karl May and American westerns shown on German television, combined with a subtle anti-Americanism might be responsible for the American Indian Movement (AIM) support groups that have been forming among students and…

  1. Education and Koranic Literacy in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Easton, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The note examines the practical, and literate skills that students acquire at different levels in West African Koranic schools. It is a long-standing parallel system of education, yet, relatively unknown to development planers, thus seldom taken into explicit account in their policies, and strategies. Islamic educational systems have been present since the seventh century, and by the tenth ...

  2. West Point student drops out / Jorgen Johansson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johansson, Jorgen

    2001-01-01

    Läti kohus mõistis välja kahjutasu Juris Matusevics'ilt, kes rikkus Läti kaitsejõududega sõlmitud kokkulepet, mis kohustas teda pärast USA West Pointi sõjaväeakadeemia lõpetamist teenima viis aastat Läti armees

  3. Hangzhou:EAST CITY,WEST LAKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ View over West Lake,Hangzhou is in Zhejiang Province,eastern coast area of China.It is one of the most important tourism cities here,famous for its natural beauty and historical and cultural heritages,and the political,economic and cultural center of Zhejiang province as well.

  4. West Virginia State Budgeting for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckley, Richard

    County school districts in West Virginia are facing a funding crisis. Significant outmigration resulting in decreased school enrollment has caused the state legislature to change the state school aid formula, forcing school districts to lay off large numbers of low-seniority employees. The state legislature's perception that public schools are…

  5. Transcending Communication Barriers with West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampadu, Lena

    Americans doing business with West Africans are limited in their ability to communicate successfully in that part of the world because of language, stereotyping, and ethnocentrism. Americans must become accustomed to British patterns of speech and writing. Stereotypes of Africa, its people, and its cultures perpetuated by the media keep Americans…

  6. Vaccines in Development against West Nile Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Tangy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine.

  7. Writing the New West: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Paul; Meehan, Katharine; Gosnell, Hannah; Gilbertz, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    A vast and growing interdisciplinary research effort has focused on the rise of the so-called New West, purportedly the product of regional socioeconomic, political, and ecological upheavals in states like Montana and Colorado. Reviewing the growing research on this problem in sociology, economics, geography, and conservation science, this article…

  8. West Indian Sojourners in Guatemala and Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald N. Harpelle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Race, Nation, and West Indian Immigration to Honduras, 1890-1940. Glenn A. Chambers. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010. xii +202 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00Black Labor Migration in Caribbean Guatemala, 1882-1923. Frederick Douglass Opie. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2009. 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 65.00

  9. Design and manufacturing of WEST Baffle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batal, Tristan, E-mail: tristan.batal@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Firdaouss, Mehdi; Richou, Marianne; Ferlay, Fabien; Larroque, Sébastien; Gargiulo, Laurent [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Dupas, Timothée [SODITECH Ingénierie SA, 1 bis allée des gabians, 06150 Cannes la Bocca (France); Verger, Jean-Marc; Doceul, Louis; Samaille, Franck; Bucalossi, Jérôme [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Salami, Michael [AVANTIS groupe, 12 route de Saint Mathieu, 06130 Grasse (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Disruption's torque in the PFC was simulated thanks to ANSYS. • The ANSYS thermal results comply with WEST project requirements. • The cycling analysis complies with WEST project requirements. • 316L components comply with A level RCC-MRx criteria. - Abstract: The Tore Supra tokamak is being transformed in an X-point divertor fusion device in the frame of the WEST project, launched in support to the Iter tungsten divertor strategy. The WEST Baffle aims to evacuate particles by creating a toroidal pumping throat. It also protects the lower divertor cooling pipes and the passive stabilization plate from heat fluxes. The Baffle is made of actively cooled plasma facing components (PFCs), with underneath a passive stabilization plate and a support beam. The Baffle design is presented in a first part. In a second time the different ANSYS simulations are described: electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical results are presented. The design choices are justified for the different results obtained thanks to the simulation. In a final part, some aspects of the PFC manufacturing are presented.

  10. Epidemiology: Malaria in a warmer West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, C.; Jones, A. E.

    2016-11-01

    Malaria risk in West Africa is expected to fall (western region) or remain the same (eastern region) in response to climate change over the twenty-first century. This is primarily due to extreme temperature conditions projected under a high greenhouse gas emissions scenario.

  11. The lithospheric mantle below southern West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Karina Krarup; Waight, Tod Earle; Pearson, D. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Geothermobarometry of primarily garnet lherzolitic xenoliths from several localities in southern West Greenland is applied to address the diamond potential, pressure and temperature distribution and the stratigraphy of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle ~600 Ma ago. The samples are from kimbe...... into the reworked Archean North of the Naqssugtoqidian deformation front....

  12. Why We Need West Nile Virus Testing

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-27

    Dr. Rodrigo Hasbun, a professor of infectious diseases at McGovern Medical School at UT Health, discusses the need for West Nile virus testing in Texas.  Created: 9/27/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/27/2016.

  13. 76 FR 37996 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... surface coal mining and reclamation operations on non- Federal and non-Indian lands within its borders by... of approval of the West Virginia program in the January 21, 1981, Federal Register (46 FR 5915). You... actual language of State regulatory programs and program amendments because each program is drafted...

  14. West Florida shelf upwelling: Origins and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Robert H.; Zheng, Lianyuan; Liu, Yonggang

    2016-08-01

    Often described as oligotrophic, the west Florida continental shelf supports abundant fisheries, experiences blooms of the harmful alga, Karenia brevis, and exhibits subsurface chlorophyll maxima evident in shipboard and glider surveys. Renewal of inorganic nutrients by the upwelling of deeper ocean water onto the shelf may account for this, but what are the origins and pathways by which such new water may broach the shelf break and advance toward the shoreline? We address these questions via numerical model simulations of pseudo-Lagrangian, isopycnic water parcel trajectories. Focus is on 2010, when the west Florida shelf was subjected to an anomalously protracted period of upwelling caused by Gulf of Mexico Loop Current interactions with the shelf slope. Origins and pathways are determined by integrating trajectories over successive 45 day intervals, beginning from different locations along the shelf break and at various locations and depths along the shelf slope. Waters upwelling across the shelf break are found to originate from relatively shallow depths along the shelf slope. Even for the anomalous 2010 year, much of this upwelling occurs from about 150 m and above, although waters may broach the shelf break from 300 m depth, particularly in the Florida Panhandle. Such interannual renewal of west Florida shelf waters appears to have profound effects on west Florida shelf ecology.

  15. Large Acrobatic Play Pilgrimage to the West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马洁

    2006-01-01

    Hosted by Ministry of Culture and Guangzhou Municipal People's Government,Guangzhou Bureau of Culture organized a list of first-class singing and dancing and acrobatic plays in Guangzhou in September 2006. Among these plays, large original acrobatic play Pilgrimage to the West of Guangzhou Acrobatic Troupe went on the stage during October 12th and November 5th.

  16. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  17. Mastomys natalensis and Lassa fever, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, Emilie; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Daffis, Stéphane; Koulémou, Kékoura; Sylla, Oumar; Kourouma, Fodé; Doré, Amadou; Soropogui, Barré; Aniskin, Vladimir; Allali, Bernard; Kouassi Kan, Stéphane; Lalis, Aude; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan; Denys, Christiane; ter Meulen, Jan

    2006-12-01

    PCR screening of 1,482 murid rodents from 13 genera caught in 18 different localities of Guinea, West Africa, showed Lassa virus infection only in molecularly typed Mastomys natalensis. Distribution of this rodent and relative abundance compared with M. erythroleucus correlates geographically with Lassa virus seroprevalence in humans.

  18. Coeliac disease in children of West Indian origin.

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, J C; Phillips, A D; Walker-Smith, J A

    1995-01-01

    Coeliac disease is uncommon in populations of non-European origin. Two English born West Indian children with coeliac disease are presented. The diagnosis should be considered in children of West Indian origin with chronic diarrhoea.

  19. Characteristics of waves off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; AshokKumar, K.; Anand, N.M.

    Directional wave measurements were carried out using Datawell directional waverider buoy off Goa along west coast of India during the south west monsoon period in 1996 and the results are presented. Theoretical joint distribution of wave height...

  20. West Coast DA Event data - West Coast Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Beginning in the spring of 2015 the US West Coast began to experience the most wide-spread toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom to date, after approximately eight years...

  1. 78 FR 59841 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; West Virginia's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ..., disproportionate human health or environmental effects, using practicable and legally permissible methods, under... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Nitrogen dioxide, Particulate... Environmental Protection, Division of Air Quality, 601 57th Street SE., Charleston, West Virginia 25304....

  2. 77 FR 10423 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... address, as appropriate, disproportionate human health or environmental effects, using practicable and... preempt tribal law. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control...; Amendments to West Virginia's Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  3. Optimal for difficult roofs. East-west orientation; Optimal fuer schwierige Daecher. Ost-West-Ausrichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouattour, Mohamed Ali [Solar Frontier Europe GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    With the help of CIS solar modules the unfavorable east-west roofs can be also use efficiently and profitably, since the good weak-light performance almost compensates the weak light components characterized irradiation conditions. [German] Mit Hilfe der CIS-Solarmodule lassen sich auch die unguenstige Ost-West-Daecher effizient und profitabel nutzen, da das gute Schwachlichtverhalten die hier von schwachen Lichtanteilen gepraegten Einstrahlungsverhaeltnisse nahezu kompensiert.

  4. West Virginia Interpretive Guide Training: A Collaborative Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcarczyk, Kelly; McKenney, Kathryn; Smaldone, Dave; Arborgast, Doug

    2013-01-01

    West Virginia University's Extension Service partnered with the Recreation, Parks, and Tourism Resources Program to improve guide performance in West Virginia's tourism industry. The result of this partnership is a West Virginia Interpretive Guide Training program aimed at providing low-cost, widely available training to guides…

  5. 78 FR 51199 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4132-DR), dated July 26, 2013...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  6. 75 FR 18517 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1893-DR), dated March 29... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  7. 75 FR 25873 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1903-DR), dated April 23... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  8. 75 FR 39560 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1918-DR), dated June 24, 2010... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West Virginia resulting...

  9. 77 FR 46103 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4071-DR), dated July 23, 2012...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  10. 77 FR 76061 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4093-DR), dated November 27... West Virginia resulting from Hurricane Sandy during the period of October 29 to November 8, 2012, is...

  11. 75 FR 11902 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1881-DR), dated March 2, 2010... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West Virginia resulting from...

  12. Excerpt from East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Excerpted from Karen Kuo, East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012). Reprinted with permission from Temple University Press.

  13. Excerpt from East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Kuo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Excerpted from Karen Kuo, East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012.Reprinted with permission from Temple University Press.

  14. West Africa land use and land cover time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.

    2017-02-16

    Started in 1999, the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project represents an effort to map land use and land cover, characterize the trends in time and space, and understand their effects on the environment across West Africa. The outcome of the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project is the production of a three-time period (1975, 2000, and 2013) land use and land cover dataset for the Sub-Saharan region of West Africa, including the Cabo Verde archipelago. The West Africa Land Use Land Cover Time Series dataset offers a unique basis for characterizing and analyzing land changes across the region, systematically and at an unprecedented level of detail.

  15. The Influence of the West in American Civil War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铂

    2016-01-01

    After the 19th century, the West was no longer an appendage of the South and the North. During the Civil War, the North had superiority in both economy and politics. This owed much to the West. The share of the same labour system laid the foundation of the union between the North and the West. The victory of the North linked closely to the support of the West. The essay analyzed the contribution made by the West from the perspectives of economy and politics.

  16. Tectonics in the Northwestern West Philippine Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Xianglong; Wu Shiguo; Shinjo Ryuichi

    2008-01-01

    The West Philippine basin (WPB) is a currently inactive marginal basin belonging to Philippine Sea plate, which has a complex formation history and various crust structures. Based on gravity, magnetic and seismic data, the tectonics in West Philippine basin is characterized by amagnma spreading stage and strike slip fractures. NNE trending Okinawa-Luzon fracture zone is a large fracture zone with apparent geomorphology and shows a right-handed movement. The results of joint gravity-magnetic-seismic inversion suggest that the Okinawa-Luzon fracture zone has intensive deformation and is a transform fault. Western existence of the NW trending fractures under Ryukyu Islands Arc is the main cause of the differences between south and north Okinawa Trough. The Urdaneta plateau is not a remained arc, but remnant of mantle plume although its lava chemistry is similar to oceanic island basalt (OIB).

  17. Aerial view of the West Area complex

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    The SPS lies below ground beyond the top of the picture, and the proton beam from it enters the large West Hall from the right. All hadronic beams but one were concentrated in this hall. The neutrino beam from the underground target Passes through BEBC in the tall structure left of centre. The light-coloured building further left houses the neutrino counter experiments WA1 and WA18, and at the left end of the line, in the small block near the edge of the picture sits Gargamelle on a pedestal, since the beam is rising at an angle of about 2 deg. From right to left: West Hall - Bld 180; BEBC - Bld 191; Neutrino - Bld 182; Gargamelle - Bld 185.

  18. Multiculturalism and Minority Rights: West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Kymlicka

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Are Western models of multiculturalism and minority rights relevant for the post-Communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe? This article describes a range of Western models, and explores the social and political conditions that have led to their adoption in the West. It then considers various factors which might make the adoption of these models difficult in Eastern Europe, and considers the potential role of the international community in overcoming these obstacles.

  19. Developing Pipeline Transportation in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Chenghan; Wang Wei

    1997-01-01

    @@ Since the late 1980s, focus of exploration and development for oil & gas has been diverted to thewest of China, resulting in the discovery and development of Shaanbei gas field followed by large-scale exploration and development of Tarim,Turpan and Hami basins. Responding to this situation, pipeline construction focus has also been transferred to west China where large-scale development of pipeline transportation, an opportunity as well as a challenge, is expected.

  20. WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

    2004-01-01

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct

  1. Visual examinations of K west fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitner, A.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-03

    Over 250 fuel assemblies stored in sealed canisters in the K West Basin were extracted and visually examined for damage. Substantial damage was expected based on high cesium levels previously measured in water samples taken from these canisters. About 11% of the inner elements and 45% of the outer elements were found to be failed in these examinations. Canisters that had cesium levels of I curie or more generally had multiple instances of major fuel damage.

  2. Whither Unified Korea? East, West or Center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    unified Korea has three broadly defined alignment options—tilt West towards the United States and Japan, tilt East towards the People’s Republic of China...PRC), or pursue neutrality /nonalignment, each with their own advantages, disadvantages, and nuanced variations. Given the range of strategic...alignment options and its tumultuous history, culture and existing security dilemma, Korea will likely opt for neutrality /nonalignment as the best option

  3. Collaborative work between the West and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Bart, Gavin; Li, Li; Giang, Le Minh

    2013-12-01

    The "Collaborative Work between the West and Asia" session was chaired by Dr. Yih-Ing Hser and had three speakers. The speakers (and their topics) were: Dr. Gavin Bart (Collaborative Addiction Research in Asian Populations Home and Abroad), Dr. Li Li (Implementing Intervention Research Projects in Asia), and Dr. Le Minh Giang (Building Research Infrastructure for International Collaborative Studies on Substance Use Disorder and HIV: The Case of Hanoi Medical University/Vietnam).

  4. WEST PIONEER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    The West Pioneer Wilderness Study Area is in the Pioneer Mountains, Beaverhead County, Montana. A mineral-resource study of the area identified eight areas with molybdenum potential, four areas with gold-silver potential, one area with tungsten potential, and one area with barite potential. Several small mines were encountered, but none were accessible for the purposes of resource evaluation. No energy resources were identified in the study.

  5. SPS beam to the West Hall

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    One of the two target stations feeding the West Hall (see Annual Report 1976). After the proton beam was split into three branches, the outer two were directed on to targets in the cast iron shielding box, the centre one passing through the box to another target station downstream. Five different targets could be put in each beam, controlled by the mechanism seen on top.

  6. IR thermography diagnostics for the WEST project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, X., E-mail: xavier.courtois@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Aumeunier, M.H. [OPTIS, ZE de La Farlède, F-83078 Toulon Cedex 9 (France); Joanny, M.; Roche, H.; Micolon, F.; Salasca, S.; Balorin, C.; Jouve, M. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The WEST project requires a set of three infrared diagnostics. • The tungsten divertor will be monitored by the existing diagnostic renewed. • The antennas monitoring require the development of an innovative diagnostic. • A fiber bundle will be used as image transport for the antennas monitoring. • A wide angle tangential view of the upper divertor and the first wall is studied. - Abstract: To operate long plasma discharge in tokamak equipped with actively cooled plasma facing components (PFC), infrared (IR) thermography is a key diagnostic. Indeed IR data are used for both PFC safety monitoring, to avoid material degradation and water leak, and various physics studies on plasma-wall interaction. The IR monitoring is becoming even more crucial with today metallic PFCs. This is the case for the WEST project (Tungsten (W) Environment for Steady State Tokamak), which aims at installing a W divertor in Tore Supra (TS), in order to operate the 1st tokamak with a full W actively cooled divertor in long plasma discharges. The IR thermography system for the WEST project described in this paper will consist of a set of 3 different diagnostics: (1) Six cameras located in upper ports viewing the full W divertor, which reuse a part of the existing diagnostic of TS. (2) Five novel views located behind the inner protection panels for the antennas monitoring, based on an innovative imaging fibers bundle technology. (3) A tangential wide angle view located in a median port, for the upper divertor and first wall monitoring.

  7. Cause of East-West Earth Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    The different slope of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards east and west is considered a main asymmetry of the Earth's globe. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30o, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper. In the framework of plate tectonics geodynamics the cause of this difference can be identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west. But this solution has been many times criticized on the basis of the irrelevance of the tidal forces with respect to viscous friction. Instead, it is possible to show that in a different framework, in which sudden extrusions of mantle materials occur by local phase change toward a more unpacked lattice, the value of the Coriolis fictitious force can rise of several magnitude orders, becoming the main cause of the east-west asymmetry of the Wadati-Benioff zones, which might be ascribed entirely to internal causes of the planet (its rotation and geodynamics) and not to external causes ...

  8. History and the West Indian nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Birbalsingh

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Art of Kamau Brathwaite. STEWART BROWN (ed.. Bridgend, Wales: Seren/Poetry Wales Press, 1995. 275 pp. (Cloth US$ 50.00, Paper US$ 22.95 Atlantic Passages: History, Community, and Language in the Fiction of Sam Selvon. MARK LOOKER. New York: Peter Lang, 1996. x + 243 pp. (Cloth n.p. Caliban's Curse: George Lamming and the Revisioning of History. SUPRIYA NAIR. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996. viii + 171 pp. (Cloth US$ 34.50 Phyllis Shand Allfrey: A Caribbean Life. LlZABETH PARAVISINI-GEBERT. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1996. xii + 335 pp. (Cloth US$ 55.00, Paper US$ 18.95 Of the four books to be considered here, those on Brathwaite, Selvon, and Lamming fit snugly together into a natural category of literature that has to do with the emergence of a Creole or African-centered Caribbean culture, and related issues of race, color, class, history, and nationality. The fourth is a biography of Phyllis Shand Allfrey, a white West Indian, who is of an altogether different race, color, and class than from the other three. Yet the four books are linked together by nationality, for Allfrey and the others are all citizens of one region, the English-speaking West Indies, which, as the Federation of the West Indies between 1958 and 1962, formed a single nation.

  9. Poverty and health in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmert, U; Mielck, A; Shea, S

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between poverty and several health-related characteristics in West Germany was investigated. Data were derived from the National and Regional Health Surveys conducted in West Germany from 1984 to 1992. 25,544 males and 25,719 females with German nationality aged 25-69 years were examined. Poverty was defined as a household income of 50% less than the mean for West Germany. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between poverty and four health variables: individual health behavior, subjective assessment of health status, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and self-reported prevalence of lifetime chronic diseases. 10.2% of males and 12.8% of females were classified as being below the poverty line. For most but not all health parameters, less favourable results were found for the segment of the population with a household income below the poverty line. The most striking poverty-related differences were observed for lack of regular sport activities, subjective health satisfaction, obesity and myocardial infarction/stroke. Significantly lower prevalence rates for study subjects below the poverty line were observed for hypercholesterolemia in females only. Allergic disorders were the only chronic diseases reported significantly less often in males and females below the poverty line. Poverty has strong effects on individual health status and the prevalence of chronic diseases. Due to the rising unemployment rates in Germany in the last years it is very likely that the strong negative consequences of poverty for health are increasing.

  10. Enhanced integrators for WEST magnetic diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spuig, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.spuig@cea.fr [CEA IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Kumari, Praveena [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar District 382428 (India); Moreau, Michel; Moreau, Philippe; Le-luyer, Alain; Malard, Philippe [CEA IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • On Tokamaks, analogue integrators are key instruments. • Our analogue integrators is reliable and fast, thus relevant for fusion facilities. • Our integrator fulfils requirements for long time pulses of WEST Tokamak. • The performances are amongst the best never obtained for analogue integrators. - Abstract: The WEST project consists of implementing a divertor configuration in the Tore Supra Tokamak. This modification requires to renew the magnetic diagnostics and especially adding new magnetic sensors in the divertor region. This has provided an opportunity to consider some enhancements to the existing integrator modules of the magnetic diagnostics. Two prototypes have been produced using different combinations of technical solutions, aiming to achieve lower drift and higher common mode rejection ratio (CMRR). This paper presents the explored and tested ways we followed in order to create enhanced analogue integrators for long pulses. The results of extensive and comprehensive tests are summarized. The achieved performances are analyzed regarding the WEST project specifications and furthermore, the latest ITER requirements for magnetic diagnostics integrators are also considered.

  11. The ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Dan; Bromwich, David; Vogelmann, Andrew; Verlinde, Johannes; Russell, Lynn

    2016-04-01

    West Antarctica is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and its changing climate in both atmosphere and ocean is linked to loss of Antarctic ice mass and global sea level rise. The specific mechanisms for West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) warming are not fully understood, but are hypothesized to involve linkage between moisture from Southern Ocean storm tracks and the surface energy balance over the WAIS, and related teleconnections with subtropical and tropical meteorology. This present lack of understanding has motivated a climate science and cloud physics campaign jointly supported by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and Department of Energy (DOE), called the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE). The DOE's second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) was deployed to McMurdo Station on Ross Island in November 2015 and will operate through December 2016. The AMF2 includes (1) cloud research radars, both scanning and zenith, operating in the Ka- and X-bands, (2) high spectral resolution and polarized micropulse lidars, and (3) a suite of shortwave and longwave broadband and spectral radiometers. A second suite of instruments is deployed at the WAIS Divide Ice Camp on the West Antarctic plateau during December 2015 and January 2016. The WAIS instrument suite provides (1) measurement of all surface energy balance components, (2) a polarized micropulse lidar and shortwave spectroradiometer, (3) microwave total water column measurement, and (4) four times daily rawinsonde launches which are the first from West Antarctica since 1967. There is a direct linkage between the WAIS instrument suite and the AMF2 at McMurdo, in that air masses originating in Southern Ocean storm tracks that are driven up over the WAIS often subsequently descend over the Ross Ice Shelf and arrive at Ross Island. Preliminary data are already illustrating the prevalence of mixed-phase clouds and their role in the surface energy balance

  12. Profiles Junior high School West Java in Education Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NFN Nahadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Descriptive studies have been conducted on the existing junior high profile in West Java on Education Learning Environment. The study was conducted by purposive sampling and descriptive done to get an idea about the profile of SMP in West Java implementation of the learning environment. in junior high school in West Java. Research conducted by distributing questionnaires, and observations based on the indicators developed. Based on this research, it is known that, PLH learning in junior high school in West Java has been in force since 2007 after the enactment of the Governor of West Java on environmental education for junior high school students in West Java. Learning that lasts generally implemented in conventional teacher, and it is without any innovations. It has made learning the essential condition runs well, but has not lasted optimally.

  13. Raw material studies of West Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Bogosavljević Petrović

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with raw material problems in the territory of West Central Serbia geologically determined as the Čačak-Kraljevo (or West Morava basin. Our research is presented through the most striking case studies, Lojanik, Vlaška Glava and Lazac.  The Lojanik hill is a silicified forest by origin. It has occasionally been in use from the earliest periods of prehistory until today as a source of black and ochre-coloured flint, opal and silicified wood. A detailed prospection, including the mapping of surface finds using square nets, was conducted during two research campaigns.The Vlaška Glava is an open-air Palaeolithic site at which artefacts made of white, ochre, red, brown and black chert, silicified magnesite, volcanic and metamorphic rocks were found. Our research of primary and secondary geological deposits in the vicinity of the site showed equivalent raw material. We also found an interesting primary deposit of high quality bluish grey flint with outcrop activities (Workshop 1.The Lazac shaft is a contemporary magnesite mine, recently abandoned because of the high percentage of silicon-dioxide. We determined the same raw material in collections found at nearby Neolithic sites. Certain similarities between the wooden support systems of ore exploration in the Middle Ages and modern times were established at the entrance of the shaft.Our research in the territory of the West Morava basin resulted in reconstruction of some links between geological deposits and settlements and also creation of a relevant base for future raw material studies.

  14. West Edmonton Mall : buying into energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, K. [West Edmonton Mall, AB (Canada)

    2003-11-01

    The West Edmonton Mall consists of 600 stores and services, as well as attractions including a marine life lagoon, a skating rink, the largest indoor wave pool in the world, and an amusement park. Lighting retrofits, power-factor correction equipment, and tenant energy-saving criteria all combine to make the West Edmonton Mall a model of energy efficiency. An energy consultant was hired in 2001 to develop an energy management plan in an attempt to find ways to save energy while providing a return on investment. Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions are a consequence of reduced energy consumption. Variable frequency drives (VFDs) were recently installed on heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) fans, with assistance from the Energy Innovators Initiative (EII) of Natural Resources Canada. In addition, the West Edmonton Mall is now signed up with Canada's Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry Inc. The retrofit involved the conversion of 42 constant speed, variable-pitch supply and return fans to a fixed pitch. The total cost of the retrofit was $970,000, and the energy savings are expected to reach $524,295 annually. A brief overview of energy savings measures implemented since 1985 was provided. Separate metering and billing for new tenants is a strategy to make sure that they are aware of their energy costs. This strategy makes them more active in reducing their energy consumption. An awareness and accountability system was put in place, and a variety of potential projects are being evaluated, such as a cogeneration system, updating fluid pumps, and adding new controls to hot water heaters. 1 tab.

  15. East-West cooperation at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    From left to right: H. Bokemeyer, in charge of physics for INTAS, J. Sinnaeve, INTAS' general secretary and R. Landua, ATHENA spokesman, visit the ATHENA experiment installations. Heads of INTAS (International Association for the promotion and cooperation of the new independent states of the former Soviet Union) visited CERN on 11 October. This association is in charge of preserving and promoting the scientific potential of the former Soviet Union countries through a cooperation between East and West. In recents years, a certain number of projects related to the LHC experiments have been co-financed by INTAS. The support for young researchers coming from these countries is also a big success.

  16. Orchids inventory in Sintang Regency, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTI ENDAH ARIYANTI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Orchid is one of ornamental plants which have commercial value. Therefore most species are becoming threatened or even endangered because of over exploitation. In addition, its natural habitat is also decreasing. Conservation must be done urgently, both by in situ and ex situ conservation, which can be started by orchid inventory. The orchid inventory was done in TWA Bukit Kelam, TWA Baning and several places in Regency of Sintang, West Kalimantan. The result showed that there were 40 species belonged to 27 genera, which 32 species of them (20 genera were epiphytic orchids and 8 species (7 genera were terrestrial orchids.

  17. Lassa fever: another threat from West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosh-Nissimov, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Lassa fever, a zoonotic viral infection, is endemic in West Africa. The disease causes annual wide spread morbidity and mortality in Africa, and can be imported by travelers. Possible importation of Lassa fever and the potential for the use of Lassa virus as an agent of bioterrorism mandate clinicians in Israel and other countries to be vigilant and familiar with the basic characteristics of this disease. The article reviews the basis of this infection and the clinical management of patients with Lassa fever. Special emphasis is given to antiviral treatment and infection control.

  18. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with its center at latitude 24°30′50.6″, longitude 81°50′31.6″ with a radius of 300 yards, for use for ammunition exceeding the prescribed limits for pier-side handling. (b) The regulations. (1) When occupied by a...

  19. West Virginia Digital Learning: Report to the Governor, Legislature, and West Virginia Board of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Accomplishing personalized, deeper learning through anywhere, anytime digital learning requires a redesign of the K-12 education system. This report looks at readiness for digital learning at two levels in West Virginia: the district capacity building to ready the system for digital learning and school implementation of digital learning. The…

  20. New emerging West Africa Ebola 2014: the present global threaten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New emerging West Africa Ebola 2014 is the present global threaten. It is a new emerging viral infection that primarily occurred in West Africa and poses the possible trend of worldwide pandemic. The 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak is the most severe in recorded history in regards to both the number of human cases and fatalities. World Health Organization calls for global concern and attempts to stop the spread of this emerging viral infection. In this brief review, the author presents and discusses on the clinical feature of the new emerging West Africa Ebola 2014.

  1. New emerging West Africa Ebola 2014:the present global threaten

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    New emerging West Africa Ebola 2014 is the present global threaten. It is a new emerging viral infection that primarily occurred in West Africa and poses the possible trend of worldwide pandemic. The 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak is the most severe in recorded history in regards to both the number of human cases and fatalities. World Health Organization calls for global concern and attempts to stop the spread of this emerging viral infection. In this brief review, the author presents and discusses on the clinical feature of the new emerging West Africa Ebola 2014.

  2. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  3. Architecture of WEST plasma control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravenel, N., E-mail: nathalie.ravenel@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Nouailletas, R.; Barana, O.; Brémond, S.; Moreau, P.; Guillerminet, B.; Balme, S.; Allegretti, L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Mannori, S. [ENEA C.R. Brasimone (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    To operate advanced plasma scenario (long pulse with high stored energy) in present and future tokamak devices under safe operation conditions, the control requirements of the plasma control system (PCS) leads to the development of advanced feedback control and real time handling exceptions. To develop these controllers and these exceptions handling strategies, a project aiming at setting up a flight simulator has started at CEA in 2009. Now, the new WEST (W Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) project deals with modifying Tore Supra into an ITER-like divertor tokamak. This upgrade impacts a lot of systems including Tore Supra PCS and is the opportunity to improve the current PCS architecture to implement the previous works and to fulfill the needs of modern tokamak operation. This paper is dealing with the description of the architecture of WEST PCS. Firstly, the requirements will be presented including the needs of new concepts (segments configuration, alternative (or backup) scenario, …). Then, the conceptual design of the PCS will be described including the main components and their functions. The third part will be dedicated to the proposal RT framework and to the technologies that we have to implement to reach the requirements.

  4. West Virginia's Lost Youth: Appalachian Stereotypes and Residential Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, George

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a cognitive mapping survey to examine the effect of Appalachian stereotypes on West Virginia high school students' residential preferences. The research addresses the popularly held hypothesis that West Virginia is suffering out-migration of its young people in part because of negative regional imagery. Survey results provide some…

  5. W.E.S.T. Pilot Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Lori A. Stinson

    The Saskatchewan Federation of Labor (SFL) conducted a Workers' Education for Skills Training, or WEST Program, to upgrade its membership's basic literacy skills. The purpose of the WEST Program was to develop, ensure access to, and build support for a workplace literacy program designed to meet the diverse needs of affiliates' members. Six…

  6. The German East-West Divide in Knowledge Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patuelli, Roberto; Vaona, Andrea; Grimpe, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    , in particular between the East and the West. Based on analyses at the NUTS 3 regional level, we find different knowledge production functions for the East and the West. Moreover, we investigate how our results are affected by the adoption of alternative aggregation levels. Overall, our findings suggest...

  7. A Romantic Study of Shelly's "Ode to the West Wind"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯敏贤

    2007-01-01

    Ode to the West Wind is one of the marvelous poetry of Percy Bysshe Shelley. In order to study the Romanticism in Shelly's Ode to the West Wind, this thesis, by studying the features of Romanticism, shows the fascinating romantic beauty and glamour of this poetry.

  8. Dateline USA: Settling the West, 1800-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatton, Barbara; O'Laughlin, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of titles related to the theme "Settling the West" which are appropriate for primary, elementary, and middle grades. Topics include overviews of Western history; early 19th century; the gold rush; the pony express; travelers by trail, rail, and ship; settling the West; cowboys and cattle; and the…

  9. Resolving orographic rainfall on the Indian west coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suprit, K.; Shankar, D.

    We discuss a method to obtain the spatial estimates of rainfall on the Indian west coast for calculating the surface water budget. The region includes the basin of the Mandovi River, a typical west-coast river whose catchment area includes...

  10. Forest gradients in West Africa. A spatial gradient analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompaey, van R.S.A.R.

    1993-01-01

    The tropical rain forests of West Africa, west of the Dahomey interval, once covered some 40 million ha. Being on the western fringe of the African continent, they receive abundant rainfall from the SW monsoon. Further inland, rainfall gradually decreases and the forests give way to savanna and ulti

  11. The Contrast between Festivals in China and In West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔烨辛; 乌日乐

    2013-01-01

    When we study a kind of language,it is important to know the phonetic culture background first.We are going to discuss the traditional festivals’origins,social background,and festival customs in China and in West.China has the festal likeness in representative tradition with west the place of the difference.

  12. BP Announces Withdrawal from West-to-East Gas Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ On August 31, 2001, BP announced that BP would not participate in the bidding launched by PetroChina for the West-to-East gas transmission project,China's landmark project for West Development that is valued billions of US dollars.

  13. 77 FR 20044 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4059-DR), dated March 16... ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of...

  14. 77 FR 20042 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4061-DR), dated March 22... ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of...

  15. [Epidemics and colonial medicine in West Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, C; Collignon, R

    1998-01-01

    We studied colonial medical practices and health policies in West Africa, which has faced endemics and epidemics that have affected entire societies. We found that attempts to centralize the organization of colonial medicine, which began in the late 19th Century, were limited until the end of World War I. Research and control programs expanded after 1920, concentrating on epidemics, but largely ignoring many major health problems, such as measles, whooping cough and malnutrition, the importance of which were not recognized until after World War II. This appraisal of colonial medicine highlights the difficulties of introducing modern medicine and its ideas into African societies. There have been various social reactions, resulting in the current duality in which traditional and modern medicine coexist.

  16. I Chemistry Conference of West Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boaz Galdino de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The I Chemistry Conference of West Bahia [1] is an event carried out by the Núcleo de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão de Química (NEPEQ, and aims to disseminate chemical researches developed on the Universidade Federal do Oeste da Bahia (UFOB at undergraduate level as well as on the master’s program. This special issue contains some of works presented throughout the JornaQui, such as those from analytical chemistry, natural products, theoretical chemistry, medicinal chemistry, chemistry teaching, spectroscopy, materials science, catalysis and photochemistry. In this context, we would like to highlight the researches of bioactive compounds is by molecular modeling or phytochemistry, studies of intermolecular systems in the infrared spectrum, environmental monitoring by using experimental techniques, new nanocompounds characterized by X-ray diffraction, photochemical degradation organic material, for example. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v1i1.844

  17. November 2016 West Hackberry Subsidence Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Dylan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, Anna C. Snider [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Subsidence monitoring is a critical component to understanding the cavern integrity of salt storage caverns. This report looks at historical and recent data from two of the three West Hackberry dome cavern operators. DOE SPR and LA Storage are coordinating subsidence surveys to create a comprehensive understanding of ground movement above the dome. Data from annual level and rod surveys, GPS, and tiltmeter data show the sites are experiencing typical ground movement. The highest subsidence rate is seen in the middle of the DOE SPR site at just under one inch per year with less ground movement around the edge of the site. A GPS and tiltmeter instrument in the northeast areas of the DOE SPR site has not seen any trend change since the devices were installed in 2013. Comparison between recent ground movement data and historical trends suggest that there is no reason to believe that any DOE SPR or LA Storage caverns have been structurally compromised.

  18. Glucose intolerance in the West African Diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Christensen, Dirk Lund

    2011-01-01

    muscle fibre type I. Skeletal muscle fibre type II is less oxidative and more glycolytic than skeletal muscle fibre type I. Lower oxidative capacity is associated with lower fat oxidation and a higher disposal of lipids, which are stored as muscular adipose tissue in higher amounts in Black compared......In the United States, Black Americans are largely descendants of West African slaves; they have a higher relative proportion of obesity and experience a higher prevalence of diabetes than White Americans. However, obesity rates alone cannot explain the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Type 2...... diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. We hypothesize that the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes in African Americans (as compared to White Americans) is facilitated by an inherited higher percentage of skeletal muscle fibre type II and a lower percentage of skeletal...

  19. Usability and Interaction Design in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    , with a specific aim at the dissemination of knowledge in field of interaction design both in an academic context, as well as among practitioners. More specifically the paper discusses how interaction design knowledge can be disseminated in West Africa, particularly in Higher Education.......Good usability is important in all ICT solutions. To achieve good usability, a good praxis for interaction design is needed. Usability and interaction design have however emerged and established itself in a North European and US context. The ICT industry in Africa do not have the same resources...... in the field of interaction design as in the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in Africa? Can ideals...

  20. ’The West Is Polluting China’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China is under increasingly severe criticism from the West for its environ- menial problems,but recently there are varying voices in the international community about the reasons surrounding this issue.According to Britain’s New Economics Foundation,Western countries rely heavily on Chinese commodities,meaning in the process of manufacturing they are transferring pollution to China.This London-based think tank also puts forward that the discussion should shift its focus from commodity producers to consumers. Writing in the Economic Observer,Professor Hou Dongmin from the Center for Population and Development Studies under the Renmin University of China says that the international community has to face up to the truth.He believes one of the reasons for environmental pollution in China is the country is undertaking a high proportion of global manufacturing activities,which naturally brings environmental pressure to China.Excerpts of Hou’s thoughts follow:

  1. Marine West Coast Forests, Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakis, Steven S.; Geiser, Linda H.; Lilleskov, Erik A.; Pardo, Linda H.; Robin-Abbott, Molly J.; Driscoll, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    Human activities have greatly increased nitrogen emissions and deposition across large areas of Earth. Although nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth, too much nitrogen in excess of critical loads leads to losses of biodiversity, soil and stream acidification, nutrient imbalances, and other deleterious effects. In a new report quantifying critical loads of nitrogen deposition across the United States, USGS scientist Steve Perakis and co-authors provided a chapter about responses of marine west coast forests. Much of this region is understudied with respect to nitrogen deposition, and in this chapter the authors identify known adverse effects and estimate critical loads of nitrogen deposition for western Oregon and Washington and southeast Alaska forests. Perakis also contributed to the synthesis chapter, which includes background, objectives, advantages and uncertainties of critical loads, an overview of critical loads across U.S. ecoregions, and other topics.

  2. BRYOPHYTES OF MOUNT PATUHA, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBBERT GRADSTEIN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available GRADSTEIN, R.    et al. 2010. Bryophytes of Mount Patuha, West  Java,  Indonesia.  Reinwardtia  13(2:  107–123. This  paper  presents  the  results  of  a  two–day  survey  of  the  bryophyte  flora of Mt.  Patuha  and  its  surroundings  near Bandung, West Java, carried out in the framework of the 5th regional training course on bryophyte and lichen diversity and conservation organized by SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor, in July 2009. A total of 159 bryophyte species were identi-fied,  including 98 mosses, 60  liverworts, and 1 hornwort, representing almost 1/6 of the  total bryophyte flora of Java. Three moss species, Bryohumbertia subcomosa (Dix. J.–P. Frahm, Fissidens gymnogynus Besch. and F. polypodioidesHedw., and one liverwort, Lejeunea pectinella Mizut., are new additions to the Javanese flora. The bryophyte diversity of Mt. Patuha is well representative of the Malesian flora and is rich in uncommon species. However, the relatively poor representation of shade epiphytes and commonness of sun epiphytes and generalists reflect disturbance of the forest by anthropogenic activities. Careful attention should be given  to conservation of  the  remaining natural  forest  in order  to prevent further losses of the rich bryophyte diversity of the area.

  3. 76 FR 65673 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BA55 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce....

  4. West Nile Disease Epidemiology in North-West Africa: Bibliographical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjelloun, A; El Harrak, M; Belkadi, B

    2016-12-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) or West Nile disease (WND) is a mosquito-borne viral disease that can affect birds, humans and horses. West Nile virus (WNV) is a member of the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. WNV is maintained in a mosquito-bird-mosquito transmission cycle, whereas humans and horses are considered dead-end hosts. In human and horses, symptoms range from unapparent infection to mild febrile illness, meningitis, encephalitis or death. WNV has a wide geographical range that includes portions of Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia (Kunjin virus), and in North, Central and South America. Migratory birds are thought to be primarily responsible for virus dispersal, including reintroduction of WNV from endemic areas into regions that experience sporadic outbreaks (Fields Virology, 2001, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, 1043-1125). The occurrence of disease in humans and animals along with birds and mosquitoes surveillance for WNV activity demonstrates that the virus range has dramatically expanded including North, Central and South America as well as Europe and countries facing the Mediterranean Basin. WND infection in humans has been reported in Morocco in 1996 (Virologie, 1, 1997, 248), in Tunisia in 2007 (Ann. N. Y. Acad., 951, 2001, 117) (Med. Trop., 61, 2001, 487) and 2003 (Epidémiologie de la fièvre West Nile, 2012, Thèse de doctorat, Université Montpellier II, Sciences et techniques du Langueduc, Montpellier, France), and in Algeria in 1994 (Rev. Sci. Tech., 31, 2012, 829). Outbreaks of equine encephalitis have been also reported in Morocco in 1996 (Bull. OIE, 11, 1996, 867), in 2003 (Emerg. Infect. Dis., 11, 2005, 306) and in 2010 (World Animal Health Information Database. WAHID, 2010). Serological evidence of WNV has been demonstrated in the three countries in many species. The aim of this review was to assess the epidemiological situation of WND in north-west Africa comprising Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, with

  5. Rural poverty and development in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, F

    1981-07-01

    Rural poverty in West Malaysia during the 1957-1970 period is examined. The period covered was 1 of a high rate of growth combined with an increasing inequality of income and worsening poverty. During the 1955-1970 period, a large amount of development funds, manpower, and expertise was directed towards a reduction of West Malaysia's rural poverty. Despite these efforts, rural poverty increased. Over the period under review, the share of income going to the richest 20% of the population increased from 50% to 56%; the share going to the middle 20% of the population remained constant at 20%; the poorest 60% of the population saw their share of income decline from 30% to 24%. The poorest 40% of the population received only 11.6% of income in 1970. They were predominantly rural, with this sector accounting for 87% of all poverty. The 3 development plans of this period set high aggregate growth rates as the primary targets and emphasized productivity and income in the rural sector. Rural development has not been sold short; the total funding figure of $2,209.46 million represents 40% of all development spending between 1956 and 1970. The money funded 3 broad areas of rural development: replanting of smallholder rubber with high-yielding clones; increasing rice production; and opening new land. The strategy has been to concentrate upon raising the yields from existing farmland and expanding into new areas of settlement. The problem of dealing with poverty in West Malaysia was made worse by the rapid rate of population increase. The population increase of 1,657,000 was absorbed into the traditional smallholder sector, very largely in exisitng areas of settlement. Over the same period, the modern sector of agriculture, the rubber estates, reduced their labor force by 30,000 as they moved into the cultivation of oil palm, a crop requiring less labor. Some of the additional agricultural workers were placed on new land under government land-development and resettlement

  6. Passive solar systems performance in West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habenicht, G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of the two main climatic features (solar radiation and temperature) on the performance of passive solar systems in West Germany. Evaluations were made for the four climatic zones - German Lowlands, German Highlands, Alp Foreland, Alps. These zones differ in solar radiation, temperature and diurnal temperature swings. To evaluate different passive solar systems (direct gain, Trombe wall, water wall) a prototypical dwelling was designed which responded to the environmental conditions. The calculations of the ''Solar Savings Fraction'' (SSF) of each systems were made with a program based on the 'LCR-method'. The paper concludes that although the heating requirements decrease with decreasing latitude and altitude, the SSF is nearly the same for all parts of Germany. They are in a range of +- 5%. This is due to the fact that two main climatic features solar radiation and temperature balance each other. In northern Germany the man solar radiation level is low and so is the number of heating degree days. The conditions in southern Germany are reverse.

  7. GENDERED SPACE IN WEST SUMBA TRADITIONAL HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Asih NURDIAH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rendell stated that gender representation underlined the production of space in architecture both symbolically and functionally in certain cultures (Rendell et al. 2000. Thus, an exploration on the spatial functionality of traditional houses could show how cultural gender rules and roles generate the spatial arrangements. This empirical research explored the traditional houses in two kampongs: Tarung and Ratenggaro of West Sumba, Indonesia, which spaces are divided into two distinct spaces: male’s space and female’s space, each with its own entrance. This firm division leads to the questions on its relation with the traditional gender roles are represented inside the house. Interestingly, the spatial arrangement is not intended to create separation between men and women inside the house or to pose that the status and roles of men are higher than those of women. The research found that the space separation actually is a manifestation of the dynamic roles of male and female members of the house and the circular arrangement of the space around the fireplace at the centre of the house follows the dynamic of gender duality in Sumba culture.

  8. West Royalty substation fire post mortem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-05-12

    This post mortem discussed a fire that occurred as a result of three 13.8 kV circuit breakers tripping at a substation control building in Prince Edward Island (PEI). Employees of the electric utility were immediately dispatched to the substation. Between 25,000 and 55,000 customers were without power as a result of firefighters tripping the 138 kV supply to the substation in order to disconnect electricity from the building. A 55 MW combustion turbine was black-started by the operator in order to pick up the electrical load from the Charlottetown substation. Power was gradually restored to utility customers in the region over the next day. An additional generator was used to supply electricity to a final few customers in outlying areas. A subsequent investigation determined that a squirrel caused the breaker to trip. However, a fault in the breaker caused the outage to become more widespread. The utility will continue to investigate methods of improving pest control for substation buildings. A new 13.8 kV circuit will be built to interconnect the Charlottetown and West Royalty substations. 1 fig.

  9. William Wilde in the West of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, D

    2016-05-01

    It is widely believed that Sir William Wilde's forebears were in Ireland for just two or three generations. This belief stems from a number of short biographies of Wilde which were published during his lifetime. These biographies gave different versions of the origin of the Wilde family and appear to have been generated by the creative imagination of Lady Jane Wilde or, as she was better known by her nom de plume, Speranza. She was equally imaginative in creating narratives about her own family background and in one she claimed descent from the Italian poet Dante Alighieri. So it was not a great challenge for her to invent biographies of her husband which she deemed suitable for a knight living at the prestigious address of 1 Merrion Square, leading many to believe that William and his son Oscar were more English than Irish. It was also important for Speranza to distance Sir William from any connection which the Wilde family might have had with trade. In this paper published and unpublished material are used, together with a careful examination of family deeds in the Registry of Deeds office, to elucidate the real roots of the Wilde family in Dublin and in the West of Ireland.

  10. Deglacial temperature history of West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffey, Kurt M.; Clow, Gary D.; Steig, Eric J.; Buizert, Christo; Fudge, T. J.; Koutnik, Michelle; Waddington, Edwin D.; Alley, Richard B.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

    2016-12-01

    The most recent glacial to interglacial transition constitutes a remarkable natural experiment for learning how Earth’s climate responds to various forcings, including a rise in atmospheric CO2. This transition has left a direct thermal remnant in the polar ice sheets, where the exceptional purity and continual accumulation of ice permit analyses not possible in other settings. For Antarctica, the deglacial warming has previously been constrained only by the water isotopic composition in ice cores, without an absolute thermometric assessment of the isotopes’ sensitivity to temperature. To overcome this limitation, we measured temperatures in a deep borehole and analyzed them together with ice-core data to reconstruct the surface temperature history of West Antarctica. The deglacial warming was 11.3±1.8∘11.3±1.8∘C, approximately two to three times the global average, in agreement with theoretical expectations for Antarctic amplification of planetary temperature changes. Consistent with evidence from glacier retreat in Southern Hemisphere mountain ranges, the Antarctic warming was mostly completed by 15 kyBP, several millennia earlier than in the Northern Hemisphere. These results constrain the role of variable oceanic heat transport between hemispheres during deglaciation and quantitatively bound the direct influence of global climate forcings on Antarctic temperature. Although climate models perform well on average in this context, some recent syntheses of deglacial climate history have underestimated Antarctic warming and the models with lowest sensitivity can be discounted.

  11. Attenuation tomography in West Bohemia/Vogtland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Sima; Haberland, Christian; Bauer, Klaus; Hejrani, Babak; Korn, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3-D) P-wave attenuation (Qp) model for the geodynamically active swarm earthquake area of West Bohemia/Vogtland in the Czech/German border region. Path-averaged attenuation t* is calculated from amplitude spectra of time windows around the P-wave arrivals of local earthquakes. Average t/t* value or Qp for stations close to Nový Kostel are very low (focal zone (increases up to 500 within 80 km distance). The SIMUL2000 tomography scheme is used to invert the t* for P-wave attenuation perturbation. Analysis of resolution shows that our model is well-resolved in the vicinity of earthquake swarm hypocenters. The prominent features of the model are located around Nový Kostel focal zone and its northern vicinity. Beneath Nový Kostel a vertically stretched (down to depth of 11 km) and a highly attenuating body is observed. We believe that this is due to fracturing and high density of cracks inside the weak earthquake swarm zone in conjunction with presence of free gas/fluid. Further north of Nový Kostel two highly attenuating bodies are imaged which could represent fluid channels toward the surface. The eastern anomaly shows a good correlation with the fluid accumulation area which was suggested in 9HR seismic profile.

  12. [West Nile virus: a reality in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez, Ildefonso; Calderón, Oscar; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; del Río, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a RNA virus of the Flaviridae, genus flavivirus family. It is a neuropathogenic virus causing disease in birds, horses and humans. WNVis transmitted by the vector mosquito Culex sp. The virus life 's cycle includes mosquitoes as vectors and birds as natural hosts. Humans are accidental hosts. Since the introduction of the Epidemiological Surveillance Program at the Ministry ofHealth. we have documented 90 positive test results among birds out of 1,223 cases studied in Mexico as of September IS. 2005. The incubation period in humans after a mosquito bite ranges from 3 to 14 days. Disease is characterized by early onset fever, general malaise, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, headaches, myalgias, enlarged lymph nodes andrash. Neurological manifestations include encephalitis andflaccid paralysis, which are present in less than 1% of subjects infected with WNV. Older patients display more adverse outcomes including death. The diagnosis is made by the determination of specific IgM and JgG antibodies in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid. There is no antiviral treatment to date against WNV but interferon ?2b, and WNVspec4ic-immunoglobulin have been used Prevention is therefore the key to control the infection.

  13. Happy Environments: Bhutan, Interdependence and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Schroeder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing trend to understand economic and environmental policies in terms of multiple dimensions and “interdependence.” Bhutan is increasingly seen as an operational model with its Gross National Happiness (GNH strategy. GNH, which is rooted in Mahayana Buddhism, is a framework and set of policy tools that conceptualizes sustainability as interdependent ecological, economic, social, cultural and good governance concerns. Bhutan’s practical GNH experience illustrates a significant ability to positively couple economic growth with a healthy environment. Can the “West”—with its legacy of either/or economics—learn anything from Bhutan’s multidimensional policy experiment? At first, it would seem not. It is questionable whether the West can replicate Bhutan’s unorthodox policy tools as we do not have a balancing set of Buddhist values rooted in mainstream culture. We are not equipped to respond to the many unintended consequences of interdependent policy because we do not yet understand what “interdependence” actually entails. There is hope, but much of it exists in the grey literature of ecological economics. This literature is in urgent need of greater exposure if we are to imagine and enact sustainability policy tools that are truly sensitive to interdependence, and thus follow Bhutan on its perilous but necessary journey.

  14. ETHNO SEPARATIST TERRORISM IN WEST EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashchenko L. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of this article, the analysis of the development of ethnoseparatism in West Europe has been undertaken. Under current conditions, the ethnical separatism threatens national security of series of European countries and territorial integrity. Special attention has been paid to social and political beginnings and causes of terrorism in Spain and Great Britain. The activity of such terrorist organizations as IRA and ETA has been researched. Ideological basis of violence, purposes and objectives, as well as the main stages of formation and development of these organizations have been disclosed. The author states that the use of the terrorism as a method of political struggle is destructive and does not facilitate a solution to the national problems. We have also considered approaches of the governments to solve the problems of separatism and terrorism on the territory of these countries. In their counter-terrorism efforts political leaders of Spain and Great Britain have used both methods of force and political and legal methods, namely, granting to the regions of wide economical and political independence, preservation of authentic cultural values and language of indigenous people. The formation of violence intolerance in public conscience as control method has become the main direction of the antiterrorist policy in the countries under consideration. Anti-terrorist model which has been developed by the European countries can be effective and useful for the regions being in ethnopolitical conflicts

  15. ESSEA On-Line Courses and the WestEd Eisenhower Regional Consortium (WERC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognier, E.

    2001-12-01

    The WestEd Eisenhower Regional Consortium (WERC) is in its second year of offering two Earth Systems Science On-line Graduate courses from IGES - one for High School teachers, and one for Middle School teachers. These high-quality courses support WERC's commitment to "supporting increased scientific and mathematical literacy among our nation's youth through services and other support aimed at enhancing the efforts of those who provide K-12 science and mathematics education." WERC has been able to use its EdGateway online community network to offer these courses to environmental education and science teachers nationwide. Through partnerships with the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE), the National Environmental Education Advancement Project (NEEAP), and other regional, state and local science and environmental education organizations, WERC has a broad reach in connecting with science educators nationwide. WERC manages several state and national listservs, which enable us to reach thousands of educators with information about the courses. EdGateway also provides a private online community in which we offer the courses. WERC partners with two Master Teachers from Utah, who facilitate the courses, and with the Center for Science and Mathematics Education at Weber State University, who provides low-cost graduate credit for the courses. Our students have included classroom teachers from upper elementary through high school, community college science teachers, and environmental science center staff who provide inservice for teachers. Educators from Hawaii to New Jersey have provided diverse personal experiences of Earth Systems Science events, and add richness to the online discussions. Two Earth Science Experts, Dr. Rick Ford from Weber State University, and Dr. Art Sussman from WestEd also contribute to the high caliber of learning the students experience in the courses. (Dr. Sussman's book, Dr. Art's Guide to Planet Earth, is used as one of

  16. Digital elevation model of Walker Lake, West-Central Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Walker Lake lies within a topographically closed basin in west-central Nevada and is the terminus of the Walker River. Accurately determining the bathymetry and...

  17. VT West Branch Natural Channel Design Restoration 2001-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Because of the well known problems of the river, the West Branch was identified as a restoration implementation site to be funded as part of the...

  18. VT West Branch Natural Channel Post Monitoring 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Because of the well known problems of the river, the West Branch was identified as a restoration implementation site to be funded as part of the...

  19. The landscapes of West Africa—40 years of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.

    2017-02-16

    What has driven changes in land use and land cover in West Africa over the past 40 years? What trends or patterns can be discerned in those changes? To answer these questions, the U.S. Geological Survey West Africa Land Use Dynamics project partnered with the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel and the U.S. Agency for International Development/West Africa to map land use and land cover across the region for  three time periods (years): 1975, 2000, and 2013. This cooperative effort has resulted in the publication of a 219-page atlas, “Landscapes of West Africa: A Window on a Changing World.” The atlas uses satellite imagery, maps, and pictures to tell a complex story of landscape change at regional and national scales. It includes a collection of focused studies, some of which raise cause for concern, and others that provide considerable hope.

  20. Some Actiniaria (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hartog, J. C. Den; Jayasree, V.

    A small collection of five species of Actiniaria from the west coast of India, including three new species, is described and discussed. It concerns Anthopleura anjunae spec. nov., Bunodosoma goanensis spec. nov., Synantheopsis parulekari spec. nov...

  1. Zonation of uplifted pleistocene coral reefs on barbados, west indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesolella, K J

    1967-05-05

    The coral species composition of uplifted Pleistocene reefs on Barbados is very similar to Recent West Indian reefs. Acropora palmata, Acropora cervicornis, and Montastrea annularis are qtuantitatively the most important of the coral species.

  2. The West Perfecting Its Techniques To Hurt China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Spanish Website Rebellion published an article titled The West Perfecting Its Techniques to Hurt China by U.S. writer, filmmaker and journalist Andre Vltchek on November 12, 2010. Excerpts from the article follow:

  3. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) ADCP Currents Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  4. Beach rocks of the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    -an overview. Bulletin Deccan College Research Institute, Pune 44:153-163 Kumar S, Rao GV (1982) Geographical and Quaternary history of the west coast of Ratnagiri District, Maharashtra. First National Seminar Quaternary Environmental Papers. Marh 58 (ed) Hin...

  5. Salmonellosis in passerine birds in Maryland and West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Shillinger, R.B.; Jareed, T.

    1973-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium was responsible for a die-off of evening grosbeaks (Hesperiphona vespertina) at Elkins, West Virginia, and was isolated from a pine siskin (Spinus pinus) collected at the site of a die-off near Baltimore, Maryland.

  6. K-East and K-West Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hanford's "sister reactors", the K-East and the K-West Reactors, were built side-by-side in the early 1950's. The two reactors went operational within four months of...

  7. Key West, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Key West, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  8. Characterizing freshwater and nutrient fluxes to West Falmouth Harbor, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data present oceanographic and water-quality observations made at 4 locations in West Falmouth Harbor and 3 in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts. While both Buzzards...

  9. Construction of West-East Pipeline's Gansu Segment Kicked Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Commencement of full construction of the segment of the West-East gas transmission pipeline in Gansu Province was announced at an inception ceremony held in Jiayuguan City,Gansu Province on 28 March 2003.

  10. Longshore sediment transport model for the Indian west coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.

    Longshore sediment transport rates for the Indian west coast from Cochin to Porbandar are estimated from ship observed wave data (1968 to 1986). The sediment transport rate is relatively high during the southwest monsoon period from June...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., from individuals who have signs and symptoms consistent with viral meningitis/encephalitis. The detection aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of viral meningitis/encephalitis caused by West...

  12. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) ADCP Station Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  13. Spitbase of west coast of India: Potential appraisal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    Spectacular spits of different sizes and variety of shapes bordering west coast of India were mapped with remote sensing techniques. By gathering information on geomorphological and locational parameters of spits, "SPITBASE", a database of spits...

  14. Markets, Climate Change and Food Security in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Hintermann, Beat; Higgins, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    West Africa is one of the most food insecure regions of the world. Sharply increased food and energy prices in 2008 brought the role of markets in food access and availability around the world into the spotlight, particularly in urban areas. The period of high prices had the immediate consequence of sharply increasing the number of hungry people in the region without boosting farmer incomes significantly. In this article, the interaction between markets, food prices, agricultural technology and development is explored in the context of West Africa. To improve food security in West Africa, sustained commitment to investment in the agriculture sector will be needed to provide some protection against global swings in both production and world markets. Climate change mitigation programs are likely to force global energy and commodity price increases in the coming decades, putting pressure on regions like West Africa to produce more food locally to ensure stability in food security for the most vulnerable.

  15. West Knox Pond water budget and water quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to analyze the water budget and water quality for West Knox Pond for the May through September period of 2002 and 2003. The...

  16. Unravelling institutional determinants affecting change in agriculture in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Hounkonnou, D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares lessons learned from nine studies that explored institutional determinants of innovation towards sustainable intensification of West African agriculture. The studies investigated issues relating to crop, animal, and resources management in Benin, Ghana, and Mali. The constraints

  17. Herbicide concentrations in wetlands in west central Minnesota, 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Thirty emergent, seasonally to semi-permanently flooded wetlands in an intensively farmed area of west central Minnesota were sampled before and during the 1992 crop...

  18. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) West Pacific Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the West Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated principal...

  19. NNDSS - Table II. Varicella to West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Varicella to West Nile virus disease - 2014. In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000...

  20. Argus Energy WV, LLC wins 2007 Wetlands West Virginia Award

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    Argus Energy's Kiah Creek Operation has received the 2007 Wetlands West Virginia Award presented by the West Virginian Coal Association. The operation was originally a 1267 acre underground mine in the Coalburg seam. Underground mining commenced in 2000 until the end of 2003 with more than two million tons of coal being produced. The creation of the wetlands was achieved during the operations. 8 photos.

  1. Imported West Nile virus encephalitis in an Israeli tourist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Benjamin A; Hueston, Linda; Ratnam, Irani

    2009-08-17

    West Nile virus is an arbovirus that has caused large outbreaks of febrile illness, meningitis and encephalitis in Europe, North America and the Middle East. We describe the first laboratory-confirmed human case of West Nile virus infection in Australia, in a 58-year-old tourist who was almost certainly infected in Israel. The case is a reminder of the need to consider exotic pathogens in travellers and of the risk of introducing new pathogens into Australia.

  2. A Regional Approach to Market Monitoring in the West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barmack, Matthew; Kahn, Edward; Tierney, Susan; Goldman, Charles

    2006-10-01

    Market monitoring involves the systematic analysis of pricesand behavior in wholesale power markets to determine when and whetherpotentially anti-competitive behavior is occurring. Regional TransmissionOrganizations (RTOs) typically have a market monitoring function. Becausethe West does not have active RTOs outside of California, it does nothave the market monitoring that RTOs have. In addition, because the Westoutside of California does not have RTOs that perform centralized unitcommitment and dispatch, the rich data that are typically available tomarket monitors in RTO markets are not available in the West outside ofCalifornia. This paper examines the feasibility of market monitoring inthe West outside of California given readily available data. We developsimple econometric models of wholesale power prices in the West thatmight be used for market monitoring. In addition, we examine whetherproduction cost simulations that have been developed for long-runplanning might be useful for market monitoring. We find that simpleeconometric models go a long ways towards explaining wholesale powerprices in the West and might be used to identify potentially anomalousprices. In contrast, we find that the simulated prices from a specificset of production cost simulations exhibit characteristics that aresufficiently different from observed prices that we question theirusefulness for explaining price formation in the West and hence theirusefulness as a market monitoring tool.

  3. The 1983 drought in the West Sahel: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Juergen [Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute, Bergen (Norway); Latif, Mojib [Leibniz-Institute for Marine Sciences at the University of Kiel, Kiel (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Some drought years over sub-Saharan west Africa (1972, 1977, 1984) have been previously related to a cross-equatorial Atlantic gradient pattern with anomalously warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) south of 10 N and anomalously cold SSTs north of 10 N. This SST dipole-like pattern was not characteristic of 1983, the third driest summer of the twentieth century in the Sahel. This study presents evidence that the dry conditions that persisted over the west Sahel in 1983 were mainly forced by high Indian Ocean SSTs that were probably remanent from the strong 1982/1983 El Nino event. The synchronous Pacific impact of the 1982/1983 El Nino event on west African rainfall was however, quite weak. Prior studies have mainly suggested that the Indian Ocean SSTs impact the decadal-scale rainfall variability over the west Sahel. This study demonstrates that the Indian Ocean also significantly affects inter-annual rainfall variability over the west Sahel and that it was the main forcing for the drought over the west Sahel in 1983. (orig.)

  4. Sequestration Options for the West Coast States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Larry

    2006-04-30

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source

  5. West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey Data - Annual West Coast time series groundfish trawl data collection survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Members of the Fishery Resource Analysis and Monitoring Division Survey Team conduct an annual West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey from May - October each...

  6. Neuromuscular Manifestations of West Nile Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arturo eLeis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The most common neuromuscular manifestation of West Nile virus (WNV infection is a poliomyelitis syndrome with asymmetric paralysis variably involving one (monoparesis to four limbs (quadriparesis, with or without brainstem involvement and respiratory failure. This syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis may occur without overt fever or meningoencephalitis. Although involvement of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and motor neurons in the brainstem are the major sites of pathology responsible for neuromuscular signs, inflammation also may involve skeletal or cardiac muscle (myositis, myocarditis, motor axons (polyradiculitis, peripheral nerve (Guillain-Barré syndrome, brachial plexopathy. In addition, involvement of spinal sympathetic neurons and ganglia provides a plausible explanation for autonomic instability seen in some patients. Many patients also experience prolonged subjective generalized weakness and disabling fatigue. Despite recent evidence that WNV may persist long term in the central nervous system or periphery in animals, the evidence in humans is controversial. WNV persistence would be of great concern in immunosuppressed patients or in those with prolonged or recurrent symptoms. Support for the contention that WNV can lead to autoimmune disease arises from reports of patients presenting with various neuromuscular diseases that presumably involve autoimmune mechanisms (GBS, other demyelinating neu¬ropathies, myasthenia gravis, brachial plexopathies, stiff-person syndrome, and delayed or recurrent symptoms. Although there is no specific treatment or vaccine currently approved in humans, and the standard remains supportive care, drugs that can alter the cascade of immunobiochemical events leading to neuronal death may be potentially useful (high-dose corticosteroids, interferon preparations, and intravenous immune globulin containing WNV-specific antibodies. Human experience with these agents seems promising based on anecdotal

  7. Contaminants in two West Greenland caribou populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamberg, Mary, E-mail: mary.gamberg@gmail.com [Gamberg Consulting, 708 Jarvis St., Whitehorse, Yukon Y1A 2J2 (Canada); Cuyler, Christine [Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, PO Box 570, 3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Wang, Xiaowa [Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON L7S 1A1 (Canada)

    2016-06-01

    Two caribou populations in West Greenland were sampled and the kidneys, liver and muscle analyzed for contaminants, including aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc. Although close in proximity, the two populations are topographically separated by an ice cap, which creates different climates and vegetation types in each region. Contaminant levels reflected the differing diets of the two caribou populations. To the south in the wetter lichen-rich region, caribou had significantly more aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc, likely due to atmospheric deposition on lichens. To the north in the dry desert steppe where grasses predominate, caribou had higher levels of copper. Cows collected in late winter had significantly less hepatic copper, lead and mercury if pregnant, indicating placental transfer of these elements. Our results suggest that hepatic copper levels < 200 μg g{sup −1} dry weight may result in copper depletion in pregnant cows and hepatic mercury concentrations above 0.5 μg g{sup −1} dry weight may negatively affect fertility in caribou cows. Hepatic mercury levels were negatively correlated with cow body weight, suggesting an adverse effect on body condition. Element concentrations found in tissues from these caribou are not considered to be of a health concern for those consuming this traditional food. - Highlights: • Caribou tissue contaminant profiles may reflect different diets. • Low hepatic copper may result in copper depletion in pregnant caribou. • High hepatic mercury may negatively affect fertility in caribou cows. • Hepatic mercury is negatively correlated with body condition in caribou cows. • Metal levels in tissues are not a health concern to people consuming caribou.

  8. Analysis of K west basin canister gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimble, D.J., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    Gas and Liquid samples have been collected from a selection of the approximately 3,820 spent fuel storage canisters in the K West Basin. The samples were taken to characterize the contents of the gas and water in the canisters providing source term information for two subprojects of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) (Fulton 1994): the K Basins Integrated Water Treatment System Subproject (Ball 1996) and the K Basins Fuel Retrieval System Subproject (Waymire 1996). The barrels of ten canisters were sampled for gas and liquid in 1995, and 50 canisters were sampled in a second campaign in 1996. The analysis results from the first campaign have been reported (Trimble 1995a, 1995b, 1996a, 1996b). The analysis results from the second campaign liquid samples have been documented (Trimble and Welsh 1997; Trimble 1997). This report documents the results for the gas samples from the second campaign and evaluates all gas data in terms of expected releases when opening the canisters for SNFP activities. The fuel storage canisters consist of two closed and sealed barrels, each with a gas trap. The barrels are attached at a trunion to make a canister, but are otherwise independent (Figure 1). Each barrel contains up to seven N Reactor fuel element assemblies. A gas space of nitrogen was established in the top 2.2 to 2.5 inches (5.6 to 6.4 cm) of each barrel. Many of the fuel elements were damaged allowing the metallic uranium fuel to be corroded by the canister water. The corrosion releases fission products and generates hydrogen gas. The released gas mixes with the gas-space gas and excess gas passes through the gas trap into the basin water. The canister design does not allow canister water to be exchanged with basin water.

  9. Excerpt from East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Kuo

    2013-01-01

    Excerpted from Karen Kuo, East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012).Reprinted with permission from Temple University Press.

  10. Islam, Islamophobia and the West: Opposing Views and Social Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adila Pavelić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Through reviewing different and often opposing views on the relationship between Islam and the West, the paper aims to offer a better understanding of this relationship, and of Islamophobia as an old, yet increasingly actual and in many respects relevant social problem. A short historical overview of the understanding of the relationship between Islam and the West, and various definitions of Islamophobia, are followed by examination of some recent works that from different perspectives deal with the issue. Firstly, is given insight into the works written by Western theorists who describe the relationship between Islam and the West within the framework of the idea of the clash of civilizations while, at the same time, labeling Islam often as a non-modern religion and culture whose members reject Western values such as democracy, freedom and gender equality. In contrast to them are introduced the authors whose argumentation opposes stereotypical views of Islam; among them are also those that critically address Islamophobia in today’s Western society, either by presenting results of their research on Islamophobia or by documenting the dominant media image of Islam, which has been perpetuating stereotypes, especially in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on New York in 2001. Lastly, it is concluded that, regardless of the origin of works dealing with the relationship between Islam and the West or of the type of their arguments, they more often than not interpret Islam and the West primarily as two separate, self-contained and in itself incompatible worlds. In doing so, the authors here argue, they employ an essentialist and reductionist approach not only to Islam – as it might be assumed – but also to the West, while the relationship between Islam and the West is simplified and schematized.

  11. Up-to-date knowledge of West Nile virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrnjaković-Cvjetković Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Virus West Nile virus is a single-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. Epidemiology West Nile virus is maintained in the cycle involving culicine mosquitoes and birds .Humans typically acquire West Nile infection through a bite from infected adult mosquito. Person to person transmission can occur through organ transplantation, blood and blood product transfusions, transplacentally and via brest milk. Human cases of West Nile infections were recorded in Africa, Israel, Russia, India, Pakistan. In Romania in 1996 West Nile fever occurred with hundreds of neurologic cases and 17 fatalities. First human cases in the United States were in New York City where 59 persons were infected and had fever, meningitis, encephalitis and flaccid paralysis. Clinical manifestation Most human cases are asymptomatic. The majority of symptomatic patients have a self limited febrile illness. Fatigue, nausea, vomiting, eye pain, headache, myalgias, artralgias, lymphadenopathy and rash are common complaints. Less than 1% of all infected persons develop more severe neurologic illness including meningitis, encefalitis and flaccid paralysis. Laboratory diagnosis Diagnosis of West Nile virus infection is based on serologic testing, isolation of virus from patient samples and detection of viral antigen or viral genom. ELISA test and indirect immunofluorescenceassay are used for detecting IgM and IgG antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment In vitro studies have suggested that ribavirin and interferon alfa -2b may be useful in the treatment of West Nile virus disease. Prevention The most important measures are mosquito control program and personal protective measures. .

  12. The lion in West Africa is critically endangered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschel, Philipp; Coad, Lauren; Burton, Cole; Chataigner, Beatrice; Dunn, Andrew; MacDonald, David; Saidu, Yohanna; Hunter, Luke T B

    2014-01-01

    The African lion has declined to lions from other extant African populations. Interventions to save West African lions are urgently required. However formulating effective conservation strategies has been hampered by a lack of data on the species' current distribution, status, and potential management deficiencies of protected areas (PAs) harboring lions. Our study synthesized available expert opinion and field data to close this knowledge gap, and formulate recommendations for the conservation of West African lions. We undertook lion surveys in 13 large (>500 km²) PAs and compiled evidence of lion presence/absence for a further eight PAs. All PAs were situated within Lion Conservation Units, geographical units designated as priority lion areas by wildlife experts at a regional lion conservation workshop in 2005. Lions were confirmed in only 4 PAs, and our results suggest that only 406 (273-605) lions remain in West Africa, representing lion range is estimated at 49,000 km², or 1.1% of historical range in West Africa. PAs retaining lions were larger than PAs without lions and had significantly higher management budgets. We encourage revision of lion taxonomy, to recognize the genetic distinctiveness of West African lions and highlight their potentially unique conservation value. Further, we call for listing of the lion as critically endangered in West Africa, under criterion C2a(ii) for populations with lion range states in West Africa, we call for urgent mobilization of investment from the international community to assist range states to increase management effectiveness of PAs retaining lions.

  13. Completion of electrification between Aachen West and Montzen; Durchgehende Elektrifizierung Aachen West-Montzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzen, A. [DB Netz AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Internationale Infrastrukturangelegenheiten

    2007-05-15

    The railway line between Aachen West and Montzen (and from there on to Antwerp) is one of the most important long-distance freight lines in Europe and today carries all the rail freight moved directly between Germany and Belgium. Despite that, a part of it has still not been electrified. The line was built during the First World War, when the territory was under German occupation. The two railway infrastructure managers concerned, Infrabel (Belgium) and DB Netz (Germany), are working on plans to plug this gap in the electrification of the European freight network ready for the timetable change in December 2008. This article, penned by a specialist, describes the vicissitudes of the line's history as well as the studies and project planning for its electrification. (orig.)

  14. Serologic survey of West Nile virus in horses from Central-West, Northeast and Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jaqueline Raymondi; de Medeiros, Larissa Campos; dos Reis, Vinícius Pinho; Chávez, Juliana Helena; Munhoz, Thiago Demarchi; Borges, Gustavo Puia; Soares, Otavio Augusto Brioschi; de Campos, Carlos Henrique Coelho; Machado, Rosângela Zacarias; Baldani, Cristiane Divan; Silva, Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues; Faria, Joice Lara Maia; da Silva, Edson Elias; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America in 1999, there have been several reports of WNV activity in Central and South American countries. To detect WNV in Brazil, we performed a serological survey of horses from different regions of Brazil using recombinant peptides from domain III of WNV. Positive samples were validated with the neutralisation test. Our results showed that of 79 ELISA-positive horses, nine expressed WNV-specific neutralising antibodies. Eight of the infected horses were from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and one was from the state of Paraíba. Our results provide additional evidence for the emergence of WNV in Brazil and for its circulation in multiple regions of the country. PMID:24037110

  15. Serologic survey of West Nile virus in horses from Central-West, Northeast and Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Raymondi Silva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV in North America in 1999, there have been several reports of WNV activity in Central and South American countries. To detect WNV in Brazil, we performed a serological survey of horses from different regions of Brazil using recombinant peptides from domain III of WNV. Positive samples were validated with the neutralisation test. Our results showed that of 79 ELISA-positive horses, nine expressed WNV-specific neutralising antibodies. Eight of the infected horses were from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and one was from the state of Paraíba. Our results provide additional evidence for the emergence of WNV in Brazil and for its circulation in multiple regions of the country.

  16. Safety of West Nile Virus vaccines in sandhill crane chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.J.; Docherty, D.E.; Bochsler, V.S.; Folk, Martin J.; Nesbitt, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    West Nile virus arrived in North America in 1999 and has spread across the continent in the ensuing years. The virus has proven deadly to a variety of native avian species including sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). In order to provide safe and efficacious protection for captive and released populations of whooping cranes (G. americana), we have conducted a series of four research projects. The last of these was a study of the effects of two different West Nile virus vaccines on young Florida sandhill crane (G. c. pratensis) chicks and subsequent challenge with the virus. We found that vaccinating crane chicks as early as day 7 post-hatch caused no adverse reactions or noticeable morbidity. We tested both a commercial equine vaccine West Nile - Innovator (Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, Iowa) and a new recombinant DNA vaccine (Centers for Disease Control). We had a 33% mortality in control chicks (n =6) from West Nile virus infection, versus 0% mortality in two groups of vaccinated chicks (n = 12), indicating the two vaccines tested were not only safe but effective in preventing West Nile virus.

  17. East-West Couples: Distribution, Characteristics and Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Originalbeitrag in deutscher Sprache ist verfügbar unter: Bd. 40 (2015: Ausgewählte deutsche Beiträge.SOEP data were used to examine relationships consisting of one partner socialised in West Germany and one in East Germany and who presently reside in the “old” (former West German or “new” (newly formed East German federal states. The estimated share of east-west couples among all marriages or cohabiting couples rises continuously within the observed period reaching approximately two and eleven percent respectively by 2009. The specific characteristics of east-west couples are that their employment-related division of labour is relatively egalitarian, above-average the partners are of different confessions and practice different religions, at least one of the partners is frequently divorced and there is also a strong tendency towards unmarried cohabitation. Besides the place of socialisation, the present place of residence has an independent impact on the economic situation, division of labour and marriage propensity. Analyses of relationship stability reveal that east-west couples exhibit a relatively high risk of separation. This is partly due to religious differences between the partners, but primarily to the low marriage propensity and the overrepresentation of divorced persons within this type of relationship.

  18. Geographic signatures of North American West Coast estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Robert; Llansó, Roberto; Newton, Jan; Thom, Ron; Hornberger, Michelle; Morgan, Cheryl; Levings, Colin; Copping, Andrea; Fishman, Paul

    2000-01-01

    West Coast estuaries are geologically young and composed of a variety of geomorphological types. These estuaries range from large fjords to shallow lagoons; from large to low freshwater flows. Natural hazards include E1 Niños, strong Pacific storms, and active tectonic activity. West Coast estuaries support a wide range of living resources: five salmon species, harvestable shellfish, waterfowl and marine birds, marine mammals, and a variety of algae and plants. Although populations of many of these living resources have declined (salmonids), others have increased (marine mammals). West Coast estuaries are also centers of commerce and increasingly large shipping traffic. The West Coast human population is rising faster than most other areas of the U.S. and Canada, and is distributed heavily in southern California, the San Francisco Bay area, around Puget Sound, and the Fraser River estuary. While water pollution is a problem in many of the urbanized estuaries, most estuaries do not suffer from poor water quality. Primary estuarine problems include habitat alterations, degradation, and loss; diverted freshwater flows; marine sediment contamination; and exotic species introductions. The growing West Coast economy and population are in part related to the quality of life, which is dependent on the use and enjoyment of abundant coastal natural resources.

  19. The lion in West Africa is critically endangered.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Henschel

    Full Text Available The African lion has declined to 500 km² PAs and compiled evidence of lion presence/absence for a further eight PAs. All PAs were situated within Lion Conservation Units, geographical units designated as priority lion areas by wildlife experts at a regional lion conservation workshop in 2005. Lions were confirmed in only 4 PAs, and our results suggest that only 406 (273-605 lions remain in West Africa, representing <250 mature individuals. Confirmed lion range is estimated at 49,000 km², or 1.1% of historical range in West Africa. PAs retaining lions were larger than PAs without lions and had significantly higher management budgets. We encourage revision of lion taxonomy, to recognize the genetic distinctiveness of West African lions and highlight their potentially unique conservation value. Further, we call for listing of the lion as critically endangered in West Africa, under criterion C2a(ii for populations with <250 mature individuals. Finally, considering the relative poverty of lion range states in West Africa, we call for urgent mobilization of investment from the international community to assist range states to increase management effectiveness of PAs retaining lions.

  20. Soil investigation in cities of West Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidló, A.; Szżcs, P.; Horváth, A.; Kámán, O.; Németh, E.

    2012-04-01

    The antropogene effects have an influence on the environment since the flow of materials and energy is continuous and mutual. In order to investigate the soil properly we have collected samples from sample spots in three West Hungarian cities (Sopron, Szombathely and Székesfehévár). The soil samples were taken from 0-10 and 10-20 cms depth in each city within a standard network and also at industrial territories. The number of the sampling spots were between 104 and 144, depending on the size of the city and the problematic places in town. We have noted the GPS-coordinates of the point, the elevation over sea level, the date of collecting, the type of the urban area, the information about land usage, vegetation, grass covering, the type of cover and the origin of soil. We described the following characters of soil: the borderline between two layers, the amount of humus, the structure, the compactness, the root system, the skeletal percent, the color, the physical assortment, the separated element and the soil defect. We measured the soil samples in laboratory according to the following parameters: acidity (pHH2O, pHKCl), lime content, hidrolitical and exchange acidity, amount of exchangeable cation, the humus content, the total nitrogen content, the ammonium-lactat-acetous acid (AL) solvent potassium and phosphorus content, the KCl solvent magnesium and calcium content, the strength of ethylene-diamin-tetra-acetous (EDTA) and diethylene-triamin-penta-acetous (DTPA) measurements of manganese, copper, zinc and iron element, as well as the particle size distribution. The results of field and laboratory investigation are represented in a GIS system. We attempted to draw a conclusion in connection with the condition, contamination and history of contamination of soil. The results showed that there is close connection between the soil parameters and geological conditions. However, this connection shows a decrease in the centre of the city. The acidity and calcic soils

  1. Reconfiguring the West in Neil Jordan's short story "Love"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stipe Grgas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In introducing his article,  the author draws attention to the enormous importance space, especially the west of Ireland, has in the Irish culture and in the legitimization of Irish identity. The central part of the article is devoted to an analysis of Neil Jordan's  "A Love" in which the author describes the way Jordan uses the West as the privileged place of Irish self-representation. A close reading of the text shows the writer's strategies which subvert the conventional image of the West of Ireland  and the author voices the opinion that Jordan's text refers to the end of one conceptualization of Irish identity. Offering the concept of heterotopia (Foucault in his conclusion the author opens up the possibility of reading the representation of space in Jordan's story as his inscription of those places which were elided from the utopian Irish national saga.

  2. A Postmodernist Reading of Sam Shepard’s True West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Hossein Joodaki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to render some vivid postmodernist features in Shepard’s True West (1980, which is inspired by myths of American life and popular culture. Shepard’s True West suggests so many interesting postmodern elements. With a departure from conventional norms of character, dialogue and narrative; the elements of pastiche, subjective irony, and savage humor have become hallmarks of most of his works. These features and some of the basic traces of postmodern literature, including Lyotard’s theory of the end of meta-narratives and language game, Derrida’s deconstruction and Baudrillard’s simulation, as well as language fragmentation, uncertainty and duality,  altogether, have given Shepard’s True West a postmodern atmosphere. Keywords: Postmodernist Literature; Grand Narratives; Duality; Self Reflexivity; Language Game; Binary oppositions; Simulacrum

  3. Genetic structure of West Greenland populations of lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral, Elsa Garcia; Olsen, M.; Hedeholm, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, 11 microsatellite markers were used to determine the structure of West Greenlandic lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus populations across six spawning locations spanning >1500 km and compared with neighbouring populations in Canada and Iceland. To evaluate whether data allow for identifica......In this study, 11 microsatellite markers were used to determine the structure of West Greenlandic lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus populations across six spawning locations spanning >1500 km and compared with neighbouring populations in Canada and Iceland. To evaluate whether data allow...... for identification of origin of C. lumpus in Greenlandic waters, genetic assignment analysis was performed for 86 C. lumpus sampled on a feeding migration. Significant structuring with isolation by distance was observed in the West Greenland samples and two major subpopulations, north and south, were suggested...

  4. Cold war, quantum foundations, and East-West collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaar-Jacobsen, Anja [Niels Bohr Archive, Copenhagen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    It is well-known that the cultural cold war changed the ideological line in the Soviet Union from the late 1940s and that this had serious implications for the autonomy of research in genetics and quantum foundations in the East bloc. However, besides the more narrow concern from the point of view of research in quantum foundations, I suggest that the ideological impact on quantum foundations also constituted an obstacle for attempts by Western physicists to bring about a rapprochement between physics in the east and west in general. In connection with re-establishing East-West co-operation between physicists after Stalin's death in 1953 this obstacle needed to be cleared away. In my talk I discuss these issues and how the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen came to be an important meeting place for physicists from the East and West from the mid-1950s.

  5. Climate variability in West Greenland during the past 1500 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos Ribeiro, Sofia Isabel; Moros, Matthias; Ellegaard, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    document late-Holocene climate variability in West Greenland as inferred from a marine sediment record from the outer Disko Bay. Organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts and other palynomorphs were used to reconstruct environmental changes in the area through the last c. 1500 years at 30–40 years resolution....... Sea ice cover and primary productivity were identified as the two main factors driving dinoflagellate cyst community changes through time. Our data provide evidence for an opposite climate trend in West Greenland relative to the NE Atlantic region from c. AD 500 to 1050. For the same period, sea......Ribeiro, S., Moros, M., Ellegaard, M. & Kuijpers, A. 2012 (January): Climate variability in West Greenland during the past 1500 years: evidence from a high-resolution marine palynological record from Disko Bay. Boreas, Vol. 41, pp. 68–83. 10.1111/j.1502-3885.2011.00216.x. ISSN 0300-9483. Here we...

  6. Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DesCamp, V.A.; McMahon, C.L.

    1996-07-01

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project`s background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing.

  7. Satellite Tracking of Humpback Whales in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, R.; Teilmann, J.; Heide-Jørgensen, M.-P.

    In June 2000, 6 humpback whales (Megaptere novaeangliae) were tagged with satellite transmitters off West Greenland. Contact remained for up to 42 days. The tagging revealed that within the month of June, humpback whales off West Greenland moved between Fiskenæs Banke, Fyllas Banke, Tovqussaq Banke......, Sukkertop Banke and Lille Hellefiske Banke. The whales showed a preference for the continental slopes with depths less than 200 m, however, few dives were recorded down to 500 m. The whales had a preference for dives lasting 7-8 min. (15%) and no dives lasted longer than 15 min....

  8. Distribution and abundance of West Greenland humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Hammond, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Photo-identification surveys of humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae were conducted at West Greenland during 1988-93, the last 2 years of which were part of the internationally coordinated humpback whale research programme YoNAH, with the primary aim of estimating abundance for the West Greenland...... effort. A total of 670 groups of humpback whales was encountered leading to the identification of 348 individual animals. Three areas of concentration were identified: an area off Nuuk; an area at c. 63degrees30'N; and an area off Frederikshab. Sequential Petersen capture-recapture estimates of abundance...

  9. Deglacial History and Paleoceanography of the Umanak System, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Jennings, Anne; Andrews, John

    2012-01-01

    is to document the timing and rate of ice retreat and the role of the West Greenland Current (WGC) in initiating or sustaining ice retreat. During cruise JR175 of the UK ship RRS James Clark Ross in 2009, sediment cores and geophysical data were collected from the Umanak System to document the glacial history......A record of Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) and ice-stream history, ice-sheet ocean interactions and paleoclimate from the Last Glacial Maximum to present is preserved in the sediments of the Umanak fjord, shelf trough and trough mouth fan system of central West Greenland. The objective of this study...

  10. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHOEA VIRUS IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD is one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. The present study was undertaken to diagnose the persistently infected (PI animals by AntigenELISA and Reverse Transcriptase PCR using serum samples from organized farms as well as rural areas of West Bengal. The results showed that out of 964 serum samples tested 07 (0.73% was positive for BVDV by Antigen-ELISA. For further confirmation, RNA was extracted from the positive samples and RT-PCR was performed with 5' UTR specific primers which showed 294 bp amplicons. This finding showed circulation of BVDV in cattle in West Bengal, India.

  11. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None Available

    2000-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  12. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  13. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  14. The Dendrochronological Dating of Timber Crossings in West Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daly, Aoife

    2006-01-01

    The dendrochronological analyses of a large number of timbers from two sites are described. Nybro causeway in west Jutland, Denmark, which was built in the 8th century AD, consists of numerous phases, identifiable due to the large number of dendrochronologically dated timbers, of which many had...... complete sapwood, to bark edge, preserved. Skjern Bridge, across the Skjern River and also in west Jutland, is medieval in date, with phases from the 12th to 14th centuries. The bridge is one element in a complex of activity by the river including an earlier ford, a fish weir contemporary with the bridge...

  15. West Mining Expanding Into Lead Zinc Smelting Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>West Mining,China’s 2nd largest lead zinc miner(only next to Yunnan Jinding Zinc with an annual lead and zinc output of approx. 180,000 tons in metal content),has been put- ting efforts on the control of resources for years.Additionally,it has recently increased its investment on smelting business by holding shares of Bayanzhuoer Zijin for more zinc smelting asset.West Mining has just com- pleted the construction of its 60,000-ton zinc

  16. CHARACTERISTICS OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN WEST SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrial Syarif

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale enterprises in West Sumatra experienced slow growth and some constraints in their development process. In 1998, small businesses represented 99.61% of total business units operating in West Sumatra and absorbed 88.8% of total employment. The orientation of their businesses mostly on domestic market although recently they enter international market. Export contribution of small businesses still very low but growing steadily during the last three years. This research showed that enterprises dealing with embroideries, garments and handicrafts are ambitiously orienting their products towards foreign markets. At the same time these business categories are also proven to be the most profitable businesses.

  17. Research needs for lion conservation in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Hans; De Iongh, Hans H; Princée, Frank P; Ngantou, Daniel

    2003-08-01

    The lion has historically probably been widespread at low densities in West and Central Africa, nowadays they are largely restricted to small isolated populations inside protected areas. The total number is probably between 1200 and 2700, the best possible guesstimate would be 1700. Mankind is the main cause for the suspected decline of lion populations, both inside and outside protected areas. Very little research has been done on West and Central African lions a few examples are summarized here. The international community is slowly becoming aware of threats to lions in the region and some initiatives for lion conservation have started.

  18. Teaching in West Africa: Dig beneath the Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briam, Carol

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience teaching English to adult learners at the American Cultural Center in Dakar, Senegal, a poor, primarily Muslim country and former French colony in West Africa. Her class was composed of about 30 students, whose age ranged from about 18 to 50. They were mostly men and mostly Senegalese, along with a…

  19. Schooling of Immigrant Children in West Germany, Sweden, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willke, I.

    1975-01-01

    The focus of this article is on children of migrant workers and immigrants in the schools of West Germany, Sweden and England. One central problem, that of language, is considered both as it is dealt with in policy, i. e., in curricula, and as it is actually implemented in some programs, which are typical for the actions in these countries.…

  20. The historiography of Islam in West Africa : an anthropologist's view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soares, B.F.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I focus on the historiography of Islam in West Africa while also reflecting upon and assessing existing scholarship in the broader field of the study of Islam in Africa. My position as an anthropologist who conducts historical research informs my perspective in evaluating the curren

  1. Sinopec Strengthens Exploration and Development in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Yakela-Dalaoba Gas Field brought under development The first gas field of Sinopec Northwest Company was brought under development in early December, 2004. It is one of the important measures Sinopec has taken to support the campaign for developing West China and promote the local economic development in Xinjiang.

  2. Funding Impediments to Education Reform in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckley, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Prospects for financing educational reform in West Virginia are grim. Added to the state's high unemployment rate are the following problems: declining sales, income, and property tax revenues and erosion of federal support due to Gramm-Rudman-Hollings. Residents have set other priorities for public funding. Includes five references. (MLH)

  3. Economic Development in West Virginia. Information Series 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Frederick A.; Smith, Wil J.

    Excessive unemployment, serious deficiencies in education, housing, welfare, transportation, and government systems are major problems in West Virginia. A historical contributor to the present condition is the decline of the coal industry. Also a contributor is the general apathy of the citizens toward change and economic progress. The state's…

  4. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on

  5. A characterization of rice-growing environments in West Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriesse, W.; Fresco, L.O.

    1991-01-01

    Building on past classifications, this article proposes a comprehensive characterization of rice-growing environments in West Africa on the basis of ecological and agronomic parameters. Using climate, soils, toposequence, land types and rice cropping system as classificatory principles, 18 different

  6. Fonio (Digitaria exilis) in West Africa: towards improving nutrient quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koreissi, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Fonio (Digitaria exilis) in West Africa: Towards improving nutrient quality Abstract Hidden hunger affects a far greater percentage of the world’s population with iron and zinc deficiencies being the most common, particularly affecting women of reproductive ag

  7. Observations during the first K West fuel shipping campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makenas, B.J.

    1995-11-01

    Three fuel elements were shipped to the 300 Area hotcells during the first characterization shipping campaign from K West Basin. This document summarizes observations made during this campaign including the gas, liquid, and sludge content of the observed canisters. Included in an appendix is a detailed evaluation of fuel element condition for each canister opened

  8. Volatile Investments and Unruly Youth in a West Bank Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Hadas

    2010-01-01

    Building on fieldwork conducted in the West Bank settlement Beit-El, this article analyses the generational divide between first- and second-generation settlers in terms of their values and practices, against the backdrop of the new realities created by economic restructuring in Israel. It argues that the investments that settler parents made in…

  9. China Greatly Benefits from the West-East Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Statistics of the relevant department of China show that the West-East Gas Pipeline has boosted the rate of natural gas in China's primary energy mix from 2.2% to 3%, thus improving the safety of China's energy supply.

  10. Mixed farming : scope and constraints in West African Savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingerland, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Since colonial times the crop livestock integration concept has been a leading development model in francophone West Africa. So far, it has failed in certain aspects, such as cultivation of fodder crops, intensification of cereal production through animal traction, and sedentarisation of mobile live

  11. West Africa Land Use Land Cover Time Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This series of three-period land use land cover (LULC) datasets (1975, 2000, and 2013) aids in monitoring change in West Africa’s land resources (exception is...

  12. A History of West European Rocketry and Space Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    States government contributed 77 78 percent.) Provided there was a technological gap between the United States and West Europe in the 1960’s, it was...product. Today the most important factors in economic expansion are education and technological innovation.86 "The growing ’ technological gap ’ between

  13. Cryptocoryne aura (Araceae), a new species from West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wongso, Suwidji; Ipor, Isa B.; Tawan, Cheksum S.

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Cryptocoryne aura Wongso & Ipor, from West Kalimantan, Indonesia, is described and illustrated. It differs from other Cryptocoryne species primarily by having a transparent, ciliate membrane along the leaf margin and a short spathe with a yellow, forward-twisted limb. It has...

  14. Cycles of Protest in West Germany: Experiences from Three Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushaben, Joyce Marie

    The effects of the West German peace movement over the past 30 years have led to the development of a new concept of political participation in that country. Since 1950, a proliferation of protest movements has reflected a wide range of ideological, social, and geographic perspectives. Pacifist Protestants and the German Trade Union began sporadic…

  15. The Shallow-water Octocorallia of the West Indian Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayer, Frederick M.

    1961-01-01

    The alcyonarian fauna of the West Indies is prolific and conspicuous and has been known for many years, with the natural result that a great many more species have been described than actually exist. The deep-water fauna, which received little attention prior to the work of VERRILL, was thoroughly r

  16. Agriculture, livelihoods and climate change in the West African Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sissoko, K.; Keulen, van H.; Verhagen, A.; Tekken, V.; Battaglini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The West African Sahel is a harsh environment stressed by a fast-growing population and increasing pressure on the scarce natural resources. Agriculture is the main source of livelihood of the majority of the people living in the area. Increases in temperature and/or modifications in rainfall quanti

  17. Virtual Reference Service in Academic Libraries in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekyere, Kwabena

    2011-01-01

    As technology continues to advance, libraries in Europe and America continue to improve upon their virtual reference services by employing new Web technologies and applying them to existing services. West African academic libraries have begun providing resources electronically to their users but still typically lag behind in the services they…

  18. Bridging East and West Educational Divides in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prem

    2013-01-01

    In Asia, we are witnessing an era where the pendulum of power is swaying towards the East with the rising economic strength of China and India. Singapore is at the "crossroads" between the East and West of these most populous nations on earth. Although Singapore may appear the most Westernised country in Asia, she is nevertheless a multicultural…

  19. The extinction of the West African lion: whose responsibility?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Nollkaemper

    2014-01-01

    A recently published study showed that the lion in West Africa is now critically endangered and faces extinction. From one angle, this would be just one of the large (though unknown) number of species that has previously faced extinction or has even become extinct. But the risk of extinction of some

  20. Organic complexation of iron in the West Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.; Schoemann, V.; Laan, P.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of the dissolved iron (DFe) binding organic ligands were determined during 3 Dutch GEOTRACES cruises covering the length of the West Atlantic Ocean. Adsorptive Differential Pulse Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (AdDPCSV) with TAC as competing ligand was used to measure Fe binding

  1. Moral Self-Cultivation East and West: A Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slote, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Moral Self-Cultivation plays an important, even a central role, in the Confucian philosophical tradition, but philosophers in the West, most notably Aristotle and Kant, also hold that moral self-cultivation or self-shaping is possible and morally imperative. This paper argues that these traditions are psychologically unrealistic in what they say…

  2. Future of West African Monsoon in A Warming Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Jerry; Kunhu Bangalath, Hamza; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2016-04-01

    West Africa is the home of more than 300 million people whose agriculture based economy highly relies on West African Monsoon (WAM), which produces a mean annual rainfall of 150 - 2,500 mm and variability and change of which have devastating impact on the local population. The observed widespread drought in West Africa during the 1970s and 1980s was the most significant drought at regional scale during the twentieth century. In this study, a high resolution AGCM, High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM), is used to study the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse warming on WAM. HiRAM is developed at GFDL based on AM2 and employs a cubed-sphere finite volume dynamical core and uses shallow convective scheme (for moist convection and stratiform cloudiness) instead of deep convective parameterization. Future projections are done using two representative concentration pathways, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 from 2007 to 2050 at C360 (~25 km) resolution. Both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios predict warming over West Africa during boreal summer, especially over Western Sahara. Also, both scenarios predict southward shift in WAM rainfall pattern and drying over Southern Sahara, while RCP 8.5 predicts enhanced rainfall over Gulf of Guinea. The intensification of rainfall over tropical latitudes is caused by increased low level winds due to warm SST over Gulf of Guinea.

  3. Forest climbing plants of West Africa: diversity, ecology and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Parren, M.P.E.; Traoré, D.

    2005-01-01

    Climbing plants, including lianas, represent a fascinating component of the ecology of tropical forests. This book focuses on the climbing plants of West African forests. Based on original research, it presents information on the flora (including a checklist), diversity (with overviews at several le

  4. West German producers step up enhanced recovery techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-15

    With the lure of more than $12 for every barrel of oil they find, West German oil companies are leaving few rocks unturned in a scramble for additional crude reserves. Most are convinced that in onshore West Germany, at least, the biggest new finds may well be in reservoirs discovered some years back. Reservoir engineers and economists are convinced that the recent large increases in crude prices will make it economical to recover far more oil from wells than ever before. Using only the advanced recovery techniques now available, West German reserves, it is estimated, could more than double. Total original oil in place discovered in West Germany is put at more than 300 million tons, with at least 200 million tons of highly viscous crude located in the Ems area in the northwest corner of the country. Cumulative production to date totals just over 65 million tons; proven recoverable reserves total 81 million tons. This leaves some part to unfavorable economics. However, there are some 45 million breakthrough tons considered by experts to be potentially recoverable subject only to refinement of known recovery technology.

  5. Walruses in West Greenland: Where do they belong?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, E. W.; Andersen, L. W.; Dietz, R.;

    Historically, Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) were heavily exploited on their wintering grounds in Central West Greenland (CWG; 67º-71º30´N). Walruses in this area are still exploited and the group is thought to be much below historical population size. However, the demographic...

  6. Local perceptions of migration from north-west Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, K.

    2010-01-01

    The Upper West Region in northern Ghana is a major source area of migrants who travel to southern Ghana seasonally or for longer periods. This has important implications for the lives and livelihoods of the migrants themselves and their relatives at home. Almost invariably the impact of out-migratio

  7. Outcome of Radioiodine Therapy in a West African Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onimode, Yetunde A; Ankrah, Alfred; Adedapo, Kayode S

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism continues to be a pressing public health concern in West Africa. Its prevalence in Africa has been quoted as 1.2%-9.9%, with Graves' disease as its most common cause. Radioiodine-131 (RAI) therapy of hyperthyroidism recently commenced in two government hospitals in Ghana and Nigeria.

  8. Multiculturalism: An Analysis of Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. and Cornel West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Laura

    1994-01-01

    Contrasts the social views presented in Arthur M. Schlesinger's "The Disuniting of America" with those of Cornel West's "Race Matters." Discusses issues such as diversity, separatism, and unity within a multicultural democracy. Concludes that educators should be informed about the views of both authors. (CFR)

  9. Rolls-Royce Becomes Provider for West-East Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Rolls-Royce, a leading provider of gas turbines for global energy markets, announced on February that it has won the contract to provide Rolls-Royce pipeline compression equipment for China's West-East Gas Pipeline Project (WEPP). The contract is valued at over US$150 million.

  10. DIOXINS AND ENDOMETRIOSIS: COHORT STUDY OF WOMEN IN WEST VIRGINIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanawha Valley of West Virginia has a history of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin contamination (dioxin, TCDD). The bulk of the dioxin found in this area appears to be derived from the production of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and the disposal of associated wa...

  11. Malignant lymphoma in a west Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Klausen, Bjarne; Knold, Steffen

    2005-01-01

    We identified a malignant lymphoma infiltrating the lung, liver, kidney, mesenteric lymph nodes, and eye as the cause of death in a male West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus). Diagnosis was based on gross histopathologic, and immunohistochemical studies. Tissue samples from ten organs were inc...

  12. West-to-East Pipeline Entirely Comes under Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhicheng

    2002-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West-to-East Pipleline Company announced at a press conference held in February that the Chinese Government has formally approved the feasibility study report of the nation-crossing pipeline, marking that the 4200-kilometer pipeline project was brought under construction.

  13. The Buzz-z-z on West Nile Virus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-12

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about West Nile Virus and how to protect yourself from it.  Created: 1/12/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/12/2012.

  14. Acrobatic Drama Pilgrimage to the West Winning Wenhua Award

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉

    2007-01-01

    The 8th China Arts Festival was held in Wuhan from 5th to 20th of November.Guangzhou Acrobatic Troupe's acrobatic drama-"Pilgrimage to the West"competed for the Wenhua Award, which is the most prestigious prize for performance art given by the Chinese government.

  15. Turf varieties for the Intermountain West - today and tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscape managers and sod growers in the Intermountain West are limited in their ability to select the varieties of turfgrass that perform well in this semi-arid environment. The varieties of seed sold in Utah are rarely based on what performs well here. Turf managers will often make one visit to...

  16. Energy in the Mountain West: Colonialism and Independence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Piet; Lloyd Brown; Robert Cherry; Craig Cooper; Harold Heydt; Richard Holman; Travis McLing

    2007-08-01

    In many ways, the mountain west (Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming) is an energy colony for the rest of the United States: it is rich in energy resources that are extracted to fuel economic growth in the wealthier and more populous coastal regions. Federal agencies and global corporations often behave as if the mountain west is a place to be exploited or managed for the benefit of customers and consumers elsewhere. Yet, the area. is not vast empty space with a limitless supply of natural resources, but rather a fast-growing region with a diverse economic base dependent on a limited supply of water. New decision processes and collaborations are slowly changing this situation, but in a piecemeal fashion that places local communities at odds with powerful external interests. Proper planning of major development is needed to insure that the west has a strong economic and cultural future after the fossil energy resources decline, even if that might be a century from now. To encourage the necessary public discussions, this paper identifies key differences between the mountain west and the rest of the United States and suggests some holistic approaches that could improve our future. This paper is designed to provoke thought and discussion; it does not report new analyses on energy resources or usage. It is a summary of a large group effort.

  17. A century of glacier change in the American West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, A. G.

    2007-12-01

    Over the past 100 years glaciers in the American West (exclusive of Alaska) have largely receded. The magnitude of the recession varies across the west, with the greatest loss in Montana and California (>50% area loss) and the least loss on the stratovolcanoes (>35%) of the Pacific Northwest. The variations can be broadly characterized by elevation. Our results suggest that increased mass loss caused by increased summer temperatures affect all glaciers, whereas increasing winter temperatures, that change the phase of precipitation from snow to rain adversely affect those glaciers less than 3000m in elevation. The high glaciers (>3000m) of California and Colorado appear to be immune to variations in snowfall making them sensitive to variations in temperature alone. We infer that these very small, steep glaciers can only hold a given amount of snow beyond which extra snow avalanches or is blown off. Conversely, during winters of little direct snowfall, additional snow may be added through win drift from the surrounding terrain. The relatively little glacier shrinkage on the stratovolcanoes is due to the high altitude of the glacier accumulation zones. An east to west decrease in glacier shrinkage from Montana through Washington is due to enhanced winter precipitation along the west coast that somewhat buffers ice loss due to summer temperatures and winter precipitation phase changes.

  18. 78 FR 15292 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; West Bay, Osterville, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; West Bay, Osterville, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  19. On the origin of the West Indian Fauna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharff, R.F.

    1922-01-01

    Many zoologists have attempted to solve this problem which is a complicated one. In one respect the views of almost all agree. It is in the belief that the West Indian islands must have undergone profound alterations in configuration during the past. It is thought that at one time they must all have

  20. Understanding the productivity of cassava in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezui, Kodjovi Senam

    2017-01-01

    Drought stress and sub-optimal soil fertility management are major constraints to crop production in general and to cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in particular in the rain-fed cropping systems in West Africa. Cassava is an important source of calories for millions of smallholder households in s

  1. Clinical sentinel surveillance of equine West Nile fever, Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saegerman, C.; Alba-Casals, A.; García-Bocanegra, I.;

    2016-01-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) is a viral zoonotic infection caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Flaviviridae family. According to a comparative study, the passive surveillance of horses by equine veterinarians appeared to be the most cost-effective system in the European context of WNF. Clinical...

  2. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbu, O; Ajuluchukwu, E; Uneke, C J

    2007-03-01

    Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to be responsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection with profuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever is endemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Some studies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across West Africa. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa were identified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity of resources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise the West African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region. There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care of patients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectious laboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste.

  3. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ogbu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to beresponsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea,vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection withprofuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever isendemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Somestudies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across WestAfrica. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa wereidentified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity ofresources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise theWest African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region.There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care ofpatients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectiouslaboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste.

  4. A new genus of arboreal rat from West Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musser, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    Kadarsanomys nov. gen. is proposed for Rattus sodyi Bartels, 1937, and contrasted with Rattus and Lenothrix, two genera with which sodyi has been closely connected in the past. Kadarsanomys sodyi is an arboreal rat associated with bamboo on the forested volcanoes of West Java. Kadarsanomys has no cl

  5. West Virginia University's Health Sciences and Technology Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Ann; Dooley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the Health Sciences and Technology Academy, an outreach and engagement program by West Virginia University to encourage higher education faculty members and administrators, public school teachers, and community leaders to assume the responsibility of mentoring high school students. The primary goal is to increase the college…

  6. University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Experiment (UWIDITE). Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Gerald C.; Marrett, Christine

    Since March 1983, the University of the West Indies has been conducting a distance teaching experiment that links its three campuses and the Extra Mural Centres in Antigua, Dominica, and St. Lucia by telecommunications. The network is used for interactive distance teaching and other types of teleconferences. A variety of modern audio and video…

  7. The University of the West Indies in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Edris

    1984-01-01

    The University of the West Indies is undergoing institutional change brought about by its seeking to adapt itself to the demands and varying needs of its several supporting governments. The university's historical background, the impact of political independence, and the restructuring of the university are discussed. (RM)

  8. Education and Happiness: Perspectives of the East and the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relations between education and happiness from the perspectives of the West and the East, especially Buddhism and Christianity as well as classical Greek and Chinese great thinkers. In order to examine this study systematically, three research questions are addressed as follows: First, what are…

  9. Nearshore currents along the Karnataka coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Dora, G.U.; Philip, C.S.; Pednekar, P.S.; Singh, J.

    Measured current data at 7 locations and tide data at 3 locations during the pre-summer monsoon period along the west coast of India is used in the study. The surface currents during March showed a predominant northward trend and during April...

  10. Purpura fulminans associated with acute West Nile virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sheevam; Fite, Laura Paul; Lane, Natalie; Parekh, Palak

    2016-02-01

    Purpura fulminans is a progressive thrombotic disorder that presents with widespread purpura due to deficiency or dysfunction of protein C or protein S. Lesions present as well-demarcated erythematous macules that progress to irregular areas of hemorrhagic necrosis.West Nile virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family transmitted to humans through the bite of various mosquito species. It manifests as West Nile fever in 25% of those infected and less commonly as neuroinvasive disease. An African American man in his fortiespresented with altered mental status and was noted to have evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation according to his lab data. He then developed dusky skin discoloration and systemic flaccid bullae with desquamation. Biopsy was consistent with purpura fulminans and the patient eventually developed symmetric peripheral gangrene, requiring amputations of all four extremities. Infectious work up revealed positive testing for IgM and IgG antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid leading to the diagnosis of acute West Nile Virus encephalitis. We present this case to describe the rarely reported association of purpura fulminans with West Nile Virus infection.

  11. NATO in History and Civics Textbooks: The West German Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, K. Peter

    1990-01-01

    When analyzing the degree to which a balanced presentation of NATO is achieved in West German history and civics textbooks, two standards may be used: first, inclusion of information on NATO's formation, aims, strategies and achievements; and, second, inclusion of the criticisms that have been leveled at NATO from various points of view. This…

  12. Contraception and Induced Abortion in the West Indies: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, A.A.; Bruijn, de J.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Most islands in the West Indies do not have liberal laws on abortion, nor laws on pregnancy prevention programmes (contraception). We present results of a literature review about the attitude of healthcare providers and women toward (emergency) contraception and induced abortion

  13. The epidemiology and control of onchocerciasis in West-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.F. Remme

    1989-01-01

    textabstractThe present thesis deals with research which has been undertaken since 1983 with the aim of finding answers to the three main epidemiological questions which have been discussed above, i.e. I.-What are the epidemiological patterns of ocular onchocerciasis in West Africa and what is the g

  14. NWFSC Observer Trawl Data, off West Coast of US, 2002-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observer Trawl Data collected during 2002-2006 off West Coast of US. This data product originates from data collected by fishery observers in the West Coast...

  15. Strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the Disko West area[Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Jespersen, Martin

    2007-05-15

    This publication is a strategic environmental impact assessment of activities related to exploration, development and exploitation of hydrocarbons in the sea of West Greenland between 67 deg. and 71 deg. N (= the Disko West Area). (au)

  16. NWFSC Observer Fixed Gear Data, off West Coast of US, 2002-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observer Fixed Gear Data collected during 2002-2006 off West Coast of US. This data product originates from data collected by fishery observers in the West Coast...

  17. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

    2005-09-30

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in West Virginia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in West Virginia.

  19. Simulating the daily discharge of the Mandovi River, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suprit, K.; Shankar, D.; Venugopal, V.; Bhatkar, N.V.

    A hydrological modelling framework was assembled to simulate the daily discharge of the Mandovi River on the Indian west coast. Approximately 90% of the west-coast rainfall, and therefore discharge, occurs during the summer monsoon (June...

  20. Buried late Pleistocene fluvial channels on the inner continental shelf off Vengurla, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.

    Analysis of echosounding, side-scan sonar and shallow seismic data collected west of Burnt islands off Vengurla, west coast of India, revealed a featureless seabed, thicknesses of subsurface layers, and presence of buried channels filled...

  1. West Virginia Diesel Study, CRADA MC96-034, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gautam

    1998-08-05

    The global objective of the recently completed Phase 1 of the West Virginia Diesel Study, at West Virginia University, was to evaluate mass emission rates of exhaust emissions from diesel powered equipment specified by the West Virginia Diesel Equipment Commission. The experimental data generated in this study has been utilized by the West Virginia Diesel Equipment Commission to promulgate initial rules, requirements and standards governing the operation of diesel equipment in underground coal mines.

  2. Potential Climate Effects of Dust Aerosols' over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    JI, Z.; Wang, G.; Pal, J. S.; Yu, M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate in West Africa is under the influence of the West African monsoon circulation and mineral dust emitted from the Sahara desert (which is the world's largest source of mineral dust emission). Dust aerosols alter the atmospheric radiative fluxes and act as cloud condensation nuclei in the process of emission, transportation and deposition. However, our understanding regarding how dust aerosols influence the present-day and future climate of West Africa is very limited. In this study, a regional climate model RegCM4.3.4-CLM4.5 is used to investigate the potential climatic effects of dust aerosols both in present (1981-2000) and future (2081-2100) periods over WA. First, the model performance and dust climatic effects are evaluated. The contribution of dust climatic effects under RCP8.5 scenario and their confounding effects with land use change are assessed. Our results indicate that the model can reproduce with reasonable accuracy the spatial and temporal distribution of climatology, aerosol optical depth and surface concentration over WA. The shortwave radiative forcing of dust is negative in the surface and positive in the atmosphere, with greater changes in JJA and MAM compared to those in SON and DJF. Over most of West Africa, cooling is the dominant effect on temperature. Their impact on precipitation features a dipole pattern, with decrease in the north and increase in the south of West Africa. Despite the dust-induced decrease of precipitation amount, dusts cause extreme precipitation to increase. To evaluate the uncertainties surrounding our modeling results, sensitivity experiments driven by ICBC from MIROC-ESM and CESM and their dynamic downscaling results are used for comparisons. Results from these sensitivity experiments indicate that the impact of dust aerosols on present and future climate is robust.

  3. West Africa land use land cover time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappan, G. Gray; Cushing, W. Matthew; Cotillon, Suzanne E.; Mathis, Melissa L.; Hutchinson, John A.; Dalsted, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    The West Africa Land Use Dynamics Project provides AGRHYMET and its 17 participating countries a comprehensive two-kilometer (2-km) resolution land use land cover (LULC) dataset of the region for three time periods; 1975, 2000, and 2013. Hundreds of Landsat images were visually interpreted to develop a 2-km LULC dataset for each of the three time periods. To assist in validating the interpretations, thousands of aerial photographs and high-resolution satellite images were used. From the initial datasets produced by national teams, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted an independent, detailed review of the interpretations. In concurrence with the respective country teams, the data have been revised to produce an accurate and consistent LULC assessment from within the countries and respective transboundary areas. This West Africa Land Use Dynamics Project represents an effort to document and quantify the impacts of change in both time and space, of the environmental and land resource trends across West Africa. The project was carried out through the AGRHYMET Regional Center in Niamey, Niger, in partners from 17 participating countries, the Sahel Institute (INSAH), the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS), and with major support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) West Africa Regional Program. The overarching goal of the West Africa Land Use Dynamics Project is to promote the awareness of the trends and use of spatial information about natural resource trends among national and regional decision-makers. For a complete description of project visit https://eros.usgs.gov/westafrica

  4. Diversity of Indo-West Pacific Siphonaria (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Euthyneura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayrat, Benoît; Goulding, Tricia C; White, Tracy R

    2014-03-14

    Species of the limpet genus Siphonaria (Gastropoda: Euthyneura) are commonly found in the rocky intertidal, worldwide, except in the Arctic. In total, 205 species-group names are available and not permanently invalid. However, estimating the actual species diversity of Siphonaria has remained challenging, mainly because past authors have interpreted differently the variation of shell characters, resulting in different taxonomic accounts. Species diversity of Siphonaria is evaluated for the first time here based on DNA sequence data (three mitochondrial gene fragments: COI, 12S, and 16S) and a large sampling focusing on the tropical and subtropical Indo-West Pacific (from eastern Africa to Hawaii): new sequences are provided for 153 individuals, 123 of which were collected from 93 locations throughout the Indo-West Pacific. In total, 41 species (molecular units) are recognized worldwide (31 from the Indo-West Pacific), all of which are strongly supported. Potential names are discussed for those 41 species, based on traditional taxonomy. The shells of 66 of the individuals from which DNA was extracted are illustrated: intra- and inter-specific variation is documented in detail and discussed in the light of new molecular results. It is shown that many species could hardly be identified based on the shell only, because the variation of shell characters is too high and overlaps between species. Geographically, no species is found across the entire Indo-West Pacific, where quite a few species seem to be endemic to restricted areas. The biogeography of Siphonaria in the Indo-West Pacific is compared to other groups.

  5. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from infestations...

  6. 78 FR 25383 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Beach County Park Airport, West Palm Beach, FL (78 FR 6258). Interested parties were invited to... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY... Airspace in the West Palm Beach, FL area, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) have...

  7. 76 FR 3569 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Yellowstone Airport, West Yellowstone, MT, to... procedures at Yellowstone Airport, West Yellowstone, MT. The FAA is proposing this action to enhance...

  8. 75 FR 30295 - Modification of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT... Class E airspace at West Yellowstone, MT, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP) at West Yellowstone...

  9. 77 FR 14011 - Rainbow Ranch Wind, LLC, Rainbow West Wind, LLC; Notice of Petition for Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Rainbow Ranch Wind, LLC, Rainbow West Wind, LLC; Notice of Petition for... Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), 16 USA 8242-3(h), Rainbow Ranch Wind, LLC (Rainbow Ranch) and Rainbow West Wind, LLC (Rainbow West) (collectively, Petitioners) filed a petition requesting the Federal...

  10. 78 FR 18798 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Union, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Union, IA AGENCY... airspace at West Union, IA. Decommissioning of the West Union non-directional beacon (NDB) at George L... and for the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) operations at the airport....

  11. 75 FR 33617 - Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: West Huntington Spill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... AGENCY Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: West Huntington Spill... United States Department of Justice on behalf of EPA, in connection with the West Huntington Spill Site, Huntington, West Virginia (``Site''). DATES: Written comments on the proposed settlement agreement must...

  12. 78 FR 48466 - Comcast Cable, West Division Customer Care, Morgan Hill, California; Notice of Negative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comcast Cable, West Division Customer Care, Morgan Hill, California... workers of Comcast Cable, West Division Customer Care, Morgan Hill, California (subject firm). The... eligibility of Comcast Cable, West Division Customer Care, Morgan Hill, California, to apply for...

  13. Circuits of Spectacle: The Miller Brothers' 101 Ranch Real Wild West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Alison

    2012-01-01

    The Miller Brothers' 101 Ranch Real Wild West show ran from 1906 to 1931, outlasting the famous Buffalo Bill's Wild West show by more than a decade. From its beginnings in Oklahoma Territory, the Real Wild West show traveled national and international circuits and built a broad roster of performers, including more than 150 American Indians. During…

  14. 40 CFR 81.96 - West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Central Florida Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.96 West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  15. 78 FR 25177 - Honoring the Victims of the Explosion in West, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... April 29, 2013 Part III The President Proclamation 8963--Honoring the Victims of the Explosion in West... April 24, 2013 Honoring the Victims of the Explosion in West, Texas By the President of the United... explosion in West, Texas, on April 17, 2013, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by...

  16. West African colonial civil servants in the nineteenth century : African participation in British colonial expansion in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arhin, K.

    1985-01-01

    From the 1850's to mid 1890's Africans were employed in top positions in the embryonic West African colonial services. This book contains the biographies of three of them: Ferguson on the Gold Coast, Lawson in Sierra Leone and Payne in Nigeria. All three had in common that they believed in British r

  17. Amsterdam Expeditions to the West Indian Islands, Report 48. Harpacticoid copepods from the West Indian Islands: Laophontidae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiers, Frank

    1986-01-01

    The present paper deals exclusively with the species of the family Laophontidae found in samples gathered during several expeditions of the University of Amsterdam to the West Indies. Four new species belonging to different genera are described. Two new species and Laophonte adriatica are assigned t

  18. Population Change in West Virginia 1950-1970. West Virginia University Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station Bulletin 658.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizer, Leonard M.

    Growth patterns of the national economy during the 1950's and 1960's have not been shared by the state of West Virginia; towns and rural areas have lost population and job opportunities have declined. The switch to petroleum products and advanced mining technology displaced many coal mine workers. A national food surplus and the difficulty in…

  19. Investigative Journalism and Human Trafficking in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Gyuracz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigative journalism that aims to prise out information that the state or certain businesses want to keep undisclosed has been unthinkable under many postcolonial African regimes. However, since the promulgation of democratic constitutions, a generation of ambitious investigative journalists has grown up in Africa. In order to show how journalism has changed, the paper brings Anas Aremeyaw Anas’s activities into focus. Anas’s single-minded mission to bring justice has targeted organisations involved in human trafficking, smuggling, and forced labour in West African countries since 2010. Although his team’s way of gathering information raises moral concerns about undercover journalism, their efforts illustrate that human trafficking is widespread among the countries of West and Central Africa. Therefore, the author suggests that both the AU and ECOWAS must create a more stable legal environment for investigative journalists, as their reports can help these institutions and national governments protect human rights.

  20. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  1. Welding technique studies on the "West-East" pipeline project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sui Yongli; Du Zeyu; Huang Fuxiang; Qi Lichun

    2006-01-01

    This paper described the work of welding process design for the "West-East" pipeline project, which is high pressure, large diameter and heavy wall thickness. According to the different geographical situation, climate, culture and the flexibility of the welding methods, this work recommended the semi-automatic process at the east and middle sections and automatic process at the west section of the pipeline project. The manual process is recommended on the tie-in joints and repairs. The double joint pipe and the 3 joint pipe are recommended at the water net place and some in-ditch welding place to reduce the welding volume. Also the special redesigned bevels are recommended for the automatic process and the semiautomatic process. Through all destructive tests, the results shows the welds are meet the requirements of related standards,specifications and design documents.

  2. Spatial Distribution of Key Sectors of West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Muthia Harahap

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ASEAN Economic Community will be implemented in 2015, while West Kalimantanprovince which is located in 2 Sub-Regional Cooperations of ASEAN , yet to be widely discussed by regional economic experts in terms of itsregional potentials. Multi-sector expressions often generalized in majorcategories, seem to be uncleared to share what key sectorsindicated and where they distribute in the region concerned.. Based on this,the paper proposes a combination approach of multi-sector model and inter-linked in spatial dimensions. Input-output method and Location Quotient models introduced and applied in the case of West Kalimantan province in the efficiency of its development efforts towards a Green Plan.

  3. Stratigraphic record of Holocene coseismic subsidence, Padang, West Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, Tina; Rubin, Charles M.; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Hawkes, Andrea; Vane, Christopher H.; Daryono, Mudrik; Pre, Candace Grand; Ladinsky, Tyler; Bradley, Sarah

    2011-11-01

    Stratigraphic evidence is found for two coseismic subsidence events that underlie a floodplain 20 km south of Padang, West Sumatra along the Mentawai segment (0.5°S-0.3°S) of the Sunda subduction zone. Each earthquake is marked by a sharp soil-mud contact that represents a sudden change from mangrove to tidal flat. The earthquakes occurred about 4000 and 3000 cal years B.P. based on radiocarbon ages of detrital plant fragments and seeds. The absence of younger paleoseismic evidence suggests that late Holocene relative sea level fall left the floodplain too high for an earthquake to lower it into the intertidal zone. Our results point to a brief, few thousand year window of preservation of subsidence events in tidal-wetland stratigraphic sequences, a result that is generally applicable to other emergent coastlines of West Sumatra.

  4. Clinical Manifestations and Outcomes of West Nile Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Sejvar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV in North America in 1999, understanding of the clinical features, spectrum of illness and eventual functional outcomes of human illness has increased tremendously. Most human infections with WNV remain clinically silent. Among those persons developing symptomatic illness, most develop a self-limited febrile illness. More severe illness with WNV (West Nile neuroinvasive disease, WNND is manifested as meningitis, encephalitis or an acute anterior (polio myelitis. These manifestations are generally more prevalent in older persons or those with immunosuppression. In the future, a more thorough understanding of the long-term physical, cognitive and functional outcomes of persons recovering from WNV illness will be important in understanding the overall illness burden.

  5. Waste Assessment Baseline for the IPOC Second Floor, West Wing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCord, Samuel A [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Waste Management and Pollution Prevention

    2015-04-01

    Following a building-wide waste assessment in September, 2014, and subsequent presentation to Sandia leadership regarding the goal of Zero Waste by 2025, the occupants of the IPOC Second Floor, West Wing contacted the Materials Sustainability and Pollution Prevention (MSP2) team to guide them to Zero Waste in advance of the rest of the site. The occupants are from Center 3600, Public Relations and Communications , and Center 800, Independent Audit, Ethics and Business Conduct . To accomplish this, MSP2 conducted a new limited waste assessment from March 2-6, 2015 to compare the second floor, west wing to the building as a whole. The assessment also serves as a baseline with which to mark improvements in diversion in approximately 6 months.

  6. Tardigrada of the Caribbean island of Dominica (West Indies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana G. Hinton

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In June 2009 we surveyed the terrestrial Tardigrada of Dominica, the most northerly of the Windward islands of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean sea. Out of 112 moss, lichen, liverwort and leaf litter samples, 35 had tardigrades, representing 10 genera and 25 species or species groups. This survey increases the number of species reported from Dominica from 3 to 25, more than the total recorded from any other West Indian island. Twelve species found in Dominica are cosmopolitan or belong to cosmopolitan species groups. Eight species are new to the fauna of the West Indies, one is new to the fauna of the Americas, and at least one is endemic to Dominica.

  7. Physicians' perceptions of doctor shopping in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, E Gail; Moss, Alvin H

    2010-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse and diversion continue to be serious problems in West Virginia and nationwide. Doctor shopping (visiting multiple doctors in a short time frame with the intent to deceive them to obtain controlled substances) is illegal and one way that patients gain access to prescription drugs. We surveyed West Virginia physicians in emergency medicine, family medicine, and internal medicine to determine their experience with and attitudes toward doctor shopping, and to assess attitudes toward proposed legislation to protect physicians who report doctor shoppers to law enforcement officials. Of 452 physicians surveyed, 258 responded (57%). Emergency medicine physicians had the highest response rate (61%) and most frequent encounters (once a week or more often) with doctor shoppers compared to family medicine and internal medicine physicians (88% vs 25% vs 14%, P doctor shoppers. If the law protected them, 85 percent of all physicians reported they would be likely to report doctor shoppers.

  8. Regional flood-frequency relations for west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijo, M.A.; Giovannelli, R.F.; Turner, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents regional relations for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods on streams in west-central Florida. Flood prediction equations derived cover 20, 5-, 25-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals. Annual floods for three geographic areas of west-central Florida were found to relate significantly to basin characteristics. Basin characteristics include drainage area, soils index, slope, and lake area. The average standard error of estimate for regional flood relations ranged from 38.4 to 52.1 percent with a mean of 43.5 percent. The average multiple correlation coefficient if 0.94. Regional relations apply to gaged and ungaged sites whose drainage areas are greater than 10 but less than 2,500 square miles. Tables of maximum known floods for 64 streamflow stations used in the analysis are included. Tables comparing station, weighted, and regional flood-peak discharges are also included. (Kosco-USGS)

  9. Recent progress in West Nile virus diagnosis and vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Filette Marina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract West Nile virus (WNV is a positive-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, a large family with 3 main genera (flavivirus, hepacivirus and pestivirus. Among these viruses, there are several globally relevant human pathogens including the mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV, yellow fever virus (YFV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV and West Nile virus (WNV, as well as tick-borne viruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV. Since the mid-1990s, outbreaks of WN fever and encephalitis have occurred throughout the world and WNV is now endemic in Africa, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe and the Unites States. This review describes the molecular virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and highlights recent progress regarding diagnosis and vaccination against WNV infections.

  10. The Holocene vegetation history of northern West Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Bent Vad

    1994-01-01

    Holocene sediments of three closed Danish lake basins (Solso, Skånso, Kragso) were used for the inference of post-glacial vegetational dynamics in former heathland areas in northern West Jutland, Denmark. The sites were selected to represent the major geomorphological units of West Jutland....... The Holocene history of each lake basin was investigated by mapping of sediment distribution, analysis of loss-on-ignition, coarse inorganic matter, humus content, mineral magnetics, 6°C. pollen and selected other microfossils. These techniques were supplemented by plant macrofossil analysis at one site......, the synchronous timing of relatively rapid inferred change in lake and terrestrial vegetation around AD 600 may reflect changes in climate as well as in land-use. Redundancy analysis was used to develop a model between fire intensity (inferred from microscopical charred particles) and vegetational response...

  11. Testing Modeling Assumptions in the West Africa Ebola Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Keith; Verzijl, Christopher; Huang, Junming; Ingram, Matthew; Song, Binyang; Hasne, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The Ebola virus in West Africa has infected almost 30,000 and killed over 11,000 people. Recent models of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) have often made assumptions about how the disease spreads, such as uniform transmissibility and homogeneous mixing within a population. In this paper, we test whether these assumptions are necessarily correct, and offer simple solutions that may improve disease model accuracy. First, we use data and models of West African migration to show that EVD does not homogeneously mix, but spreads in a predictable manner. Next, we estimate the initial growth rate of EVD within country administrative divisions and find that it significantly decreases with population density. Finally, we test whether EVD strains have uniform transmissibility through a novel statistical test, and find that certain strains appear more often than expected by chance. PMID:27721505

  12. Overview of West Nile Virus Transmission and Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupin, Andrea; Colpitts, Tonya M

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that can cause mild-to-severe disease in humans and horses. WNV was first documented in Uganda in 1937 and passed through the majority of Africa, West Asia, and Europe before arriving in the USA (with infections in New York City in 1999). After the spread of the virus on the US east coast, it traveled westward, northward, and southward through the USA and into Central and South America. WNV can cause fever, rashes, nausea, vomiting, and potentially neuroinvasive disease or death. The virus is sustained through a mosquito-bird-mosquito cycle and there are many species that are competent vectors. Unfortunately, there are no vaccines and the only treatment is supportive care. This chapter highlights the epidemiology and transmission of WNV and provides insight into some of the challenges of controlling WNV disease.

  13. Looking east, looking west: Penang as a knowledge hub

    OpenAIRE

    Gerke, Solvay; Evers, Hans-Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Penang has always been a focal point, absorbing knowledge (and popular culture) from civilizations to the East and West. In modern Penang the pattern of cultural contacts has changed over time. Research institutes and universities in Penang cooperate with foreign partners to produce research papers and reports. Based on an analysis of joint research output, the changing international position of Penang as an emerging research hub will be analysed. The paper will show that international cooper...

  14. Fiqh Issues in the Border Areas of West Kalimantan

    OpenAIRE

    Hamka Siregar

    2016-01-01

    The less prosperous condition of the community in the Indonesia-Malaysia border area in the province of West Kalimantan has resulted in several problems including those related to fiqh, such as the sale and purchase of illegal goods from Malaysia, the phenomena of illegal migrant workers from Indonesia, human trafficking, transnational marriages, double identity cards, etc. In the perspective of fiqh, there is no ban on trading between people of different nationalities. In the legislative pro...

  15. Ukraine gas crisis rumbles on as west again affected

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-02-15

    Russian disagreements with Ukraine have continued despite the earlier settlement of a dispute over gas pricing (see 'Focus', January 2006). Deliveries of Russian gas to the west have again been disrupted amid accusations from Moscow that Ukraine has been abstracting more gas from Russia's export pipeline than it is contractually entitled to. The problem, however, appears to originate in Russia, where cold weather has caused domestic demand for gas to soar, leaving less available for export. (author)

  16. Proceedings of the Coastal Benthic Boundary Layer Key West Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-24

    plates of aragonitic green algae (Halimeda, Penicillus, and Udeota), molluscan shells, benthic and planktonic foraminifera , echinoid spines, sponge...Florida Shelf ( Gulf of Mexico waters) to the north, and the Florida Straits to the south. Seismic data from the shelf surrounding the Dry Tortugas...the west Florida carbonate platform. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Mexico and to the south by the Straits of Florida. The site is well

  17. Summarization of Energy efficiency in buildings in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINZhenguo; ZHANGSuyun; FUXiangzhao; XIAOYimin; BAIXuelian

    2003-01-01

    According to the different climatic characters of the different regions in West China, combining with energy efficiency in buildings (EEB) standards and local resources, this paper discussed the technologies of EEB applicable in the representative cities of freezing, cold, hot-summer and cold-winter, warm regions. The author exploredthe keystones of the EEB technologies'' development, but hasn''t recommended technology of EEB concretely.

  18. Wohnungsmärkte im deutschen Ost-West-Vergleich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Rothenwallner

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite equal conditions after World War II, housing markets in East and West Germany had, according to the political and economic systems, developed completely different. State controlled mass production of dwellings due to planned economy is faced with house building under control of market principles. Bringing together both housing mar-kets is one of the most urgent political tasks since reunification.

  19. Will elephants soon disappear from West African savannahs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouché, Philippe; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Wittemyer, George; Nianogo, Aimé J; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Lejeune, Philippe; Vermeulen, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    Precipitous declines in Africa's native fauna and flora are recognized, but few comprehensive records of these changes have been compiled. Here, we present population trends for African elephants in the 6,213,000 km² Sudano-Sahelian range of West and Central Africa assessed through the analysis of aerial and ground surveys conducted over the past 4 decades. These surveys are focused on the best protected areas in the region, and therefore represent the best case scenario for the northern savanna elephants. A minimum of 7,745 elephants currently inhabit the entire region, representing a minimum decline of 50% from estimates four decades ago for these protected areas. Most of the historic range is now devoid of elephants and, therefore, was not surveyed. Of the 23 surveyed elephant populations, half are estimated to number less than 200 individuals. Historically, most populations numbering less than 200 individuals in the region were extirpated within a few decades. Declines differed by region, with Central African populations experiencing much higher declines (-76%) than those in West Africa (-33%). As a result, elephants in West Africa now account for 86% of the total surveyed. Range wide, two refuge zones retain elephants, one in West and the other in Central Africa. These zones are separated by a large distance (∼900 km) of high density human land use, suggesting connectivity between the regions is permanently cut. Within each zone, however, sporadic contacts between populations remain. Retaining such connectivity should be a high priority for conservation of elephants in this region. Specific corridors designed to reduce the isolation of the surveyed populations are proposed. The strong commitment of governments, effective law enforcement to control the illegal ivory trade and the involvement of local communities and private partners are all critical to securing the future of elephants inhabiting Africa's northern savannas.

  20. Illicit Drug Trafficking in West Africa -- Primary Surveillance Radar Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    rich-quick message and a devaluation of traditional values which have always kept these societies cohesive and united. This tension breeds violence...commodities, such as kola and cannabis . Imported American rum, French brandy and Dutch gin was also traded along these coasts for more than 500 5 years...Kola stimulant, cannabis and alcohol were all legally traded between Europe, the Middle East and the Sahara. Given West Africa’s long history of

  1. Vindicating Sustainable Leisure in Kuningan, West Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Hengky, S. H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to vindicate the development of sustainable leisure in Kuningan and responding the statement of the Indonesian minister of tourism by vindicating sustainable leisure in Kuningan, West Java, Indonesia. This statement was so important for realizing the development of sustainable tourism. This study found four potential sustainable tourism based on sustainable leisure in Kuningan District: Linggarjati Natural Park is the most potential to be a sustainable leisure park...

  2. Contribution of "Women's Gold" to West African livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouliot, Mariéve

    2012-01-01

    Contribution of ``Women's Gold'' to West African Livelihoods: The Case of Shea ( Vitellaria paradoxa ) in Burkina Faso. This paper (i) quantifies the contribution that Vitellaria paradoxa makes to the total income of rural households belonging to different economic groups in two areas of Burkina ...... not be considered as a remedy to poverty but instead as a way for households to diversify their livelihood strategy and decrease their vulnerability to food insecurity and climate variability....

  3. MRI examination of West syndrome complicated by periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Kuniaki; Yamashita, Akiko; Endo, Shoichi [National Kagawa Children' s Hospital, Zentuji (Japan); Gouda, Tomoko

    2001-10-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of 19 low-birth-weight infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and cerebral palsy, 6 with West syndrome as a complication (group III) and 13 without it (group II), were compared with those of normal 13 low-birth-weight infants without PVL or cerebral palsy (group I) to investigate the pathogenetic mechanism of West syndrome. All of the subjects were born between 1989 and 1997, and there were no significant differences between the three groups in birth weight or age at the time of the examination. Although the gestation period was significantly longer in the group III (infants with West syndrome) than in group I (control infants), there was no significant difference was seen between group I and group II (infants with PVL and cerebral palsy). PVL was diagnosed by MRI, and the diagnostic standards included periventricular high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, decreased cerebral white matter, and deformity or enlargement of the lateral ventricles. The area of periventricular high signal intensity was significantly larger in group II and group III than in group I, and the occipital lobe white matter was significantly thinner in the former than the latter. The lateral ventricles were significantly larger in group II than in the other two groups. The area of the corpus callosum and the thickness of the splenium and trunk of the corpus callosum were significantly smaller in group II and group III than in group I, but the corpus callosum was significantly shorter in group III than in the other two groups. Findings in the brain stem showed a significantly smaller pons and medulla oblongata in group III than in group I, but there were no significant differences between group II and group I. The results of this study indicate that lower brainstem lesions as well as cerebral lesions are associated with the development of West syndrome. (K.H.)

  4. Climate change impacts on runoff in West Africa: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Roudier, P.; A. Ducharne; Feyen, L.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This review summarizes the impacts of climate change on runoff in West Africa, assesses the uncertainty in the projections and describes future research needs for the region. To do so, we constitute a meta-database made of 19 studies and 301 future runoff change values. The future tendency in streamflow developments is overall very uncertain (median of the 301 points is 0% and mean +5.2%), except for (i) the Gambia River, which exhibits a significant negative change (m...

  5. Product consistency testing of West Valley Compositional Variation Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, K.M.; Marschman, S.C.; Piepel, G.F.; Whiting, G.K.

    1994-11-01

    Nuclear waste glass produced by the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) must meet the requirements of the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification (WAPS) as developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To assist WVDP in complying with WAPS, the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) used the Product Consistency Test (PCT) to evaluate 44 West Valley glasses that had previously been tested in FY 1987 and FY 1988. This report summarizes the results of the PCTs. The glasses tested, which were fabricated as sets of Compositional Variation Glasses for studies performed by the West Valley Support Task (WVST) at PNL during FY 1987 and FY 1988, were doped with Th and U and were variations of West Valley reference glasses. In addition, Approved Reference Material-1 (ARM-1) was used as a test standard (ARM-1 is supplied by the MCC). The PCT was originated at Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) by C. M. Jantzen and N. R. Bibler (Jantzen and Bibler 1989). The test is a seven-day modified MCC-3 test that uses crushed glass in the size range -100 +200 mesh with deionized water in a Teflon container. There is no agitation during the PCT, and no attempt to include CO{sub 2} from the test environment. Based on B and Li release, the glasses performed about the same as in previous modified MCC-3 testing performed in FY 1987 and FY 1988 (Reimus et al. 1988). The modified MCC-3 tests performed by Reimus et al. were similar to the PCT containers and the exclusion of CO{sub 2} from the tests.

  6. West-East Gas Pipeline Starts Trial Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The eastern section of the West-East gas pipeline, which is from Jingbian County in Shaanxi Province to Shanghai, started trial operation on October 1, warming up for the commercial operation of the pipeline slated on January 1, 2004. PetroChina held a grand ceremony to celebrate the trial operation in Jingbian, a major gas production base of PetroChina Changqing Oil Field Company.

  7. Local Sustainable Energy Assessment of Uttarakhand and West Bengal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    The publication reports a sustainable energy assessment at the local project site of the HighARCS project in Nainital, Uttarakhand and Buxa, West Bengal, India. The assessment has been made as a contribution to the elaboration of biodiversity conservation and livelihoods improvement action plans....... It proposes an energy assessment methodology and planning procedure. An assessment is made for each of the two local areas on the basis of data collected during a field visit in Sept 2010...

  8. Vertical plate motions in the West Siberian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibe, Yulia

    2014-05-01

    The West Siberian Basin is a sedimentary basin situated between the Ural Mountains and the Siberian Craton. The Basin has experienced several periods of subsidence and uplift since the arrival of the Siberian Traps c. 250 Ma. Although the Basin is extensively explored and hosts large reserves of Oil and Gas, the forces driving the vertical motions are poorly understood. In this work we attempt to analyse the amount, timing and location of subsidence and uplift in the Basin to shed light on the possible causes of these motions. A detailed description of sedimentary layers is published in a number of Soviet-era books and articles and serves as a basis for our research. This data is first converted into sediment grids through time. Subsequently, the sediments, the sediment load and the compaction are taken into account ('backstripping') to produce the depth of the Basin at respective time steps. With this technique we calculate the tectonic component of subsidence. Uncertainties related to uplift events are estimated by the unconformities in the stratigraphic charts. One of the possible driving forces of vertical motions is a change of force balance arising at plate boundaries. Since active plate tectonics have been absent from West Siberia since the formation of the Urengoy and Khodosey Rifts, c. 250Ma, we study the far-field tectonic effects as a potential driving mechanism. Indeed, some of the significant vertical events in the West Siberian Basin coincide with the major tectonic events around Siberia. An example is the spreading in the Arctic (Eurasian Basin) in the Eocene (56 Ma) which was synchronous with initiation of uplift events in the northern part of West Siberia. In the middle Oligocene (33 Ma), the northern and eastern parts of the basin were subjected to uplift as subsidence migrated southwards and the Basin rose above the sea level. This was coincident with the changes of plate motions in the northern North Atlantic and Indo-European collision.

  9. Littoral transport studies along west coast of India - A reivew

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.; Sugimori, Y.

    -1684. 6 Dixit J G, Dange A P, Nagendra T, Estimation of littoral drift along west coast of India, In: Proceedings of Third National Conference on Dock and Harbour Engineering, organized by New Mangalore port trust, Panambur, Magalore and Karna- taka...: Proceedings of Third National Con- ference on Dock and Harbour Engineering, organized by New Mangalore port trust, Panambur, Magalore and Karna- taka Regional Engg College, Suratkal, 1989, pp. 589-595. 20 Anand N M, Chandramohan P, Sanilkumar V, Pathak K C...

  10. Intense convection over West Africa during AMMA SOP3 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenouo, André; Sall, Saïdou Moustapha; Badiane, Daouda; Gaye, Amadou Thierno; Kamga Mkankam, F.

    2016-11-01

    ERA-Interim product from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) assimilation of African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) resources, Meteosat satellite images, and synoptic observations were used to study local- and regional-scale environments associated with intense convective systems during the AMMA-SOP3 experiment over West Africa in the Northern Hemisphere of summer 2006. The convective system, from the 21st to 23rd of August 2006, was more active at 0000 and 1800 UTC showing diurnal cycle of deep convection over West Africa where the African easterly waves (AEWs) are developed downstream. Downstream barotropic and baroclinic energy conversions associated with strong AEWs are important for the maintenance of AEW activity in West Africa. Barotropic energy conversions dominate south of the African easterly jet (AEJ), while baroclinic energy conversions are most important north of the AEJ. From a dynamical viewpoint, the low-level vorticity presents strong positive values over the sea and Sahara zone, indicating that exists on the cyclonic shear side of the African easterly jet, which is consistent with baroclinic growth. The 925-hPa equivalent potential temperature structure show a maximum over the Sahara which corresponds to the depression observed in this region. A mosaic of three hourly infrared (IR) satellite images, depicts a very distinct signal from an initial region of convection, developing through several stages and moving off the African coast. These observations, along with those available from the World Weather Watch, provide an opportunity to carry out numerical weather prediction (NWP) studies over West Africa utilizing high resolution limited area models.

  11. Serosurveillance of viral pathogens circulating in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    O’Hearn, Aileen E.; Voorhees, Matthew A.; Fetterer, David P.; Wauquier, Nadia; Coomber, Moinya R.; Bangura, James; Fair, Joseph N.; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Schoepp, Randal J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sub-Saharan Africa is home to a variety of pathogens, but disease surveillance and the healthcare infrastructure necessary for proper management and control are severely limited. Lassa virus, the cause of Lassa fever, a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans is endemic in West Africa. In Sierra Leone at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Diagnostic Laboratory, up to 70 % of acute patient samples suspected of Lassa fever test negative for Lassa virus infection. This large amount of ac...

  12. Continental crust under the southern Porcupine Seabight west of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, J.; Egloff, R.; Jacob, A. W. B.; Mohr, P.; Murphy, T.; Ryan, P.

    1988-08-01

    Two new seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles demonstrate that the crust beneath the southern Porcupine Seabight, out to water depths in excess of 4000 m, is of continental type. They also reveal the rifted margin of the Porcupine basin on its eastern side. Crustal thickness under the Seabight, inclusive of sediments which are up to 6 km thick, decreases from 23 km in the east to about 10 km at a sharp continent-ocean transition in the west.

  13. Challenging the Woodfuel Crisis in West African Woodlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansfort, Sofie Louise; Mertz, Ole

    2011-01-01

    —have been produced by the government of Mali to prove the impacts of woodfuel consumption in Bamako on surrounding woodlands. This study evaluates the methodology and data used to describe this woodfuel crisis through a comparison with regional and historical data. The results of the energy gap analyses...... of West African woodlands and urban consumption are needed to avoid misinterpretations of the impacts of woodfuel harvesting on woody resources....

  14. Carbon Sequestration at United States Marine Corps Installations West

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    California /Mexico, -96 to -155 g C m -2 determined under normal weather conditions by Luo et al. (2007) for a mature semiarid chaparral ecosystem in...Reno, Nevada May, 2013 2 Introduction A two phase project was designed to assist Marine Corps...project might be especially important for MCI West are 1), they will assist efforts to comply with California state regulations (AB32) which requires

  15. Tributyltin accumulation and effects in marine molluscs from West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.; Asmund, G

    2003-05-01

    Tributyltin is accumulated in marine molluscs living in Greenland, with the highest levels found in harbour areas. - The levels of the antifouling agent tributyltin (TBT) and its breakdown products in bivalves were investigated in 1999-2000 at six areas along the west coast of Greenland with focus on locations inside and outside harbours. In addition female gastropods were examined for the development of TBT-induced masculine characteristics in form of imposex or intersex. The highest TBT concentration, 254 ng g{sup -1} ww, was found in the bivalve Mytilus edulis sampled inside Nuuk harbour, but significant TBT concentrations were also present in bivalves from the other harbour areas. Only low levels of TBT were detected in bivalves sampled outside the harbours and in several of the samples the TBT level was below the detection limit. The examination of neogastropods like Buccinum revealed that imposex development occurred in all the harbours. In contrast, imposex was not found in any neogastropods sampled outside the harbour areas. However, the value of marine neogastropods as indicators of TBT contamination in West Greenland seems limited, because of large species diversity and the difficulties in sampling enough specimens at least with the current sampling strategy. No effects, which could be related to TBT contamination, were found in the most abundant tidal gastropod in West Greenland, Littorina saxatilis.

  16. West Village Student Housing Phase I: Apartment Monitoring and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A.; Bell, C.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-06-01

    Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) worked with the University of California, Davis (UC Davis) and the developer partner West Village Community Partnership (WVCP) to evaluate performance on 192 student apartments completed in September, 2011 as part of Phase I of the multi-purpose West Village project. West Village, the largest planned zero net energy community in the United States. The campus neighborhood is designed to enable faculty, staff and students to affordably live near campus, take advantage of environmentally friendly transportation options, and participate fully in campus life. The aggressive energy efficiency measures that are incorporated in the design contribute to source energy reductions of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. The energy efficiency measures that are incorporated into these apartments include increased wall & attic insulation, high performance windows, high efficiency heat pumps for heating and cooling, central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs), 100% high efficacy lighting, and ENERGY STAR major appliances. Results discuss how measured energy use compares to modeling estimates over a 10 month monitoring period and includes a cost effective evaluation.

  17. West Village Student Housing Phase I: Apartment Monitoring and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Bell, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) worked with the University of California, Davis and the developer partner West Village Community Partnership (WVCP) to evaluate performance on 192 student apartments completed in September, 2011 as part of Phase I of the multi-purpose West Village project. West Village is the largest planned zero net energy community in the United States. The campus neighborhood is designed to enable faculty, staff, and students to affordably live near campus, take advantage of environmentally friendly transportation options, and participate fully in campus life. The aggressive energy efficiency measures that are incorporated in the design contribute to source energy reductions of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. These measures include increased wall and attic insulation, high performance windows, high efficiency heat pumps for heating and cooling, central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs), 100% high efficacy lighting, and ENERGY STAR major appliances. The report discusses how measured energy use compares to modeling estimates over a 10-month monitoring period and includes a cost effective evaluation.

  18. Frontal structures in the West Spitsbergen Current margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Walczowski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The structures of the hydrographic fronts separating the Atlantic origin waters from ambient waters in the northern Nordic Seas are discussed. Flows of the western and eastern branches of the West Spitsbergen Current create the Atlantic domain borders and maintain these fronts. The work is based on previous research and on investigations in the project DAMOCLES (Developing Arctic Modeling and Observational Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies. Most of the observational data were collected during the R/V Oceania cruises. The main focus of the paper is put on the western border of the Atlantic domain – the Arctic Front, along- and transfrontal transports, the front instability and variability. The baroclinic instability and advection of baroclinic eddies which occurs due to this instability were found as the main transfrontal transport processes. Most of the Atlantic Water transported by the western branch recirculates west and southward. The eastern branch of the West Spitsbergen Current provides most of the Atlantic Water entering the Arctic Ocean. Both processes are very important for the Arctic and global Thermohaline Circulation.

  19. West syndrome due to vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, Hepsen Mine; Kara, Aslıhan Oruçoğlu; Oğuz, Baran

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Vitamin B12 deficiency in infants often produces haematological and neurological deficits including macrocyticanaemia, neurodevelopmental delay or regression, irritability, weakness, hypotonia, ataxia, apathy, tremor andseizures. In this article, we report the case of a six-month-old male patient diagnosed with West syndrome associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Although the patient had no evidence of macrocytic anemia in complete blood count, we measured the level of vitamin B12 because the patient had hypotonicity and found it to be low. No other problem was found in the other investigations directed to the etiology of West syndrome. He was being exclusively breast-fed and vitamin B12 deficiency was related with nutritional inadequacy of his mother. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with different neurological findings. In addition, vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered as a rare cause in West syndrome which has a heterogeneous etiology.

  20. Lead poisoning in a West Bank Arab Village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershko, C; Abrahamov, A; Moreb, J; Hersh, M; Shiffman, R; Shahin, A; Richter, E D; Konijn, A M; Weissenberg, E; Graver, F

    1984-10-01

    Eleven patients from the West Bank village of Es-Sawiyeh were admitted with lead poisoning to two Jerusalem hospitals between November 1982 and January 1983. They all belonged to several households of a single large family. Colicky abdominal pains were present in five patients, weakness in four, behavioral changes ranging from irritability to frank psychosis in four, and paralysis in one. Anemia of various degrees was seen in all patients. Basophilic stippling and reticulocytosis were encountered in all patients with moderate to severe anemia. Therapy with edetate disodium calcium and penicillamine resulted in clinical improvement in all patients. A preliminary survey of 270 subjects in the same village disclosed 84 subjects with abnormally elevated blood lead levels, 17 of whom had grade IV lead burden according to the Centers for Disease Control risk classification. Contamination of homemade flour by lead used for stabilizing the metal parts of stone mills was the source of poisoning. As the method of milling in many West Bank villages is similar, these findings may have important implications to the well being of a large section of the rural West Bank population.

  1. Incorporating vegetation feedbacks in regional climate modeling over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanian, A.; Wang, G.; Yu, M.; Ahmed, K. F.; Anyah, R. O.

    2015-12-01

    Despite major advancements in modeling of the climate system, incorporating vegetation dynamics into climate models is still at the initial stages making it an ongoing research topic. Only few of GCMs participating in CMIP5 simulations included the vegetation dynamics component. Consideration for vegetation dynamics is even less common in RCMs. In this study, RegCM4.3.4-CLM4-CN-DV, a regional climate model synchronously coupled with a land surface component that includes both Carbon-Nitrogen (CN) and Dynamic-Vegetation (DV) processes is used to simulate and project regional climate over West Africa. Due to its unique regional features, West Africa climate is known for being susceptible to land-atmosphere interactions, enhancing the importance of including vegetation dynamics in modeling climate over this region. In this study the model is integrated for two scenarios (present-day and future) using outputs from four GCMs participating in CMIP5 (MIROC, CESM, GFDL and CCSM4) as lateral boundary conditions, which form the basis of a multi-model ensemble. Results of model validation indicates that ensemble of all models outperforms each of individual models in simulating present-day temperature and precipitation. Therefore, the ensemble set is used to analyze the impact of including vegetation dynamics in the RCM on future projection of West Africa's climate. Results from the ensemble analysis will be presented, together with comparison among individual models.

  2. Determination of antibiotic residues in the pasteurized milk produced in West Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirin Forouzan; Amir Rahimirad; Roya Seyedkhoei; Jafar Asadzadeh; Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To monitor antibiotic residues in pasteurized milk in West Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran.Methods:In this study, 848 pasteurized milk samples were collected from factories and tested for the presence of antibiotic residues using the Copan test kit based on the manufacturer’s instructions.Results:Results indicated that 30.14% of samples were contaminated with a variety of antibiotics based on the detection of associated residues and 3.19% of these samples were suspected. Given the current rise of antimicrobial resistance among microbial pathogens, these findings amplify the need to ensure continuous monitoring of pasteurized milk that intended for human consumption.Conclusions:Continuous monitoring of pasteurized milk may improve human health but also limit the development and transmission of antibiotic resistant strains in the environment.

  3. ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubin, D [National Science Foundation; Bromwich, DH [Ohio State University; Russell, LM [Scripps Institution of Oceanography; Verlinde, J [The Pennsylvania State University; Vogelmann, AM [Brookhaven National Laboratory

    2015-10-01

    West Antarctica is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and this warming is closely connected with global sea level rise. The discovery of rapid climate change on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) has challenged previous explanations of Antarctic climate change that focused on strengthening of circumpolar westerlies in response to the positive polarity trend in the Southern Annular Mode. West Antarctic warming does not yet have a comprehensive explanation: dynamical mechanisms may vary from one season to the next, and these mechanisms very likely involve complex teleconnections with subtropical and tropical latitudes. The prime motivation for this proposal is that there has been no substantial atmospheric science or climatological field work on West Antarctica since the 1957 International Geophysical Year and that research continued for only a few years. Direct meteorological information on the WAIS has been limited to a few automatic weather stations for several decades, yet satellite imagery and meteorological reanalyses indicate that West Antarctica is highly susceptible to advection of warm and moist maritime air with related cloud cover, depending on the location and strength of low pressure cells in the Amundsen, Ross, and Bellingshausen Seas. There is a need to quantify the role of these changing air masses on the surface energy balance, including all surface energy components and cloud-radiative forcing. More generally, global climate model simulations are known to perform poorly over the Antarctic and Southern Oceans, and the marked scarcity of cloud information at southern high latitudes has so far inhibited significant progress. Fortunately, McMurdo Station, where the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility’s (ARM’s) most advanced cloud and aerosol instrumentation is situated, has a meteorological relationship with the WAIS via circulation patterns in the Ross and Amundsen Seas. We can therefore gather sophisticated data with cloud

  4. The West Indies as a laboratory of biogeography and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Robert; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2008-07-27

    Islands have long provided material and inspiration for the study of evolution and ecology. The West Indies are complex historically and geographically, providing a rich backdrop for the analysis of colonization, diversification and extinction of species. They are sufficiently isolated to sustain endemic forms and close enough to sources of colonists to develop a dynamic interaction with surrounding continental regions. The Greater Antilles comprise old fragments of continental crust, some very large; the Lesser Antilles are a more recent volcanic island arc, and the low-lying Bahama Islands are scattered on a shallow oceanic platform. Dating of island lineages using molecular methods indicates over-water dispersal of most inhabitants of the West Indies, although direct connections with what is now southern Mexico in the Early Tertiary, and subsequent land bridges or stepping stone islands linking to Central and South America might also have facilitated colonization. Species-area relationships within the West Indies suggest a strong role for endemic radiations and extinction in shaping patterns of diversity. Diversification is promoted by opportunities for allopatric divergence between islands, or within the large islands of the Greater Antilles, with a classic example provided by the Anolis lizards. The timing of colonization events using molecular clocks permits analysis of colonization-extinction dynamics by means of species accumulation curves. These indicate low rates of colonization and extinction for reptiles and amphibians in the Greater Antilles, with estimated average persistence times of lineages in the West Indies exceeding 30Myr. Even though individual island populations of birds might persist an average of 2Myr on larger islands in the Lesser Antilles, recolonization from within the archipelago appears to maintain avian lineages within the island chain indefinitely. Birds of the Lesser Antilles also provide evidence of a mass extinction event within

  5. Ice stream retreat following the LGM and onset of the west Greenland current in Uummannaq Trough, west Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Christina; Jennings, Anne; Andrews, John T.; Ó Cofaigh, Colm; Hogan, Kelly; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig

    2016-09-01

    The deglacial history and oceanography of Uummannaq Trough, central West Greenland continental shelf, was investigated using foraminiferal, sedimentological, and bathymetric records together with a radiocarbon chronology, providing a timeline for the retreat of glacial ice after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). To map ice stream retreat, data were collected from cores from the outer (JR175-VC45 and JR175-VC43) and inner (JR175-VC42) Uummannaq Trough. A large ice stream, fed by confluent glaciers draining the interior of the Greenland Ice Sheet, extended across the outer shelf during the LGM and was in retreat by 15.0 cal kyr BP. Foraminiferal data indicate that the 'warm' West Greenland Current (WGC) was established prior to 14.0 cal kyr BP, which is the hitherto earliest record of Atlantic Water found on the West Greenland shelf. For each of the cores, foraminifera indicate that ice sheet retreat was followed quickly by incursion of the WGC, suggesting that the warm water may have enhanced ice retreat. Prior to the Younger Dryas cold event, the radiocarbon chronology indicates that the ice sheet retreated to the mid-shelf, where it subsequently stabilised and formed a large grounding-zone wedge (GZW). After the Younger Dryas, around 11.5 cal kyr BP, the ice retreated rapidly from the GZW and into the fjords.

  6. Groundwater quality in West Virginia, 1993-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Kozar, Mark D.; White, Jeremy S.; Paybins, Katherine S.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 42 percent of all West Virginians rely on groundwater for their domestic water supply. However, prior to 2008, the quality of the West Virginia’s groundwater resource was largely unknown. The need for a statewide assessment of groundwater quality prompted the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP), Division of Water and Waste Management, to develop an ambient groundwater-quality monitoring program. The USGS West Virginia Water Science Center sampled 300 wells, of which 80 percent were public-supply wells, over a 10-year period, 1999–2008. Sites for this statewide ambient groundwater-quality monitoring program were selected to provide wide areal coverage and to represent a variety of environmental settings. The resulting 300 samples were supplemented with data from a related monitoring network of 24 wells and springs. All samples were analyzed for field measurements (water temperature, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), major ions, trace elements, nutrients, volatile organic compounds, fecal indicator bacteria, and radon-222. Sub-sets of samples were analyzed for pesticides or semi-volatile organic compounds; site selection was based on local land use. Samples were grouped for comparison by geologic age of the aquifer, Groups included Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Pennsylvanian, Permian, and Quaternary aquifers. A comparison of samples indicated that geologic age of the aquifer was the largest contributor to variability in groundwater quality. This study did not attempt to characterize drinking water provided through public water systems. All samples were of raw, untreated groundwater. Drinking-water criteria apply to water that is served to the public, not to raw water. However, drinking water criteria, including U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL), non-enforceable secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL

  7. A case series of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma among Indians, a low risk population, in Perak State, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, B; Philip, R; Norain, K; Harvinder, S; Gurdeep, S M

    2012-12-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is rare among people of Indian ethnicity. A short retrospective case review of clinical records of Indian patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a period of 5 years was conducted. Their slides were further subjected to EBV encoded RNA (EBER) - In- situ Hybridization (ISH). The histologic subtype was nonkeratinizing carcinoma in all 4 patients. All were Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) positive. We believe that the crucial factor responsible for nasopharyngeal carcinoma is genetics; either a genetic susceptibility among high risk groups or genetic resistance/immunity in low risk groups. Further genetic studies are required to look for somatic or inherited chromosomal mutations among the various risk populations.

  8. Playing along the Perak River: Readings of an Eighteenth-Century Malay State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husni Abu Bakar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay questions the construction of cartographic, historical, and literary artifacts underlying the cognitive foundations of an eighteenth-century Southeast Asian state on the Malay Peninsula—Perak—by exploring alternative modes of reading. Through a narratological and historiographical exploration of nonconventional textual elements in Misa Melayu—a Malay text that contains accounts of Perak’s statecraft—and several other primary and secondary sources, I seek new, alternative, more playful, and enlightening ways of navigating and thinking about a Malay(sian geopolitical entity beyond prescribed Cartesian maps and boundaries.

  9. Tourism Development and Planning at a Local Authority Level: A Case in Manjung, Perak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Saad Nor Hasliza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of the tourism industry in the country, it is crucial to ensure that local authorities in Malaysia implement sustainable tourism development. In the 10th Malaysian Plan, the government set a key target to be achieved for the tourism sector. One of the key parties responsible for ensuring that the set targets are achieved is the local authorities, who are responsible for providing proper maintenance because the tourism destinations fall under their area of jurisdiction. The aim of this article is to explore tourism development and planning in one of the popular tourism destination and to analyse the role that local authorities play in the development process. This paper explores the local authorities’ views and opinions on their tourism development area using interview and focus group approaches. The paper also combines the analysis of government policy and planning documents with a review of tourism development literature. The findings reveal challenges and issues that are experienced by the local authorities in regard to setting the direction, development and management of tourism development. The issues of tourism development are then discussed for the government to ensure tourism development sustainability in the long term.

  10. KAJIAN IKATAN HIDROGEN DAN KRISTALINITAS KITOSAN DALAM PROSES ADSORBSI ION LOGAM PERAK (Ag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Purnawan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan kajian tentang ikatan hidrogen inter dan intramolekuler kitosan yang dapat menyebabkan perubahan keteraturan dan tingkat kristalinitas polimer kitosan akibat masuknya ion logam Ag ke dalam polimer kitosan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa masuknya ion logam Ag ke dalam polimer kitosan dapat mempengaruhi mempengaruhi ikatan hidrogen inter dan intramolekuler sehingga menyebabkan perubahan keteraturan dan tingkat kristalinitas polimer kitosan. Kristalinitas kitosan meningkat hingga perbandingan Ag/kitosan = 0.25/100 (b/b. Setelah perbandingan Ag/kitosan lebih besar dari 0.25/100 (b/b, kristalinitas kitosan menurun.

  11. The use of Eupatorium Odoratum as bio-monitor for radionuclides determination in Manjung, Perak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zainal, Fetri, E-mail: fetrizainal@yahoo.com; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Khalik [Faculty of Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA,40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA,40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Alias, Masitah [TNB Research Sdn. Bhd. 43000 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    The accumulation of radionuclides in plants can be used as bio-monitoring in the environment. This technique is a cost-effective as the plants used to uptake deposited radionuclides from soil, commonly as soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF), which is widely used for calculating radiological risk. Radionuclides deposited in the soil carry by the air as particles or gases lead to the accumulation in soil. Eupatorium odoratum, known as pokok kapal terbang in Malaysia was chosen as sample for their abundances and properties to measure surface soil contamination. The plants were collected in three different directions (North, North-East and South-East) from Manjung district. The plants were collected in same size and then separated in to three parts (roots, stems and leaves) to determine the transfer factor from soil to each part. The concentrations of thorium (Th) and uranium (U) were analyzed using Energy Disperse X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and found in the range of 1.20-3.50 mg/kg and 1.20-3.90 mg/kg in roots, 1.40-3.90 mg/kg and 1.50-5.90 mg/kg in stems and 1.50-2.50 mg/kg and 2.00-6.00 mg/kg in leaves, respectively. Transfer factor (TF) was calculated through concentrations as reported in this article and show that the plants have transferred and accumulated radionuclides in significant values. From radionuclides concentrations in topsoil, the radiological risk was calculated and the present result show that external hazard index (H{sub ex}) is below than unity indicate low radiological risk at that area.

  12. The Recovery of Two Long-logged Headwaters in Temengor Reservoir, Perak, Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zarul Hazrin Hashim; Amir Shah Ruddin Md Shah; Khoo Khay Huat; Shahrul Anuar Md. Sah; Mashhor Mansor

    2011-01-01

    A study on water quality of the two long-logged and abandoned headwaters in Temengor Reservoir was conducted to determine their natural recovery. In this study, we used National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia prepared by Malaysian Department of Environment as an indicator for water quality recovery. The parameters measured were dissolved oxygen (mg/L), water temperature (℃), pH, conductivity (mS/cm), total dissolved solids (mg/L), water velocity (m/s), ortho-phosphate (PO4-P), nitrite-nitrogen (NO2-N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and alkalinity. In general, water quality in Sungai Enam and Sungai Telang were in Class Ⅰ, indicating water quality in both streams have recovered. Based on the t-test, Sungai Enam and Sungai Telang differed significantly in all parameters except for dissolved oxygen, NO2-N and NO3-N. In spatial analyses (upper, middle and lower reaches comparisons), the two-way ANOVA analysis shows that there were significant differences in all studied parameters between the two rivers except for dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, NO2-N and NO3-N. Stream flow, hydrologic pathways, geomorphology, physical and environmental characteristics are essential elements in understanding the dynamics of water systems in Sungai Enam and Sungai Telang. Due to the recovery, these two headwaters are thus suitable for fish conservation and restoration sites.

  13. The afterlives and memory politics of the Ipoh Cenotaph in Perak, Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muzaini, H.B.

    2014-01-01

    As political regimes undergo changes, so do memorial landscapes established by or associated with them. Such is also the case when new nations are born out of the ashes of decolonization, where monuments of former imperial rule may be co-opted, displaced or destroyed to mark the transition between a

  14. Cave Tourism: The Potential of Asar Cave as a Natural Tourism Asset at Lenggong Valley, Perak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindam Main

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lenggong Valley, from a standpoint of natural tourism research, presents strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges that can be utilized to help increase the opportunities for the local community to increase their standard of living. Asar Cave comprises one of the caves that are found in Lenggong. A series of external studies have been done on Asar Cave in order to measure its potential for natural tourism in Lenggong. The objective of this study is to discuss caves as a natural resource that has great potential in the growth of the economy of the residents of the Lenggong Valley. Marketing caves as a source of nature tourism helps the government’s achievements in National Key Result Areas, apart from being a form of environmental control as well as helping to increase awareness about environmental education, specifically those associated with caves. The research results find that SWOT analysis presents huge potential for caves to become a source of nature tourism development in Lenggong. Great potential can also be seen from a standpoint of increasing the standard of living of its residents through their involvement in the tourism sector based on local natural assets.

  15. Enhancement in resistivity resolution based on the data sets amalgamation technique at Bukit Bunuh, Perak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson Bery, Andy; Saad, Rosli; Hidayah, I. N. E.; Azwin, I. N.; Saidin, Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have carried out a study with the main objective to enhance the resolution of the electrical resistivity inversion model by introducing the data sets amalgamation technique to be used in the data processing stage. Based on the model resistivity with topography results, the data sets amalgamation technique for pole-dipole and wenner- schlumberger arrays are successful in identifying the boundary or interface of the overburden and weathered granite. Although the electrical resistivity method is well known, the proper selection of an array and appropriate inversion parameters setting such as damping factors are important in order to achieve the study objective and to image the target at the Earth's subsurface characterizations.

  16. Pengaruh Modal Dan Tingkat Upah Terhadap Nilai Produksi Serta Penyerapan Tenaga Kerja Pada Industri Kerajinan Perak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Cahya Ningsih

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Job opportunity is still a major problem for economic development in Indonesia. In order to accelerate economic development, industrialization is one of the government’s strategy. One of them is the silver industry in Sukawati. The purpose of this study are to analyze the direct effect of capital and wage rate to the production value, the direct effect of capital, wage rate, and production value to the labor absorption, and to analyze the indirect effect of capital and wage rate to labor absorption through production value of silver industry in Sukawati, Gianyar. This study is using a Proportional Random Sampling technique with 86 samples. Data were tested using validity and reliability. Furthermore, the data were analyzed using path analysis. The result show that the direct effect of first sub-structural equation is capital has positive and significant impact to production value and wage rate has negative and not significant impact to production value.The result of second sub-structural equation show that capital and production value have positive and significant impact to labor absorption, while wage rate has negative and not significant impact to labor absorption. For the indirect effect, capital has a positive impact to production value and wage rate has a negative impact to production value.

  17. Microbial Community Structure of Subglacial Lake Whillans, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achberger, Amanda M.; Christner, Brent C.; Michaud, Alexander B.; Priscu, John C.; Skidmore, Mark L.; Vick-Majors, Trista J.; Adkins, W.

    2016-01-01

    Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW) is located beneath ∼800 m of ice on the Whillans Ice Stream in West Antarctica and was sampled in January of 2013, providing the first opportunity to directly examine water and sediments from an Antarctic subglacial lake. To minimize the introduction of surface contaminants to SLW during its exploration, an access borehole was created using a microbiologically clean hot water drill designed to reduce the number and viability of microorganisms in the drilling water. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes (rDNA) amplified from samples of the drilling and borehole water allowed an evaluation of the efficacy of this approach and enabled a confident assessment of the SLW ecosystem inhabitants. Based on an analysis of 16S rDNA and rRNA (i.e., reverse-transcribed rRNA molecules) data, the SLW community was found to be bacterially dominated and compositionally distinct from the assemblages identified in the drill system. The abundance of bacteria (e.g., Candidatus Nitrotoga, Sideroxydans, Thiobacillus, and Albidiferax) and archaea (Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum) related to chemolithoautotrophs was consistent with the oxidation of reduced iron, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds having important roles as pathways for primary production in this permanently dark ecosystem. Further, the prevalence of Methylobacter in surficial lake sediments combined with the detection of methanogenic taxa in the deepest sediment horizons analyzed (34–36 cm) supported the hypothesis that methane cycling occurs beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Large ratios of rRNA to rDNA were observed for several operational taxonomic units abundant in the water column and sediments (e.g., Albidiferax, Methylobacter, Candidatus Nitrotoga, Sideroxydans, and Smithella), suggesting a potentially active role for these taxa in the SLW ecosystem. Our findings are consistent with chemosynthetic microorganisms serving as the ecological foundation in this dark subsurface environment, providing new

  18. Comparative financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, Remi, E-mail: fritschr@afd.fr [Centre d' Etudes Financieres, Economiques et Bancaires (CEFEB), BP 33401, 13567 Marseille cedex 02 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Access to electricity is a major issue in West Africa. Governments have a difficult equation to solve. They naturally seek to offer their people a cheap kWh. But they are constrained by a production based largely on oil and therefore highly volatile production costs. How to fix an acceptable tariff, taking into account the investment needs required to expand the network and increase production? This analysis should provide some answers. The study presented in this paper provides a financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa. It allows a comparison of performances on a number of key financial ratios related to operations (Earning Before Interest Taxes Debt and Amortization/sales, working capital requirement/sales, days of receivables or payables), investment (net fixed assets/gross fixed assets), bank financing (financial structure, debt/EBITDA, interest expense/EBITDA) and economic and financial returns (Return On Capital Employed, Return On Equity). The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country. But this opportunity may only materialize if the EBITDA margins are restored. The available options appear limited and must be assessed taking into account the context of each country: tariff increase, improvement of technical losses or diversification into means of production no longer based primarily on oil or gas. - Highlights: > The study provides a financial analysis of electricity distribution companies in West Africa. > The study highlights generally insufficient EBITDA margins. > The study raises the question of tariffs and contribution to Gross Domestic Product of the electricity sector. > The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country.

  19. Chronic patient care at North West Province clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire van Deventer

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic illnesses are a significant burden to the health services in South Africa. There is a specific national health plan whereby chronically ill patients who are acceptably controlled should be managed at clinic level. The perception has emerged that the management of primary care has not been optimal in the Southern District of the North West Province. This provided the motivation to initiate this research, namely consideration of chronic patient care at clinics in the North West Province of South Africa.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out at four randomly selected clinics covering four sub-districts in the Southern District (North West Province. This was done using charts and registers at the clinics. Inclusion criteria were patients older than 18, and presenting with the following chronic illnesses: asthma/chronic obstructive airways disease (COAD, hypertension, diabetes and epilepsy. The major focus areas were the regular assessment of the patients, the level of control of the illness and the use of the Essential Drugs List and Standard Treatment Guidelines (EDL/STG.Results: In the cases of all the chronic illnesses it was found that regular assessments were poorly done, with asthma (peak flow measurements being the most poorly done. Control was generally less than 50% for all the illnesses, although the EDL was followed fairly well by the personnel at the clinics.Conclusion: In the light of the burden of chronic illness the results give cause for great concern about the quality of care for chronically ill patients, and reasons were sought for some of the poor results. A subsequent decision was taken to carry out comprehensive quality improvement projects on each of the illnesses over the following five years.

  20. Cultural and landscape zoning in the North- West Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manakov A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in the framework of cultural geography — a relatively recent field of geography. This article considers the problems of geographical study of cultural landscapes of the North-West Russia, which includes Saint Petersburg, the Leningrad, Novgorod, Pskov, and Kaliningrad regions. This article sets out to develop and test the methodology for historical and cultural zoning at the mesogeographical level. The research and practical significance of the work lies in the identification of the features of formation of cultural landscapes in the North-West Russia, which can be used for the development of schemes of protection and rational management of territorial cultural and historical heritage. The authors rely on historical and cultural zoning as the basic geographical method of research on cultural landscapes. To this effect, the article offers a hierarchy of historical and cultural zones comparable to the zoning systems applied in physical, historical, and cultural geography. The major results of the research are the authors' taxonomy of historical and cultural complexes and the corresponding system of historical and cultural zoning of the North-West Russia presented on a sketch map. The article offers an exemplary description of historical and cultural provinces of the region. The contribution of the research to the Russian geography of culture is the authors' variant of taxonomy of historical and cultural complexes and the formulation of basic principles of historical and cultural zoning at different hierarchical levels. The research results can be applied, first of all, in the development of projects aimed at the protection and use of territorial cultural heritage in the framework of comprehensive schemes of territorial planning of the country's regions.

  1. Climate drives the meningitis epidemics onset in west Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Sultan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Every year West African countries within the Sahelo-Sudanian band are afflicted with major meningococcal meningitis (MCM disease outbreaks, which affect up to 200,000 people, mainly young children, in one of the world's poorest regions. The timing of the epidemic year, which starts in February and ends in late May, and the spatial distribution of disease cases throughout the "Meningitis Belt" strongly indicate a close linkage between the life cycle of the causative agent of MCM and climate variability. However, mechanisms responsible for the observed patterns are still not clearly identified. METHODS AND FINDINGS: By comparing the information on cases and deaths of MCM from World Health Organization weekly reports with atmospheric datasets, we quantified the relationship between the seasonal occurrence of MCM in Mali, a West African country, and large-scale atmospheric circulation. Regional atmospheric indexes based on surface wind speed show a clear link between population dynamics of the disease and climate: the onset of epidemics and the winter maximum defined by the atmospheric index share the same mean week (sixth week of the year; standard deviation, 2 wk and are highly correlated. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first that provides a clear, quantitative demonstration of the connections that exist between MCM epidemics and regional climate variability in Africa. Moreover, this statistically robust explanation of the MCM dynamics enables the development of an Early Warning Index for meningitis epidemic onset in West Africa. The development of such an index will undoubtedly help nationwide and international public health institutions and policy makers to better control MCM disease within the so-called westward-eastward pan-African Meningitis Belt.

  2. Monogeneans of West African cichlid fish: evolution and cophylogenetic interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Mendlová

    Full Text Available The goals of this paper were to investigate phylogenetic and evolutionary patterns of cichlid fish from West Africa and their Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus monogenean parasites, to uncover the presence of host-parasite cospeciation and to assess the level of morphological adaptation in parasites. This required the following steps, each one representing specific objectives of this paper: (1 to build phylogenetic trees for Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus species based on ribosomal DNA sequences, (2 to investigate phylogenetic relationships within West African cichlid fish based on the analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b DNA sequences, (3 to investigate host-parasite cophylogenetic history to gain clues on parasite speciation process, and (4 to investigate the link between the morphology of the attachment apparatus and parasite phylogeny. Phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyletic origin of the Cichlidogyrus/Scutogyrus group, and suggested that Cichlidogyrus is polyphyletic and that Scutogyrus is monophyletic. The phylogeny of Cichlidae supported the separation of mouthbrooders and substrate-brooders and is consistent with the hypothesis that the mouthbrooding behavior of Oreochromis and Sarotherodon evolved from substrate-brooding behavior. The mapping of morphological characters of the haptor onto the parasite phylogenetic tree suggests that the attachment organ has evolved from a very simple form to a more complex one. The cophylogenetic analyses indicated a significant fit between trees using distance-based tests, but no significant cospeciation signal using tree-based tests, suggesting the presence of parasite duplications and host switches on related host species. This shed some light on the diversification process of Cichlidogyrus species parasitizing West African cichlids.

  3. Microbial Community Structure of Subglacial Lake Whillans, West Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Achberger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW, located beneath ~800 m of ice on the Whillans Ice Stream in West Antarctica was sampled in January of 2013, providing the first opportunity to directly examine water and sediments from an Antarctic subglacial lake. To minimize the introduction of surface contaminants to SLW during its exploration, an access borehole was created using a microbiologically clean hot water drill designed to reduce the number and viability of microorganisms in the drilling water. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes (rDNA amplified from samples of the drilling and borehole water allowed an evaluation of the efficacy of this approach and enabled a confident assessment of the SLW ecosystem inhabitants. Based on an analysis of 16S rDNA and rRNA (i.e., reverse-transcribed rRNA molecules data, the SLW community was found to be bacterially dominated and compositionally distinct from the assemblages identified in the drill system. The abundance of bacteria (e.g., Candidatus Nitrotoga, Sideroxydans, Thiobacillus, and Albidiferax and archaea (Candidatus Nitrosoarcheaum related to chemolithoautotrophs was consistent with the oxidation of reduced iron, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds having important roles as pathways for primary production in this permanently dark ecosystem. Further, the prevalence of Methylobacter in surficial lake sediments combined with the detection of methanogenic taxa in the deepest sediment horizons analyzed (34-36 cm provided evidence for methane cycling beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Large ratios of rRNA to rDNA were observed for several OTUs abundant in the water column and sediments (e.g., Albidiferax, Methylobacter, Candidatus Nitrotoga, Sideroxydans, and Smithella, suggesting a potentially active role for these taxa in the SLW ecosystem. Our findings are consistent with chemosynthetic microorganisms serving as the ecological foundation in this dark subsurface environment, providing new organic matter that sustains a

  4. Unusual features caused by lightning impact in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel, P.; Abrahamsen, N.; Rasmussen, T.

    2006-01-01

       Two lightning impacts are described from an area near the Inland Ice in West Greenland. The first lightning blasted an outcrop of metacherts. It subsequently split into two branches, which traversed rock outcrops and boulders, leaving behind two white almost straight lines, 30 m and 14 m long...... that a strong electric current indeed traversed the boulder. A few years later a second lightning impacted on a mountaintop close to the first impact. The second lightning left a trail on the rock surface covered by a thin layer of glass. The glass displays spectacular colours ranging from metallic blue, to red...

  5. Evaluation of Potential Land Productivity in Wulushan, West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The general situation of the total land resources in Wulushan, West China was studied by field investigations with the aid of a GIS software, called Region Manager. The current status of land use in Wulushan is described. The potential land productivity was evaluated by a fuzzy comprehensive method. We take each plot as a basic unit of evaluation on the basis of an index system of land resources in Wulushan which was developed from the investigation data. Evaluation of potential land productivity is the key part of land management. A guideline is presented in this paper for a proper utilization of the land resources and to develop the productive capacity of the land.

  6. Big Gas Field Found in West Sichuan Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Located in the territory of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, the central part of West Si Depression,Xinchang Gas Field is the biggest gas field ever discovered in the depression. Up to the end of 1995, the proved and controlled reserves of the gas field have surpassed the state standard of a large-scaled gas field. For this reason, it has been listed by the State Planning Commission as one of the great discoveries in gas prospecting since the Sixth Five-Year Plan of the country.

  7. 20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Mann; Christine Risch

    2012-02-15

    Final Report for '20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia'. The objective of this project was to examine the obstacles and constraints to the development of wind energy in West Virginia as well as the obstacles and constraints to the achievement of the national goal of 20% wind by 2030. For the portion contracted with WVU, there were four tasks in this examination of obstacles and constraints. Task 1 involved the establishment of a Wind Resource Council. Task 2 involved conducting limited research activities. These activities involved an ongoing review of wind energy documents including documents regarding the potential for wind farms being located on reclaimed surface mining sites as well as other brownfield sites. The Principal Investigator also examined the results of the Marshall University SODAR assessment of the potential for placing wind farms on reclaimed surface mining sites. Task 3 involved the conducting of outreach activities. These activities involved working with the members of the Wind Resource Council, the staff of the Regional Wind Energy Institute, and the staff of Penn Future. This task also involved the examination of the importance of transmission for wind energy development. The Principal Investigator kept informed as to transmission developments in the Eastern United States. The Principal Investigator coordinated outreach activities with the activities at the Center for Business and Economic Research at Marshall University. Task 4 involved providing technical assistance. This task involved the provision of information to various parties interested in wind energy development. The Principal Investigator was available to answer requests from interested parties regarding in formation regarding both utility scale as well as small wind development in West Virginia. Most of the information requested regarded either the permitting process for wind facilities of various sizes in the state or information regarding the

  8. Dry weather induces outbreaks of human West Nile virus infections

    OpenAIRE

    Belant Jerrold L; Minnis Richard B; Wang Guiming; Wax Charles L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Since its first occurrence in the New York City area during 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America and has become a major public health concern in North America. By 2002, WNV was reported in 40 states and the District of Columbia with 4,156 human and 14,539 equine cases of infection. Mississippi had the highest human incidence rate of WNV during the 2002 epidemic in the United States. Epidemics of WNV can impose enormous impacts on local econom...

  9. Water resources of West Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2016-11-23

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in West Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-resource management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  10. Accelerated sea-level rise from West Antarctica.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, R; Rignot, E.; Casassa, G; Kanagaratnam, P; Acuña, C; Akins, T; Brecher, H; E Frederick; Gogineni, P.; Krabill, W.; Manizade, S.; Ramamoorthy, H; Rivera, A.; Russell, R.; Sonntag, J

    2004-01-01

    Recent aircraft and satellite laser altimeter surveys of the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica show that local glaciers are discharging about 250 cubic kilometers of ice per year to the ocean, almost 60% more than is accumulated within their catchment basins. This discharge is sufficient to raise sea level by more than 0.2 millimeters per year. Glacier thinning rates near the coast during 2002-2003 are much larger than those observed during the 1990s. Most of these glaciers flow into flo...

  11. Debris Removal Project K West Canister Cleaning System Performance Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FARWICK, C.C.

    1999-12-09

    Approximately 2,300 metric tons Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) are currently stored within two water filled pools, the 105 K East (KE) fuel storage basin and the 105 K West (KW) fuel storage basin, at the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The SNF Project is responsible for operation of the K Basins and for the materials within them. A subproject to the SNF Project is the Debris Removal Subproject, which is responsible for removal of empty canisters and lids from the basins. Design criteria for a Canister Cleaning System to be installed in the KW Basin. This documents the requirements for design and installation of the system.

  12. Risk Maps of Lassa Fever in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet; David John Rogers

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lassa fever is caused by a viral haemorrhagic arenavirus that affects two to three million people in West Africa, causing a mortality of between 5,000 and 10,000 each year. The natural reservoir of Lassa virus is the multi-mammate rat Mastomys natalensis, which lives in houses and surrounding fields. With the aim of gaining more information to control this disease, we here carry out a spatial analysis of Lassa fever data from human cases and infected rodent hosts covering the peri...

  13. Heat Flux estimation in WEST divertor with embedded thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, J.; Corre, Y.; Firdaouss, M.; Gardarein, J.-L.; Guilhem, D.; Houry, M.; Le Niliot, C.; Missirlian, M.; Pocheau, C.; Rigollet, F.

    2016-09-01

    The present paper deals with the surface heat flux estimation with embedded thermocouples (TC) in a Plasma Facing Component (PFC) of the WEST Tokamak. A 2D nonlinear unsteady calculation combined with the Conjugate Gradient Method (CGM) and the adjoint state is achieved in order to estimate the time evolution of the heat flux amplitude and decay length λq . The method is applied on different synthetic measurements in order to evaluate the accuracy of the method. The synthetic measurements are generated with realistic values of λq and magnitudes as those expected for ITER.

  14. Fauna of Ephemeroptera in the running waters of west Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Z.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period 1988 - 1996 the Ephemeroptera diversity in West Serbia was studied. These investigations included 124 springs, considerable number of spring regions, as well as rivers: the Sušica, Djetinja, Skrapež Pocibrava, Banja, Gradac, Jablanica, Obnica and Kolubara. Total of 45 taxa belonging to 8 families were identified. At the majority of sampling locations: Baetis rhodani, Baetis sp., Ecdyonurus sp., Ephemera danica Ephemerella ignita, Caenis moesta, Habroleptoides modesta and Ilhitrogena semicolorata were present. The smallest Ephemeroptera diversity in the studied waters was recorded in springs and the greatest one in middle parts of the mountain running waters.

  15. Report on a Magnetotelluric Study in Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kother, Livia Kathleen; Junge, A.; Löwer, A.;

    2011-01-01

    Despite a well-mapped, interesting surface geology, deep sounding geophysical studies like seismics or magnetotellurics have been used very rarely in Greenland. The aim of this article is to present the preliminary results of a magnetotelluric study performed in the area of Kangerlussuaq, West Gr...... Greenland. The estimated transfer functions will be used in the future for 2-D and 3-D modelling of subsurface resistivity structures, the inuence of the electrically conductive ocean, as well as the source geometry in the auroral oval....

  16. Natural Increase in the Baltic South and South-West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski T.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the natural population increase (decrease in the postcommunist part of Baltic Europe (the federated state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, West Pomeranian, Pomeranian, and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeships, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the Kaliningrad and Leningrad region, and the federal city of Saint Petersburg in 2002—2011. The study uses standard methods of demographic analysis, the data provided by national statistical services and Eurostat. All regions analysed are characterised by a low stationary phase of the demographic transition model (DTM. The situation proves to be unfavourable in the Polish regions under consideration and highly unfavourable in the remaining area.

  17. Chronic West Nile virus infection in kea (Nestor notabilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakonyi, Tamás; Gajdon, Gyula K; Schwing, Raoul; Vogl, Wolfgang; Häbich, Annett-Carolin; Thaller, Denise; Weissenböck, Herbert; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdenek; Nowotny, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    Six kea (Nestor notabilis) in human care, naturally infected with West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 in Vienna, Austria, in 2008, developed mild to fatal neurological signs. WNV RNA persisted and the virus evolved in the birds' brains, as demonstrated by (phylo)genetic analyses of the complete viral genomes detected in kea euthanized between 2009 and 2014. WNV antibodies persisted in the birds, too. Chronic WNV infection in the brain might contribute to the circulation of the virus through oral transmission to predatory birds.

  18. Notes on the occurrence of Mortonagrion aborense Laidlaw, 1914 (Odonata: Coenagrionidae from lower West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arajush Payra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new distribution record of an Odonata species from lower West Bengal. Mortonagrion aborense laidlaw, 1914 is recorded for the first time from Purba Medinipur district, lower West Bengal. Previously the species was recorded only from north-east India (Mizoram, West Bengal, Assam and Nagaland. Diagnostic characters with photographic details of male anal appendages are also given for easy identification of this rare damselfly species.

  19. Dental findings in patients with West syndrome: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Amit; Kalra, Namita; Tyagi, Rishi; Baweja, Mani; Khandelwal, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    West syndrome a rare, severe form of epilepsy occurs in early infancy. It is characterized by a triad consisting of infantile spasms that occurs in clusters, arrest of psychomotor development and hypsarrhythmia on electroencephalogram. We present here two cases of west syndrome where patients required dental care due to the presence of certain dental findings. Preventive measurements such as controlled diet and proper oral hygiene along with professional dental management are recommended in patients with west syndrome to avoid dental problems.

  20. Impacts of drought and responses of rural populations in West Africa: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Denis; Denis, David; Locatelli, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In West Africa, climate variations and droughts have always affected livelihoods but have also triggered adaptation strategies. A better understanding of the impacts of drought and the responses of West African populations is indispensable for researchers and decision makers in the current and future context of multiple socioeconomic and environmental changes, including climate change. We conducted a systematic review of the literature on drought in West Africa. In thi...

  1. Identification of Climatic Factors Affecting the Epidemiology of Human West Nile Virus Infections in Northern Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Stilianakis, Nikolaos I.; Syrris, Vasileios; Petroliagkis, Thomas; Pärt, Peeter; Gewehr, Sandra; Kalaitzopoulou, Stella; Mourelatos, Spiros; Baka, Agoritsa; Pervanidou, Danai; Vontas, John; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Climate can affect the geographic and seasonal patterns of vector-borne disease incidence such as West Nile Virus (WNV) infections. We explore the association between climatic factors and the occurrence of West Nile fever (WNF) or West Nile neuro-invasive disease (WNND) in humans in Northern Greece over the years 2010–2014. Time series over a period of 30 years (1979–2008) of climatic data of air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, volumetric soil water content, wind speed, and ...

  2. The Generalized West Decomposition of Operators and Other Compact Perturbation Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Gang SU; Huai Jie ZHONG

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of the generalized Riesz operators and the concept of the generalized West decomposition of a general operator which generalizes the definition of the West decomposition of Riesz operators, and proves that the following three statements are equivalent on a general Banach space:(a) Every generalized Riesz operator has the generalized West decomposition;(b) Every operator makes strong Stampfli theorem true;(c) Every operator has Apostol's compact correction.

  3. Introducing Seawater China for Sustainablefrom Bohai Sea to WestDevelopment in the Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenChangli

    2004-01-01

    Sustained and profound aridization process in north-west China in Tertiary and Quaternary period and time of mankind history are discussed. The rain-creased function of 3 set high mountain condensation systems in north-west China is recognized once more. A sandstorm happened on 20th March 2002 in Alasan and Ejinaqi areas was very strong and arrived in Japan and Korea. For saving Alasan area from sandstorm a way of introducing sea water from Bohai to Alasan has been proposed. Four problems are replied in this paper. It is concluded that introducing sea water from Bohai to west China is the best way for sustainable development of west China.

  4. The West Dean Archaeological Project: research and teaching in the Sussex Downs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Sillar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005/2006 West Dean College and the associated West Dean Estate in West Sussex have provided the home for practical training of Institute of Archaeology students, for both the initiation ritual of the Experimental Archaeology Course (“Prim Tech” and for the field training courses undertaken at the end of the first year. It is also the location of a long-term research project, aimed at understanding human occupation and land use in this part of the South Downs from prehistory to the present day. In this article the authors describe the first two years of activity of the West Dean Archaeological Project.

  5. Spent fuel treatment and mineral waste form development at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, K.M.; Benedict, R.W.; Bateman, K. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lewis, M.A.; Pereira, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Musick, C.A. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1996-07-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. Both mineral and metal high-level waste forms will be produced. The mineral waste form will contain the active metal fission products and the transuranics. Cold small-scale waste form testing has been on-going at Argonne in Illinois. Large-scale testing is commencing at ANL-West.

  6. Research on Impact Mechanism and Power System of Urbanization in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the current situation of urbanization development in West China, this paper analyses main factors responsible for sluggish urbanization in West China as follows: impact of environment factor, impact of population quality and quantity, lagging of public product service, stagnancy of technological development, backwardness of slow growth, and rigidity of system building. And then this paper analyses the restriction mechanism of urbanization in West China: at the superficial level, the constraints of urbanization in West China arise from the shortage of capital; at the profound level, the backward culture contributes to the constraints of urbanization in West China. The thread of resolving restriction mechanism of urbanization in West China is put forward from system, economy and culture. On the basis of this thread, we construct the power system for the development of urbanization in West China. The power system for urbanization in West China should be propelled by "four forces", namely, pull of external forces, cohesive strength of regional market environment, expansion power inside countryside, traction of industrial structure adjustment. Innovation is the engine of impetus for urbanization in West China; spatial clustering and modernization of industry is the major driving force for urbanization; the government behaviour, driving of foreign investment, great projects and other forces are supplementary power. Via the main power, we should take the market as medium to achieve the role of power in promoting urbanization.

  7. CANCER IN THE CASPIAN LITTORAL AND NORTH WEST AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A Salmasizadeh

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies undertaken during the last 5 years in the Babol Research Station of the Institute of Public Health Research, Teheran University, with the collaboration of the International Agency for Research on Cancer in the Caspian Littoral and Ardabil area in the north of Iran has indicated the presence of cancer in 48 different sites. The five more prevalent types of cancer found in that area in order of their incidence are esophageal, stomach, skin, lung and liver cancers. Except for cancer of esophagus which occurs with a very high variation in incidence in the area, the incidence of other 4 does not significantly differ in various parts of the region. The incidence of esophageal cancer is maximum in the east and southeast of the area and it gradually decreases towards the reaching its minimum level in Gilan and increasing again to the west in Ardabil area. The incidence is higher among males in the low incidence, almost equal in the high incidence area except in Gombad area where is much higher among females than in males. The total number of cancer of soesophagus registered during the 5 years period is 1420 which constitute 1/10 of all cases reported. Of other types of cancer registered, cancers of skin, cervix uteri and lymphoma, mostly lymphosarcoma are more prevalent. Of the cancers of digestive tube, oesophageal is more prevalent in the east and stomach cancer in the west of the area.

  8. Desertification, refugees and regional conflict in west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnoli, O

    1990-06-01

    This article documents the potential for inter-state conflict in the migration of hundreds of thousands of famine refugees across international borders in West Africa. Nigeria and Ghana, for example, have to deal not only with the effects of land degradation in their northern territories but also with the influx of famine victims from Mali, Niger, Chad and Burkino Faso. These migrations put an enormous extra burden on the fragile and already overstretched social and economic infrastructures of the host countries. The construction of dams for irrigation and electricity generation in international river basins, is another cause of inter-state conflict related to land degradation. The capacity of West African states to find peaceful solutions to these problems is being undermined by the increasing impoverishment and marginalisation of their populations. A self-serving neo-colonialist governing elite is caught in the economic stranglehold of the advanced capitalist nations. While there is thus no short term solution to the problem of land degradation, immediate steps should at least be taken to give legal protection to those who are forced to cross international borders because of drought and famine.

  9. Characteristic of Small Scale Food Industry Cluster in West Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunarif Taib

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Clusters of small-scale food industries have different characteristics with industrial cluster in general. These characteristics need to know to develop a plan for cluster development. This study was conducted to determine charasteristics clusters of small-scale food industry, especially in West Sumatra. For the analysis of the components of industrial and technological components that affect the development of small-scale food industry cluster in West Sumatra. All variables influence the level of industrial components and technology components were analyzed using the program "Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS". The survey results revealed that the industrial component is influenced by the core industry (level of difficulty in capital gain and raw materials, the buyer (customer satisfaction, related industry (quality and continuity of supply of packaging and institutional support (coaching on marketing and capitalization as well as guidance on the production of sanitary and food safety. Component technology is influenced by organoware (production management and marketing management and humanware (innovation and trust among the members.

  10. The Feasibility of Coffee Industries in West Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Setyo Utomo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of the coffee industry folk as a commercial producer in West Kalimantan. Research conducted descriptive and observation to determine the potential of raw materials, market potential and marketing, availability of technology, and financial feasibility analyzes plant establishment. The results of the study showed that the availability of raw materials such as coffee yields declined every year and its availability on every small community, and not attractive to farmers for commercial cultivation, where plants cannot compete with rubber, palm oil, or other horticultural crops or plantation, so people are reluctant to plant coffee again. Although, the marketing of coffee available on the domestic market, national market and abroad, but the quality of the coffee that is associated with superior taste, aroma, and geography indications is its own advantages, which have not seemed to result from West Kalimantan coffee. Coffee processing technology indicates the readiness of technology for applications, such as the technology to produce coffee of primary and secondary copy. Advice can be given is the cultivation of coffee and wild civet coffee products (Paradoxurus hermaphrodites from Sambas district and fostered intensive note by the local government, in order to have a competitive commercialization opportunities. Local Government should re-establish cultivation techniques and management of coffee farming.

  11. SLUDGE RETRIEVAL FROM HANFORD K WEST BASIN SETTLER TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERPENBECK EG; LESHIKAR GA

    2011-01-13

    In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was deployed to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from ten submerged tanks in Hanford's K-West Basin. As part of K-West Basin cleanup, the accumulated sludge needed to be removed from the 0.5 meter diameter by 5 meter long settler tanks and transferred approximately 45 meters to an underwater container for sampling and waste treatment. The abrasive, dense, non-homogeneous sludge was the product of the washing process of corroded nuclear fuel. It consists of small (less than 600 micron) particles of uranium metal, uranium oxide, and various other constituents, potentially agglomerated or cohesive after 10 years of storage. The Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS) was developed to access, mobilize and pump out the sludge from each tank using a standardized process of retrieval head insertion, periodic high pressure water spray, retraction, and continuous pumping of the sludge. Blind operations were guided by monitoring flow rate, radiation levels in the sludge stream, and solids concentration. The technology developed and employed in the STRS can potentially be adapted to similar problematic waste tanks or pipes that must be remotely accessed to achieve mobilization and retrieval of the sludge within.

  12. Tsunami Preparedness Along the U.S. West Coast (video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness along the West coast distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focuses on the specific needs of each region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA), Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI), Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD), Marin Office of Emergency Services, and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E).

  13. Data quality objectives for K West canister sludge sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makenas, B.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-11

    Data Quality Objectives have been developed for a limited campaign of sampling K Basin canister sludge. Specifically, samples will be taken from the sealed K West Basin fuel canisters. Characterization of the sludge in these canisters will address the needs of fuel retrieval which are to collect and transport sludge which is currently in the canisters. Data will be gathered on physical properties (such as viscosity, particle size, density, etc.) as well as on chemical and radionuclide constituents and radiation levels of sludge. The primary emphasis will be on determining radionuclide concentrations to be deposited on Ion Exchange Modules (IXMS) during canister opening and fuel retrieval. The data will also be useful in determining whether K West Basin sludge meets the waste acceptance criteria for Hanford waste tanks as a backup disposal concept and these data will also supply information on the properties of sludge material which will1403 accompany fuel elements in the Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOS) as envisioned in the Integrated Process Strategy (IPS).

  14. Petroleum geological activities in West Greenland in 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, F.G.; Boesen, A.; Bojesen-Koefoes, J.A. (and other)

    1999-07-01

    Recent developments, with new exploration both on-and offshore West Greenland in the 1990s, have been strongly driven by encouraging research results. Some of the most important break-through were made in the offshore area where new seismic data revealed large structures, either tilted fault blocks or compressional features, on seismic lines and direct hydrocarbon indicators in the form of flat spots. The discovery of extensive seepage of different oil types in the Disko - Nuussuaq - Svartenhuk Halvoe area, providing evidence of multiple oil-prone source rocks in this area has also been very important in attracting industry to the region. Based on previous successes several new research project were initiated in 1998, and more will follow in 1999 and the years to come. The project cover most aspects of petroleum geology and geophysics both on and offshore West Greenland. Some of these are highlighted at the end of the present article, which also provides a brief account of the field work carried out in 1998; reviews of recent summaries of results from groenArctic's GRO-3 well from which data have been released, and of recent GEUS and industry activities offshore, are also given. (EHS)

  15. An interventional model to develop health professionals in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanou, Anselme Simeon; Awoyale, Florence Adeola; Diallo, Abdoulaye

    2014-01-01

    The health sector is characterized by a human resource base lacking in numbers, specialized skills, and management skills. West African Health Organization (WAHO) recognizes the need within the West Africa sub-region for bilingual professionals who are skilled in public health, management, leadership, and information technology to build human capacity in public health and developed the Young Professionals Internship Program (YPIP). Our study explores the evolution of the programme. YPIP program has successfully carried out its original aims and objectives to equip young professionals with basic principles of public health, management, and leadership, acquire competence in a second official language (French, English, and Portuguese), information and communication technology. Contributing factors towards this successful evaluation included positive ratings and commentary from previous interns about the relevance, usefulness, and quality of the programme, encouraging feedback from WAHO management, trainers, administrators, and intern employers on the impact of the YPIP program on young professionals, supporting evidence that demonstrates increased knowledge in professional skills and language competency.

  16. Prospects and constraints of desert agriculture: lessons from West Omdurman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gamri, Tarig

    2004-12-01

    Sudan is the largest country in Africa with an area of about 2.5 million km2; the country hosts a population of about 31 million people. About two-thirds of the country area is located within arid and semi-arid regions. Recently, especially during the last half of the previous century, these regions were subject to various forms of land degradation. This paper discusses the general prospects and constraints of desert agriculture. It also presents a detailed case study of West Omdurman, which is located in a semi-desert climatic zone. The ambitious plans to utilise the area for agricultural production were initiated because of the relatively fertile soil, availability of water and the proximity of the area to marketing and export centres. The paper discusses the different land use systems experienced in the area, reasons for failure are identified and possible remedies discussed. In addition, constraints facing the proposed West Omdurman Canal Project are also discussed. Finally, the paper reviews the major research findings of Rawakeeb Dryland Research Center with regard to promoting agricultural productivity.

  17. The Younger Dryas in the West Pacific marginal seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪品先; 卞云华; 李保华; 黄奇瑜

    1996-01-01

    The occurrence and nature of the Younger Dryas (YD) abrupt climatic event in the West Pacific marginal seas are discussed on the basis of 15 sediment cores. This event has been found in all these cores studied with a high-resolution stratigraphy and proved to be common to the West Pacific region. As shown by the isotopic and micropaleontologic analyses, the YD, dated by C-14 at about 11000 to 10000 a B.P., is a brief event of sea surface cooling in winter season following a fresh-water pulse about 12000 a B.P. The "apparent regression" of the YD recorded in the Changjiang River delta and the Sea of Japan agrees with the interpretation that the YD is a period of slowed sea level rising between two phases of rapid rising. Both the winter surface water cooling and the increasing salinity in the YD imply a strengthening of the winter, but not summer monsoon circulation. This major climatic event in the marginal seas must have had profound impact on the adjacent continent.

  18. Noma: experiences with a microvascular approach under West African conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessler, Goetz A; Schmidt, Andreas B

    2003-09-15

    Noma (cancrum oris) is a serious ulcerating disease that generally begins in the gingival sulcus of children. One of the main areas of prevalence today is West Africa. If noma is survived, it results in disfiguring midfacial defects and intense scarring. Oral incompetence is often combined with trismus resulting from scar formation or bony fusion between the maxilla and the mandible. Reconstructive approaches with pedicled flaps from the head or shoulder area for closure of the outer defects have been prone to donor-site complications or have not properly addressed the trismus, leading to high recurrence rates. During three West African Interplast missions, a single-stage procedure was developed for reconstruction of the inner and outer linings of the oral, nasal, and paranasal cavities, with restoration of jaw function. The procedure consists of radical scar excision, placement of an external distractor for mouth opening, and primary closure of the defect with a folded free parascapular flap for full-thickness coverage. Twenty-three patients with various noma-related defects were treated with this procedure; two cases are described in detail. This combined treatment can be a safe successful procedure for patients with noma, especially those with severe soft-tissue destruction and profound trismus, even under demanding surgical conditions.

  19. Black hole in the West Nucleus of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Downes, D

    2007-01-01

    We present new observations with the IRAM Interferometer, in its longest-baseline configuration, of the CO(2-1) line and the 1.3mm dust radiation from the Arp 220 nuclear region. The dust source in the West nucleus has a size of 0.19 x 0.13 arcsec and a 1.3mm brightness temperature of 90K. This implies that the dust ring in the West nucleus has a high opacity, with tau = 1 at 1.1mm. Not only is the dust ring itself optically thick in the submm and far-IR, but it is surrounded by the previously-known, rapidly rotating molecular disk of size 0.5 arcsec that is also optically thick in the mid-IR. The molecular ring is cooler than the hot dust disk because the CO(2-1) line is seen in absorption against the dust disk. The dust ring is massive (1E9 solar masses), compact (radius 35pc), and hot (true dust temperature 170K). It resembles rather strikingly the dust ring detected around the quasar APM 08279+52, and is most unlike the warm, extended dust sources in starburst galaxies. Because there is a strong temperatu...

  20. Unconformity structures controlling stratigraphic reservoirs in the north-west margin of Junggar basin, North-west China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kongyou; Paton, Douglas; Zha, Ming

    2013-03-01

    Tectonic movements formed several unconformities in the north-west margin of the Junggar basin. Based on data of outcrop, core, and samples, the unconformity is a structural body whose formation associates with weathering, leaching, and onlap. At the same time, the structural body may be divided into three layers, including upper layer, mid layer, and lower layer. The upper layer with good primary porosity serves as the hydrocarbon migration system, and also accumulates the hydrocarbon. The mid layer with compactness and ductility can play a role as cap rock, the strength of which increases with depth. The lower layer with good secondary porosity due to weathering and leaching can form the stratigraphic truncation traps. A typical stratigraphic reservoir lying in the unconformity between the Jurassic and Triassic in the north-west margin of the Junggar basin was meticulously analyzed in order to reveal the key controlling factors. The results showed that the hydrocarbon distribution in the stratigraphic onlap reservoirs was controlled by the onlap line, the hydrocarbon distribution in the stratigraphic truncation reservoirs was confined by the truncation line, and the mid layer acted as the key sealing rock. So a conclusion was drawn that "two lines (onlap line and truncation line) and a body (unconformity structural body)" control the formation and distribution of stratigraphic reservoirs.

  1. Unconformity structures controlling stratigraphic reservoirs in the north-west margin of Junggar basin, North-west China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kongyou WU; Douglas PATON; Ming ZHA

    2013-01-01

    Tectonic movements formed several unconformities in the north-west margin of the Junggar basin.Based on data of outcrop,core,and samples,the unconformity is a structural body whose formation associates with weathering,leaching,and onlap.At the same time,the structural body may be divided into three layers,including upper layer,mid layer,and lower layer.The upper layer with good primary porosity serves as the hydrocarbon migration system,and also accumulates the hydrocarbon.The mid layer with compactness and ductility can play a role as cap rock,the strength of which increases with depth.The lower layer with good secondary porosity due to weathering and leaching can form the stratigraphic truncation traps.A typical stratigraphic reservoir lying in the unconformity between the Jurassic and Triassic in the north-west margin of the Junggar basin was meticulously analyzed in order to reveal the key controlling factors.The results showed that the hydrocarbon distribution in the stratigraphic onlap reservoirs was controlled by the onlap line,the hydrocarbon distribution in the stratigraphic truncation reservoirs was confined by the truncation line,and the mid layer acted as the key sealing rock.So a conclusion was drawn that "two lines (onlap line and truncation line) and a body (unconformity structural body)" control the formation and distribution of stratigraphic reservoirs.

  2. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which

  3. West Syndrome in South Iran: Electro-Clinical Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI Akabar ASADI-POOYA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Asadi-Pooya AA, Sharifzade M. West Syndrome in South Iran: Electro-Clinical Manifestations. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Summer; 7(3: 40-44.ObjectiveWe aimed to determine the clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG characteristics of the patients with West syndrome (WS in south Iran.Materials & MethodsIn this retrospective study, all patients with a clinical diagnosis of WS were recruited in the outpatient epilepsy clinic at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences between September 2008 and May 2012. Age, gender, age at seizure onset, seizure type(s, epilepsy risk factors, EEG and imaging studies of all patients were registered routinely.ResultsDuring the study period, 2500 patients with epilepsy were registered at our epilepsy clinic. Thirty-two patients (1.3% were diagnosed to have WS. Age of onset (mean ± standard deviation was 4.99 ± 3.06 months. Sixteen patients were male and 16 were female. Nine (28.1% were reported to have two or more seizure types and 23 (71.8% had one seizure type (epileptic spasms. At referral, no developmental delay was detected in two patients and in the rest, a mild to severe delay was noted.Electroencephalography showed typical hypsarrhythmia in 59.4% of our patients and modified hypsarrhythmia or atypical presentations were seen in 40.6%. Two patients had pyridoxine (B6-dependent seizures, confirmed by oral B6 trial.ConclusionVariants of the classical triad of WS including other seizure types, atypical EEG findings, and normal psychomotor function at the beginning could be observed in some patients. Rarely, treatable genetic disorders (e.g., pyridoxine-dependent seizures should be considered in those in whom no other diagnosis is evident. References1. Blume WT, Lüders HO, Mizrahi E, Tassinari C, van Emde Boas W, Engel J Jr. Glossary of descriptive terminology for ictal semiology: report of the ILAE task force on classification and terminology. Epilepsia. 2001 Sep;42(9:1212-8.2. Carmant L

  4. Western and Eastern Culture Comparison-Compare the First Photogra-phers between West and East

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming-wei

    2016-01-01

    The nineteenth century was a period when the visual arts, growing in both the West and the East, flourished. It wit-nessed the beginning of photography, the great innovation which posed questions of the blurred distinctions between art and sci-ence. The nineteenth century was also the era of collisions of numerous technology and cultures between the West and the East.

  5. 78 FR 70318 - Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge; West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana; Notice of Intent To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge; West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana; Notice... Act (NEPA) documents for Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). We provided this notice in... conservation plan (CCP) and NEPA documents for Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge NWR, West Feliciana...

  6. 78 FR 62648 - Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge; West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge; West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana AGENCY...) documents for Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). We provide this notice in compliance with our CCP... notice, we initiate our process for developing a CCP for Cat Island NWR, West Feliciana Parish,...

  7. Does a ruderal strategy dominate the endemic flora of the West African forests?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmgren, M.; Poorter, L.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To understand the distribution pattern of endemic plant species in West African rain forests, one of the global priority areas for biodiversity conservation. Location Upper Guinean forests, West Africa (Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana and Togo). Method

  8. The Influence of Social Analysis on a Solid Waste Management Project : West Bank and Gaza

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    The West Bank and Gaza suffer from severe environmental degradation, including deterioration of groundwater and uncontrolled dumping of solid waste. These problems have been addressed in Gaza with the assistance of bilateral donors, but until the design of the Solid Waste and Environment Management Project (SWEMP) in 2000, they were largely neglected in the West Bank. Solid waste managemen...

  9. Ecological correlates of seed persistence in soil in the north-west European flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, K; Bakker, JP; Bekker, RM; Hodgson, JG

    1998-01-01

    I Using the data in a recently published seed bank database for north-west Europe, we describe how a species' seed bank behaviour can be characterized by a single 'longevity index', and investigate how representative the information in the database is of the north-west European flora. We also test t

  10. Declining incidence of malaria imported into the UK from West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Valerie

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two thirds of all falciparum malaria cases reported in the United Kingdom (UK are acquired in West Africa (WA. To ensure recommendations and guidelines for malaria prophylaxis in travellers to West Africa correlate to the risk of infection, a study was undertaken to examine recent trends and predict future patterns of imported malaria acquired by UK residents visiting West Africa and West African visitors to the UK between 1993 and 2006. Methods and Results Using passenger numbers and malaria surveillance reports, the data revealed a 2.3-fold increase in travel to West Africa with a five-fold increase in travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFR. Malaria incidence fell through the study period, the greatest decline noted in VFR with a fall from 196 cases/1,000 person-years to 52 cases/1,000 person-years, 9.8% per year p Discussion The reduction in incidence among all three groups of travellers may be explained by several factors; changing chemoprophylaxis usage and/or increased travel in urban areas where malaria risk has declined over the past decade, or widespread reduction in malaria transmission in West Africa. Conclusion With the reduction in malaria incidence seen in both visitors to and from West Africa, the most rational explanation for these findings is a fall in malaria transmission in West Africa, which may require a change in chemoprophylaxis policy for UK travelers over the next 5–10 years.

  11. Mapping the potential of cross-border cooperation in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Mapping the socio-economic potential of border regions can provide great insights as to where cross-border co-operation could be intensified in West Africa.......Mapping the socio-economic potential of border regions can provide great insights as to where cross-border co-operation could be intensified in West Africa....

  12. 76 FR 18040 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT AGENCY... airspace at Yellowstone Airport, West Yellowstone, MT, to accommodate aircraft using Instrument Landing System (ILS) Localizer (LOC) standard instrument approach procedures at Yellowstone Airport. This...

  13. A new Agelas (Demospongiae: Agelasida: Agelasidae) from the Thousands Islands, West-Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, de N.J.; Parra-Velandia, F.J.; Soest, van R.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Agelas linnaei spec.nov. (Porifera: Demospongiae: Agelasida: Agelasidae) is described from the Thousands Islands reef complex, West- Java, Indonesia. The new species is compared with all other Agelas species occurring in the Indo-West Pacific region. The new species differs from these other species

  14. Risk assessment on severe hazards to China caused by West Nile virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jiming; SUN Yingxue; WANG Zhiliang; SHEN Chaojian; XIE Zhonglun; WANG Ximing

    2004-01-01

    Recent West Nile virus epidemics in USA draw worldwide concerns. Here the basic biological and epidemiologicai features of the virus are analyzed along with the special immunity of humans and animals, the immigration of birds and the natural environments in China. The risk of severe hazards to China caused by West Nile virus is assessed not high thereafter.

  15. Revision of the genus Placospongia (Porifera, Demospongiae, hadromerida, Placospongiidae) in the Indo-West Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, L.E.

    2013-01-01

    Species of the genus Placospongia are common within the tropical Indo-West Pacific, demonstrating a wide variety of colors and either branching or encrusting growth forms. A revision of Indo-West Pacific Placospongia was undertaken based on a redescription of the holotypes of species of Placospongia

  16. 76 FR 9351 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From West Virginia Center for Patient Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From West Virginia Center for Patient Safety AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY West Virginia Center for Patient Safety: AHRQ...

  17. Modelling the impacts of deforestation on monsoon rainfall in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abiodun, B J [Department of Environmental and Geographical Science, University of Cape Town (South Africa); Pal, J S [Department of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science, Loyola Marymount University, California (United States); Afiesimama, E A [WMO Regional Research and Training Institute, Lagos (Nigeria); Gutowski, W J [Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Iowa (United States); Adedoyin, A, E-mail: babiodun@csag.uct.ac.z [Department of Physics, University of Botswana, Gaborone (Botswana)

    2010-08-15

    The study found that deforestation causes more monsoon moisture to be retained in the mid-troposphere, thereby reducing the northward transport of moisture needed for rainfall over West Africa. Hence, deforestation has dynamical impacts on the West African monsoon and rainfall.

  18. Clinical West Nile virus infection in 2 horses in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abutarbush, Sameeh M; O'Connor, Brendan P; Clark, Chris; Sampieri, Francesca; Naylor, Jonathan M

    2004-04-01

    Two horses had a history of ataxia and weakness or recumbency. One recovered and was diagnosed with West Nile virus (WNV) infection by serologic testing. The other was euthanized; it had meningoencephalomyelitis, WNV was detected by polymerase chain reaction. West Nile virus infection is an emerging disease. Year 2002 is the first year in which cases have been seen in Saskatchewan.

  19. REGULATION OF THE ASYMMETRY IN SPATIAL SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE WEST KAZAKHSTAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Imashev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the research results, the scientific work indicates economic trends and issues in the territorial organization of the economy and population of West Kazakhstan region. Analysis of the spatial development in the economic sphere has shown that there is a territorial localization of the productive forces in the north of West Kazakhstan region. The typology of the West Kazakhstan administrative districts was formed according to their level and pace of socioeconomic and environmental development, from 1997 to 2011, on the basis of rank-scoring methodology. The results of this work demonstrate that the Northern administrative districts of West Kazakhstan region have a relatively high or an average level of social and economic development.  A low level of social and economic development characterizes the administrative districts located to the south, west, southwest and southeast of West Kazakhstan region. These spatial differences reveal the current asymmetry in the level of social and economic development of the administrative districts, which determined the need for detecting major priorities in regulation of spatial social and economic development of the region.  Thus, we propose the basic priorities for the spatial regulation of social and economic development of West Kazakhstan region within the framework of an effective intra-regional policy.  The research results can be used by local government agencies to develop a regional management program for spatial social and economic development of West Kazakhstan region.

  20. Translating West African Strategy with Airpower Means: A Qualitative Comparison of Tactical Airlift Shaping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Africa directly affect the global economy. In this context, the United States’ foreign strategy directly corresponds to the protection of American...TRANSLATING WEST AFRICAN STRATEGY WITH AIRPOWER MEANS: A QUALITATIVE COMPARISON OF TACTICAL AIRLIFT SHAPING OPERATIONS A thesis...Translating West African Strategy with Airpower Means: A Qualitative Comparison of Tactical Airlift Shaping Operations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  1. Gas-charged sediments in shallow waters off Redi along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subbaraju, L.V.; Wagle, B.G.

    This study reports the occurrence of gas-charged sediments in the nearshore areas of the west coast of India. High resolution shallow seismic reflection profiles on the nearshore area along central west coast of India, at water depths of 11-18 m...

  2. West Nile Virus: What You Need to Know Now - August 2012

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-21

    This podcast lists the states where most of the 2012 West Nile viruses have been reported and explains how people can protect themselves from West Nile virus.  Created: 8/21/2012 by .   Date Released: 8/21/2012.

  3. Louis L'Amour's American West. A Sound Filmstrip Program. Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, John; Peters, Frances

    Adapted from the motion picture based on two of Louis L'Amour's novels of the American West, "The Daybreakers" and "Sackett," this filmstrip program will help secondary students interpret the meaning of the frontier experience in American history. In the first three filmstrips--"Heading West,""Staking…

  4. Ketogenic Diet and Hormonal Therapy in Prevention of Evolution of West Syndrome to Lennox-Gastaut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Medical records of 98 patients diagnosed with West syndrome and monitored at Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul, Korea, for at least 3 years were retrospectively reviewed to assess etiology, age at onset, value of various therapies, and the rate of evolution from West syndrome to Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

  5. Reasons for hospitalization in HIV-infected children in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dicko, Fatoumata; Desmonde, Sophie; Koumakpai, Sikiratou

    2014-01-01

    -infected children in West Africa (IeDEA West Africa collaboration). METHODS: We performed a six-month prospective multicentre survey from April to October 2010 in five HIV-specialized paediatric hospital wards in Ouagadougou, Accra, Cotonou, Dakar and Bamako. Baseline and follow-up data during hospitalization were...

  6. Distribution of hydromedusae from the exclusive economic zone of the west and east coasts of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.; Nair, V.R.

    from 28 cruises of west and east coasts were analysed. Eighty species of 43 genera were observed. In the west coast highest population density was found from the southwest region whereas in the east coast it was from the North eastern part. Aglaura...

  7. 78 FR 24816 - Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set AGENCY: United... the price of the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set. The coin set will be offered...

  8. 9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Central America and the... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from Central America and...

  9. Retention, Attrition, and Mobility among Teachers and Administrators in West Virginia. REL 2016-161

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, Chad R.; Adachi, Eishi; Chesnut, Colleen E.; Johnson, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Members of the West Virginia School Leadership Research Alliance partnered with Regional Educational Laboratory Appalachia to study the average retention, attrition, and mobility rates among teachers and administrators in the West Virginia public school system. There is increasing evidence nationwide that low teacher and administrator retention…

  10. Aid and trade for livestock development and food security in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, van der J.; Schiere, J.B.; Bosma, R.H.; Olde, de E.; Bol, S.; Cornelissen, J.M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Veehouderij is in West Afrika van oudsher erg belangrijk. Het kent vele vormen en dient veel doelen, die vooral verschuiven van noord naar zuid. Deze analyse van de West Afrikaanse veehouderij is een quickscan geschreven door Wageningen UR Livestock Research en La Ventana consulting. Zij dient met n

  11. Copula Deletion and West African Languages: A Source for Covert Norms in American Black English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Thomas S.

    The loss of the copula in Black English Vernacular (BEV) is demonstrably traceable to norms of pidginization that have their roots in West African languages and in contact among those languages. An extensive examination of the verb systems of a number of West African languages reveals that in every case a variety of verbal forms serves the many…

  12. The University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Project. Report to the Advisory Council. ACEP 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Gerald C.

    The three papers in this report relate to the development and activities of the University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Project (UWIDITE), through which the University of the West Indies (UWI) is continuing experiments on the use of telecommunications to extend its regional services. A report to the advisory council, the first paper,…

  13. 78 FR 54547 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Fisheries; California Drift Gillnet Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ...; Issuance of Permit; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Fisheries; California Drift Gillnet Fishery; Sperm Whale Interaction Restriction; Final Rule and Notice #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BD57 Fisheries Off West Coast...

  14. Using "The West Wing" for Problem-Based Learning in Public Relations Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smudde, Peter M.; Luecke, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Integrating "The West Wing" in public relations courses can effectively dramatize the concrete and abstract dimensions of public relations. In turn, students see public relations in action (albeit fictionally so) and learn much about it through structured lessons. From individual writing assignments about situations in "The West Wing," to the…

  15. GLOBAL SELECTED AS PARTNER TO SUPERVISE WEST-TO-EAST GAS PROJECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ On August 3, PetroChina West-to-East Gas Pipeline Company and US-based Global Engineering Service Company signed ìAdvisory Service Contract for Engineering Supervision of West-to-East Gas Pipeline(1) in Beijing.Signature of this contract marks the start of engineering supervision business for thepipeline project.

  16. 78 FR 11094 - Safety Zone; Lake Worth Dredge Operations, Lake Worth Inlet; West Palm Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Worth Inlet, West Palm Beach, Florida, to provide..., February 20, 2013, dredging operations will be conducted on Lake Worth Inlet in West Palm Beach, Florida... the southwestern corner of Singer Island and then due south across the inlet to Palm Beach...

  17. 77 FR 39571 - Frank Sherman, FSCS Corporation, TMS West Coast, Inc.,

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board \\1\\ Frank Sherman, FSCS Corporation, TMS West Coast, Inc., \\1\\ A request for... company; TMS West Coast, Inc., a noncarrier holding company; Evergreen Trails, Inc. d/b/a Horizon Coach... company controlled by Sherman, Transportation Management Services, Inc. (TMS), obtained the right...

  18. Democratic Education in West Germany: The Effects of the New Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Arlette C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the plight of children of foreign "guest workers" in West German schools. Discusses public nonrecognition of West Germany's immigrant-nation status, state-based governance of education, linguistic and cultural isolation of young minority children, failure of German immersion and pullout language programs, inadequate provision of…

  19. Willingness to Pay for Mosquito Control in Key West, Florida and Tucson, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Katherine L; Hayden, Mary H; Haenchen, Steven; Monaghan, Andrew J; Walker, Kathleen R; Ernst, Kacey C

    2016-04-01

    Mosquito-borne illnesses like West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue are growing threats to the United States. Proactive mosquito control is one strategy to reduce the risk of disease transmission. In 2012, we measured the public's willingness to pay (WTP) for increased mosquito control in two cities: Key West, FL, where there have been recent dengue outbreaks, and Tucson, AZ, where dengue vectors are established and WNV has been circulating for over a decade. Nearly three quarters of respondents in both cities (74% in Tucson and 73% in Key West) would be willing to pay $25 or more annually toward an increase in publicly funded mosquito control efforts. WTP was positively associated with income (both cities), education (Key West), and perceived mosquito abundance (Tucson). Concerns about environmental impacts of mosquito control were associated with lower WTP in Key West. Expanded mosquito control efforts should incorporate public opinion as they respond to evolving disease risks.

  20. The Politics of Starvation Deaths in West Bengal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the local socio-political causes behind a sudden wave of starvation deaths that swept across the West Bengali village of Amlashol during the summer of 2004. Following the new paradigm of famine analysis where focus is placed on political failures, the article addresses three...... groups of political dynamics that together contributed to the starvation deaths: (i) political triggering mechanisms; (ii) underlying political dynamics; and (iii) village specific political dynamics. The article finds that the government’s escalating conflict with the Maoists turned a situation...... and politically marginalised panchayat. Within Amlashol, the casualties of starvation came primarily from one particular Scheduled tribe, the Sabars, due to issues of social stigmatisation, political exclusion and eroding livelihoods. The article provides a testament to the importance of addressing disaggregated...

  1. FLYPAPER EFFECTS ANOMALY OF WEST PAPUA CAPITAL PUBLIC EXPENDITURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthen Anthon Pentury

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In fiscal decentralization, local governments should be able to provide public service facilities for all communities. This study aims to determine the existence of flypaper effect in the total capital public expenditure and capital expenditure on education, health and infrastructure in districts in West Papua, 2003-2006. Tools of analysis used is panel data regression. The General Allocation Fund (DAU, the Special Allocation Fund (DAK and the Special Autonomy Fund (DOK partially and simultaneously have positive impact on total capital spending and capital expenditure in education, health, and infrastructure. It is also indicated the anomaly of flypaper effect in DAU, DAK, and DOK.Keywords: Flypaper effect, anomaly, fiscal decentralization, capital expendituresJEL classification numbers: H50, H75

  2. Demand Response in the West: Lessons for States and Provinces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas C. Larson; Matt Lowry; Sharon Irwin

    2004-06-29

    OAK-B135 This paper is submitted in fulfillment of DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-015F22369 on the experience of western states/provinces with demand response (DR) in the electricity sector. Demand-side resources are often overlooked as a viable option for meeting load growth and addressing the challenges posed by the region's aging transmission system. Western states should work together with utilities and grid operators to facilitate the further deployment of DR programs which can provide benefits in the form of decreased grid congestion, improved system reliability, market efficiency, price stabilization, hedging against volatile fuel prices and reduced environmental impacts of energy production. This report describes the various types of DR programs; provides a survey of DR programs currently in place in the West; considers the benefits, drawbacks and barriers to DR; and presents lessons learned and recommendations for states/provinces.

  3. East-west faults due to planetary contraction

    CERN Document Server

    Beuthe, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Contraction, expansion and despinning have been common in the past evolution of Solar System bodies. These processes deform the lithosphere until it breaks along faults. The type and orientation of faults are usually determined under the assumption of a constant lithospheric thickness, but lithospheric thinning can occur at the equator or at the poles due either to latitudinal variation in solar insolation or to localized tidal dissipation. Using thin elastic shells with variable thickness, I show that the equatorial thinning of the lithosphere transforms the homogeneous and isotropic fault pattern caused by contraction/expansion into a pattern of faults striking east-west, preferably formed in the equatorial region. By contrast, lithospheric thickness variations only weakly affect the despinning faulting pattern consisting of equatorial strike-slip faults and polar normal faults. If contraction is added to despinning, the despinning pattern first shifts to thrust faults striking north-south and then to thrus...

  4. A Mouse Model of Chronic West Nile Virus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jessica B.; Swarts, Jessica L.; Wilkins, Courtney; Thomas, Sunil; Green, Richard; Sekine, Aimee; Voss, Kathleen M.; Mooney, Michael; Choonoo, Gabrielle; Miller, Darla R.; Pardo Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Gale, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Infection with West Nile virus (WNV) leads to a range of disease outcomes, including chronic infection, though lack of a robust mouse model of chronic WNV infection has precluded identification of the immune events contributing to persistent infection. Using the Collaborative Cross, a population of recombinant inbred mouse strains with high levels of standing genetic variation, we have identified a mouse model of persistent WNV disease, with persistence of viral loads within the brain. Compared to lines exhibiting no disease or marked disease, the F1 cross CC(032x013)F1 displays a strong immunoregulatory signature upon infection that correlates with restraint of the WNV-directed cytolytic response. We hypothesize that this regulatory T cell response sufficiently restrains the immune response such that a chronic infection can be maintained in the CNS. Use of this new mouse model of chronic neuroinvasive virus will be critical in developing improved strategies to prevent prolonged disease in humans. PMID:27806117

  5. Shale engineering application: the MAL-145 project in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassilellis, George D.; Li, Charles; Bust, Vivian K. [Gaffney, Cline and Associates (United States); Moos, Daniel; Cade, Randal [Baker Hughes Inc (United States)

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of conventional fossil fuels and the rising energy demand, oil shale and shale gas are becoming an important component of the oil and gas markets in North America. The aim of this paper is to present a novel methodology for predicting production in shale and tight formations. This method, known as the shale engineering approach and modeling, provides reservoir simulations based on modeling the propagation of the simulated rock volume. This technique was applied to an Upper Devonian shale formation in West Virginia, United States, and was compared to available data such as production logs and downhole microseismic data. Results showed a good match between the shale engineering approach data and early well performance. This paper presented a new reservoir simulation methodology which is successful in forecasting production and which can also be used for field development design and optimization.

  6. West syndrome in a patient with Schinzel-Giedion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Fuyu; Kuroda, Yukiko; Naruto, Takuya; Ohashi, Ikuko; Takano, Kyoko; Kurosawa, Kenji

    2015-06-01

    Schinzel-Giedion syndrome is a rare recognizable malformation syndrome defined by characteristic facial features, profound developmental delay, severe growth failure, and multiple congenital anomalies. The causative gene of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome, SETBP1, has been identified, but limited cases have been confirmed by molecular analysis. We present a 9-month-old girl affected by West syndrome with Schinzel-Giedion syndrome. Congenital severe hydronephrosis, typical facial features, and multiple anomalies suggested a clinical diagnosis of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome. Hypsarrhythmia occurred at 7 months of age and was temporarily controlled by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy during 5 weeks. SETBP1 mutational analysis showed the presence of a recurrent mutation, p.Ile871Thr. The implications in management of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome are discussed.

  7. The innate immune playbook for restricting West Nile virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quicke, Kendra M; Suthar, Mehul S

    2013-10-30

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes annual epidemics of encephalitic disease throughout the world. Despite the ongoing risk to public health, no approved vaccines or therapies exist for use in humans to prevent or combat WNV infection. The innate immune response is critical for controlling WNV replication, limiting virus-induced pathology, and programming protective humoral and cell-mediated immunity to WNV infection. The RIG-I like receptors, Toll-like receptors, and Nod-like receptors detect and respond to WNV by inducing a potent antiviral defense program, characterized by production of type I IFN, IL-1β and expression of antiviral effector genes. Recent research efforts have focused on uncovering the mechanisms of innate immune sensing, antiviral effector genes that inhibit WNV, and countermeasures employed by WNV to antagonize innate immune cellular defenses. In this review, we highlight the major research findings pertaining to innate immune regulation of WNV infection.

  8. The West African species of Caenis Stephens (Insecta: Ephemeroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malzacher, P.

    Full Text Available The present paper is the result of the examination of several thousand specimens of the genus Caenis Stephens, 1835 (Ephemeroptera which were collected in West Africa in more than 200 light trap samples from 32 rivers in Guinea, Mali, Ivory Coast, Togo and Ghana. Five new species are described: Caenis vermifera n. sp. (Ivory Coast, Guinea, C. nigricola n. sp. (Mali, Guinea, C. jinjanoides n. sp. (Guinea, Ivory Coast, C. kohli n. sp. (Guinea, and C. orthostilata n. sp. (Mali. The extensive materials allow to add distributional data to previously known species. C. elouardi, C. cibaria kunda, C. gilliesi, C. jinjana, C. antelucana, C. brevipes, C. berneri, and C. pallida are redescribed. The eggs of most of the treated species are described based on SEM pictures. Several questions concerning supposed species relationships are discussed. The subspecies rank of C. brevipes occidentalis Malzacher, 1993 ist rejected.

  9. West Nile virus epizootiology in the southeastern United States, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsey, Marvin S; Blackmore, Mark S; Panella, Nicholas A; Burkhalter, Kristen; Gottfried, Kristy; Halsey, Lawrence A; Rutledge, Roxanne; Langevin, Stanley A; Gates, Robert; Lamonte, Karen M; Lambert, Amy; Lanciotti, Robert S; Blackmore, Carina G M; Loyless, Tom; Stark, Lillian; Oliveri, Robin; Conti, Lisa; Komar, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    We investigated mosquito and bird involvement in West Nile virus (WNV) transmission in July 2001 in Jefferson County, FL, and Lowndes County, GA. We detected 16 WNV-infected pools from Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. salinarius, Cx. nigripalpus, and Culiseta melanura. In Florida, 11% of 353 bird sera neutralized WNV. Antibody prevalence was greatest in northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis, 75%), northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottus, 50%), common ground-dove (Columbina passerina, 25%), common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula, 15%), domestic chicken (Gallus gallus, 16%), and house sparrow (Passer domesticus, 11%). Antibody-positive birds were detected in nine of 11 locations, among which prevalence in chickens ranged from 0% to 100%. Seropositive chickens were detected in Georgia as well. The primary transmission cycle of WNV in the southeastern United States apparently involves Culex mosquitoes and passerine birds. Chickens are frequently infected and may serve as effective sentinels in this region.

  10. The black death and the transformation of the west

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel López

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Herlihy, David, The Black Death and the Transformation of the West. Edited with an Introduction by Samuel K. Cohn, Jr., Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1997, 117 p. Este libro reúne tres conferencias que el autor leyó, en 1985, en la Universidad de Maine. Herlihy duda de que la peste de 1348 fuese la hoy denominada peste bubónica, causada por el bacilo yersinia pestis, transmitido a los humanos por las pulgas las cuales, a su vez, vivian en las ratas. Sustenta sus dudas en dos argumentos. No hay evidencias de una epizootia de ratas cuya muerte sería condición previa para que las pulgas buscasen a los humanos.

  11. Scenarios on future land changes in the West African Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambin, Eric; D'haen, Sarah Ann Lise; Mertz, Ole

    2014-01-01

    by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: (1) ‘downward spiral’ characterized by rapid climate change, expansion of agriculture and chaotic urban growth; (2) ‘integrated economy’ with integrated land management, food production for local markets and rural–urban exchanges; (3) ‘open doors’ characterized by large......-scale out-migrations, land grabbing by foreign companies and development aid and (4) ‘climate change mitigation’ with an increase in biofuel crops, land management for carbon capture and development of off-farm activities. We conclude that the Sahel region is most likely moving away from being a highly......In an attempt to anticipate possible futures of drylands of West Africa in the face of rapid socio-economic and environmental changes, we developed four scenarios based on recent survey data, the literature and our knowledge of the region. The four scenarios are inspired by those developed...

  12. Potential for New York mosquitoes to transmit West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turell, M J; O'Guinn, M; Oliver, J

    2000-03-01

    We evaluated the potential for several North American mosquito species to transmit the newly introduced West Nile (WN) virus. Mosquitoes collected in the New York City Metropolitan Area during the recent (1999) WN outbreak were allowed to feed on chickens infected with WN virus isolated from a crow that had died during this outbreak. These mosquitoes were tested approximately 2 weeks later to determine infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Culex pipiens mosquitoes were highly susceptible to infection, and nearly all individuals with a disseminated infection did transmit WN virus by bite. In contrast, Aedes vexans were only moderately susceptible to oral infection; however, those individuals inoculated with WN virus did transmit virus by bite.

  13. Ebola in West Africa:an international medical emergency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasir Waheed

    2014-01-01

    West Africa is facing the worst Ebola outbreak with 3 685 cases and 1 841 deaths reported from Liberia, Guinea, Senegal, Sierra Leona and Nigeria. There is no vaccine or direct treatment available to treat the patients with Ebola. World Health Organization (WHO) has approved the use of experimental drugs for Ebola patients. Health workers are at high risk. The governments and WHO are responsible to provide necessary protective equipment to health workers dealing with Ebola. There is a strong need to identify the invisible chains of virus transmission. World Bank pledges$200 million to fight against Ebola, while WHO said$430 million are needed to control the Ebola outbreak. Ebola can be contained by early detection and isolation of case, contact tracing, monitoring of contacts and adaptation of rigorous procedures for virus control.

  14. Meat products and consumption culture in the West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swatland, H J

    2010-09-01

    Meat products and consumption culture in the West may be traced back for at least 2,500 years. The dominant cultural source was Greco-Roman, with evidence from archeology, surviving documents and the names of meat cuts. The initial uniformity of meat technology and language in the Roman Empire was lost as national boundaries and languages fragmented. More recently, however, there has been a strong trend back to uniformity in meat cutting and grading. This started in the USA to solve logistical problems associated with long-distance commerce and similar changes occurred with the formation of the EU. Issues such as meat inspection and animal transport have been strongly influenced by the effect of literature on public opinion, which then led to legislated improvements. Innovations in other areas such as meat distribution and preservation had military origins. Meat consumption culture was involved in the early development of language, social grouping and religions.

  15. In vitro cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Middle West plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talal Suleiman Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic activity of eight plant extracts, native from the Mid-West of Brazil comprising Cerrado, Pantanal and semideciduous forest, was evaluated for MDA-MB-435, SF-295, and HCT-8 cancer cell strains. A single 100 µg.mL-1 dose of each extract was employed with 72 h of incubation for all tests. Doxorubicin (1 µg.mL-1 was used as the positive control and the MTT method was used to detect the activity. Cytotoxicity of distinct polarities was observed in thirty extracts (46%, from different parts of the following species: Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo, Bignoniaceae, Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Anacardiaceae, Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Anacardiaceae, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, Gomphrena elegans Mart., Amaranthaceae, Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng., Arecaceae, Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, and Annona dioica A. St.-Hil., Annonaceae. Extracts of at least two tested cell strains were considered to be highly active since their inhibition rate was over 75%.

  16. Investigating the zoonotic origin of the West African Ebola epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí Saéz, Almudena; Weiss, Sabrina; Nowak, Kathrin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Zimmermann, Fee; Düx, Ariane; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kaba, Moussa; Regnaut, Sebastien; Merkel, Kevin; Sachse, Andreas; Thiesen, Ulla; Villányi, Lili; Boesch, Christophe; Dabrowski, Piotr W; Radonić, Aleksandar; Nitsche, Andreas; Leendertz, Siv Aina J; Petterson, Stefan; Becker, Stephan; Krähling, Verena; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Weber, Natalie; Schaade, Lars; Fahr, Jakob; Borchert, Matthias; Gogarten, Jan F; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2014-12-30

    The severe Ebola virus disease epidemic occurring in West Africa stems from a single zoonotic transmission event to a 2-year-old boy in Meliandou, Guinea. We investigated the zoonotic origins of the epidemic using wildlife surveys, interviews, and molecular analyses of bat and environmental samples. We found no evidence for a concurrent outbreak in larger wildlife. Exposure to fruit bats is common in the region, but the index case may have been infected by playing in a hollow tree housing a colony of insectivorous free-tailed bats (Mops condylurus). Bats in this family have previously been discussed as potential sources for Ebola virus outbreaks, and experimental data have shown that this species can survive experimental infection. These analyses expand the range of possible Ebola virus sources to include insectivorous bats and reiterate the importance of broader sampling efforts for understanding Ebola virus ecology.

  17. The Different View of Privacy between China and the West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴洁君

    2013-01-01

    As a kind of cultural phenomena, privacy has different meaning in different culture. In the intercultural communica⁃tion, it is very important to have a correct view of privacy. This thesis compares and analyzes the privacy between China and the west in diverse angles. Based on the western scholar, privacy is a selective control of access to self or to one ’s group. Knowing the concept of privacy and the way to face the culture shock which followed by different view of privacy, we find some important things. That is, with the globalization of modern society, the common understanding on privacy will be more and the problems in the intercultural communication will be fewer if we understand and respect the other culture.

  18. West Nile Virus%西尼罗病毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lyle R. Petersen; Anthony A. Marfin; Duane J. Gubler

    2004-01-01

    西尼罗病毒(West Nile Virus,WNV)1999年首次侵入北美洲,在纽约市地区爆发脑膜脑炎导致7人死亡。在此之前,人们对它还不甚知晓。到2002年,人和兽医监测报告指出,在地理上它已向西扩展到太平洋沿岸。同年,WNV引起了北美史无前例的最大一次虫媒病毒脑炎爆发。

  19. Mitigation of floor heave in West Kentucky Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Perry Kyle; Bradley Joel; Unrug Kot; Klimek Mark

    2016-01-01

    A West Kentucky mine operation in No. 11 seam encountered floor heave, due to the localized increase in the thickness of the fireclay mine floor. Floor heave has overridden seals installed in two mined out pan-els. The third seal’s location was planned for isolating that area from the Mains. A plan of support has been developed to prevent repetition of the floor heave and related problems outby the seals. The applied ground control measures were successful. An attempt of a 3D numerical modeling was made; thus, it would match the observed behavior of the mine floor and could be used as a design tool in similar con-ditions. The paper describes sequence of events, an applied mitigation ground control system, and the first stage of numerical modeling.

  20. Variations in nearshore waves along Karnataka, west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Sanil Kumar; Glejin Johnson; G Udhaba Dora; Sajiv Philip Chempalayi; Jai Singh; P Pednekar

    2012-04-01

    Wind wave spectra were recorded simultaneously at three shallow (water depth 7–9 m) locations (Malpe, Honnavar and Karwar) along the 200 km stretch of the state of Karnataka in 2009 during 27 April–24 May (representing conditions prior to onset of the Indian summer monsoon), 12 June–8 July (monsoon), and 1–31 October (post-monsoon). Each spectrum was based on data recorded for half an hour using a waverider buoy. The paper describes characteristics of the spectra and the wave parameters derived from the spectra. Both reveal the dramatic changes that occur in the wave field due to the summer monsoon. The changes were virtually identical at all the three locations suggesting that the wave characteristics described here are representative of the conditions that exist along the coast of Karnataka State, west coast of India.